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Candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diseases Share Compartir Candidiasis Photomicrograph of the fungus Candida albicans Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts ... in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans . Candida yeasts normally live on the skin and ...

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Candidiasis (vulvovaginal)  

OpenAIRE

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterised by vulval itching and abnormal "cheese-like" or watery vaginal discharge. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is estimated to be the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis. Candida albicans accounts for 85% to 90% of cases.Risk factors include pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, and systemic antibiotics. Incidence increases with the onset of sexual activity, but associations with different types of contraceptives are unclear.Recurrent sympt...

Cecilia Tapia P

2010-01-01

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Congenital candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital candidiasis (CC) is a rare disease with less than 100 cases being reported in the literature. It presents within six days of life with manifestations ranging from localized skin disease to systemic involvement in the form of respiratory distress, sepsis, and death. We report a neonate who presented with diffuse pustular eruption on erythematous background involving face, trunk, and palms within 24 h after birth. Candida albicans was identified in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear and culture from the pustules. Intravenous fluconazole and topical ketoconazole were given and the condition improved completely in two weeks. CC is rare and needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting with pustular lesions at birth in order to avoid complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this condition is important as untreated cases carry a mortality rate of 8-40%. PMID:25506564

Aruna, Chintaginjala; Seetharam, Kolalapudi

2014-11-01

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Congenital candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital candidiasis (CC) is a rare disease with less than 100 cases being reported in the literature. It presents within six days of life with manifestations ranging from localized skin disease to systemic involvement in the form of respiratory distress, sepsis, and death. We report a neonate who presented with diffuse pustular eruption on erythematous background involving face, trunk, and palms within 24 h after birth. Candida albicans was identified in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear and culture from the pustules. Intravenous fluconazole and topical ketoconazole were given and the condition improved completely in two weeks. CC is rare and needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting with pustular lesions at birth in order to avoid complications. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of this condition is important as untreated cases carry a mortality rate of 8-40%. PMID:25506564

Aruna, Chintaginjala; Seetharam, Kolalapudi

2014-01-01

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Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...

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Recurrent vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is one of the most common reasons for patients visiting their primary care doctors. Majority of the cases are caused by Candida albicans. Controlling of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, used of broad spectrum antibiotics, contraceptive pills and steroid therapy helps in managing recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Initial 14-day course of oral azoles and followed by 6 months maintenance are effective in treating majority of the cases. Failure to treat recurrent vaginal candidiasis can lead to various bio-psycho-social complications. PMID:15190674

Loh, K Y; Sivalingam, N

2003-12-01

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Immunology of oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M; Udayakumar, P; Shanmugam, K T; Kesavan, G

2014-07-01

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Diaper Dermatitis (Candidiasis)  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Diaper Dermatitis (Candidiasis) A parent's guide for infants and babies A A A Small, white, distinct pus-filled lesions often ... candida infections, which are often found in the diaper region. Overview Candida albicans is a type of ...

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Immunology of oral candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity...

Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.

2014-01-01

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Neonatal systemic candidiasis treated miconazole.  

OpenAIRE

Two premature newborn infants with systemic candidiasis are reported; both were treated with miconazole. One died and the other made a complete recovery. Miconazole may be a useful addition to the drugs available for the treatment of systemic candidiasis in the neonate, but all of them have serious limitations.

Tuck, S.

1980-01-01

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Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K. Rungmei S. K.; Gurjar, Mohan

2014-01-01

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Lung abscess due to pulmonary candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Here we describe a patient who developed lung abscess caused by Candida albicans. There was no evidence of disseminated/ extrapulmonary candidiasis or any immunodeficiency. However, he was taking high doses of inhaled corticosteroid for chronic airflow obstruction. CT guided percutaneous needle aspiration provided the specimen which confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary candidiasis. His sputum culture was also positive for Candida albicans. The patient achieved favourable out-come with a 4 weeks treatment with fluconazole. The case is presented here due to unique possible association of pulmonary candidiasis with intake of high doses of inhaled corticosteroids.

Gupta Prem

2006-01-01

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Experimental oral candidiasis in animal models  

OpenAIRE

Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the num...

Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

2001-01-01

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Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet for oropharyngeal candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a commonly encountered problem in daily clinical practice. Topical therapies for oropharyngeal candidiasis are considered preferable to systemic therapies in most patient populations. However, traditional topical therapies have limitations including short contact time with the oral mucosa and the need for multiple doses each day. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet has recently been approved in Europe (Loramyc®) and the USA (Oravig™) for the treatment of oropharynge...

Lalla, Rajesh V.; Bensadoun, Rene?-jean

2011-01-01

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Treatment of candidiasis: insights from host genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida species are major causes of mucosal and invasive infections, leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite the development of new classes of antifungal drugs, mortality in patients with systemic candidiasis remains high. Host-Candida interaction plays an important role in effective elimination of the pathogen. Genetic studies have rendered important insights into antifungal host defense and have identified potential targets for adjunctive therapy. In this article, the authors review the genetic variations in the host defense to Candida and their implications for the treatment of mucosal and systemic candidiasis. PMID:23030333

Delsing, Corine E; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G

2012-08-01

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Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia  

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Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento.Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

A. Larregina

2004-03-01

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Generalized cutaneous candidiasis in newborn at term Candidiasis cutánea generalizada en recién nacido a término  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Cutaneous candidiasis is a disease that affects both child as an adult poblation. The presentation may be localized or systemic, and the etiological agent multiple, in children the most prevalent infecting species are the different Objective. To present a congenital cutaneous candidiasis which reason was the vertical transmission during birth.
Materials and methods. The case in a term newborn is described exposed to a subclinical vaginal candidiasis infection who developed a congenital cutaneous candidiasis by Candida albicans, associated to sepsis and respiratory distress within 24 hours of life. Blood cultures, cutaneous biopsy of vesiculars lesions, blood tests and lumbar puncture were performed.
Results. Biochemistry and blood count showed a CRP: 5.7 mg/dl, leukocytosis with left shift and mild anemia. After 24 hours the analytical showed an increase in a CRP (7.82 mg/dl for three days so a lumbar puncture was performed. Blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous biopsy confirmed the cutaneous candidiasis.
Conclusions. The early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications derived by the Candida albicans in newborns.
Introducción. La candidiasis cutánea es una enfermedad que afecta tanto a población infantil como adulta. Las forma de presentación puede ser localizada o sistémica y el agente etiológico múltiple, siendo las especies de Candida albicans infectantes más prevalentes en niños.
Objetivo. Presentar un caso de candidiasis cutánea congénita cuya causa aparente fue la transmisión vertical durante el parto.
Material y metodología. Se describe el caso de un recién nacido a término expuesto a una candidiasis vaginal subclínica que desarrolló una candidiasis cutánea congénita por Candida albicans asociada a sepsis y distrés respiratorio en las primeras 24 horas de vida. Se practicaron hemocultivos, biopsia cutánea de las lesiones pápulo-pústulo-vesiculosas, análisis de sangre y punción lumbar.
Resultados. La bioquímica y el hemograma mostraron una PCR: 5,7 mg/dl, leucocitosis con desviación izquierda y anemia leve. A las 24 horas la analítica de control mostraba PCR (7,82 mg/dl que fue en aumento progresivo durante 3 días, por lo que se practicó punción lumbar. El hemocultivo fue positivo para Staphylococcus aureus. La biopsia cutánea dio como resultado histológico la candidiasis cutánea.
Conclusiones. El diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir complicaciones derivadas del cuadro producido por la Candida albicans en neonatos.

Marita Lardón-Fernández

2011-12-01

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Association of esophageal candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic esophageal candidiasis is an infection that is mostly seen in immunocompromised conditions, among which is chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Recently an association between CMC and esophageal carcinoma has been reported. Here we present two patients with chronic esophageal candidiasis who developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and we discuss the etiologic role of Candida-induced nitrosamine production, the loss of STAT1 function and impaired tumor surveillance and T-lymphocyte function in the development of esophageal carcinoma. PMID:24371724

Delsing, C E; Bleeker-Rovers, C P; van de Veerdonk, F L; Tol, J; van der Meer, J W M; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M G

2012-01-01

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Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia)  

OpenAIRE

Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia) is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. The major etiologic agent of the disease is the oral fungal pathogen Candida predominantly belonging to Candida albicans, although other systemic co-factors, such as vitamin deficiency and generalized immune suppression, may play a contributory role. Clinically, the lesions are symptomless and regress after...

Sitheeque, Mam; Samaranayake, Lp

2003-01-01

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Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control.  

OpenAIRE

Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence of yeast was analysed in the 51 diabetic patients. Glycosylated haemoglobin above 12% was strongly associated with oral yeast infection (odds ratio = 13.00) (p less than 0.001), while fasting blood ...

Hill, L. V.; Tan, M. H.; Pereira, L. H.; Embil, J. A.

1989-01-01

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Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda / Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) M2, internado en el [...] Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC) y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento. Abstract in english Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia af [...] ter induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

A., Larregina; B., Bartoletti; H., Romano; L., Paniccia; N. N., Polini.

2004-03-01

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Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the number of animals used, their diet, the differences in Candida strains, and the duration of the studies. These variables notwithstanding, the following could be concluded. (i) The primate model is ideal for investigating Candida-associated denture stomatitis since both erythematous and pseudomembranous lesions have been produced in monkeys with prosthetic plates; they are, however, expensive and difficult to obtain and maintain. (ii) The rat model (both Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) is well proven for observing chronic oral candidal colonization and infection, due to the ease of breeding and handling and their ready availability. (iii) Mice are similar, but in addition there are well characterized variants simulating immunologic and genetic abnormalities (e.g., athymic, euthymic, murine-acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficient models) and hence are used for short-term studies relating the host immune response and oral candidiasis. Nonetheless, an ideal, relatively inexpensive model representative of the human oral environment in ecological and microbiological terms is yet to be described. Until such a model is developed, researchers should pay attention to standardization of the experimental protocols described here to obtain broadly comparable and meaningful data. PMID:11292645

Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

2001-01-01

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Butoconazole and miconazole in treating vaginal candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

In a single blind trial, a three day course of butoconazole nitrate cream was compared with a seven day course of miconazole nitrate cream, both applied intravaginally, in treating vaginal candidiasis. They were equally effective. The cure rate for patients treated with butoconazole was 82.8% at the first follow up (a mean of 18.4 days from the beginning of the treatment) and 76.7% at second follow up (a mean of 40.4 days). Cure rates for patients treated with miconazole were 84.4% and 75.8% ...

Bradbeer, C. S.; Mayhew, S. R.; Barlow, D.

1985-01-01

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[Management of the esophageal candidiasis by the primary care physician].  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This pathology is also found in patients without overt immunodeficiency. Other risk factors are known to be associated with this disease like inhaled or systemic corticosteroid treatment or proton-pump inhibitors and H2 receptor antagonists. In the absence of identified risk factors, a primary immune deficiency should be sought. Prevention of esophageal candidiasis is based primarily on the identification of risk factors, and a better control of them. This article presents a review of the physiopathology, clinical presentation and management of esophageal candidiasis by primary care physicians. We will also discuss ways of preventing esophageal candidiasis when necessary. PMID:24930154

Behrens, Garance; Bocherens, Astrid; Senn, Nicolas

2014-05-14

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A clinico-pathological and cytological study of oral candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candidiasis of the oral mucosa arises chiefly as a re- sult of infection with Candida albicans. Many clinico- pathological analyses of macroscopic findings have been described, although the clinical findings of oral candidiasis vary considerably and the conditions are complex. The present study analyzes the distribution, clinical, cytological and histological diagnoses of oral candidiasis, associated complex diseases and the di-agnostic value of cytology. The ratio of Candida in-fection was 28.9% among 1551 study participants. Females were infected significantly more often than men (p < 0.01 and the affected age range was 60 - 79 years (61.0%, p < 0.01. The predominantly affected areas were the tongue (48.3%, p < 0.01 and gingiva (20.0%, p < 0.01, and occurrence at multiple loci was seen in 43 (9.6% patients. The typical clinical find- ings of oral candidiasis were ulcerative/erythematous lesions (33.2%, p < 0.01 and pseudomembranous candidiasis (31.6%, p < 0.01. A histopathological dia- gnosis of candidiasis based on biopsy specimens from 26 lesions in patients with Candida infection indicated by cytology was confirmed from cultures. The break- down of a cytological to a definite diagnosis was 6 positive (SCC 4, verrucous carcinoma 1, moderate to severe dysplasia 1, 6 suspected positive (mild dyspla- sia, 2; moderate to severe dysplasia, 2; papilloma, 1 and SCC, 1 and 14 negative (epulis, 3; papilloma, 3; granulation tissue, 2; fibrosis, 2 and others, 4. Exfo-liative cytology can easily judge the presence of Can-dida species, although experience is necessary for the presumptive diagnosis of an oral mucosal disease. The application of exfoliative cytology using the Pe- riodic acid-Schiff reaction is helpful for the earlier detection of oral candidiasis with various macrosco- pic findings.

Kayo Kuyama

2011-12-01

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Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a new variant of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis?  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by susceptibility to Candida infection of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. Autoimmune endocrinopathies are common in CMC patients, but there are no reports of the involvement of systemic autoimmune disorders. We present here the first case of this kind of association in a patient with an autosomal dominant variant of CMC. The individual had had this disorder since childhood and systemic lupus erythematosus with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome, as well as renal, articular and hepatic manifestations without thymoma. PMID:21988702

de Moraes-Vasconcelos, Dewton; Domingues-Ferreira, Mauricio; de Campos Pieri, Patricia; da Silva Duarte, Alberto Jose

2012-05-01

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Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppress [...] ion or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

Claudia, Cortés M; Danny, Oksenberg R; Alejandro, Afani S; Carlos, Defilippi C; Ana María, Madrid S.

1389-13-01

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Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

Claudia Cortés M

2004-11-01

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Candidiasis congénita en un recién nacido de muy bajo peso Congenital candidiasis in a very low birth weight premature infant  

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Full Text Available Las infeccciones por hongos, particularmente candida, han emergido como una causa importante de infecciones nosocomiales en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. Las infecciones a candida pueden ser diseminadas, por colonización de un acceso venoso central o congénitas. La candidiasis congénita es una condición inhabitual producida por la infección a candida adquirida in utero. Reportamos el curso clínico de un recién nacido prematuro de muy bajo peso (peso 630 g, edad gestacional 24 semanas con una candidiasis congénita. Por otro lado, se revisan los factores de riesgo, presentación clínica, hallazgos de laboratorio, tratamiento y pronóstico de esta patología, basado en una revisión de los casos reportados en la literaturaSystemic candidiasis has become an important cause of nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants (VLBW. In this vulnerable population candidal infection may be disseminated, be congenital or related to intravenous lines. Congenital candidiasis is a rare disorder acquired in utero. In this report we describe a VLBW infant (24 weeks of gestational age and birth weight of 630gm with congenital candidiasis, and discuss the risk factors, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and the outcome of this condition based on a review of reported cases in the literature

Raúl Bustos B.

2003-03-01

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Candidiasis congénita en un recién nacido de muy bajo peso / Congenital candidiasis in a very low birth weight premature infant  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infeccciones por hongos, particularmente candida, han emergido como una causa importante de infecciones nosocomiales en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. Las infecciones a candida pueden ser diseminadas, por colonización de un acceso venoso central o congénitas. La candidiasis congénita es una co [...] ndición inhabitual producida por la infección a candida adquirida in utero. Reportamos el curso clínico de un recién nacido prematuro de muy bajo peso (peso 630 g, edad gestacional 24 semanas) con una candidiasis congénita. Por otro lado, se revisan los factores de riesgo, presentación clínica, hallazgos de laboratorio, tratamiento y pronóstico de esta patología, basado en una revisión de los casos reportados en la literatura Abstract in english Systemic candidiasis has become an important cause of nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants (VLBW). In this vulnerable population candidal infection may be disseminated, be congenital or related to intravenous lines. Congenital candidiasis is a rare disorder acquired in utero. In th [...] is report we describe a VLBW infant (24 weeks of gestational age and birth weight of 630gm) with congenital candidiasis, and discuss the risk factors, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and the outcome of this condition based on a review of reported cases in the literature

Raúl, Bustos B.; Daniel, Copaja L.; Aldo, Bancalari M..

2003-03-01

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[Vulvovaginal candidiasis in girls (guidelines for a practitioner)].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many publications on the problems of the vaginal candidiasis treatment. Still, the actuality is in the frequency of the relapses and registration of the pediatric cases. Unfortunately, the majority of the pediatrists prescribe antibiotics but either forget to prescribe the simultaneous use of antifungal drugs, or prescribe nystatin, an antimycotic, that is known to be active only in the intestine lumen. As a result, candidiasis of the stomatopharynx or vagina is developed. Of no less importance is the fact of marketing many generics in Russia, which often prove to be false after their detailed investigation. The paper presents specific characteristics pertaining to the origin and development of vulvovaginal candidiasis in girls and indicates drugs with proved efficacy in normalization of the vagina microbiocenosis in girls. PMID:18464565

Uvarova, E V

2007-01-01

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Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV [...] therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the prevalence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.158) or the frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.133). Patients with lower cd4 cell counts showed a higher frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.046) and a greater occurrence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.036).

Andréa Lusvarghi, Witzel; Fernando Ricardo Xavier da, Silveira; Maria de Fátima Costa, Pires; Mônica Andrade, Lotufo.

2008-12-01

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Black esophagus with concomitant candidiasis developed after diabetic ketoacidosis  

OpenAIRE

Black esophagus is a very rare disease and its pathogenesis has been unclear. Black esophagus developed concomitantly with candidiasis after diabetic ketoacidosis has not been reported yet. We report a case who developed esophageal stricture after the treatment of black esophagus and thus balloon dilatation was performed several times but failed, hence, surgical treatment was performed.

Kim, Yong Hwan; Choi, Si Young

2007-01-01

34

Zinc levels of serum and cervicovaginal secretion in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether zinc deficiency in serum or vulvovaginal secretion is a risk factor for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective and controlled study. SETTING--Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna. SUBJECTS--21 women who had experienced at least three documented episodes of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis within the previous 12 months. Fifteen women without anamnesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis as a control group. INTERVENTIONS--Blood samples were draw...

Bo?hler, K.; Meisinger, V.; Klade, H.; Reinthaller, A.

1994-01-01

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Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

Paula Cristina Anibal

2010-12-01

36

Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stom [...] atitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

Paula Cristina, Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi, Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves, Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho, Moraes; José Francisco, Höfling.

2010-12-01

37

Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis; Report of Three Cases with Different Phenotypes  

OpenAIRE

Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMCC) refers to a group of immunodeficiencies, characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucus membranes caused by candida. A wide range of immunologic abnormality has been reported in CMCC. Defects in cellular li...

Kourosh Mohammadi; Mohammad Gharagozlou; Masoud Movahedi; Abolhassan Farhoudi; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Nima Rezaei

2005-01-01

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A CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN IRAN  

OpenAIRE

A case of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to Candida albicans in a 13 yr-old boy is reported. Evaluation of cell mediated immunity revealed cutaneous anergy to PPD and low level of T-Lymphocytes B-Cell count and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were increased and there was a low level of serum iron. The patient was put under treatment with oral administration of Ketoconazole and ferrus sulfate, which resulted in some clinical improvement

Moghaddami, M.; Emami, M.; Toosi, P.; Nabai, L.

1991-01-01

39

Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnou...

Paula Cristina Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho Moraes; José Francisco Höfling

2010-01-01

40

Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species  

OpenAIRE

Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is conside...

Bokor-Brati? Marija B.

2008-01-01

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Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5% patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8% patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8% patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0% patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0% of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0% of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Eskandar Moghimipour

2013-03-01

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Vaginal Microbiota of Women with Frequent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis?  

OpenAIRE

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an insidious infection that afflicts a large proportion of women of all ages, and 5 to 8% of affected women experience recurrent VVC (RVVC). The aim of this study was to explore the possible importance of vaginal bacterial communities in reducing the risk of RVVC. The species composition and diversity of microbial communities were evaluated for 42 women with and without frequent VVC based on profiles of terminal restriction fragment polymorphisms of 16S rRNA ...

Zhou, Xia; Westman, Rachel; Hickey, Roxana; Hansmann, Melanie A.; Kennedy, Colleen; Osborn, Thomas W.; Forney, Larry J.

2009-01-01

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Vaginal microbiology of women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

Alterations in the autochthonous vaginal microflora can predispose women to recurring attacks of Candida vaginitis. Quantitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from 24 premenopausal women with acute recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and from 21 healthy asymptomatic premenopausal women. Lactobacillus species constituted the predominant flora in both groups, with a mean log10 CFU/ml of 8.7, a total isolation rate of 96%, and a mean of 1.6 Lactobacillus species isolated per patien...

Sobel, J. D.; Chaim, W.

1996-01-01

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Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice.  

OpenAIRE

Four species of probiotic bacteria were assessed for their capacities to protect athymic bg/bg-nu/nu and euthymic bg/bg-nu/+ mice from mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Each bacterial species and Candida albicans colonized the gastrointestinal tracts of both strains of mice. The presence of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei GG, or Bifidobacterium animalis) in the gastrointestinal tracts prolonged the survival of adult and neonatal bg/bg-...

Wagner, R. D.; Pierson, C.; Warner, T.; Dohnalek, M.; Farmer, J.; Roberts, L.; Hilty, M.; Balish, E.

1997-01-01

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Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of buccal candidiasis in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study objective was to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy on buccal candidiasis in rats. After experimental candidiasis had been induced on the tongue dorsum, 72 rats were distributed into four groups according to treatment: treated with laser and methylene blue photosensitizer (L+P+); treated only with laser (L+P-); treated only with photosensitizer (L--P+); not treated with laser or photosensitizer (L-P-). The rats were killed immediately, 1 day, or 5 days after treatment, for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. Observation verified that the photodynamic therapy group (L+P+) exhibited fewer epithelial alterations and a lower chronic inflammatory response than the L-P- group. The group L+P- presented more intense epithelial alterations and chronic inflammatory response than the remaining groups. The L-P+ group showed tissue lesions similar to those of the L-P- group. In conclusion, rats treated with photodynamic therapy developed more discrete candidiasis lesions than did the remaining groups. PMID:19408038

Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Martins, Joyce da Silva; Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Colombo, Carlos Eduardo Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2009-11-01

46

Zinc Level of Serum in Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Zinc status has been shown to influence various cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. These cell-mediated mechanisms are important in preventing mucocutaneous infections caused by Candida albicans. This study evaluated the relationship between zinc status and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis by comparing plasma zinc in 51 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 50 control healthy age-matched women. The results indicated that zinc concentration in plasma in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control group showed no significant difference between case and control group (p = 0.605, 4(8% women of control group and 5(11/1% women of patients group had zinc concentration lower than normal. Also, no significant difference between the mean plasma zinc concentration (case group 48-189 ?g dL-1 and control group 57-120 ?g dL -1 in the patient and control group (87 ?g dL-1, std 23.5, 74.9 ?g dL-1, std 13 ?g dL-1 (p = 0.031 .

2008-01-01

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Candidiasis invasoras en recién nacidos: diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención / Invasive candidiasis in newborns: diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras se han convertido en un problema cada vez más frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. La candidiasis invasora (CI) es una infección que se asocia a una significativa morbi-mortalidad, en especial en los recién nacidos (RN) prematuros. El objeti [...] vo de este documento es sugerir acciones de vigilancia, prevención farmacológica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de las CI en el RN. Abstract in english Invasive fungal infections have become an increasingly common problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates, especially in pre-term infants. The aim of this review is to suggest actions in monitoring, preventio [...] n, treatment and follow up of IC in the newborn infant.

Giannina, Izquierdo; María Elena, Santolaya.

2014-02-01

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Candidiasis congénita en un recién nacido de muy bajo peso Congenital candidiasis in a very low birth weight premature infant  

OpenAIRE

Las infeccciones por hongos, particularmente candida, han emergido como una causa importante de infecciones nosocomiales en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. Las infecciones a candida pueden ser diseminadas, por colonización de un acceso venoso central o congénitas. La candidiasis congénita es una condición inhabitual producida por la infección a candida adquirida in utero. Reportamos el curso clínico de un recién nacido prematuro de muy bajo peso (peso 630 g, edad gestacional 24 seman...

Raúl Bustos B; Daniel Copaja L.; Aldo Bancalari M

2003-01-01

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Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection  

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Full Text Available Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.Keywords: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, HAART, antifungal agents, HIV, AIDS

Jose A Vazquez

2010-04-01

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Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands. PMID:25013264

Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

2014-05-01

51

Genetic basis for recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent disease affecting more than 75% of all women at least once in their lifetime. Up to 8% of them suffer from recurrent VVC (RVVC) characterized by at least three episodes each year. Several risk factors, such as antibiotic use, diabetes, or pregnancy, are known, but the vast majority of women with RVVC develop the infection without having any risk factor, implying that a genetic component most likely plays an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. This review summarizes the immunogenetic alterations that lead to an increased susceptibility to vaginal infections with Candida albicans. Different mutations and polymorphisms in innate immune genes alter the mucosal immune response against fungi and are likely to have an important role in susceptibility to RVVC. A better understanding of the genetic and immunological mechanisms leading to RVVC is important for both the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and the design of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23354953

Jaeger, Martin; Plantinga, Theo S; Joosten, Leo A B; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G

2013-04-01

52

Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB, but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

Weichert Stefan

2012-03-01

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Epidemiologic Features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Reproductive-Age Women in India  

OpenAIRE

Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge and itching, and is associated with considerable health and economic costs. Materials and Methods. We examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis among a cohort of 898 women in south India. Participants completed three study visits over six months, comprised of a structured interview and a pelvic examination. Results. The positive predictive values for diagnosis of vulvov...

Rathod, Sujit D.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Karl Krupp; Reingold, Arthur L.; Purnima Madhivanan

2012-01-01

54

Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

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Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis with localized oral miconazole therapy: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability  

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Full Text Available Curtis D Collins1, Sarah Cookinham2, Jeannina Smith21Department of Pharmacy Services, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a very common localized infection of the mucus membranes of the oropharynx that is most commonly caused by the patient's own commensal Candida albicans. It is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and is also quite common in patients with hematological malignancies. Effective treatment options are of high importance given the worldwide incidence of these disease states and the potential for development of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. Various systemic and topical treatment options for patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis have existed for many years. Miconazole buccal tablets have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Clinical trials have demonstrated noninferiority in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis when compared with clotrimazole troches in patients with HIV and against miconazole gel in patients with head and neck cancer. Miconazole buccal tablets exhibit few drug interactions because of low systemic absorption and are generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to comparators. The once-daily dosing schedule may improve patient adherence compared with topical alternatives; however, the cost of therapy may be a barrier for some patients and should be considered by prescribers compared with alternative treatments.Keywords: esophageal candidiasis, miconazole, antifungal agents

Cookinham S

2011-07-01

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Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis; Report of Three Cases with Different Phenotypes  

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Full Text Available Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMCC refers to a group of immunodeficiencies, characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucus membranes caused by candida. A wide range of immunologic abnormality has been reported in CMCC. Defects in cellular limb of the immune system, mainly the specific response to antigens of candida species, are well documented in CMCC patients. A subgroup of patients is predisposed to development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. These patients need repeated monitoring of endocrine functions. Immunologic studies are needed to identify the extent of immunodeficiency and other abnormalities of immune functions. We report three cases of CMCC. These patients show different phenotypes and highlight the need for complete evaluation and long term follow-up for accompanying disorders.

Kourosh Mohammadi

2005-10-01

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Prevalence of Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis in vulvovaginal Candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis were isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis were found in presumptive Candida glabrata isolates, which were identified using the API Candida system. We retrospectively re-examined vaginal presumptive Candida glabrata isolates for Candida nivariensis and Candida bracarensis from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2012, via detection of the ITS1 region and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. Among 301 presumptive Candida glabrata isolates, 293 isolates were confirmed as C. glabrata (97.34 %), 7 isolates were identified as C. nivariensis (2.33 %) and 1 isolate was identified as C. bracarensis (0.33 %). The C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis isolates were confirmed by sequencing. All C. nivariensis isolates were susceptible to nystatin and susceptible or susceptible dose-dependent to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. The C. bracarensis isolate was susceptible to nystatin and the tested azoles. Among the seven patients with VVC caused by C. nivariensis and who were treated with various antifungal agents, only one patient achieved mycological eradication at both the day 7-14 and day 30-35 follow-ups. The C. bracarensis isolate was isolated from a symptomatic pregnant woman; additional data for this patient were unavailable. We conclude that C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis existed in the vaginal samples of patients with VVC. Therapeutic efficacy in the patients with C. nivariensis was poor and inconsistent with the observed in vitro antifungal susceptibility, which requires further study. PMID:25118875

Li, Jianling; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping

2014-10-01

58

Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of vaginal candidiasis in the UAE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaginal candidiasis (VC) continues to be a health problem to women worldwide. Although the majority of VC cases are caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), non-albicans Candida spp. like C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are emerging as important and potentially resistant opportunistic agents of VC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of VC in the UAE through retrospective analysis of pertinent data compiled by the microbiology and infection control unit at Latifa Hospital, Dubai between 2005 and 2011. The incidence of VC significantly increased from 10.76% in 2005 to 17.61% in 2011; average prevalence was 13.88%. C. albicans occurred at a frequency of 83.02%, C. glabrata at 16.5% and C. tropicalis at 1.2%. A single C. dubliniensis isolate was identified in the sample population. The percentage of C. albicans significantly decreased from 83.02% in the sample population as a whole to 60.8% in subjects over 45 years of age (P < 0.01) and that of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei significantly increased from 13.88%, 0.9% and 0.03% to 29.7%, 6.7% and 1.4% (P < 0.05) respectively. The incidence of VC in the UAE is on the rise and the frequency of non-albicans Candida spp. is noticeably increasing especially in postmenopausal women. PMID:24102778

Hamad, Mawieh; Kazandji, Norair; Awadallah, Samir; Allam, Hilda

2014-03-01

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Candidiasis in HIV and AIDS Patients Attending the Nylon Health District Hospital in Douala, Cameroon  

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Full Text Available AIM: Candidiasis is the leading opportunistic mycosis in HIV and AIDS patients. METHOD: In order to determine its prevalence in patients with different CD4+ T cell categories in the Nylon Health District in Douala, a cross-sectional study was carried out whereby 304 HIV positive individuals were recruited between March and August, 2007. They were divided into two groups; those on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and those not on HAART. Three samples constituting mouth, vaginal/urethral swabs and urine were collected from each subject. RESULTS: A total of 204 (67.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.618-0.724] of these patients had more than one predisposing condition to candidiasis, with those on antibiotic therapy having the highest prevalence (63.7% followed by pregnant patients (7.3% (P < 0.05. Candidiasis was more common in patients with low CD4+ T cell count (<200 [66%] than patients with higher CD4+ T cell count (17.9% (P<0.05. One hundred and sixty one (53% of the patients had candidiasis whereby those not on HAART were more frequently infected (69.6% than those on HAART (30.1% (P< 0.05. CONCLUSION: We conclude that candidiasis is a major opportunistic infection in HIV patients and should be checked especially in patients not yet on antiretroviral therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 701-706

Anna Longdoh Njunda

2011-12-01

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Hepatosplenic and renal candidiasis in leukemic patients: CT spectrum before and after therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdominal CT performed in 14 leukemic patients with systemic candidiasis and involvement of the liver, spleen, or kidneys revealed numerous low-density lesions in ten livers (71%), eight spleens (57%), and in the kidneys of three patients (21%). Biopsy of all livers and of three kidneys proved hepatic candidiasis in all (100%) and renal candidiasis in three patients (21%). After treatment with amphotericin B and splenectomy (one patient), CT disclosed abnormal livers in eleven (80%) patients, abnormal spleens in seven (53%), and abnormal kidneys in three patients (21%). Rebiopsy disclosed Candida infection in all livers and all abnormal kidneys, so the patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Although the patients became asymptomatic, CT continued to show abnormal livers in five (35%) and abnormal spleens in two (16%) (the previously abnormal kidneys became normal). Rebiopsy of the abnormal livers showed focal fibrosis and necrosis. These findings emphasize the importance of clinical and pathologic correlation of CT appearance

61

Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care s of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

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Clinical implications of oral candidiasis: host tissue damage and disseminated bacterial disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical significance of polymicrobial interactions, particularly those between commensal species with high pathogenic potential, remains largely understudied. Although the dimorphic fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are common cocolonizers of humans, they are considered leading opportunistic pathogens. Oral candidiasis specifically, characterized by hyphal invasion of oral mucosal tissue, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV(+) and immunocompromised individuals. In this study, building on our previous findings, a mouse model was developed to investigate whether the onset of oral candidiasis predisposes the host to secondary staphylococcal infection. The findings demonstrated that in mice with oral candidiasis, subsequent exposure to S. aureus resulted in systemic bacterial infection with high morbidity and mortality. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy of tongue tissue from moribund animals revealed massive C. albicans hyphal invasion coupled with S. aureus deep tissue infiltration. The crucial role of hyphae in the process was demonstrated using a non-hypha-producing and a noninvasive hypha-producing mutant strains of C. albicans. Further, in contrast to previous findings, S. aureus dissemination was aided but not contingent upon the presence of the Als3p hypha-specific adhesion. Importantly, impeding development of mucosal C. albicans infection by administering antifungal fluconazole therapy protected the animals from systemic bacterial disease. The combined findings from this study demonstrate that oral candidiasis may constitute a risk factor for disseminated bacterial disease warranting awareness in terms of therapeutic management of immunocompromised individuals. PMID:25422264

Kong, Eric F; Kucharíková, Sona; Van Dijck, Patrick; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

2015-02-01

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New US and CT patterns of hepatic and spienic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine immunocompromised cancer patients with tissue-proved candidiasis underwent a total of eight serial abdominal US studies and 53 CT examinations. Four US patterns of hepatic and splenic candidiasis were recognized. Type 1 was a ''wheel within a wheel'', or a central hypoechoic nidus surrounded by a dense band, in turn surronded by a rim of hypoechoic tissue. Type 2 was the classic ''bull's eye'' lesion. Type 3, the most common, was a uniformly hypoechoic lesion, 1-4 cm in diameter. Type 4 was a small, dense, echogenic focus with no surrounding lucency and varying amounts of posterior shadowing. Types 1,2 and 3 were seen early in infection; types 3 and 4 were present later. Lesion types 2,3 and 4 were also identified on CT scans. In addition, periportal linear areas of increased attenuation, possibly calcified, were identified on follow-up, non-contrast-enhanced CT. Some abscesses were better seen on non-contrast-enhanced CT scans, while others became visible only after iodinated contrast medium was administered intravenously. Although lesions not seen on US were often seen on CT, the opposite was also true. In two cases pathologic proof of candidiasis was established even when all imaging studies were negative. Patients should be studied by US and by CT before and after contrast agent administration for maximum sensitivity. Even when both US and CT are negative, if there is a strong clinical suspicion of candidiasis, open biopsy is recommendediopsy is recommended

64

Addition of Caspofungin to Fluconazole Does Not Improve Outcome in Murine Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Caspofungin is a potent antifungal inhibiting glucan synthesis in Candida species. However, caspofungin is not 100% curative in candidiasis. Therefore, we evaluated combinations of fluconazole with caspofungin for murine candidemia. We could not show any benefit of combined therapy over individual antifungal drugs.

Graybill, John R.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.; Hernandez, Steve; Larsen, Robert A.

2003-01-01

65

Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries. (orig.)

66

Anti-fungal resistance in candida isolated from oral and diaper rash candidiasis in neonates  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis infections in children. The children referring to private and public clinics in Ilam, Iran were exmined for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. In this study, 248 oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis samples were collected and cultured.Candida species were identified by using standard methods. Resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, nystatin, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, and posaconazole were determined using the CLSI M44-A standard disk diffusion method. From the 248 studied samples, 149 were positive for Candida, among which the Candida albicans was the most prevalent (64.4%). The resistance of different Candida species to nystatin, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were 4, 43, 34.2, 34.9, 21.5, 6, and 6.7%, respectively. No resistance to amphotericin B was observed. Considering rather low resistance to nystatin, this drug is the best choice for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. PMID:25512681

Mohamadi, Jasem; Motaghi, Mahsa; panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Azizian, Mitra; Pakzad, Iraj

2014-01-01

67

Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence?†  

OpenAIRE

Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one ...

Mcmanus, Brenda A.; Mcgovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M.; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pa?draig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.

2011-01-01

68

Genetic dissimilarity of two fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains causing meningitis and oral candidiasis in the same AIDS patient.  

OpenAIRE

We describe a patient with AIDS who simultaneously developed Candida meningitis with three positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures and oral candidiasis. This patient also had a history or recurrent episodes of oral candidiasis treated with fluconazole. The patient did not respond to this therapy but was cured with amphotericin B and flucytosine. In vitro susceptibility tests revealed that each infection was caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates. Strain delineation by karyoty...

Berenguer, J.; Diaz-guerra, T. M.; Ruiz-diez, B.; Bernaldo Quiros, J. C.; Rodriguez-tudela, J. L.; Martinez-suarez, J. V.

1996-01-01

69

DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO CANDIDA ALBICANS GERM TUBE BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nThe increasing incidence of systemic candidiasis, which parallels the use of invasive and immunosuppressive medical procedures, necessitates development of rapid and cost effective tests for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Therefore in this study 85 mice were first immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide and then infected by Candida albicans NCPF 3153. Other 85 mice were employed as control. The case and control mice were bled and then autopsied. Hearts and kidneys were checked by direct, histopathological and cultural examination for systemic candidiasis. The 85 sera from histological proven cases and 85 control mice were adsorbed with heat killed blastospores of same strain of C. albicans. Anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in case and control mice. In addition, sera from 35 mice with proven cryptococcosis were also tested. While 84 mice with proven systemic candidiasis (100% had anti-germ tube antibodies, these antibodies were absent in all controls and mice with cryptococcosis. The specificity was 100%, indicating a high degree of discrimination was possible between systemic candidiasis and cryptococcosis in the mice studied. It must be concluded that anti-germ tube responses did not appear to be significantly reduced in immunocompromised mice.

F. Zaini

2007-07-01

70

Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local.Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

Catalina de Bedout

2010-12-01

71

Oral candidiasis as a clinical marker of highly active antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-infected patients / La candidiasis bucal como marcador clínico de falla a la terapia antirretroviral altamente efectiva en pacientes infectados con VIH/sida  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La candidiasis bucal es una infección oportunista fácilmente detectable en la clínica, por lo que se ha utilizado para valorar tanto el estado inmunológico de los pacientes con VIH como la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral, altamente efectiva debido a que se encuentra sujeta a [...] diversos factores para lograr el éxito terapéutico. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis bucal entre indicadores asociados al éxito de la terapia antirretroviral. Material y método: Estudio transversal, analítico en donde inicialmente se realizaron grupos de acuerdo al uso o no de la terapia antirretroviral para proseguir con un interrogatorio que incluía preguntas sobre otros factores relacionados con la infección por cándida, así como la medición del flujo salival y la evaluación clínica de la cavidad bucal para determinar la frecuencia de la candidiasis. Resultados: La diferencia en la frecuencia de la candidiasis bucal entre los grupos con y sin terapia antirretroviral fue significativa, además de obtener una OR = 2,6 (1,58-4,48) y la asociación con la disminución en el conteo de linfocitos de CD4. Discusión: La resistencia a la terapia antirretroviral constituye uno de los problemas fundamentales en el éxito del tratamiento, en los pacientes infectados con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, al igual que las toxicidades y los problemas de adherencia. Los sensores clínicos como la candidiasis bucal son parámetros de fácil acceso para la detección temprana de falla en la terapia. Abstract in english Introduction: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection that is readily detectable in the clinic. It has been used to assess the immune status of HIV patients as well as the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency of oral candidiasis infectio [...] n among various indicators associated with antiretroviral therapy effectiveness. Material and methods: Cross-sectional and analytical study, in which groups were initially created based on the use or not of antiretroviral therapy. Participants were subjected to questions on factors related to Candida infection, salivary flow measurements and a clinical examination of the oral cavity to determine the frequency of candidiasis Results: The difference in the frequency of oral candidiasis between groups with and without antiretroviral therapy was significant (OR 2.6 IC95% 1.5-4.4). There were also a significant association with decreased number of CD4 lymphocytes.. Discussion: Resistance to anti-retroviral therapy constitutes one of the fundamental barriers to a successful treatment in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, as do toxicities and adherence problems. Clinical markers such oral candidiasis is an easily and accesible parameter for the early detection of treatment failure.

Sandra, Lopez-Verdin; Amalia, Torrecilla-Ramirez; Ana Cristina, Horta-Sandoval; Jaime Federico, Andrade-Villanueva; Ronell, Bologna-Molina.

2014-06-01

72

Development of Film Dosage Forms Containing Miconazole for the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Film dosage forms (FDs containing miconazole (MCZ for the treatment of oral candidiasis were prepared using water-soluble polysaccharides, and the dissolution profiles of MCZ from the FDs were investigated. In addition, the forms were modified by the addition of a surface active agent to accelerate the drug dissolution rate. Circular films incorporating MCZ were obtained using each polysaccharide. Most FDs were easy to handle and resistant to tearing. No diffraction peaks were observed in the X-ray diffractograms of FDs. FDs prepared with sodium alginate or pullulan immediately swelled and disintegrated in aqueous medium, whereas MCZ incorporated in the FD gradually dissolved. A marked acceleration in the MCZ dissolution rate was observed when FD was prepared with polysaccharide containing a surfactant. These results confirmed that modified FDs are useful for treating localized conditions in the oral cavity, such as oral candidiasis, and that FDs can simplify the administration of drugs to patients.

Yoshifumi Murata

2013-05-01

73

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidaz [...] ole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membranes of onset in adolescence besides cutaneous horns in nipples. The clinical picture, family history, culture and anatomopathological studies were consistent with chronic infection by candida. Treatment with systemic antifungals obtained partial response of lesions characterizing a clinical picture of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis.

Antônio, Chambô Filho; João Basilio de, Souza Filho; Christine Chambô, Pignaton; Ingrid, Zon; Alan Santos, Fernandes; Lia Quintaes, Cardoso.

2014-07-01

74

[Isolation frequency and spectrum of sensitivity to antifungal preparations of vulvovaginal candidiasis pathogens].  

Science.gov (United States)

The conducted microbiological examination of 362 women of reproductive age has shown the availability of vulvovaginal candidiasis in 282 of them. The following representatives of the genus Candida were isolated from the urogenital tract of women: C. albicans (53%), C. krusei (18%), C. glabrata (14%), C. tropicalis (9%), C. pseudotropicalis (6%). The comparative analysis of sensitivity of the given fungi to a number of antimycotic preparations used in the clinic has been conducted. One can observe maximum sensitivity (89%) of the isolated fungi of Candida genus to itraconazole, minimum (49%)--to nystatin. Therefore itraconazole can be a preparation of choice when treating vulvovaginal candidiasis, which agents are the Candida genus fungi being resistant to other antimycotics. PMID:17682532

Skliar, T V; Krysenko, A V; Sirokvasha, E A; Vinnikov, A I

2007-01-01

75

Enhanced resistance to experimental systemic candidiasis in tilorone-treated mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans is an increasingly important opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Natural killer (NK) cells constitute an important immune effector mechanism and are involved in the response to different pathological disorders. We wished to determine if this immune mechanism is involved in the specific response to C. albicans. Tilorone hydrochloride and related compounds have been described to display antiviral and antitumoral activity, as well as to enhance NK cell activity. In this study, we show the antimicrobial activity of different tilorone analogues and the enhanced resistance of tilorone-treated mice in experimental systemic candidiasis. We also present data suggesting that there is a correlation between NK cell activation and the resistance to experimental systemic candidiasis. Thus, it seems that the immunosurveillance of metastatic spread and the infection by C. albicans share some immune effector mechanisms, in particular activation of NK cells. PMID:10891651

Ortega, E; Algarra, I; Serrano, M J; de Pablo, M A; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; Gaforio, J J

2000-08-01

76

Invasive laryngeal candidiasis: a cause of stridor in the previously irradiated patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upper airway obstruction is always a serious condition. In patients who have previously been irradiated for a laryngeal malignancy, it normally implies either residual or recurrent disease. We report a case of stridor due to invasive laryngeal candidiasis in a patient who had undergone radiotherapy for a T1a N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis eight months earlier. Extensive investigation failed to identify recurrence of disease and the patient responded to prolonged topical antifungal therapy. Infection with Candida species is most frequently found in debilitated or immunocompromised patients. Although cases of upper airway obstruction in children secondary to idiopathic laryngeal candidiasis have been reported, to our knowledge no such presentation has been described in adults. This report highlights the difficulty of diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with candidal infection is important for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:9764302

Ganesan, S; Harar, R P; Dawkins, R S; Prior, A J

1998-06-01

77

Candida antigenemia, as detected by passive hemagglutination inhibition, in patients with disseminated candidiasis or Candida colonization.  

OpenAIRE

A passive hemagglutination inhibition assay was studied by using a hyperimmune serum from rabbits immunized with whole yeast cells (Candida albicans group A). This technique was effective at detecting small amounts of laboratory-prepared mannan or a whole-cell extract of C. albicans. Of 32 patients with documented disseminated candidiasis that were tested, 19 showed evidence of circulating antigen by passive hemagglutination inhibition. Three of these patients showed only partial, rather than...

Meunier-carpentier, F.; Armstrong, D.

1981-01-01

78

Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral  

OpenAIRE

Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %), Candida tropicalis (8,1 %) y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %). Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 %) que los ...

GERARDO MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN; MAYDA PERURENA LANCHA; JOSÉ NÚÑEZ CARVAJAL; Ferna?ndez Andreu, Carlos M.; FRANCISCO BANDERA TIRADO

1997-01-01

79

Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears  

OpenAIRE

Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were c...

Tavakkol, P.; Emdadi, S.

2001-01-01

80

Invasive candidiasis due to Candida norvegensis in a liver transplant patient: case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida norvegensis is an emerging fluconazole-resistant pathogen isolated in most cases from skin and mucous membranes of immunocompromized patients. Documented invasive candidiasis (IC due to C. norvegensis has been rarely reported, thus the clinical features of patients at risk for this pathogen are poorly defined. We report a liver transplant patient who developed IC due to C. norvegensis and review other cases of C. norvegensis IC published in the literature.

Maria Musso

2014-05-01

81

New mechanism of oral immunity to mucosal candidiasis in hyper-IgE syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, thrush) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. An understanding of immunity to Candida has recently begun to unfold with the identification of fungal pattern-recognition receptors such as C-type lectin receptors, which trigger protective T-helper (Th)17 responses in the mucosa. Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES/Job’s syndrome) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency characterized by dominant-negative mutations in signal transducer...

Conti, Hr; Baker, O.; Freeman, Af; Jang, Ws; Holland, Sm; Li, Ra; Edgerton, M.; Gaffen, Sl

2011-01-01

82

Calendula officinalis L. en el tratamiento tópico de la candidiasis vaginal recurrente  

OpenAIRE

La candidiasis vaginal recurrente (CVR) es una enfermedad con una elevada prevalencia y los fitofármacos constituyen una opción en su tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el efecto terapéutico y la seguridad de la Calendula officinalis L. por vía tópica en el tratamiento de la CVR. De 127 mujeres, 46 pacientes se seleccionaron aleatoriamente y se trataron con tintura de "calendula" 20%. La "calendula" se aplicó tres veces a la semana, en días alternos, durante d...

Zquez, Pedro Miguel Mili U. C. N. V. U. C.; Cdguez, Julia Madeline Seife Rodr U.; Morales Ojeda, Roberto; Zquez Montero, Lidia V. U. C.; Lvarez, Carlos Mart U. Cdn U. C.; Cdquez, Maira Quiros Enr U.

2010-01-01

83

Oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among institutionalised South African paediatric HIV/AIDS patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

South Africa currently has an estimated 500,000 AIDS orphans, many of whom are HIV-positive. Oral candidiasis commonly occurs in both adult and paediatric HIV/AIDS patients. Published information on HIV-positive children in Africa mainly concerns hospitalised patients. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis and oral yeast carriage among paediatric HIV/AIDS patients residing in orphanages in Gauteng, South Africa, and to compare the prevalence of isolated yeast species with species obtained from adult HIV/AIDS patients. Eighty-seven paediatric HIV/AIDS patients residing in five homes were examined and a swab taken from the dorsal surface of the tongue, cultured on CHROMagar and yeast isolates identified with the ATB 32C commercial system. The species prevalence of 57 identified isolates was compared with that of 330 isolates from adult HIV/AIDS patients. Twelve (13.8%) children presented with clinically detectable candidiasis. Yeasts were isolated from 0% to 53% of children in the individual homes, with Candida albicans (40.4%) and C. dubliniensis (26.3%) constituting the most frequently isolated species. Gentian violet prophylaxis was administered in one particular home and a higher carriage rate (66.6%) of non-C. albicans and non-C. dubliniensis was observed among these children. The prevalence of C. albicans was lower while the prevalence of C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis was significantly higher (p < or = 0.001) among the children than among adult HIV/AIDS patients. These findings indicate a role for yeast culture and species determination in cases with candidiasis in institutionalized paediatric HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:17295100

Blignaut, Elaine

2007-02-01

84

Placebo-controlled trial of itraconazole for treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

Itraconazole is a new orally active triazole antifungal agent with enhanced activity against Candida species. In the clinical trial described in this paper, we compared the efficacy and safety of itraconazole capsules with those of clotrimazole vaginal tablets and placebo oral capsules for women with acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. Ninety-five patients were randomized in a 2:1:1 fashion to receive itraconazole (200 mg/day), clotrimazole (200 mg/day), or placebo (two capsules per day) for 3 co...

Stein, G. E.; Mummaw, N.

1993-01-01

85

Immunological Effects of Honey Bee Venom in Mice with Intracerebral Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Bee Venom (BV) is a natural substance, reported to booster the immune system. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of bee venom in stimulation of the immune system in mice infected with intracerebral Candidiasis probing for its possible use in treatment of this ailment. In vivo study included three groups of mice; bee venom-treated Candida infected group, untreated Candida-infected group and control group. Mice in the first two groups received intracerebral (...

Saleh, Nermine K. M.; Elsayed, Abeer A.

2009-01-01

86

Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats  

OpenAIRE

Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05) reduced the ...

Chami, N.; Chami, F.; Bennis, S.; Trouillas, J.; Remmal, A.

2004-01-01

87

Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis with localized oral miconazole therapy: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability  

OpenAIRE

Curtis D Collins1, Sarah Cookinham2, Jeannina Smith21Department of Pharmacy Services, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a very common localized infection of the mucus membranes of the oropharynx that is most commonly caused by the patient's own commensal Candida albicans. It is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with the human immunodeficiency v...

Cookinham S; Cd, Collins; Smith J

2011-01-01

88

Mucoadhesive in situ gel formulations of miconazole nitrate for the treatment of mucosal candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

This study focused on developing in situ gel formulations of miconazole nitrate with poloxamer 188 and 407 for treatment of mucosal candidiasis. In situ gel formulations were prepared and gelation temperature, rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, syringeability and release profiles were evaluated. Based on their suitable gelation temperature properties, formulations containing the poloxamer (Plx) 407 and 188 in ratios of 15:15 (F1), 15:20 (F2) and 20:10 (F3) were chosen for fu...

Karavana, Sinem Y.; Senyi It, Zeynep A.; Hilmioglu Polat, Su?leyha; Metin, Dilek Y.; Zekioglu, Osman; Baloglu, Esra

2012-01-01

89

Neonatal systemic candidiasis: A failure to respond to intravenous miconazole in two neonates  

OpenAIRE

Two extremely preterm infants undergoing intensive care who developed systemic candidiasis are reported. Each was treated initially with intravenous miconazole. One child initially responded, but relapsed after the miconazole was stopped. The second child showed evidence of progression of the disease during treatment. Both infants responded to a combined course of amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. We consider that miconazole is not the drug of first choice in the treatment of neonatal syst...

Mcdougall, P. N.; Fleming, P. J.; Speller, D. C. E.; Daish, P.; Speidel, B. D.

1982-01-01

90

Development of Film Dosage Forms Containing Miconazole for the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Film dosage forms (FDs) containing miconazole (MCZ) for the treatment of oral candidiasis were prepared using water-soluble polysaccharides, and the dissolution profiles of MCZ from the FDs were investigated. In addition, the forms were modified by the addition of a surface active agent to accelerate the drug dissolution rate. Circular films incorporating MCZ were obtained using each polysaccharide. Most FDs were easy to handle and resi...

Yoshifumi Murata; Takashi Isobe; Kyoko Kofuji; Norihisa Nishida; Ryosei Kamaguchi

2013-01-01

91

Mural Folliculitis and Alopecia with Cutaneous Candidiasis in a Beagle Dog  

OpenAIRE

A one-year-old male Beagle dog showed dermatitis, alopecia and scales. Examination of the affected dog revealed generalized alopecia, patchy erythema, and superficial erosions with histological evidence of mural folliculitis. External tests for parasites in scraped skin samples were negative. However, fungal culture tests and polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of Candida in the lesion. These results suggest that cutaneous candidiasis may induce mural folliculitis and alopecia in...

Lee, Hyun-a; Hong, Sunhwa; Choe, Ohmok; Kim, Okjin

2011-01-01

92

Anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis in selected critically ill patients  

OpenAIRE

A prospective, multicentre, phase IIIb study with an exploratory, open-label design was conducted to evaluate efficacy and safety of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC) in specific ICU patient populations. Adult ICU patients with confirmed C/IC meeting ?1 of the following criteria were enrolled: post-abdominal surgery, solid tumour, renal/hepatic insufficiency, solid organ transplant, neutropaenia, and age ?65 years. Patients received anidulafungin (...

Ruhnke, M.; Paiva, J. A.; Meersseman, W.; Pachl, J.; Grigoras, I.; Sganga, G.; Menichetti, F.; Montravers, P.; Auzinger, G.; Dimopoulos, G.; Borges Sa?, M.; Miller, P. J.; Marc?ek, T.; Kantecki, M.

2012-01-01

93

Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiolo [...] gical and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p

N., Chami; F., Chami; S., Bennis; J., Trouillas; A., Remmal.

2004-06-01

94

Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches. PMID:24959937

Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

2014-06-24

95

Interleukin-17-induced protein lipocalin 2 is dispensable for immunity to oral candidiasis.  

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Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by the commensal microbe Candida albicans. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on CD4+ T cells, particularly those of the Th17 subset. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) deficiency in mice or humans leads to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, but the specific downstream mechanisms of IL-17-mediated host defense remain unclear. Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2; 24p3; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL]) is an antimicrobial host defense factor produced in response to inflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-17. Lcn2 plays a key role in preventing iron acquisition by bacteria that use catecholate-type siderophores, and lipocalin 2(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to infection by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The role of Lcn2 in mediating immunity to fungi is poorly defined. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the role of Lcn2 in immunity to oral infection with C. albicans. Lcn2 is strongly upregulated following oral infection with C. albicans, and its expression is almost entirely abrogated in mice with defective IL-17 signaling (IL-17RA(-/-) or Act1(-/-) mice). However, Lcn2(-/-) mice were completely resistant to OPC, comparably to wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, Lcn2 deficiency mediated protection from OPC induced by steroid immunosuppression. Therefore, despite its potent regulation during C. albicans infection, Lcn2 is not required for immunity to mucosal candidiasis. PMID:24343647

Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Whibley, Natasha; Mamo, Anna J; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chan, Yvonne R; Gaffen, Sarah L

2014-03-01

96

Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient’s recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, [...] particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

PATUSSI, Cleverson; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; MUNHOZ, Eduardo Ciliao; ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; SCHUSSEL, Juliana Lucena.

2014-09-26

97

Activity of potent and selective host defense peptide mimetics in mouse models of oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

Ryan, Lisa K; Freeman, Katie B; Masso-Silva, Jorge A; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W; Diamond, Gill

2014-07-01

98

Identificación de especies de Candida en un grupo de pacientes con Candidiasis Atrófica Crónica / Candida species isolated in Chronic atrophic (Erythematous) Candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron 40 pacientes que acudieron al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología. U.C.V., quienes presentaron signos clínicos y microbiológicos de Candidiasis atrófica crónica. El 40% de los pacientes pertenecían al rango de edades de 51 a 60 años, y el 97.5% pertenecían [...] al sexo femenino. Al evaluar la presencia de prótesis dental en éstos pacientes, se pudo evidenciar que el 67.5% usaban prótesis total y el 32.5% prótesis parcial removible. Con respecto a la identificación de las especies de Candida, se pudo demostrar que el 72.5% correspondió a C. albicans, el 15% a C. tropicalis, el 2% a T. glabrata y C. famata, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa representaron el 1% respectivamente. Es necesario realizar un correcto diagnóstico clínico y micológico con la identificación exacta de las levaduras con fines de establecer pautas terapéuticas correctas y evitar la resistencia a los antimicóticos. Abstract in english A group of denture wearing patients with erythematous candidiasis was investigated by age and sex, clinical symptoms and signs of the disease were recorded.There were 39 women and 1 man, and ranged in age from 51 a 60 years old. Six species of Candida were isolated, with C. albicans as the dominant [...] species (72.5%).

L, J, Lazarde; A, Pacheco.

2001-01-01

99

[Experimental oral candidiasis in healthy and immunocompromised BALB/c mice].  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral candidiasis which is the most common type of Candida infections affecting humans, is most frequently caused by C.albicans. Immune response of the host, as well as a variety of virulence factors of the causative agent, play important roles in the development of Candida infections. The colonization rate of Candida in the oral cavity of healthy individuals, is between 25-30%, however, this rate is reported to be increased in immunosuppressive subjects. In our study, we established an oral candidiasis model with C.albicans in healthy and experimentally immunocompromised mice and aimed to compare Candida colonization rates and histopathological changes occurred in the tongue and esophagus tissues of the animal groups. A total of 21 BALB/c mice were grouped as control (Group 1; n= 7), healthy (Group 2; n= 7) and immunocompromised (Group 3; n= 7) groups. Immunosuppression in mice was performed by subcutaneous injection of prednisolone. For experimental oral candidiasis, cotton swab impregnated with C.albicans strains which did not have acid proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activity, no biofilm production, and sensitive to fluconazole and amphotericin B, were used. In the control group, physiological saline solution was used instead of C.albicans strain. In the forth day of experimental oral candidiasis model swab samples taken from the dorsal tongue surface of mice were evaluated by quantitative cultivation method. No yeast colonies were detected in Group 1 while more significant number of yeast colonies were observed in Group 3 compared to Group 2 (p= 0.002). Tongue and esophagus tissues of mice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid schiff staining and evaluated in terms of inflammatory response, abscess formation, vascular congestion, vasodilation and for the presence of yeast and hyphae. When the inflammation in esophagus was considered, statistically significant difference was determined between group 1 and group 3 (p= 0.023), however, no difference was detected between group 2 and 3 (p= 0.107). The level of inflammation in tongue tissue exhibited no difference between groups 2 and 3 (p= 0.317) while the difference was significant when these groups were compared to the control group (p= 0.00, p= 0.002, respectively). Similarly, the level of congestion in tongue tissue exhibited no difference between groups 2 and 3, however, the difference was significant when compared to the control group. To enlighten the relation between host immune status and oral candidiasis caused by C. albicans, further larger-scale studies also concerning the various virulence factors of the infectious agent, should be conducted by the use of experimental animal models which may successfully guide us in this regard. PMID:21644077

Karaman, Meral; Kiray, Müge; Bayrakal, Vahide; Ba?r?yan?k, H Alper; Y?lmaz, Osman; Bahar, I Hakk?

2011-04-01

100

Candidiasis sistémica: experiencia en el Hospital San Juan de Dios 1996-1998  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La sobrevida de los pacientes con enfermedades crónicas así como de aquellos expuestos a terapias médicas y quirúrgicas agresivas ha aumentado. entre otras cosas, gracias al empleo de antibiáticos de amplio espectro, al uso de nutrición parenteral, a la aplicación de medicamentos inmunomoduladores, [...] al transpiante de órganos y al desarrollo de las unidades de cuidado intensivo. No obstante, esto ha conllevado a la aparición de complicaciones como son las infecciones por hongos. Dentro de éstas, en los últimos años se ha demostrado que las diversas especies de cándida tienen un papel importante. La candidiasis sistémica puede ser una complicación severa en estos pacientes, con una alta morbimortalidad. En nuestro medio, desconocemos estudios donde se analice esta patología, razón por la cual se llevó a cabo este trabajo. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los pacientes con candidiasis sistémica diagnosticados en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, hospital nacional de aproximadamente 700 camas, entre los meses de enero de 1996 a diciembre de 1998. Se analizaron 48 episodios de candidiasis sistémica en 47 pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 53 años, 60% fueron hombres. La mortalidad fue de 36%. En 77% de los pacientes se logró identificar alguna patología de base (enfermedad hematooncológica, diabetes mellitus, cirugía abdominal, enfermedad por VIH, quemaduras extensas). Los principales factores de riesgo demostrados fueron el uso previo de antibióticos de amplio espectro (87%), presencia de catéter venoso central (72%), candidiasis en otros sitios (64%), cirugía abdominal previa (25%),empleo de nutrición parenteral (23%) y uso de corticoesteroides (23%). En todos los pacientes se logró identificar al menos un factor de riesgo. Las principales especies de cándida aisladas fueron C albicans (47%), C tropicalis (19%), C parapsilosis (11%), C krusei (4%) y C glabrata (2%). Se analizó la relación entre la especie aislada y los factores de riesgo. Se encontró que C krusei y C parapsílosís se relacionaron con el uso previo de antimicóticos azoles. La mortalidad fue mayor en aquellos pacientes no tratados con antimicóticos. Se discuten estos hallazgos y se correlacionan con lo publicado en la literatura médica, llamándose la atención sobre el aumento en la incidencia de candidiasis sistémicas por candidas no aibicans. Abstract in english The mortality of patients with chronic diseases and those with agressive medical and surgical therapies has decreased in recent years, specially due to the use of broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, immunosupressives therapies, organ transpiantation and management of those patients in [...] intensive care units. However, new infectious diseases have emerged in this population, for example candidal infections. We do not have reports in Costa Rica about this problem. The objective of this study was to analized, retrospectiviy, demographic characteristics, risk factors, microbiologic findings, mortaiity and treatment of patients with candidal bloodstream infections between January 1996 and December 1998, in the Hospital San Juan de Dios, a costarrican reference hospital. Forty seven patients with 48 systemic candidiasis episodes met the criteria to be included in our study. Sixty percent were men and the mean age was 53 years oid. The mortality rate was 36%. All the patients presentes at least, one risk factor.The most common were the use of broad spectrum antibiotics (87%), the presence of central venous catheter(72%), candidiasis in other anatomic site (64%), previous abdominal surgery (25%),use of parenteral nutrition (23%) and neutropenia (17%). The species isolated were: C albicans (47%), C tropicalis (19%), C parapsilosis (11%), C krusei (4%) and C glabrata (2%). The last two species were related to the previous use of antimycotic azoles. The use of an early specific antimycotic treatment was related with low mortaiity rate. We discussed our data and we found simila

Ernesto, Caballero; Ricardo, Boza; Kenneth, González.

1999-12-01

101

Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A

2014-12-01

102

Tulbaghia alliacea phytotherapy: a potential anti-infective remedy for candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproductive health of individuals is severely compromised by HIV infection, with candidiasis being the most prevalent oral complication in patients. Although not usually associated with severe morbidity, oropharyngeal candidiasis can be clinically significant, as it can interfere with the administration of medications and adequate nutritional intake, and may spread to the esophagus. Azole antifungal agents are commonly prescribed for the treatment and prophylaxis of candidal infections, however, the emergence of drug resistant strains and dose limiting toxic effects has complicated the treatment of candidiasis. Consequently, safe and effective and affordable medicine is required to combat this fungus. Commercial garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since time immemorial as a natural antibiotic, however, very little is known about the antifungal properties of two indigenous South African species of garlic, namely Tulbaghia alliacea and Tulbaghia violacea, used as folk medicines for a variety of infections. This study compares the in vitro anticandidal activity of Tulbaghia alliacea, Tulbaghia violacea and Allium sativum extracts. It was found that the greatest concentrations of inhibitory components were extracted by chloroform or water. The IC50 concentrations of Tulbaghia alliacea were 0.007-0.038% (w/v). Assays using S. cerevisiae revealed that the T. alliacea extract was fungicidal, with a killing half-life of approximately 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the T. alliacea extracts was observed via TLC, and may be due to an active compound called marasmicin, that was identified using NMR. This investigation confirms that extracts of T. alliacea exhibit anti-infective activity against candida species in vitro. PMID:16835880

Thamburan, S; Klaasen, J; Mabusela, W T; Cannon, J F; Folk, W; Johnson, Q

2006-10-01

103

Antimicrobial activity of clove oil and its potential in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we evaluated antimicrobial activity of clove oil against a range of fungal pathogens including that responsible for urogenital infection. Clove oil was found to possess strong antifungal activity against opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus, etc. The oil was found to be extremely successful in the treatment of experimental murine vaginitis in model animals. On evaluating various formulations, topical administration of the liposomized clove oil was found to be most effective against treatment of vaginal candidiasis. PMID:16390816

Ahmad, N; Alam, M K; Shehbaz, A; Khan, A; Mannan, A; Hakim, S Rashid; Bisht, D; Owais, M

2005-12-01

104

Systemic and gastrointestinal candidiasis of infant mice as model for antifungal therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic and gastrointestinal infection was established in infant (15-19 days old) mice after oral-intragastric challenge with Candida albicans. All survivors retained high levels of organisms in the liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and intestine up to the 24th post infection day. These animals with persistent infections were used to study the efficacy of short term antifungal therapy. Drug treatment was initiated on 13th day for a two week period, treatment with fluconazole was compared with amphotericin B, and 5 fluorocytosine. The results suggest that fluconazole is a useful drug in the treatment of gastrointestinal candidiasis. PMID:8359853

Ponnuvel, K M; Rama, C P; Menon, T

1993-05-01

105

Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2010-01-01

106

Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats  

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Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

N. Chami

2004-06-01

107

Adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines for the treatment of disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the discovery in the last decade of azoles and echinocandins as novel and potent antimycotic drugs, systemic Candida infections are still accompanied by an unacceptably high burden of morbidity and mortality. A rational novel therapeutic approach would be the use of adjuvant immunotherapy, with the aim of improving host defence against Candida. Increases in our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of Candida infections, such as the role played by pattern recognition receptors and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines during the early phases of infection, have led to the hypothesis of a potential therapeutic role of recombinant cytokines in systemic candidiasis. In the present review, we give an update of both experimental data and proof-of-principle studies in humans that argue for the use of adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines in invasive Candida infections. Sufficiently powered studies on the role of cytokine-based treatment regimens for invasive candidiasis are needed to fully demonstrate the feasibility of this immunotherapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of severe invasive Candida infections. PMID:22032929

van de Veerdonk, F L; Kullberg, B-J; Netea, M G

2012-02-01

108

The inflammasome drives protective Th1 and Th17 cellular responses in disseminated candidiasis  

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The Nlrp3 inflammasome has been proposed to play an important role in antifungal host defense. However, studies exploring the role of the inflammasome in antifungal host defense have been limited to the direct effects on IL-1? processing. Although IL-1? has important direct effects on the innate immune response, important effects of the caspase-1-dependent cytokines IL-1? and IL-18 are exerted on the initiation of adaptive cellular responses Th1 and Th17. No studies have been employed to assess the impact of the inflammasome on the Th1/Th17 defense mechanisms in-vivo during candidiasis. In the present study we demonstrate an essential role for caspase-1 and ASC in disseminated candidiasis through regulating antifungal Th1 and Th17 responses. Caspase-1?/? and ASC?/? mice display diminished Th1/Th17 responses, followed by increased fungal outgrowth and lower survival. These observations identify a critical role for the inflammasome in controlling protective adaptive immune responses during invasive fungal infection. PMID:21681738

van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Shaw, Patrick J.; Smeekens, Sanne P.; Malireddi, Subbarao; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

2014-01-01

109

Role of TLR1 and TLR6 in the host defense against disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Toll-like receptor-1 (TLR1) and TLR6 are receptors of the TLR family that form heterodimers with TLR2. The role of TLR1 and TLR6 for the recognition of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans was investigated. TLR1 is not involved in the recognition of C. albicans, and TLR1 knock-out (TLR1-/-) mice showed a normal susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis. In contrast, recognition of C. albicans by TLR6 modulated the balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and TLR6 knock-out mice displayed a defective production of IL-10 and an increased IFN-gamma release. Production of the monocyte-derived cytokines tumor necrosis factor, IL-1, and IL-6 was normal in TLR6-/- mice, and this was accompanied by a normal susceptibility to disseminated candidiasis. In conclusion, TLR6 is involved in the recognition of C. albicans and modulates the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, but this results in a mild phenotype with a normal susceptibility of TLR6-/- mice to Candida infection. PMID:18036178

Netea, Mihai G; van de Veerdonk, Frank; Verschueren, Ineke; van der Meer, Jos W M; Kullberg, Bart Jan

2008-01-01

110

Acute Neutropenia Decreases Inflammation Associated with Murine Vaginal Candidiasis but Has No Effect on the Course of Infection  

OpenAIRE

We have used a mouse model of vaginal candidiasis to determine the effect of neutrophil depletion on (a) the clearance of Candida albicans and (b) the degree of inflammation associated with infection. No differences in recoverable yeast number or rate of clearance were observed between normal and neutrophil-depleted mice; however, vaginal inflammation was significantly decreased in neutrophil-depleted animals.

Black, C. Allen; Eyers, Fiona M.; Russell, Adrian; Dunkley, Margaret L.; Clancy, Robert L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

1998-01-01

111

Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %), Candida tropicalis (8,1 %) y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 % [...] ). Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 %) que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %). De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD) y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST) permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS), el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos. Abstract in english A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %), Candida tropicalis (8.1 %), and Torulopsis [...] glabrata (8.1 %). It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 %) than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %). Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA) with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA) allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA), the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

GERARDO, MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN; MAYDA, PERURENA LANCHA; JOSÉ, NÚÑEZ CARVAJAL; CARLOS M., FERNÁNDEZ ANDREU; FRANCISCO, BANDERA TIRADO.

1997-12-01

112

Development of a novel synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal candidiasis: an in vitro, in vivo evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The singular aim of the proposed work is the development of a synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal application in subjects prone to recurrent vaginal candidiasis and other microbial infections. The dual loading of Itraconazole and tea tree oil in a single formulation seems promising as it would elaborate the microbial coverage. Despite being low solubility of Itraconazole in tea tree oil, a homogeneous, transparent and stable solution of both was created by co-solvency using chloroform. Complete removal of chloroform was authenticated by GC-MS and the oil solution was used in the development of nanoemulsion which was further translated into a gel bearing thermosensitive properties. In vitro analyses (MTT assay, viscosity measurement, mucoadhesion, ex vivo permeation, etc.) and in vivo studies (bioadhesion, irritation potential and fungal clearance kinetics in rat model) of final formulation were carried out to establish its potential for further clinical evaluation. PMID:23201748

Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Ahmad, Sayeed; Mallick, Md Nasar; Manzoor, Nikhat; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat

2013-03-01

113

Association between chronic disseminated candidiasis in adult acute leukemia and common IL4 promoter haplotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic disseminated candidiasis (CDC) is a form of Candida species infection observed primarily in patients with acute leukemia. To investigate possible genetic factors associated with CDC, we conducted a pilot study of 40 patients with both leukemia and CDC and 50 control patients with leukemia only. A common haplotype of the IL4 promoter (-1098T/-589C/-33C) was overrepresented in patients with CDC (P= .01; odds ratio [OR], 2.16), whereas another common haplotype (-1098T/-589T/-33T) appeared to be protective against CDC (P= .018; OR, 0.47). Genetic variants of IL4 could contribute to the development of CDC in patients with acute leukemia. PMID:12660931

Choi, Eun Hwa; Foster, Charles B; Taylor, James G; Erichsen, Hans Christian; Chen, Renee A; Walsh, Thomas J; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Ruutu, Tapani; Palotie, Aarno; Chanock, Stephen J

2003-04-01

114

Candidiasis (oropharyngeal)  

OpenAIRE

Opportunistic infection with the fungus Candida albicans causes painful red or white lesions of the oropharynx, which can affect taste, speech, and eating. Candida is present in the mouth of up to 60% of healthy people, but overt infection is associated with immunosuppression, diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroid use, haematinic deficiencies, and denture wear.

Pankhurst, Caroline L.

2009-01-01

115

Immunological Effects of Honey Bee Venom in Mice with Intracerebral Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Bee Venom (BV is a natural substance, reported to booster the immune system. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of bee venom in stimulation of the immune system in mice infected with intracerebral Candidiasis probing for its possible use in treatment of this ailment. In vivo study included three groups of mice; bee venom-treated Candida infected group, untreated Candida-infected group and control group. Mice in the first two groups received intracerebral (i.c. inoculation of C. albicans, while the control mice were inoculated i.c. with sterile saline. Mice of first group, the BV-treated group; received thereafter SC injection of BV for 4 days. On 5th day, mice of all groups were sacrificed and Candida infection was evaluated by culture of homogenized brain tissue on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Stimulation of the immune system was assessed by determining TNF-? and IFN-? mRNA expression in splenocytes by real-time PCR (RT-PCR. In the in vitro study, direct effect of BV as antifungal agent and its effect on phagocytic function of neutrophils were evaluated. The results revealed that BV-treated mice had significantly low fungal load in the brain, with significantly high TNF-? but insignificantly high IFN-? mRNA expression in splenocytes. BV had no direct antifungal effect, but it enhanced phagocytic activity of neutrophils. It was concluded that treatment with BV could result in significant therapeutic effect in intracerebral Candidiasis and thereby could be effective in resistant life-threatening infections.

Nermine K.M. Saleh

2009-01-01

116

Eosinofilia no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidiase vaginal recorrente / Eosinophilia in peripheral blood of women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Quantificar o número de células de defesa e os níveis de imunoglobulina E (IgE) no sangue periférico em amostra de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 60 mulheres, 40 com candidíase vulvovaginal e 20 do grupo controle (sem doença). As célula [...] s de defesa foram identificadas utilizando um sistema de impedância combinada com a citometria de fluxo, os níveis de IgE total e específica foram medidos por meio de técnicas de quimiluminescência, o teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para variáveis nominais e do teste de Spearman para correlações das concentrações de IgE e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico. RESULTADOS: O número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal, 302,60 (±253,07), foi significativamente maior do que o grupo controle, 175,75 (±109,24) (p=0,037). Os níveis séricos de IgE total e específica foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos de mulheres com e sem candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (p=0,361). Entretanto, observou-se uma correlação positiva moderada entre eosinofilia e níveis de IgE total no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente (r=0,25). CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente parecem ter maior concentração de eosinófilos no sangue periférico que as assintomáticas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To quantify the number of defense cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in peripheral blood sampled from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 women, 40 with vulvovaginal candidiasis and 20 controls. The defense cells were iden [...] tified using an impedance system combined with flow cytometry and total and specific IgE was measured by chemiluminescence. The Mann-Whitney test was used for nominal variables and the Spearman test was used to determine the correlation of IgE concentration and eosinophils in peripheral blood. RESULTS: The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, 302.60 (±253.07), was significantly higher compared to control, 175.75 (±109.24) (p=0.037). Serum levels of total and specific IgE were similar in the groups of women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (p=0.361). However, there was a moderate positive correlation between eosinophils and total serum IgE in the candidiasis group (r=0.25). CONCLUSION: Women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis are more likely to have eosinophils in peripheral blood.

José, Queiroz Filho; Ana Katherine, Gonçalves; Geraldo Barroso, Cavalcante Júnior; Daliana Caldas, Pessoa; José, Eleutério Júnior; Paulo César, Giraldo; Valéria Soraya de Farias, Sales.

2013-10-01

117

Evolución favorable de trillizos prematuros con candidiasis sistémica neonatal tratados con caspofungina / Successfully evolution of premature triplets with systemic neonatal candidiasis treated with caspofungin  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las infecciones por especies de Candida son un problema que se ha incrementado de manera importante en pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) y son una causa común de morbi-mortalidad en dicha población. La anfotericina B ha sido considerada como el principa [...] l agente terapéutico antifúngico; sin embargo, se ha asociado con efectos adversos como la fungemia persistente debido al aumento en la resistencia a Candida, particularmente especies no albicans, a menudo resistentes también a otros antifúngicos, como el fluconazol. Casos clínicos: Se trata de recién nacidos trillizos de 29 semanas de gestación, quienes recibieron soporte avanzado en la UCIN, incluyendo ventilación mecánica (VM), inserción de catéteres venosos centrales, nutrición parenteral total (NPT) y varios esquemas de antibióticos de amplio espectro, desarrollando sepsis por Candida parapsillosis en los tres casos; la terapia antifúngica fue iniciada con fluconazol, posteriormente con anfotericina B convencional y anfotericina B liposomal, sin mejoría clínica y con hemocultivos positivos. El deterioro fue revertido después del inicio de caspofungina (2 mg/kg/día) añadida a la anfotericina B liposomal. Los tres pacientes se recuperaron totalmente, sin ningún efecto adverso y con adecuada tolerancia. Conclusiones: La caspofungina resultó ser efectiva y bien tolerada en los pacientes tratados a dosis de 2 mg/kg/ día, por lo que se puede considerar una alternativa de tratamiento de la candidiasis invasiva en neonatos prematuros, aunque la dosis óptima no se ha determinado. Abstract in english Background: Infections caused by Candida sp. have been significantly increasing in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and are the most common causes of morbi-mortality in this population group. Amphotericin B has been considered to be the standard antifungal therapy. However, it has be [...] en associated with adverse effects such as persistent fungemia due to the increase of Candida resistance, in particular the non-albicans species, similar to the resistance shown by other antifungals such as fluconazol. Clinical cases: Triplets of gestational age of 29 weeks received advanced life support in the NICU, including mechanical ventilation (MV), insertion of venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and multiple regimes of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The three patients developed C. parapsilosis sepsis. Antifungal therapy was initiated with fluconazol prior to the use of conventional amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B. There was no clinical improvement and blood cultures remained positive. Clinical improvement was noted after the initiation of caspofungin (2 mg/kg/day) in addition to the use of liposomal amphotericin B. The triplets recovered completely with adequate tolerance to the medication and without adverse effects. Conclusion: Use of caspofungin proved to be an effective and well-tolerated therapy in these patients (2 mg/ kg/day). It can be considered an alternative treatment for invasive candidiasis in premature neonates, although optimal dosage remains undetermined.

Diana E., Granados-Perales; J. Horacio, Ugalde-Fernández.

2010-02-01

118

Perfil clínico-epidemiológico y taxonómico de la candidiasis sistémica en una unidad de cuidados intensivos / Clinical, epidemiological and taxonomic aspects of systemic candidiasis in an intensive care unit  

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Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se define el perfil clínico de los pacientes con candidiasis sistémica ingresados en nuestra UCI y se realiza un análisis de mortalidad. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los casos de candidiasis sistémica durante 2002-2004 y, prospectivamente, durante 2005-2006, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos [...] de un hospital de tercer nivel. Se registraron 26 casos (el 75% varones), cuyo principal motivo de ingreso fue la sepsis, con multiinstrumentación y una estancia prolongada. Se aisló Candida albicans en el 53,8% y otras cándidas en el 46,2%. La incidencia de otras cándidas fue superior a la de C. albicans desde el año 2004 (p = 0,02). La mortalidad fue del 42%, más elevada en infecciones por C. albicans, en especial (p = 0,026) en los grupos progresivos de riesgo determinados en el «Score Sevilla». Abstract in english The clinical and epidemiological profile and survival of patients admitted into our intensive care unit (ICU) was analyzed. A retrospective-prospective case series from 2002 to 2004 and 2005 to 2006, respectively, of patients diagnosed with systemic candidiasis in an ICU in a tertiary hospital was s [...] tudied. Twenty-six cases with systemic candidiasis were included (75% of the cases were male). These subjects underwent multiple vascular or drainage interventions and had a prolonged length of stay in ICU. The first motive to enter ICU was sepsis. Candida albicans (CA) was isolated in 53.8% of cases versus 46.2% for other Candidae (CNA). Over the last years, we have observed a progressively higher incidence for CNA (p = 0.02). We registered an especially high mortality rate (42%), that is higher in the CA group. «Sevilla Score» defined the mortality in the progressive risk groups (p = 0.026).

B., Hernández Sierra; M.Á., Prieto Palomino; E., Curiel Balsera; J., Muñoz Bono; G., Quesada García; M.D., Arias Verdú.

2009-04-01

119

Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.  

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Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

2011-05-01

120

Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

McManus, Brenda A

2011-05-01

121

Different tumor necrosis factor ? antagonists have different effects on host susceptibility to disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice.  

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Tumor necrosis factor ? is important for the host defense against intracellular pathogens. We tested the effect of mouse analogs of human TNF-? antagonists, the rat anti-mouse TNF-? monoclonal antibody (XT22) and the soluble mouse 75 kDa TNF-? receptor fused to the Fc portion of mouse IgG1 (p75-Fc), on the susceptibility of mice to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis (HDC) and oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Both XT22 and p75-Fc significantly reduced mice survival, increased kidney fungal burden, and reduced leukocyte recruitment during HDC. However, only XT22 significantly increased the oral fungal burden and reduced leukocyte recruitment during OPC. This result suggests that XT22 and p75-Fc affect host susceptibility to different types of Candida albicans infections by different inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:25007095

Park, Hyunsook; Solis, Norma V; Louie, James S; Spellberg, Brad; Rodriguez, Natalie; Filler, Scott G

2014-07-01

122

A novel bucco-vaginal controlled release drug delivery system of miconazole nitrate for candidiasis-design and evaluation  

OpenAIRE

A variety of approaches have been studied in the past to overcome the problems encountered with the delivery of antifungal, for effective treating of oral and vaginal candidiasis. In this study, a novel mucoadhesive tablets with pH-independent drug release characteristic was prepared by chitosan and carbopol® 71G interpolymer complex (IPC) claims for multipurpose use. Precipitation method is employed for preparation of IPC followed by characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectros...

Pendekal, Mohamed S.; Tegginamat, Pramod K.

2012-01-01

123

Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Anidulafungin in Invasive Candidiasis and Candidemia  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of anidulafungin, a novel echinocandin, in patients with invasive candidiasis, including candidemia. A total of 123 eligible patients were randomized to one of three intravenous regimens, 50, 75, or 100 mg once daily. Treatment continued for 2 weeks beyond resolution or improvement of signs and symptoms. The primary efficacy criterion was a successful global response rate (i.e., clinical and microbiological success) in the evaluable population at t...

Krause, David S.; Reinhardt, John; Vazquez, Jose A.; Reboli, Annette; Goldstein, Beth P.; Wible, Michele; Henkel, Timothy

2004-01-01

124

An Intravaginal Live Candida Challenge in Humans Leads to New Hypotheses for the Immunopathogenesis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a significant problem in women of childbearing age. While clinical studies of women with recurrent VVC (RVVC) and animal models have provided important data about a limited protective role of adaptive immunity, there remains a paucity of information on the protective mechanisms or factors associated with susceptibility to infection. In the present study, an intravaginal live Candida challenge in healthy adult women showed a differenti...

Fidel, Paul L.; Barousse, Melissa; Espinosa, Terri; Ficarra, Mercedes; Sturtevant, Joy; Martin, David H.; Quayle, Alison J.; Dunlap, Kathleen

2004-01-01

125

Gas chromatographic determination of D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratios in urine: a potential method for diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

A gas chromatographic procedure was developed to determine the relative amounts of D- and L-arabinitol in urine. Samples were filtered, diluted, purified through extractions, evaporated, and treated with trifluoroacetic anhydride; the arabinitol derivatives thus obtained were separated on a chiral stationary phase and registered by using an electron-capture detector. Urine samples from a patient with disseminated candidiasis had higher D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratios (referred to as D/L-arab...

Larsson, L.; Pehrson, C.; Wiebe, T.; Christensson, B.

1994-01-01

126

CARD9 Deficiency and Spontaneous Central Nervous System Candidiasis: Complete Clinical Remission With GM-CSF Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate autosomal-recessive Caspase Recruitment Domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) deficiency in a patient with relapsing C. albicans meningoencephalitis. We identified a novel, hypomorphic mutation with intact Th17 responses, but impaired GM-CSF responses. We report complete clinical remission with adjunctive GM-CSF therapy, suggesting that a CARD9/GM-CSF axis contributes to susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24704721

Gavino, Christina; Cotter, Anthony; Lichtenstein, Daniel; Lejtenyi, Duncan; Fortin, Claude; Legault, Catherine; Alirezaie, Najmeh; Majewski, Jacek; Sheppard, Donald C; Behr, Marcel A; Foulkes, William D; Vinh, Donald C

2014-05-01

127

"PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"  

OpenAIRE

The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive m...

Sh, Mirhendi; Makimura, K.

2003-01-01

128

Study of risk factors and prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The frequency of invasive mycoses has increased dramatically during the past two decades owing to medical advances such as intensive cancer chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, invasive medical devices, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease epidemic and an expanding aging population. There were few Indian studies regarding the incidence and risk factors for candidemia. Hence the aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital and also to assess the risk factors and predictors of mortality Materials and Methods: Nonsystematic review of patients with candidemia/invasive candidiasis was done during the period 1999 to 2004. All in-patients who had shown signs and symptoms of nosocomial blood stream infection were screened for candidial infection. Among these, 29 patients had candidemia/invasive candidiasis. Demographic and clinical data of these patients were recorded on a standardized form, which included age, sex, site of isolation, infectious diagnosis, underlying conditions, predisposing factors, catheter status and clinical outcome. The data were collected during the years of 1999 to 2004, which is divided into two time periods (1999-2001 and 2002-2004. Data collected during these different time spans are compared with each other. Results: A total of 255 patients were screened during the study period. Among these, 100 patients were screened during the period 1999-2001 and 155 patients were screened during the year 2002-2004. Out of these patients, 29 showed positive cultures in blood or other sterile site (ascitic fluid, bronchial aspirate and urine from suprapubic puncture. Out of these, 24 were males and five were females. The most common risk factor was use of intravenous canulae (62.1%, followed by prolonged use of antibiotics (34.5% and HIV infection (24.1%. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk factors during the two different study periods. Candida was mainly isolated from blood (75.9%. Other sources included ascitic fluid (10.4%, bronchial aspirate (3.4%, sputum (3.4% and urine (6.9%. Distributions of sources were comparable during the two study periods. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis caused 89.7%, 3.4%, 6.9% of the candidemia episodes respectively. The overall mortality was 51.7%. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the importance of candidemia among hospitalized patients. Continued surveillance of candidemia will be important to track trends of this serious infection and to document changes in its epidemiological features. More active screening in high-risk groups should be done to avoid diagnostic delay. Risk factors like prolonged use of multiple antibiotics, central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation and prolonged hospital stay should be restricted whenever possible. Timely use of antiretroviral drugs and other measures to improve the immunity of HIV patients may help to decrease the incidence of candidemia in this patient population.

Chowta Mukta

2007-01-01

129

Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

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Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE) and propolis microparticles (PMs) obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n = 89), obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B) were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes. PMID:21607012

Dota, Kelen Fátima Dalben; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

2011-01-01

130

Vulvovaginal candidiasis: species distribution, fluconazole resistance and drug efflux pump gene overexpression.  

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The increasing incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the emergence of fluconazole resistance are an indisputable fact. However, little information is available regarding the correlation between fluconazole resistance in vaginal Candida albicans and the expression of drug efflux pump genes. In this study, we investigated the species distribution, fluconazole susceptibility profiles and the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida strains. In total, 785 clinical Candida isolates were collected from patients with VVC. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species(n = 529) followed by C. glabrata (n = 164) and C. krusei (n = 57). Of all Candida isolates, 4.7% were resistant to fluconazole. We randomly selected 18 fluconazole resistant isolates of C. albicans to evaluate the expression of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 genes. Compared with fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans isolates, CDR1 gene expression displayed 3.16-fold relative increase, which was statistically significant. CDR2, MDR1 and FLU1 overexpression was observed in several fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates, but statistical significance was not achieved. These results demonstrate a high frequency of non-albicans species (32.6%); however, C. albicans is the most common Candida species implicated in vaginitis, and this strain displays considerable fluconazole resistance. Meanwhile, our study further indicates that fluconazole resistance in C. albicans may correlate with CDR1 gene overexpression. PMID:24962255

Zhang, Jie-Yu; Liu, Jin-Hui; Liu, Fa-Di; Xia, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jing; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Zhi-Qin; Zhu, Na; Yan-Yan; Ying, Ying; Huang, Xiao-Tian

2014-10-01

131

Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from "Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum", Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients' clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts' opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

2014-11-01

132

Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients’ clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts’ opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

2014-01-01

133

Calendula officinalis L. en el tratamiento tópico de la candidiasis vaginal recurrente  

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Full Text Available La candidiasis vaginal recurrente (CVR es una enfermedad con una elevada prevalencia y los fitofármacos constituyen una opción en su tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el efecto terapéutico y la seguridad de la Calendula officinalis L. por vía tópica en el tratamiento de la CVR. De 127 mujeres, 46 pacientes se seleccionaron aleatoriamente y se trataron con tintura de "calendula" 20%. La "calendula" se aplicó tres veces a la semana, en días alternos, durante dos semanas. Las pacientes fueron evaluadas al inicio del estudio, a los 21 y a los 30 días. La edad promedio fue de 23.7± 5.2 años y el 95.2% de las mujeres eran sexualmente activas. Al inicio del estudio, 85.7% presentó secreción vaginal abundante, pero a medida que el tratamiento progreso disminuyó el número de pacientes con leucorrea. Al inicio, la mayoría de las pacientes (83.3% presentó prurito, luego disminuyó significativamente. Se observó una reducción en el número de pacientes con cultivo vaginal positivo a los 21 días; sólo 7 pacientes (16.7% tuvieron cultivos positivos. La mayoría de las pacientes evolucionaron hacia la curación y no se reportaron efectos adversos. Se concluye que la Calendula officinalis L constituye una opción terapéutica en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.

Pedro Miguel MILI\\u00C1N V\\u00C1ZQUEZ

2010-01-01

134

Sentinel surveillance of invasive candidiasis in Spain: epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility.  

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In order to know the epidemiology and the changes of antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis (IC) we carried out this prospective study of Candida strains belonging to patients admitted to 26 Spanish hospitals from June 2011 to June 2012 diagnosed with IC. Clinical information and the identity of the Candida species were collected and antifungal susceptibility was tested using broth microdilution in five agents: amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. A total of 705 cases-isolates were documented. Most of the patients suffered from candidemia and several underlying diseases and more than half of them were neutropenic or under immunosuppressive therapy, factors associated with higher mortality. Thirty percent of global mortality was documented. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species, although an increase of non-C. albicans species was observed. Resistance to fluconazole was of 3.4%, lower than in previous years (6.3%). C. parapsilosis presented a higher MIC90 of echinocandins compared to other species. PMID:25439581

Nieto, M C; Tellería, O; Cisterna, R

2015-01-01

135

Improved efficacy of fluconazole against candidiasis using bio-based microemulsion technique.  

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Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen that causes systemic and superficial infections in most immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole, a synthetic triazole antifungal agent, is the most prescribed drug used in treating this pathogen. But because of its poor solubilization in water and the emergence of resistant strains against this antimycotic drug, we aimed at devising a unique microemulsion drug delivery system for fluconazole against candidiasis. A clear oil-in-water microemulsion system, consisting of clove oil as oil phase, Tween 20 as surfactant, and water as aqueous phase was developed using a ternary phase diagram. Physicochemical characterization was done to understand the internal physicochemical state. The bulk drug, fluconazole, that measured several microns in length was reduced to a 10-65 nm range with no means of high-energy methods as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The very small and uniform spherical structure of the drug-loaded microemulsion system could be of high impact to the biological system as the efficacy of fluconazole is greatly improved when compared with its conventional bulk form. The optimized microemulsion exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity at a minimum concentration (8 µg/ml) of fluconazole as examined by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Thus, our report discloses an excellent oral drug delivery system. PMID:23586695

Nirmala, M Joyce; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N

2013-01-01

136

Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

137

Prevalence of Candida albicans-closely related yeasts, Candida africana and Candida dubliniensis, in vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

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Isolates of Candida africana and C. dubliniensis were recovered from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The isolates were initially identified as C. albicans through use of the API Candida System. We retrospectively reexamined 1014 vaginal isolates presumptively determined to be C. albicans at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012. Our objective was to determine, via detection of the HWP1 gene, if any of the isolates were C. africana or C. dubliniensis. One and a half percent of these isolates (15/1014) were found to be C. africana, whereas C. dubliniensis was not detected. The 15 C. africana isolates were susceptible to nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. Candida africana could not be recovered from clinical vaginal specimens from the 15 patients at follow-up on days 7-14 and days 30-35 when treated with different antifungal agents. We conclude that C. africana, but not C. dubliniensis, was present in the vaginal samples of patients with VVC. The C. africana isolates were susceptible to the tested antifungal agents. VVC caused by C. africana appears to respond well to current therapies. PMID:25023482

Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Jianling

2014-08-01

138

European expert opinion on the management of invasive candidiasis in adults.  

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This report discusses the present status of antifungal therapy and treatment options for candidaemia, considered by experts in the field in Europe. A conference of 26 experts from 13 European countries was held to discuss strategies for the treatment and prevention of invasive candidiasis, with the aim of providing a review on optimal management strategies. Published and unpublished comparative trials on antifungal therapy were analysed and discussed. Commonly asked questions about the management of candidaemia were selected, and possible responses to these questions were discussed. Panellists were then asked to respond to each question by using a touchpad answering system. After the initial conference, the viewpoint document has been reviewed and edited to include new insights and developments since the initial meeting. For many situations, consensus on treatment could not be reached, and the responses indicate that treatment is likely to be modified on a patient-to-patient basis, depending on factors such as degree of illness, prior exposure to azole antifungals, and the presence of potentially antifungal drug-resistant Candida species. PMID:21884296

Kullberg, B J; Verweij, P E; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Bille, J; Calandra, T; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Herbrecht, R; Jacobs, F; Kalin, M; Kibbler, C C; Lortholary, O; Martino, P; Meis, J F; Muñoz, P; Odds, F C; De Pauw, B E; Rex, J H; Roilides, E; Rogers, T R; Ruhnke, M; Ullmann, A J; Uzun, Ö; Vandewoude, K; Vincent, J-L; Donnelly, J P

2011-09-01

139

Oral candidiasis deteriorated by local application of a glucocorticoid-containing film in a mouse model.  

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In order to estimate predisposing activity of oral application of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP)-containing mucoadhesive films for oral candidiasis, the effects of BDP on growth of Candida albicans were examined in vivo and in vitro. Murine neutrophils inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans in vitro, but this anti-Candida activity was clearly suppressed by the presence of 10(-6) M of BDP. In vitro, a BDP-release test showed that the amount of BDP released from BDP-containing films into the fluid phase increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner and reached about 10-15% of the total amount of BDP in the film within 30 min. When the BDP-containing film was attached to the tongues of mice orally infected with C. albicans, oral infection by C. albicans deteriorated, but not as severely as in mice systemically immunosuppressed with prednisolone. Based on these findings, we also discuss the problems associated with the clinical application of BDP-film as an anti-inflammatory tool. PMID:18239287

Yanagi, Mashiho; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Amemiya, Ayako; Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Machiko

2008-02-01

140

The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis.  

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The therapeutic efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), Melaleuca alternifolia, and its main component, terpinen-4-ol, were evaluated in a murine oral candidiasis model. Prednisolone -pretreated mice were orally infected with a fluconazole-susceptible (TIMM 2640) or a resistant (TIMM 3163) strain of Candida albicans to induce oral candidiasis. TTO or terpinen-4-ol was administrated with a cotton swab 3 h and 24 h after candida infection. These treatments clearly showed a decrease in the symptom score of tongues and in the viable candida cell number in the oral cavity at 2 d after azole-susceptible C. albicans infection, although the degree of the efficacy was less than that of fluconazole. Even against oral candidiasis caused by azole-resistant C. albicans, TTO and terpinen-4-ol were similarly effective, while fluconazole appeared ineffective. These results suggest that TTO and terpinen-4-ol may have the potential of therapeutic ability for mucosal candidiasis which may also be applicable to C. albicans oral candidiasis induced by the azole-resistant strain. PMID:22687476

Ninomiya, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naho; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Abe, Shigeru

2012-01-01

141

Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. Methods A total of 296 clinical oral yeasts were isolated from 292 HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Identification of the yeasts was performed using standard phenotypic methods. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed using a broth microdilution format according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI; M27-A2. Results Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species from 250 (84.5% patients followed by C. glabrata from 20 (6.8% patients, and C. krusei from 10 (3.4% patients. There was no observed significant difference in species distribution between patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis, but isolates cultured from patients previously treated were significantly less susceptible to the azole compounds compared to those cultured from antifungal naïve patients. Conclusion C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species from patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oral yeast isolates from Tanzania had high level susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous antifungal therapy significantly correlated with reduced susceptibility to azoles antifungal agents.

Rijs Antonius JMM

2008-08-01

142

Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801 ameliorates vulvovaginal candidiasis in mice by inhibiting fungal growth and NF-?B activation.  

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The anti-inflammatory effects of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against Candida albicans-induced vulvovaginal candidiasis in ?-estradiol-immunosuppressed mice were examined. Oral and intravaginal treatment with these LABs significantly decreased the level of viable C. albicans within the vaginal cavity as well as the quantitated myeloperoxidase activity in the vaginal tissues when compared with control untreated mice. Out of all of the LABs tested, Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801 (LH) most potently inhibited vulvovaginal candidiasis. LH also inhibited the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-6, and inflammatory enzymes, COX-2 and iNOS, as well as the activation of NF-?B. However, the addition of LH led to an increase in IL-10 cytokine expression in the vaginal tissues. In addition, the decrease of Lactobacillaceae and the increase of Pasteurellaceae caused by treatment with C. albicans were reversed with oral and intravaginal administration of LH, suggesting a potential shift in the vaginal microflora present. Addition of LH was toxic to C. albicans in vitro when cultured with HeLa cells. Oral administration of LH inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF-? and IL-1? expressions in ?-estradiol-immunosuppressed mice but reversed the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in comparison to levels observed in the normal control group. LH also inhibited the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-1?, and the activation of NF-?B in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Based on these findings, LH may ameliorate vulvovaginal candidiasis by suppressing the NF-?B pathway, as well as through inhibition of the growth of C. albicans. PMID:22735758

Joo, Hyun-Min; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Myoung, Kil-Sun; Ahn, Young-Tae; Lee, Jung-Hee; Huh, Chul-Sung; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

2012-09-01

143

The Investigational Agent E1210 Is Effective in Treatment of Experimental Invasive Candidiasis Caused by Resistant Candida albicans.  

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The in vitro and in vivo activity of the inositol acyltransferase inhibitor E1210 was evaluated against echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans. E1210 demonstrated potent in vitro activity, and in mice with invasive candidiasis caused by echinocandin-resistant C. albicans, oral doses of 10 and 40 mg E1210/kg of body weight twice daily significantly improved survival and reduced fungal burden compared to those of controls and mice treated with caspofungin (10 mg/kg/day). These results demonstrate the potential use of E1210 against resistant C. albicans infections. PMID:25331706

Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R; Everson, Michael P; Duncanson, Frederick P; Patterson, Thomas F

2015-01-01

144

Invasive candidiasis in intensive care unit; consensus statement from an Iranian panel of experts, July 2013  

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Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Timely diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a challenge; on the other hand, the criteria for initiating empirical antifungal therapy in critically ill patients are not well defined in different patient population and ICU settings. Alongside the international guidelines, reaching regional and local consensus on diagnosis and management of IC in ICU setting is essential. This report summarizes our present status of IC management in ICU, considered by a group of Iranian experts in the fields of intensive care and infectious diseases. A round table of 17 experts was held to review the available data and discuss the optimal treatment strategies for IC in critical care setting. Comparative published data on the management of IC were analytically reviewed and the commonly asked questions about the management of IC in ICU were isolated. These questions were interactively discussed by the panel and audience responses were taken to consolidate point-to-point agreement with the panel arriving at consensus in many instances. The responses indicated that patients’ risk stratification, clinical discretion, fungal diagnostic techniques and the empirical therapy for IC are likely to save more patients. Treatment options were recommended to be based on the disease severity, prior azole exposure, and the presence of suspected azole-resistant Candida species. This report was reviewed, edited and discussed by all participants to include further evidence-based insights. The panel expects such endorsed recommendations to be soon formulated for implementation across the country. PMID:25057376

Ahmadi, Arezoo; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Kouchek, Mehran; Majidpour, Ali; Mokhtari, Majid; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Najafi, Atabak; Nejat, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Amirsavadkouhi, Ali; Shirazian, Farzad; Tabarsi, Payam; Taher, Mahshid Talebi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad

2014-01-01

145

Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression.. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient.

Hernández Susana

2011-01-01

146

Efficacy of syringomycin E in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis.  

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Syringomycin E (SR-E), a new antifungal produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, was evaluated in a murine vaginal candidiasis model. In one study, mice were treated intravaginally b.i.d. for 4 days with drug carrier, SR-E 2% in either PEG-400 or PEG-ointment, or 1% clotrimazole as a positive control. Quantitative vaginal cultures were taken prior to treatment on day 1 and on days 5, 6, and 7. Both formulations showed a reduction of yeast colonization in the vaginas on day 5 (P< or =0.06 and P< or =0.03 for SR-E/PEG-400 and SR-E/PEG ointment, respectively) and SR-E/PEG ointment reduced the colonization on day 7 (P< or =0.06) when compared to carrier treated controls. In a second study, SR-E was formulated in Aquaphor at three higher concentrations of SR-E [3%, 6%, or 12% (w/v)]. SR-E showed dose-dependent efficacy. The 3% dose showed no effect while the 6% and 12% doses reduced the number of yeasts. The 12% dose showed a significant reduction on days 5 (P< or =0.01), 6 (P< or =0.06), and 7 (P< or =0.03) when compared with the drug carrier controls and on day 5 was more effective than clotrimazole (P< or =0.03). Clotrimazole did not significantly reduce the yeasts in the vagina until days 6 (P< or =0.01) and 7 (P< or =0.01) when compared to the drug carrier controls. No vaginal inflammatory response was evident by histological examination in uninfected animals treated with SR-E. No SR-E could be detected in plasma, kidney, or liver. SR-E (12%) was an effective treatment when compared to 1% clotrimazole. PMID:9766466

Sorensen, K N; Wanstrom, A A; Allen, S D; Takemoto, J Y

1998-08-01

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Susceptibilidad antifúngica de Candida albicans recuperadas de pacientes con SIDA y candidiasis orofaríngea y esofágica: Experiencia con Etest® / Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis: Experience with Etest®  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and esophageal candidiasis (EPC) are frequent complications in AIDS patients. The use of Fluconazole, an effective and a low toxicity drug, has been associated to the emergency of secondary resistant strains. For this reason, in vitro antifungal susceptibi [...] lity tests are necessary to predict a therapeutic failure. Etest® is an easy to perform alternative test, that has showed a good agreement with the broth microdilution reference method (NCCLS, document M27-A). Aim: To measure the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients complicated with OPC and EPC to Amphotericin B (AmB) and Fluconazole (Flu) using Etest®. Material and methods: Twenty strains from 20 AIDS patients were studied. AmB was tested in RPMI 1640 agar and Flu in Casitone agar. Results: All studied strains showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) 256 mg/mL) was isolated from a patient previously treated with Flu. Conclusions: In AIDS patients with OPC and EPC, the susceptibility to Flu of the isolates should be screened, to detect resistant strains. Etest®; is a reliable alternative in these cases, for laboratories that cannot use the reference method (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 515-19).

Cecilia, Tapia P; Patricia, González A; Angélica, Pereira A; Jorge, Pérez G; Luis M, Noriega R; Elizabeth, Palavecino R.

2003-05-01

148

Susceptibilidad antifúngica de Candida albicans recuperadas de pacientes con SIDA y candidiasis orofaríngea y esofágica: Experiencia con Etest® Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis: Experience with Etest®  

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Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC and esophageal candidiasis (EPC are frequent complications in AIDS patients. The use of Fluconazole, an effective and a low toxicity drug, has been associated to the emergency of secondary resistant strains. For this reason, in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests are necessary to predict a therapeutic failure. Etest® is an easy to perform alternative test, that has showed a good agreement with the broth microdilution reference method (NCCLS, document M27-A. Aim: To measure the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients complicated with OPC and EPC to Amphotericin B (AmB and Fluconazole (Flu using Etest®. Material and methods: Twenty strains from 20 AIDS patients were studied. AmB was tested in RPMI 1640 agar and Flu in Casitone agar. Results: All studied strains showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs 256 mg/mL was isolated from a patient previously treated with Flu. Conclusions: In AIDS patients with OPC and EPC, the susceptibility to Flu of the isolates should be screened, to detect resistant strains. Etest®; is a reliable alternative in these cases, for laboratories that cannot use the reference method (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 515-19.

Cecilia Tapia P

2003-05-01

149

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients  

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Full Text Available This study was a non-comparative multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/day (100 mg twice a day in the fasting state for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. We included 50 patients who were treated and followed for up to 3 weeks after ending therapy in the analysis. Mycological cures at the end of therapy occurred in 20/50 patients (40%, but colonization by Candida sp. was recorded in 42/50 (84% by the end of follow-up. A high rate of clinical response was observed in 46/50 (92%, and the response was sustained for up to 21 days after stopping therapy in 24/46 patients (52%. Clinical relapses were documented among 22 patients, but all causative fungal organisms associated with a relapse were susceptible to itraconazole. There were many patients with persistence or recurrence of Candida, but without mucositis. Relapse of Candida mucositis was significantly related to low levels of CD4 lymphocytes exhibited by symptomatic patients. The drug was well tolerated by all but 1 patient. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution (100 mg bid for 7-14 days is a well tolerated and effective treatment for suppressing the symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression may relapse and require frequent cycles of treatment or longterm suppressive therapy.

Queiroz-Telles Flávio

2001-01-01

150

"PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"  

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Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

SH Mirhendi

2003-07-01

151

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was a non-comparative multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/day (100 mg twice a day in the fasting state) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. We included 50 patients who were treated and follo [...] wed for up to 3 weeks after ending therapy in the analysis. Mycological cures at the end of therapy occurred in 20/50 patients (40%), but colonization by Candida sp. was recorded in 42/50 (84%) by the end of follow-up. A high rate of clinical response was observed in 46/50 (92%), and the response was sustained for up to 21 days after stopping therapy in 24/46 patients (52%). Clinical relapses were documented among 22 patients, but all causative fungal organisms associated with a relapse were susceptible to itraconazole. There were many patients with persistence or recurrence of Candida, but without mucositis. Relapse of Candida mucositis was significantly related to low levels of CD4 lymphocytes exhibited by symptomatic patients. The drug was well tolerated by all but 1 patient. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution (100 mg bid for 7-14 days) is a well tolerated and effective treatment for suppressing the symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression may relapse and require frequent cycles of treatment or longterm suppressive therapy.

Flávio, Queiroz-Telles; Nanci, Silva; Miriam M., Carvalho; Ana Paula, Alcântara; Daniel da, Matta; Maria G., Barberino; Sergio, Bartczak; Arnaldo Lopes, Colombo.

2001-04-01

152

[Effects of inhibitory activity on mycelial growth of Candida albicans and therapy for murine oral candidiasis by the combined use of terpinen-4-ol and a middle-chain fatty acid, capric acid].  

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The combined effect of terpinen-4-ol, the main component of tea tree oil, and capric acid against mycelial growth of Candida albicans and murine oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Mycelial growth of C. albicans was estimated by the Cristal violet method. Combination of these compounds revealed a potent synergistic inhibition of growth. Therapeutic efficacy of the combination was evaluated microbiologically in murine oral candidiasis, and its application of the compounds clearly demonstrated therapeutic activity. Based on these results, the combined agent of terpinen-4-ol and capric acid was discussed as a possible candidate for oral candidiasis therapy. PMID:23292030

Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae; Takahashi, Miki; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

2013-01-01

153

The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis / Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e s [...] ua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5%) apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5%) tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5%) era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5%) eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 Abstract in english CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in i [...] ts pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5%) had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5%) were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5%) were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5%) were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count

Ana Botler, Wilheim; Demócrito de Barros, Miranda-Filho; Rodrigo Albuquerque, Nogueira; Rossana Sette de Melo, Rêgo; Kedma de Magalhães, Lima; Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão, Pereira.

2009-03-01

154

The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica  

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Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in its pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5% had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5% were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5% were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5% were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e sua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5% apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5% tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5% era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5% eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 <200. Espécies de Candida não-albicans foram detectadas em 22,7% dos pacientes HIV positivos e em 45% dos pacientes não infectados. A resistência ao fluconazol foi observada em seis amostras (14,28% e a sensibilidade dose-dependente em duas (4,76%. CONCLUSÃO:A prevalência de candidíase esofágica foi baixa, embora dentro de variação esperada. Pacientes homens e que estavam internados foram os mais acometidos. Houve variação nas espécies encontradas, de acordo com as características dos grupos estudados. Tanto a resistência ao fluconazol como a sensibilidade dose-dependente foram consideradas altas.

Ana Botler Wilheim

2009-03-01

155

Candida species in cutaneous candidiasis patients in the Guilan province in Iran; identified by PCR-RFLP method.  

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Due to the epidemiological alteration in distribution of Candida species as well as significant increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired in resistance of some of these fungi, the precise identification of Candida species is necessary for effective antifungal therapy and also for prevention of nosocomial infections. PCR-RFLP method is indicated to be a reliable, rapid and simple technique which is able to differentiate the Candida species. In the present study, we applied this method to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in patients affected with cutaneous candidiasis in the Guilan province. 896 clinical cutaneous samples were collected from different parts of skin and nail of suspected patients referred to clinical centers all over the Guilan province during 24 months. Samples were examined directly with 15% KOH and cultured on fungal specific media. Genomic DNA was extracted and the restriction enzyme Msp1 was applied for polymorphism analysis. Totally, 47 yeast strains were successfully isolated from different clinical samples and identified by conventional as well as PCR-RFLP methods. The results indicated that Candida albicans (36.17%) was the most frequent species followed by C. parapsilosis (25.53%), C. tropicalis (19.14%), C. guilliermondii (14.89%), C. famata (2.12%) and C. krusei (2.12%). Female finger nails were the most common location to be affected by Candida species. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP method was successfully used for recognition of clinical Candida species within the Guilan province and obtained results revealed C. albicans as the predominant causative agent of cutaneous candidiasis. However, distribution of other Candida species did not completely consist with the reported distribution of Candida species in other parts of Iran with different climate to the Guilan province. PMID:24390951

Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Korbacheh, Parivash; Zaini, Farideh; Mirhendi, Hossein; Zeraati, Hojjat; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Moazeni, Maryam; Andonian, Laris; Nazeri, Mehdi; Rezaie, Sassan

2013-01-01

156

Clinical therapy study for the treatment of the chronically recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis with three different methods: heliotherapy, antifungal treatment with antimycotics (Ciclopirox-Olamin) and vaccination with inactive lactobacillus  

OpenAIRE

This therapy study involved 90 female patients with chronically recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. It compares the recurrence frequence of vaginal candidiasis via cultures, the patients’ quality of life (PLC) and state of health (SF 36) using three different therapies: heliotherapy, vaccination with lactobacillus, and antimycotica (Ciclopirox-Olamin). As a secondary variable the local immune response of Cytokine IL 10, 12, 13 and IL 16 and sIGA was measured in blood and vaginal secretion. ...

Birkner, Victoria

2010-01-01

157

Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study  

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Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

2007-09-01

158

BCG Lymphadenitis and Recurrent Oral Candidiasis in an Infant with a New Mutation Leading to Interleukin-12 Receptor Beta-1 Deficiency  

OpenAIRE

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare syndrome characterized by the predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Salmonellosis has been reported in almost half of affected patients. Patients are also vulnerable to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Various other infectious diseases occurred, albeit each rarely, but mucocutaneous candidiasis have been reported in more ...

Aytekin, Caner; Dogu, Figen; Tuygun, Nilden; Tanir, Gonul; Guloglu, Deniz; Boisson-dupuis, Stephanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Casanova, Jean-laurent; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

2011-01-01

159

Fístula esófago-pleural espontánea secundaria a candidiasis en paciente con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Una rara complicación de la moniliasis esofágica  

OpenAIRE

Diferentes estados nosológicos que afectan el esófago pueden ocasionar la aparición de fístulas que comuniquen a este órgano con el sistema respiratorio. Las infecciones, raramente, producen la perforación y posterior formación de una fístula hacia el árbol bronquial, el pulmón o el espacio pleural. Presentamos en esta comunicación un raro caso de fístula espontánea esófago-pleural por candidiasis esofágica en un paciente con HIV.

Nari, Gustavo Adri U. E. N.; Cynthia Guerrero Huerta; Revelez, Ra U. Fal Barrag U. E. N.; Lez, Antonio S. U. E. Nchez Gonz U. E.

2010-01-01

160

Fístula esófago-pleural espontánea secundaria a candidiasis en paciente con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Una rara complicación de la moniliasis esofágica  

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Full Text Available Diferentes estados nosológicos que afectan el esófago pueden ocasionar la aparición de fístulas que comuniquen a este órgano con el sistema respiratorio. Las infecciones, raramente, producen la perforación y posterior formación de una fístula hacia el árbol bronquial, el pulmón o el espacio pleural. Presentamos en esta comunicación un raro caso de fístula espontánea esófago-pleural por candidiasis esofágica en un paciente con HIV.

Gustavo Adri\\u00E1n Nari

2010-01-01

161

Is (1?3)-?-D-glucan the missing link from bedside assessment to pre-emptive therapy of invasive candidiasis?  

OpenAIRE

Invasive candidiasis is a frequent life-threatening complication in critically ill patients. Early diagnosis followed by prompt treatment aimed at improving outcome by minimizing unnecessary antifungal use remains a major challenge in the ICU setting. Timely patient selection thus plays a key role for clinically efficient and cost-effective management. Approaches combining clinical risk factors and Candida colonization data have improved our ability to identify such patients early. While the ...

Eggimann, Philippe; Marchetti, Oscar

2011-01-01

162

Investigation of a Cluster of Candida albicans Invasive Candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis  

OpenAIRE

Nosocomial invasive candidiasis (IC) has emerged as a major problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We investigated herein the temporal clustering of six cases of neonatal IC due to Candida albicans in an NICU. Eighteen isolates obtained from the six neonates and two isolates from two health care workers (HCWs) working at the same unit and suffering from fingers' onychomycosis were genotyped by electrophoretic karyotyping (EK) and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA by ...

Ben Abdeljelil, Jihene; Saghrouni, Fatma; Khammari, Imene; Gheith, Soukeina; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

2012-01-01

163

Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among wome [...] n of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human papillomavirus (HPV), ligase chain reaction (LCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592). The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7), chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6), trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1), gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6), syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1), and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6) and 12.5% (10.0-15.5), respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

Fabíola Araújo, Oliveira; Viola, Pfleger; Katrin, Lang; Jörg, Heukelbach; Iracema, Miralles; Francisco, Fraga; Anastácio Queiroz, Sousa; Marina, Stoffler-Meilicke; Ralf, Ignatius; Ligia Franco Sansigolo, Kerr; Hermann, Feldmeier.

2007-09-01

164

BCG Lymphadenitis and Recurrent Oral Candidiasis in an Infant with a New Mutation Leading to Interleukin-12 Receptor Beta-1 Deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare syndrome characterized by the predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Salmonellosis has been reported in almost half of affected patients. Patients are also vulnerable to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Various other infectious diseases occurred, albeit each rarely, but mucocutaneous candidiasis have been reported in more patients. Interleukin-12 receptor ?1 (IL-12R?1) deficiency is the most frequent genetic cause of MSMD. Here, we describe an infant with a single episode of BCG lymphadenitis (BCG-itis) who also suffered from recurrent oral candidiasis. Genetic analysis revealed a new homozygous mutation (64+1G>T) in the IL12RB1 gene that caused complete IL-12R?1 deficiency. IL12R?1 deficiency should be considered in patients with BCG infection, even a single episode of BCG-itis or recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis. Nevertheless, awareness should be increased in countries where BCG vaccination is performed. PMID:21905505

Aytekin, Caner; Dogu, Figen; Tuygun, Nilden; Tanir, Gonul; Guloglu, Deniz; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

2012-01-01

165

Bacille Calmette-Guérin lymphadenitis and recurrent oral candidiasis in an infant with a new mutation leading to interleukin-12 receptor beta-1 deficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare syndrome characterized by predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as those in bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and environmental mycobacteria. Salmonellosis has been reported in almost half of affected patients. Patients are also vulnerable to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Several other infectious diseases may occur, albeit rarely. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is more common. Interleukin-12 receptor beta1 (IL-12Rbeta1) deficiency is the most frequent genetic cause of MSMD. Here, we describe an infant with a single episode of BCG lymphadenitis who also suffered from recurrent oral candidiasis. Genetic analysis revealed a new homozygous mutation (64+1G>T) in the IL12RB1 gene that caused complete IL-12R1beta1 deficiency. IL-12Rbeta1 deficiency should be considered in patients with BCG infection, even in those who experience a single episode of BCG lymphadenitis or recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis. Every attempt should be made to heighten awareness in countries where BCG vaccination is performed. PMID:21905505

Aytekin, C; Dogu, F; Tuygun, N; Tanir, G; Guloglu, D; Boisson-Dupuis, S; Bustamante, J; Feinberg, J; Casanova, J L; Ikinciogullari, A

2011-01-01

166

Associations among the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, oral candidiasis, oral Candida species and salivary immunoglobulin A in HIV-infected children  

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Objectives To examine the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral candidiasis, recovery of oral Candida species (spp) and salivary levels of total secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and Candida-specific SIgA in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. Methods Sixty six HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative children were cross-sectionally examined for the presence of oral lesions. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected for the identification of Candida spp using culture and measurement of total and specific SIgA using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results HIV-positive children had a higher prevalence of oral candidiasis (p < 0.05); higher frequency of detection of Candida spp (p < 0.05) and higher levels of total (p < 0.05) and Candida-specific SIgA (p < 0.001) than did HIV-negative children. Among HIV-positive subjects, antiretroviral users had lower viral loads (p < 0.001), lower levels of Candida spp (p < 0.05) and total SIgA (p < 0.05) compared with antiretroviral non-users. Conclusions The use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with decreases in the prevalence of oral candidiasis. This diminished exposure to Candida spp was accompanied by decreases in levels of total and Candida-specific SIgA. PMID:19615660

Pomarico, Luciana; Ferraz Cerqueira, Daniella; de Araujo Soares, Rosangela Maria; Ribeiro de Souza, Ivete Pomarico; Barbosa de Araujo Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Socransky, Sigmund; Haffajee, Anne; Palmier Teles, Ricardo

2009-01-01

167

Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects  

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Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol, entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adultos infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 % como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %. Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejor??a o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes.A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34,97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92% and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%. Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

Luz Marina Prieto Santa Anna

2006-12-01

168

Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos / Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina ) y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol), entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adulto [...] s infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir) y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 %) como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %). Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejoría o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes. Abstract in english A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine) and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole) was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34, [...] 97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92%) and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%). Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

Luz Marina, Prieto Santa Anna; María Teresa, Illnait Zaragozí; Edna G., Ramos Rodallegas; Bonfilio, Lazcano Herrero; Norma, Márquez Sánchez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Julián, Manzur Katriba; Gerardo, Martínez Machín.

2006-12-01

169

In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis  

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Full Text Available A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD and caffeine (Caff. The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em água e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA, ácido fúlvico (FA, ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD, 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD e cafeína (Caff. O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC, difração de raios-X (XRD, ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal.

Mohammad Aamir Mirza

2012-12-01

170

In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em á [...] gua e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA), ácido fúlvico (FA), ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD), 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD) e cafeína (Caff). O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC), difração de raios-X (XRD), ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Abstract in english A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually [...] its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and caffeine (Caff). The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.

Mohammad Aamir, Mirza; Mohammad Akhlaquer, Rahman; Sushama, Talegaonkar; Zeenat, Iqbal.

2012-12-01

171

A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY CANDIDIASIS AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AND USE OF CHROMAGAR IN IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, fungal infections are on the rise due to various predisposing factors such as long term administration of antibiotics, use of steroids, pulmonary tuberculosis, immunosuppressive drugs and HIV infection. When host resistance is lowered, these opportunistic fungi may become fatal. Candida albicans was the most important pathogen causing pulmonary candidiasis. In recent times, there is increase in incidence of non-albicans Candida. Identification to the species level becomes mandatory in the selection of appropriate antifungal agents. Aim: To find out the prevalence of Candida co-infection among pulmonary tuberculosis patients and to identify the species of Candida using CHROMagar. Materials & Methods: A total of 107 smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included in this study. Two consecutive sputum samples were collected and subjected to gram staining. Only those samples which showed pus cells with budding yeast cells and pseudohyphae in direct gram stain were cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar (SDA with gentamycin. The Candida grown was identified and speciated based on the color produced on CHROMagar Candida. Results: Out of 21 Candida isolates, 14 were C. albicans (66.7%, 2 were C. tropicalis (9.5%, 2 were C.krusei (9.5%, 2 were C. parapsilosis (9.5% and one was C. glabrata (4.8%. Conclusion: The secondary fungal infections are associated with persistence of lung symptoms inspite of successful completion of antituberculous therapy. Hence adequate measures need to be taken for the early identification and treatment of these opportunistic infections.

S Mathavi

2014-05-01

172

Candida parapsilosis Sensu Stricto and the Closely Related Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.  

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This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (7.9 %) and C. metapsilosis (14.3 %). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8 %, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8 % (49/63) and 76.2 % (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients. PMID:25322705

Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

2014-10-17

173

An open-label study of anidulafungin for the treatment of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis in Latin America.  

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Incidence and mortality of candidaemia/invasive candidiasis (C/IC) is relatively high in Latin America versus North America and Europe. To assess efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) anidulafungin in Latin American adults with documented C/IC. All patients in this open-label study received initial IV anidulafungin with optional step-down to oral voriconazole after 5 days; total treatment duration was 14-42 days. The primary endpoint was global response (clinical + microbiological response) at end of treatment (EOT); missing/indeterminate responses were failures. The study enrolled 54 patients; 44 had confirmed C/IC within 96 h before study entry and comprised the modified intent-to-treat population. Global response at EOT was 59.1% (95% CI: 44.6, 73.6), with 13 missing/indeterminate assessments. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 43.1%. Fourteen patients (31.8%) were able to step-down to oral voriconazole; these patients had lower baseline acute physiological assessment and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores and were less likely to have solid tumours or previous abdominal surgery. Anidulafungin was generally well tolerated with few treatment-related adverse events. Anidulafungin was associated with relatively low response rates influenced by a high rate of missing/indeterminate assessments and mortality comparable to other recent candidaemia studies in Latin America. In a subset of patients with lower APACHE II scores, short-course anidulafungin followed by oral voriconazole was successful. PMID:23710653

Nucci, Marcio; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Petti, Marco; Magana, Martin; Abreu, Paula; Schlamm, Haran T; Sanchez, Sonia P

2014-01-01

174

Formulation and evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system to treat intestinal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients  

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Full Text Available The limited solubility, and therefore bioavailability, of the antimycotic drug,itraconazole, used for the treatment of intestinal Candidiasis in immunocompromisedindividuals, has been well documented. Therapeutic regimen in these patients mayinclude daily administration of multiple doses of various drugs. Hence, improving theresidence time of therapeutic agents, would ensure a high continuous concentration inthe body and help decrease the dosing frequency. In our current study, we haveinvestigated a novel method of drug delivery, developed by utilizing the concept ofmucoadhesiveness, for the sustained release of the drug, itraconazole. Mucoadhesivebeads were prepared using two natural polymers, isabghula husk and alginate. Theminimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole for Candida was found to be1.5milligram per millilitre. Accordingly, beads were prepared by ionic gelation methodusing calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. Marked improvement in solubility of thedrug was noted after entrapment. Prepared beads were subjected to various evaluationsincluding particle size, swelling behaviour and mucoadhesivity. At pH 7.4, goodmucoadhesive property was exhibited up to 7 hours. Maximum swelling of beads wasobserved at 4hours in phosphate buffer after which the beads showed slight erosion.Fresh cock intestinal mucosa was used to assess the sustained release of itraconazolefrom the drug loaded beads and the reduction in candidal cells adhering to the mucosawas verified by the viable count technique. The results of our present study indicate thatmucoadhesive intestinal retentive isabghula- alginate beads could represent a promisingvehicle for drug delivery and help improve therapeutic efficacy and patient compliancein the future.

SuparnaDugal

2011-12-01

175

Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av). The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major compo [...] nents of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g) skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40%) prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

Ali, Mikaeili; Isaac, Karimi; Tayebeh, Shamspur; Babak, Gholamine; Masoud, Modaresi; Ali, Khanlari.

1035-10-01

176

Autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I  

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Most patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-I) display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We hypothesized that this CMC might result from autoimmunity to interleukin (IL)-17 cytokines. We found high titers of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against IL-17A, IL-17F, and/or IL-22 in the sera of all 33 patients tested, as detected by multiplex particle-based flow cytometry. The auto-Abs against IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 were specific in the five patients tested, as shown by W...

Puel, Anne; Do?ffinger, Rainer; Natividad, Angels; Chrabieh, Maya; Barcenas-morales, Gabriela; Picard, Capucine; Cobat, Aure?lie; Ouache?e-chardin, Marie; Toulon, Antoine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Al-muhsen, Saleh; Al-owain, Mohammed; Arkwright, Peter D.; Costigan, Colm; Mcconnell, Vivienne

2010-01-01

177

Measurement of T-Cell-Derived Antigen Binding Molecules and Immunoglobulin G Specific to Candida albicans Mannan in Sera of Patients with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

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Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and T-cell-derived antigen binding molecules (TABM) specific to whole Candida extract and to Candida-derived mannans prepared by both the cetryltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and alkaline degradation (PEAT) methods were measured in the sera of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis and controls. In the patients there were significantly higher levels of IgG to both CTAB and PEAT mannans and of TABM to CTAB mannan. TABM specific to CTAB mannan was purified from the serum o...

Little, Colin H.; Georgiou, George M.; Marceglia, Alex; Ogedgebe, Henry; Cone, Robert E.; Mazza, Danielle

2000-01-01

178

Microbicidal activity of neutrophils is inhibited by isolates from recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) caused by Candida albicans through fungal thioredoxin reductase.  

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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is characterized by an infection of the vulva and vagina, mainly caused by Candida albicans, a commensal microorganism that inhabits the vaginal, digestive, and respiratory mucosae. Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects approximately 75% of women, and 5% develop the recurrent form (RVVC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether neutrophils microbicidal response is triggered when activated with RVVC isolates caused by C. albicans. Our results showed that RVVC isolates induced neutrophil migration but significantly decrease the microbicidal activity of neutrophils, compared with VVC and ASS isolates. The microbicidal activity of neutrophils is highly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). However, this isolate induced detoxification of ROS/RNS produced by neutrophils, reflected by the high level of thiol groups and by the oxygen consumption. Therefore, RVVC isolates induced biochemical changes in the inflammatory response triggered by neutrophils, and these effects were mainly related to the detoxification of ROS/RNS through the thioredoxin reductase (TR), a key antioxidant enzyme in fungi. This might be one of the resistance mechanisms triggered by RVVC caused by C. albicans. PMID:25497972

Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; de Souza Bonfim Mendonça, Patrícia; Bidóia, Danielle Lazarin; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Lopes Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

2015-01-01

179

Fluconazole therapy for treatment of invasive candidiasis in Intensive Care patients. Is it still valid from a pharmacological point of view?  

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Full Text Available Fluconazole – antimycotic belonging to the first generation azoles – is widely used as treatment for invasive candidiasis and candidemia in numerous clinical settings as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU, as well as oncology, onco-hematology and solid organ transplantation. More recently use of antimycotics has spread to medical divisions, where fungal infections represent an emerging problem due to population’s ageing, malnourishment and important comorbidities. Fluconazole is effective against numerous Candida species, particularly against albicans, tropicalis and parapsilosis strains. On the other hand, C. krusei is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and C. glabrata can be sensitive or resistant in a dose dependent fashion. Epidemiological variability is noteworthy and depends on the geographical location of the institution, the clinical setting, and the frequency and intensity of fluconazole employment for invasive candidiasis. In many ICUs fluconazole sensitive C. albicans is cultured in 50% of positive samples, while the remaining 50% show growth of variably sensitive fungal species, often resistant to fluconazole. Due to increasingly frequent emergence of resistant strains of Candida spp., American guidelines (IDSA in 2009, and European ones (ESCMID in 2012, recommended substitution of fluconazole with echinocandines as first line therapy in patients with severe disease, as defined by an APACHE II score greater than 15. Thus fluconazole must be limited to low risk cases, treatment of sensitive strains and de-escalation from echinocandin therapy, after microbiological diagnosis and drug resistance profile characterization.

Mario Musu

2014-01-01

180

Anidulafungin compared with fluconazole for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans: a multivariate analysis of factors associated with improved outcome  

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Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Systemic infections due to C. albicans exhibit good susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins. However, the echinocandin anidulafungin was recently demonstrated to be more effective than fluconazole for systemic Candida infections in a randomized, double-blind trial among 245 patients. In that trial, most infections were caused ...

Reisman Arlene L; Schlamm Haran T; Kett Daniel H; Pappas Peter G; Rotstein Coleman; Shorr Andrew F; Reboli Annette C; Biswas Pinaki; Walsh Thomas J

2011-01-01

181

Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil / Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil / Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR), a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasi [...] l. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30%) dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) e Candida spp. (11,1%). Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV) y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR), a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur [...] de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30%) casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) y Candida spp. (11,1%). En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycologic [...] al examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30%) cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Rangeli, Basso; Nelci, Lopes da Silva; Karina, Braccini Pereira; Adelina, Mezzari; Alexandre, Meneghello Fuentefria.

2012-09-01

182

Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil  

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Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR, a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30% casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% y Candida spp. (11,1%. En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR, a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasil. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30% dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% e Candida spp. (11,1%. Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais.The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycological examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30% cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Rangeli Basso

2012-09-01

183

Prevalencia de resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis en una Empresa Social del Estado de Medellín (Colombia), 2010-2012 / Prevalence of positive cytology results for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis in a Social State Institution in Medellín, Colombia, 2010-2012  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis vaginal, y su distribución según edad, método de planificación y sector de residencia. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal en especímenes citológicos obten [...] idos de mujeres atendidas entre los años 2010-2012 en Metrosalud, red de instituciones de la que hacen parte cincuenta centros de salud y unidades hospitalarias de primer nivel en Medellín (Colombia). Se incluyó toda la población de mujeres del régimen subsidiado atendida en la institución, se excluyeron las citologías con muestras insatisfactorias por ausencia de células, exceso de eritrocitos o leucocitos, y extendido defectuoso. Se usó fuente de información secundaria. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en SPSS 21®, con medidas de resumen y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se incluyeron 206.035 registros. La prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana fue 18 %, candidiasis 4,7 % y tricomoniasis 0,8 %. Los subgrupos con mayor prevalencia de infecciones fueron los adolescentes, con 22,8 % de vaginosis bacteriana, 9,2 % de candidiasis y 1,0 % para tricomoniasis; y quienes usan el dispositivo intrauterino (DIU) con 25,6, 5,1 y 1,2 % respectivamente. Conclusión: se halló una elevada prevalencia de las infecciones estudiadas, principalmente en adolescentes y usuarias del DIU; esta información resulta útil para los tomadores de decisiones en salud y para evaluar la pertinencia de estructurar programas de tamización de infecciones del tracto genital aunados a la tamización del cáncer cérvico-uterino. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the prevalence of positive cytology results for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and vaginal trichomoniasis, and distribution by age, birth control method and place of residence. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study of cytology samples from women seen between 2010 and [...] 2012 at Metrosalud, a network of institutions comprising 50 healthcare centres and level I hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. All the female population under the subsidized insurance regime was included, and inadequate samples due to absence of cells, excess red or white blood cells, and defective smear were excluded. A secondary source of information was used. Data were stored and analysed using the SPSS 21®, with summary measurements and absolute and relative frequencies. Results: Overall, 206,035 records were included. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 18 %, and the prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis was 4.7 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The subgroups with the highest prevalence of infections were adolescents with 22.8 % bacterial vaginosis, 9.2 % candidiasis and 1.0 % trichomoniasis. Among women using the intrauterine device (IUD), the prevalence was 25.6 %, 5.1 % and 1.2 %, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the infections studied was found, mainly among adolescents and IUD users. This information is useful for healthcare decision-making and for evaluating the relevance of structuring screening programs for genitourinary tract infections together with screening for cervical and uterine cancer.

Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias; Daniela, Herrera-Posada; Marleny, Valencia-Arredondo.

2014-09-01

184

First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis). The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH) was 61% and 70% with G [...] ram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%), C. tropicalis (23%), C. glabrata (14%) and C. krusei (4%). This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

Martha Darce, Bello; Alcides, Gonzalez; Christian, Barnabé; Georges, Larrouy.

2002-10-01

185

STAT1 Hyperphosphorylation and Defective IL12R/IL23R Signaling Underlie Defective Immunity in Autosomal Dominant Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis  

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We recently reported the genetic cause of autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (AD-CMC) as a mutation in the STAT1 gene. In the present study we show that STAT1 Arg274Trp mutations in the coiled-coil (CC) domain is the genetic cause of AD-CMC in three families of patients. Cloning and transfection experiments demonstrate that mutated STAT1 inhibits IL12R/IL-23R signaling, with hyperphosphorylation of STAT1 as the likely underlying molecular mechanism. Inhibition of signaling through the receptors for IL-12 and IL-23 leads to strongly diminished Th1/Th17 responses and hence to increased susceptibility to fungal infections. The challenge for the future is to translate this knowledge into novel strategies for the treatment of this severe immunodeficiency. PMID:22195034

Heinhuis, Bas; Hoischen, Alexander; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Arkwright, Peter D.; Gennery, Andrew; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Veltman, Joris A.; Lilic, Desa; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Netea, Mihai G.

2011-01-01

186

Miconazole in systemic candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

Based on our experience with our first patients, miconazole is now the drug of choice in cases of systemic and pulmonary candidal infection. Initially we prefer the parenteral route of administration which is continued for only one or two weeks after a negative finding in culture. The dosage is 1.2 g per day for a 70 kg patient. Thereafter the treatment is continued orally for another four weeks. Miconazole is well documented as a drug without serious side-effects, but the incidence of candid...

Sutton, A.

1983-01-01

187

Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  

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... the-counter antifungal cream (such as clotrimazole or miconazole twice daily for 10–14 days) with hydrocortisone ... over-the-counter vaginal suppository or cream antifungals (miconazole or clotrimazole). The woman's partner does not normally ...

188

Novel oral amphotericin B formulation (iCo-010) remains highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis following exposure to tropical temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal activity of amphotericin B (AmB) in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis following administration of a novel oral AmB formulation (iCo-010) that has been pre-exposed to tropical temperatures. Methods: Amphotericin B (AmB) was prepared as a 5?mg/mL dispersion in a mixture of Peceol, Gelucire 44/14 and VitE-TPGS 2,3 (iCo-010). The formulation was protected from light and incubated in a sealed container at 43?°C for 60 days. Mice infected with Candida albicans were treated with either iCo-010 formulation pre-incubated at 43?°C for 60 days or freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation at doses of 5, 10 and 20?mg/kg once daily for five consecutive days. Single intravenous 5?mg/kg dose of AmBisome® was used as a positive control group. Seven days following the last dose, the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, heart and brain were removed and the number of colony forming units (CFUs) was determined as a measure of tissue fungal load. In addition, the concentration of AmB within each tissue was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: There were no significant differences in the reduction of CFUs and the concentration of AmB recovered in all organs at all iCo-010 doses tested between the freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation compared to the formulation that was incubated at 43?°C for 60 days. Conclusions: A novel oral AmB formulation, iCo-010, incubated at 43?°C for 60 days to simulate the exposure of the formulation to tropical temperatures remained highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis. PMID:25170660

Wasan, Kishor M; Sivak, Olena; Bartlett, Karen; Wasan, Ellen K; Gershkovich, Pavel

2014-08-29

189

Antifungal effects of the nonlinear pharmacokinetics of cilofungin, a 1,3-beta-glucan synthetase inhibitor, during continuous and intermittent intravenous infusions in treatment of experimental disseminated candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

Cilofungin (LY-121019) is a fungicidal cell wall-active 1,3-beta-glucan synthetase inhibitor with a short plasma half-life and saturable nonlinear plasma pharmacokinetics. To optimize the in vivo efficacy of this compound, we studied the effects of its linear and nonlinear pharmacokinetics during continuous versus intermittent intravenous infusion of cilofungin in the treatment of experimental disseminated candidiasis in persistently granulocytopenic rabbits. Six groups of rabbits were studie...

Walsh, T. J.; Lee, J. W.; Kelly, P.; Bacher, J.; Lecciones, J.; Thomas, V.; Lyman, C.; Coleman, D.; Gordee, R.; Pizzo, P. A.

1991-01-01

190

Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.  

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The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed. PMID:23649340

Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

2013-01-01

191

Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin is not more expensive than using other established therapies. Micafungin has proven to be cost-effective in prophylaxis if the local fungal epidemiology indicates a high level of resistance to fluconazole. Switch strategies involving early initiation of broadly active therapy with switch to cheaper alternatives according to microbiology results and clinical status and early initiation of an appropriate therapy have been proven to be cost-efficient independent of the antifungal agent.

Wilke MH

2011-04-01

192

Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato) sobre candidose oral / Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) gel on oral candidiasis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas [...] tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel), composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel) utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis. Abstract in english In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant [...] of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel), with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel) used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

Leonardo Costa de Almeida, Paiva; Rodrigo Alves, Ribeiro; Jozinete Vieira, Pereira; Neuza Maria Cavalcante, Oliveira.

2009-06-01

193

Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

2009-06-01

194

Etiologia dos casos de candidíase cutânea atendidos no serviço de micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil / Etiology of cutaneous candidiasis cases seen at the mycology service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil / Etiología de casos de candidiasis cutánea atendidos en el servicio de micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho foram estudadas 64 amostras oriundas de 56 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidíase cutânea, coletadas de novembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009, no serviço de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano e Veterinário do Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico da Universid [...] ade Federal Fluminense. Foram isoladas espécies de Candida em 58 amostras de 51 pacientes, trinta e oito mulheres e treze homens, com a seguinte distribuição: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica e 3 C . tropicalis. As onicomicoses representaram mais de 75% das manifestações clínicas. Nos casos em que não foi Candida isolada como o agente etiológico, foram identificados dois Cryptococcus laurentii, um Trichosporon mucoides e um Trichosporon asahii. Este trabalho é uma contribuição para o entendimento da etiologia de candidíase cutânea no serviço de Micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudiaron 64 muestras procedentes de 56 pacientes con sospecha clínica de candidiasis cutánea, recolectadas entre noviembre de 2008 a agosto de 2009 en el servicio de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano y Veterinario del Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto Biomédic [...] o de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Se aislaron especies del género Candida en 58 muestras de 51 pacientes, treinta y ocho mujeres y trece hombres, con la siguiente distribución: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica y 3 C . tropicalis. Las onicomicosis representaron más del 75% de las manifestaciones clínicas. En los casos donde no se aisló Candida como agente etiológico se identificaron dos Cryptococcus laurentii, un Trichosporon mucoides y un Trichosporon asahii. Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de la etiología de la candidiasis cutánea en el Servicio de Micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Abstract in english This work corresponds to the study of 64 samples from 56 patients with clinical suspicion of cutaneous candidiasis, collected between November 2008 and August 2009 at the Human and Veterinarian Diagnostic Service of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the Instituto Biomédico of the Un [...] iversidad Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Candida genus species were isolated in 58 samples from 51 patients (38 women and 13 men), with the following distribution: C. parapsilosis 15, C. famata 11, C. albicans 9, C. haemulonii 7, C. guilliermondii 4, C. ciferrii 5, C. lipolytica 4, and C. tropicalis 3. Onicomycoses represented over 75% of the clinical manifestations. In cases where Candida was not isolated as etiologic agent, two Cryptococcus laurentii, one Trichosporum mucoides, and one Trichosporum asahii were identified. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the etiology of cutaneous candidiasis at the Mycology Service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense.

Leonardo, Silva Barbedo; Simone Cristina, Pereira Brito; Fabíola Cristina, de Oliveira Kegele; Jânio, Alves Cordeiro; Jeferson, Carvalhaes de Oliveira; Diana Bridon, da Graça Sgarbi.

2013-06-01

195

Autoantibodies against IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I.  

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Most patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-I) display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We hypothesized that this CMC might result from autoimmunity to interleukin (IL)-17 cytokines. We found high titers of autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against IL-17A, IL-17F, and/or IL-22 in the sera of all 33 patients tested, as detected by multiplex particle-based flow cytometry. The auto-Abs against IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 were specific in the five patients tested, as shown by Western blotting. The auto-Abs against IL-17A were neutralizing in the only patient tested, as shown by bioassays of IL-17A activity. None of the 37 healthy controls and none of the 103 patients with other autoimmune disorders tested had such auto-Abs. None of the patients with APS-I had auto-Abs against cytokines previously shown to cause other well-defined clinical syndromes in other patients (IL-6, interferon [IFN]-gamma, or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) or against other cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, IL-21, IL-23, IL-26, IFN-beta, tumor necrosis factor [alpha], or transforming growth factor beta). These findings suggest that auto-Abs against IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22 may cause CMC in patients with APS-I. PMID:20123958

Puel, Anne; Döffinger, Rainer; Natividad, Angels; Chrabieh, Maya; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Picard, Capucine; Cobat, Aurélie; Ouachée-Chardin, Marie; Toulon, Antoine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Arkwright, Peter D; Costigan, Colm; McConnell, Vivienne; Cant, Andrew J; Abinun, Mario; Polak, Michel; Bougnères, Pierre-François; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Marodi, László; Nahum, Amit; Roifman, Chaim; Blanche, Stéphane; Fischer, Alain; Bodemer, Christine; Abel, Laurent; Lilic, Desa; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

2010-02-15

196

Characteristics of Invasive Candidiasis in Gamma Interferon- and Interleukin-4-Deficient Mice: Role of Macrophages in Host Defense against Candida albicans  

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Murine models of invasive candidiasis were used to study the in vivo importance of gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in host defense against Candida albicans and to characterize the tissue inflammatory reactions, with special reference to macrophages (M?). Knockout (KO) IFN-?-deficient (GKO) and IL-4-deficient (IL-4 KO) and C57BL/6 parental mouse strains were challenged intraperitoneally with 108 C. albicans blastoconidia. Survival of GKO mice was significantly lower (16.7%) than that of C57BL/6 control (55.5%) and IL-4 KO (61.1%) animals, but was not correlated with the extent of organ colonization. Immunohistological analysis with a panel of myeloid and lymphoid markers revealed multiple renal abscesses, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, and pneumonia in each strain, with a dominant presence of M?. In the absence of IFN-?, C. albicans induced striking changes in the phenotype of alveolar M? and extensive perivascular lymphoid infiltrates in the lung. Impairment in nitric oxide production by peritoneal M? was shown only in GKO mice, and they produced Candida-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses in lower titers. Our in vivo studies with KO mice elucidate a critical role for IFN-?, but not IL-4, in host defense against C. albicans. PMID:9529101

Káposzta, Rita; Tree, Peter; Maródi, László; Gordon, Siamon

1998-01-01

197

A comparative trial of clotrimazole troches and oral nystatin suspension in recipients of renal transplants. Use in prophylaxis of oropharyngeal candidiasis.  

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An open study designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of clotrimazole troches with nystatin oral suspension in the prevention of oropharyngeal candidiasis was conducted. This study was performed as the troche form of clotrimazole was easier to administer and less costly than nystatin oral suspension. Sixty assessable patients were randomized to receive either clotrimazole troches (n = 32) or nystatin oral suspension (n = 28) for a 60-day period after receiving a renal allograft. The two groups were comparable in age, sex, type of transplant, and amount of immunosuppression. Both regimens were 100% effective in preventing the development of thrush in the patients studied. Adverse effects were infrequently seen in either group (one case of mild nausea in the clotrimazole group and three cases in the nystatin group). One patient chose to withdraw from the clotrimazole group, and eight patients withdrew from the nystatin group before completing 60 days of therapy (P = .002). Reasons given for withdrawal were the unpleasant taste of the drugs, or an inability to comply with the protocol. The cost of clotrimazole troches in the prophylactic doses given in this study was approximately one tenth that of nystatin oral suspension. Clotrimazole troches are effective, less expensive, and easier to self-administer than nystatin oral suspension. PMID:3312658

Gombert, M E; duBouchet, L; Aulicino, T M; Butt, K M

1987-11-13

198

Interference of confounding factors on the use of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the intensive care unit.  

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Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an increasing problem in intensive care units (ICUs), and conventional diagnostic methods are not always reliable or timely enough to deliver appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The dosage of fungal antigens in serum is a promising diagnostic technique, but several confounding factors, such as treatment with immunoglobulins (Ig), albumin, or antifungals, could interfere with the correct interpretation of the (1,3)-beta-D-glucan (BG) assay. This study assessed the reliability of the BG assay and the influence of timing and dosage of major confounding factors on circulating levels of IFI biomarkers. 267 ICU patients who underwent a BG assay were retrospectively studied. The timing and dosage of albumin, use of azole treatment, and infusions of intravenous IgG, red blood cells, concentrated platelets, and frozen plasma were analyzed to find possible correlations with the BG results. The sensitivity and specificity of the BG assay were calculated. The BG test in serum showed high sensitivity (82.9 %) but low specificity (56.7 %). The optimal cut-off for the test was 95.9 pg/mL. The mean BG level in proven invasive candidiasis was around 400 pg/mL. The only factor that was found to significantly confound (p?testing. The BG assay remains a useful diagnostic test in ICU patients and the levels of BG are useful in evaluating the positive predictive value of this biomarker. The only confounding factor in our study was the use of albumin. PMID:25217227

Lo Cascio, G; Koncan, R; Stringari, G; Russo, A; Azzini, A; Ugolini, A; Ligozzi, M; Polati, E; Cornaglia, G; Concia, E; Schweiger, V

2015-02-01

199

Investigation of a Cluster of Candida albicans Invasive Candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis  

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Nosocomial invasive candidiasis (IC) has emerged as a major problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We investigated herein the temporal clustering of six cases of neonatal IC due to Candida albicans in an NICU. Eighteen isolates obtained from the six neonates and two isolates from two health care workers (HCWs) working at the same unit and suffering from fingers' onychomycosis were genotyped by electrophoretic karyotyping (EK) and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA by using Sfi I (PFGE-Sfi I). PFGE-Sfi I was more effective in discriminating between temporally related isolates. It showed that (i) both HCWs had specific strains excluding them as a source of infections in neonates. (ii) Isolates collected from three neonates were identical providing evidence of their clonal origin and the occurrence of a horizontal transmission of C. albicans in the unit. (iii) The three remaining neonates had specific strains confirming that the IC cases were coincidental. (iv) Microevolution occurred in one catheter-related candidemia case. Our results illustrate the relevance of the molecular approach to investigate suspected outbreaks in hospital surveys and the effectiveness of PFGE-Sfi I for typing of epidemiologically related C. albicans isolates. PMID:22547975

Ben Abdeljelil, Jihene; Saghrouni, Fatma; Khammari, Imene; Gheith, Soukeina; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

2012-01-01

200

A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of three dosing regimens of isavuconazole compared with fluconazole in patients with uncomplicated esophageal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Esophageal candidiasis is a frequent cause of morbidity in immunocompromised patients. Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum antifungal developed for the treatment of opportunistic fungal infections. This phase 2 trial compared the efficacy and safety of three oral dosing regimens of isavuconazole with an oral fluconazole regimen in the primary treatment of uncomplicated esophageal candidiasis. The isavuconazole regimens were as follows: 200 mg on day 1 and then 50 mg once daily (arm A), 400 mg on day 1 and then 400 mg once-weekly (arm B), and 400 mg on day 1 and then 100 mg once daily (arm C). Patients in arm D received fluconazole at 200 mg on day 1 and then 100 mg once daily. The minimum treatment duration was 14 days. The primary endpoint was the rate of endoscopically confirmed clinical response at end of therapy. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Efficacy was evaluated in 153 of 160 enrolled patients. Overall, 146 (95.4%) achieved endoscopically confirmed clinical success. Each of the isavuconazole regimens was shown to be not inferior to fluconazole, i.e., arm A versus D, -0.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -10.0 to 9.4), arm B versus D, 3.5% (95% CI, -5.6 to 12.7), and arm C versus D, -0.2% (95% CI, -9.8 to 9.4). The frequency of adverse events was similar in arm A (n = 22; 55%), arm B (n = 18; 45%), and arm D (n = 22; 58%), but higher in arm C (n = 29; 71%). In summary, efficacy and safety of once-daily and once-weekly isavuconazole were comparable with once-daily fluconazole in the primary treatment of uncomplicated esophageal candidiasis. PMID:25561337

Viljoen, J; Azie, N; Schmitt-Hoffmann, A-H; Ghannoum, M

2015-03-01

201

NK cells mediate increase of phagocytic activity but not of proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-12) production elicited in splenic macrophages by tilorone treatment of mice during acute systemic candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The participation of NK cells in the activation of splenic macrophages or in resistance to systemic candidiasis is still a matter of debate. We had previously reported that there is a correlation between natural killer cell activation and resistance to systemic candidiasis. In those experiments we had used tilorone to boost NK cell activity in mice. Here we show a mechanism elicited by tilorone in splenic macrophages which could explain their effect on mouse survival during acute disseminated Candida albicans infection. The results demonstrate that tilorone treatment elicits, by a direct effect, the production of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], and IL-12) by splenic macrophages. In addition, it increases the capacity of splenic macrophages to phagocytize C. albicans through activation of NK cells. We also demonstrate that the presence of NK cells is essential for maintaining a basal level of phagocytic activity, which characterizes splenic macrophages of naïve control mice. The results demonstrate that it is possible to identify two phenotypically and functionally peculiar cell populations among splenic macrophages: (i). cells of the "stimulator/secretor phenotype," which show high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II surface expression, are poorly phagocytic, and synthesize the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-12, and (ii). cells of the "phagocytic phenotype," which express low levels of MHC class II molecules, are highly phagocytic, and do not secrete proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:12414762

Gaforio, José Juan; Ortega, Elena; Algarra, Ignacio; Serrano, María José; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, Gerardo

2002-11-01

202

Anidulafungin compared with fluconazole for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans: a multivariate analysis of factors associated with improved outcome  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Systemic infections due to C. albicans exhibit good susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins. However, the echinocandin anidulafungin was recently demonstrated to be more effective than fluconazole for systemic Candida infections in a randomized, double-blind trial among 245 patients. In that trial, most infections were caused by C. albicans, and all respective isolates were susceptible to randomized study drug. We sought to better understand the factors associated with the enhanced efficacy of anidulafungin and hypothesized that intrinsic properties of the antifungal agents contributed to the treatment differences. Methods Global responses at end of intravenous study treatment in patients with C. albicans infection were compared post-hoc. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to predict response and to adjust for differences in independent baseline characteristics. Analyses focused on time to negative blood cultures, persistent infection at end of intravenous study treatment, and 6-week survival. Results In total, 135 patients with C. albicans infections were identified. Among these, baseline APACHE II scores were similar between treatment arms. In these patients, global response was significantly better for anidulafungin than fluconazole (81.1% vs 62.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, 3.7-33.9. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the odds ratio for global response was 2.36 (95% CI, 1.06-5.25. Study treatment and APACHE II score were significant predictors of outcome. The most predictive logistic regression model found that the odds ratio for study treatment was 2.60 (95% CI, 1.14-5.91 in favor of anidulafungin, and the odds ratio for APACHE II score was 0.935 (95% CI, 0.885-0.987, with poorer responses associated with higher baseline APACHE II scores. Anidulafungin was associated with significantly faster clearance of blood cultures (log-rank p p Conclusions In patients with C. albicans infection, anidulafungin was more effective than fluconazole, with more rapid clearance of positive blood cultures. This suggests that the fungicidal activity of echinocandins may have important clinical implications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00058682

Reisman Arlene L

2011-09-01

203

Comparison of two cleansing pastes for the removal of biofilm from dentures and palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram comparadas duas pastas, específica para prótese total e convencional para dentes naturais, quanto à habilidade de remoção de biofilme e cura de lesões do palato em pacientes com Candidíase Atrófica Crônica. Avaliou-se também o grau de correlação entre biofilme e grau de eritema. Vinte e quatro [...] pacientes (45-80 anos) foram distribuídos em: a) pasta específica (produto experimental); b) pasta convencional (pasta dental Sorriso). Para ambos os grupos foram fornecidas escovas dentais de cerdas macias. Assuperfícies internas (próteses superiores) foram evidenciadas (fluoresceína 1%) e fotografadas (45º) em 4 visitas (0, 15, 30 e 60 dias). Os slides foram escaneados e as áreas (total e biofilme) foram medidas (software Image Tool). Sobre slides avaliou-se o grau de eritema empregando-se o Índice Tecidual de Prótese. Houve redução significativa (1%) dos níveis de biofilme (análise de variância) entre as primeiras (0 e 15 dias) e últimas visitas (45 e 60 dias) e dos escores de eritema (Kruskal-Wallis) da primeira para quarta vistita para ambas pastas. O teste de Mann-Whitney mostrou diferença estatística entre as pastas para os níveis de biofilme e igualdade estatística para os escores de eritema. Os valores de correlação entre níveis de biofilme e grau de eritema foram de 0,3801 (pasta específica) e 0,3678 (pasta convencional). A pasta específica mostrou-se efetiva, mostrando que é possível a manutenção da higiene de próteses totais com o uso regular de higienizador em forma de pasta. Abstract in english The efficacy of 2 oral hygiene products, an experimental toothpaste specific for complete denture cleansing and a regular standard toothpaste, was compared in terms of denture biofilm removal and cure of palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis. The degree of correlation between [...] presence of biofilm and mucosa erythema was also evaluated. Twenty-four complete denture wearers (45-80 years old) were divided into 2 groups: experimental paste and standard toothpaste (Sorriso-Kolynos, Brazil). Both groups received soft toothbrushes. The internal surfaces of upper dentures were stained using 1% sodium fluorescein and photographed at a 45º angle at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The slides were scanned and the areas of interest (denture total area and biofilm area) were measured (Image Tool software). The degree of erythema was evaluated on slides according to the Prosthesis Tissue Index. There was a significant reduction (1%) in the degree of biofilm (ANOVA/Tukey) between the two initial visits (0 and 15 days) and the two final visits (30 and 60 days), and in the average erythema scores (Kruskal-Wallis) between 0 and 60 days, in both groups. The Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference (1%) between pastes in terms of biofilm degree, but no difference was found for the erythema score. Correlation values between biofilm and erythema degree were 0.3801 (experimental paste) and (0.3678 (standard toothpaste). We may therefore conclude that the experimental product was efficient for the removal of denture plaque biofilm.

Marcela Cristina Damião, Andrucioli; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Heitor, Panzeri; Elza Helena Guimarães, Lara; Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos.

2004-12-01

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Pharmacodynamic Target Evaluation of a Novel Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor, SCY-078 (MK-3118), Using an In Vivo Murine Invasive Candidiasis Model.  

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Echinocandins inhibit the synthesis of ?-1,3-d-glucan in Candida and are the first-line therapy in numerous clinical settings. Their use is limited by poor oral bioavailability, and they are available only as intravenous therapies. Derivatives of enfumafungin are novel orally bioavailable glucan synthase inhibitors. We performed an in vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) evaluation with a novel enfumafungin derivative, SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118), in a well-established neutropenic murine model of invasive candidiasis against C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. The SCY-078 MICs varied 8-fold. Oral doses of 3.125 to 200 mg/kg SCY-078 salt in sterile water produced peak levels of 0.04 to 2.66 ?g/ml, elimination half-lives of 5.8 to 8.5 h, areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24 h) of 0.61 to 41.10 ?g · h/ml, and AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC0-?) values of 0.68 to 40.31 ?g · h/ml. The pharmacokinetics (PK) were approximately linear over the dose range studied. Maximum response (Emax) and PK/PD target identification studies were performed with 4 C. albicans, 4 C. glabrata, and 3 C. parapsilosis isolates. The PD index AUC/MIC was explored by using total (tAUC) and free (fAUC) drug concentrations. The maximum responses were 4.0, 4.0, and 4.3 log10 CFU/kidney reductions for C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis, respectively. The AUC/MIC was a robust predictor of efficacy (R(2), 0.53 to 0.91). The 24-h PD targets were a static dose of 63.5 mg/kg, a tAUC/MIC of 500, and an fAUC/MIC of 1.0 for C. albicans; a static dose of 58.4 mg/kg, a tAUC/MIC of 315, and an fAUC/MIC of 0.63 for C. glabrata; and a static dose of 84.4 mg/kg, a tAUC/MIC of 198, and an fAUC/MIC of 0.40 for C. parapsilosis. The mean fAUC/MIC values associated with a 1-log kill endpoint against these species were 1.42, 1.26, and 0.91 for C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis, respectively. The static and 1-log kill endpoints were measured relative to the burden at the start of therapy. The static and 1-log kill doses, as well as the total and free drug AUC/MIC PD targets, were not statistically different between species but were numerically lower than those observed for echinocandins. SCY-078 is a promising novel oral glucan synthase inhibitor against Candida species, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:25512406

Lepak, Alexander J; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

2015-02-01

205

Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women / Prevalência de Candida albicans e não albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal: avaliação comparativa entre colonização, candidíase vaginal e candidíase vaginal recorrente em mulheres diabéticas e não diabéticas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) é causada pelo crescimento anormal de fungos do tipo leveduras na mucosa do trato genital feminino. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) são mais susceptíveis a infecções fúngicas, incluindo por espécies de Candida. O presente estudo investigou a f [...] requência de isolamento total de Candida spp. vaginal, e diferentes quadros clínicos (CVV e CVV recorrente- CVVR) em mulheres com DM tipo 2 comparadas às não diabéticas. A razão de cura do tratamento com fluconazol também foi avaliada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado no sistema público de saúde de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 717 mulheres de 17-74 anos de idade e, destas, 48 (6,7%) tinham DM 2 (média de 53,7 anos), independentemente de sinais e sintomas de CVV. As leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por métodos fenotípicos clássicos. RESULTADOS: No grupo de não diabéticas (controle), leveduras vaginais totais foram isoladas em 79 (11,8%) mulheres, e no grupo de diabéticas, em 9 (18,8%) (P = 0,000). O grupo de diabéticas mostrou mais mulheres sintomáticas (CVV + CVVR = 66,66%) do que colonizadas (33.33%), e significativamente mais colonização, CVV e CVVR, que as controle. A razão média de cura com fluconazol foi de 75.0% no grupo diabéticas e 86.7% no controle (P = 0.51). CONCLUSÃO: Nós encontramos que DM 2 em mulheres brasileiras associou-se com colonização vaginal por leveduras, CVV e CVVR, razão similar de isolamento de C. albicans e espécies não albicans. Boa taxa de cura foi obtida com fluconazol em ambos os grupos. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated th [...] e frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

Luciene Setsuko Akimoto, Gunther; Helen Priscila Rodrigues, Martins; Fabrícia, Gimenes; André Luelsdorf Pimenta de, Abreu; Marcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski.

206

Detection of fungal DNA in peritoneal fluids by a PCR DNA low-density microarray system and quantitation of serum (1-3)-?-D-glucan in the diagnosis of peritoneal candidiasis.  

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Microbiological documentation of peritoneal candidiasis (PC) is hampered by the low numbers of yeasts observable by direct microscopic examination and recoverable by culture methods. The performance of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA Low-Density Microarray System (CLART STIs B) was compared to that of BACTEC FX automated culture method for the detection of Candida spp. in 161 peritoneal fluids (PF) from patients with peritonitis. The clinical utility of (1-3)-?-d-glucan (BDG) antigenemia in the diagnosis of PC was evaluated in 42 of these patients. The overall agreement between the PCR assay and the culture method was good (? = 0.790), and their sensitivities were 93.5% and 74.19%, respectively. Serum BDG levels in patients with Candida spp. in PFs (median, 200.3 pg/mL; Range, 22.0-523.4 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P = 0.002) than those found in patients without the yeast (median, 25.3 pg/mL; Range, 0-523.4 pg/mL). Our study demonstrates the potential clinical utility of molecular methods and the measurement of serum BDG levels for the diagnosis of PC. PMID:25541561

Corrales, Isabel; Giménez, Estela; Aguilar, Gerardo; Delgado, Carlos; Puig, Jaime; Izquierdo, Ana; Belda, Javier; Navarro, David

2015-02-01

207

A prospective two-year assessment of miconazole resistance in Candida spp. With repeated treatment with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment in neonates and infants with moderate to severe diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis.  

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A petrolatum and zinc oxide-based ointment containing 0.25% miconazole nitrate is reported to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis (DDCC). This prospective, multicenter, open-label, long-term, phase IV study investigated the potential resistance of Candida spp. to repeated topical use of 0.25% miconazole nitrate in infants age 15 months and younger with moderate to severe DDCC. For initial and recurring episodes of DDCC over the 2-year study period, subjects were treated with a 7-day course of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment (active components: miconazole nitrate 0.25%, zinc oxide 15%, and white petrolatum 81.35%) with a 7-day follow-up. Clinical and mycologic evaluations were conducted before treatment (day 0) and 7 days after treatment (day 14). Potential resistance to miconazole was defined using an arbitrary breakpoint of minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 ?g/mL. There was no evidence of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. after single or repeated treatment courses of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment. For the initial episode of DDCC, 83 of 168 subjects (49.4%) achieved a clinical cure, 77 (45.8%) achieved a mycologic cure, and 49 (29.2%) achieved an overall cure (clinical and mycologic). The overall cure rate for recurrent episodes of DDCC was similar to or numerically greater than rates observed for the initial episode. Treatment of DDCC with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment was effective and generally well tolerated. No evidence of the development of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. was observed. PMID:23675632

Blanco, Daisy; van Rossem, Koen

2013-01-01

208

Evaluation of risk factors in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the value of chromID Candida agar versus CHROMagar Candida for recovery and presumptive identification of vaginal yeast species.  

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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), particularly the recurrent form, remains an intractable problem for clinicians, microbiologists, and patients. It is essential to confirm the clinical diagnosis by mycological methods and avoid empirical therapy. The recovery of yeast in fungal culture, such as on Sabouraud dextrose agar, remains the gold standard for diagnosis. In this investigation, we examined 474 participants, including 122 (25.7%) with acute VVC cases, 249 (52.5%) who had recurrent VVC (RVVC) cases, and 103 (21.7%) healthy controls. We also administered a questionnaire to obtain information on patient lifestyle and medical, gynecological, and sexual history. In addition, we compared the performance of chromID Candida agar (CAN2) to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin and chloramphenicol (SGC2). The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including the germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX system. We detected yeasts in 60 of 122 (49.2%) patients with acute VVC cases, 110 of 249 (44.2%) with RVVC cases, and in 35 of 103 (34%) healthy controls (P = 0.07). A total of 205 samples were found to be positive for fungi (43.2%), of which 176 (85.9%) were monofungal, and 29 (14.1%) were polyfungal. In addition, 198 of these samples (96.6%) were positive on CAN2, 195 (95.1%) on CAC, 189 (92.2%) on SGC2, and 183 (89.3%) samples on all three (P = 0.17). The 234 yeast isolates recovered were C. albicans (n = 118), C. glabrata (n = 82), C. kefyr (n = 11), C. krusei (n = 9), C. lipolytica (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), C. parapsilosis (n = 2), C. pelliculosa (n = 2), C. tropicalis (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 3). Of the 29 polyfungal populations, 28 (96.6%) were detected in CAN2, 25 in (86.2%) CAC, and 25 (86.2%) on both (P = 0.35). Notably, we detected the high predominance of C. albicans+C. glabrata (86.2%) in polyfungal populations. Briefly, the detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on CAN2 (64.4%) than on CAC (25.4%). This study showed that CAN2 is a rapid and reliable medium for immediate identification of C. albicans and for detecting polyfungal populations in vaginal specimens. We observed that the use of antibiotics, intrauterine devices, as well as, perineal laceration, short anovaginal distance (< 3 cm), and genital epilation in common areas are predisposing factors for RVVC (P < 0.001). In addition, we detected that the use of menstrual pad, using an (IUD), and having a history of childbirth increased the risk of both acute and recurrent VVC (P < 0.01), whereas the use of a daily pad and walking daily significantly decreased the risk of both acute and recurrent VVC (P < 0.01). PMID:20608776

Guzel, Ahmet Bari?; Ilkit, Macit; Akar, Tuba; Burgut, Refik; Demir, S Cansun

2011-01-01

209

Treatment and Outcomes of Genital / Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

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... Keratitis Histoplasmosis Mucormycosis Pneumocystis pneumonia Sporotrichosis Other Pathogenic Fungi File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Print Updates ...

210

Diagnosis and Testing of Oral Candidiasis  

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... Keratitis Histoplasmosis Mucormycosis Pneumocystis pneumonia Sporotrichosis Other Pathogenic Fungi File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Print Updates ...

211

Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis  

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... Keratitis Histoplasmosis Mucormycosis Pneumocystis pneumonia Sporotrichosis Other Pathogenic Fungi File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Print Updates ...

212

Neonatal candidiasis: Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.  

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Infection with Candida species is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in infants. The incidence of Candida infection varies widely across centers, likely due to differences in practice related to modifiable risk factors such as exposure to empiric antibiotics and length of parenteral nutrition. Early diagnosis of Candida and prompt treatment with appropriate antifungal agents, such as fluconazole, amphotericin B deoxycholate, and micafungin, are critical for improved outcomes. This paper reviews the current literature relating to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Candida infections in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:25129318

Greenberg, Rachel G; Benjamin, Daniel K

2014-11-01

213

Four outbreaks of nosocomial systemic candidiasis.  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans has recently been described as a cause of nosocomial infection. This paper reports four further outbreaks occurring over a 12-month period in England. There were 13 systemic cases and 6 deaths. The outbreaks were defined by morphotyping and the new technique of immunoblot fingerprinting. Control of the outbreaks was produced by the implementation of strict cross-infection control policies without recourse to systemic chemoprophylaxis.

Burnie, J. P.; Matthews, R.; Lee, W.; Philpott-howard, J.; Brown, R.; Damani, N.; Breuer, J.; Honeywell, K.; Jordans, Z.

1987-01-01

214

Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

Rodloff AC

2011-04-01

215

Associação entre cultura de secreção vaginal, características sociodemográficas e manifestações clínicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de candidíase vulvovaginal / Association between vaginal secretion culture, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e possíveis fatores predisponentes. MÉTODOS: Secreção vaginal das pacientes foi semeada em ágar Sabouraud e amostras de leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR [...] ). Dados demográficos, clínicos e fatores predisponentes foram obtidos por meio de questionário. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, Fischer e do ?², com auxílio do software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 69 pacientes, com idade entre 15 e 52 anos, predominando mulheres brancas (79,7%), com escolaridade de nível superior completo (58%), casadas (56,5%) e com vida sexual ativa (97,1%). Dentre elas, 34,8% eram gestantes, 7,2% diabéticas, 1,4% soropositivas para AIDS e 36,2% usavam anticoncepcional oral. Antibioticoterapia recente foi citada por 13% das pacientes, uso de antifúngico por 5,8% e de antitricomonas por 1,4%. Uso de corticosteroides foi relatado por 2,9% das participantes e de antineoplásicos, por 1,4%. Fluxo vaginal e prurido foram as principais queixas apresentadas, respectivamente, por 97,1 e 73,9% das pacientes, seguido de ardência (63,8%) e hiperemia (63,8%). Quando presente, o fluxo foi majoritariamente branco (88,1%) ou grumoso (86,6%). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela cultura em 55 (79,7%) pacientes, sendo 4 casos de infecção mista. A espécie prevalente foi C. albicans, seguida por um caso de C. glabrata, que foi encontrada em mais duas pacientes em associação com C. albicans. Nas outras duas infecções polimicrobianas, C. lusitaniae foi isolada com C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a positividade da cultura tenha sido alta e os dados clínicos de CVV sejam característicos, a sintomatologia não é patognomônica. C. albicans é a espécie prevalente, mas deve-se atentar para a ocorrência de outras espécies na etiologia de CVV, como a emergência de C. lusitaniae. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the etiology and the epidemiological profile of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and predisposing factors. METHODS: Vaginal secretions were streaked in Sabouraud agar and yeast samples were isolated and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Demographic an [...] d clinical data were obtained with a questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the ?² and Fischer tests were applied as needed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients aged from 15 to 52 years were evaluated. They were predominantly white (79.7%), with higher education (58%), married (56.5%) and sexually active (97.1%). Among them, 34.8% were pregnant, 7.2% diabetic, 1.4% seropositive for AIDS, and 36.2% were using oral contraceptives. Recent antibiotic therapy was mentioned by 13% of the patients, and antifungal or anti-trichomonas therapy was mentioned by 5.8 and 1.4% of the patients, respectively. Corticosteroid use was reported by 2.9% and antineoplastic by 1.4%. Vaginal discharge and itching were the main complaints (97.1 and 73.9%), followed by burning (63.8%) and erythema (63.8%). When present, the vaginal flow was predominantly white (88.1%) or lumpy (86.6%). The diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 55 (79.7%) patients, with mixed infections in 4 patients. The most prevalent species was C. albicans, followed by C. glabrata (one monoinfection and two mixed infections with C. albicans). C. lusitaniae and C. albicans were also identified in mixed infections (two patients). CONCLUSION: Despite the high culture positivity and clinical data characteristic of VVC, the symptoms were not pathognomonic. C. albicans is the most prevalent species, but other species are also involved in VVC etiology, such as the emergence of C. lusitaniae.

Márcio Tavares, Rodrigues; Ana Carolina, Gonçalves; Mariana Carolina Tocantins, Alvim; Didier Silveira, Castellano Filho; Juliana Barroso, Zimmermmann; Vânia Lúcia da, Silva; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz.

2013-12-01

216

Evaluation of the supply of antifungal medication for the treatment of vaginal thrush in the community pharmacy setting: a randomized controlled trial / Evaluación del suministro de medicación antifúngica para el tratamiento de la candidiasis vaginal en la farmacia comunitaria: ensayo controlado aleatorizado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Antecedentes: La Sociedad Farmacéutica de Australia ha desarrollado una "guía" para el suministro de varios medicamentos sin prescripción al público general. Se ha publicado poca investigación evaluando el efecto de estas guías sobre la provisión de medicación en la práctica de la farmacia. Objetivo [...] s: Evaluar el suministro apropiado de antifúngicos sin receta para el tratamiento de candidiasis vaginal en farmacias comunitarias, con y sin guía. Un objetivo secundario fue describir la evaluación y el consejo proporcionado a los pacientes cuando solicitaban esta medicación. Métodos: Se realizó un ensayo controlado aleatorizado donde dos pacientes simulados condujeron visitas a 100 farmacias comunitarias aleatoriamente seleccionadas en una región metropolitana. Se comparó una solicitud de un producto con fluconazol (antifúngico oral que tiene guía) con una solicitud de un producto con clotrimazol (un antifúngico tópico sin guía). Los mismos datos de los pacientes fueron usados en ambas solicitudes. Las medidas de resultados en las visitas fueron la adecuación del suministro y la remisión al médico. Resultados: Un total de un 16% (n=16) de las visitas produjeron resultados apropiados; 10% (n=5) de fluconazol comparadas con el 22% (n=11) de clotrimazol (chi-square= 2,68, p=0,10). Hubo una diferencia significativa en el tipo de evaluación realizada por el personal de la farmacia entre las visitas del fluconazol y del clotrimazol. La solicitud de clotrimazol produjo un aumento significativo en la frecuencia de la evaluación de la causa de la solicitud (chi-square = 8,57, p=0,003), localización de los síntomas (chi-square= 8,27, p=0,004), e historia previa (chi-square = 5,09, p=0,02). Conclusiones: En general la práctica fue pobre, con la mayoría de las farmacias suministrando inadecuadamente la medicación antifúngica. Se requieren nuevas estrategias para mejorar la práctica actual de las farmacias comunitarias en el suministro de antifúngicos sin receta para la candidiasis vaginal. Abstract in english Background: The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia have developed "guidance" for the supply of several medicines available without prescription to the general public. Limited research has been published assessing the effect of these guidelines on the provision of medication within the practice of p [...] harmacy. Objectives: To assess appropriate supply of non-prescription antifungal medications for the treatment of vaginal thrush in community pharmacies, with and without a guideline. A secondary aim was to describe the assessment and counseling provided to patients when requesting this medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was undertaken whereby two simulated patients conducted visits to 100 randomly selected community pharmacies in a metropolitan region. A product-based request for fluconazole (an oral antifungal that has a guideline was compared to a product-based request for clotrimazole (a topical antifungal without a guideline). The same patient details were used for both requests. Outcome measures of the visits were the appropriateness of supply and referral to a medical practitioner. Results: Overall 16% (n=16) of visits resulted in an appropriate outcome; 10% (n=5) of fluconozaole requests compared with 22% (n=11) of clotrimazole requests (chi-square=2.68, p=0.10). There was a difference in the type of assessment performed by pharmacy staff between visits for fluconazole and clotrimazole. A request for clotrimazole resulted in a significant increase in frequency in regards to assessment of the reason for the request (chi-square=8.57, p=0.003), symptom location (chi-square=8.27, p=0.004), and prior history (chi-square=5.09, p=0.02). Conclusions: Overall practice was poor, with the majority of pharmacies inappropriately supplying antifungal medication. New strategies are required to improve current practice of community pharmacies for provision of non-prescription antifungals in the treatment of va

Carl R., Schneider; Lyndal, Emery; Raisa, Brostek; Rhonda M., Clifford.

2013-08-01

217

Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% e C. guilliermondii (2,5% foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal.PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids, diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% and C. guilliermondii (2,5% were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Humberto Fabio Boatto

2007-02-01

218

Prevalence and Management of Non-albicans Vaginal Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objectives It is thought that widespread use of “over-the-counter” azoles may increase the incidence of resistant Candida species such as C glabrata. Infections with species other than C. albicans frequently do not respond to standard azole treatments. Intravaginal nystatin is an option but is no longer available in the UK. In this paper, we review the prevalence of non-albicans candida over the past five years, and assess the efficacy of amphotericin and flucytosin...

Hetticarachchi, Nalin; Ashbee, Ruth; Wilson, Janet D.

2010-01-01

219

[Candidiasis in the experimental model of ulcerative colitis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study on animal model of ulcerative colitis the influence of fungal colonization on the severity of inflammatory lesions in the colon and the course of their healing was evaluated. The results of our studies revealed, that significant fungal colonization (over 10(4) CFU/ml) delayed ulcer healing in the colon. It corresponded with the decrease of colonic blood flow (CBF) in the region of lesions and increase of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-alpha level in the serum. Introduction of antifungal therapy (fluconazole) or probiotic in rats inoculated with Candida accelerated the process of ulcer healing in the colon, expressed through the reduction of macro- and microscopic lesions in the colon and decrease of MPO, IL-beta TNF-alpha serum level. PMID:19051694

Zwoli?ska-Wcis?o, Ma?gorzata; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Kwiecie?, S?awomir; Mazurkiewicz-Janik, Magdalena; Trojanowska, Danuta; Rudnicka-Sosin, Lucyna; Mach, Tomasz; Budak, Alicja; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Stanis?aw J; Pawlik, Wies?aw W

2007-01-01

220

Development of miconazole pastille for the treatment of oral candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Three formulas of miconazole pastilles containing 10 mg miconazole nitrate with caramel, menthol and orange flavor were developed. Volunteers graded each preparation for taste satisfaction. Statistical evaluation using crossover design showed that there was no significant difference for the taste satisfaction of caramel and menthol flavors preparations. To investigate the effect of flavor on the release of miconazole nitrate from pastille base, the miconazole pastilles containing menthol and ...

Srikunwong, N.; Thongna, C.; Mamoon, K.; Duangchana, S.; Khunkitti, W.

2000-01-01

221

Hyperplastic candidiasis - right-oral cavity, tonsil hypopharynx and larynx  

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A twenty five year old female, presented with burning in throat, Odynophagia and characteristic history of falling of granules, He had a verrucous type granular lesion right retromolar area., tonsil & its fossa, Lingual Surface Epiglottis & Hypoharyngeal wall, Right Aryepiglottic fold & ventricular fold Oedmatous and Scattered granules on both vocal folds & right Posterolateral border of tongue. Candida was detected in 10% Potassium Hydroxide, gram stained smear, prepared from tissue scrappin...

Chourdia, Vijay

2001-01-01

222

Indicación de nuevos antimicóticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva / Prescription of new antifungal drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones micóticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminación en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresión propia del paciente en estado crítico, unido a la [...] aplicación de determinados procedimientos traumáticos -- catéteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilación, intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales, nutrición parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infección. Al respecto, se está empleando una gama de nuevos antimicóticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas) en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creación de protocolos terapéuticos puede disminuir el índice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones Abstract in english The invasive fungal infections have reached such an important dissemination in the intensive care units that today they constitute the fourth cause of acquired infections in this service, with a mortality of up to 50%. The immunodepression characteristic of the patient in critical state, together to [...] the application of certain traumatic procedures -- catheters, probes, endoscopies, ventilation, abdominal surgical interventions, parenteral nutrition, among other --, predispose to the infection. In this respect, a range of new antifungal drugs are being used (triazoles and equiniocandines) in the treatment of patients with invasive mycosis, on the base that the creation of therapeutic protocols can decrease the mortality index caused by these disorders

Moisés, Morejón García.

1316-13-01

223

Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín / Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres emb [...] arazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%). Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes. Abstract in english During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivit [...] y to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%). All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

Clara María, Duque; Olga Lucía, Uribe; Andrés Felipe, Soto; Juan, Alarcón.

2009-03-01

224

Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín  

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Full Text Available Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres embarazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%. Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes.During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivity to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%. All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

Clara María Duque

2009-03-01

225

Confirmed Candida albicans endogenous fungal endophthalmitis in a patient with chronic candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of a confirmed Candida albicans endogenous endophthalmitis in a 35-year-old diabetic white female patient with a long standing history of severe chronic vaginal C. albicans infection. The patient had recently undergone ureteric stenting and received intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics for renal stones complicated by urinary sepsis. Pan-fungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of vitreous aspirate confirmed the presence of C. albicans. Samples showed no microbial growth. PMID:24371735

Hassan, A; Poon, W; Baker, M; Linton, C; Mühlschlegel, F A

2012-01-01

226

Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals in Iran  

OpenAIRE

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Farzad Katiraee; Ali Reza Khosravi; Vahid Khalaj; Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi; Ali Asghar Khaksar; Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad; Mir Saeed Yekani nejad

2010-01-01

227

Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

OpenAIRE

Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

2010-01-01

228

Potential use of liposomal diallyl sulfide in the treatment of experimental murine candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we evaluated the potential of a liposomal formulation of the garlic oil component DAS (diallyl sulfide) in treating disseminated infection caused by the intracellular opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans in experimental mice. The PC (phosphatidylcholine) liposomal formulation of DAS was evaluated for size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency and release kinetics, toxicity etc. For therapeutic studies, mice were challenged with intravenous infection dosage of 10(7) blastospores of C. albicans followed by treatment with various doses of DAS formulations [12 and 6 mg/kg b.w. (body mass)] three times, on alternative days. The antifungal efficacy of liposomal DAS was assessed on the basis of survival of treated mice as well as the residual fungal load in vital organs like liver and spleen of mice. The results of the present study showed that treatment with DAS-bearing liposomes (12 mg/kg b.w.) resulted in the highest survival rate in animals. Liposomal DAS also significantly decreased residual fungal load in vital organs of experimental animals compared with the free form of DAS. The liposomal DAS was also found to be free of toxic manifestations as revealed by the erythrocyte lysis test and liver/kidney function tests. The results of the present study established that the antifungal activity of DAS, a poorly soluble compound, can be enhanced by the incorporation of it into liposomes. Further studies and optimizations are needed to build upon the promising findings of this study to enable the development of an effective plant-derived antifungal formulation that can provide an alternative to currently available antifungal drugs. PMID:19642969

Maroof, Alam; Farazuddin, Mohammad; Owais, Mohammad

2010-08-01

229

Protective immunity against murine candidiasis elicited by Candida albicans ribosomal fractions.  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans ribosomes were prepared from mechanically disrupted cells through differential centrifugation and purification in a sucrose-ammonium sulfate solution. The ribosomes were analyzed chemically and physically and exhibited characteristics of eucaryotic ribosomes (78S). ICR female mice were immunized with two subcutaneous inoculations, 2 weeks apart, of 100 microgram of ribosomes (expressed as ribosomal protein). Immunized mice were challenged either intraperitoneally or intraveno...

Levy, R.; Segal, E.; Eylan, E.

1981-01-01

230

Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-?B activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish  

OpenAIRE

The epithelium performs a balancing act at the interface between an animal and its environment to enable both pathogen killing and tolerance of commensal microorganisms. Candida albicans is a clinically important human commensal that colonizes all human mucosal surfaces, yet is largely prevented from causing mucosal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Despite the importance of understanding host-pathogen interactions at the epithelium, no immunocompetent vertebrate model has been used ...

Gratacap, Remi L.; Rawls, John F.; Wheeler, Robert T.

2013-01-01

231

Cervical Mucins Carry ?(1,2)Fucosylated Glycans that Partly Protect from Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple ?(1,2)fucosylated glycans, but ?(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining f...

Domino, Steven E.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Thomsson, Kristina A.; Karnak, David M.; Holme?n Larsson, Jessica M.; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Ba?ckstro?m, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C.

2009-01-01

232

Impairment of Host Defense against Disseminated Candidiasis in Mice Overexpressing GATA-3?  

OpenAIRE

Candida species are the most common source of nosocomial invasive fungal infections. Previous studies have indicated that T-helper immune response is the critical host factor for susceptibility to Candida infection. The transcription factor GATA-3 is known as the master regulator for T-helper type 2 (Th2) differentiation. We therefore investigated the role of GATA-3 in the host defense against systemic Candida infection using GATA-3-overexpressing transgenic mice. The survival of GATA-3-overe...

Haraguchi, Norihiro; Ishii, Yukio; Morishima, Yuko; Yoh, Keigyou; Matsuno, Yosuke; Kikuchi, Norihiro; Sakamoto, Tohru; Takahashi, Satoru; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

2010-01-01

233

Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 16 [...] 0 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed.

Luciana Basili, Dias; Márcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; José, Meirelles Filho; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

1300-13-01

234

Characteristic and clinical relevance of Candida mannan test in the diagnosis of probable invasive candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The gold standard laboratory tests used to diagnose invasive Candida infection (ICI) are based on the in vitro culture of blood or samples from other sterile sites. However, these tests have limited sensitivity (Se) and are generally not diagnostic until late in the infectious process. The Serion Candida mannan kit was evaluated for the diagnosis of ICI at Grenoble University Hospital (France) between 2007 and 2011. The results were then compared with worldwide data published between 1997 and 2011. This retrospective study was based on follow-up from the investigation of 162 patients of whom 91 had proven ICI; 13 had Candida colonization index (CCI) scores ?0.42, positive mannan tests, with nonconcomitant infections; and 58 had no evidence of Candida infection. Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the etiologic agents in 104 patients. For patients with or without ICI, the 12-week mortality rates were 35/104 (33.7%) and 6/58 (10.3%), respectively. The mannan diagnostic specificity was 51% and Se was 77%. However, in the meta-analysis (n = 1,536), values were 86% and 62%, respectively. Positive mannan test results may appear early (median 6 days) in the development of candidemia and have moderate diagnostic value for ICI, with a negative predictive value of 83%. In patients at risk of ICI with negative candidemia, the combination of Candida mannan test data with a CCI score ?0.42 may improve the diagnosis of probable ICI. PMID:24934805

Chumpitazi, Bernabé F F; Lebeau, Bernadette; Faure-Cognet, Odile; Hamidfar-Roy, Rebecca; Timsit, Jean-François; Pavese, Patricia; Thiebaut-Bertrand, Anne; Quesada, Jean-Louis; Pelloux, Hervé; Pinel, Claudine

2014-07-01

235

Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eucalyptus + C. albicans, diabetic control, diabetic + C. albicans, diabetic + eucalyptus + C. albicans. Diabetes was induced after a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) and eucalyptus was added to the diet (62.5 g/kg) and drinking water (2.5 g/L) of treated animals for 4 weeks. The concerned groups were inoculated with C. albicans 15 days after diabetes induction. At the end of one month experiment, fasted rats were killed by cervical decapitation. Blood was collected from neck vein for estimation of glucose. C. albicans concentrations were estimated in liver and kidneys using serial dilution culture of tissue homogenates. Results: Eucalyptus administration significantly improved the hyperglycemia, polydipsia, polyphagia, and it also compensated weight loss of diabetic rats (P<0.05). Moreover, eucalyptus caused a significant reduction in C. albicans concentration in liver and kidney homogenates (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results revealed that eucalyptus improves Candidia infection in normal and diabetic rats that in some ways validates the traditional use of this plant in treatment of diabetic patients. PMID:21079663

Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

2010-01-01

236

Chronic atrophic oral candidiasis among patients with diabetes mellitus--role of secretor status.  

OpenAIRE

Non-diabetic individuals who are non-secretors of blood group antigens are prone to superficial infections by Candida albicans. In this study, 216 patients with diabetes mellitus who were denture wearers were examined for the presence or absence of denture stomatitis. There was an overall trend for non-secretors to be prone to denture stomatitis compared with secretors. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis was used to dissect the contribution of secretor status and other variables to the dev...

Aly, F. Z.; Blackwell, C. C.; Mackenzie, D. A.; Weir, D. M.; Elton, R. A.; Cumming, C. G.; Sofaer, J. A.; Clarke, B. F.

1991-01-01

237

Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se estudiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%. Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas.Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%. The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.

M. García Heredia

2006-03-01

238

Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos / Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se est [...] udiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%). Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas. Abstract in english Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between Decemb [...] er 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%). The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.

M., García Heredia; S. D., García; E. F., Copolillo; M., Cora Eliseth; A. D., Barata; C. A., Vay; R. A., de Torres; N., Tiraboschi; A. M. R., Famiglietti.

2006-03-01

239

Formulation design and evaluation of metronidazole microspheres in a bioadhesive gel for local therapy of vaginal candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to design a novel vaginal delivery system composed of metronidazole microspheres dispersed within a bioadhesive gel. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS-100 and RL-100 polymers with different drug/polymer ratios. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FT-IR and particle size analysis and evaluated for morphology, drug loading and in vitro drug release in simulated vaginal fluid. The % yield, actual drug loa...

Hani, Umme; Bhat, Sudeendra R.; Shivakumar, Hosakote G.

2011-01-01

240

Hyphal invasion of Candida albicans inhibits the expression of human beta-defensins in experimental oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral epithelium reacts to microbial challenges by eliciting a defensive response that includes the production of antimicrobial peptides. This study investigated the expression of human beta-defensins-1, 2, and 3 in reconstituted human oral epithelia during experimental oral infections with six different Candida species, and a wild-type C. albicans isolate and five of its mutants. The expression of defensins was induced after 12 hours infection with the wild-type C. albicans, but this response was not seen for the noninvasive hyphal mutants nor the secreted aspartyl proteinase mutants. Furthermore, defensin expression was not detected after 48 hours in epithelia infected with either C. albicans wild-type isolate or its invasive hyphal and proteinase mutants. Most of the non-albicans Candida were capable of inducing the expression of defensins in epithelia after 24 or 48 hours of infection. These Candida-host interaction patterns suggest that the oral epithelia possess mechanisms for sensing the early invasion of C. albicans through recognition of the presence of hyphae and proteinases of Candida and respond to the insult by producing antimicrobial peptides. This hyphal-invasion-dependent inhibition of defensin expression in oral epithelium that undermines the host surveillance system represents a hitherto undescribed novel pathogenic mechanism of C. albicans. PMID:16741514

Lu, Qian; Jayatilake, Jayalath A M S; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Jin, Lijian

2006-09-01

241

Secreted Aspartic Protease Cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 Activates Cek1 MAPK Signaling Affecting Biofilm Formation and Oropharyngeal Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK p...

Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Chadha, Sonia; Tati, Swetha; Conti, Heather R.; Hube, Bernhard; Cullen, Paul J.; Edgerton, Mira

2012-01-01

242

Effect of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream and Miconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream Treatments in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

In a multicenter, randomized, invesgtigator-blind, parallel study, 398 patients were dispensed topical butoconazole nitrate 2% cream for 3 days (n = 199) or miconazole nitrate 2% cream for 7 days (n = 199) for vaginal use. Efficacy analyses included 254 patients with culture-confirmed Candida (119 butoconazole and 135 miconazole users). Of the 398 patients issued study medication, 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, safety analyses included 389 patients (197 butoconazole and 192 ...

Lappin, Myra A.; Brooker, Doris C.; Francisco, Carol A.; Dorfman, Joan

1996-01-01

243

In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and caffeine (Caff). The...

Mohammad Aamir Mirza; Mohammad Akhlaquer Rahman; Sushama Talegaonkar; Zeenat Iqbal

2012-01-01

244

The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo.

Hurley Susan

2004-03-01

245

Preparation of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Carvacrol for Treatment of Local Mouth Bacterial Infections and Candidiasis  

OpenAIRE

The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared ...

Obaidat, Rana M.; Bader, Ammar; Al-rajab, Wafa; Abu Sheikha, Ghassan; Obaidat, Aiman A.

2010-01-01

246

Drug resistance of yeasts isolated from oropharyngeal candidiasis in aids patients / Resistência à drogas de leveduras isoladas de candidíase orofaríngea em pacientes com Aids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Entre oitenta e seis amostras da mucosa oral de pacientes com AIDS, 59 (68,60%) foram positivas para leveduras do gênero Candida. A identificação, feita pela produção de tubo germinativo e clamidósporos e através de assimilação e fermentação de hidratos de carbono, revelou 52 cepas (88,13%) de C.alb [...] icans, 4 (6,77%) de C. tropicalis e 3 (5,08%) de C.krusei. Avaliação destas leveduras para susceptibilidade in vitro frente a anfotericina B, flucitosina, itraconazol, fluconazol e cetoconazol, foi realizada pelo método de diluição em ágar. Comparando-se os valores de concentração inibitória mínima encontrados com os níveis séricos alcançados por estes antifúngicos verificou-se que apenas 8,47% e 5,08% das 59 leveduras foram resistentes a anfotericina B e flucitosina, respectivamente. Foi registrada uma percentagem de cepas resistentes aos derivados azólicos, sendo 25,42% ao itraconazol, 45,76% ao cetoconazol e 66,10% ao fluconazol. Abstract in english Candida spp was isolated from 59 (68.60%) out of eighty six samples of oral mucosa of AIDS patients. The identification, based or the production of a germ tube and chlamydospores, and on the assimilation and fermentation of carbohydrates, revealed 52 strains (88.13%) of C. albicans, 4 (6.77%) of C. [...] tropicalis and 3 (5.08%) of C. krusei. The susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole was determined using the agar dilution method. Comparing the minimum inhibitory concentration values found in the susceptibility test with the serum levels achieved by these drugs, only 8.47% and 5.08% of the yeasts strains proved to be resistant to amphotericin B and flucitosyne, respectively. A high frequency of strains resistant to azole derivatives (25.42%, to itraconazole, 45.76%, to ketoconazole and 66.10% to fluconazole) was observed.

Maria do Rosário Rodrigues, Silva; Claudete Rodrigues de, Paula; Soraya Cristina, Silva; Théo Rodrigues, Costa; Márcio Rodrigues, Costa.

1998-10-01

247

Application of a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure using implant-supported dental prosthesis as a preventive therapy for candidiasis of upper gastrointestinal tract in complete denture users.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous studies demonstrated that the use of acrylic based prosthesis in edentulous patients had a direct impact on the increased incidence of oral mycosis and further episodes of mycosis in the digestive tract. This dependency is associated with formation of a space between the surface of the prostheses and adhering mucosal membrane, where a specific micro environment is being formed, which - as stated - creates a superior breeding ground mainly for microorganisms of the genus Candida. PMID:19075323

Majewski, S; Loster, B W; Macura, A B; Wisniewska, G; Sliwowski, Z; Mazurkiewicz-Janik, M; Konturek, S J

2008-11-01

248

HIV and AIDS  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... infection. Infections caused by fungi include: • Candidiasis • Cryptococcal meningitis Candidiasis is a common infection. It causes a ... of the mouth, tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis causes inflammation of the membranes and fluid around ...

249

HIV and AIDS  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... could die from a simple infection. Viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites can cause infections. Infections caused by ... is a serious brain infection. Infections caused by fungi include: • Candidiasis • Cryptococcal meningitis Candidiasis is a common ...

250

Atividade antifúngica de produtos naturais indicados por raizeiros para tratamento de candidíase oral / Antifungal activity of natural products indicated by herb sellers (raizeiros) for the treatment of oral candidiasis / Actividad antifúngica de productos naturales indicados por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) para el tratamiento de la candidiasis oral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A crescente resistência das leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida frente aos antifúngicos sintéticos, atualmente disponíveis no comércio, impulsiona a busca por novos compostos antifúngicos de origem vegetal. Assim, o propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos d [...] ecoctos de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) e Punica granatum Linn (romã), vendidos por raizeiros em três feiras livres distintas (A, B e C), frente a três espécies de microorganismos do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis e C. krusei). O ensaio para determinação da atividade antifúngica dos produtos naturais foi realizado pelo método da difusão em meio sólido, em triplicata, onde discos de papel de filtro estéreis embebidos em 50 µL dos extratos foram colocados sobre o meio de cultura. Os resultados foram avaliados a partir da mensuração dos diâmetros dos halos de inibição de crescimento fúngico em milímetros (mm), sendo considerada a moda dos valores obtidos. Foi observada atividade antifúngica de S. terebenthifolius Raddi e de C. zeylanicum Breym sobre C. krusei. No entanto, diferenças foram identificadas entre os produtos obtidos nos diferentes locais. O decocto de Punica granatum Linn apresentou atividade antifúngica sobre as três cepas fúngicas utilizadas no estudo. Também foram verificadas diferenças entres os produtos obtidos nas feiras livres, sendo que apenas as amostras de Punica granatum Linn provenientes da feira A foram capazes de inibir o crescimento fúngico de todas as cepas analisadas. Desta forma, conclui-se que todos os produtos avaliados apresentam atividade antifúngica, havendo diferenças relacionadas aos locais de sua obtenção e sensibilidade das cepas ensaiadas. Abstract in spanish La resistencia cada vez mayor de levaduras del género candida a los antifúngicos sintéticos disponibles en la actualidad ha llevado a la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos antifúngicos de origen vegetal. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica in vitro de decocciones de Schinus [...] terebenthifolius Raddi (pimentero brasileño),Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) y Punica granatum Linn (granada) sobre tres especies del género Candida (C. albicans, C . tropicalis y C. krusei). Este material vegetal fue vendido por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) en tres ferias callejeras distintas (A, B y C). El ensayo para determinar la actividad antifúngica de los productos se realizó por triplicado. Se empleó el método de difusión en medio sólido, en el que discos de papel de filtro estériles fueron empapados en 50 µL de los extractos y colocados en medio de cultivo. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante la medición de los diámetros de los halos de inhibición del crecimiento fúngico, en milímetros, y se consideró la moda de los valores encontrados. Se observó actividad antifúngica de S. terebinthifolius Raddi y C. zeylanicum Breym contra C. krusei, pero fueron identificadas diferencias entre los productos obtenidos en diferentes lugares. La decocción de Punica granatum Linn presentó actividad antifúngica sobre las tres levaduras en estudio. Además, se encontraron diferencias entre los productos adquiridos en las ferias callejeras, pero sólo las muestras de Punica granatum Linn de la feria A fueron capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de hongos de todas las levaduras analizadas. Todos los productos evaluados mostraron actividad antifúngica, pero hubo diferencias en función de la localidad donde los productos fueron obtenidos y de la sensibilidad a las cepas ensayadas. Abstract in english An increasing resistance of Candida yeasts to the synthetic antifungals currently available has driven the search for new plant-derived antifungal compounds. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of decoctions from Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Brazi [...] lian pepper tree), Cinnamomum

Vanessa Maria, Freire Abílio; Bruno, da Silva Mesquita; Evelyn, Darly da Silva; Fabíola, Vilar de Queiroz Carvalho; Luciana Lucena, Aranha de Macêdo; Ricardo, Dias de Castro.

2014-09-01

251

Disease: H01109 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available H01109 Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC ); Familial candidiasis (CANDF) Chronic mucocutaneo ... us candidiasis (CMC ) is manifested as a primary immunodeficiency chara ... nce have been described. It has been reported that CMC ... is caused by mutations in components of a signalin ...

252

ESCMID* guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: patients with HIV infection or AIDS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucosal candidiasis is frequent in immunocompromised HIV-infected highly active antiretroviral (HAART) naive patients or those who have failed therapy. Mucosal candidiasis is a marker of progressive immune deficiency. Because of the frequently marked and prompt immune reconstitution induced by HAART, there is no recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis of mucosal candidiasis in the HIV setting in Europe, although it has been evidenced as effective in the pre-HAART era. Fluconazole remains the first line of therapy for both oropharyngeal candidiasis and oesophageal candidiasis and should be preferred to itraconazole oral solution (or capsules when not available) due to fewer side effects. For patients who still present with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, oral treatment with any other azole should be preferred based on precise Candida species identification and susceptibility testing results in addition to the optimization of HAART when feasible. For vaginal candidiasis, topical therapy is preferred. PMID:23137138

Lortholary, O; Petrikkos, G; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Bassetti, M; Bille, J; Calandra, T; Castagnola, E; Cornely, O A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Donnelly, J P; Garbino, J; Groll, A H; Herbrecht, R; Hope, W W; Jensen, H E; Kullberg, B J; Lass-Flörl, C; Meersseman, W; Richardson, M D; Roilides, E; Verweij, P E; Viscoli, C; Ullmann, A J

2012-12-01

253

Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidence of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

Arnaldo Lopes Colombo

2013-06-01

254

Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidenc [...] e of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

Arnaldo Lopes, Colombo; Thaís, Guimarães; Luis Fernando Aranha, Camargo; Rosana, Richtmann; Flavio de, Queiroz-Telles; Mauro José Costa, Salles; Clóvis Arns da, Cunha; Maria Aparecida Shikanai, Yasuda; Maria Luiza, Moretti; Marcio, Nucci.

2013-06-01

255

Diagnosis of superficial mycoses by direct microscopy - A statistical evaluation  

OpenAIRE

A mycological study was undertaken in 250 cases of superficial mycotic infections, which included 210 cases of dermatophytosis, 18 cases of cutaneous candidiasis and 22 cases of tinea versicolor. The scrapings from all the cases were subjected to direct microscopic examination in 10% KOH solution and culture was done in case of candidiasis and dermatophytosis. Out of 250 cases direct microscopy was positive (KOH +ve) in 88 cases of dermatophytosis, 11 cases of candidiasis and al...

Mohanty J; Mohanty S; Sahoo R; Sahoo A; Ch, Prahara

1999-01-01

256

Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although cand...

Barodka, Viachaslau M.; Acheampong, Edward; Powell, Garry; Lobach, Ludmila; Logan, David A.; Parveen, Zahida; Armstead, Valerie; Mukhtar, Muhammad

2006-01-01

257

Optimasi dan Validasi Metode Kromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi (KCKT) pada Penetapan Kadar Flukonazol dalam Sediaan Kapsul  

OpenAIRE

Fluconazole capsule is a triazole antifungal drug which acts by inhibition of the ergosterol component of the fungal cell membrane which inhibits fungal growth. It is active against a broad spectrum fungal pathogens and is available for oral use. It is indicated in the treatment of accute and recurrent vaginal candidiasis, mucosal candidiasis, systemic candidiasis and criptococcal infections. Determination of fluconazole in United States Pharmacopheia (USP) 29th Edition 2006 confirmed by HPLC...

Safrina

2013-01-01

258

Multifocal Cerebral Fusiform Aneurysms in Children with Immune Deficiencies Report of Four Cases  

OpenAIRE

We describe three children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1), and one child suffering from familial mucocutaneous candidiasis; who all had multiple, fusiform subarachnoid intracranial aneurysms.

Sedat, J.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

1999-01-01

259

Disease: H00363 [KEGG MEDICUS  

Lifescience Database Archive (English)

Full Text Available H00363 Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection with Candida species, predominantly with Ca ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) PMID:21350122 (gene) ...

260

HIV and AIDS  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is a very common sexually transmitted disease. Some types of this virus cause common warts. Others cause genital warts. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML, is a serious brain infection. Infections caused by fungi include: • Candidiasis • Cryptococcal meningitis Candidiasis is a common ...

261

Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects.  

OpenAIRE

Patients with candidiasis had greater than 400 colony-forming units per ml of saliva, whereas carriers of Candida albicans had less than 400 colony-forming units per ml. Thus, quantitative cultures of saliva may aid in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis.

Epstein, J. B.; Pearsall, N. N.; Truelove, E. L.

1980-01-01

262

[Candida glabrata : pathogenicity and therapy update].  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by Candida glabrata is still rare in comparison to C. albicans infection, but therapy remains more difficult. Standard agents as fluconazole or itraconazole often fail, as well as the newer systemic triazoles like voriconazole or posaconazole. Micafungin is a new echinocandin drug with a wide antifungal spectrum including rare Candida species. No clinical trials with micafungin in chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis have been undertaken. We present the initial results employing a new therapy regimen consisting of micafungin in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine. All 14 patients with chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by C. glabrata were treated successfully. PMID:22925897

Tietz, H-J

2012-11-01

263

Diseases/Pathogens Associated with Antimicrobial Resistance  

Science.gov (United States)

... FDA-approved influenza antiviral drugs. Top of Page Fungi Candida Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Print Page ...

264

Symptoms of Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)  

Science.gov (United States)

... al. The use of coccidioidin. American review of tuberculosis 1948;57:330-60. Chang A, Tung RC, ... Sources Statistics Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Additional Information Genital / vulvovaginal Candidiasis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention ...

265

HIV and AIDS  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or PML, is a serious brain infection. Infections caused by fungi include: • Candidiasis • Cryptococcal ... inflammation of the membranes and fluid around the brain and spinal cord. Infections caused by parasites include: • ...

266

Proteolytic Activation of the Interleukin-1? Precursor by Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

Chronic inflammation rather than invasion is characteristic of some forms of superficial candidiasis such as denture stomatitis. We hypothesized that Candida albicans may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory lesions observed in chronic candidiasis by activating the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) from epithelial stores of the precursor. The aim of this study was therefore to demonstrate the proteolytic cleavage and activation of the inactive precursor of ...

Beause?jour, Annie; Grenier, Daniel; Goulet, Jean-paul; Deslauriers, Noe?lla

1998-01-01

267

Comparative efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole against disseminated Candida albicans infection in BALB/c mice Eficiência comparada do óleo essencial de Zataria multiflora e itraconazol contra infecção disseminada de Candida albicans em camundongos BALB/c  

OpenAIRE

Disseminated candidiasis is a serious problem in public health that results from the invasion of Candida species, in particular Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole in clearing C. albicans from the visceral organs of BALB/c mice suffered from disseminated candidiasis. Zataria multiflora essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fo...

Khosravi, A. R.; Shokri, H.; Tootian, Z.; Alizadeh, M.; Yahyaraeyat, R.

2009-01-01

268

Comparative efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole against disseminated Candida albicans infection in BALB/c mice  

OpenAIRE

Disseminated candidiasis is a serious problem in public health that results from the invasion of Candida species, in particular Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of Zataria multiflora essential oil and itraconazole in clearing C. albicans from the visceral organs of BALB/c mice suffered from disseminated candidiasis. Zataria multiflora essential oil was extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fo...

Khosravi, A. R.; Shokri, H.; Tootian, Z.; Alizadeh, M.; Yahyaraeyat, R.

2009-01-01

269

Candida spp. isolated from inpatients, the environment, and health practitioners in the pediatric unit at the Universitary Hospital of the Jundiaí Medical College, state of São Paulo, Brazil Candida spp. isoladas de pacientes internados, profissionais da saúde e de ambiente na unidade de pediatria do Hospital Universitário da Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí, estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

OpenAIRE

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to isolate and identify Candida spp. from the environment, health practitioners, and patients with the presumptive diagnosis of candidiasis in the Pediatric Unit at the Universitary Hospital of the Jundiaí Medical College, to verify the production of enzymes regarded as virulence factors, and to determine how susceptible the isolated samples from patients with candidiasis are to antifungal agents. METHODS: Between March and November of 2008 a total of 283 sampl...

Lucas Ruiz Storti; Giuliano Pasquale; Rogério Scomparim; Ana Lúcia Galastri; Flávio Alterthum; Walderez Gambale; Claudete Rodrigues Paula

2012-01-01

270

Sensitivity of Vaginal Isolates of Candida to Eight Antifungal Drugs Isolated From Ahvaz, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Backgrounds: Candida vaginitis is a common fungal infection among adult women and it has been estimated that 75% of all adult women experience at least one period of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime. Several predisposing factors, such as diabetes mellitus,using contraceptive, pregnancy, and broad-spectrum antibiotics are reported as main risk factors for the infection. While, the main etiologic agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis is Candida albicans, more antifungal resistance has bee...

Zahra Salehei; Zahra Seifi; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi

2012-01-01

271

Diagnosis of superficial mycoses by direct microscopy - A statistical evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mycological study was undertaken in 250 cases of superficial mycotic infections, which included 210 cases of dermatophytosis, 18 cases of cutaneous candidiasis and 22 cases of tinea versicolor. The scrapings from all the cases were subjected to direct microscopic examination in 10% KOH solution and culture was done in case of candidiasis and dermatophytosis. Out of 250 cases direct microscopy was positive (KOH +ve in 88 cases of dermatophytosis, 11 cases of candidiasis and all cases of tinea versicolor. Culture for dermatophytes and candida species in SDA medium were positive in 76 and 9 cases respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the overall efficiency of the direct microscopy in the diagnosis of superficial mycotic infections were calculated to be 89.41%, 83.90%, 76.76%, 93.02% and 85.96% respectively.

Mohanty J

1999-01-01

272

ESCMID* guideline for the diagnosis and management of Candida diseases 2012: diagnostic procedures.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the mortality associated with invasive Candida infections remains high, it is important to make optimal use of available diagnostic tools to initiate antifungal therapy as early as possible and to select the most appropriate antifungal drug. A panel of experts of the European Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) undertook a data review and compiled guidelines for the clinical utility and accuracy of different diagnostic tests and procedures for detection of Candida infections. Recommendations about the microbiological investigation and detection of candidaemia, invasive candidiasis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, and oropharyngeal, oesophageal, and vaginal candidiasis were included. In addition, remarks about antifungal susceptibility testing and therapeutic drug monitoring were made. PMID:23137134

Cuenca-Estrella, M; Verweij, P E; Arendrup, M C; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Bille, J; Donnelly, J P; Jensen, H E; Lass-Flörl, C; Richardson, M D; Akova, M; Bassetti, M; Calandra, T; Castagnola, E; Cornely, O A; Garbino, J; Groll, A H; Herbrecht, R; Hope, W W; Kullberg, B J; Lortholary, O; Meersseman, W; Petrikkos, G; Roilides, E; Viscoli, C; Ullmann, A J

2012-12-01

273

VULVOVAGINITIS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: ESTUDIO ETIOLOGICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La infección vulvovaginal (IVV es una causa frecuente de consulta ginecológica en adolescentes siendo Vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y trichomoniasis sus etiologías más frecuentes. Estudios anteriores en adolescentes chilenas arrojan cifras disímiles respecto a la contribución de cada una de las etiologías anteriores. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar las etiologías más frecuentes de IVV en adolescentes sintomáticas que consultaron en un Centro de atención adolescente del área Norte de Santiago. Se tomaron muestras de flujo vaginal de 100 adolescentes las que fueron analizadas mediante Gram y cultivo. Noventa y una pacientes tenían vida sexual activa y 9 eran vírgenes. Se detectó 62% de vulvovaginitis, correspondiendo 31% a vaginosis bacteriana (VB, 24% a candidiasis, 2% a trichomoniasis y 5% etiología mixta (VB asociado candidiasis. Se encontró IVV en ambos grupos de adolescentes. Al analizar los resultados por edad, se observó un aumento en la incidencia de vulvovaginitis en adolescentes de mayor edadInfectious Vulvovaginitis is a common pathology of the genital tract in female adolescents; Bacterial Vaginosis (BV, Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis are the most common etiologies. In Chile, a few studies have been done about Vulvovaginitis in the adolescent patient, the results have been variable with respect to different etiologies. Our objective was to identify the most common causes of infectious vulvovaginitis (IVV, in symptomatic girls that present to adolescent clinics in North Santiago (Chile. Vulvovaginal discharge samples were taken from 100 patients, and were analyzed using Gram staining techniques and microbiological cultures. Ninety one patients had sexual intercourse at least once; nine were virgins. IVV was found in both groups. Infectious vulvovaginitis was detected in 62% of the samples. The etiologies were: 31% bacterial vaginosis, 24% candidiasis, 2% trichomoniasis, and in 5% the result was mixed etiology (Bv and candidiasis. IVV was more frequent in older than younger girls

María Angélica Martínez T.

2003-01-01

274

VULVOVAGINITIS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: ESTUDIO ETIOLOGICO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La infección vulvovaginal (IVV) es una causa frecuente de consulta ginecológica en adolescentes siendo Vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y trichomoniasis sus etiologías más frecuentes. Estudios anteriores en adolescentes chilenas arrojan cifras disímiles respecto a la contribución de cada una de las [...] etiologías anteriores. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar las etiologías más frecuentes de IVV en adolescentes sintomáticas que consultaron en un Centro de atención adolescente del área Norte de Santiago. Se tomaron muestras de flujo vaginal de 100 adolescentes las que fueron analizadas mediante Gram y cultivo. Noventa y una pacientes tenían vida sexual activa y 9 eran vírgenes. Se detectó 62% de vulvovaginitis, correspondiendo 31% a vaginosis bacteriana (VB), 24% a candidiasis, 2% a trichomoniasis y 5% etiología mixta (VB asociado candidiasis). Se encontró IVV en ambos grupos de adolescentes. Al analizar los resultados por edad, se observó un aumento en la incidencia de vulvovaginitis en adolescentes de mayor edad Abstract in english Infectious Vulvovaginitis is a common pathology of the genital tract in female adolescents; Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis are the most common etiologies. In Chile, a few studies have been done about Vulvovaginitis in the adolescent patient, the results have been variable w [...] ith respect to different etiologies. Our objective was to identify the most common causes of infectious vulvovaginitis (IVV), in symptomatic girls that present to adolescent clinics in North Santiago (Chile). Vulvovaginal discharge samples were taken from 100 patients, and were analyzed using Gram staining techniques and microbiological cultures. Ninety one patients had sexual intercourse at least once; nine were virgins. IVV was found in both groups. Infectious vulvovaginitis was detected in 62% of the samples. The etiologies were: 31% bacterial vaginosis, 24% candidiasis, 2% trichomoniasis, and in 5% the result was mixed etiology (Bv and candidiasis). IVV was more frequent in older than younger girls

María Angélica, Martínez T.; Alberto, Barría P.; Ruth, Meneses; Pamela, Oyarzún; Jorge, Sandoval.

275

Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana?  

OpenAIRE

We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples.

Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

276

Detection of Candida species by PCR in self-collected vaginal swabs of women after taking antibiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women undergoing antibiotic treatment can develop vulvovaginal candidiasis. This study evaluated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Candida species in comparison with the conventional laboratory culture methods in samples from women with and without symptoms of postantibiotic candidiasis. The self-collected vaginal swabs from 90 women, with no recent symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), who were prescribed antibiotics for non-genital infection were evaluated 8 days after completion of antibiotics and/or at the time of developing symptoms of VVC. Broad-spectrum fungal PCR was performed on extracted DNA from each sample. Overall PCR detected four additional Canidida albicans, three Candida parapsilosis and one Candida tropicalis when compared with culture. All but one case additionally detected by PCR were found in patients with no VVC symptoms. PCR, although more sensitive than conventional culture methods, in this small number of cases, has not been able to detect Candida species in significantly more patients with symptoms suggestive of candidiasis. The results of this study may indicate that other agents including other yeast species may be responsible for symptoms of postantibiotic vulvovaginitis. PMID:17022774

Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Pirotta, Marie V; Rudland, Elice; Garland, Suzanne M

2006-11-01

277

Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Mouth Healthy  

Science.gov (United States)

... PDF, 31 KB) * A sore mouth is common after dental work. If this happens, you might not be able ... test. Ask if you need antibiotics before and after dental treatment if your diabetes is uncontrolled. ... Section (PDF, 34 KB) * amputation (AM-pyoo-TAY-shuhn) candidiasis (can-dih-DY- ...

278

Antifungal Activity of Maytenin and Pristimerin  

OpenAIRE

Fungal infections in humans have increased alarmingly in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Among the infections systemic candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis mortality are more prevalent and more severe in humans. The current high incidence of dermatophytosis is in humans, especially as the main etiologic agents Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Molecules pristimerin and maytenin obtained from the ...

Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida; Mendes-giannini, Maria Jose? S.; Silva, Dulce H. S.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Maysa Furlan; Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Soares, Luciana A.; Silva, Julhiany F.; Silva, Ana C. A. Paula E.; Rossi, Sue?len A.; Pitangui, Nayla S.; Santos, Va?nia A. F. F. M.; Fernanda Sangalli-Leite; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Gullo, Fernanda P.

2012-01-01

279

Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

Armstead Valerie

2006-11-01

280

Terconazole Cream for Non-Candida albicans Fungal Vaginitis: Results of a Retrospective Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Although it is FDA-approved for use in vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by non-Candida albicans species, terconazole cream has not been been studied in patients with these infections. We sought to assess the clinical and mycological efficacy of terconazole cream in women with non-C. albicans vaginitis.

M. Velma Weitz

2000-01-01

281

Cannulation of the Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland via the Wharton's Duct  

OpenAIRE

Severe salivary gland hypofunction is frequently found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and those who receiving therapeutic irradiation in their head and neck regions for cancer treatment. Both groups of patients experience symptoms such as xerostomia (dry mouth), dysphagia (impaired chewing and swallowing), severe dental caries, altered taste, oro-pharyngeal infections (candidiasis), mucositis, pain and discomfort.

Kuriki, Yusuke; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Gjerde, Eva M.; Khalili, Saeed; Mui, Brennan; Zheng, Changyu; Tran, Simon D.

2011-01-01

282

Purification of actin from Candida albicans and comparison with the Candida 48,000-Mr protein.  

OpenAIRE

Actin was purified from Candida albicans cells by affinity chromatography by DNase-Sepharose and was recognized by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody directed against chick muscle actin. The C. albicans 48-kilodalton protein recognized by sera from patients with invasive candidiasis was shown by DEAE chromatography and immunoblotting not to be identical with the purified C. albicans actin.

Fiss, E.; Buckley, H. R.

1987-01-01

283

Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

Sargent, Jeremy

2012-02-01

284

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF ULTRADEFORMABLE SOFT ELASTIC NANO VESICLE ETHOSOMES FOR DERMAL DELIVERY  

OpenAIRE

Clotrimazole is an antifungal drug for treatment of cutaneous candidiasis infections. However its oral administration is associated with number of drawbacks. The goal of the current investigation is to evaluate the transdermal potential of novel vesicular carrier, ethosomes, bearing Clotrimazole an antifungal having limited transdermal permeation. Clotrimazole loaded ethosomes were prepared, optimized and characterized for vesicular shape and surface morphology, vesicular size, size distri...

Dubey, B. K.; Vimal Shahwal; Mithun Bhowmick; Amit Joshi; Ajay Samnani

2012-01-01

285

Candida species isolation in peristomal skin in patients with abdominal stomas and correlation to clinical signs: a descriptive pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reported prevalence of candidiasis in peristomal skin varies greatly. Very few studies exist that correlate the clinical findings around the peristomal skin to the mycology. In this study, the authors report on Candida species prevalence, clinical correlation, and mycology. PMID:25325226

Morales-Mendoza, Yamilett; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón; Fabián-Victoriano, Ma Rosy; Contreras-Ruiz, José; Vásquez-del-Mercado, Elsa; de Lourdes Suárez-Roa, Maria; Arenas-Guzman, Roberto

2014-11-01

286

Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants. Methods Infants...

Aqel Kamal F; Badran Eman F; Issa Shireen Y; Shehabi Asem A

2011-01-01

287

Identification of a novel STAT3 mutation in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Here we describe a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome presenting with recurrent staphylococcal abscesses, pneumonia, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and report the identification of a novel STAT3 mutation at amino acid position 621, which has not previously been described. In addition, we review the immunological, infectious, and genetic features of hyper-IgE syndrome.

Mogensen, Trine H; Jakobsen, Marianne

2013-01-01

288

Pharmacology and metabolism of voriconazole and posaconazole in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis-review of the literature  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Invasive fungal infections, predominantly aspergillosis and candidiasis, are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Primarily, patients with acute leukemia undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients are affected. Up to 60% of patients with invasive aspergillosis, the most common invasive mycosis among patients with hematologic malignancies, may still die of their infection, once ...

Sandherr M; Maschmeyer G

2011-01-01

289

[Vascular lesions in Candida albicans sepsis].  

Science.gov (United States)

In two premature newborns affected by candida sepsis we observed at ultrasonography alterations of the heart and of the anterior cerebral artery. These alterations suggest a cardiovascular involvement that is rarely reported in the literature as a complication of systemic candidiasis. PMID:1474975

Vergara, G; Vacchiano, T

1992-09-01

290

ETUDE PHENOTYPIQUE E T MOLECULAIRE DES CA NDIDOSES VULVO - VAGINALES CHEZ DES P ATIENTES AU MAROC.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vulvovaginal pathology, vaginal candidiasis is the most common etiologies. Candida albicans is involved in more than 75% in this pathology. Our study included 151 vaginal swabs from women atMedical center of the Institute Pasteur in Morocco. Each vaginal swab was exanimated by direct test and culture on specific media.Out 151 samples 18 were positive (11.9% by direct examination. However, culture results showed that 29/151(19.2%positive cases. The identification of positivecultures showed that Candida albicans is present in 21 cases 72%(21/29 of vaginal candidiasis followed byCandida glabrata with a frequency of 24% (7/29, andCandida tropicalis with a frequency of 3.4 % (1/29 .The clinical symptoms were essentially theleucorrhea, itching and sensation of burning.The most age range affected by vaginalcandidiasis is between 22 and 37 years.Our result showed that the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 19% in Moroccan patient with a predominance ofCandida albicans and a sharp increase invaginal candidiasis due to non albicans species.These results will have an impact on thediagnosis and treatement of vaginal candidisis in Morocco.

H. BOURA

2013-02-01

291

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Names and Claims  

Science.gov (United States)

... mononucleosis was thought to persist in the body. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome — Many people (and some physicians) believe that extensive allergies or reactions to minute amounts of chemicals in the air or by contact may cause a CFS-like illness. Chronic candidiasis ( ...

292

Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

Shethwala Nimisha

2009-04-01

293

Sequential Therapy with Caspofungin and Fluconazole for Candida albicans Infection  

OpenAIRE

A sequential therapy of caspofungin (CAS) and fluconazole (FLC) administration for treatment of Candida albicans infection was investigated. Treatment with CAS followed by FLC was as effective as CAS treatment given alone for the same duration. Our data suggest that switching from CAS to FLC is a potentially explorable therapeutic option for treatment of systemic candidiasis.

Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Baldassarri, Isabella; Marigliano, Anna; Arzeni, Daniela; Giannini, Daniele; Scalise, Giorgio

2004-01-01

294

Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin and its metabolites m1 and m5 in children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this analysis was to identify therapeutic micafungin regimens for children that produce the same micafungin exposures known to be effective for the prevention and treatment of Candida infections in adults. Pediatric pharmacokinetic data from 229 patients between the ages of 4 months and <17 years were obtained from four phase I and two phase III clinical trials. Population pharmacokinetic models were used to simulate the proportion of children who had a steady-state area under the concentration-time curve at 24 hours (AUC24) of micafungin within the 10th to 90th percentile range observed in a population of adults receiving a dose of micafungin with established efficacy for invasive candidiasis (100 mg/day), i.e., 75 to 139 ?g · h/ml. Simulated pediatric dosages of 0.5 to 5 mg/kg of body weight/day were explored. A two-compartment model was used that incorporated body weight as a predefined covariate for allometric scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters. During construction of the model, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin were also identified as covariates that had a significant effect on micafungin clearance. A dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the highest proportion of children within the predefined micafungin AUC24 target range for invasive candidiasis. Cutoffs of 40 or 50 kg for weight-based dosing resulted in heavier children being appropriately dosed. Thus, dose regimens of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg/day micafungin are appropriate for the prevention of invasive candidiasis, the treatment of invasive candidiasis, and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, respectively, in children aged 4 months to <17 years. PMID:25421470

Hope, William W; Kaibara, Atsunori; Roy, Michael; Arrieta, Antonio; Azie, Nkechi; Kovanda, Laura L; Benjamin, Daniel K

2015-02-01

295

Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment.

Mittal, Subhangi; Roy, Sukhdev; Srivastava, J. N.

2013-05-01

296

Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

297

The identification and tracking of Candida albicans isolates from oral lesions in HIV-seropositive individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Restriction fragment polymorphism analysis was used to investigate the identity and genotypic relatedness of Candida albicans strains isolated from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with or without oral candidiasis and from some of their sexual partners. Use of the species-specific DNA probe Ca3 revealed that most subjects carried a single distinct C. albicans strain throughout the course of the study, during both symptomatic and asymptomatic periods. Sexual partners were more likely to carry the same or similar C. albicans isolates than unrelated subjects, raising the possibility of transmission via intimate contact. One patient appeared to acquire his partner's isolate, which then became predominant in both partners in subsequent isolations. These findings indicate that recurrent oral candidiasis is usually caused by a single persistent strain unique to each patient, but that in some cases transmission via intimate contact may occur between sexual partners. PMID:1453319

Miyasaki, S H; Hicks, J B; Greenspan, D; Polacheck, I; MacPhail, L A; White, T C; Agabian, N; Greenspan, J S

1992-10-01

298

Association of genotypes with infection types and antifungal susceptibilities in Candida albicans as revealed by recent molecular typing strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism in the mucosa of healthy individuals, but is also the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. It causes from benign infections such as oral and vaginal candidiasis to fatal, systematic diseases in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. In addition to improved therapy, the rapid and accurate identification of the disease-causing strains is crucial for diagnosis, clinical treatment and epidemiological studies of candidiasis. A variety of methods for strain typing of C. albicans have been developed. The most commonly used methods with the focus on recently developed molecular typing or DNA-fingerprinting strategies and the recent findings in the association of specific and genetically similar genotypes with certain infection types and the correlation between azole susceptibilities and certain genotypes of C. albicans from China are reviewed. PMID:24772369

Bai, Feng-Yan

2014-01-01

299

Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among women in a suburban Sudanese community.  

Science.gov (United States)

338 women with age ranging from 15 to 69 years in a suburban Sudanese community were randomly selected and studied. Urine sample, high vaginal swabs and blood samples were investigated for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, HIV and syphilis. The sensitivity and specificity of some laboratory tests were evaluated. Bacterial vaginosis was found in 17.2% of the subjects, candidiasis in 10.1%, trichomoniasis in 7.7%, gonorrhoea in 1.2%, HIV in 1.2% and syphilis in 0.9% of the subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of amine test as a criterion for diagnosing bacterial vaginosis was 58.6% and 73.2%, respectively. The respective values of clue cells in wet preparation were 43.1% and 99.6%. The vaginal discharge in women with bacterial vaginosis lacked pus cells unless associated with concurrent infection. PMID:11261611

Kafi, S K; Mohamed, A O; Musa, H A

2000-01-01

300

Fluconazole-induced Stevens-Jonson syndrome  

OpenAIRE

A 25-year-old girl self-administered tab fluconazole for vulvovaginal candidiasis and developed fever, myalgia and erythematous papular eruptions with itching at both upper and lower lip, mucous membrane of the mouth, vaginal region, which subsequently changed into blister and multiple ulcers. She also had difficulty in swallowing due to painful erosions of the mouth and oropharynx and severe burning pain at vulval and vaginal region. There was bilateral conjunctival hemorrhage. Investigation...

Keshri, Umashanker P.; Naresh Kumar,; Rajiv Kumar,; Manju Gari

2014-01-01

301

Biofilm formation ability by non-Candida albicans Candida species  

OpenAIRE

The number of infections caused by Candida species has greatly increased in the past ten years. This has been attributed with an increase in the number of AIDS patients, the elderly population and immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the increased use of indwelling medical devices has also been implicated with the rise of candidal infections. Most candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, however, recently, new non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been ...

Silva, So?nia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosa?rio; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

2007-01-01

302

Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis : comparison of biofilm formation in terms of biomass and activity  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis are two species responsible for oral candidiasis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Microbial infection is preceded by adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm formation represents the most common form of C. albicans in the oral cavity and is considered to be one of the most important virulence factors. In this study, the biofilm formation ability of C. dubliniensis was compared with that of C. albicans in terms of biomass (...

Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosa?rio

2006-01-01

303

SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM ORAL LESIONS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS  

OpenAIRE

A total of 60 patients suspected to have AIDS with oral lesions suggestive of oral candidiasis were studied. Candida species were isolated from 50 patients. Candida albicans was the commonest isolate (70 %) followed Candida parapsilosis(15%), Candida glabrata (7.5%) and Candida tropicalis (5%) respectively. Candida dubliniensis was isolated from a single case only. Though the reports from developed countries show more prevalence of the novel species Candida dubliniensis, in our study it was i...

Baradkar, V. P.; Kumar, S.

2009-01-01

304

Farnesol : beyond morphogenesis control in non-candida albicans candida species  

OpenAIRE

During the last decade the incidence of candidiasis increased dramatically. Although Candida albicans remains the most frequent cause of infections, non-Candida albicans candida (NCAC) species are emerging as new pathogens. Candida infections are often associated with biofilms that can develop on natural surfaces and medical devices. In a similar manner to other microorganisms, signalling pathways may control the diversity and distribution of Candida species within biofilms. E,...

Martins, M.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosa?rio

2007-01-01

305

Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species : quantification, structure and matrix composition  

OpenAIRE

Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to ...

Silva, So?nia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, Anto?nio; Oliveira, Rosa?rio; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

2009-01-01

306

Genital Candida Species Detected in Samples from Women in Melbourne, Australia, before and after Treatment with Antibiotics  

OpenAIRE

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a common cause of morbidity, with three-quarters of women affected during their lifetimes. Use of antibiotics is an acknowledged trigger for VVC, which adversely affects women's physical and emotional health. Knowledge of patterns of genital Candida species-level identification is important for management, as Candida species other than Candida albicans often fail first-line treatment. A community sample of women with no vaginal symptoms, and who were pre...

Pirotta, Marie V.; Garland, Suzanne M.

2006-01-01

307

Variability analyses of functional domains within glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase of mycosescausing fungi  

OpenAIRE

The immunosuppressive individuals are highly prone to get afflicted with invasive opportunistic fungal infections such as Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis, Penicilliosis, Cryptococcosis and Zygomycosis which are becoming a cause of concern to the mankind due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. The existing antifungal agents are not completely effective due to their severe side-effects and recurrent drug resistance in fungi. Hence,...

Gupta, Utkarsh; Banerjee, Kamalika; Gabrani, Reema; Gupta, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

2011-01-01

308

Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Associated with Symptomatic CD4 Lymphocytopenia  

OpenAIRE

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare benign condition of necrotising histiocytic lymphadenitis with unknown aetiology. We describe here a 30-year-old African American female who presented with fever, generalized rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, and oral candidiasis and was found to have Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease on lymph node biopsy with low CD4 count. The initial presentation was concerning for acute retroviral infection. Her HIV serology and HIV RNA PCR were negative however she had low CD4 cou...

Meera Yogarajah; Bhradeev Sivasambu

2014-01-01

309

Potential Role for a Carbohydrate Moiety in Anti-Candida Activity of Human Oral Epithelial Cells  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans is both a commensal and a pathogen at the oral mucosa. Although an intricate network of host defense mechanisms are expected for protection against oropharyngeal candidiasis, anti-Candida host defense mechanisms at the oral mucosa are poorly understood. Our laboratory recently showed that primary epithelial cells from human oral mucosa, as well as an oral epithelial cell line, inhibit the growth of blastoconidia and/or hyphal phases of several Candida species in vitro with a ...

Steele, Chad; Leigh, Janet; Swoboda, Rolf; Ozenci, Hatice; Fidel, Paul L.

2001-01-01

310

Microbiological assay and HPLC Method for the determination of Fluconazole in pharmaceutical injectable formulations  

OpenAIRE

Fluconazol es un agente antifúngico triazólico sintético empleado en el tratamiento de la candidiasis y de otras infecciones fúngicas. Un método por cromatografía líquida de gran eficacia y un ensayo microbiológico fueron desarrollados para la determinación de fluconazol en soluciones inyectables. Una columna Phenomenex Synergi Fusion RP-80 C18 (150 x 4.60 mm, 4 ?m) fue usada para la separación, utilizando elución isocrática con agua: metanol (55:45, v/v) y detecci...

Hurtado, Felipe K.; Souza, Marine?s J.; Melo, Janine; Rolim, Clarice M. B.

2008-01-01

311

Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital ...

Aboud, S.; Msamanga, G.; Read, J. S.; Mwatha, A.; Chen, Y. Q.; Potter, D.; Valentine, M.; Sharma, U.; Hoffmann, I.; Taha, T. E.; Goldenberg, R. L.; Fawzi, W. W.

2008-01-01

312

Rate of arabinitol production by pathogenic yeast species.  

OpenAIRE

D-Arabinitol is a five-carbon polyol that is produced by many fungi. Detection of the metabolite has been reported in serum from patients with invasive candidiasis. We studied the production and assimilation of arabinitol by 46 clinical isolates of yeast species. Cultures of isolates of Candida albicans (9 strains), Candida tropicalis (12 strains), Candida parapsilosis (13 strains), Candida krusei (4 strains), Candida pseudotropicalis (3 strains), Torulopsis glabrata (3 strains), and Cryptoco...

Bernard, E. M.; Christiansen, K. J.; Tsang, S. F.; Kiehn, T. E.; Armstrong, D.

1981-01-01

313

Oral Candida Isolates Colonizing or Infecting Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Healthy Persons in Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Oral yeast carriage was studied in 312 Mexican subjects. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, but other Candida spp. were isolated from 16.5 to 38.5% of patients. Colonization did not correlate with CD4+ number or viral load, but highly active antiretroviral therapy reduced the frequency of candidiasis. Most isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, but 10.8% were resistant to one or more azoles.

Sa?nchez-vargas, Luis Octavio; Ortiz-lo?pez, Natalia Guadalupe; Villar, Mari?a; Moragues, Mari?a Dolores; Aguirre, Jose? Manuel; Cashat-cruz, Miguel; Lopez-ribot, Jose Luis; Gaita?n-cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindo?s, Guillermo

2005-01-01

314

A Case of Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis  

OpenAIRE

Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIP) is a rare benign disease that is characterized by multiple tiny flask-shaped outpouching lesions of the esophageal wall. The etiology is unknown, but the pathologic findings include dilatation of excretory ducts of submucosal glands. The predominant symptom is dysphagia, and esophageal stricture occurs frequently. Diseases such as diabetes mellitus, esophageal candidiasis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and chronic alcoholism are often combin...

Chon, Young Eun; Hwang, Sena; Jung, Kyu Sik; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sang Gil; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Yong Chan

2011-01-01

315

Investigating Biofilm Production, Coagulase and Hemolytic Activity in Candida Species Isolated From Denture Stomatitis Patients  

OpenAIRE

Objective: Oral candidiasis, in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, represents a common disease in a large percentage of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated species. In this study, we aimed to evaluate biofilm production, coagulase and hemolytic activity of Candida species isolated from denture stomatitis patients. Materials and Methods: This study included 70 patients (31 female, 39 male). Forty-eight of the patients were found to have a po...

Nimet Yigit; Esin Aktas; Saadettin Dagistan; Ahmet Ayyildiz

2011-01-01

316

Development and Validation of an In Vivo Candida albicans Biofilm Denture Model?  

OpenAIRE

The most common form of oral candidiasis, denture-associated stomatitis, involves biofilm growth on an oral prosthetic surface. Cells in this unique environment are equipped to withstand host defenses and survive antifungal therapy. Studies of the biofilm process on dentures have primarily been limited to in vitro models. We developed a rodent acrylic denture model and characterized the Candida albicans and mixed oral bacterial flora biofilm formation, architecture, and drug resistance in viv...

Nett, Jeniel E.; Marchillo, Karen; Spiegel, Carol A.; Andes, David R.

2010-01-01

317

Distribution Profile of Candida Species Involved in Angular Cheilitis Lesions Before and After Denture Replacement  

OpenAIRE

Background: Angular cheilitis known as anoral candidiasis manifestation is deep fissures with ulcerated appearance, which affects angles of the mouth. Decreasing the vertical dimension (VD) of face in the elderly denture users is one of the predisposing factors for heavy colonization of Candida spp. in the cheek angles resulting angular cheilitis. Correcting vertical dimension by a new denture replacement can decrease Candida spp. colonization to prevent or improve the angular cheilitis lesio...

Abbas Ali jafari; Mohammad Hossein Lotfi-Kamran; Abbas Falah-Tafti; Saeeb Shirzadi

2013-01-01

318

SSD1 Is Integral to Host Defense Peptide Resistance in Candida albicans?  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans is usually a harmless human commensal. Because inflammatory responses are not normally induced by colonization, antimicrobial peptides are likely integral to first-line host defense against invasive candidiasis. Thus, C. albicans must have mechanisms to tolerate or circumvent molecular effectors of innate immunity and thereby colonize human tissues. Prior studies demonstrated that an antimicrobial peptide-resistant strain of C. albicans, 36082R, is hypervirulent in animal mod...

Gank, Kimberly D.; Yeaman, Michael R.; Kojima, Satoshi; Yount, Nannette Y.; Park, Hyunsook; Edwards, John E.; Filler, Scott G.; Fu, Yue

2008-01-01

319

Multiple opportunistic infections in an unusual patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A marked decrease in incidence has been observed for most central nervous system opportunistic infections after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In developing countries, where highly active antiretroviral therapy is still unavailable, unusual patients are encountered. We are reporting an untreated patient who, in addition to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, also had disseminated tuberculosis and oral candidiasis. Neuroimaging showed a very extensive white matter and gray matter involvement producing a picture of "JC virus encephalitis".

Garg Ravindra

2007-01-01

320

Effect of pH on In Vitro Susceptibility of Candida glabrata and Candida albicans to 11 Antifungal Agents and Implications for Clinical Use  

OpenAIRE

The treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) due to Candida glabrata is challenging, with limited therapeutic options. Unexplained disappointing clinical efficacy has been reported with systemic and topical azole antifungal agents in spite of in vitro susceptibility. Given that the vaginal pH of patients with VVC is unchanged at 4 to 4.5, we studied the effect of pH on the in vitro activity of 11 antifungal agents against 40 C. glabrata isolates and compared activity against 15 fluconazole...

Danby, Claire S.; Boikov, Dina; Rautemaa-richardson, Rina; Sobel, Jack D.

2012-01-01

321

Miconazole Nitrate Oral Disintegrating Tablets: In Vivo Performance and Stability Study  

OpenAIRE

The interest in and need for formulating miconazole nitrate (MN), a broad-spectrum antifungal, as an oral disintegrating tablet for treatment of some forms of candidiasis have increased. Formulation of MN in this dosage form will be more advantageous, producing dual effect: local in the buccal cavity and systemic with rapid absorption. Four formulations were prepared utilizing the foam granulation technique. The prepared tablets were characterized by measuring the weight uniformity, thickness...

Ahmed, Tarek A.; El-say, Khalid M.; Mahmoud, Maged F.; Samy, Ahmed M.; Badawi, Alia A.

2012-01-01

322

Usage of Antifungal Drugs for Therapy of Genital Candida Infections, Purchased as Over-the-Counter Products or by Prescription: 2. Factors that May have Influenced the Marked Changes in Sales Volumes During the 1990s  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and such recurrent infections (RVVC has been difficult to study as the majority of episodes of these conditions are self-treated by the women affected. In Sweden, all pharmacies are owned by the state and all prescriptions and over-the-counter (OTC products, such as antifungals, are registered in a database, which offers unique possibilities to study the epidemiology of VVC/RVVC.

Jan Holmén

2004-01-01

323

In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Recent investigations on the antifungal properties of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil, TTO) have been performed with reference to the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. However, there is a lack of in vivo data supporting in vitro results, especially regarding the antifungal properties of TTO constituents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the in vitro and the in vivo anti-<...

Cassone Antonio; Girolamo Antonietta; De Bernardis Flavia; Mondello Francesca; Salvatore Giuseppe

2006-01-01

324

Biofilm-Forming Ability of Candida albicans Is Unlikely To Contribute to High Levels of Oral Yeast Carriage in Cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection  

OpenAIRE

An increased prevalence of candidal carriage and oral candidiasis is common in cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the reasons for this may include the enhanced ability of colonizing yeasts to produce biofilms on mucosal surfaces. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the differences, if any, in the biofilm-forming abilities of 26 Candida albicans yeast isolates from HIV-infected individuals and 20 isolates from HIV-free individuals, as this attribute of...

Jin, Y.; Yip, H. K.; Samaranayake, Y. H.; Yau, J. Y.; Samaranayake, L. P.

2003-01-01

325

High oral prevalence of Candida krusei in leprosy patients in Northern Thailand  

OpenAIRE

Although Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen, other Candida species such as C. krusei are now recognized as emerging agents, especially in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. C. krusei is inherently resistant to the widely used triazole antifungal fluconazole and poses therapeutic problems, especially in systemic candidiasis. In a surveillance study of leprosy patients (with arrested or burnt-out disease) in a leprosarium in northern Thailand, we fou...

Reichart, P. A.; Samaranayake, L. P.; Samaranayake, Y. H.; Grote, M.; Pow, E.; Cheung, B.

2002-01-01

326

Multiple Molecular Mechanisms Contribute to a Stepwise Development of Fluconazole Resistance in Clinical Candida albicans Strains  

OpenAIRE

From each of two AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis, five Candida albicans isolates from recurrent episodes of infection which became gradually resistant against fluconazole during antimycotic treatment were analyzed for molecular changes responsible for drug resistance. In both patients, a single C. albicans strain was responsible for the recurrent infections, but the CARE-2 fingerprint pattern of the isolates exhibited minor genetic alterations, indicating that microevolution of t...

Franz, Renate; Kelly, Steven L.; Lamb, David C.; Kelly, Diane E.; Ruhnke, Markus; Morschha?user, Joachim

1998-01-01

327

Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) Essential Oil: Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action on Candida spp., and Molecular Targets Affected in Human Whole-Genome Expression  

OpenAIRE

Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-gen...

Freires, Irlan Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonc?a; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

2014-01-01

328

In - Vitro Propagation and Antimycotic Potential of Extracts and Essential Oil of Roots of Aristolochia Bracteolata Linn. (Aristolochiaceae)  

OpenAIRE

In spite of the therapeutic importance of Aristolochia bracteolata Linn. in Nigerian ethnomedicine, it is largely collected from the wild. Owing to the acclaimed potency of the plant and the difficulty in treating candidiasis, the anticandidal activity and in vitro propagation of the plant were investigated. Phytochemical screening and preparation of extracts of the roots were done using standard procedures. Clinical isolates of Candida albicans were screened against extracts and essential oi...

Gbadamosi, I. T.; Egunyomi, A.

2011-01-01

329

Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

Gisela Di Stilio

2006-08-01

330

Review of the literature for a case with candidal esophagitis at HIV negative young adult patient  

OpenAIRE

Candidal esophagitis, frequently seen in HIV seropositive patients, may develop in HIV seronegative patients due to various etiologic reasons. In this case, investigation of esophagitis diagnosis and the etiologic factors were aimed to be presented by using literature data. The potential contribution of severe emotional stress and depression to the etiology of esophageal candidiasis in a HIV seronegative case via the negative impact on the immunologic system was discussed.

Özgür Tanr?verdi

2008-01-01

331

Preparation, In Vitro Characterization and Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of Buccal Polymeric Films Containing Chlorhexidine  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of some polymeric films as buccal systems for the delivery of the antiseptic drug chlorhexidine diacetate, considered as a valid adjunct in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Six different film formulations, mono- or double-layered, containing 5 or 10 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate, respectively, and alginate and/or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and/or chitosan as excipients, were prepared by a casting-solvent evaporation technique and ch...

Juliano, Claudia; Cossu, Massimo; Pigozzi, Paola; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo

2008-01-01

332

Urogenital probiotics : potential role of Lactobacillus in the prevention of urogenital infections in women  

OpenAIRE

The human vaginal ecosystem is dominated by Lactobacillus species. An altered vaginal flora can result in symptomatic conditions such as bacterial vaginosis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, and urogenital colonisation by uropathogenic bacteria can cause urinary tract infection. The protective role of lactobacilli is gradually being accepted and clinical studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of promising probiotic bacteria, which are defined as “live microorganisms which w...

Ro?nnqvist, Daniel

2007-01-01

333

Prevalence and clinical symptoms of geographic tongue in pregnant women  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: “Geographic tongue” or benign migratory glossitis is a tongue disorder which causes pain and dysfunction and its persistence leads to cancer phobia. Based on some reports, hormones (especially female sex hormones) are associated with geographic tongue development or exacerbation. Geographic tongue might be confused with lichen planus and candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the lesion with pregnancy and its changes during each trimester. Mate...

Parichehr Ghalyani; Samira Hajisadeghi; Hojatollah Mokhtari

2012-01-01

334

Toll-like receptor stimulation induces higher TNF-alpha secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with hyper IgE syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) are primary immunodeficiency disorders of unknown pathogenesis. Patients are typically affected with `cold' abscesses of the skin, recurrent cyst-forming pneumonia, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and other less frequent features such as progressive skeletal abnormalities. Defective signaling in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways has been suggested as a responsible pathologic mechanism, however, in previous reports, 10 patients revealed no defect in inflammator...

Yeganeh, Mehdi; Henneke, Philipp; Rezaei, Nima; Ehl, Stephan; Thiel, Doerte; Matamoros, Nuria; Pietrogrande, Cristina; Espanol, Teresa; Litzman, Jiri; Franco, Jose L.; Sanal, Ozden; Kilic, Sara S.; Breborowicz, Anna; Plebani, Alessandro; Renner, Ellen

2008-01-01

335

[The prevention and treatment of a Candida-mycosis type of dysbacteriosis in chronic bronchitis in older patients].  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes were studied in the clinical picture and microecological setting of the large intestine in elderly and old patients with chronic bronchitis (n = 17) against the background of antibacterial therapy that leads to the development of dysbacteriosis, including that with increased content of Candida. Shown in elderly and old patients with chronic bronchitis is efficacy of the outlined treatment option for the prophylaxis of candidiasis type dysbacteriosis (diphlucan, linaex, decamevite, nitroxoline). PMID:10474952

Khrystych, T M; Shestakova, K H; Krakov'iats'ka, N V

1999-01-01

336

Does Long-Term Itraconazole Prophylaxis Result in In Vitro Azole Resistance in Mucosal Candida albicans Isolates from Persons with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection?  

OpenAIRE

The effects of prolonged itraconazole exposure on the susceptibility of Candida albicans isolates to itraconazole and fluconazole have not been well characterized. A recent placebo-controlled study of long-term itraconazole antifungal prophylaxis in persons with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection afforded the opportunity to address this question. Mucosal Candida sp. isolates were obtained from subjects who developed oropharyngeal or esophageal candidiasis, and in vitro susceptibi...

Goldman, Mitchell; Cloud, Gretchen A.; Smedema, Melinda; Lemonte, Ann; Connolly, Patricia; Mckinsey, David S.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Moskovitz, Bruce; Wheat, L. Joseph

2000-01-01

337

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008) pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008) were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV ...

Nana Philip N; Tonye Rebecca N; Fx, Mbopi-keou; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Mbu Enow R; Ji, Leke Robert

2008-01-01

338

In vitro antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida albicans from HIV and AIDS patients attending the Nylon Health District Hospital in Douala, Cameroon  

OpenAIRE

HIV and AIDS are major public health problems in Cameroon where the HIV prevalence is 5.5%. Candidiasis is the leading opportunistic mycosis in HIV and AIDS patients. The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida albicans in HIV and AIDS patients to eight antifungal agents in the Nylon Health District of Douala in Cameroon. Three hundred and four HIV and AIDS patients were recruited between March and August 2007 to par...

Pride Teyim; Njunda, Anna L.; Kamga, Henri L.; Assob, Jules C. N.; Nsagha, Dickson S.

2012-01-01

339

Screening of Venda medicinal plants for antifungal activity against Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

Crude methanol and water extracts of 32 plant species, used for the treatment of infectious diseases in Venda, were screened for in vitro activity against Candida albicans standard strain (ATCC 10231) and five clinical isolates. Water extracts of 16 plant species and methanol extracts of 11 plant species inhibited candidiasis growth. Inhibition at < 1 mg/ml, against the C. albicans strains tested, was observed for the methanol extracts of Combretum molle (root), Piper capense (bark), Solanum ...

Steenkamp, Vanessa; Fernandes, Anthony C.; Rensburg, Connie E. J.; Rensburg, C. E. J.

2007-01-01

340

Low prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in young women attending a youth counselling service in Maputo, Mozambique  

OpenAIRE

Objectives To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in a group of young women attending the Adolescent and Youth Friendly Service, in Maputo, Mozambique, and to evaluate their level of knowledge, practices and attitudes about STI. Methods A total of 445 women voluntarily participated in the study and filled in a self-administered knowledge, practices and attitudes (KAP) questionnaire; 435 of them underwent a laboratory examination for vaginosis, candidiasis, tr...

Melo, Josefa; Folgosa, Elena; Manjate, Delfina; Osman, Nafissa; Francois, Isabelle; Temmerman, Marleen; Cappuccinelli, Pietro Antonio; Colombo, Mauro Maria

2008-01-01

341

Vaginal and Oral Epithelial Cell Anti-Candida Activity  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans is the causative agent of acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), a common mucosal infection affecting significant numbers of women in their reproductive years. While any murine host protective role for cell-mediated immunity (CMI), humoral immunity, and innate resistance by neutrophils against the vaginal infection appear negligible, significant in vitro growth inhibition of Candida species by vaginal and oral epithelial cell-enriched cells has been observed. Bot...

Nomanbhoy, Fatema; Steele, Chad; Yano, Junko; Fidel, Jr

2002-01-01

342

The reliability of a structured examination protocol and self administered vaginal swabs: a pilot study of gynaecological outpatients in Goa, India  

OpenAIRE

Method: 75 women attending a gynaecology outpatient clinic were purposively sampled. Each woman was examined by two gynaecologists independently who recorded findings on the new examination protocol. Two swabs were collected from each woman, one by the gynaecologist and one by the woman. Swabs were smeared on separate slides which were stained and read for bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis by laboratory technicians blind to the mode of collection of the slides.

Tanksale, V.; Sahasrabhojanee, M.; Patel, V.; Nevrekar, P.; Menezes, S.; Mabey, D.

2003-01-01

343

Vaginal Discharge: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management  

OpenAIRE

Vaginal discharge is a frequent presenting complaint in an office practice. The authors of this article review the most common causes of this condition, namely Candidiasis, Trichimoniasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella), as well as the more serious causes, namely gonorrhea, chlamydia, and Herpes simplex. Symptoms and physical signs are generally insufficient to distinguish specific etiologic agents and, as treatment for each is different, diagnostic examination of smears in the office ...

Watson, William J.; Demarchi, Gregory

1987-01-01

344

Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents  

OpenAIRE

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human ...

Izabel Galhardo Demarchi; Daniela Maira Cardozo; Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Ricardo Alberto Moliterno; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso; Dennis Armando Bertolini; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira; Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni

2012-01-01

345

Rutinemæssig oftalmologisk opfølgning anbefales ved candidæmi  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The incidence of candidaemia is increasing on a global scale. Secondary intraocular involvement is a rare but serious complication, which can cause considerable visual damage. Hence, current national and international guidelines recommend ophthalmological examination of all patients with verified candidaemia in order to ensure adequate therapy and reduce the risk of visual impairment. We present a case illustrating that initial symptoms and findings of ocular candidiasis may often be subtle which emphasizes the importance of consistent adherence to these guidelines.

Smit, Jesper; Leemreize, Marieke

2014-01-01

346

Fungal infection of gingiva in a patient with hyperimmunoglobulin-E (Job's) syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), also known as Job's syndrome, is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, recurrent skin and lung infections, elevated serum IgE, and connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. Individuals with HIES share a characteristic facial appearance and many oral manifestations including retained primary dentition, a high-arched palate, variations of the oral mucosa and gingiva, and recurrent oral candidiasis. An 18-year-old lady presented with ...

Deepa, D.; Kumar, K. V. Arun; Joshi, Chander Shekhar; Kumar, Sanjeev; Pandey, Anita

2012-01-01

347

Anidulafungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infections  

OpenAIRE

Kathryn Sabol, Tawanda GumboUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: More antifungal agents have reached clinical use in the past two decades than at any other time. The echinocandins have been a welcome addition to this group, with the latest being anidulafungin. There are several lines of evidence to support anidulafungin’s role as primary therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic patients, and as alternative therapy to f...

Kathryn Sabol; Tawanda Gumbo

2008-01-01

348

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Opportunistic Infections (OIs) and co-infections are the major cause of deaths amongst HIV infected individuals and this mostly depends upon the risk factors, type of exposure and geographic region. The commonest types of infections reported are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Due to the scarcity of OIs data available from this region, we had designed a stu...

Chakrabarti Sekhar; Bhattacharya Mihir K; Roy Arnab; Pal Jyotirmoy; Santra Poonam; Firdaus Rushna; Saha Kallol; Sadhukhan Provash C

2011-01-01

349

Role of autophagy genetic variants for the risk of Candida infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans can cause candidemia in neutropenic and critically ill patients and oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with low CD4(+) counts. Because all patients at risk do not develop Candida infections, it is possible that a patient's genetic background might play a role in his or her susceptibility to infection. Autophagy mediates pathogen clearance and modulation of inflammation. Our aim was to assess the effect of genetic variations in the ATG16L1 and IRGM autophagy genes on the susceptibility of patients with candidemia and oropharyngeal candidiasis. We assessed genetic variations in the ATG16L1 and IRGM genes in a cohort of candidemia patients of both African and European origin. In addition, we evaluated the effect of these polymorphisms on the susceptibility to oropharyngeal candidiasis of an HIV-positive cohort from Tanzania. Functional studies have been performed to assess the effect of the ATG16L1 and IRGM genetic variants on both in vitro and in vivo cytokine production. The results indicate that ATG16L1 variants modulate production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, but not other cytokines, while no effects were seen in the presence of IRGM polymorphisms. In addition, no significant associations between the single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the ATG16L1 and IRGM genetic variants and the incidence of candidemia or oropharyngeal candidiasis were identified. Despite moderate effects on the modulation of proinflammatory cytokine production, genetic variation in the autophagy genes ATG16L1 and IRGM has a minor impact on the susceptibility to both mucosal and systemic Candida infections. PMID:24713404

Rosentul, Diana C; Plantinga, Theo S; Farcas, Marius; Oosting, Marije; Hamza, Omar J M; Scott, William K; Alexander, Barbara D; Yang, John C; Laird, Gregory M; Joosten, Leo A B; van der Meer, Jos W M; Perfect, John R; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Johnson, Melissa D; Netea, Mihai G

2014-05-01

350

Laboratory study of anticandidal activity of thyme, pennyroyal and lemon essential oils by micro dilution method  

OpenAIRE

Introduction and objective: Patients with candidiasis could be treated with antifungal drugs. Due to side effects and drug resistance, many studies have been conducted to investigate essential oils’ antifungal effects. The aim of the present study was to determine anticandidal activity of some essential oils. Materials and methods: In this study, the effect of thyme, pennyroyal and lemon essential oils on Candida isolated from vulvovaginal infection were investigated experimentally by using...

Zahra Rahmani; Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh; Saeid Mahdavi Omran

2010-01-01

351

SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF MICONAZOLE NITRATE FOR FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE GEL  

OpenAIRE

The goal of the present investigation is formulation and evaluation of a mucoadhesive gel for buccal delivery after solubility enhancement of very slightly water-soluble drug Miconazole Nitrate. Miconazole Nitrate is imidazole derivative useful in treatment of oropharyngeal Candidiasis, the most common infection in AIDS patients. The method namely solvent deposition with inclusion complex, solid dispersion with inclusion complex and solvent deposition with solid dispersion are used for solubi...

Kishan Singh; Rishabha Malviya; Sharma, Pramod K.

2014-01-01

352

In vitro susceptibilities of sucrose-negative Candida tropicalis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida norvegensis to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole, and ketoconazole.  

OpenAIRE

The MICs and minimal lethal concentrations of four antimycotics, amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole nitrate, and ketoconazole, were determined for 25 yeast isolates representing species uncommonly implicated in candidiasis. A microdilution procedure was employed with complex and synthetic media. The isolates, in general, were susceptible to the same antimicrobial agents shown to be effective against Candida albicans, but differences between some of the species in relative susceptibi...

Ahearn, D. G.; Mcglohn, M. S.

1984-01-01

353

Oral Candida Isolates Colonizing or Infecting Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Healthy Persons in Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral yeast carriage was studied in 312 Mexican subjects. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, but other Candida spp. were isolated from 16.5 to 38.5% of patients. Colonization did not correlate with CD4+ number or viral load, but highly active antiretroviral therapy reduced the frequency of candidiasis. Most isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, but 10.8% were resistant to one or more azoles. PMID:16081965

Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio; Ortiz-López, Natalia Guadalupe; Villar, María; Moragues, María Dolores; Aguirre, José Manuel; Cashat-Cruz, Miguel; Lopez-Ribot, Jose Luis; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

2005-01-01

354

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING OF ANTIGENS OF CANDIDA GENUS FUNGI  

OpenAIRE

To develop the vaccine against candidal infection the various biotechnological methods for obtaining antigens of Candida genus fungi have been considered in the article. To obtain antigens for the prevention and treatment of candidiasis researchers use different types and parts of fungi of the genus Candida. Methods of preparation of antigens also vary widely including chemical, physical and physico-chemical techniques. Of all possible variants development and research of a dead and subunit v...

Rybalkin ?.V

2014-01-01

355

[2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

Sei, Yoshihiro

2012-01-01

356

Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis with Commercial Yeast Identification Systems  

OpenAIRE

Candida dubliniensis is a newly described species that is closely related phylogenetically to Candida albicans and that is commonly associated with oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Several recent studies have attempted to elucidate phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of use in separating the two species. However, results obtained with simple phenotypic tests were too variable and tests that provided more definitive data were too complex for routine use ...

Pincus, D. H.; Coleman, D. C.; Pruitt, W. R.; Padhye, A. A.; Salkin, I. F.; Geimer, M.; Bassel, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Clarke, M; Hearn, V.

1999-01-01

357

A Community-based Oral Health Promotion Model for HIV Patients in Nairobi, East District in Kenya: a Study Protocol  

OpenAIRE

Background: General HIV-related orofacial lesions, most commonly oropharyngeal candidiasis, have a typical clinical appearance and can be recognised by members of the community. Although affected patients often experience pain leading to compromised eating and swallowing, barriers such as social stigma and lack of knowledge regarding available services may prevent them from seeking early care. Educating the community about these lesions through community health workers (CHWs) who are...

Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Frencken, Jo E.; Jan Mulder; Koyio, Lucina N.; Sanden, Wil J. M.; Andre van der Ven; Creugers, Nico H. J.

2013-01-01

358

Candida mannan: chemistry, suppression of cell-mediated immunity, and possible mechanisms of action.  

OpenAIRE

The ability of Candida albicans to establish an infection involves multiple components of this fungal pathogen, but its ability to persist in host tissue may involve primarily the immunosuppressive property of a major cell wall glycoprotein, mannan. Mannan and oligosaccharide fragments of mannan are potent inhibitors of cell-mediated immunity and appear to reproduce the immune deficit of patients with the mucocutaneous form of candidiasis. However, neither the exact structures of these inhibi...

Nelson, R. D.; Shibata, N.; Podzorski, R. P.; Herron, M. J.

1991-01-01

359

Assessment of the types of catheter infectivity caused by Candida species and their biofilm formation. First study in an intensive care unit in Algeria  

OpenAIRE

Sidi Mohammed Lahbib Seddiki,1 Zahia Boucherit-Otmani,1 Kebir Boucherit,1 Souad Badsi-Amir,2 Mourad Taleb,3 Dennis Kunkel41Laboratory: Antifungal Antibiotic, Physico-Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activity, University of Tlemcen, Algeria; 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; 4Dennis Kunkel Microscopy Inc, Kailua, HI, USAAbstract: Nosocomial candidiasis remains a potential risk in intensive care units (ICUs), wherein Can...

Sml, Seddiki; Boucherit-Otmani Z; Boucherit K; Badsi-Amir S; Taleb M; Kunkel D

2013-01-01

360

Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

361

Modification of Surface Properties of Biomaterials Influences the Ability of Candida albicans To Form Biofilms  

OpenAIRE

Candida albicans biofilms form on indwelling medical devices (e.g., denture acrylic or intravenous catheters) and are associated with both oral and invasive candidiasis. Here, we determined whether surface modifications of polyetherurethane (Elasthane 80A [E80A]), polycarbonateurethane, and poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) can influence fungal biofilm formation. Polyurethanes were modified by adding 6% polyethylene oxide (6PEO), 6% fluorocarbon, or silicone, while the PET surface was modifie...

Chandra, Jyotsna; Patel, Jasmine D.; Li, Jian; Zhou, Guangyin; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Mccormick, Thomas S.; Anderson, James M.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2005-01-01

362

Fungal Disease in Britain and the United States 1850–2000 : Mycoses and Modernity  

OpenAIRE

In this book, we discuss the changing medical and public profile of fungal infections in the period 1850–2000. We consider four sets of diseases: ringworm and athlete’s foot (dermatophytosis); thrush or candidiasis (infection with Candida albicans); endemic, geographically specific infections in North America (coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and histoplasmosis) and mycotoxins; and aspergillosis (infection with Aspergillus fumigatus). We discuss each disease in relation to developing med...

Homei, Aya; Worboys, Michael

2013-01-01

363

Effect of education of primary health care workers on HIV-related oral lesions in Nairobi East district  

OpenAIRE

Background. An estimated 90% of HIV-infected people are likely to develop oral lesions in the course of HIV infection. Oro-pharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), an early marker for HIV-infection, can be diagnosed during an oral examination (OE). Primary healthcare (PHC) providers in Kenya are neither trained nor sufficiently equipped to perform this simple, cheap and non-invasive examination. The PHC system in Kenya offers an opportunity to integrate early recognition and management of oral ...

Nico Creugers; Frencken, Jo E.; Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Koyio, Lucina N.; Sanden, Wil Jm J. M.; Andre van der Ven

2012-01-01

364

Measurement of Serum d-Arabinitol/Creatinine Ratios for Initial Diagnosis and for Predicting Outcome in an Unselected, Population-Based Sample of Patients with Candida Fungemia?  

OpenAIRE

d-Arabinitol (DA) is a useful diagnostic marker for candidiasis in patients with neutropenia and other high-risk groups, but its use in unselected patients with a broad range of underlying diseases and conditions has not been studied. We used an automated enzymatic fluorometric assay to measure serum DA/creatinine ratios (DA/cr's) in 30 healthy adults, 100 hospitalized controls without Candida fungemia, and 83 patients from a study of all Candida fungemias in Connecticut between October 1998 ...

Yeo, Siew Fah; Huie, Sharon; Sofair, Andre N.; Campbell, Sheldon; Durante, Amanda; Wong, Brian

2006-01-01

365

Análise in vitro da eficácia do bicarbonato de sódio e da nistatina na inibição de Candida albicans  

OpenAIRE

The oral cavity lodges a great variety of microorganisms, being that the buccal balance microbiota and host can be modified, favoring the pathogenicity on the part of the microorganisms. It is patients immunedejectedes for HIV and cancer that in the last decades we could perceive the manifestations of oral candidiasis. The work aimed at the verification of the antifungal action of the Nistatina, sodium bicarbonate solution 30% and dentifrice with sodium bicarbonate, through the techn...

Francinne Miranda da Rosa; Eaa Brusco, Larissa Corr U.; Eaa Peres, Paulo Edelvar Corr U.

2006-01-01

366

In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Species from Iranian HIV Infected Patients  

OpenAIRE

Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis and antifungal drug resistance are major problems in HIV positive patients. The increased reports of antifungal resistance and expanding therapeutic options prompted the determination of antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolates in Iranian patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the present study. Methods: One hundred fifty oral samples from Iranian HIV positive patients were obtained and cultured on CHROMagar and Sabourauds dextrose ...

Khaksar, A. A.; Hajiabdolbaghi, M.; Khalaj, V.; Ar, Khosravi; Katiraee, F.; Rasoulinejad, M.

2012-01-01

367

Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-15

368

Fractal Geometry and the Pharmacometrics of Micafungin in Overweight, Obese, and Extremely Obese People?  

OpenAIRE

The majority of Americans are overweight, and the incidence of obesity continues to increase. This trend predisposes people to a number of deleterious consequences, including the metabolic syndrome and other conditions that lead to a greater number of hospital admissions. Invasive candidiasis is an important nosocomial infection that results from these admissions. Echinocandins such as micafungin are indicated for treatment. We have previously demonstrated that overweight patients exhibit hig...

Hall, Ronald G.; Swancutt, Mark A.; Gumbo, Tawanda

2011-01-01

369

Survey of mycotic infection in patients with AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the fungous infections of AIDS stricken patients, a study which lasted 1.5 years was conducted, in which 21 patients were examined. The subjects were 20 males and a female. One of the male patients was from Uganda, another was an intravenous drug addict, and one had been abroad for sometimes and had received blood there. All other patients had also blood transfusion instances before 1984. To do the research, 414 laboratory specimens were gathered and examined regarding fungus involvement. The result showed 104 negative and 310 positive cases. Based on these findings and also clinical examination, all patients suffered from one or more fungous infections in the forms of oral candidiasis, perleche, candidal onychomycosis, perianal candidiasis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, tinea versicolor, pityrosporosis and rhodotrulosis. The latter caused skin lesion with scaling and is being reported for the first time. Candida parapsilosis and trichosporon pololans were also isolated specimens. However, concerning the diagnostic value of trichosporon pololans more investigation is needed.

Kazemi A

1998-07-01

370

Invasive Fungal Infections in the ICU: How to Approach, How to Treat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a growing problem in critically ill patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most of them are due to Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Invasive candidiasis includes candidaemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement and chronic disseminated candidiasis. During the last decades rare pathogenic fungi, such as Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Fusarium species and Scedosporium have also emerged. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment are of paramount importance for a favorable outcome. Besides blood cultures, several laboratory tests have been developed in the hope of facilitating an earlier detection of infection. The antifungal armamentarium has also been expanded allowing a treatment choice tailored to individual patients’ needs. The physician can choose among the old class of polyenes, the older and newer azoles and the echinocandins. Factors related to patient’s clinical situation and present co-morbidities, local epidemiology data and purpose of treatment (prophylactic, pre-emptive, empiric or definitive should be taken into account for the appropriate choice of antifungal agent.

Elisabeth Paramythiotou

2014-01-01

371

[Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaginitis (V) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics), symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1) normal--no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2) infected--changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV) and trichomoniasis (TC) and (3) imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D). Results obtained: (1) normal: 209 (52.2%); infected: 115 (28.8%) including 13.5% VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3) 76 (19%) with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. PMID:17370572

Fosch, S; Fogolín, N; Azzaroni, E; Pairetti, N; Dana, L; Minacori, H; Tita, I; Redona, M; Gribaudo, G

2006-01-01

372

Low-Dose Amphotericin B and Murine Dialyzable Spleen Extracts Protect against Systemic Candida Infection in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans causes opportunistic systemic infections with high mortality (30%–50%). Despite significant nephrotoxicity, amphotericin (AmB) is still used for the treatment of this serious fungal infection. Therefore, alternative treatments are urgently needed. Dialyzable leukocyte extracts have been used successfully to treat patients with mucocutaneous candidiasis, but their effectiveness in systemic candidiasis has not been evaluated. In this study, low-dose AmB (0.1?mg/kg) plus 10?pg of murine dialyzable spleen extracts (mDSE) were tested in a systemic candidiasis mouse model. Survival, tissue fungal burden, kidney damage, kidney cytokines, and serum levels of IL-6 and hepcidin were evaluated. Our results showed that the combined treatment of low-dose AmB plus mDSE improved survival and reduced kidney fungal burden and histopathology; these effects correlated with increased kidney concentration of IFN-? and TGF-?1, decreased levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10, as well as high levels of systemic IL-6 and hepcidin. Low-dose AmB and mDSE synergized to clear the infectious agent and reduced tissue damage, confirming the efficacy of a low dose of AmB, which might decrease the risk of drug toxicity. Further studies are necessary to explore these findings and its implications in future therapeutic approaches. PMID:24106515

Robledo-Ávila, F.; Pérez-Tapia, M.; Limón-Flores, A.; Pavon, L.; Hernández-Pando, R.; Wong-Baeza, I.; González-González, G.; Tovar, C.; Estrada-Parra, S.; Estrada-García, I.

2013-01-01

373

Diagnosing and Raising Awareness about Oral and Cervicovaginal Diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known today about the possible correlations between oral and cervicovaginal diseases although some diseases affect these two regions of the human body. This study extensively investigated the pathologies caused by the Candida fungus and the herpes virus to establish the correlation between oral and cervicovaginal diseases. A questionnaire and a cytopathology test (Pap smear were used to collect data from 118 women whose mean age was 41.51 years and who lived in the coastal city of Xangri-La, Brazil. Descriptive statistics and the Pearson correlation coeffi cient were used to analyze data (p=0.3 to p=0.7. The Pearson correlation coeffi cient showed that 16.9% of the women had oral herpes and oral candidiasis. Of the women who had oral herpes, 10% also had genital herpes, but there was no signifi cant correlation between these diseases (¿2 = 0.255, p = 0.614; of those with oral candidiasis, 15% also had vaginal candidiasis, but there was also no signifi cant correlation between these diseases (¿2 = 0.558, p = 0.455. After the cytopathology (Pap smear results were reviewed, 45.8% of the women in the sample were referred to a gynecologist. Oral and cervicovaginal diseases, especially those that are sexually transmitted, have gained great importance in public health due to their growing incidence and because they affect women in all age groups. Their sequelae may be irreversible and, therefore, should be considered by dentists that treat women.

M\\u00E1rcia Can\\u00E7ado Figueiredo

2012-01-01

374

Changing Trends of HIV/AIDS in Otorhinolaryngology with CD4 (+) Count Correlation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the vital cells of the immune system eventually leading to a fall in the cell mediated immunity. As the disease progresses CD4 (+) (cluster of differentiation4) cells reduce, therefore is a good indicator of the ongoing disease process [1]. HIV infection has myriads of disease presentation; the aim of our study was to correlate the otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the CD4 (+) counts. A clinical study, of 100 HIV positive patients was done from 2008 to 2011. A clinical evaluation revealed 76 % incidence of otorhinolaryngological findings. Oropharyngeal manifestations were the commonest, seen in 48 %, predominantly oropharyngeal candidiasis. Neck nodes were found in 20 % of the patients. 31 % had otological manifestations of which retracted tympanic membrane (eustachian tube dysfunction) was the commonest. 18 % had nasal symptoms of which rhinosinusitis was the commonest being 14 %. The mean CD4 (+) count was below 200 in patients who presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis, otitis externa and epistaxis. With the use and availability of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) more and more patients with higher CD4 (+) count are presenting with a different spectrum of more subtle disease manifestations, with lower incidence of the classical diseases like candidiasis. A routine otorhinolaryngological evaluation at every visit with high index of suspicion can help in better disease control and give a better quality of life. PMID:25621247

Kirti, Y K; Yashveer, J K; Poorey, V K

2015-03-01

375

Histopathology of candidal hyperplastic lesions of the larynx.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candidiasis of the larynx is rare, and candidal involvement of the larynx mostly occurs after pulmonary, pharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis, or as part of disseminated disease. We here report our morphologic observations made in five cases of laryngeal candidiasis. These cases had the following morphologic features in common: 1. pronounced epithelial hyperplasia, which may show a verrucous pattern, 2. prominent ortho-parakeratosis, and 3. predominantly neutrophilic infiltration located in the upper layers of the mucosal epithelium. Our morphologic observations were similar to the morphologic changes encountered in chronic hyperplastic candidosis of the oral mucosa. As this type of candidal lesions contains fewer hyphae than the usual thrush, fungal infection may be easily overlooked. Pronounced epithelial hyperplasia and prominent ortho-parakeratosis may mimic squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas. In conclusion, we suggest performing special stains for fungi of laryngeal biopsies that have the morphologic features mentioned above. In that way, it is possible to detect a candidal infection, keeping in mind that the fungal organisms may be very few in number and morphologically distorted. PMID:12498222

Pabuççuo?lu, Ugur; Tuncer, Canten; Sengiz, Selma

2002-01-01

376

 

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health and Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A recorrência da candidíase oral em crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS é um acontecimento muito comum na prática clínica. O objetivo foi verificar os fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral, utilizando técnica de análise de sobrevida para eventos recorrentes. Estudo de coorte retrospectivo c [...] om 287 crianças, atendidas entre 1985 e 2009, em um serviço de saúde de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi utilizado o modelo marginal para eventos recorrentes de Prentice, Williams e Peterson para investigação dos fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral. Imunodepressão moderada (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) ou grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in spanish La repetición de candidiasis oral en los niños que viven con VIH/SIDA es muy común en la práctica clínica. El objetivo fue verificar los factores asociados al tiempo libre y la candidiasis oral, usando la técnica de análisis de supervivencia para eventos recurrentes. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte [...] retrospectiva con 287 niños que visitaron entre 1985 y 2009 un servicio de salud de São Paulo, Brasil. Se usó el modelo marginal para eventos recurrentes de Prentice, Williams y Peterson, con el fin de investigar los factores asociados. Moderada inmunodepresión (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) o grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in english In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children t [...] reated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p

Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira, Konstantyner; Aline Medeiros da, Silva; Luana Fiengo, Tanaka; Heloísa Helena de Sousa, Marques; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre.

2197-22-01

377

The importance of genus Candida in human samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific diagnosis and are implemented early in the course of Candida infection (that is, empirical therapy or before Candida infection occurs (that is, prophylaxis might improve patient survival and may be warranted. Selective and nonselective administration of anti-Candida prophylaxis is practiced in some ICUs. Several trials have tested this, but results were limited by low statistical power and choice of outcomes. Thus, the role of anti-Candida prophylaxis for patients in the ICU remains controversial. Initiating anti-Candida therapy for patients in the ICU who have suspected infection but have not responded to antibacterial therapy (empirical therapy is practiced in some hospitals. This practice, however, remains a subject of considerable debate. These patients are perceived to be at higher risk from invasive candidiasis and therefore are likely to benefit from empirical therapy. Nonetheless, empirical anti-Candida therapies have not been evaluated in a randomized trial and would share shortcomings that are similar to those described for prophylactic strategies. Current treatment guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA do not specify whether empirical anti-Candida therapy should be provided to immunocompetent patients. If such therapy is given, IDSA recommends that its use should be limited to patients with Candida colonization in multiple sites, patients with several other risk factors, and patients with no uncorrected causes of fever. Without data from clinical trials, determining an optimal anti-Candida strategy for patients in the ICU is challenging. Identifying such a strategy can help guide clinicians in choosing adequate therapy and may improve patient outcomes. In our study, we developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of empirical anti-Candida therapy given to high-risk patients in the ICU, defined as those with altered temperature (fever or hypothermia or unexplained hypotension despite 3 days of antibacterial therapy in the ICU.

Boji?-Mili?evi? Gordana M.

2008-01-01

378

Enfermedad fúngica invasora en pacientes hemato-oncológicos y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos bajo la perspectiva de los criterios diagnósticos EORTC/MSG / Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) es una complicación grave en pacientes hemato-oncológicos (H-O) y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH). Objetivo: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas en pacientes adultos H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro, bajo los crit [...] erios diagnósticos revisados de EORTC/MSG. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de EFI en pacientes adultos del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero 2004 y enero 2008. Resultados: Se identificaron 41 episodios de EFI, correspondientes a 39 pacientes: 46,6 ± 9,9 años, 87,8% H-Oy 12,2% TPH. Se documentaron 15/41 (36,6%) EFI demostrada, 36,6% probable y 11/41 (26,8%) posible. En 26/41 (63,4%o) se diagnosticó aspergilosis (20 pulmonar, 3 rinosinusal, 1 laríngeo y un caso cerebral-pulmonar). En 7/41 (17,1%) se diagnosticó candidiasis, 5 candidemias y 2 candidiasis hepato-esplénica posibles; 4/41 (9,8%o) correspondió a mucormicosis demostrada (2 rinosinusal, 1 oral y 1 pulmonar); en 2/41 (4,9%o) fusariosis; 1/41(2,4%)) coinfección pulmonar por mucoral y Aspergillus sp y 1 caso de rinosinusitis por Alternaría sp. La frecuencia de EFI entre pacientes H-O con neutropenia febril fue 26,2%) y 6,4%) en los receptores de TPH. La mortalidad global fue de 36%). Conclusiones: Aspergilosis es la EFI más frecuente en H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro. Candidiasis es la segunda EFI en frecuencia; sin embargo, no se documentó entre los pacientes receptores de TPH, lo que puede relacionarse al uso de antifúngicos profilácticos en este grupo. Es necesaria la vigilancia continua para desarrollar guías clínicas locales y evaluar estrategias de uso de antifúngicos en distintos escenarios clínicos. Abstract in english Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a severe complication oceurring mostly in haemato-oncological (H-O) patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD oceurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. Pat [...] ients and Methods: IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. Results: A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 ± 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% oceurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6%) episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8%) possible. In 26 (63.4%) episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement). In 7 patients (17.1%) candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8%) Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%), and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaría sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evalúate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

Ricardo, Rabagliati B; Gino, Fuentes L; Ana María, Guzmán D; Eric, Orellana U; Jorge, Oporto C; Igor, Aedo C; Marcelo, Garrido S; Bruno, Nervi N.

2009-06-01

379

Enfermedad fúngica invasora en pacientes hemato-oncológicos y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos bajo la perspectiva de los criterios diagnósticos EORTC/MSG Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria  

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Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI es una complicación grave en pacientes hemato-oncológicos (H-O y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH. Objetivo: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas en pacientes adultos H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro, bajo los criterios diagnósticos revisados de EORTC/MSG. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de EFI en pacientes adultos del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero 2004 y enero 2008. Resultados: Se identificaron 41 episodios de EFI, correspondientes a 39 pacientes: 46,6 ± 9,9 años, 87,8% H-Oy 12,2% TPH. Se documentaron 15/41 (36,6% EFI demostrada, 36,6% probable y 11/41 (26,8% posible. En 26/41 (63,4%o se diagnosticó aspergilosis (20 pulmonar, 3 rinosinusal, 1 laríngeo y un caso cerebral-pulmonar. En 7/41 (17,1% se diagnosticó candidiasis, 5 candidemias y 2 candidiasis hepato-esplénica posibles; 4/41 (9,8%o correspondió a mucormicosis demostrada (2 rinosinusal, 1 oral y 1 pulmonar; en 2/41 (4,9%o fusariosis; 1/41(2,4% coinfección pulmonar por mucoral y Aspergillus sp y 1 caso de rinosinusitis por Alternaría sp. La frecuencia de EFI entre pacientes H-O con neutropenia febril fue 26,2% y 6,4% en los receptores de TPH. La mortalidad global fue de 36%. Conclusiones: Aspergilosis es la EFI más frecuente en H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro. Candidiasis es la segunda EFI en frecuencia; sin embargo, no se documentó entre los pacientes receptores de TPH, lo que puede relacionarse al uso de antifúngicos profilácticos en este grupo. Es necesaria la vigilancia continua para desarrollar guías clínicas locales y evaluar estrategias de uso de antifúngicos en distintos escenarios clínicos.Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD is a severe complication oceurring mostly in haemato-oncological (H-O patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD oceurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. Patients and Methods: IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. Results: A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 ± 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% oceurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6% episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8% possible. In 26 (63.4% episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement. In 7 patients (17.1% candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8% Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%, and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaría sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evalúate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

Ricardo Rabagliati B

2009-06-01

380

Infections in patients with immunodeficiency with thymoma (Good syndrome). Report of 5 cases and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunodeficiency with thymoma (Good syndrome, GS) is a rare, adult-onset condition that is characterized by thymoma, hypogammaglobulinemia, and low numbers of peripheral B cells. CD4+ T lymphopenia and an inverted CD4:CD8+ T-cell ratio may be present. Here we report 5 patients with GS and infectious complications who were seen at 3 institutions between 1983 and 1999. Three patients had recurrent sinopulmonary infections, 3 had severe cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, and 1 had Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Review of the literature identified 46 other reports of infections in GS patients. The infections reported in all 51 patients included recurrent sinopulmonary infection (19 cases with documented respiratory pathogens), generally with encapsulated bacteria, most often Haemophilus influenzae (11 cases); CMV disease (5 cases); bacteremia (7 cases); oral or esophageal candidiasis (6 cases); persistent mucocutaneous candidiasis (5 cases); chronic diarrhea (5 cases with documented stool pathogens); urinary tract infections (4 cases); P. carinii pneumonia (3 cases); tuberculosis (2 cases); Kaposi sarcoma (1 case); disseminated varicella (1 case); candidemia (1 case); wound infection with Clostridium perfringens (1 case); Mycoplasma arthritis (1 case); and other infections. Patients with GS present with a spectrum of sinopulmonary infections and pathogens similar to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Compared with patients with CVID, opportunistic infections, including severe CMV disease, P. carinii pneumonia, and mucocutaneous candidiasis, appear to be more common in patients with GS, and patients with GS may have a worse prognosis. GS should be ruled out in patients with thymoma or CVID who develop severe, especially opportunistic, infections. Treatment with intravenous immune globulin is recommended for all patients with GS. PMID:11307588

Tarr, P E; Sneller, M C; Mechanic, L J; Economides, A; Eger, C M; Strober, W; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Lucey, D R

2001-03-01

381

Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 109/L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P9/L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P9/L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common finidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

382

A novel nerolidol-rich essential oil from Piper claussenianum modulates Candida albicans biofilm.  

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Candidiasis is a major opportunistic fungal infection in humans, and its incidence has increased steadily over the last two decades. Candida albicans, the main species of the genus, has a large arsenal of virulence attributes that contribute to successful infections, such as dimorphism and biofilm formation. The adverse effects of eukaryotic antimicrobial therapies associated with an increase in resistance to the compounds presently available have boosted efforts to improve the therapeutic arsenal against candidiasis with a newer and cheaper range of drugs. In this study, a novel nerolidol-rich essential oil (EO) derived from Piper claussenianum (Miq.) C. DC., Piperaceae, was tested on the growth, transition (yeast to hyphae), formation and stability of biofilms produced by C. albicans. Both inflorescence and leaf EOs were evaluated and revealed MIC values ranging from 0.04 to 0.1?% and 0.2 to 1.26?%, respectively. Furthermore, leaf EO managed to downregulate the yeast-to-hyphae transition by 81?%, as well as reducing biofilm formation by about 30 and 50?% after incubation for 24 and 48 h, respectively. The EO was also able to reduce the viability of pre-formed biofilm by 63.9?%. Finally, the association between the leaf EO and fluconazole was evaluated and revealed an interesting synergistic effect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that this novel compound could be a promising agent and could reinforce the arsenal of therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of candidiasis. Furthermore, it may represent a novel and natural source of nerolidol, which could be of interest pharmaceutically. PMID:24523158

Curvelo, J A R; Marques, A M; Barreto, A L S; Romanos, M T V; Portela, M B; Kaplan, M A C; Soares, R M A

2014-05-01

383

Manifestaciones bucales de vih-sida en edad temprana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La transmisión vertical del Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana de la madre al niño durante el embarazo, parto y a través de la leche materna representa un 91% de todos los casos de Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida reportados en la población infantil de los EE.UU. La mejor manera de evitar la i [...] nfección en los niños es prevenir la infección en las mujeres y fomentar una atención prenatal precoz que incluya orientación y pruebas de detección del VIH. Objetivo: Determinar las manifestaciones bucales más frecuentes en niños VIH-SIDA. Materiales y métodos: Se examinaron clínicamente a 59 niños de 0 a 4 años siguiendo el protocolo establecido en el CAPEI/UCV entre 2002-2004. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el método de Clasificación Jerárquica de Ward, aplicado a todas las manifestaciones bucales estudiadas Resultados: Parotiditis: 20 (33,9%); Candidiasis 38 (54,4%); Queilitis 30 (50,8%); Gingivitis 25 (42,4%), GUN 1 (1,7%) Eritema lineal 19 (32,2); Epstein Barr 5 (8,5%); Virus del Herpes Simple 13 (22%). Conclusión: De acuerdo a la manifestación bucal observada se identifico a la candidiasis como la más relevante en los dos aspectos estudiados: Queilitis angular y Candidiasis pseudomembranosa. Abstract in english The vertical transmission their main mode of infection in children from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery and brest feeding about 91% of all cases. The better way to prevent the HIV infection is control and orientation to pregnant woman to make a test to detect HIV The objective of this stu [...] dy was to determine oral manifestations in children HIV/ADIS Materials and methods: Were examined 59 children to .evaluate oral lesions. aged 0 to 4 years follow CAPEI/UCV protocolo during 2002 - 2004. The statistical analyzed was jerarquica Ward classification. Results

VILMA, TOVAR; MARÍA ELENA, GUERRA; LUCILA, BLANCO.

2006-12-01

384

Common harms from amoxicillin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials for any indication  

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Background: When prescribing antibiotics for common indications, clinicians need information about both harms and benefits, information that is currently available only from observational studies. We quantified the common harms of the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, amoxicillin, from randomized placebo-controlled trials. Methods: For this systematic review, we searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, without language restriction, for any randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled trials of amoxicillin or amoxicillin–clavulanic acid for any indication, in any setting. Our main outcome was any reported adverse event. Results: Of 730 studies identified, we included 45 trials: 27 involving amoxicillin, 17 involving amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and 1 involving both. The indications for antibiotic therapy were variable. The risk of bias was low, although only 25 trials provided data suitable for assessment of harms, which suggested under-reporting. Diarrhea was attributed to amoxicillin only in the form of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (Peto odds ratio [OR] 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23–4.87). The OR for candidiasis (3 trials) was significantly higher (OR 7.77, 95% CI 2.23–27.11). Rashes, nausea, itching, vomiting and abnormal results on liver function tests were not significantly increased. The results were not altered by sensitivity analyses, nor did funnel plots suggest publication bias. The number of courses of antibiotics needed to harm was 10 (95% CI 6–17) for diarrhea with amoxicillin–clavulanic acid and 27 (95% CI 24–42) for candidiasis with amoxicillin (with or without clavulanic acid). Interpretation: Diarrhea was caused by use of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, and candidiasis was caused by both amoxicillin and amoxicillin–clavulanic acid. Harms were poorly reported in most trials, and their true incidence may have been higher than reported. Nevertheless, these rates of common harms associated with amoxicillin therapy may inform decisions by helping clinicians to balance harms against benefits. PMID:25404399

Gillies, Malcolm; Ranakusuma, Anggi; Hoffmann, Tammy; Thorning, Sarah; McGuire, Treasure; Glasziou, Paul; Del Mar, Christopher

2015-01-01

385

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

386

Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

1999-10-01

387

Species identification of Candida isolates obtained from oral lesions of HIV infected patients  

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Full Text Available A total of 60 patients suspected to have AIDS with oral lesions suggestive of oral candidiasis were studied. Candida species were isolated from 50 patients. Candida albicans was the commonest isolate (70 % followed Candida parapsilosis (15%, Candida glabrata (7.5% and Candida tropicalis (5% respectively. Candida dubliniensis was isolated from a single case only. Though the reports from developed countries show more prevalence of the novel species Candida dubliniensis, in our study it was isolated in a single case. All the patients were treated successfully with oral fluconazole for 7 days except for the patients from which Candida glabrata was isolated, who were treated with Amphotericin B.

Baradkar V

2009-01-01

388

Clinical profile of sexual transmitted diseases in cuttack  

OpenAIRE

Out of total 2330 patients, 516 patients with STD i.e., 22.14%, were analysed during the period 1993 to 1994. Frequency of different STDs observed in order were herpes progenitalis (21.89%), syphilis (16.27%), chancroid (11.82%) and granuloma inguinale (7.55%), gonococcal urethritis and genital warts (3.87% each). L G V was found in 0.58% of cases, HIV infection in 3 cases only (0.56%). Other miscellaneous infections like candidiasis (13...

Mohanty J; Das K.; Mishra C

1995-01-01

389

Anticandidal activity of certain South Indian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anticandidal activity of 20 household South Indian medicinal plants and/or plant products was studied using 30 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vaginal candidiasis patients of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital and compared with the anticandidal activity of garlic. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined. Water extracts of three plants did not show any anticandidal activity, while Murrya koenigii did not exhibit any anticandidal activity in either extract. Other plants exhibited more activity in ethanol extracts showing that their active principle is more soluble in a non-polar solvent. PMID:10815017

Vaijayanthimala, J; Anandi, C; Udhaya, V; Pugalendi, K V

2000-05-01

390

Study of genital lesions  

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Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

Anand Kumar B

2003-03-01

391

Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

392

Púrpura de Schönlein-Henoch grave en un paciente con mieloma múltiple Severe Henoch-Schönlein purpura in multiple myeloma. Report of one case  

OpenAIRE

A Multiple Myeloma (MM), IgG-lambda stage III-A was diagnosed in a 41-year-old-man. After VAD cycles IgG decreased from 7.5 to 2.4 g/dL. were mobilized with cyclophosphamide and 10 µg/Kg G-CSF. Three days after the collection of peripheral stem cell, the patient had fever, nausea, vomiting, liquid stools, shoulder and knee arthralgia and dehydration. Upper GI endoscopy showed esophageal candidiasis and ulcerative necrotic lesions both in stomach and duodenum; the bio...

Guillermo Conte L.; Francisco J Conte S; José M Ojeda F; Daniel Araos H; Jaime Poniachik T; Guillermo Murray C; Claudio Flores P

2000-01-01

393

Abscess resulting from Mycobacterium kansasii in the left thigh of AIDS patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A case of abscess resulting from Mycobacterium kansasii, in the left thigh of a 53-year-old woman infected with the Human Immunodeficiency virus, is reported. Curiously, there was no pulmonary or systemic involvement as is usual with these Mycobacterium infections. The patient had CD4 T lymphocyte c [...] ount of 257 cells/µL and a viral load of 60,154 copies. Despite presenting a relatively preserved immunity, the patient also presented Criptococcic meningoencephalitis and Esophageal candidiasis. The patient responded satisfactorily to treatment for infections and after 51 days was discharged.

Catarina Tenório de, Lima; Vera, Magalhães.

2014-06-01

394

A Clinico - Aetiological Study Of Dermatoses In Paediatric Age Group  

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Full Text Available Five hundred patients of the age group 0-12 years were studied for different types of dermatoses. Pyoderma (35.6%, scabies (22.4% and eczema (17.6% were the most common dermatological conditions, followed by molluscum contagiosum (4.6%, popular urticaria with insect bite (4%, vitiligo (3.4%, miliaria (2.8%, nevus (1.6%. Other dermatoses (8% were pityriasis rosea, wart, chicken pox, herpes zoster, acne vulgaris, leprosy, angular stomatitis, pruritus vulvae, psoriasis, candidiasis, condylomatalata, fixed drug relation, tinea capitis and corporis, phrynoderma, alopecia areata, phimosis, geographic tongue, trichotillomania, canitis, pediculosis, hypertrophic scar and pityriasis versicolor.

Ghosh Sadhan K

1995-01-01

395

[Role of probiotics in Obstetrics and Gynecology].  

Science.gov (United States)

The human microbiota is estimated to be 2.5-3.0 kg. Bacterial colonization starts during delivery, due to fetal contact with vaginal and intestinal maternal microorganisms. The oligosaccharides in human breast milk stimulate the growth of bacteria, which provide the optimal environment for intestinal mucosal immunity development. Additionally, breast milk has its own microbiota and it is altered in mastitis. The vagina is another important microenvironment. Vaginal dysbiosis leads to bacterial vaginosis and vaginal candidiasis, both of them very frequent in reproductive life. The probiotics are a potential and encouraging treatment for all microbiota alterations. Nevertheless, additional studies are required to confirm the benefits of probiotics. PMID:25659051

Castro, A; González, M; Tarín, J J; Cano, A

2015-01-01

396

Interaktion mellem warfarin og oral miconazol-gel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We report a case of a 76 year-old woman who had been taking warfarin for seven years because of relapsing deep venous thrombosis. Her daily maintenance dose was 5 mg. Monthly measurements of international normalised ratio (INR) were stable between 2-3. She developed oral candidiasis and miconazole gel was prescribed. One week later she developed bleeding gums. Eight days later she was admitted to the hospital with haematuria. INR was > 10. Warfarin and the miconazole gel were withdrawn. She was treated with phytonadione. INR normalised after four days and she continued warfarin treatment. Caution should be exercised whenever the combination of warfarin and miconazole gel are prescribed.

Ogard, C G; Vestergaard, Henrik

2000-01-01

397

Crohn’s Disease and Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in a Patient with Ectodermal Dysplasia and Immunodeficiency  

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Full Text Available In this case report we will describe a rare association between anhyrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED and immunodeficiency and autoimmunity [in our case: Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP and Crohn disease]. AED is a rare congenital disorder characterized by sparse hair, abnormal teeth and anhidrosis due to lack of eccrine glands. The survey of 87 cases with (AED revealed only one Irritable Bowel Disease (IBD.  AED has only two relevancies with immunodeficiency: (EDA-ID: Ectodermal Dysplasia Anhyrotic with Immunodeficiency and APE-CED (Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, Candidiasis and Ectodermal Dysplasia that in our case EDA-ID is strongly suspected.

Mostafa Sedighi

2006-07-01

398

Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunistic Infections (OIs and co-infections are the major cause of deaths amongst HIV infected individuals and this mostly depends upon the risk factors, type of exposure and geographic region. The commonest types of infections reported are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Due to the scarcity of OIs data available from this region, we had designed a study to determine the frequency of different OIs amongst HIV seropositive patients. Methods Analysis of the different spectrum of OIs/Co-infections were carried out with 204 HIV sero-positive patients (142 males and 62 females who visited the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic in a tertiary care hospital from March 2006 to March 2009. The CD4+ count was estimated using FACS Calibur, the routine smear test, serology, nested RT-PCR and DNA sequencing were carried out to determine the different OIs. Results In this study, HIV seropositive patients were mostly from middle age group (31-40 yrs with CD4+ counts in majority of symptomatic AIDS patients below 200 cells/mm3. The common co-infections/opportunistic infections were OC (53.43%, CD (47.05%, HSV-2 (36.76%, TB (35.29%, CMV (26.96%, HBV (15.19% and HCV (7.35%. Dual infections, like HSV-2 & CMV (15.38%, HSV-2 & TB (14.61%, HSV-2 & oral candidiasis (24.61% and CMV & oral candidiasis (14.61% were significant in follow-up patients. Triple infections were also common e.g., TB, CD, OC infection occurring frequently in about 14.21% of the study population. Multiple infections like OC, TB, CD amongst the viral co-infected patients with HSV-2, HCV, CMV and HBV are also reported in this study. The genotyping analysis of the HCV co-infected HIV individuals shows that two belonged to HCV genotype 1 and 8 belonged to genotype 3. Conclusions A wide spectrum of OIs were observed amongst HIV-infected patients in the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic. Oral candidiasis, CD, CMV and HSV-2, were the common OIs in those patients. This study aims to provide a clearer picture regarding infections occurring amongst HIV seropositive individuals so that the scientific findings could be translated into sustainable prevention programmes and improved public health policies. Trial registration None

Chakrabarti Sekhar

2011-03-01

399

The Novel Arylamidine T-2307 Maintains In Vitro and In Vivo Activity Against Echinocandin Resistant Candida albicans.  

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We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of the investigational arylamidine T-2307 against echinocandin-resistant C. albicans. T-2307 demonstrated potent in vitro activity, and daily subcutaneous doses between 0.75 to 6 mg/kg significantly improved survival and reduced fungal burden compared to placebo control and caspofungin (10 mg/kg/day) in mice with invasive candidiasis caused by an echinocandin-resistant strain. Thus, T-2307 may have a potential use in the treatment of echinocandin-resistant C. albicans infections. PMID:25451054

Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Fothergill, Annette W; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; McCarthy, Dora I; Kirkpatrick, William R; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Patterson, Thomas F

2014-12-01

400

Laryngeal tuberculosis: A case of a non-healing laryngeal lesion  

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Full Text Available We report a case of laryngeal tuberculosis in a 47-year-old Korean man. Laryngeal tuberculosis is rare and currently accounts for less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis. Clinical features of laryngeal tuberculosis include hoarseness, odynophagia and dyspnoea. Macroscopically, laryngeal tuberculosis may mimic laryngeal carcinoma, chronic laryngitis or laryngeal candidiasis. The diagnosis is often delayed due to a low index of clinical suspicion and hence may pose a significant public health risk. Laryngeal tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with any form of laryngeal lesion.

HK Chen and P Thornley

2012-03-01

401

Candida tropicalis in a case of cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis at a tertiary care hospital in Manipal  

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Biliary candidiasis is increasing in the hospitalized immunosuppressed individuals. Placement of biliary stents in the cancer patients with obstructive jaundice has been found to be an important factor associated with infectious complications. Positive fungal cultures from bile should not be ignored as mere contamination but should be considered when prescribing treatment for the immunosuppressed with recurrent cholangitis or receiving long-term antibiotic therapy. Here,we report a case of cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis where Candida tropicalis was the sole pathogen isolated from bile. This is probably the first case of its kind to be reported from Manipal, Karnataka, South India. PMID:24432227

Ballal, Mamatha; Chakraborty, Rituparna; Bhandary, Siddhartha; Kumar, P. Sampath

2013-01-01

402

Plasma cell orificial mucositis. Report of a case and review of the literature.  

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Plasma cell orificial mucositis is a benign idiopathic condition of orificial mucous membranes, characterized histopathologically by a dense plasmacytic infiltrate. Although plasma cell orificial mucositis was originally described by Zoon as occurring on the glans penis, conditions similar to plasma cell orificial mucositis involving other body orifices have been reported under various names. A patient with involvement of the lips and epiglottis associated with psoriasis and fissured tongue is described. Plasma cell orificial mucositis must be differentiated from numerous other entities, including erythroplasia of Queyrat, allergic contact mucositis, plasmacytoma, plasmoacanthoma, syphilis, candidiasis, and cheilitis granulomatosa. PMID:3777979

White, J W; Olsen, K D; Banks, P M

1986-11-01

403

Molecular monitoring of minimal residual disease in two patients with MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia and haploidentical transplantation after relapse  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This report describes the clinical courses of two acute myeloid leukemia patients. Both had MLL translocations, the first a t(10;11)(p11.2;q23) with MLL-AF10 and the second a t(11;19)(q23;p13.1) with MLL-ELL fusion. They achieved a clinical remission under conventional chemotherapy but relapsed shortly after end of therapy. Both had a history of invasive mycoses (one had possible pulmonary mycosis, one systemic candidiasis). Because no HLA-identic...

Burmeister Thomas; Molkentin Mara; Meyer Claus; Lachmann Nils; Schwartz Stefan; Friedrichs Birte; Beyer Jörg; Blau Igor; Lohm Gunnar; Tietze-Bürger Carola; Marschalek Rolf; Uharek Lutz

2012-01-01

404

Oral manifestations of drug therapy.  

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The oral cavity may be the target organ for a number of diverse abnormalities that develop from side effects of medications. Because of the widespread and increasing use of prescription, over-the-counter, and herbal remedies, it is becoming increasingly likely that the dentist will encounter soft tissue or dental pathologies that represent a complication of a therapeutic agent. The more common abnormalities that may occur include gingival hyperplasia, tooth discoloration, candidiasis, chemical injuries, and altered taste perception. The dental practitioner is often the primary health care provider who can recognize, diagnose, treat, and/or prevent these conditions. PMID:12436836

Guggenheimer, James

2002-10-01

405

Otolaryngologic manifestations among Hiv/Aids patients in a Nigerian tertiary health institution: an update  

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Full Text Available Introduction/Aim:This study is to determine these manifestations among HIV/AIDS patients in Ilorin to update on previous study. Method:This was a prospective study of all consecutive new patients confirmed to be HIV positive attending the HIV clinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria between January and July, 2009. These patients were on HAART anti retroviral drug treatment. The information retrieved included the biodata, clinical presentation, otolaryngologic clinical findings, as well as their hearing assessment with Pure tone audiometry. Results:74 out of the 89 HIV patients(82.8% had otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the age range of 3 to 62 years (Mean of 36.4 yrs, SD=2.45±0.02. The modal age range was 21-40 years (59.6% 51males (57.3% and 38 females (42.7% and a sex ratio of 1.3:1. Commonest otorhinolaryngological features included nasal in 45.6% (chronic rhinosinusitis, oral/oropharyngeal in 23.9% (oral candidiasis, otological in 21.5% (Serous otitis media and cervical adenopathy in 9%. Conclusion: Otorhinolaryngological manifestations were found in 74 patients (82.8% and commonest features included chronic sinusitis, oral/pharyngeal candidiasis, serous otitis media with cervical adeopathy in that order. It is important for otolaryngologists to be aware of otolaryngological manifestations, so early diagnosis and timely intervention alongside appropriate anti-retroviral therapy be instituted to improve survival rates.

Jumai, Akande Halima

2010-12-01

406

Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

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Full Text Available Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD represents a group of inherited disorders of phagocytic system, manifesting recurrent infections at different sites. The present study was accomplished in order to determine the gastrointestinal manifestations of CGD patients. Fifty-seven patients (38 males and 19 females with CGD, who had been referred to three immunodeficiency referral centers in Iran, were studied during a 24-year period (1980-2004. The median age at the time of study was 14.5 years old (1-56 years. The median onset age of symptoms was 5 months (1 month – 13.75 years, and that of diagnostic age was 5 years (2 months- 54.1 years, with a diagnostic delay of 33 months, on average. Seven patients were presented with acute diarrhea, 3 with oral candidiasis, and 2 with liver abscesses as the first chief complaints. Twenty-four cases (42.1% had been complicated by gastrointestinal manifestations during their course of the disease. Of those, 12 cases (21.1% had diarrhea, 7 (12.3% oral candidiasis, 5 (8.8% hepatitis, 4 (7.0% hepatic abscess, and 2 cases (3.5% gastric outlet obstruction. Also, failure to thrive was detected in 6 patients (10.5%. Four patients died (7%. CGD should be excluded in any patient with gastrointestinal manifestations especially chronic diarrhea, hepatic abscess, and gastric outlet obstruction.

Saba Arshi

2004-09-01

407

DOD/AMB: in vivo activity of a novel amb formulation with synthetic cationic bilayer fragments DOD/AMB: atividade in vivo de uma nova formulação com fragmentos sintéticos de bicamadas catiônicas  

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Full Text Available The ability of the versatile dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB, a bilayer-forming synthetic lipid previously shown to solubilize Amphotericin B (AMB, inspired this evaluation of in vivo activity of the DODAB/AMB formulation (DOD/AMB against systemic candidiasis in a mouse model from survival and tissue burden experiments. AMB was simply added to a DODAB powder dispersion in water previously obtained by sonication with tip at concentrations 0.05 -, regarding elimination of Candida colonization in spleen and kidneys. In summary, DOD/AMB, was effective for treating systemic candidiasis in a mouse model.A habilidade do brometo de dioctadecildimetilamônio (DOBAB, em formar bicamada de lipídio sintético e a demonstração prévia do forte poder solubilizante de anfotericina B (ANB , incentivou-nos a realizar a avaliação da atividade de DODAB/AMB in vivo contra candidíase sistêmica em modelo de camundongos para verificar a sua sobrevida bem como a recuperação das leveduras de C. albicans dos órgãos colonizados (baço e rins. O AMB foi simplesmente adicionado à DODAB em pó previamente disperso em água e sonicado com auxílio de ponteiras, nas concentrações de 0.05, em relação a eliminação da colonização de C. albicans dos rins e baço. Em resumo, DOD/AMB foi efetivo no tratamento de candidíase sistêmica em modelo animal.

Nilton Lincopan

2003-11-01

408

Premenstrual vaginal colonization of Candida and symptoms of vaginitis.  

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Although premenstrual exacerbation of vulvovaginal symptoms attributed to Candida spp. is well documented, the causation of these symptoms is not well understood. This study describes the daily vaginal colonization of Candida in three women. A single pilot study was designed to test the methodology of the proposed randomized controlled trial, Garlic and Candida. This study reports the colonization of Candida spp. in three women. Ten women aged 18-50 who reported at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis were recruited by the University of Melbourne. Each participant took daily vaginal swabs for 2 weeks during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, which were analysed for quantitative colony counts of Candida spp. Of these, three women were colonized with Candida spp. For the first time, to our knowledge, daily colonization of Candida during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is described in three women, demonstrating an increase in the colony count preceding symptom development. This small study demonstrated the colonization of Candida spp. during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in three women. Candida colonization is poorly understood, yet investigating the relevance of the link between symptom exacerbation and the menstrual cycle in those women who experience recurrent episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis may influence the management of this condition. PMID:22837219

Watson, Cathy J; Grando, Danilla; Garland, Suzanne M; Myers, Stephen; Fairley, Christopher K; Pirotta, Marie

2012-11-01

409

In vitro investigation of antifungal activity of allicin alone and in combination with azoles against Candida species.  

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Candidiasis is a term describing infections by yeasts from the genus Candida, and the type of infection encompassed by candidiasis ranges from superficial to systemic. Treatment of such infections often requires antifungals such as the azoles, but increased use of these drugs has led to selection of yeasts with increased resistance to these drugs. In this study, we used allicin, an allyl sulfur derivative of garlic, to demonstrate both its intrinsic antifungal activity and its synergy with the azoles, in the treatment of these yeasts in vitro. In this study, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) of allicin alone against six Candida spp. ranged from 0.05 to 25 microg/ml. However, when allicin was used in combination with fluconazole or ketoconazole, the MICs were decreased in some isolates. Our results demonstrated the existing synergistic effect between allicin and azoles in some of the Candida spp. such as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, but synergy was not demonstrated in the majority of Candida spp. tested. Nonetheless, In vivo testing needs to be performed to support these findings. PMID:19924565

Khodavandi, Alireza; Alizadeh, Fahimeh; Aala, Farzad; Sekawi, Zamberi; Chong, Pei Pei

2010-04-01

410

RTI/STI prevalence among urban and rural women of Surat: A community-based study  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RTI/STI among women in urban and rural areas of Surat and analyze the influence of socioeconomic, socio-demographic and other determinants possibly related to RTI/STI. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study. Women aged 15-49 years (n = 102 were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination. Specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis, hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis. Results: Out of 51 women in rural areas, 27 (53% and among 51 women in urban areas, 35 (69% were identified having RTI/STI. In total, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was found to be 41% by culture, 22% by wet mount, and 16% by Gram staining among urban women, while trichomoniasis among rural women was found to be 27% by culture, 18% by wet mount, and 14% by Gram staining. The prevalence of candidiasis was found to be 14% among urban women and 12% among rural women. By using Gram staining Nugent?s criteria, the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was found to be 24% among urban women and 25% among rural women. The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 2% by VDRL both among urban as well rural women.

Kosambiya J

2009-01-01

411

Determination of Candida species nestled in denture fissures.  

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With the growing number of elderly individuals, Candida is occasionally recognised as a fungal cause of aspiration pneumonia. In addition, there are numerous investigational reports on oral candidiasis. However, there are currently no reports on Candida contamination of denture base materials. This study was conducted to investigate Candida species in the oral cavity, denture parts and oral lesions of older/elderly subjects with oral candidiasis. The Candida strains were isolated and the species identified. Candida was also cultured in a medium with sample of denture resin and observed under an electron microscope. The results demonstrated the presence of several Candida species in the lesions of the oral mucosa and the surface and inner portions of the dentures. The following species of Candida were detected: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Using electron microscopy, the invasion of Candida was observed in the incomplete polymerized resin base material and/or through microcracks (fissures) that have a tendency to form in used dentures. It was concluded that Candida may be present on the surface as well as the deeper portions of dentures. In addition, it appeared necessary to consider denture and oral cavity cleaning and the risks of remaking old dentures. PMID:24648980

Koba, Chiharu; Koga, Chihiro; Cho, Tamaki; Kusukawa, Jingo

2013-07-01

412

Infección sistémica por Candida en unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales / Systemic infection by Candida in neonatal intensive care units  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales, los recién nacidos pretérmino pueden contraer infecciones micóticas invasivas, predominantemente por Candidas sp, causantes de una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad, así como también de frecuentes alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en los sobrevivientes. [...] La candidiasis neonatal es de difícil diagnóstico, dado el carácter transitorio de la candidemia y la dificultad para eliminarla por su rápida invasión de los órganos y sistemas anatómicos. La mejor opción para disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, es prevenirla. En este artículo se actualiza lo concerniente a los principales elementos relacionados no solo con el diagnóstico, sino con el tratamiento profiláctico y específico de estos pacientes, referidos hasta el 2010 por grupos de expertos internacionales en esta materia de salud. Abstract in english In neonatal intensive care units the preterm infants may develop invasive fungal infections, mainly by Candida sp, causative of increased morbidity and mortality, as well as of frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in survivors. Neonatal candidiasis is difficult to diagnose because of the transitory [...] nature of candidemia and the difficulty to eliminate its rapid invasion from organs and anatomical systems. The best option to reduce the incidence of the disease is to prevent it. In this article the main elements related not only to the diagnosis, but also to the specific and prophylactic treatment of these patients are updated, which were referred to 2010 by groups of international experts in this field of health.

Yalili, Pouymiró Brooks; Iarmila, Pouymiró Brooks; Pedro Omar, Pouymiró Pubillones.

1141-11-01

413

Infección sistémica por Candida en unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales Systemic infection by Candida in neonatal intensive care units  

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Full Text Available En las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales, los recién nacidos pretérmino pueden contraer infecciones micóticas invasivas, predominantemente por Candidas sp, causantes de una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad, así como también de frecuentes alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en los sobrevivientes. La candidiasis neonatal es de difícil diagnóstico, dado el carácter transitorio de la candidemia y la dificultad para eliminarla por su rápida invasión de los órganos y sistemas anatómicos. La mejor opción para disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, es prevenirla. En este artículo se actualiza lo concerniente a los principales elementos relacionados no solo con el diagnóstico, sino con el tratamiento profiláctico y específico de estos pacientes, referidos hasta el 2010 por grupos de expertos internacionales en esta materia de salud.In neonatal intensive care units the preterm infants may develop invasive fungal infections, mainly by Candida sp, causative of increased morbidity and mortality, as well as of frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in survivors. Neonatal candidiasis is difficult to diagnose because of the transitory nature of candidemia and the difficulty to eliminate its rapid invasion from organs and anatomical systems. The best option to reduce the incidence of the disease is to prevent it. In this article the main elements related not only to the diagnosis, but also to the specific and prophylactic treatment of these patients are updated, which were referred to 2010 by groups of international experts in this field of health.

Yalili Pouymiró Brooks

2011-08-01

414

Sexually transmitted infections in women: A correlation of clinical and laboratory diagnosis in cases of vaginal discharge syndrome  

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Aims: This study compares the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of vaginal discharge syndrome. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was carried out at the gynaecology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India. Material and Methods: Total of 180 females diagnosed as vaginal discharge or cervicitis based on syndromic approach and were recruited for the study. Their clinical profile was noted and they were investigated for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. Results: Lower abdominal pain (35%) followed by burning micturition (23.9%) were the common associated complaints. Bacterial vaginosis was the most common clinical diagnosis, while trichomoniasis was least common. Upon laboratory investigation, 35.6% of cases of vaginal discharge and 12% of cases of cervicitis tested positive. Percentage of cases confirmed by laboratory investigation was 50, 27.8 and 41.7 for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis respectively. Conclusion: Among all the females diagnosed as vaginal discharge syndrome, a very small percentage actually turned out to be positive upon laboratory testing. PMID:25506555

Chauhan, Vidyalaxmi; Shah, Maitri; Thakkar, Sejal; Patel, Sangita V.; Marfatia, Yogesh

2014-01-01

415

Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

Shobhana A

2004-03-01

416

Antimicrobial activity of dequalinium chloride against leading germs of vaginal infections.  

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Dequalinium chloride (CAS 522-51-0) and povidone iodine (CAS 25655-41-8) are known as antiseptic agents and used in the local treatment of vaginal infections. Clotrimazole (CAS 23593-75-1) is an anti-fungal drug and applied primarily in the therapy of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and to a lesser extent in bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis. However, antimicrobial activities of those three agents in comparison to each other have not been reported so far. To address this issue the antimicrobial activities of these agents against 18 germs relevant to vaginal infections were determined. The tested species are representatives of the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Listeria, Escherichia, Proteus, Gardnerella, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Candida, and Trichomonas. All micro-organisms were susceptible to dequalinium chloride with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. At a given dose, the activity of dequalinium chloride was higher as compared to the other substances. In view of its wide antimicrobial spectrum dequalinium chloride is an efficient alternative in the local therapy of vaginal infections such as fluor vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vulvo-vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis. PMID:12404886

Della Casa, Vera; Noll, Harald; Gonser, Susanne; Grob, Philipp; Graf, Federico; Pohlig, Gabriele

2002-01-01

417

Reemplazo de válvula mitral consecutivo a endocarditis micótica Mitral valve replacement due to mycotic endocarditis  

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Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 15 meses de edad, el cual experimentó varias infecciones en la etapa neonatal (entre ellas por Candida albicans y otras complicaciones; sin embargo, no pudo recibir el esquema terapéutico completo contra la candidiasis sistémica por habérsele diagnosticado un daño funcional hepático. Posteriormente, al detectársele una endocarditis micótica, se le reemplazó la válvula mitral. En su último ingreso padecía, además, broncoespasmo asociado a neumonía bacteriana, anemia carencial, deshidratación isotónica moderada, acidosis metabólica e inmunodeficiencia mixta, causantes de una insuficiencia multiorgánica que le produjo la muerte al día siguiente de su admisión hospitalaria.A case report of a child aged 15 months who underwent several infections (i.e. due to Candida albicans and other complications during the neonatal stage is presented. However, he could not receive the complete treatment against systemic candidiasis because of an impairment of liver function. Subsequently, mitral valve was replaced when detecting mycotic endocarditis. In addition, while being hospitalized for the last time, he underwent bronchial spasm associated with bacterial pneumonia, deficiency anemia, mild isotonic dehydration, non-respiratory acidosis, and mixed immunodeficiency which caused multiple organ failure and death the day after his hospital admission.

Yalili Pouymiró Brooks

2011-07-01

418

Reemplazo de válvula mitral consecutivo a endocarditis micótica / Mitral valve replacement due to mycotic endocarditis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 15 meses de edad, el cual experimentó varias infecciones en la etapa neonatal (entre ellas por Candida albicans) y otras complicaciones; sin embargo, no pudo recibir el esquema terapéutico completo contra la candidiasis sistémica por habérsele diagnosticado [...] un daño funcional hepático. Posteriormente, al detectársele una endocarditis micótica, se le reemplazó la válvula mitral. En su último ingreso padecía, además, broncoespasmo asociado a neumonía bacteriana, anemia carencial, deshidratación isotónica moderada, acidosis metabólica e inmunodeficiencia mixta, causantes de una insuficiencia multiorgánica que le produjo la muerte al día siguiente de su admisión hospitalaria. Abstract in english A case report of a child aged 15 months who underwent several infections (i.e. due to Candida albicans) and other complications during the neonatal stage is presented. However, he could not receive the complete treatment against systemic candidiasis because of an impairment of liver function. Subseq [...] uently, mitral valve was replaced when detecting mycotic endocarditis. In addition, while being hospitalized for the last time, he underwent bronchial spasm associated with bacterial pneumonia, deficiency anemia, mild isotonic dehydration, non-respiratory acidosis, and mixed immunodeficiency which caused multiple organ failure and death the day after his hospital admission.

Yalili, Pouymiró Brooks; Iarmila, Pouymiró Brooks; Pedro Omar, Pouymiró Pubillones.

1008-10-01

419

Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

Nana Philip N

2008-07-01

420

Isolation and characterization of the mouse Aire gene.  

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Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by Addison's disease and/or hypoparathyroidism and/or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Patients may also have other clinical symptoms both within and outside the endocrine system, mainly as a result of autoimmunity against organ-specific autoantigens. The gene for APECED has recently been identified and termed AIRE (for AutoImmune REgulator). APECED is a model of organ-specific autoimmunity and isolation and characterization of the homologous mouse gene, Aire, will provide tools for dissection of the mechanisms underlying this human disorder and defining molecular pathways involved in organ-specific autoimmunity. We have isolated and completely sequenced the mouse Aire gene which is split into 14 exons over 13 kb and encodes a predicted protein of 552 amino acids. The predicted mouse and human AIRE proteins are 71% identical and contain motifs suggestive of a transcriptional regulator. Additional conserved motifs are emerging in the AIRE/Aire proteins including a nuclear localization signal, an "ASS" domain, and a "SAND" domain. The human and mouse AIRE promoters have conserved sites for several thymus-specific transcription factors and others important in hematopoesis, consistent with its expression in rare cells of the thymus medulla, lymph nodes, and fetal liver. We have mapped mouse Aire to mouse chromosome 10 by FISH, to the same region as Pwp2 and Pfkl, confirming synteny to the corresponding region of human chromosome 21. PMID:10049735

Mittaz, L; Rossier, C; Heino, M; Peterson, P; Krohn, K J; Gos, A; Morris, M A; Kudoh, J; Shimizu, N; Antonarakis, S E; Scott, H S

1999-02-16

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Economic considerations in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a review of voriconazole pharmacoeconomic studies  

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Full Text Available Kem P Krueger, A Christie NelsonSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USAAbstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection predominately affecting immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of inpatient-treated aspergillosis cases in the US is estimated to be between 3.02 and 3.80 per 10,000 hospitalized patients. The estimated difference in hospital costs of patients with an aspergillosis infection is US$36,867 to US$59,356 higher than those of patients without the infection. Voriconazole is a synthetic, broad spectrum triazole antifungal agent, with FDA-approved indications for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, candidemia in nonneutropenic patients, invasive candidiasis, and infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium species in patients refractory to or intolerant of other therapy. Eight cost-effectiveness analyses, one cost-minimization analysis, and one cost analysis were identified from a Medline search. The 10 pharmacoeconomic analyses were conducted in six different countries comparing voriconazole to conventional amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, itraconazole, and caspofungin. All the cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses identified voriconazole as the most cost-effective therapy. The cost analysis demonstrated voriconazole cost-savings. While the acquisition costs of voriconazole are higher than those of conventional amphotericin B, the toxicity profile and rate of treatment success associated with voriconazole result in lower total treatment costs per successfully treated patient.Keywords: voriconazole, antifungal agents, invasive aspergillosis, pharmacoeconomics 

Kem P Krueger

2009-08-01