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Sample records for candidiasis

  1. Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Candidiasisâ?) Vaginal Yeast Infections (â??Genital / Vulvovaginal Candidiasisâ?) Invasive Candidiasis Related Links Fungal Meningitis National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic ...

  2. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...

  3. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common condition in cancer patients treated by irradiation, during and after their treatment. For example, almost 70% of patients treated with chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer are colonized, and 40% of symptomatic patients have an oropharyngeal candidiasis. Furthermore, we noticed an increase in non-albicans Candida strains, which are present in almost 50% of samples. Cancer treatments, especially radiation therapy, and co-morbidities are risk factors of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oropharyngeal candidiasis has substantial effects on quality of life, and may limit treatment. Epidemiologic data, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis criteria, consequences and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis will be discussed in this article. (authors)

  4. Treatment and Outcomes of Genital / Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global fungal diseases Cryptococcal meningitis Histoplasmosis Resources Antifungal Resistance Other Candidiasis Topics Invasive Candidiasis Oral Candidiasis Related Links « All Fungal Topics ...

  5. Candidiasis vaginal en primigestas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karleidy, Torres; Augusto, Soto; Desiré, Sandrea; María, Villalobos; Agustin, Rodríguez; Manzur, Hassanhi; Luz Mila, Mesa.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar evidencias de candidiasis vaginal en pacientes que acuden a la consulta prenatal de la Maternidad Castillo Plaza, utilizando como medio diagnostico el test Intray Colorex Yeast. Método: Se estudiaron embarazadas primigestas con sospecha clínica de candidiasis vaginal. Las muestr [...] as de secreción vaginal se inocularon en el medio Intray Colorex Yeast e incubaron a 37 °C durante 48 a 72 horas. Ambiente: Maternidad Castillo Plaza de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Resultados: Se demostró que un 38% (24 pacientes) presentaron candidiasis vaginal. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (88%), seguida por glabrata (8%) y krusei (4%). Conclusión: El desarrollo de colonias verdes, rosado oscuro y rosado claro (albicans, glabrata y krusei respectivamente) sugiere la utilidad del medio Intray Colorex Yeast para la identificación rápida de las principales especies productoras de candidiasis. Abstract in english Objective: Determine evidence of vaginal candidiasis in first-pregnancy mothers who assisted to pregnancy control to the Maternidad Castillo Plaza, using the test Intray Colorex Yeast as a medium for diagnosis. Method: We were studied first-pregnancy mothers in prenatal control with clinical suspici [...] on of vaginal candidiasis. The samples of the vaginal secretions were inoculated on Intray Colorex Yeast medium and incubated to 37°C during 48- 72 hours. Setting: Maternidad Castillo Plaza . Maracaibo, Estado Zulia Results: The study demostrated that 38% (24 patients) presented vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (88%) followed by glabrata (8%) and krusei (4%). Conclusion: The development of the green colonies, dark pink and light pink characteristic of albicans, glabrata and krusei suggest the possible use of the Intray Colorex Yeast medium for quickly identification of the Candida species investigated.

  6. Candidiasis vaginal en primigestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karleidy Torres

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar evidencias de candidiasis vaginal en pacientes que acuden a la consulta prenatal de la Maternidad Castillo Plaza, utilizando como medio diagnostico el test Intray Colorex Yeast. Método: Se estudiaron embarazadas primigestas con sospecha clínica de candidiasis vaginal. Las muestras de secreción vaginal se inocularon en el medio Intray Colorex Yeast e incubaron a 37 °C durante 48 a 72 horas. Ambiente: Maternidad Castillo Plaza de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Resultados: Se demostró que un 38% (24 pacientes presentaron candidiasis vaginal. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (88%, seguida por glabrata (8% y krusei (4%. Conclusión: El desarrollo de colonias verdes, rosado oscuro y rosado claro (albicans, glabrata y krusei respectivamente sugiere la utilidad del medio Intray Colorex Yeast para la identificación rápida de las principales especies productoras de candidiasis.Objective: Determine evidence of vaginal candidiasis in first-pregnancy mothers who assisted to pregnancy control to the Maternidad Castillo Plaza, using the test Intray Colorex Yeast as a medium for diagnosis. Method: We were studied first-pregnancy mothers in prenatal control with clinical suspicion of vaginal candidiasis. The samples of the vaginal secretions were inoculated on Intray Colorex Yeast medium and incubated to 37°C during 48- 72 hours. Setting: Maternidad Castillo Plaza . Maracaibo, Estado Zulia Results: The study demostrated that 38% (24 patients presented vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (88% followed by glabrata (8% and krusei (4%. Conclusion: The development of the green colonies, dark pink and light pink characteristic of albicans, glabrata and krusei suggest the possible use of the Intray Colorex Yeast medium for quickly identification of the Candida species investigated.

  7. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguin, T J; Sobel, J D

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence studies indicate that Candida species colonize the vagina in at least 20 % of all women, rising to 30 % in pregnancy. Although, some studies concluded that pregnant women were more likely to have symptomatic vaginal infections caused by Candida, yet other studies found a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection only during pregnancy. Most episodes of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) occur during the second and third trimesters. The increased risk of VVC in pregnancy is likely sustained by pregnancy-related factors, such as immunologic alterations, increased estrogen levels, and increased vaginal glycogen production. Although evidence is incomplete, there is some emerging data which suggests that candidiasis in pregnancy may be associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, chorioamnionitis, and congenital cutaneous candidiasis. In contrast to nonpregnant women, there are no formal studies, evaluating the use of long-term suppressive maintenance oral azoles in the treatment of recurrent VVC (RVVC) in pregnancy. Most clinicians do not offer suppressive therapy in pregnancy and prefer to treat individual symptomatic episodes only utilizing a topical imidazole vaginally for 7 days to minimize systemic exposure to medications. PMID:25916994

  8. [Intestinal candidiasis: modern therapeutic tactics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, A R

    2005-01-01

    Bowels candidiasis is an urgent problem not only for gastroenterology but also for other fields of medicine--gynecology, dentistry, phthisiology, surgery, etc. as this disease is directly related with the manifestations of systemic candidiasis in other organs. The diagnostics algorithm includes the detection of a filamentary form (pseudomyceliums) of micromycetes of the Candida genus in the morphological study of a tissue sampling of the bowels mucous coat. The drug of choice for the treatment of bowels candidiasis is Pimafucin (Natamycin) having a local action on the Candida fungi in the intestinal lumen in the absence of any systemic absorption of the drug or any side effects. PMID:17378380

  9. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yeast that most commonly causes oral candidiasis is Candida albicans . Who's At Risk Thrush is very common ... system deficiency need even prompter and more aggressive treatment to make certain that the yeast does not ...

  10. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  11. Oral Candidiasis and Oral Hyperplastic Candidiasis: Clinical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the oral cavity. It is common and underdiagnosed among the elderly, particularly in those who wear dentures and in many cases is avoidable with a good mouth care regimen. It can also be a mark of systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and is a common problem among the immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is caused by an overgrowth or infection of the oral cavity by a yeast-like fungus, candida.The important ones are C albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata , C pseudotropicalis, C guillierimondii, C krusei, C lusitaniae, C parapsilosis and C stellatoidea. C albicans, C glabrata and C tropicalis represent more than 80% of isolates from clinical infection. Oral candidiasis is the most common human fungal infection especially in early and later life. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing`s syndrome, malignancies and immunosuppressive conditions. The aim of the research is to describe the clinical manifestations of the disease.

  12. Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oropharyngeal infections that do not respond to these treatments. Candida esophagitis is typically treated with oral or intravenous fluconazole or oral itraconazole. For severe or azole-resistant esophageal candidiasis, treatment with amphotericin B may be necessary. For healthcare ...

  13. Profile of Candidiasis in HIV Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Parvaz Anwar Khan; Abida Malik; Haroon Subhan Khan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. The spectrum of Candida infection is diverse, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenicforms. The low absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte count has traditionally been cited as the greatest risk factor for the development of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis and current guidelines suggest increased risk once CD4+ T lymphocyte counts fall below 200 cells/?L. Gradual emergence of non-albicans Candida ...

  14. Profile of Candidiasis in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaz Anwar Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. The spectrum of Candida infection is diverse, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenicforms. The low absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte count has traditionally been cited as the greatest risk factor for the development of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis and current guidelines suggest increased risk once CD4+ T lymphocyte counts fall below 200 cells/?L. Gradual emergence of non-albicans Candida species as a cause of refractory mucosal and invasive Candidiasis, particularly in patients with advanced immunosuppression and problem of resistance to azoles and other antifungal agents in the Candida species is a point of concern.Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out over a period of 2 years (2010-2011 on patients suffering from AIDS for the presence of Candida infection. After thorough clinical examination relevant specimens were collected and processed specifically to ascertain Candida infection. Speciation of Candida isolates and antifungal sensitivity testing was also done. The CD4 cell counts of all the patients were estimated and correlated with the presence (or absence of candidiasis.Results: Out of a total of 165 HIV positive patients, a definitive diagnosis of candidiasis was made in 80 patients. Candida albicans was the most common yeast isolated. Patients with candidiasis had CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3. Maximum resistance was seen with fluconazole while no resistance was seen with voriconazole.Conclusion: The most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV positive patients is candidiasis, affecting the mucocutaneous system mainly but the invasive form is also common. Resistance to azoles and other antifungal agents in the Candida species is a point of concern.

  15. Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yapar N

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nur Yapar Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, ?zmir, Turkey Abstract: The number of immunosuppressive patients has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are at risk for opportunistic infections, especially fungal infections. Candidiasis is one of the most frequent fungal infections determined in these immunosuppressive patients and its epidemiology has changed over the last two decades. Recently, new antifungal agents and new therapy strategies such as antifungal prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis, and preemptive therapy have come into use. These changes resulted in the alteration of Candida species causing invasive infections. The incidence of Candida albicans was decreased in many countries, especially among patients with immunosuppressive disorders, while the incidence of species other than C. albicans was increased. In this review, incidence, risk factors, and species distribution of invasive candidiasis are discussed. Keywords: candidemia, invasive candidiasis, incidence, species distribution, risk factors

  16. Management of oral candidiasis in denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Noriyuki; Mori, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Hisashi; Taniguchi, Motoe; Aoki, Hiromochi; Sawada, Tomofumi; Kawabata, Masatsuna; Kuwabara, Atsushi; Oono, Akinori; Tanaka, Kinya; Hori, Norio; Toyoda, Minoru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    In many cases, dentists try to manage denture pain by adjusting dentures. However, some patients complain of oral discomfort over a long period even after appropriate denture adjustments. In some of these situations, simple denture adjustment does not alleviate the discomfort of these patients. It is known that denture stomatitis may occur in response to plaque accumulation on dentures. One of the chief pathogenic microorganisms causing this type of inflammation is Candida albicans. A common symptom of oral candidiasis is pain in the oral mucosa complicated by angular stomatitis. In this paper, we report a case of oral candidiasis that was diagnosed and managed based on the patient's complaints. PMID:20381447

  17. La candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis

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    Isidro de Jes\\u00FAs N\\u00E1poles Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Cuando la candidiasis se asocia con la prótesis removible puede inducir a la formación de estomatitis subprótesis, esencialmente en aparatos desajustados y con muchos años de uso. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente de La Vigía desde enero a marzo de 2008 en 30 pacientes mayores de 20 años y de ambos sexos con estomatitis subprótesis (10 en cada grado clínico de la lesión, portadores de prótesis removibles. Resultados: El comportamiento microbiológico de los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis afloró que no todos los pacientes afectados presentaron candidiasis, solo se evidenció la presencia de la misma en 21 para un 70 % de la muestra. Según el grado de la lesión esta afección se presentó en cuatro pacientes de grado I para un 19,04 %, 7 del grado II para un 33,33 % y en el 100 % del grado III con diferencia significativa entre la proporción de pacientes con cándida de los grados I y II con respecto al grado III (p<005. En el estudio predominaron los pacientes con afecciones de grado III. Conclusiones: No todos los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis presentaron cándida albicans. Se incrementó la candidiasis en los grados avanzados de la estomatitis subprótesis. La totalidad de las prótesis en pacientes con lesiones grado II y III presentaron cándida albicans.

  18. Candidiasis esofágica: análisis clínico y micológico

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    Mart\\u00EDn Alejandro Olmos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis esofágica es una infección epitelial querequiere un defecto adicional inmunitario. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, aunque pueden encontrarse otras. Un problema emergente es la resistencia al fluconazol, droga de elección para tratarla. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis esofágica en pacientes sometidos a endoscopía, analizar los factores predisponentes, identificar las especies causantes, y estudiar la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol. Durante 12 meses se realizaron 1.321 endoscopías donde se detectaron 34 pacientes con candidiasis esofágica. Se hicieron 1.230 endoscopías en pacientes HIV negativos y 91 en HIV positivos. Se diagnosticó candidiasis esofágica en 11 (0.9% y 23 (25.3%, respectivamente. En HIV negativos, fueron causas predisponentes: antibioticoterapia prolongada, prótesis dentarias sin higiene, uso prolongado de inhibidores de la bomba de protones, secreción ácida, corticoides inhalatorios, malignidad y vasculitis bajo corticoterapia. La histopatología fue positiva en 48.6%. El cultivo se desarrolló en el 91.2%. C. albicans fue la especie más frecuente (93.5% y en 5 pacientes (16.1% se la encontró asociada a C. glabrata (3 C. tropicalis (1 y C. parapsilosis (1. En un caso solo se cultivó C. glabrata y en otro C. tropicalis. De las 31 cepas, 25 fueron sensibles al fluconazol, 4 dosis dependientes (1 C. albicans, 3 C. glabrata, y 2 resistentes (1 C. albicans, 1 C. glabrata. En nuestro hospital, la frecuencia de candidiasis esofágica fue baja, excepto en HIV positivos. El principal agente etiológico fue C. albicans, aunque también se cultivaron otras especies. C. albicans y C. glabrata mostraron dosis dependencia y resistencia al fluconazol.

  19. Candidiasis cutánea generalizada en recién nacido a término / Generalized cutaneous candidiasis in newborn at term

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Husein Husein, El Ahmed; , Cañadas-De la Fuente; Rafael, Fernández-Castillo; Emilio, González-Jiménez; Jesús, Cantero-Hinojosa; Marita, Lardón-Fernández.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La candidiasis cutánea es una enfermedad que afecta tanto a población infantil como adulta. Las forma de presentación puede ser localizada o sistémica y el agente etiológico múltiple, siendo las especies infecciosas de Candida albicans más prevalentes en niños. Objetivo. Presentar un c [...] aso de candidiasis cutánea congénita cuya causa aparente fue la transmisión vertical durante el parto. Material y metodología. Se describe el caso de un recién nacido a término expuesto a una candidiasis vaginal subclínica, que desarrolló una candidiasis cutánea congénita por C. albicans asociada a sepsis y dificultad respiratoria en las primeras 24 horas de vida. Se practicaron hemocultivos, biopsia cutánea de las lesiones pápulopústulo-vesiculosas, análisis de sangre y punción lumbar. Resultados. En la bioquímica y el hemograma se encontró una proteína C reactiva de 5,7 mg/dl, leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda y anemia leve. A las 24 horas, en el control se encontró una proteína C reactiva (7,82 mg/dl) que fue en aumento progresivo durante tres días, por lo que se practicó punción lumbar. El hemocultivo fue positivo para Staphylococcus aureus. La biopsia cutánea dio como resultado histológico la candidiasis cutánea. Conclusiones. El diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir complicaciones derivadas del cuadro producido por C. albicans en neonatos. Abstract in english Introduction. Cutaneous candidiasis is a disease that affects children as well as adults. The presentation may be localized or systemic, and with multiple etiological agents. The most prevalent infecting species in children differs from that of the adult. Objective. A case is presented where a conge [...] nital cutaneous candidiasis was transmitted to the child during birth. Materials and methods. A full term newborn was exposed to a subclinical vaginal candidiasis infection, and 24 hr after birth, developed congenital cutaneous candidiasis. The etiological agent was Candida albicans, and was associated with sepsis and respiratory distress. Blood cultures, cutaneous biopsy of vesicular lesions, blood tests and lumbar puncture were performed. Results. Biochemistry and blood count showed a CRP of 5.7 mg/dl, leukocytosis with left shift and mild anemia. After 24 hr, the blood analyses showed an increase in a CRP (7.8 mg/dl) and increased progressively for three days; consequently, a lumbar puncture was performed. Blood culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous biopsy confirmed the cutaneous candidiasis. Conclusions. The early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications derived by the Candida albicans in newborns.

  20. Generalized cutaneous candidiasis in newborn at term Candidiasis cutánea generalizada en recién nacido a término

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    Marita Lardón-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cutaneous candidiasis is a disease that affects both child as an adult poblation. The presentation may be localized or systemic, and the etiological agent multiple, in children the most prevalent infecting species are the different Objective. To present a congenital cutaneous candidiasis which reason was the vertical transmission during birth.
    Materials and methods. The case in a term newborn is described exposed to a subclinical vaginal candidiasis infection who developed a congenital cutaneous candidiasis by Candida albicans, associated to sepsis and respiratory distress within 24 hours of life. Blood cultures, cutaneous biopsy of vesiculars lesions, blood tests and lumbar puncture were performed.
    Results. Biochemistry and blood count showed a CRP: 5.7 mg/dl, leukocytosis with left shift and mild anemia. After 24 hours the analytical showed an increase in a CRP (7.82 mg/dl for three days so a lumbar puncture was performed. Blood culture was positive to Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous biopsy confirmed the cutaneous candidiasis.
    Conclusions. The early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications derived by the Candida albicans in newborns.
    Introducción. La candidiasis cutánea es una enfermedad que afecta tanto a población infantil como adulta. Las forma de presentación puede ser localizada o sistémica y el agente etiológico múltiple, siendo las especies de Candida albicans infectantes más prevalentes en niños.
    Objetivo. Presentar un caso de candidiasis cutánea congénita cuya causa aparente fue la transmisión vertical durante el parto.
    Material y metodología. Se describe el caso de un recién nacido a término expuesto a una candidiasis vaginal subclínica que desarrolló una candidiasis cutánea congénita por Candida albicans asociada a sepsis y distrés respiratorio en las primeras 24 horas de vida. Se practicaron hemocultivos, biopsia cutánea de las lesiones pápulo-pústulo-vesiculosas, análisis de sangre y punción lumbar.
    Resultados. La bioquímica y el hemograma mostraron una PCR: 5,7 mg/dl, leucocitosis con desviación izquierda y anemia leve. A las 24 horas la analítica de control mostraba PCR (7,82 mg/dl que fue en aumento progresivo durante 3 días, por lo que se practicó punción lumbar. El hemocultivo fue positivo para Staphylococcus aureus. La biopsia cutánea dio como resultado histológico la candidiasis cutánea.
    Conclusiones. El diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir complicaciones derivadas del cuadro producido por la Candida albicans en neonatos.

  1. VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS – GYNECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Živadinovi?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common reasons for consultations with a gynecologist, with an increasing trend in occurrence in female patients. It is estimated that 75% of all women experience an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime, 50% of them experience at least a second episode, and 5% have recurrent candidiasis. Cervical and vaginal secretions act as the last line of defense from ascendant infection pathway spreading. Factors that may disturb vaginal ecosystem are: endogenous factors, way of life, infectious factors and iatrogenic factors. The most common cause of VC in 85-90% of cases is C. albicans, but other Candida species tend to be more likely to cause VVC (Candida tropicalis , Candida glabrata , C particulary, C crusei and so on. These non-albicans species have been found to be fluconazole and antimycotics resistant in more than 70% of cases. This is especially true for C. glabrata. There are several predisposing factors that have been associated with VC recurrence and resistance, such as Candida genotypes, resistance and virulence, immunodeficiency, unregulated hyperglycemia, use of oral contraceptives, long-term use of antibiotics. Therapy approach should be individual, including local and oral antimycotics until the symptoms disappear. The maintenance dose can be continuous or intermittent. Due to hormone concentration increase, increase in local glycogen, alternations of vaginal flora, VC incidence in pregnancy is two times higher in comparison to other female population. The problem of vaginal candidiasis requires individual approach, taking into account all the risk factors and accompanying physiological conditions or diseases in female patients.

  2. Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yapar N

    2014-01-01

    Nur Yapar Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, ?zmir, Turkey Abstract: The number of immunosuppressive patients has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are at risk for opportunistic infections, especially fungal infections. Candidiasis is one of the most frequent fungal infections determined in these immunosuppressive patients and its epidemiology has changed over the last two decades. Recently, new...

  3. Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey); Hafta Sokak, Ankara (Turkey); Fitoz, S.; Karaguelle, T.; Tuekel, S.; Akyar, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

  4. [Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Takuro

    2009-01-01

    This document summarizes current knowledge about diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Several clinical forms of mucocutaneous candidiasis are distinguished depending on a patient's age and infected site, e.g. Candida intertrigo, erythema mycoticum infantile, erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica, candidal paronychia and onychia, Candida onychomycosis, and oral candidiasis. The diagnosis of candidiasis is confirmed by observation of mycelial forms on microscopic examination. Since Candida yeasts (especially C. albicans) are normal inhabitants of the skin and oral mucosa, it must always be noted that positive culture does not always indicate the presence of candidal infection. The pathogenicity of Candida species is relatively low, and some special conditions are required for tissue invasion by the fungus. Predisposing factors, such as disturbances of the cutaneous and mucosal microenvironment and systemic or local immunosuppression, should be checked in patients with recurrent infection. Therapy for cutaneous candidiasis is dominated by topical antifungal agents. Azole antifungal cream (e.g., bifonazole, ketoconazole, neticonazole hydrochloride, lanoconazole and luliconazole) is most effective. Terbinafine hydrochloride and amorolfine hydrochloride are also useful. Cutaneous candidiasis usually requires a shorter duration of topical treatment (1-2 weeks) than superficial dermatophyte infections. For candidal paronychia and onychomycosis, oral therapy with itraconazole is recommended. The daily dose of itraconazole should be taken for several months, while its pulse therapy for candidiasis is not approved in Japan. Itraconazole oral solution is commonly used for oral candidiasis, and miconazole gel is also effective. PMID:19942790

  5. Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica

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    Judy Rodríguez Ortega

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural.This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as extended antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

  6. Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Judy, Rodríguez Ortega; Josefa, Miranda Tarragó; Haydée, Morejón Lugones; Julio C, Santana Garay.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta [...] alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural. Abstract in english This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as exten [...] ded antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

  7. La candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis / Candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isidro de Jesús, Nápoles González; Silvia María, Díaz Gómez; Elizabeth, Puig Capote; Nelia, Espeso Nápoles.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Cuando la candidiasis se asocia con la prótesis removible puede inducir a la formación de estomatitis subprótesis, esencialmente en aparatos desajustados y con muchos años de uso. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis. Método: Se r [...] ealizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente de La Vigía desde enero a marzo de 2008 en 30 pacientes mayores de 20 años y de ambos sexos con estomatitis subprótesis (10 en cada grado clínico de la lesión), portadores de prótesis removibles. Resultados: El comportamiento microbiológico de los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis afloró que no todos los pacientes afectados presentaron candidiasis, solo se evidenció la presencia de la misma en 21 para un 70 % de la muestra. Según el grado de la lesión esta afección se presentó en cuatro pacientes de grado I para un 19,04 %, 7 del grado II para un 33,33 % y en el 100 % del grado III con diferencia significativa entre la proporción de pacientes con cándida de los grados I y II con respecto al grado III (p Abstract in english Background: When candidiasis is associated with removable prosthesis may induced to the formation of stomatitis sub-prothesis, essentially in non-adjusted appliance and with many years of use. Objective: To determine the prevalence of candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis. Method: A [...] n observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study at " La Vigía" Teaching Odontology Clinic from January to March 2008 was conducted in 30 patients older than 20 years and from both sexes with stomatitis sub-prosthesis (10 in each clinical degree of the lesion), carriers of removable prosthesis. Results: The microbiological behavior of patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis showed that not all the affected patients presented candidiasis, only showed its presence in 21 for a 70% of the sample. According to the degree of the lesion this affection was presented in four patients of I degree for a 19.04%, 7 of II degree for a 33.33% and in the 100% of III degree with significant difference among the proportion of patients with Candida of I and II degrees regarding to III degree (p

  8. Candidiasis mucocutánea crónica: Informe de un caso / Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando Elías, Julián-González; Manuel Augusto, Valdebrán-Canales; Héctor Eduardo, Guidos-Morales.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis mucocutánea crónica (CMC) es una inmunodeficiencia primaria que se caracteriza por infecciones candidiásicas persistentes o recurrentes en piel, uñas o membranas mucosas. La CMC puede asociarse con endocrinopatías, como hipoparatiroidismo, enfermedad de Addison, hipotiroidismo, diabet [...] es mellitus de tipo 1 o hipogonadismo; otras patologías asociadas son enfermedades autoinmunitarias, como gastritis autoinmunitarias y hepatitis autoinmunitaria. Se presenta una paciente con CMC con déficit específico de linfocitos T y células NK, sin otra enfermedad asociada. Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails and/or mucosal tissues. CMC can be associated with endocrinopathies such as hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus [...] or hypogonadism. Other associated conditions include autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune hepatitis. We report a patient with CMC and decreased T cell, natural killer cells without other associated condition.

  9. The value of treating the male partner in vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Shihadeh; A. N. Nawafleh

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether treatment of the sexual partners of women with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis with oral Ketoconazole can affect the cure and recurrence rate of candida vaginitis. METHODS A total number of 144 women with vaginal candidiasis were treated with Ketoconazole 400 mg daily for 7 days, and half the male partners were treated with Ketoconazole 400 mg daily for 7 days. All women had physical follow-up examination, and mycological cultures were obtained at one week a...

  10. Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Moghimipour; Mahin Najafyan; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Maryam Alwanian; Zahra Seifi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vul...

  11. A clinico-pathological and cytological study of oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Kuyama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis of the oral mucosa arises chiefly as a re- sult of infection with Candida albicans. Many clinico- pathological analyses of macroscopic findings have been described, although the clinical findings of oral candidiasis vary considerably and the conditions are complex. The present study analyzes the distribution, clinical, cytological and histological diagnoses of oral candidiasis, associated complex diseases and the di-agnostic value of cytology. The ratio of Candida in-fection was 28.9% among 1551 study participants. Females were infected significantly more often than men (p < 0.01 and the affected age range was 60 - 79 years (61.0%, p < 0.01. The predominantly affected areas were the tongue (48.3%, p < 0.01 and gingiva (20.0%, p < 0.01, and occurrence at multiple loci was seen in 43 (9.6% patients. The typical clinical find- ings of oral candidiasis were ulcerative/erythematous lesions (33.2%, p < 0.01 and pseudomembranous candidiasis (31.6%, p < 0.01. A histopathological dia- gnosis of candidiasis based on biopsy specimens from 26 lesions in patients with Candida infection indicated by cytology was confirmed from cultures. The break- down of a cytological to a definite diagnosis was 6 positive (SCC 4, verrucous carcinoma 1, moderate to severe dysplasia 1, 6 suspected positive (mild dyspla- sia, 2; moderate to severe dysplasia, 2; papilloma, 1 and SCC, 1 and 14 negative (epulis, 3; papilloma, 3; granulation tissue, 2; fibrosis, 2 and others, 4. Exfo-liative cytology can easily judge the presence of Can-dida species, although experience is necessary for the presumptive diagnosis of an oral mucosal disease. The application of exfoliative cytology using the Pe- riodic acid-Schiff reaction is helpful for the earlier detection of oral candidiasis with various macrosco- pic findings.

  12. Chemokine Receptor Ccr1 Drives Neutrophil-Mediated Kidney Immunopathology and Mortality in Invasive Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Fischer, Brett G.; Lim, Jean K.; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Wan, Wuzhou; Richard Lee, Chyi-chia; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Scheinberg, Phillip; Gao, Ji-liang; Murphy, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is the 4th leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the US with mortality that exceeds 40% despite administration of antifungal therapy; neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome after invasive candidiasis. In a fatal mouse model of invasive candidiasis that mimics human bloodstream-derived invasive candidiasis, the most highly infected organ is the kidney and neutrophils are the major cellular mediators of host defense; however, factors regulating n...

  13. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cortés M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

  14. [Development of murine experimental model for candidiasis and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of oral and esophageal infections in elder persons with poor oral hygiene and immuncompromised patients with hyposalivation, diabetes mellitus, prolonged use of antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs. Oral thrush is a common form of oropharyngeal candidiasis whose clinical features consist of white patches appearing as discrete lesions on the buccal mucosa, throat, tongue, and gum linings that develop into confluent pseudomembranes resembling milk curds. We recently reported a simple murine model of thrush-type oral candidiasis that mimics the natural infectionin humans and is useful for both symptomatological and mycological evaluation of the responsiveness to antifungal treatments. By using this oral candidiasis model, protective activities of oral administration of several types of herbal preparations such as teatree oil, clove preparation and bovine lactoferrin were clarified. The mechanisms of protective actions of lactoferrin against oral candidiasis were particularly elucidated to include augmentation of T-cell activities of lesional lymphoid tissues. More recent studies suggested that saliva from healthy persons also shows a protective action for this murine oral candidiasis model. PMID:15550920

  15. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Cortés M; Danny, Oksenberg R; Alejandro, Afani S; Carlos, Defilippi C; Ana María, Madrid S.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppress [...] ion or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

  16. Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Lusvarghi, Witzel; Fernando Ricardo Xavier da, Silveira; Maria de Fátima Costa, Pires; Mônica Andrade, Lotufo.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV [...] therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the prevalence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.158) or the frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.133). Patients with lower cd4 cell counts showed a higher frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.046) and a greater occurrence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.036).

  17. Two-phase treatment of inflamatory candidiasis of vulva

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    K. Drljevi?

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective study was to examine successfulnes of applaying two-phase treatment of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis. At the initial phase antimycotic izokonazol 1% nitrate in combination with corticosteriod diflucorton valerate (Travocort, Schering AG, Germany was localy applied, and then pure antimycotic izoconasol nitrate (Travogen, Schering AG, Germany. Parametars that have been analyzed in the first phase of treatment were regression of inflamatory changes of vulva, and in the second phase healing of fungal disease. Two-phase treatment of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis showed full therapy benefit at cured patients. The initial short-term local application of combination corticosteroid and antimycotic showed almost a hundred percent regression of inflamatory changes and simptoms of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis, without any side-effects noted.

  18. Candidiasis invasoras en el paciente crítico adulto Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tobar A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp, representan una patología relevante en los pacientes críticos. Para su oportuno diagnóstico es necesaria una elevada sospecha clinica, tomando en consideración el cuadro clinico y la presencia de factores de riesgo. Pese a la incorporación de nuevos fármacos al arsenal terapéutico durante la última década, mantiene una elevada mortalidad. Las claves para mejorar los desenlaces clínicos en estos pacientes son el empleo de una terapia precoz, eficaz y que permita la cobertura de distintas especies de Candida: C albicans y no albicans. Recientes guías internacionales sugieren la terapia empírica con equinocandinas ante la sospecha de candidiasis invasora en esta población de pacientes. Este grupo de fármacos ha documentado adecuada eficacia clínica y seguridad en estos pacientes. Se espera que la incorporación de nuevas equinocandinas al mercado aminore sus costos y mejore el acceso a este grupo de fármacos.Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albicans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

  19. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  20. La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA

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    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África. Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH. Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa. It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to become a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

  1. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis; Ecografia en el diagnostico de la candidiasis renal neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Torres, D.; Berbel, O.; Andres, V. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

  2. Candidiasis: a fungal infection- current challenges and progress in prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hani, Umme; Shivakumar, Hosakote G; Vaghela, Rudra; Osmani, Riyaz Ali M; Shrivastava, Atul

    2015-01-01

    Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs, candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use of probiotics and development of novel vaccines is an advanced approach for the prevention of candidiasis. Present review summarizes the diagnosis, current status and challenges in the treatment and prevention of candidiasis with prime focus on host defense against candidiasis, advancements in diagnosis, probiotics role and recent progress in the development of vaccines against candidiasis. PMID:25809621

  3. INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN NON-HEMATOLOGICAL PATIENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ratto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Candida is one of the most frequent pathogens isolated in bloodstream infections, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In addition to haematological patients, there are several other populations with a substantial risk of developing invasive candidiasis (IC. These include patients undergoing prolonged hospitalisation with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, those fitted with intravascular catheters, admitted to both adult and neonate intensive care units (ICU or gastrointestinal surgery wards and subjects with solid tumours undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. As a general rule, every immunocompromised patient might be at risk of Candida infection, including, for example, diabetic patients.

    The epidemiology of species responsible for IC has been changing, both at local and worldwide level, shifting from C. albicans to non-albicans species, that can be intrinsically resistant to fluconazole (C. krusei and, to some extent, C. glabrata, difficult to eradicate because of biofilm production (C. parapsilosis or than might acquire resistance to azole during therapy.

    Delaying the specific therapy has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality, but traditional microbiological diagnosis is poorly sensitive and slow. Thus, culture-based treatment may result in therapy started too late. In order to reduce the mortality in IC, several management strategies have been developed: prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy. Compared to prophylaxis, the latter approaches allow to reduce the use of antifungals by targeting only patients at very high risk of IC. Non-invasive serological markers and scores based on clinical prediction rules such as the presence of risk factors or Candida colonisation, have been developed with the aim of allowing prompt initiation of treatment. Although the use of these diagnostic tools in pre-emptive strategies is promising, the performance and cost-effectiveness should be tested in large trials.

    Agents recommended for initial treatment of candidemia in severely ill patients include echinocandins and lipid formulations of amphotericin B, while stable patients without risk factors for azole-resistance might be treated with fluconazole.


  4. Atypical presentations of congenital cutaneous candidiasis- presenting a cohort of 8 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Regina Divya*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is an extremely rare disorder that usually presents within the first 6 days of life. We report 8 neonates who presented with generalized skin eruptions within first 6 days of life, characterized by erythematous macules, papules, vesicles, bullae and pustules. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, fungal culture and skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests as thrush or diaper dermatitis.Although congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a rare diagnosis and the predisposing factors like prematurity,candidial infection in the mother are not obvious, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose the neonates with this condition and it is very evident that congenital cutaneous candidiasis has got a good prognosis. This article apart from revealing the atypical presentations of cutaneous congenital candidiasis, also emphasizes the need to screen all pregnant women for vaginal candidiasis .

  5. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Micha? M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process. PMID:25281815

  6. Comparison between Fluconazole with Oral Protexin Combination and Fluconazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Nouraei, S.; S. Amir Ali Akbari; Jorjani, M.; Alavi Majd, H; M.Afrakhteh; Ghafoorian, A.; H. Tafazzoli Harandi

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to the limited studies reporting new treatments for vulvovaginal candidiasis, this study was designed to compare the combination of fluconazole and oral protexin with fluconazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods. A double-blind clinical trial was conducted, involving 90 women who were referred to the gynecology clinic. Vulvovaginal candidiasis was diagnosed with itching, cheesy vaginal discharge, and any one of the following: dysuria, pH < 4.5, dyspa...

  7. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Brati? Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  8. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Anibal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

  9. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Cristina, Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi, Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves, Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho, Moraes; José Francisco, Höfling.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stom [...] atitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

  10. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E.; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineu...

  11. Pharmacodynamics of Fluconazole in a Murine Model of Systemic Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; Drusano, George L.; Banerjee, Partha; Liu, Qing-feng; Liu, Weiguo; Kaw, Pamela; Shayegani, Mehdi; Taber, Harry; Miller, Michael H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we defined the pharmacodynamic parameter that optimizes outcome in deep-seated Candida albicans infections treated with fluconazole. Using a murine model of systemic candidiasis, we conducted single-dose dose-ranging studies with fluconazole to determine the dosage of this drug that resulted in a 50% reduction in fungal densities (50% effective dose [ED50]) in kidneys versus the fungal densities in the kidneys of untreated controls. We found that the ED50 of fluconazole given in...

  12. Clinical and mycological spectrum of cutaneous candidiasis in Bombay.

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff P; Parikh D; Fernandez R; Wagle U

    1990-01-01

    A total of 150 patients with cutaneous candidiasis were studied. A detailed clinical history was taken. Scrapings were examined in 10% KOH, and the material cultured on Sabouraud?s agar. Species were identified by the serum germ tube test, sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests. Of 150 patients 79 were females. The commonest presentation was intertrigo (75), vulvovaginitis (19) and paronychia (17). A history of chronic exposure to water was obtained in 94 cases, all had...

  13. Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5% patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8% patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8% patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0% patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0% of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0% of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  14. A CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddami

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to Candida albicans in a 13 yr-old boy is reported. Evaluation of cell mediated immunity revealed cutaneous anergy to PPD and low level of T-Lymphocytes B-Cell count and immunoglobulin G (IgG were increased and there was a low level of serum iron. The patient was put under treatment with oral administration of Ketoconazole and ferrus sulfate, which resulted in some clinical improvement

  15. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljevi? Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  16. Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis; Report of Three Cases with Different Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Kourosh Mohammadi; Mohammad Gharagozlou; Masoud Movahedi; Abolhassan Farhoudi; Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Nima Rezaei

    2005-01-01

    Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMCC) refers to a group of immunodeficiencies, characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucus membranes caused by candida. A wide range of immunologic abnormality has been reported in CMCC. Defects in cellular li...

  17. Zinc Level of Serum in Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc status has been shown to influence various cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. These cell-mediated mechanisms are important in preventing mucocutaneous infections caused by Candida albicans. This study evaluated the relationship between zinc status and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis by comparing plasma zinc in 51 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 50 control healthy age-matched women. The results indicated that zinc concentration in plasma in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control group showed no significant difference between case and control group (p = 0.605, 4(8% women of control group and 5(11/1% women of patients group had zinc concentration lower than normal. Also, no significant difference between the mean plasma zinc concentration (case group 48-189 ?g dL-1 and control group 57-120 ?g dL -1 in the patient and control group (87 ?g dL-1, std 23.5, 74.9 ?g dL-1, std 13 ?g dL-1 (p = 0.031 .

  18. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of ?-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  19. Protective effects of human saliva on experimental murine oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagata-Kiyoura, Yusuke; Abe, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Nitta, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    The protective effects of human saliva, known to contain various proteinaceous factors that have anti- Candida activity in vitro on oral candidiasis in the mouse model, were examined in vivo. Oral candidiasis was established by oral inoculation of viable Candida albicans (C. albicans) cells to ICR mice, 24 h after administration of predonisolone. These mice received orally 0.1 ml human saliva or sterile distilled water into the oral cavity a total of five times at specific intervals: 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h after inoculation. Seventy-two hours after inoculation with C. albicans, viable C. albicans cells in the oral cavity of the mice were counted and a subjective score for the extent of white patches on the tongue surface determined. The results showed that viable counts were significantly lower in the human saliva group than in the distilled water group (P white patches on the tongue were also significantly lower in the saliva group than in the distilled water group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that administration of human saliva may inhibit the colonization of the oral cavity by C. albicans in mice and the subsequent onset of oral candidiasis. PMID:15365870

  20. Candidiasis invasoras en recién nacidos: diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención / Invasive candidiasis in newborns: diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giannina, Izquierdo; María Elena, Santolaya.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras se han convertido en un problema cada vez más frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. La candidiasis invasora (CI) es una infección que se asocia a una significativa morbi-mortalidad, en especial en los recién nacidos (RN) prematuros. El objeti [...] vo de este documento es sugerir acciones de vigilancia, prevención farmacológica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de las CI en el RN. Abstract in english Invasive fungal infections have become an increasingly common problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates, especially in pre-term infants. The aim of this review is to suggest actions in monitoring, preventio [...] n, treatment and follow up of IC in the newborn infant.

  1. Clinical Features of Candidiasis in Patients With Inherited Interleukin 12 Receptor ?1 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ouederni, Monia; Sanal, Ozden; Ikincio?ullari, Aydan; Tezcan, Ilhan; Dogu, Figen; Sologuren, Ithaisa; Pedraza-Sánchez, Sigifredo; Keser, Melike; Tanir, Gonul; Nieuwhof, Chris; Colino, Elena; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Levy, Jacov; Kutukculer, Necil; Aytekin, Caner

    2013-01-01

    Owing to impaired interleukin 17 immunity, interleukin 12?R1 (IL-12?R1)–deficient patients have mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is usually recurrent or persistent in spite of antifungal treatment. Candidiasis may be the first clinical manifestation in IL-12?R1–deficient patients.

  2. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Vazquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.Keywords: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, HAART, antifungal agents, HIV, AIDS

  3. New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaVecchiarelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes orapharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy child-bearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis.

  4. Vaccine and monoclonal antibody that enhance mouse resistance to candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong; Cutler, Jim E

    2011-10-01

    Previously we showed that antibodies specific for the glycan ?-1,2-mannotriose [?-(Man)(3)] on the cell surface of Candida albicans protect mice against disseminated candidiasis (H. Xin, S. Dziadek, D. R. Bundle, and J. E. Cutler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105:13526-13531, 2008). Furthermore, six 14-mer peptides that are within the N-terminal portion of C. albicans wall proteins were conjugated to the glycan in an attempt to create immunogenic glycopeptide conjugates. By a dendritic cell (DC)-based immunization approach, all were immunogenic and three of the six conjugates induced a high degree of protection in mice. Interestingly, whereas all six peptides induced antibody responses when used alone to pulse DCs for subsequent immunizations, three peptides induced protection, and one in particular, peptide Fba (derived from fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), induced robust protective responses and is the focus of the current work. Fba peptide is not restricted by the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), as it induced anti-Fba antibodies in mice of different H-2 haplotypes and in rabbits. Furthermore, the peptide induced protection against disease caused by different C. albicans strains. Partial protection was achieved when alum was used in place of DCs for Fba immunizations. The passive transfer of immune sera from Fba-vaccinated mice, but not immune serum preabsorbed with fungal cells, conferred protection in naïve mice. This result, along with our finding that a monoclonal antibody specific for the peptide, E2-9 (IgM), protected mice against candidiasis, provide strong evidence that antibodies contribute to protection. Our work demonstrates the utility of cell wall peptides alone or as glycopeptides in vaccines designed for the induction of immunity against candidiasis and monoclonal antibodies as a rapid immunoprotective approach against the disease. PMID:21832099

  5. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands. PMID:25013264

  6. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Cota, Jason M; Frei, Christopher R

    2008-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of ?-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. PMID:21694882

  7. Fluconazole for ketoconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1 infected patients.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of fluconazole in doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/day in controlling oropharyngeal candidiasis was retrospectively evaluated in 16 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients. 13 patients received fluconazole due to failure of treatment with ketoconazole, and among these 11 (84%) initially showed complete or partial remission of oropharyngeal candidiasis. 3 (27%) of these subsequently developed failure of treatment within a median observation period of 38 days. No major toxicities were observed. Fluconazole appears promising in the therapy of ketoconazole-resistant candidiasis.

  8. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  9. Comparison of efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapurkar, A A; Pai, K M; Rao, S

    2009-12-01

    Candidiasis is by far the most common oral fungal infection in humans and has a variety of clinical features. It is considered to be an opportunistic infection, affecting individuals who are debilitated by another disease. Fluconazole, one of the newer azoles available for systemic use and clotrimazole as a topical ointment are both shown to be effective in the treatment of oral candidiasis and are considered to be well tolerated and useful medications. No study has evaluated the comparison of clinical and mycological response of oral candidiasis to fluconazole mouthrinse and clotrimazole mouthpaint. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluconazole mouthrinse and compare it with clotrimazole mouthpaint in the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:20415933

  10. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  11. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  12. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  13. Treatment of invasive candidiasis: between guidelines and daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Enrico; Menichetti, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Invasive candidiasis, including candidemia (IC/C), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. While incidence is higher in intensive care units, the majority of cases of candidemia are documented in medical wards. Although Candida albicans is still the most frequently isolated species, IC/C due to non-albicans species, usually less susceptible to fluconazole, is increasing. Early identification of patients at risk, knowledge of local epidemiology and prompt efforts to define etiologic diagnosis play a pivotal role for appropriateness. Starting therapy with an echinocandin, switching then to fluconazole when possible, seems to represent a potentially useful strategy for the management of IC/C. The choice between the three echinocandins should be based on the specific indications, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile, clinical experience and relative cost. PMID:25818660

  14. Determination of Vaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to Shahid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollahi omran A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Genital tract infections are among the mostcommon causes of patients referred to therapeutic centers. Nearly 75% ofwomen suffer from genital Candida infection, at least once in their lifetime.The aim of present study was detection of Candida species causing vaginitisand the evaluation of antimycotic effects of ketoconazol, clotrimazole andfluconazole against Candida species.Material and Methods: In this study, 210 vaginal samples were obtainedfrom the patients suspected of Vaginal Candidiasis. Direct examination andculture were carried out for all specimens to detect the yeast. The isolatedyeast species were then identified, using various different tests such as cultureon corn meal agar, tween-80, germ tube test, and assimilation test by API 20Ckit by using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and microdilution broth, MIC90 andMIC50 of drug were measured and determined their drug resistance.Results: In the present study, 100 yeast colonies were isolated from patients;%80 are C. albicans and the rest are C. parapsilosis(2%, C. tropicalis(6%, C.glabrata(4%, C. krusei(2%, C. guilliermondii (3%, C.stellatoidea(3%. Interms of drug resistance test MIC50 and MIC90 of fluconazole for candidaalbicans are 5.33 and 35.27?g/ ml, respectively, and for non-albicans candidaare 3 and 21.4?g/ml, respectively. Clotrimazole MIC for Candida albicans(MIC50, MIC90 0.97 and 4.9?g/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 0.63and 3.4/ml, respectively. Kectoconazole MIC for Candida albicans 2.43 and16.45?g/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 1.12 and 6.6?g/ml,respectively.Conclusion: Clotrimazole has been better than the two other drugs forCandida species on the whole, non albicans species are more sensitive thanalbicans species in the presence of the drugs used in this study.Key words: Candida, vaginal candidiasis, Resistance drug , Tonekabon.

  15. Candidiasis Bucal: Una revisión sistemática de las pruebas de laboratorio / Oral Candidiasis: A systematic review about labs prubes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elba, Añez; Thaìs, Rojas-Morales; José Luis, Calleja; Rita, Navas.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En el manejo de la Candidiasis Bucal, los hallazgos clínicos no suelen ser suficientes, para determinar su diagnóstico e instaurar un tratamiento, siendo necesaria la realización de pruebas microbiológicas que garanticen una respuesta a la terapéutica instaurada, evitándose así, la resistencia a cie [...] rtos medicamentos. En la actualidad existe gran cantidad de pruebas de laboratorio para llegar a un diagnostico diferencial entre especies de Càndida, por lo que este artículo tiene por objetivo profundizar cuales de estas pruebas poseen mayor evidencia clínica en la determinación de la Candidiasis Bucal. Se utilizó la revisión sistemática como metodología que proporciona una apreciación crítica de datos que de otra manera serían inmanejables, integrando de manera eficiente toda información valida, la cual nos aporte una base racional para tomar decisiones en el establecimiento de políticas de atención. Al analizar los diversos trabajos, se determinó que las pruebas de laboratorio existentes, poseen poca evidencia clínica acerca de su utilidad, recomendándose realizar estudios que cumplan con los criterios de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo que garanticen su validez clínica. Abstract in english Oral mycosis management, the clinics reward’s its not be enough, to determine it’s diagnosis and restore a treatment. It is be necessary to make labs prubes microbiology that guarantied a response an adequate treatment, it to avoid its resistance to some medicament. Actually exist a lot of labs prub [...] es to find a differential diagnosis between species of Candida, the objective of this article its to low about which one of the labs prubes have the greatest clinic evidence to determine Oral Candidiasis, its used systematic review as methodology to proportion a critic appreciation of information in other way it would be unmanageable, to integrate of efficiency way validity information, the which one proportionated us a base rational to make decisions to establishment attention politics . At analyzed the different works, it determine that the existent lab prubes, it isn’t clinic evidence of its utility, we recommended to make studies that perform with the criterions sensibility, specify and predictive value.

  16. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

  17. The value of prophylactic (monthly) clotrimazole versus empiric self-treatment in recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I. W.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the comparative efficacy and cost benefit of prophylactic monthly (perimenstrual) clotrimazole, versus empiric self-treatment with the same agent at the onset of symptoms in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, open cross-over study of women with proven recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clinical and microbiological assessments were done every two months for 12 months. SETTING--Women's Clinic of a University Teaching Hospital. SUBJECTS-...

  18. Epidemiologic Features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Reproductive-Age Women in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, Sujit D.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Karl Krupp; Reingold, Arthur L.; Purnima Madhivanan

    2012-01-01

    Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge and itching, and is associated with considerable health and economic costs. Materials and Methods. We examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis among a cohort of 898 women in south India. Participants completed three study visits over six months, comprised of a structured interview and a pelvic examination. Results. The positive predictive values for diagnosis of vulvov...

  19. Frequency and Etiology of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to a Gynecological Center in Babol, lran

    OpenAIRE

    Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh; Saeid Mahdavi Omran; Zahra Rahmani

    2009-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common fungal disease in sexually activewomen of which Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the etiologic agentsof vulvovaginal candidiasis amongst 2000 women who presented to the Gynecological Center ofBabol Shahid Yahyanejad Educational Hospital from 2006-2007 with symptoms of vulvovaginalcandidiasis.Results: Discharge and pruritus were the most common sym...

  20. Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis with localized oral miconazole therapy: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

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    Cookinham S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Curtis D Collins1, Sarah Cookinham2, Jeannina Smith21Department of Pharmacy Services, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a very common localized infection of the mucus membranes of the oropharynx that is most commonly caused by the patient's own commensal Candida albicans. It is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and is also quite common in patients with hematological malignancies. Effective treatment options are of high importance given the worldwide incidence of these disease states and the potential for development of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. Various systemic and topical treatment options for patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis have existed for many years. Miconazole buccal tablets have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Clinical trials have demonstrated noninferiority in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis when compared with clotrimazole troches in patients with HIV and against miconazole gel in patients with head and neck cancer. Miconazole buccal tablets exhibit few drug interactions because of low systemic absorption and are generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to comparators. The once-daily dosing schedule may improve patient adherence compared with topical alternatives; however, the cost of therapy may be a barrier for some patients and should be considered by prescribers compared with alternative treatments.Keywords: esophageal candidiasis, miconazole, antifungal agents

  1. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  2. Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis; Report of Three Cases with Different Phenotypes

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    Kourosh Mohammadi

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMCC refers to a group of immunodeficiencies, characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucus membranes caused by candida. A wide range of immunologic abnormality has been reported in CMCC. Defects in cellular limb of the immune system, mainly the specific response to antigens of candida species, are well documented in CMCC patients. A subgroup of patients is predisposed to development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. These patients need repeated monitoring of endocrine functions. Immunologic studies are needed to identify the extent of immunodeficiency and other abnormalities of immune functions. We report three cases of CMCC. These patients show different phenotypes and highlight the need for complete evaluation and long term follow-up for accompanying disorders.

  3. Clinical and mycological spectrum of cutaneous candidiasis in Bombay.

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    Shroff P

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 patients with cutaneous candidiasis were studied. A detailed clinical history was taken. Scrapings were examined in 10% KOH, and the material cultured on Sabouraud?s agar. Species were identified by the serum germ tube test, sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests. Of 150 patients 79 were females. The commonest presentation was intertrigo (75, vulvovaginitis (19 and paronychia (17. A history of chronic exposure to water was obtained in 94 cases, all had erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica and/or paronychia. Diabetes melltius as a predisposing factor was observed in 22 patients. The 10 cases of balanoposthitis had associated diabetes mellitus. Smear and culture were positive in all the patients. C. albicans was isolated in 136 cases, C. tropicalis in 12, and C. guillermondi in 2. The cultures of C. albicans had positive serum germ tube test. The 6 patients in the paediatric age group having perianal/genital involvement had a stools culture positive for C. albicans.

  4. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of vaginal candidiasis in the UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mawieh; Kazandji, Norair; Awadallah, Samir; Allam, Hilda

    2014-03-01

    Vaginal candidiasis (VC) continues to be a health problem to women worldwide. Although the majority of VC cases are caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), non-albicans Candida spp. like C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are emerging as important and potentially resistant opportunistic agents of VC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of VC in the UAE through retrospective analysis of pertinent data compiled by the microbiology and infection control unit at Latifa Hospital, Dubai between 2005 and 2011. The incidence of VC significantly increased from 10.76% in 2005 to 17.61% in 2011; average prevalence was 13.88%. C. albicans occurred at a frequency of 83.02%, C. glabrata at 16.5% and C. tropicalis at 1.2%. A single C. dubliniensis isolate was identified in the sample population. The percentage of C. albicans significantly decreased from 83.02% in the sample population as a whole to 60.8% in subjects over 45 years of age (P < 0.01) and that of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei significantly increased from 13.88%, 0.9% and 0.03% to 29.7%, 6.7% and 1.4% (P < 0.05) respectively. The incidence of VC in the UAE is on the rise and the frequency of non-albicans Candida spp. is noticeably increasing especially in postmenopausal women. PMID:24102778

  5. Candidiasis in HIV and AIDS Patients Attending the Nylon Health District Hospital in Douala, Cameroon

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    Anna Longdoh Njunda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Candidiasis is the leading opportunistic mycosis in HIV and AIDS patients. METHOD: In order to determine its prevalence in patients with different CD4+ T cell categories in the Nylon Health District in Douala, a cross-sectional study was carried out whereby 304 HIV positive individuals were recruited between March and August, 2007. They were divided into two groups; those on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and those not on HAART. Three samples constituting mouth, vaginal/urethral swabs and urine were collected from each subject. RESULTS: A total of 204 (67.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.618-0.724] of these patients had more than one predisposing condition to candidiasis, with those on antibiotic therapy having the highest prevalence (63.7% followed by pregnant patients (7.3% (P < 0.05. Candidiasis was more common in patients with low CD4+ T cell count (<200 [66%] than patients with higher CD4+ T cell count (17.9% (P<0.05. One hundred and sixty one (53% of the patients had candidiasis whereby those not on HAART were more frequently infected (69.6% than those on HAART (30.1% (P< 0.05. CONCLUSION: We conclude that candidiasis is a major opportunistic infection in HIV patients and should be checked especially in patients not yet on antiretroviral therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 701-706

  6. Hepatosplenic and renal candidiasis in leukemic patients: CT spectrum before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal CT performed in 14 leukemic patients with systemic candidiasis and involvement of the liver, spleen, or kidneys revealed numerous low-density lesions in ten livers (71%), eight spleens (57%), and in the kidneys of three patients (21%). Biopsy of all livers and of three kidneys proved hepatic candidiasis in all (100%) and renal candidiasis in three patients (21%). After treatment with amphotericin B and splenectomy (one patient), CT disclosed abnormal livers in eleven (80%) patients, abnormal spleens in seven (53%), and abnormal kidneys in three patients (21%). Rebiopsy disclosed Candida infection in all livers and all abnormal kidneys, so the patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Although the patients became asymptomatic, CT continued to show abnormal livers in five (35%) and abnormal spleens in two (16%) (the previously abnormal kidneys became normal). Rebiopsy of the abnormal livers showed focal fibrosis and necrosis. These findings emphasize the importance of clinical and pathologic correlation of CT appearance

  7. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin - review of the literature

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    Glöckner A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Working by a distinct cell wall-specific mechanism of action, the echinocandin class of antifungals has substantially expanded the range of available treatments for invasive Candida infections. Anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were investigated versus drugs from earlier antifungal classes in large clinical trials that demonstrated their excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis. Therefore, and supported by a number of favourable pharmacological characteristics, the echinocandins rapidly became established in guidelines and clinical practice as primary treatment options for moderately to severely ill patients with invasive candidiasis. This article reviews the relevant clinical evidence that forms the basis for the use of echinocandins in the management of invasive candidiasis, and discusses their current role in the context of recent guideline recommendations and treatment optimization strategies.

  8. [Anti-Candida activity of aroma candy and its protective activity against murine oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Suzuki, Motofumi; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Sato, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    A daily eatable candy that has possible protective activity against oral candidiasis was experimentally produced. The candy was made from reduced-maltose as main constituent and from several natural products, such as oligonol (depolymerized polyphenols derived from lychee), cinnamon (cassia), citral, and capric acid, which are known to have anti-Candida activity in vitro and in vivo. The candy effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of C. albicans, even when it was diluted 1,000 times with culture media. We assessed the protective activity of the candy against murine candidiasis. When 50?l of candy dissolved and diluted 4 times with water was administered 3 times into the oral cavity of Candida infected mice, the score of lesions on the Candida-infected tongues improved on day 2. These findings suggest that this candy has potential as food that provides protective activity against oral candidiasis. PMID:25855024

  9. Frequency and Etiology of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to a Gynecological Center in Babol, lran

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    Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common fungal disease in sexually activewomen of which Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the etiologic agentsof vulvovaginal candidiasis amongst 2000 women who presented to the Gynecological Center ofBabol Shahid Yahyanejad Educational Hospital from 2006-2007 with symptoms of vulvovaginalcandidiasis.Results: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms in patients (80%. There were42 out of 97 (43.3% specimens which were positive for yeast. Of these, 80.95% belonged toCandida albicans and 14.29% were Candida krusei.Conclusion: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis.In our study, C. albicans was the most common species isolated from the specimens.

  10. Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care s of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Enriched with Zn as Immunostimulator for Vaginal Candidiasis Patient

    OpenAIRE

    HERY WINARSI; HERNAYANTI; AGUS PURWANTO

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance on the immune system and deficiency of Zn is two factors which often trigger vaginal candidiasis patient. The aim of the research was to study the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) enriched with Zn to the amount of neutrophil and lymphocyte subset cells, and the level of IL-2 and IgG in vaginal candidiasis patient. Thirty women were grouped into three (ten women in each group): A, B and C, and intervened for two months. Women in A group were intervened with two tablespoon/day; t...

  12. Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected individuals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Katiraee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to appraise prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and to determine factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization among Iranian HIV patients."n"nMethods: The patients were composed 150 Iranian HIV positive individuals referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV & Aids (IRCHA, Imam Khomeini Hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on mycological media. TCD4 lymphocyte count/percentage was measured and patients were categorized. Patients evaluated for some risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral candida colonization."n"nResults: Fifty nine percent of patients were presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and the carriage rate of yeasts was 116 (77.2%. The most frequent isolated candida species were Candida albicans (102 50.2% and Candida glabrata (45 22%. Thrush in 57(38%, perleche in 30(20% and erythematous lesions in 7(4.7% of patients were observed. Significant differences in TCD4 count (p=0.01, gender (p=0.02, antifungal therapy (p=0.001, smoking (p=0.02, and intravenous drug use (p=0.03, between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were observed."n"nConclusion: Oral candidiasis is a frequent complication among Iranian HIV individuals. C. albicans and C. glabrata are most important etiologic agents of oral candidiasis. In Iranian HIV individuals; TCD4 count, antifungal therapy, gender, smoking and intravenous drug use are important risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis. Denture wearing and age are predisposing factors for oral colonization.

  13. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  14. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoss, A.E.; Ponhold, W.; Pollak, A.; Schlemmer, M.; Weninger, M.

    1985-09-01

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries.

  15. Successful Treatment of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Caused by Azole-Resistant Candida albicans with Posaconazole

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Firinu; Paolo Emilio Manconi; Paolo Serra; Monica Peralta; Maria Maddalena Lorrai; Maria Pina Barca; Loredana Serusi; Orietta Massidda

    2010-01-01

    Refractory or recurrent infections of skin, nails, and the mucous membranes are clinical signs of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, frequently associated with immunological defects. Here we describe a 39-years-old female patient, with familial CMC, that presented with an extensive infection caused by an azole-resistant Candida albicans isolate, successfully treated with posaconazole.

  16. Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears

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    P Tavakkol

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were cultured in Sabourauds medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol then cultures were tested with common mycological lab tests. In 80% of patients oral candidiasis have been diagnosed. In the investigation a direct relation between the oral candidiasis and removal of denture at night, denture cleanliness, presence of any suction and symptoms of denture stomatitis was shown. No relation between the oral candidiasis and sex, smoking habit, succeptible disease, angular cheilitis; the recent condition of denture and the retention of denture were found. The findings of our investigation indicates that candida albicans is the causative agent of denture stomatitis while other factors such as denture cleanliness, removal of denture at night and presence of any suction may be considered as well.

  17. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries. (orig.)

  18. Development of Caspofungin Resistance following Prolonged Therapy for Invasive Candidiasis Secondary to Candida glabrata Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, George R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Vallor, Ana C.; Villareal, Nyria C.; Lewis, James S.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Candida glabrata invasive candidiasis that developed reduced susceptibility to caspofungin during prolonged therapy. Pre- and posttreatment isolates were confirmed to be isogenic, and sequencing of hot spots known to confer echinocandin resistance revealed an F659V substitution within the FKS2 region of the glucan synthase complex. PMID:18676885

  19. Development of Caspofungin Resistance following Prolonged Therapy for Invasive Candidiasis Secondary to Candida glabrata Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, George R.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Vallor, Ana C.; Villareal, Nyria C.; Lewis, James S.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of Candida glabrata invasive candidiasis that developed reduced susceptibility to caspofungin during prolonged therapy. Pre- and posttreatment isolates were confirmed to be isogenic, and sequencing of hot spots known to confer echinocandin resistance revealed an F659V substitution within the FKS2 region of the glucan synthase complex.

  20. Oral Candidiasis in children and adolescents with cancer: Identification of Candida spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haylen, González Gravina; Evelyn, González de Morán; Olga, Zambrano; María, Lozano Chourio; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Sandra, Robertis; Luz, Mesa.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis represents a serious problem for children with cancer. The mortality rate of this infection has increased due to fungal septicemia, associated with a primary buccal infection. Objective: Identify the Candida spp. in buccal lesions of patients with cancer, establish the predominant s [...] pecies and correlate them to age and sex of the patient, clinical presentation, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic therapy received. Study design: 62 patients, between 0-16 years, were investigated in a cross sectional study. Sample inclusion criteria: Patients with malignant neoplasic disease that were receiving cytostatic treatment and had suspicious lesions of oral candidiasis. Patients with antifungal therapy, active caries, calculus or intraoral appliances were excluded. A clinical evaluation was carried out. The lesion sample was taken and studied by direct exam and culture in CHROMagar-Candida and Sabouraud-Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol. The identification of the isolated yeast was done by the filamentation test, carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. Results: Most of the cases (69.35%) were positive to oral candidiasis, C. albicans was the most frequent species found, followed by C. parapsilosis (14.89%), C. tropicalis (12.77%), C. krusei (4.26%), C. glabrata (2.13%) and C. lusitaniae (2.13 %). In some cases more than one specie were isolated (9.30%). The most frequent location of the lesion was in the tongue (72.70%). The pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most frequent clinical presentation found (78.71%). There were not significant statistically differences with regard to sex and age of the patient, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic agent received. Conclusion: The results suggest that oral candidiasis is a frequent complication in the pediatric oncological population, being C. albicans the main etiological agent, however, there is an important participation of other Candida species.

  1. Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence?†

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, Brenda A.; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M; NUNN, JUNE; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Derek J. Sullivan; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one ...

  2. Immunohistochemical study of in vivo and in vitro IgA coating of candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?hler, K.; Klade, H.; Poitschek, C.; Reinthaller, A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate whether quantitative or qualitative IgA deficiencies in cervicovaginal secretions can be identified in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective and controlled study. SETTING--Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna. SUBJECTS--30 patients with symptomatic and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis at the time of their presentation. 30 healthy women as a control group. INTERVENTION--Blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum IgA lev...

  3. Intermittent prophylactic treatment of recurrent vaginal candidiasis by postmenstrual application of a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet.

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, A. C.; Milsom, I; Forssman, L; Wåhlén, P

    1990-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of intermittent, monthly, postmenstrual prophylaxis with a single 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet (n = 33) was compared with placebo tablets (n = 29) in 62 woman (age 28.1, SD 7.2 years) with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of episodes of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis experienced during the year prior to inclusion was 6.3, SD 1.9. The cumulative recurrence frequency after 6 months intermittent prophylaxis with clotrimazole (30.3%) was lower (p less ...

  4. Circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells have little impact on host defense against experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel, P.L.; Lynch, M.E.; Sobel, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    The etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in otherwise healthy women of child-bearing age remains an enigma. To date, results from both clinical studies and a murine model of vaginal candidiasis indicate that Candida vaginitis can occur in the presence of Candida-specific Th1-type cell-mediated immunity expressed in the peripheral circulation. The present study was designed to determine the role of circulating CD4 and CD8 cells in primary and secondary vaginal infections with Candida...

  5. Caspofungin Use in Patients with Invasive Candidiasis Caused by Common Non-albicans Candida Species: Review of the Caspofungin Database ?

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Ngai, Angela L.; Bourque, Michael; Bradshaw, Susan K.; Strohmaier, Kim M; Taylor, Arlene F.; Lupinacci, Robert J.; Kartsonis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing rates of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida species have been reported worldwide. Particular concerns have been raised for C. parapsilosis because of reduced in vitro susceptibility to echinocandins. We identified 212 patients with invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (?5 cases per species) in 5 clinical trials of caspofungin monotherapy from the pharmaceutical sponsor's (Merck and Co., Inc.) database: 71 cases were caused by C. parapsilosis, ...

  6. Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano / Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Catalina, de Bedout; Beatriz L, Gómez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, s [...] e han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species ha [...] ve been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches) is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

  7. Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina de Bedout

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local.Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

  8. Oral candidiasis as a clinical marker of highly active antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-infected patients / La candidiasis bucal como marcador clínico de falla a la terapia antirretroviral altamente efectiva en pacientes infectados con VIH/sida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Lopez-Verdin; Amalia, Torrecilla-Ramirez; Ana Cristina, Horta-Sandoval; Jaime Federico, Andrade-Villanueva; Ronell, Bologna-Molina.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La candidiasis bucal es una infección oportunista fácilmente detectable en la clínica, por lo que se ha utilizado para valorar tanto el estado inmunológico de los pacientes con VIH como la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral, altamente efectiva debido a que se encuentra sujeta a [...] diversos factores para lograr el éxito terapéutico. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis bucal entre indicadores asociados al éxito de la terapia antirretroviral. Material y método: Estudio transversal, analítico en donde inicialmente se realizaron grupos de acuerdo al uso o no de la terapia antirretroviral para proseguir con un interrogatorio que incluía preguntas sobre otros factores relacionados con la infección por cándida, así como la medición del flujo salival y la evaluación clínica de la cavidad bucal para determinar la frecuencia de la candidiasis. Resultados: La diferencia en la frecuencia de la candidiasis bucal entre los grupos con y sin terapia antirretroviral fue significativa, además de obtener una OR = 2,6 (1,58-4,48) y la asociación con la disminución en el conteo de linfocitos de CD4. Discusión: La resistencia a la terapia antirretroviral constituye uno de los problemas fundamentales en el éxito del tratamiento, en los pacientes infectados con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, al igual que las toxicidades y los problemas de adherencia. Los sensores clínicos como la candidiasis bucal son parámetros de fácil acceso para la detección temprana de falla en la terapia. Abstract in english Introduction: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection that is readily detectable in the clinic. It has been used to assess the immune status of HIV patients as well as the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency of oral candidiasis infectio [...] n among various indicators associated with antiretroviral therapy effectiveness. Material and methods: Cross-sectional and analytical study, in which groups were initially created based on the use or not of antiretroviral therapy. Participants were subjected to questions on factors related to Candida infection, salivary flow measurements and a clinical examination of the oral cavity to determine the frequency of candidiasis Results: The difference in the frequency of oral candidiasis between groups with and without antiretroviral therapy was significant (OR 2.6 IC95% 1.5-4.4). There were also a significant association with decreased number of CD4 lymphocytes.. Discussion: Resistance to anti-retroviral therapy constitutes one of the fundamental barriers to a successful treatment in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, as do toxicities and adherence problems. Clinical markers such oral candidiasis is an easily and accesible parameter for the early detection of treatment failure.

  9. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambô Filho, Antônio; Souza Filho, João Basilio de; Pignaton, Christine Chambô; Zon, Ingrid; Fernandes, Alan Santos; Cardoso, Lia Quintaes

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidazole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membranes of onset in adolescence besides cutaneous horns in nipples. The clinical picture, family history, culture and anatomopathological studies were consistent with chronic infection by candida. Treatment with systemic antifungals obtained partial response of lesions characterizing a clinical picture of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis. PMID:25054753

  10. Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobel JD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jack D SobelDivision of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an extremely common cause of vaginal symptoms in women. Multiple antifungal products are available by either the oral or vaginal route, although no new drugs have become available for two decades. Given the therapeutic equivalence of the antimycotic agents and their routes of administration, the specific drug and formulation selected is entirely arbitrary in relation to final treatment outcome. Nevertheless, multiple factors affecting preference, both practitioner-dependent and patient-dependent, impact on selection of a specific drug and route of administration.Keywords: antifungal drugs, antimycotics, Candida vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis

  11. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio, Chambô Filho; João Basilio de, Souza Filho; Christine Chambô, Pignaton; Ingrid, Zon; Alan Santos, Fernandes; Lia Quintaes, Cardoso.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidaz [...] ole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membranes of onset in adolescence besides cutaneous horns in nipples. The clinical picture, family history, culture and anatomopathological studies were consistent with chronic infection by candida. Treatment with systemic antifungals obtained partial response of lesions characterizing a clinical picture of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis.

  12. Development of Film Dosage Forms Containing Miconazole for the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Murata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Film dosage forms (FDs containing miconazole (MCZ for the treatment of oral candidiasis were prepared using water-soluble polysaccharides, and the dissolution profiles of MCZ from the FDs were investigated. In addition, the forms were modified by the addition of a surface active agent to accelerate the drug dissolution rate. Circular films incorporating MCZ were obtained using each polysaccharide. Most FDs were easy to handle and resistant to tearing. No diffraction peaks were observed in the X-ray diffractograms of FDs. FDs prepared with sodium alginate or pullulan immediately swelled and disintegrated in aqueous medium, whereas MCZ incorporated in the FD gradually dissolved. A marked acceleration in the MCZ dissolution rate was observed when FD was prepared with polysaccharide containing a surfactant. These results confirmed that modified FDs are useful for treating localized conditions in the oral cavity, such as oral candidiasis, and that FDs can simplify the administration of drugs to patients.

  13. Photodynamic therapy as a new approach in vulvovaginal candidiasis in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Maria E.; Lopes, Rubia G.; Prates, Renato A.; Sousa, Aline; Ferreira, Luis R.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common cause of vaginal infections. This study investigates the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against yeast cells in mice. Methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), and a special designed protoporphirin (PpNetNI) were used as photosensitizers. Female BALB-c mice were infected with Candida albicans ATCC 90028. PDT was applied with two different light sources, intravaginal and transabdominal. Vaginal washes were performed and cultivated for microbial quantification. Antimicrobial PDT was able to decrease microbial content with MB and PpNetNI (p<0.05), it was not effective, however, with MG photosensitizer. The results of this study demonstrate that aPDT may be a viable alternative treatment for vaginal candidiasis.

  14. Bench-to-bedside review: Therapeutic management of invasive candidiasis in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetti, Matteo; Mikulska, Ma?gorzata; Viscoli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Candida is one of the most frequent pathogens in bloodstream infections, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of species responsible for invasive candidiasis, both at local and worldwide levels, has been changing - shifting from Candida albicans to non-albicans species, which can be resistant to fluconazole (Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) or difficult to eradicate because of biofilm production (Candida parapsilosis). Numerous intensive care unit p...

  15. The value of treating the sexual partners of women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis with ketoconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I. W.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether treatment of the sexual partners of women with chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis with oral ketoconazole can reduce the recurrence rate of candida vaginitis. DESIGN--Single blind randomised study where all the women were treated with ketoconazole 400 mg daily for 7 days after an acute episode of candida vaginitis and half the male partners were treated with ketoconazole 200 mg daily for 5 days. SETTING--Women's Candida Clinic of St. Michael's Hospital, a Universi...

  16. Efficient Diagnosis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis by Use of a New Rapid Immunochromatography Test?

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Pilon, Françoise; Beucher, Bertrand; Poulain, Daniel; Robert, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common, leading to a delay in the initiation of antifungal treatment. We evaluated a new immunochromatography test (ICT), the CandiVagi assay (SR2B, Avrille, France), for the rapid diagnosis of VVC. This test, which employs an immunoglobulin M antibody directed against the ?-1,2-mannopyranosyl epitopes found in the yeast cell wall, was compared with direct microscopic examination and culture of vagin...

  17. Placebo-controlled trial of itraconazole for treatment of acute vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, G E; Mummaw, N

    1993-01-01

    Itraconazole is a new orally active triazole antifungal agent with enhanced activity against Candida species. In the clinical trial described in this paper, we compared the efficacy and safety of itraconazole capsules with those of clotrimazole vaginal tablets and placebo oral capsules for women with acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. Ninety-five patients were randomized in a 2:1:1 fashion to receive itraconazole (200 mg/day), clotrimazole (200 mg/day), or placebo (two capsules per day) for 3 co...

  18. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Luciano Bruschi; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro; Kelen Fátima Dalben Dota

    2011-01-01

    Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE) and propolis microparticles (PMs) obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yea...

  19. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples*

    OpenAIRE

    Chambô, Antônio; de Souza, João Basilio; Pignaton, Christine Chambô; Zon, Ingrid; Fernandes, Alan Santos; Cardoso, Lia Quintaes

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidazole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital...

  20. Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel JD

    2013-01-01

    Jack D SobelDivision of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common cause of vaginal symptoms in women. Multiple antifungal products are available by either the oral or vaginal route, although no new drugs have become available for two decades. Given the therapeutic equivalence of the antimycotic agents and their routes of administration, the specific drug and formulation selected is entirely a...

  1. Efficacy of CS-758, a Novel Triazole, against Experimental Fluconazole-Resistant Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamai, Yasuki; Kubota, Mikie; Fukuoka, Takashi; Kamai, Yoko; MAEDA, NAOYUKI; Hosokawa, Tsunemichi; Shibayama, Takahiro; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Kuwahara, Shogo

    2003-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of CS-758, a novel triazole, was evaluated against experimental murine oropharyngeal candidiasis induced by Candida albicans with various susceptibilities to fluconazole. Against infections induced by strains with various susceptibilities to fluconazole, the efficacy of fluconazole was strongly correlated with the MIC of fluconazole, as measured by the NCCLS method, and agreed with the NCCLS interpretive breakpoints, suggesting that the efficacies of new drugs could b...

  2. Mural Folliculitis and Alopecia with Cutaneous Candidiasis in a Beagle Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-a; Hong, Sunhwa; Choe, Ohmok; Kim, Okjin

    2011-01-01

    A one-year-old male Beagle dog showed dermatitis, alopecia and scales. Examination of the affected dog revealed generalized alopecia, patchy erythema, and superficial erosions with histological evidence of mural folliculitis. External tests for parasites in scraped skin samples were negative. However, fungal culture tests and polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of Candida in the lesion. These results suggest that cutaneous candidiasis may induce mural folliculitis and alopecia in...

  3. Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of a Sordarin Derivative (GM 237354) in a Murine Model of Lethal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Aviles, P.; Falcoz, C.; San Roman, R.; Gargallo-viola, D.

    2000-01-01

    Sordarins are a new class of antifungal agents which selectively inhibit fungal protein synthesis (FPS) by impairing the function of elongation factor 2. The present study investigates possible correlations between sordarin pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and therapeutic efficacy, based on a murine model of invasive systemic candidiasis, and provides a rationale for dose selection in the first study of efficacy in humans. A significant correlation between PK parameters and the in vivo activit...

  4. Renal candidiasis in newborn: the ultrasonography as diagnostic and therapeutic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of systemic candidiasis in a low-weight newborn. Renal involvement presented as unilateral hydronephrosis secondary to the fungal construction. Ultrasound served not only as a diagnostic tool, but as a guide for the performance of performance of percutaneous nephrostomy which was included in the therapeutic approach to decompress the excretory pathway and allow local installation of anti fungal agents. (Author) 16 refs

  5. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N., Chami; F., Chami; S., Bennis; J., Trouillas; A., Remmal.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiolo [...] gical and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p

  6. Invasive candidiasis due to Candida norvegensis in a liver transplant patient: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Musso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Candida norvegensis is an emerging fluconazole-resistant pathogen isolated in most cases from skin and mucous membranes of immunocompromized patients. Documented invasive candidiasis (IC due to C. norvegensis has been rarely reported, thus the clinical features of patients at risk for this pathogen are poorly defined. We report a liver transplant patient who developed IC due to C. norvegensis and review other cases of C. norvegensis IC published in the literature.

  7. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in...

  8. Importance of beta2-microglobulin in murine resistance to mucosal and systemic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Balish, E.; Vazquez-torres, F. A.; Jones-carson, J.; Wagner, R. D.; Warner, T.

    1996-01-01

    beta2-Microglobulin knockout (beta2m-/-) mice, which lack major histocompatibility complex class I expression and are deficient in CD8alpha/beta T-cell receptor alpha/beta (TcRalpha/beta) T cells, were as resistant to systemic (intravenous) challenge with Candida albicans as immunocompetent controls. Conversely, the beta2m-/- mutant mice were susceptible to systemic candidiasis of endogenous origin despite the induction of C. albicans-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune responses after...

  9. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Andresa Aparecida Berretta; Patrícia Alves de Castro; Amanda Henriques Cavalheiro; Vanessa Silveira Fortes; Vinícius Pedro Bom; Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento; Franciane Marquele-Oliveira; Vinícius Pedrazzi; Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho; Gustavo Henrique Goldman

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evalua...

  10. Invasive candidiasis due to Candida norvegensis in a liver transplant patient: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Musso; Maddalena Giannella; Mario Antonini; Eugenio Bordi; Giuseppe Maria Ettorre; Loretta Tessitore; Andrea Mariano; Alessandro Capone

    2014-01-01

    Candida norvegensis is an emerging fluconazole-resistant pathogen isolated in most cases from skin and mucous membranes of immunocompromized patients. Documented invasive candidiasis (IC) due to C. norvegensis has been rarely reported, thus the clinical features of patients at risk for this pathogen are poorly defined. We report a liver transplant patient who developed IC due to C. norvegensis and review other cases of C. norvegensis IC published in the literature.

  11. Galectin-3 Plays an Important Role in Protection against Disseminated Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Jennifer R.; Paepe, Monique E.; Laforce-nesbitt, Sonia S.; Bliss, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have implicated galectin-3 as an important receptor in host recognition and response to specific Candida species; however its role in protection against disseminated candidiasis in vivo has not been evaluated. This study investigated the importance of galectin-3 in host defense against systemic infection with the highly virulent species Candida albicans (C. albicans), and the less virulent species, Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis). Mice deficient in galectin-3 (g...

  12. Gene polymorphisms in pattern recognition receptors and susceptibility to idiopathic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    MartinJaeger; HankaVenselaar; BertrandDupont; JackSobel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Approximately 5% of women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). It has been hypothesized that genetic factors play an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of genetic variants of genes encoding for Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) on susceptibility to RVVC. Study design. For the study, 119 RVVC patients and 263 healthy controls were recruited. Prevalence of polymorphisms in five PRRs involved in recognit...

  13. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2014-06-24

    Abstract Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches. PMID:24959937

  14. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PATUSSI, Cleverson; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; MUNHOZ, Eduardo Ciliao; ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; SCHUSSEL, Juliana Lucena.

    2014-09-26

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient’s recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, [...] particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  15. Lipase Gene Expression of Resistant and Sensitive Candida Albicans to Fluconazole Isolated from Patients Suffering from Oral Candidiasis and Vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NasrollahiOmran, A. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With the development of drug resistance in strains of fungi, there is a considerable resistance of Candida albicans strains to fluconazole. Molecular studies are developing to determine the relationship of such a drug resistance with the increased gene expression of enzymes produced in drug-resistant Candida isolates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between extracellular lipase gene (LIP8 expression of Candida albicans isolated from candidiasis and sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility of Candida albicans was performed in oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine the proportion of strains sensitive or resistant to fluconazole using NCCLS method. To evaluate and compare the expression of these genes in the susceptible and resistant strains, RT real-time PCR reaction was used. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans, 20 were susceptible, 12 were semi-susceptible and 14 were resistant to fluconazole. By using PCR reaction, the results showed that the expression of this gene in fluconazole-susceptible isolates was moderate, while it was high in the isolates resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: The results of lipase gene (LIP8 expression showed that the additional expression of some genes of the enzymes responsible for virulence of Candida may also play a role in resistance to fluconazole.

  16. Factors Associated with Esophageal Candidiasis and Its Endoscopic Severity in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, So; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Asayama, Naoki; Akiyama, Junichi; Ohmagari, Norio; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Candidia esophagitis (CE) is an AIDS-defining condition, usually occurring in individuals with low CD4 counts of <200 cells/µL. Endoscopy is a valuable definitive diagnostic method for CE but may not be indicated for asymptomatic patients or for those with high CD4 counts or without oral candidiasis. This study assessed such patients to clarify the factors associated with CE and its severity on endoscopy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Methodology/ Principal Findings A total of 733 HIV-infected patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were analyzed. Sexual behavior, CD4+ count, HIV-RNA viral load (VL), history of HAART, GI symptoms, GI diseases, and oral candidiasis were assessed. Endoscopic severity of CE was classified as mild (Kodsi's grade I/II) or severe (grade III/IV). Of the 733 subjects, 62 (8.46%) were diagnosed with CE (mild, n?=?33; severe, n?=?29). Of them, 56.5% (35/62) had no GI symptoms, 30.6% (19/62) had CD4 + ?200 cells/?L, and 55.3% (21/38) had no oral candidiasis. Univariate analysis found lower CD4+ counts, higher HIV VL, and no history of HAART to be significantly associated with CE. With lower CD4+ counts and higher HIV VL, CE occurrence increased significantly (P<0.01 for trend in odds). Multivariate analysis showed low CD4+ counts and high HIV VL to be independently associated with CE. Of the severe CE patients, 55.2% (16/29) had no GI symptoms and 44.4% (8/18) had no oral candidiasis. Median CD4+ counts in severe cases were significantly lower than in mild cases (27 vs. 80; P?=?0.04). Conclusions Low CD4+ counts and high HIV VL were found to be factors associated with CE, and advanced immunosuppression was associated with the development of severity. Endoscopy is useful as it can detect CE, even severe CE, in patients without GI symptoms, those with high CD4 counts, and those without oral candidiasis. PMID:23555571

  17. Reevaluation of the Role of HWP1 in Systemic Candidiasis by Use of Candida albicans Strains with Selectable Marker URA3 Targeted to the ENO1 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Sundstrom, Paula; Cutler, Jim E.; Staab, Janet F.

    2002-01-01

    Previous evaluation of HWP1 in systemic candidiasis in CBA/J mice was done with Candida albicans strains with differing genetic locations of URA3 as a result of Ura-blaster mutagenesis. In this study, the presence of HWP1 and the location of URA3 contributed to the severity of murine systemic candidiasis in BALB/c mice.

  18. Pattern recognition receptor expression is not impaired in patients with chronic mucocutanous candidiasis with or without autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, M; Ryan, K R; Arkwright, P D; Gennery, A R; Costigan, C; Dominguez, M; Denning, D W; McConnell, V; Cant, A J; Abinun, M; Spickett, G P; Swan, D C; Gillespie, C S; Young, D A; Lilic, D

    2009-04-01

    Patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) have an unknown primary immune defect and are unable to clear infections with the yeast Candida. CMC includes patients with AIRE gene mutations who have autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), and patients without known mutations. CMC patients have dysregulated cytokine production, suggesting that defective expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may underlie disease pathogenesis. In 29 patients with CMC (13 with APECED) and controls, we assessed dendritic cell (DC) subsets and monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression in blood. We generated and stimulated monocyte-derived (mo)DCs with Candida albicans, TLR-2/6 ligand and lipopolysaccharide and assessed PRR mRNA expression by polymerase chain reaction [TLR-1-10, Dectin-1 and -2, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and caspase recruitment domain (CARD) 9] in immature and mature moDCs. We demonstrate for the first time that CMC patients, with or without APECED, have normal blood levels of plasmocytoid and myeloid DCs and monocyte TLR-2/TLR-6 expression. We showed that in immature moDCs, expression levels of all PRRs involved in anti-Candida responses (TLR-1, -2, -4, -6, Dectin-1, Syk, CARD9) were comparable to controls, implying that defects in PRR expression are not responsible for the increased susceptibility to Candida infections seen in CMC patients. However, as opposed to healthy controls, both groups of CMC patients failed to down-regulate PRR mRNA expression in response to Candida, consistent with defective DC maturation, as we reported recently. Thus, impaired DC maturation and consequent altered regulation of PRR signalling pathways rather than defects in PRR expression may be responsible for inadequate Candida handling in CMC patients. PMID:19196253

  19. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

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    Rickard Kristen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment. The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64% participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6% had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609001052224

  20. Ketoconazole hepatotoxicity in a patient treated for environmental illness and systemic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusko, C.S.; Marten, J.T. (Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Environmental illness, a hypothesized disease caused by exposure to substances such as combustion products, pesticides, food additives, and Candida albicans, is discussed. The case of a patient with environmental illness and systemic candidiasis for six weeks with ketoconazole, liver enzyme concentrations increased. One month after discontinuation of ketoconazole, the liver enzyme concentrations decreased; however, over the next five months, liver enzymes and bilirubin increased. The patient developed encephalopathy and eventually was transferred to a medical center for possible liver transplant. A review of the literature pertaining to ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is also presented.16 references.

  1. Feasibility of Histological Scoring and Colony Count for Evaluating Infective Severity in Mouse Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jin-E; LUO, DAN; Chen, Rong-Yi; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The i...

  2. Feasibility of histological scoring and colony count for evaluating infective severity in mouse vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-E; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rong-Yi; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The infected mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 ?l (5 × 10(4) conidia) of Candida albicans suspension, while the noninfected mice were inoculated with 10 ?l phosphate-buffered saline. Direct microscopic examination, colony count and vaginal histopathology including infection degree and inflammation extent were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation. Estrogen treatment increased the vaginal fungal burden and extent of infection and inflammation compared with the control group, and 0.3 mg/week estrogen generally induced more severe infection and inflammation than 0.15 mg/week estrogen did. Colony count peaked on day 3 and decreased remarkably after 7 days. Infection score increased gradually during the first 7 days and decreased on day 14, while inflammation extent exacerbated progressively over the course of 14 days. This study demonstrates that the modified histological scoring system might be more feasible than colony count for evaluation of infectivity and dynamic change in experimental vaginal candidiasis. PMID:23903055

  3. Mouse strain-dependent differences in estrogen sensitivity during vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosci, Paolo; Pietrella, Donatella; Ricci, Giovanni; Pandey, Neelam; Monari, Claudia; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Francesco; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The animal models available for studying the immune response to genital tract infection require induction of a pseudo estrous state, usually achieved by administration of 17-?-estradiol. In our experimental model of vaginal candidiasis, under pseudo estrus, different strains of mice were used. We observed major differences in the clearance of Candida albicans infection among the different strains, ascribable to differing susceptibility to estradiol treatment. In the early phase of infection CD1, BALB/c, C57BL/6 albino and C57BL/6 mice were colonized to similar levels, while in the late phase of infection, BALB/c mice, which are considered genetically resistant to C. albicans infection, exhibited greater susceptibility to vaginal candidiasis than CD1 and C57BL/6 albino strains of mice. This was because estradiol induced "per se" enlarged and fluid-filled uteri, more pronounced in infected mice and consistently more evident in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice than in CD1 mice. Unlike CD1, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed a heavy fungal colonization of the uterus, even though C57BL/6 mice apparently cleared C. albicans from the vagina. The presence of C. albicans in the vagina and uterus was accompanied by a heavy bacterial load. Collectively these observations prompted us to carry out a careful analysis of estradiol effects in a mouse model of vaginal infection. PMID:23054331

  4. Evaluation of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhl. extract as antifungal and in treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Pacífico, Mariana; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Icely, Paula Alejandra; Miró, Maria Soledad; Scarpa, Maria Virginia Costa; Bauab, Tais Maria; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anticandidal activity of a methanolic extract of Syngonanthus nitens scapes against different Candida species and clinical isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and its effect in vivo in the treatment of vaginal infection. Chemical characterization of the extract was performed by HPLC-UV analyses and showed the presence of flavones derivatives. The extract was effective against several Candida strains from our collection and species recovered from VVC patients, and was able to inhibit the yeast-hyphal transition. No cytotoxic activity against human female reproductive tract epithelial cells and no hemolytic activity against human red blood cells were observed. In the in vivo model of VVC, we evaluated the efficacy of the intravaginal treatment with a cream containing the extract at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. The treatment eradicated the vaginal fungal burden in infected rats after 8 days of treatment. S. nitens extract could be considered as an effective and non-toxic natural antifungal agent in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:23758104

  5. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

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    N. Chami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  6. Long Term Vaginal Azoles Versus Prophylactic Oral Fluconazole in Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC is a fungal infection of the vagina and vulva that occur usually = 4 episodes in a year. Our object was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose of fluconazole (150 mg weekly with clotrimazole vaginal cream 150 mg twice weekly for 6 months as treatment of recurrent VVC. We conducted a clinical trial study among 124 women with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC among patients presenting to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2002-2004. There was no significant difference in the therapeutic response as the recurrence rate during 12 months between the two groups. The drug side effects in the fluconazole group were significantly more than clotrimazole group. The satisfactory from the drug in the fluconazole group was significantly less than clotrimazole group. Due to the fewer side effects and more satisfactory of local treatment, we recommend profilactic use of Azole vaginal creams for treatment of RVVC especially in women who are pregnant or have systemic problems.

  7. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO Enriched with Zn as Immunostimulator for Vaginal Candidiasis Patient

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    HERY WINARSI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance on the immune system and deficiency of Zn is two factors which often trigger vaginal candidiasis patient. The aim of the research was to study the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO enriched with Zn to the amount of neutrophil and lymphocyte subset cells, and the level of IL-2 and IgG in vaginal candidiasis patient. Thirty women were grouped into three (ten women in each group: A, B and C, and intervened for two months. Women in A group were intervened with two tablespoon/day; those in B group were intervened with one tablespoon/day; while those in C group served as control (placebo. Blood was sampled at baseline time, one and two months after intervention. Hematological test by Micros-OT was done on a part of blood, and the plasma was used for IL-2 and IgG level tests using ELISA. The virgin coconut oil enriched with Zn maintained the number of neutrophil and NK cells, but increased Tc cells from 521 to 649 cells/mm3, increased Th cells from 1.090 to 1.380 cells/mm3. The enriched VCO also increase level of IL-2 from 0.25313 to 0.27337 pg/ml, while the IgG level changed from equivocal to negative. The recommended dosage was one tablespoon each day.

  8. Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis

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    Al-Sadeq Ameera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

  9. Echinocandins in the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis: clinical and economic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Fen; Slavin, Monica; Chen, Sharon C-A; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2014-03-01

    Candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC) complicate modern medical therapy, contributing to high morbidity and mortality. Managing candidiasis is costly, with an additional healthcare expenditure of nearly US$300 million annually. Recent consensus guidelines have suggested the use of newer antifungal agents, such as echinocandins, for the treatment of candidaemia and IC owing to promising clinical outcomes compared with older-generation antifungal agents, but at higher drug acquisition and administration costs. Comprehensive cost-effectiveness data for echinocandins in treating candidaemia and IC remain relatively scant, underlining the need for more studies to incorporate robust economic analyses into clinical decisions. Assessment of the cost efficiencies of these expensive antifungal agents is essential for maximising health outcomes within the constraints of healthcare resources. This review will explore the epidemiology of candidaemia and IC in the context of clinical and economic aspects of the antifungal agents used to treat IC, especially the echinocandins. Standardising the outcome measure, methodology and reporting of results used in economic studies is central to ensure validity and comparability of the findings. Future studies comparing the economic advantages of all available antifungal treatment options and in the context of new diagnostic tools for fungal infections are anticipated. PMID:24670423

  10. Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy: Insights into Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capalbo, Donatella; De Martino, Lucia; Giardino, Giuliana; Di Mase, Raffaella; Di Donato, Iolanda; Parenti, Giancarlo; Vajro, Pietro; Pignata, Claudio; Salerno, Mariacarolina

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations of a single gene named autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE) which results in a failure of T cell tolerance within the thymus. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease are the hallmarks of the syndrome. APECED is also characterized by several autoimmune endocrine and nonendocrine manifestations, and the phenotype is often complex. Moreover, even though APECED is a monogenic disease, its clinical picture is generally dominated by a wide heterogeneity both in the severity and in the number of components even among siblings with the same AIRE genotype. The variability of its clinical expression implies that diagnosis can be challenging, and a considerable delay often occurs between the appearance of symptoms and the diagnosis. Since a prompt diagnosis is essential to prevent severe complications, clinicians should be aware of all symptoms and signs of suspicion. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the clinical presentation and diagnostic criteria of APECED and to focus on current knowledge on genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:23133448

  11. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Methods Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. Results All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. Conclusion The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being. PMID:26170621

  12. Case Report Dynamical evaluation of vaginal micro-ecosystem in a Chinese woman with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Zhou, W; Yue, X A; Mu, L Y; Jiang, Y M

    2015-01-01

    We reported a rare case of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) in this study. Through dynamic evaluation of the vaginal micro-ecosystem, we found that only depuratory degree, spores, blastospores, and hyphae were specific indicators and the "barometer" of RVVC development. Therefore, an understanding of vaginal micro-ecological changes can help clinicians to improve the treatment of patients with RVVC. PMID:25867410

  13. Perfil epidemiológico de la candidiasis invasora en unidades de pacientes críticos en un hospital universitario / Epidemiologial profile of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units at a university hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Cristina, Ajenjo H; Andrés, Aquevedo S; Ana María, Guzmán D; Helena, Poggi M; Mario, Calvo A; Claudia, Castillo V; Eugenia, León C; Max, Andresen H; Jaime, Labarca L.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología de candidiasis invasora (CI) ha cambiado, lo cual no ha sido suficientemente estudiado en Chile. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico de CI en pacientes críticos. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo entre octubre 2001 y agosto 2003, en pacientes críti [...] cos adultos con sospecha o confimnación de CI. Resultados: 53 pacientes cumplieron criterios de CI. De ellos, 18 (33,9%) tuvieron candidemia, 22(41,5%) CI diseminada y 13(24,5%) CI local. Entre las candidemias, hubo 8 C. albicans (44,4%) y 10 Candida no albicans (55,6%), predominando C. tropicalis (27,7%). Un 88,8% de las candidemias fueron susceptibles a fluconazol. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 24,5%, significativamente menor en pacientes con candidemias vs CI diseminada (16,6 vs 31,8%, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: Se observó una mayor proporción de Candida no albicans en candidemias de pacientes críticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de estas cepas fue susceptible a fluconazol. La mortalidad global fue menor en candidemias. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis (IC) epidemiology has changed in critically ill patients and limited data are available in Chile. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological profile of IC in critically ill patients. Methods: Observational prospective study conducted from October 2001 to Augu [...] st 2003 in critically ill adults with suspected or confirmed IC. Results: 53 patients met criteria for IC, finding 18 (33.9%) candidemias, 22 (41.5%) disseminated IC, and 13 (24.5%) local IC. We identified 8 (44.4%) C. albicans and 10 (55.6%) non-albicans Candida in candidemias. C. tropicalis was the predominant non-albicans species (27.7%). An 88.8 % of Candidas sp recovered in candidemias were fluconazole susceptible. Overall hospital mortality was 24.5%. Mortality in candidemia was significantly lower than in disseminated IC (16.6 vs 31.8%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: A higher proportion of non-albicans Candida was observed in candidemias from critically ill patients. However, most of these strains were fluconazole susceptible. A lower overall mortality was observed in candidemias.

  14. Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral

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    GERARDO MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %, Candida tropicalis (8,1 % y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %. Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 % que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %. De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS, el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos.A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %, Candida tropicalis (8.1 %, and Torulopsis glabrata (8.1 %. It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 % than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %. Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA, the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

  15. Efficacy of single- versus multiple-dose clotrimazole therapy in the management of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebherz, T; Guess, E; Wolfson, N

    1985-08-01

    Single-dose treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet was compared to 3-day treatment with two 100 mg vaginal tablets administered daily in 115 patients enrolled in a double-blind trial, 101 of whom were evaluated for efficacy. Patients with clinically and mycologically active disease were treated (visit 1) and examined at 5 to 10 days (visit 2) and again at least 27 days (visit 3) post treatment. At visit 2, mycologic tests and clinical examinations were negative in 37 of 48 patients receiving single-dose treatment (77%) and in 47 of 53 patients receiving 3-day treatment (89%). Corresponding results for visit 3 were 65% and 74%, respectively. There were no significant differences in treatment response between groups, and only three patients reported adverse reactions. These data show that single-dose treatment with clotrimazole, 500 mg, is as safe and effective as the more complex 3-day regimen. PMID:3895962

  16. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was necropsied. Fragments of tissue were collected and processed for histology. Coloration of H.E. and Groccot was made. For mycology was collected tissue, exsudate, and skin crusts. Direct exam was made, and samples cultivated at 37oC in agar Sabouraud with cloranfenicol and agar corn. Macroscopically the animal presented; itself extremely thin with ulcerative lesions on the skin, ranging from 1 to 4 cm. Histologically, on dermis ulcerations, there was mononuclear infiltrate and fibroblastic proliferation. With Groccot, it was observed intralesionally hyphae and blastoconidia. The direct exam showed round and/or ovalate gram positive cells, compatible with yeast. The cultives showed shining colonies with a smooth surface, some of them with edges fringed and white-yellowish coloration. The colonies showed yeast cells with ovalate or alongate forms and sprouting unipolar on microscopy. With microcultive, it was found globosous blastoconidia, with wall thick and pseudohyfaes abundant and ramified. There was the formation of a germinative tube, confirming the C. albicans species. This study shows the risk of candidiasis in wildlife primates living on captivity.

     

    KEY WORDS: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, Cebus apella, skin.

  17. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how it can be prevented… Sources of Infection Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucous membranes… Diagnosis & Testing See your health care provider… Treatment & Outcomes Antifungal treatment… Additional Information Resources and publications… ...

  18. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rad DMD, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization and infection and resistance to antifungal drugs in these patients.METHODS: Thirty patients receiving a 6-week course of radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer at theOncology Unit in Shafa Hospital, in 2008, were enrolled in the study. Specimens from patients were cultured weeklyfor Candida. All isolates were plated on CHROM agar and RPMI-based medium. They were subcultured and submittedfor antifungal susceptibility testing (nystatin, fluconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole and molecular typing.RESULTS: Infection (clinical and microbiological evidence occurred in 50% of the patients and Candida colonization(only microbiological evidence occurred in 70% of subjects in the first week. Candida albicans alone was isolated in94.9% of patient visits with positive cultures. Candida tropicalis was isolated from 5.1% of patient visits with positivecultures. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin, but did not respond to the other antifungal drugsCONCLUSIONS: The irradiation-induced changes of the intraoral environment such as xerostomia lead to increasedintraoral colonization by Candida species. All yeast isolates were susceptible to nystatin. Thus prophylactic therapywith nystatin should be considered for these patients.

  19. Caspofungin Dose Escalation for Invasive Candidiasis Due to Resistant Candida albicans ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie A.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot 1 point mutations. Mice received daily caspofungin treatment for 7 days and were then followed off therapy for 2 weeks to assess survival. Kidney tissue and blood were collected, and fungal burden and serum (1?3)-?-d-glucan were measured. Significant differences in virulence were observed among the three C. albicans isolates, which translated into differences in responses to caspofungin. The most virulent of the resistant isolates studied (isolate 43001; Fks1p F641S) did not respond to caspofungin doses of up to 10 mg/kg of body weight, as there were no differences in survival (survival range, 0 to 12% with treatment), tissue burden, or (1?3)-?-d-glucan concentration compared to those for untreated controls. Higher doses of caspofungin did improve survival against the second resistant isolate (53264; Fks1p S645P) that demonstrated reduced virulence (5 and 10 mg/kg; 80% survival). In contrast, caspofungin doses as low as 1 mg/kg improved survival (85 to 95%) and reduced tissue burden and (1?3)-?-d-glucan concentration against the susceptible isolate (ATCC 90028). These data suggest that caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis may not be consistently effective against resistant C. albicans isolates, and this may be associated with the virulence of the strain. PMID:21502632

  20. Detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of invasive candidiasis in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a-ruiz, J. C.; Del Carmen Arilla, M.; Regu?lez, P.; Quindo?s, G.; Alvarez, A.; Ponto?n, J.

    1997-01-01

    We prospectively investigated the ability of detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes (CAGT) to diagnose invasive candidiasis in 95 consecutive admissions of 73 patients with hematologic disorders undergoing intensive chemotherapy. The episodes were divided into three groups according to clinical and microbiological diagnosis. Group 1 comprised eight admissions of eight patients with invasive candidiasis. Group 2 comprised 42 admissions of 34 patients without evidence of invasiv...

  1. Eosinofilia no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidiase vaginal recorrente / Eosinophilia in peripheral blood of women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Queiroz Filho; Ana Katherine, Gonçalves; Geraldo Barroso, Cavalcante Júnior; Daliana Caldas, Pessoa; José, Eleutério Júnior; Paulo César, Giraldo; Valéria Soraya de Farias, Sales.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar o número de células de defesa e os níveis de imunoglobulina E (IgE) no sangue periférico em amostra de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 60 mulheres, 40 com candidíase vulvovaginal e 20 do grupo controle (sem doença). As célula [...] s de defesa foram identificadas utilizando um sistema de impedância combinada com a citometria de fluxo, os níveis de IgE total e específica foram medidos por meio de técnicas de quimiluminescência, o teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para variáveis nominais e do teste de Spearman para correlações das concentrações de IgE e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico. RESULTADOS: O número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal, 302,60 (±253,07), foi significativamente maior do que o grupo controle, 175,75 (±109,24) (p=0,037). Os níveis séricos de IgE total e específica foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos de mulheres com e sem candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (p=0,361). Entretanto, observou-se uma correlação positiva moderada entre eosinofilia e níveis de IgE total no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente (r=0,25). CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente parecem ter maior concentração de eosinófilos no sangue periférico que as assintomáticas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To quantify the number of defense cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in peripheral blood sampled from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 women, 40 with vulvovaginal candidiasis and 20 controls. The defense cells were iden [...] tified using an impedance system combined with flow cytometry and total and specific IgE was measured by chemiluminescence. The Mann-Whitney test was used for nominal variables and the Spearman test was used to determine the correlation of IgE concentration and eosinophils in peripheral blood. RESULTS: The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, 302.60 (±253.07), was significantly higher compared to control, 175.75 (±109.24) (p=0.037). Serum levels of total and specific IgE were similar in the groups of women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (p=0.361). However, there was a moderate positive correlation between eosinophils and total serum IgE in the candidiasis group (r=0.25). CONCLUSION: Women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis are more likely to have eosinophils in peripheral blood.

  2. Evolución favorable de trillizos prematuros con candidiasis sistémica neonatal tratados con caspofungina / Successfully evolution of premature triplets with systemic neonatal candidiasis treated with caspofungin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana E., Granados-Perales; J. Horacio, Ugalde-Fernández.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las infecciones por especies de Candida son un problema que se ha incrementado de manera importante en pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) y son una causa común de morbi-mortalidad en dicha población. La anfotericina B ha sido considerada como el principa [...] l agente terapéutico antifúngico; sin embargo, se ha asociado con efectos adversos como la fungemia persistente debido al aumento en la resistencia a Candida, particularmente especies no albicans, a menudo resistentes también a otros antifúngicos, como el fluconazol. Casos clínicos: Se trata de recién nacidos trillizos de 29 semanas de gestación, quienes recibieron soporte avanzado en la UCIN, incluyendo ventilación mecánica (VM), inserción de catéteres venosos centrales, nutrición parenteral total (NPT) y varios esquemas de antibióticos de amplio espectro, desarrollando sepsis por Candida parapsillosis en los tres casos; la terapia antifúngica fue iniciada con fluconazol, posteriormente con anfotericina B convencional y anfotericina B liposomal, sin mejoría clínica y con hemocultivos positivos. El deterioro fue revertido después del inicio de caspofungina (2 mg/kg/día) añadida a la anfotericina B liposomal. Los tres pacientes se recuperaron totalmente, sin ningún efecto adverso y con adecuada tolerancia. Conclusiones: La caspofungina resultó ser efectiva y bien tolerada en los pacientes tratados a dosis de 2 mg/kg/ día, por lo que se puede considerar una alternativa de tratamiento de la candidiasis invasiva en neonatos prematuros, aunque la dosis óptima no se ha determinado. Abstract in english Background: Infections caused by Candida sp. have been significantly increasing in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and are the most common causes of morbi-mortality in this population group. Amphotericin B has been considered to be the standard antifungal therapy. However, it has be [...] en associated with adverse effects such as persistent fungemia due to the increase of Candida resistance, in particular the non-albicans species, similar to the resistance shown by other antifungals such as fluconazol. Clinical cases: Triplets of gestational age of 29 weeks received advanced life support in the NICU, including mechanical ventilation (MV), insertion of venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and multiple regimes of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The three patients developed C. parapsilosis sepsis. Antifungal therapy was initiated with fluconazol prior to the use of conventional amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B. There was no clinical improvement and blood cultures remained positive. Clinical improvement was noted after the initiation of caspofungin (2 mg/kg/day) in addition to the use of liposomal amphotericin B. The triplets recovered completely with adequate tolerance to the medication and without adverse effects. Conclusion: Use of caspofungin proved to be an effective and well-tolerated therapy in these patients (2 mg/ kg/day). It can be considered an alternative treatment for invasive candidiasis in premature neonates, although optimal dosage remains undetermined.

  3. Valor predictivo de la candidiasis oral como marcador de evolución a SIDA / Predictive value of oral candidiasis as a marker of progression to AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier, Fernández Feijoo; Pedro, Diz Dios; Xosé Luis, Otero Cepeda; Jacobo, Limeres Posse; Javier de, la Fuente Aguado; Antonio, Ocampo Hermida.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la validez de la candidiasis oral (CO) como marcador clínico de evolución en los pacientes infectados por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana. Diseño del estudio: En 1992, se efectuó una exploración oral a un colectivo de 200 pacientes infectados por VIH, con una edad media [...] de 36,8±7 años (rango 25-46 años) para establecer el diagnóstico de CO. Se registraron las variables edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad, conducta de riesgo, número de linfocitos CD4/µL, estadio clínico y tratamiento antirretroviral. De los 200 pacientes del grupo de estudio, 157 no cumplían criterios de SIDA en el momento de la exploración basal y a éstos se les efectuó un seguimiento semestral hasta que cumplieron dichos criterios, concluyendo el estudio al final de 2001. Resultados: De los 157 pacientes seleccionados, 71 (45,2%) no presentaron CO y de éstos el 28,7% evolucionó a SIDA durante el período de seguimiento. De los 86 (54,8%) pacientes con CO, el 48,2% evolucionó a SIDA (RR=2,71). Al trasladar el origen del estudio al año 1997 cuando se inició la administración de la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE), no se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de pacientes que evolucionaron a SIDA en relación a la existencia o no de CO en la exploración basal. El análisis multivariante demostró que la asociación de la variable de exposición CO con la evolución a SIDA no alcanzó un valor predictivo. Conclusiones: El valor pronóstico a largo plazo de la CO, no se ha determinado en pacientes que reciben terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE). La recuperación inmunológica y la disminución de enfermedades oportunistas observadas tras la administración de TAAE, hacen que muchos pacientes que alcanzaron la condición de SIDA no cumplan en la actualidad dichos criterios, lo que obliga a renovar la propia definición del síndrome para poder evaluar marcadores de pronóstico. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the validity of oral candidiasis (OC) as a clinical marker of progression in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Study design: In 1992, an oral examination was carried out on a group of 200 HIV-infected patients with a mean age of 36.8 ± 7 years (range 25-46 [...] years) to establish the diagnosis of OC. The following variables were recorded: age, sex, duration of the disease, risk behaviour, CD4 lymphocyte count, clinical stage and antiretroviral treatment. Of the 200 patients in the group evaluated, 157 did not fulfil the criteria for AIDS at the time of the baseline examination; these patients constitute the study group and underwent 6-monthly follow-up until they fulfilled these criteria. The study was concluded at the end of 2001. Results: Of the 157 patients selected, 71 (45.2%) did not present OC and, of these, 28.7% progressed to AIDS during the follow-up period. Of the 86 (54.8%) patients with OC, 48.2% progressed to AIDS (RR= 2.71). If the start date of the study was taken as 1997, when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced, no differences were found in the percentage of patients who progressed to AIDS with respect to the presence or absence of OC at the baseline examination. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the association of the presence of OC with progression to AIDS did not reach a predictive value. Conclusions: The long-term prognostic value of OC has not been established in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The immunological recovery and the reduction in the number of opportunistic diseases observed after the administration of HAART means that many patients who developed AIDS do not currently satisfy these criteria, making a review of the definition of the syndrome itself a necessity in order to be able to evaluate prognostic markers.

  4. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  5. Lactic acid bacteria colonization and clinical outcome after probiotic supplementation in conventionally treated bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrström, Sophia; Daroczy, Katalin; Rylander, Eva; Samuelsson, Carolina; Johannesson, Ulrika; Anzén, Bo; Påhlson, Carl

    2010-09-01

    This randomized double-blind placebo controlled study assessed the vaginal colonization of lactic acid bacteria and clinical outcome. Vaginal capsules containing L gasseri LN40, Lactobacillus fermentum LN99, L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LN113 and P. acidilactici LN23, or placebos were administered for five days to 95 women after conventional treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal examinations and vaginal samplings were performed before and after administration, after the first and second menstruation, and after six months. Presence of LN strains was assessed using RAPD analysis. LN strains were present 2-3 days after administration in 89% of the women receiving LN strains (placebo: 0%, p treatment of bacterial vaginosis and/or vulvovaginal candidiasis lead to vaginal colonization, somewhat fewer recurrences and less malodorous discharge. PMID:20472091

  6. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY CANDIDIASIS AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AND USE OF CHROMAGAR IN IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mathavi, S; Shankar, R.; A Kavitha; G Sasikala; Indra Priyadharsini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, fungal infections are on the rise due to various predisposing factors such as long term administration of antibiotics, use of steroids, pulmonary tuberculosis, immunosuppressive drugs and HIV infection. When host resistance is lowered, these opportunistic fungi may become fatal. Candida albicans was the most important pathogen causing pulmonary candidiasis. In recent times, there is increase in incidence of non-albicans Candida. Identification to the species lev...

  7. Lack of in vitro resistance of Candida albicans to ketoconazole, itraconazole and clotrimazole in women treated for recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, I. W.; Bannatyne, R M; Wong, P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether in vitro resistance of Candida albicans to the imidazoles (ketoconazole, clotrimazole and itraconazole) is associated with recurrence of candida vaginitis. DESIGN--Candida isolates were collected before, during and after treatment from women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis (> or = 4 episodes/year), randomised into two prospective studies: (1) 56 women treated with ketoconazole 400 mg/daily for 7 days; (2) 44 women randomised to receive itraconazole 200 mg or...

  8. A Supplement Based on Zn-Enriched Virgin Coconut Oil as an Antifungal agent for Vaginal Candidiasis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    HERY WINARSI; HERNAYANTI; AGUS PURWANTO

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the amount of Candida albicans in vaginal secretion of Vaginal Candidiasis patients administered with Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil. Thirty respondents were selected based on several criteria as follows: the number of C. albicans colonies in the vaginal secretion was more than 105 cfu.ml-1, voluntary, healthy, willing to sign the informed consent and resided in Purwokerto. In Group A, 10 women were administered 2 tablespoons per day of Zn-enriched v...

  9. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Kristen; Roberts Christine L; Kotsiou George; Morris Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of prete...

  10. Correlation between In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Activities in Experimental Fluconazole-Resistant Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Thomas J.; Gonzalez, Corina E.; Piscitelli, Steven; Bacher, John D.; Peter, Joanne; Torres, Richard; Shetti, Daiva; Katsov, Victoria; Kligys, Kristina; Lyman, Caron A.

    2000-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis (OPEC) is a frequent opportunistic mycosis in immunocompromised patients. Azole-resistant OPEC is a refractory form of this infection occurring particularly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The procedures developed by the Antifungal Subcommittee of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) are an important advance in standardization of in vitro antifungal susceptibility methodology. In order to further und...

  11. The Changing Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    REDDING, SPENCER W.; Nathan P Wiederhold; Vallor, Ana C.; Wickes, Brian L.; Cornell, John E.; Thompson, George R.; Christopher Louden; Steven D. Westbrook; Berg, Deborah K.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Erlandsen, Joshua E.; Payal K. Patel; Patterson, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on opportunistic conditions in HIV patients continues to evolve. We specifically studied the changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in 215?HIV/AIDS patients. Status of yeast colonization was assessed from oral rinse samples, and preliminary yeast identification was made using CHROMagar Candida and confirmed with standard microbiological techniques and/or molecular sequencing. Susceptibility to fluconazole was determined by CHROMag...

  12. Aspects on chronic stress and glucose metabolism in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and in women with localized provoked vulvodynia

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrstro?m, Sophia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the degree of stress in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and in women with localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) (former vulvar vestibulitis syndrome) compared with controls. To measure the change of glucose in plasma and in vaginal secretions during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in women with RVVC, and in healthy control subjects. Material and Methods: Altogether 147 women participated in the studies. A careful vulvovagin...

  13. Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by Multiplex PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a fungal disease with itching, and vaginal thick white discharge. Most of non-albicans species have less sensitivity to azoles. So, definition of candida species which lead to vulvovaginal candidiasis is very important to perfect usage of drugs. In the present study 191 Candida isolates from 175 patients who admitted in Gynecology department of Mahdieh Hospital during the period 1385-1387 were identified by multiplex PCR."n"nMethods: One hundred seventy five vaginal swab specimens from patients were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region of Candida albicans were amplified and the multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel (200 mA, 140V, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed."n"nResults: One hundred ninety one Candida isolates were identified in vaginal swab specimens from 175 patients. In 89.7% of cases, single candida species and in 10.3% cases, multiple candida species were isolated. C. albicans (65.1%, C. glabrata (13.1%, C. tropicalis (6.2%, C. krusei (4%, C. guilliermondii (0.6%, C. parapsilosis (0.6%, C. glabrata and C. albicans (5.7%, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (1.1%, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. krusei and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. albicans and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6%, C. glabrata and C. krusei (0.6%, and C. glabrata and C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6% were the cause of disease."n"nConclusion: Our findings suggest that, the common cause of both recurrent and non-recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was C. albicans, and then C. glabrata. Also the most common mixtures of Candida species were combination of them

  14. Study of risk factors and prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowta Mukta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The frequency of invasive mycoses has increased dramatically during the past two decades owing to medical advances such as intensive cancer chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, invasive medical devices, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease epidemic and an expanding aging population. There were few Indian studies regarding the incidence and risk factors for candidemia. Hence the aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital and also to assess the risk factors and predictors of mortality Materials and Methods: Nonsystematic review of patients with candidemia/invasive candidiasis was done during the period 1999 to 2004. All in-patients who had shown signs and symptoms of nosocomial blood stream infection were screened for candidial infection. Among these, 29 patients had candidemia/invasive candidiasis. Demographic and clinical data of these patients were recorded on a standardized form, which included age, sex, site of isolation, infectious diagnosis, underlying conditions, predisposing factors, catheter status and clinical outcome. The data were collected during the years of 1999 to 2004, which is divided into two time periods (1999-2001 and 2002-2004. Data collected during these different time spans are compared with each other. Results: A total of 255 patients were screened during the study period. Among these, 100 patients were screened during the period 1999-2001 and 155 patients were screened during the year 2002-2004. Out of these patients, 29 showed positive cultures in blood or other sterile site (ascitic fluid, bronchial aspirate and urine from suprapubic puncture. Out of these, 24 were males and five were females. The most common risk factor was use of intravenous canulae (62.1%, followed by prolonged use of antibiotics (34.5% and HIV infection (24.1%. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk factors during the two different study periods. Candida was mainly isolated from blood (75.9%. Other sources included ascitic fluid (10.4%, bronchial aspirate (3.4%, sputum (3.4% and urine (6.9%. Distributions of sources were comparable during the two study periods. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis caused 89.7%, 3.4%, 6.9% of the candidemia episodes respectively. The overall mortality was 51.7%. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the importance of candidemia among hospitalized patients. Continued surveillance of candidemia will be important to track trends of this serious infection and to document changes in its epidemiological features. More active screening in high-risk groups should be done to avoid diagnostic delay. Risk factors like prolonged use of multiple antibiotics, central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation and prolonged hospital stay should be restricted whenever possible. Timely use of antiretroviral drugs and other measures to improve the immunity of HIV patients may help to decrease the incidence of candidemia in this patient population.

  15. A pseudo-randomised clinical trial of in situ gels of fluconazole for the treatment of oropharngeal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty Veena A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oropharyngeal candidasis is a common opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum antifungal activity including a wide variety of candida species. Aim of the present investigation was to formulate and find out the relative efficacy of in situ gels of fluconazole. Method The in situ gels were prepared using polymers which exhibited sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters, such as ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.5% w/v along with sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (0.35%w/v. The study design was bicenter, 'pseudo-randomised, single blind trial conducted in Mangalore., India, which includes 15 HIV positive patients, 15 patients with partial or completes dentures, and 15 patients who were treated with (active control fluconazole tablets 100 mg/day for 14 days. Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at clinical evaluations on day 3, 7, 14, 18, 21, 35, and 42. Semiquantitative microbiological cultures of oral swabs were also obtained on same days. Results All patients had mycological documented oropharyngeal candidiasis and were treated with fluconazole (0.5%w/v in situ gels for 14 days Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at different predetermined time intervals along with semi quantitative culture of oral swabs. The clinical response rate showed 97% cure after 14 days in the treated with in situ gel. In comparison, the control group treated with fluconazole tablets showed 85% improvement in symptoms of oral candidiasis. The patients suffering from HIV infection showed relapse in oral candidiasis at the end of 21 days. The patients having oral candidiasis due to partial or complete dentures showed complete recovery and were free from signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis. Conclusions The in situ gel formulation of fluconazole was well tolerated with no severe adverse reaction and offers a better alternative to tablet formulation in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidasis. Trial registration Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN90634047

  16. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79?%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4?%), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3?%), Candida tropicalis (3.2?%) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1?%). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (PCandida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  17. Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive thermoresponsive systems containing propolis for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Raphaela Regina de Araújo; Ribeiro Godoy, Janine Silva; Stivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

    2013-04-01

    This work describes the preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive thermoresponsive systems consisted of poloxamer 407 (P407), Carbopol® 934P (C934P), and propolis to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Systems were obtained with different percentages of P407 and C934P to deliver propolis, a potent drug against VVC. Temperature of gelation, hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness, mucoadhesion, rheology (continuous flow and oscillatory), in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Increasing the polymer content or temperature and the drug presence significantly increased mechanical properties of formulations. These exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy. In most samples, increasing the C934P content significantly changed the oscillatory rheological properties. Formulations showed thermoresponsive behavior, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 34°C-37°C. Propolis release from formulations was controlled by phenomenon of relaxation of polymer chains or displayed anomalous behavior, dependent of concentration of each polymer. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of preparations was evaluated against microorganisms of vaginal importance (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), displaying activity against all yeast tested. The data obtained for these systems indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of VVC and suggest they are worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:23334938

  18. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from "Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum", Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

    2014-11-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients' clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts' opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

  19. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  20. Assessment of in vitro biofilm formation by Candida species isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Luciene C F; Vidigal, Pedrina G; Donatti, Lucélia; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2012-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a very common cause of fungal infection that remains a significant problem worldwide, especially concerning its complex pathogenicity. Biofilm dynamics from vaginal isolates requires further investigation. Different assays, such as cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), biofilm production, fungal metabolism by 2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) were used in order to determine the ability of five Candida species isolates from VVC patients to form in vitro biofilms and their ultrastructural characteristics. All yeasts demonstrated the ability to produce biofilm and showed viability up to 48 h after the completion of assay, confirmed by SEM and CSLM, but differences were observed between them. SEM and CSLM also revealed that all VVC isolates adhered only in blastoconidia form, except for Candida parapsilosis. Even though, only one isolate from each Candida species has been used, the results of high biofilm formation, metabolic activity and CSH showed by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, as well as by the ultrastructural characteristics, suggest that these species exhibit greater ability of adherence in relation to the others. Ours results support the theory that virulence potential is multifactorial and that other factors not evaluated in this study could be involved in the CVV physiopathogeny. PMID:22001373

  1. Calendula officinalis L. en el tratamiento tópico de la candidiasis vaginal recurrente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel MILI\\u00C1N V\\u00C1ZQUEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis vaginal recurrente (CVR es una enfermedad con una elevada prevalencia y los fitofármacos constituyen una opción en su tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el efecto terapéutico y la seguridad de la Calendula officinalis L. por vía tópica en el tratamiento de la CVR. De 127 mujeres, 46 pacientes se seleccionaron aleatoriamente y se trataron con tintura de "calendula" 20%. La "calendula" se aplicó tres veces a la semana, en días alternos, durante dos semanas. Las pacientes fueron evaluadas al inicio del estudio, a los 21 y a los 30 días. La edad promedio fue de 23.7± 5.2 años y el 95.2% de las mujeres eran sexualmente activas. Al inicio del estudio, 85.7% presentó secreción vaginal abundante, pero a medida que el tratamiento progreso disminuyó el número de pacientes con leucorrea. Al inicio, la mayoría de las pacientes (83.3% presentó prurito, luego disminuyó significativamente. Se observó una reducción en el número de pacientes con cultivo vaginal positivo a los 21 días; sólo 7 pacientes (16.7% tuvieron cultivos positivos. La mayoría de las pacientes evolucionaron hacia la curación y no se reportaron efectos adversos. Se concluye que la Calendula officinalis L constituye una opción terapéutica en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.

  2. Asociación de LT-CD4 y carga viral con candidiasis bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA en Talca, Chile Association between LT-CD4 and the viral load with oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Talca, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brevis Azocar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis bucal aparece con frecuencia en las personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y puede causar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones. En los pacientes VIH la carga viral es considerada uno de los principales predictores en la progresión de la enfermedad. Se realizó un estudio en 29 pacientes adultos VIH-positivos para evaluar los niveles de linfocitos T-CD4 y carga viral; se estableció una relación con las manifestaciones de la candidiasis bucal. El análisis estadístico mostró que hubo relación entre la manifestación de la candidiasis bucal y la carga viral, pues en pacientes con cargas virales superiores a 10 000 copias/mL, las lesiones fueron más frecuentes.Oral candidiasis is frequently appearing in persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and may to cause many clinical and complications manifestations. In HIV patients the viral load is considered one of the main predictors in disease progression. A study was conducted in 29 HIV-positive adult patients to assess the T-CD4 lymphocyte levels and the viral load establishing a relationship with oral candidiasis manifestations. The statistical analysis showed that there was a relationship between the oral candidiasis manifestation and the viral load since in patients with viral load higher than 10 000 copies/mL, lesions were more frequent.

  3. The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE), Which Is Defective in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Patients, Is Expressed in Human Epidermal and Follicular Keratinocytes and Associates With the Intermediate Filament Protein Cytokeratin 17

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Vipul; Pedroza, Luis A.; Mace, Emily M.; Seeholzer, Steven; Cotsarelis, George; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Payne, Aimee S.; Orange, Jordan S.

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome, which is caused by mutation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, is a highly variable disease characterized by multiple endocrine failure, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and various ectodermal defects. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator classically expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Previous studies have suggested that AIRE can shuttle between th...

  4. Candidíase invasiva e alterações bucais em recém-nascidos prematuros / Invasive candidiasis and oral manifestations in premature newborns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Endrigo, Tinoco-Araujo; Diana Ferreira Gadelha, Araújo; Patrícia Gomes, Barbosa; Paulo Sérgio da Silva, Santos; Ana Myriam Costa de, Medeiros.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de candidíase invasiva em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e avaliar alterações bucais e colonização bucal por Candida spp. em recém-nascidos prematuros com baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico descritivo em duas etapas. Na primeira, analisou-se prevalên [...] cia de candidíase invasiva em base de dados de 295 prematuros com tempo de internação superior a 10 dias e peso ao nascer inferior a 2.000g. Na segunda etapa, avaliaram-se alterações bucais e colonização por Candida spp. em 65 pacientes com peso inferior a 2.000g, com até 4 semanas de idade, internados há mais de 10 dias e apresentando alterações bucais compatíveis com lesões fúngicas. Coletaram-se amostras com swab bucal e identificou-se a colonização fúngica. RESULTADOS: Na análise da base de dados, constatou-se que a prevalência de candidíase foi de 5,4%. Houve correlação com o tempo prolongado de internação (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to evaluate oral diseases and Candida spp. colonization in low birth weight preterm newborns. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study performed in two stages. First, prevalence of candidiasis was [...] analyzed in a database of 295 preterm patients admitted to hospital for over 10 days and birth weight less than 2,000g. In the second stage, oral changes and Candida spp. colonization were assessed in 65 patients weighing less than 2,000g, up to 4 week-old, hospitalized for over 10 days and presenting oral abnormalities compatible with fungal lesions. Swab samples were collected in the mouth to identify fungi. RESULTS: Prevalence of candidiasis was 5.4% in the database analyzed. It correlated with prolonged hospital length of stay (p

  5. Therapeutic use of a cationic antimicrobial peptide from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana in the control of experimental candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Diego C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial peptides are present in animals, plants and microorganisms and play a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Gomesin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide purified from haemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. It has a broad-spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and tumour cells. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast that is part of the human microbiota. However, in immunocompromised patients, this fungus may cause skin, mucosal or systemic infections. The typical treatment for this mycosis comprises three major categories of antifungal drugs: polyenes, azoles and echinocandins; however cases of resistance to these drugs are frequently reported. With the emergence of microorganisms that are resistant to conventional antibiotics, the development of alternative treatments for candidiasis is important. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of gomesin treatment on disseminated and vaginal candidiasis as well as its toxicity and biodistribution. Results Treatment with gomesin effectively reduced Candida albicans in the kidneys, spleen, liver and vagina of infected mice. The biodistribution of gomesin labelled with technetium-99 m showed that the peptide is captured in the kidneys, spleen and liver. Enhanced production of TNF-?, IFN-? and IL-6 was detected in infected mice treated with gomesin, suggesting an immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, immunosuppressed and C. albicans-infected mice showed an increase in survival after treatment with gomesin and fluconazole. Systemic administration of gomesin was also not toxic to the mic Conclusions Gomesin proved to be effective against experimental Candida albicans infection. It can be used as an alternative therapy for candidiasis, either alone or in combination with fluconazole. Gomesin's mechanism is not fully understood, but we hypothesise that the peptide acts through the permeabilisation of the yeast membrane leading to death and/or releasing the yeast antigens that trigger the host immune response against infection. Therefore, data presented in this study reinforces the potential of gomesin as a therapeutic antifungal agent in both humans and animals.

  6. Prevalence of Candidiasis in the Women with Leucorrhoea Attended to Health Centers in Hamadan , 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fallah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Genital tract infections are one of the most common causes of referring to obstetrics clinics. The most common agents of genitalia infection are yeast (Candida and parasite (Trichomonas. Establishment of fungal and parasitic infections needs many factors such as social, cultural and hormonal factors.

    Methods: In order to determine candidial infection in the patients with leucorrhoea, this study carried out in Hamadan in the private clinics and public health centers in 1996. A total of 248 patients with abnormal vaginal discharge, genitalia pruritus, disuria and disparonia examined by vaginal cotton soab sampling and examination of specimens by direct wet smear for Candida and Trichomanos , and culture was done in Saburoud dextrose agar for yeast. The smears stained by Gram staining for identification of organism and grown samples examined by germ tube formation test for identification of Candida albicans. Data about some individual variables of subjects were collected using a questionnaire.

    Results: This study indicated, 76(30.6% of patients had candidial infection by wet smear method, however, 116 (46.8% were positive by culture in Saburoud medium. With germ tube formation test, 33(13.4% had C. albicans. Anyone had not trichomonal infection by direct wet smear. This study suggested that, candidial infection is very high in this region, and this is the most common cause of attending patients with leucorrhoea in the obstetrics clinics. Also, there was not any relationship between candidial infection and pregnancy status, main compliance and other compliances.

    Conclusion: We suggested, culture method is more sensitive than direct wet smear in the diagnosis of vulvo-vaginal infections, particularly in candidiasis. Regarding to role of personal hygiene measures in preventing of candidiasis, health education for women in the reproductive age is recommended.

  7. Low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination versus fluconazole in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Susilo; Arini Setiawati; Iwan Darmansjah; Junita Indarti; Fitriyadi Kusuma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Vaginal candidiasis (VC) is one of the most common fungal diseases. Candida albicans is the most common causative fungus and has been isolated from more than 80% of specimens obtained from women with VC. Ketoconazole is the first orally active antifungal, the dosage for VC is 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. Fluconazole is the newer oral antifungal, its dosage for VC is a single oral dose of 150 mg. Since fluconazole 150 mg is considerably expensive, a single dose of 100 mg keto...

  8. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in pregnancy significantly reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth. If it can be demonstrated that treating asymptomatic candidiasis reduces preterm births this will change current practice and would directly impact the management of every pregnant woman. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000607077

  9. The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis / Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Botler, Wilheim; Demócrito de Barros, Miranda-Filho; Rodrigo Albuquerque, Nogueira; Rossana Sette de Melo, Rêgo; Kedma de Magalhães, Lima; Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão, Pereira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e s [...] ua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5%) apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5%) tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5%) era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5%) eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 Abstract in english CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in i [...] ts pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5%) had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5%) were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5%) were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5%) were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count

  10. Comparison between Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression Patterns in Human Clinical Specimens and Models of Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Georgina; Wozniak, Karen; Wallig, Matthew A.; Fidel, Paul L.; Trupin, Suzanne R.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the eight genes in the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family was studied by reverse transcription-PCR of RNA isolated from clinical vaginal fluid specimens and vaginal candidiasis model systems. Although expression of all ALS genes was detected across the set of clinical specimens, ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, and ALS9 transcripts were detected most frequently, and expression of ALS4 and ALS5 was detected least frequently. Laboratory strain 3153A and two C. albicans strain...

  11. The investigational agent E1210 is effective in treatment of experimental invasive candidiasis caused by resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R; Everson, Michael P; Duncanson, Frederick P; Patterson, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo activity of the inositol acyltransferase inhibitor E1210 was evaluated against echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans. E1210 demonstrated potent in vitro activity, and in mice with invasive candidiasis caused by echinocandin-resistant C. albicans, oral doses of 10 and 40 mg E1210/kg of body weight twice daily significantly improved survival and reduced fungal burden compared to those of controls and mice treated with caspofungin (10 mg/kg/day). These results demonstrate the potential use of E1210 against resistant C. albicans infections. PMID:25331706

  12. Comparison of anidulafungin's and fluconazole's in vivo activity in neutropenic and non-neutropenic models of invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, N P; Najvar, L K; Bocanegra, R; Kirkpatrick, W R; Patterson, T F

    2012-02-01

    We compared the rate and extent of anidulafungin's and fluconazole's activity in neutropenic and non-neutropenic mice with Candida albicans invasive candidiasis. In immunocompetent mice, anidulafungin significantly improved survival vs. controls and fluconazole, and significant reductions in (1?3)-?-D-glucan and fungal burden were observed. In neutropenic animals, the highest doses of anidulafungin (5 mg/kg) and fluconazole (10 mg/kg) also improved survival and reduced fungal burden. However, there were no differences in survival between these antifungals as anidulafungin's activity was attenuated in this model. These results demonstrate that the extent of anidulafungin in vivo efficacy may be dependent on host immune status. PMID:22128831

  13. Vaginal nystatin versus oral fluconazole for the treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Wu, Cong; Xu, Lixuan; Li, Jianling

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common condition that can physically and psychologically impact patients. We compared the efficacy and safety of vaginal nystatin suppositories for 14 days each month versus standard oral fluconazole regimens for the treatment for RVVC. Patients (n = 293) were enrolled in the study from April 2010 to September 2013. After the initial therapy, the mycological cure rates were 78.3% (119/152) and 73.8% (104/141) in the nystatin group and fluconazole group, respectively (95% CI, 0.749-2.197, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates at the end of maintenance therapy were 80.7% (96/119) and 72.7% (72/99) in the two groups, respectively (95% CI, 0.954-3.293, p > 0.05).The mycological cure rates at the end without treatment for 6 months were 81.25% (78/96) and 82.19% (60/73) in the two groups, respectively (95% CI, 0.427-2.066, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. albicans were 84.0% (89/106) and 81.8% (99/121) in the two groups, respectively. The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. glabrata were 64.3% (27/42) and 12.5% (2/16) in the two groups, respectively. The initial and 6-month maintenance therapy were successful in five of the nine patients in the nystatin group with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida, whereas in the fluconazole group, initial therapy failed in all patients with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida (n = 7). We conclude that both fluconazole and nystatin therapies are effective in treating RVVC. Nystatin may also be effective for the treatment for RVVC caused by C. glabrata or fluconazole-resistant Candida. PMID:25416649

  14. Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Susana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression.. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient.

  15. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of caspofungin in Japanese pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masaaki; Imaizumi, Masue; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Kaneko, Takashi; Goto, Hiroaki; Kato, Koji; Hara, Junichi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Koike, Kazutoshi; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Naoko; Yoshinari, Tomoko; Kishino, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Kawahara, Shizuko; Kartsonis, Nicholas A; Komada, Yoshihiro

    2015-06-01

    The antifungal agents approved in Japan for pediatric use are limited and many unapproved drugs are actually used without clear instruction for dosage. We investigated the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis in 20 Japanese pediatric patients using a pediatric-specific dosage based on body surface area. Caspofungin was administered intravenously over 60 min as 70 mg/m(2) on Day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) per day. Five or 4 point blood sampling were done in 15 patients on Day 4-5 to calculate AUC0-24 h. The geometric means (95% confidence interval) of C24 h and AUC0-24 h in the pediatric patients were 3.3(2.5, 4.4) ?g/mL and 175.1 (139.3, 220.1) ?g hr/mL, respectively, which were comparable to those in Japanese adult patients [3.2 (2.8, 3.5) ?g/mL and 144.9 (131.7, 159.3) ?g hr/mL, respectively]. Among the 20 patients, 10 (50%) had at least 1 drug-related adverse event which was considered related to caspofungin therapy. No drug-related serious adverse event and no death occurred. The most common drug-related adverse events were events relating to hepatic function (mainly increases in ALT and AST). The overall success in efficacy was observed in 13 of 20 patients. In conclusion, once daily administration of caspofungin (70 mg/m(2) on Day 1, followed by 50 mg/m(2) [maximum daily dose not to exceed 70 mg]), which is the same dosage being used in overseas, achieved sufficient drug exposure and a favorable efficacy and acceptable safety profile in Japanese pediatric patients with invasive fungal infections. PMID:25701307

  16. Does scientific evidence for the use of natural products in the treatment of oral candidiasis exist? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriela Lacet Silva; Pérez, Ana Luíza Alves de Lima; Rocha, Ítalo Martins; Pinheiro, Mayara Abreu; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; Castellano, Lúcio Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed. PMID:25883668

  17. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  18. ?-glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves de; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the ?-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1?, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with ?-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. ?-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that ?-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of ?-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release. PMID:25229476

  19. Low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination versus fluconazole in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Susilo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common fungal diseases. Candida albicans is the most common causative fungus and has been isolated from more than 80% of specimens obtained from women with VC. Ketoconazole is the first orally active antifungal, the dosage for VC is 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. Fluconazole is the newer oral antifungal, its dosage for VC is a single oral dose of 150 mg. Since fluconazole 150 mg is considerably expensive, a single dose of 100 mg ketoconazole and 40 mg fluconazole in combination has been tested for the treatment of VC. The results showed that from 11 women with confirmed VC, 1-2 weeks after drug administration, the mycological culture was negative in 8 women, positive in 1 woman, and 2 woman lost to follow-up. This promising result led to the present study with the objective to confirm the efficacy and safety of the above combination in a formal clinical trial.Methods: A total of 165 female patients, aged 18 years or older, with the diagnosis of VC from clinical symptoms (pruritus or burning or excessive discharge and positive microscopic smear (pseudohyphae and/or yeast cells were randomized to receive a single dose of either keto-fluco combination (n = 85 or fluconazole (n = 80, and returnedfor follow-up visit on day 8.Results: Among these patients, 39 patients had negative baseline culture, leaving 126 patients eligible for efficacy evaluation. The mycological eradication in the keto-fluco group was 74.5% (41 patients from a total of 55 patients with available mycological culture, while that in the fluconazole group was 70.2% (40 patients from 57 patients with available culture and this difference was not significant. The clinical favorable response (clinical cure and clinical improvement in the keto-fluco arm (n = 60 was 98.3%, while that in the fluconazole group (n = 66 was 100%. Adverse events were found in 5 patients, 3 patients in the keto-fluco group (3/85 = 3.5% and 2 patients in the fluconazole group (2/80 = 2.5%.Conclusion: The present study showed that the efficacy and safety of ketoconazole 100 mg and fluconazole 40 mg combination was not inferior compared to fluconazole 150 mg in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:205-11Keywords: fluconazole, low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination, single dose, vaginal candidiasis

  20. Investigation of a Cluster of Candida albicans Invasive Candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Abdeljelil, Jihene; Saghrouni, Fatma; Khammari, Imene; Gheith, Soukeina; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Said, Moncef; Boukadida, Jalel

    2012-01-01

    Nosocomial invasive candidiasis (IC) has emerged as a major problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We investigated herein the temporal clustering of six cases of neonatal IC due to Candida albicans in an NICU. Eighteen isolates obtained from the six neonates and two isolates from two health care workers (HCWs) working at the same unit and suffering from fingers' onychomycosis were genotyped by electrophoretic karyotyping (EK) and restriction endonuclease analysis of genomic DNA by ...

  1. Antifungal Activities of Two New Azasordarins, GW471552 and GW471558, in Experimental Models of Oral and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Immunosuppressed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Antonio; Ferrer, Santiago; Santos, Inmaculada; Jimenez, Elena; Sparrowe, John; Regadera, Javier; de las Heras, Federico Gomez; Gargallo-Viola, Domingo

    2001-01-01

    Sordarins constitute a new class of antifungal agents with a novel mechanism of action involving the selective inhibition of fungal protein synthesis. A further evolution of this class of antifungals has led to a new family of sordarin derivatives called azasordarins. The therapeutic efficacies of two new azasordarins, GW471552 and GW471558, were studied in experimental models of oral and vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats. In all cases rats were immunosuppressed with dexametha...

  2. ?-Glucan Induces Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Human Neutrophils to Improve the Killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata Isolates from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; de Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Terezinha Inez Estivalet SVIDZINSKI

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candid...

  3. Isolation and characterization of antifungal compounds from Clerodendron glabrum var glabrum (Verbenaceae) used traditionally to treat candidiasis in Venda, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Masevhe, Ndivhaleni Anox

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize antifungal compounds from the most active medicinal plant species that could be used to address secondary infection problems in immunocompromised patients. An ethnobotanical study was conducted and 45 medicinal plant species used traditionally to treat candidiasis and related infections in HIV/AIDS patients were identified and documented. The most popular plant species used included Acacia caffra, Clerodendrum glabrum, Croton gratissimu...

  4. Pharmacodynamics of Caspofungin in a Murine Model of Systemic Candidiasis: Importance of Persistence of Caspofungin in Tissues to Understanding Drug Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Louie, Arnold; Deziel, Mark; Liu, Weiguo; Drusano, Michael F.; Gumbo, Tawanda; Drusano, George L.

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were conducted in a murine model of systemic candidiasis to determine the pharmacodynamic parameter linked with caspofungin efficacy. Additional studies defined the importance of persistent tissue drug concentrations to treatment outcome. The pharmacokinetics of caspofungin were determined in the serum and kidneys of infected mice over 96 h. Population pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated a serum terminal half-life (t1/2) for caspofungin of 20.2 h ...

  5. Limited Role of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 to Sap6 in Candida albicans Virulence and Host Immune Response in Murine Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis?

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandra; Lermann, Ulrich; Teixeira, Luzia; Cerca, Filipe; Botelho, Sofia; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Sampaio, Paula; Gärtner, Fátima; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Vilanova, Manuel; Pais, Célia

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) are considered virulence-associated factors. Several members of the Sap family were claimed to play a significant role in the progression of candidiasis established by the hematogenous route. This assumption was based on the observed attenuated virulence of sap-null mutant strains. However, the exclusive contribution of SAP genes to their attenuated phenotype was not unequivocally confirmed, as the Ura status of these mutant strains could ...

  6. Use of Green Fluorescent Protein and Reverse Transcription-PCR To Monitor Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression in a Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Clayton B.; Zhao, Xiaomin; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans PALS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strains were inoculated into mice in a disseminated candidiasis model, and GFP production was monitored by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). GFP production from the ALS1 and ALS3 promoters was detected immunohistochemically. ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, ALS4, and ALS9 transcription was detected by RT-PCR, further identifying ALS genes expressed in this model.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

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    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  8. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabíola Araújo, Oliveira; Viola, Pfleger; Katrin, Lang; Jörg, Heukelbach; Iracema, Miralles; Francisco, Fraga; Anastácio Queiroz, Sousa; Marina, Stoffler-Meilicke; Ralf, Ignatius; Ligia Franco Sansigolo, Kerr; Hermann, Feldmeier.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among wome [...] n of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human papillomavirus (HPV), ligase chain reaction (LCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592). The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7), chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6), trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1), gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6), syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1), and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6) and 12.5% (10.0-15.5), respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  9. Fístula esófago-pleural espontánea secundaria a candidiasis en paciente con infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana. Una rara complicación de la moniliasis esofágica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adri\\u00E1n Nari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes estados nosológicos que afectan el esófago pueden ocasionar la aparición de fístulas que comuniquen a este órgano con el sistema respiratorio. Las infecciones, raramente, producen la perforación y posterior formación de una fístula hacia el árbol bronquial, el pulmón o el espacio pleural. Presentamos en esta comunicación un raro caso de fístula espontánea esófago-pleural por candidiasis esofágica en un paciente con HIV.

  10. Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali, Mikaeili; Isaac, Karimi; Tayebeh, Shamspur; Babak, Gholamine; Masoud, Modaresi; Ali, Khanlari.

    1035-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av). The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major compo [...] nents of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g) skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40%) prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

  11. Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mikaeili

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av. The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major components of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each: NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40% prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

  12. Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos / Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Marina, Prieto Santa Anna; María Teresa, Illnait Zaragozí; Edna G., Ramos Rodallegas; Bonfilio, Lazcano Herrero; Norma, Márquez Sánchez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Julián, Manzur Katriba; Gerardo, Martínez Machín.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina ) y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol), entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adulto [...] s infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir) y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 %) como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %). Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejoría o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes. Abstract in english A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine) and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole) was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34, [...] 97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92%) and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%). Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

  13. Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Prieto Santa Anna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol, entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adultos infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 % como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %. Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejor??a o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes.A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34,97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92% and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%. Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

  14. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammad Aamir, Mirza; Mohammad Akhlaquer, Rahman; Sushama, Talegaonkar; Zeenat, Iqbal.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em á [...] gua e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA), ácido fúlvico (FA), ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD), 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD) e cafeína (Caff). O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC), difração de raios-X (XRD), ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Abstract in english A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually [...] its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and caffeine (Caff). The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.

  15. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aamir Mirza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD and caffeine (Caff. The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em água e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA, ácido fúlvico (FA, ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD, 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD e cafeína (Caff. O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC, difração de raios-X (XRD, ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal.

  16. A Supplement Based on Zn-Enriched Virgin Coconut Oil as an Antifungal agent for Vaginal Candidiasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERY WINARSI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the amount of Candida albicans in vaginal secretion of Vaginal Candidiasis patients administered with Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil. Thirty respondents were selected based on several criteria as follows: the number of C. albicans colonies in the vaginal secretion was more than 105 cfu.ml-1, voluntary, healthy, willing to sign the informed consent and resided in Purwokerto. In Group A, 10 women were administered 2 tablespoons per day of Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil. In Group B, 10 women were administered 1 tablespoon per day of Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil; and in Group C, 10 women served as control group. Vaginal secretions were taken 3 times, before intervention (at baseline time, at 1 month and 2 months after intervention. Samples were taken by collecting vaginal secretions from the vaginal proximal region using a sterile cotton bud, which was then put into a tube containing sterile carrier media. The vaginal secretions were tested for the number of total C. albicans using Pour Plate Method. Two months after treatment, the number of colonies decreased from 4.4x106 to 2.5x106 cfu ml-1 (p=0.03 in Group A. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies between Group A and Group B, the number of C. albicans colonies was still above the normal range. Therefore, the recommended dosage of intervention with Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil is one tablespoon a day.

  17. Association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and HIV RNA levels in plasma and genital secretions among women on HAART

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Apalata; W H, Carr; B, Longo-Mbenza; W A, Sturm; P, Moodley.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHOD: Women with [...] VVC on HAART were recruited from a primary healthcare clinic in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, between June 2011 and December 2011. VVC was diagnosed clinically, supported by Gram staining and culture of genital secretions. HIV RNA load was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CD4+ counts were obtained from patients' medical records. RESULTS: Plasma HIV RNA was detected in 42 of 60 (70%) patients on HAART. The mean duration (± standard deviation) on HAART for these patients was 4.2 (±1.6) months v. 10.7 (±1.4) months for the remaining 18 patients (p10 000 copies/ml (p=0.032) and genital absolute counts of neutrophils >10 cells/5 high microscopic fields (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: Given that the majority of women had recently initiated HAART (allowing a high rate of detectable plasma HIV RNA), there was insufficient evidence to conclude that VVC was predictive of high plasma HIV RNA levels. It is more likely that this cohort of immunosuppressed women were prone to develop VVC. Plasma HIV loads and local genital inflammation were predictors of genital HIV detectability.

  18. An Intravaginal Live Candida Challenge in Humans Leads to New Hypotheses for the Immunopathogenesis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Paul L.; Barousse, Melissa; Espinosa, Terri; Ficarra, Mercedes; Sturtevant, Joy; Martin, David H.; Quayle, Alison J.; Dunlap, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a significant problem in women of childbearing age. While clinical studies of women with recurrent VVC (RVVC) and animal models have provided important data about a limited protective role of adaptive immunity, there remains a paucity of information on the protective mechanisms or factors associated with susceptibility to infection. In the present study, an intravaginal live Candida challenge in healthy adult women showed a differential susceptibility to symptomatic VVC, where 3 (15%) of 19 women with no history of VVC acquired a symptomatic infection compared to 6 (55%) of 11 women with an infrequent history of VVC. Furthermore, these studies revealed that protection against infection is noninflammatory while symptomatic infection correlates with a vaginal infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and a high vaginal fungal burden. Thus, the presence of symptomatic infection appears more dependent on host factors than on properties of the organism. Finally, vaginal lavage fluid from women with a symptomatic infection, but not those asymptomatically colonized, promoted the chemotaxis of PMNs. These results suggest that rather than RVVC/VVC being caused by an aberrant adaptive immune response, symptoms that define infection appear to be due to an aggressive innate response by PMNs. PMID:15102806

  19. Formulation and evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system to treat intestinal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuparnaDugal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The limited solubility, and therefore bioavailability, of the antimycotic drug,itraconazole, used for the treatment of intestinal Candidiasis in immunocompromisedindividuals, has been well documented. Therapeutic regimen in these patients mayinclude daily administration of multiple doses of various drugs. Hence, improving theresidence time of therapeutic agents, would ensure a high continuous concentration inthe body and help decrease the dosing frequency. In our current study, we haveinvestigated a novel method of drug delivery, developed by utilizing the concept ofmucoadhesiveness, for the sustained release of the drug, itraconazole. Mucoadhesivebeads were prepared using two natural polymers, isabghula husk and alginate. Theminimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole for Candida was found to be1.5milligram per millilitre. Accordingly, beads were prepared by ionic gelation methodusing calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. Marked improvement in solubility of thedrug was noted after entrapment. Prepared beads were subjected to various evaluationsincluding particle size, swelling behaviour and mucoadhesivity. At pH 7.4, goodmucoadhesive property was exhibited up to 7 hours. Maximum swelling of beads wasobserved at 4hours in phosphate buffer after which the beads showed slight erosion.Fresh cock intestinal mucosa was used to assess the sustained release of itraconazolefrom the drug loaded beads and the reduction in candidal cells adhering to the mucosawas verified by the viable count technique. The results of our present study indicate thatmucoadhesive intestinal retentive isabghula- alginate beads could represent a promisingvehicle for drug delivery and help improve therapeutic efficacy and patient compliancein the future.

  20. The Changing Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Payal K.; Erlandsen, Joshua E.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Berg, Deborah K.; Westbrook, Steven D.; Louden, Christopher; Cornell, John E.; Thompson, George R.; Vallor, Ana C.; Wickes, Brian L.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Redding, Spencer W.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on opportunistic conditions in HIV patients continues to evolve. We specifically studied the changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in 215?HIV/AIDS patients. Status of yeast colonization was assessed from oral rinse samples, and preliminary yeast identification was made using CHROMagar Candida and confirmed with standard microbiological techniques and/or molecular sequencing. Susceptibility to fluconazole was determined by CHROMagar Candida agar dilution screening and CLSI broth microdilution. 176 (82%) patients were colonized and 59 (27%) patients had symptomatic OPC. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species, though C. glabrata and C. dubliniensis were detected in 29% of isolates. Decreased fluconazole susceptibility occurred in 10% of isolates. Previous ART reduced the risk of OPC, while smoking increased the risk of colonization. Oral yeast colonization and symptomatic infection remain common even with advances in HIV therapy. C. albicans is the most common species, but other yeasts are prevalent and may have decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. PMID:22970352

  1. Limited role of secreted aspartyl proteinases Sap1 to Sap6 in Candida albicans virulence and host immune response in murine hematogenously disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Alexandra; Lermann, Ulrich; Teixeira, Luzia; Cerca, Filipe; Botelho, Sofia; da Costa, Rui M Gil; Sampaio, Paula; Gärtner, Fátima; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Vilanova, Manuel; Pais, Célia

    2010-11-01

    Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) are considered virulence-associated factors. Several members of the Sap family were claimed to play a significant role in the progression of candidiasis established by the hematogenous route. This assumption was based on the observed attenuated virulence of sap-null mutant strains. However, the exclusive contribution of SAP genes to their attenuated phenotype was not unequivocally confirmed, as the Ura status of these mutant strains could also have contributed to the attenuation. In this study, we have reassessed the importance of SAP1 to SAP6 in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis using sap-null mutant strains not affected in their URA3 gene expression and compared their virulence phenotypes with those of Ura-blaster sap mutants. The median survival time of BALB/c mice intravenously infected with a mutant strain lacking SAP1 to SAP3 was equivalent to that of mice infected with wild-type strain SC5314, while those infected with mutant strains lacking SAP5 showed slightly extended survival times. Nevertheless, no differences could be observed between the wild type and a ?sap456 mutant in their abilities to invade mouse kidneys. Likewise, a deficiency in SAP4 to SAP6 had no noticeable impact on the immune response elicited in the spleens and kidneys of C. albicans-infected mice. These results contrast with the behavior of equivalent Ura-blaster mutants, which presented a significant reduction in virulence. Our results suggest that Sap1 to Sap6 do not play a significant role in C. albicans virulence in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis and that, in this model, Sap1 to Sap3 are not necessary for successful C. albicans infection. PMID:20679440

  2. Single-center retrospective study of the incidence of, and risk factors for, non-C. albicans invasive candidiasis in hospitalized patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Tong, Zhaohui; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Lili; Wu, Yanbing; Liu, Yingmei; Wu, Lin

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were to establish the incidence of invasive candidiasis (IC) in a Beijing hospital, to identify risk factors associated with IC caused by non-C. albicans Candida (NAC), and to determine risk factors for infection caused by NAC species not susceptible to fluconazole. Clinical data from 141 patients admitted to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital (from 2001-2010) diagnosed with IC were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of IC increased during the 10-year period, but the proportion due to NAC did not change significantly in that of 141 cases, 55 (39%) were due to NAC and 86 (61%) to C. albicans (CA). The NAC species isolated included C. tropicalis (25 of 141, 18%), C. glabrata (14 of 141, 9.9%), C. parapsilosis (eight of 141, 5.7%), C. krusei (three of 141, 2.1%) and C. lusitaniae (one of 141, 0.71%); other Candida species accounted for four of the 141 cases (2.8%). Twenty-one isolates (38%) of NAC were not susceptible to fluconazole. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (OR 4.2; 95% CI 3.5-58; P < 0.001) and previous fluconazole therapy (OR 7.7; 95% CI 2.2-27; P = 0.001) were risk factors for invasive NAC candidiasis, whereas patient age ?65 years (OR 0.37; CI 0.16-0.88; P = 0.025) and invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 0.22; CI 0.069-0.70; P =0.010) were connected with invasive CA candidiasis. Prior fluconazole therapy was a risk factor (P = 0.007) for infections caused by NAC not susceptible to fluconazole. In conclusion, TPN and prior fluconazole therapy are independent risk factors for NAC infection, while prior fluconazole therapy is a risk factor for infection due to NAC not susceptible to fluconazole. PMID:24626056

  3. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante / Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de, Holanda; Ana Cristina Santos, Fernandes; Christiane Medeiros, Bezerra; Maria Ângela Fernandes, Ferreira; Manoel Reginaldo Rocha de, Holanda; Julita de Campos Pipolo, Holanda; Eveline Pipolo, Milan.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica d [...] e candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45ºC e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology and results of anal culture, to identify the frequency of species of Candida albicans and non-C. albicans, and to correlate anal and vaginal colonization. METHODS: a total of 99 patients were incl [...] uded with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis, from Natal, Brazil, between May 2003 and May 2005, totalling 294 collections. The clinical material, obtained by vaginal and anal swabs, was seeded on CHROMagar Candida®. The yeasts were identified using the classic method, in addition to the growth test at 42º and 45ºC and the Hypertonic Saboraud broth test. Symptomatology, risk factors and anal colonization were assessed according to positive or negative culture for Candida spp. The cultures positive for C. albicans at the two sites were compared with other results encountered. Yates’ chi2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: the most frequent was C. albicans in 69% of the cases. Wearing tight and/or synthetic underclothing, the presence of allergic diseases, the occurrence of itching, leukorrhea and hyperemia showed a significant association with positive culture for Candida spp in the vagina. The chance of a patient with positive anal colonization to present with concomitant positive vaginal colonization was 2.8 and 4.9 times greater for Candida spp and C. albicans, respectively. The risk of a patient with anal culture positive for C. albicans to present with positive vaginal colonization was 3.7 times greater when compared to non-C. albicans species. CONCLUSIONS: the most common species was C. albicans, and a relevant association between vaginal cultures positive for Candida spp and the use of tight and/or synthetic underclothing, allergic diseases, the occurrence of pruritus, leukorrhea and erythema was observed (p

  4. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45ºC e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (pPURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology and results of anal culture, to identify the frequency of species of Candida albicans and non-C. albicans, and to correlate anal and vaginal colonization. METHODS: a total of 99 patients were included with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis, from Natal, Brazil, between May 2003 and May 2005, totalling 294 collections. The clinical material, obtained by vaginal and anal swabs, was seeded on CHROMagar Candida®. The yeasts were identified using the classic method, in addition to the growth test at 42º and 45ºC and the Hypertonic Saboraud broth test. Symptomatology, risk factors and anal colonization were assessed according to positive or negative culture for Candida spp. The cultures positive for C. albicans at the two sites were compared with other results encountered. Yates’ chi2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: the most frequent was C. albicans in 69% of the cases. Wearing tight and/or synthetic underclothing, the presence of allergic diseases, the occurrence of itching, leukorrhea and hyperemia showed a significant association with positive culture for Candida spp in the vagina. The chance of a patient with positive anal colonization to present with concomitant positive vaginal colonization was 2.8 and 4.9 times greater for Candida spp and C. albicans, respectively. The risk of a patient with anal culture positive for C. albicans to present with positive vaginal colonization was 3.7 times greater when compared to non-C. albicans species. CONCLUSIONS: the most common species was C. albicans, and a relevant association between vaginal cultures positive for Candida spp and the use of tight and/or synthetic underclothing, allergic diseases, the occurrence of pruritus, leukorrhea and erythema was observed (p<0.05. Positive anal colonization concomitant with vaginal colonization was significant, suggesting possible vaginal contamination from the anus.

  5. RT-PCR analysis of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in a hyposalivatory rat model of oral candidiasis and in HIV-positive human patients

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Clayton B.; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; Cheng, Georgina; Faddoul, Fady F.; Ehrhart, E. J.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2006-01-01

    ALS gene expression was studied in the hyposalivatory rat model of oral candidiasis and in clinical specimens collected from HIV-positive patients to assess similarities in expression patterns between the model system and clinical isolates. Two C. albicans strains, SC5314 and OY-2-76, were used in the rat model system and infection progressed for 3 or 5 days. The strains produced similar oral lesions at 3 days. At 5 days, strain OY-2-76 produced more superficial lesions containing relatively ...

  6. Identification and study of non-Albicans Candida species isolated from clinical materials of patients with Candidiasis

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    Afsarian MH

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: I Infections due to Candida spp. have increased dramatically in recent years through a rising number of predisposing factors and immunocompromised hosts. Although Candida albicans is the most prevalent and important causative agent of Candida infections, the importance of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii and C. kefyr have increased significantly as they tend to be more resistant to antifungal agents. Therefore, it is critical that infecting Candida spp. be identified and considered. Furthermore, clinical laboratories may need to expand their yeast identification capabilities in order to facilitate rapid identification of clinical yeast isolates. Methods: In a discroptive – analytic study, the patients suspected of candidiasis were sampled. Direct examination and culture was carried out for all specimens. The isolated yeast colonies were then identified using various different tests such as culture on corn mealagar tween-80, CHROMagar Candida, and assimilation test by API 20C AUX kit. Results: In the present study, 304 yeast colonies were isolated from referral patients to mycology laboratory of 304 isolated colonies 204 were identified as C. albicans and 100 were identified as non albicans candida as follow 35% C. parapsilosis, 32% C. tropicalis, 8% C. glabrata, 8% C. kefyer, 6% C. krusei, 3% C. guilliermondii, 3% C. famata, 3% C. lusitaniae, 1% C. zeilanoides and 1% C. homicola. C. parapsilosis was the most frequent species. The result showed that clinical specimens were obtained from various infected sites of body and nail samples (59 cases were found to be the most frequent among those specimens. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that no single phenotypic test has proven to be highly effective for definitive identification. Moreover since these organisms can vary greatly in their susceptibility to the current antifungal agent and causing significant patient management problem therefore evaluation of susceptibility of these isolates against antifungal drugs is need to be investigated.

  7. Fluconazole therapy for treatment of invasive candidiasis in Intensive Care patients. Is it still valid from a pharmacological point of view?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Musu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole – antimycotic belonging to the first generation azoles – is widely used as treatment for invasive candidiasis and candidemia in numerous clinical settings as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU, as well as oncology, onco-hematology and solid organ transplantation. More recently use of antimycotics has spread to medical divisions, where fungal infections represent an emerging problem due to population’s ageing, malnourishment and important comorbidities. Fluconazole is effective against numerous Candida species, particularly against albicans, tropicalis and parapsilosis strains. On the other hand, C. krusei is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and C. glabrata can be sensitive or resistant in a dose dependent fashion. Epidemiological variability is noteworthy and depends on the geographical location of the institution, the clinical setting, and the frequency and intensity of fluconazole employment for invasive candidiasis. In many ICUs fluconazole sensitive C. albicans is cultured in 50% of positive samples, while the remaining 50% show growth of variably sensitive fungal species, often resistant to fluconazole. Due to increasingly frequent emergence of resistant strains of Candida spp., American guidelines (IDSA in 2009, and European ones (ESCMID in 2012, recommended substitution of fluconazole with echinocandines as first line therapy in patients with severe disease, as defined by an APACHE II score greater than 15. Thus fluconazole must be limited to low risk cases, treatment of sensitive strains and de-escalation from echinocandin therapy, after microbiological diagnosis and drug resistance profile characterization.

  8. Enzymatic activity profile of a Brazilian culture collection of Candida albicans isolated from diabetics and non-diabetics with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is a fundamental virulence factor of Candida albicans to develop disease. The objective of this study was to characterise the virulence of 148 clinical isolates of C. albicans from oral candidiasis by assessing the expression of phospholipase (PL) and secreted aspartyl proteinase (SAP). Isolates were obtained from healthy subjects (HS) and diabetics (DOC) and non-diabetics with oral candidiasis (NDOC). An aliquot (5 ?l) of each cell suspension was inoculated on PL and SAP agar plates and incubated. Enzymes secretion was detected by the formation of an opaque halo around the colonies and enzymatic activity (PZ) was determined by the ratio between colony diameter and colony diameter plus the halo zone. Statistical comparisons were made by a one-way anova followed by Tukey's post hoc test (? = 0.05). The clinical sources of C. albicans had significant effect (P < 0.001) on the PZ values of both enzymes. For PL, clinical isolates from NDOC and DOC had highest enzymatic activity than those from HS (P < 0.05), with no significant differences between them (P = 0.506). For SAP, C. albicans from NDOC showed the lower enzymatic activity (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between isolates from HS and DOC (P = 0.7051). C. albicans isolates from NDOC and DOC patients showed an increased production of PL. PMID:24329754

  9. Synergic anticandidal effect of epigallocatechin-O-gallate combined with amphotericin B in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis and its anticandidal mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongmoon

    2007-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated synergic anticandidal effect of epigallocatechin-O-gallate (EGCG) in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In addition, its mechanism was examined. In the animal system, EGCG-given BALB/c mice group intraperitoneally (i.p.) before intravenous (i.v.) inoculation with viable C. albicans yeast cells survived longer than diluent-received (control) mice group (pEGCG treatment inhibited the hyphal formation from the yeast form of C. albicans, causing growth-inhibition of the candidal cells. In experiments determining synergic effect, mice given diluent (control), Amp B (amphotericin B; 0.5 mg/kg of body weight), or EGCG (2 mg/kg) had mean survival times (MST) of approximately 10.9, 11.7, and 13.9 d, respectively. However, mice administered combination of Amp B (0.5 mg/kg) plus EGCG (2 mg/kg) had a MST value of 42.1 d, surviving an average of app. 30 d longer than the Amp B alone-received mice groups. The MST value from the combination-treated mice groups was much greater than MST value from mice groups that received four times the Amp B dose. These results indicate that EGCG, which has anticandidal activity causing blockage of the hyphal formation, has the synergism combined with Amp B against disseminated candidiasis. PMID:17827722

  10. Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil / Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil / Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rangeli, Basso; Nelci, Lopes da Silva; Karina, Braccini Pereira; Adelina, Mezzari; Alexandre, Meneghello Fuentefria.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR), a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasi [...] l. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30%) dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) e Candida spp. (11,1%). Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV) y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR), a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur [...] de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30%) casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) y Candida spp. (11,1%). En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycologic [...] al examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30%) cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  11. Prevalencia de resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis en una Empresa Social del Estado de Medellín (Colombia), 2010-2012 / Prevalence of positive cytology results for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis in a Social State Institution in Medellín, Colombia, 2010-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias; Daniela, Herrera-Posada; Marleny, Valencia-Arredondo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis vaginal, y su distribución según edad, método de planificación y sector de residencia. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal en especímenes citológicos obten [...] idos de mujeres atendidas entre los años 2010-2012 en Metrosalud, red de instituciones de la que hacen parte cincuenta centros de salud y unidades hospitalarias de primer nivel en Medellín (Colombia). Se incluyó toda la población de mujeres del régimen subsidiado atendida en la institución, se excluyeron las citologías con muestras insatisfactorias por ausencia de células, exceso de eritrocitos o leucocitos, y extendido defectuoso. Se usó fuente de información secundaria. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en SPSS 21®, con medidas de resumen y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se incluyeron 206.035 registros. La prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana fue 18 %, candidiasis 4,7 % y tricomoniasis 0,8 %. Los subgrupos con mayor prevalencia de infecciones fueron los adolescentes, con 22,8 % de vaginosis bacteriana, 9,2 % de candidiasis y 1,0 % para tricomoniasis; y quienes usan el dispositivo intrauterino (DIU) con 25,6, 5,1 y 1,2 % respectivamente. Conclusión: se halló una elevada prevalencia de las infecciones estudiadas, principalmente en adolescentes y usuarias del DIU; esta información resulta útil para los tomadores de decisiones en salud y para evaluar la pertinencia de estructurar programas de tamización de infecciones del tracto genital aunados a la tamización del cáncer cérvico-uterino. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the prevalence of positive cytology results for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and vaginal trichomoniasis, and distribution by age, birth control method and place of residence. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study of cytology samples from women seen between 2010 and [...] 2012 at Metrosalud, a network of institutions comprising 50 healthcare centres and level I hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. All the female population under the subsidized insurance regime was included, and inadequate samples due to absence of cells, excess red or white blood cells, and defective smear were excluded. A secondary source of information was used. Data were stored and analysed using the SPSS 21®, with summary measurements and absolute and relative frequencies. Results: Overall, 206,035 records were included. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 18 %, and the prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis was 4.7 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The subgroups with the highest prevalence of infections were adolescents with 22.8 % bacterial vaginosis, 9.2 % candidiasis and 1.0 % trichomoniasis. Among women using the intrauterine device (IUD), the prevalence was 25.6 %, 5.1 % and 1.2 %, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the infections studied was found, mainly among adolescents and IUD users. This information is useful for healthcare decision-making and for evaluating the relevance of structuring screening programs for genitourinary tract infections together with screening for cervical and uterine cancer.

  12. Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangeli Basso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR, a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30% casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% y Candida spp. (11,1%. En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR, a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasil. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30% dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% e Candida spp. (11,1%. Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais.The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycological examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30% cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  13. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

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    Bello Martha Darce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis. The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH was 61% and 70% with Gram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%, C. tropicalis (23%, C. glabrata (14% and C. krusei (4%. This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  14. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Darce, Bello; Alcides, Gonzalez; Christian, Barnabé; Georges, Larrouy.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis). The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH) was 61% and 70% with G [...] ram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%), C. tropicalis (23%), C. glabrata (14%) and C. krusei (4%). This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  15. Assessment of Aspergillus-Specific T Cells for Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis in a Leukemic Child with Liver Lesions Mimicking Hepatosplenic Candidiasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Leonardo; Barozzi, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulio; Palazzi, Giovanni; Vallerini, Daniela; Riva, Giovanni; Cellini, Monica; Morselli, Monica; Volzone, Francesco; Venturelli, Claudia; Quadrelli, Chiara; Di Pancrazio, Luciana; Cano, Maria Carmen; Paolucci, Paolo; Torelli, Giuseppe; Luppi, Mario

    2008-01-01

    A child with acute myeloid leukemia presented with multiple liver lesions mimicking hepatosplenic candidiasis during the neutropenic phase following the induction chemotherapy. All the available diagnostic tools showed repeatedly negative results, including galactomannan. An enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay showed a high number of Aspergillus-specific T cells producing interleukin-10 [TH2(IL-10)] and a low number of Aspergillus-specific T cells producing gamma interferon [TH1(IFN-?)], revealing invasive aspergillosis (IA) before the confirmatory biopsy. A progressive skewing from the predominance of TH2(IL-10) to a predominance of TH1(IFN-?) was observed close to the complete resolution of the infection and foreshadowed the outcome. The ELISPOT assay holds promise for diagnosing pediatric IA. PMID:18667632

  16. Incidence of Vaginal Candidiasis in Leucorrhoea in Women Attending in OPD of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department, Gurugobind Singh Hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India

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    Binita Joseph Aring

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhoea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the Incidence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. Objective: To study the incidence of Candidiasis in patients of leucorrhoea and identification of different species of candida found in leucorrhoea and to study the effect of pregnancy and age on infection rate in women Attending  in OPD of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department, Gurugobind Singh Hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 300 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. Discharge was examined by direct wet preparation by KOH mount, Gram staining, and Culture on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. Species differentiation was done by Germ tube formation, Sugar assimilation and Sugar Fermentation test. Results: In 19% of the women the leucorrhea was due to Candida infection with highest incidence in women of age (21-30 years. Incidence of candidiasis was higher in Pregnant(22.5% compared to non-pregnant(16.6%. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida krusei was the least common one. Conclusion: Highest incidence found between 21-30 years age group, in pregnant women, in women from lower socio-economic class. Among candida species C.albicans was commonest followed by C.glabrata, C.tropicalis, C.krusei.

  17. An Evaluation of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Site Release® Vaginal Cream (Gynazole-1®) Compared to Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets (Diflucan®) in the Time to Relief of Symptoms in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Skokos, Campbell K; Seidman, Larry S

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is estimated that as many as 13 million cases of vulvovaginal infection occur in the United States annually, the majority of which are the result of Candida albicans infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal infections are often painful and distressing to the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the time to symptomatic relief of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream (Gynazole-1) and oral fluconazole 150 mg tablets (D...

  18. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

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    Wilke MH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin is not more expensive than using other established therapies. Micafungin has proven to be cost-effective in prophylaxis if the local fungal epidemiology indicates a high level of resistance to fluconazole. Switch strategies involving early initiation of broadly active therapy with switch to cheaper alternatives according to microbiology results and clinical status and early initiation of an appropriate therapy have been proven to be cost-efficient independent of the antifungal agent.

  19. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato) sobre candidose oral / Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) gel on oral candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida, Paiva; Rodrigo Alves, Ribeiro; Jozinete Vieira, Pereira; Neuza Maria Cavalcante, Oliveira.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas [...] tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel), composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel) utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis. Abstract in english In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant [...] of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel), with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel) used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  20. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  1. Etiologia dos casos de candidíase cutânea atendidos no serviço de micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil / Etiology of cutaneous candidiasis cases seen at the mycology service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil / Etiología de casos de candidiasis cutánea atendidos en el servicio de micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Silva Barbedo; Simone Cristina, Pereira Brito; Fabíola Cristina, de Oliveira Kegele; Jânio, Alves Cordeiro; Jeferson, Carvalhaes de Oliveira; Diana Bridon, da Graça Sgarbi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudadas 64 amostras oriundas de 56 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidíase cutânea, coletadas de novembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009, no serviço de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano e Veterinário do Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico da Universid [...] ade Federal Fluminense. Foram isoladas espécies de Candida em 58 amostras de 51 pacientes, trinta e oito mulheres e treze homens, com a seguinte distribuição: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica e 3 C . tropicalis. As onicomicoses representaram mais de 75% das manifestações clínicas. Nos casos em que não foi Candida isolada como o agente etiológico, foram identificados dois Cryptococcus laurentii, um Trichosporon mucoides e um Trichosporon asahii. Este trabalho é uma contribuição para o entendimento da etiologia de candidíase cutânea no serviço de Micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudiaron 64 muestras procedentes de 56 pacientes con sospecha clínica de candidiasis cutánea, recolectadas entre noviembre de 2008 a agosto de 2009 en el servicio de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano y Veterinario del Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto Biomédic [...] o de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Se aislaron especies del género Candida en 58 muestras de 51 pacientes, treinta y ocho mujeres y trece hombres, con la siguiente distribución: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica y 3 C . tropicalis. Las onicomicosis representaron más del 75% de las manifestaciones clínicas. En los casos donde no se aisló Candida como agente etiológico se identificaron dos Cryptococcus laurentii, un Trichosporon mucoides y un Trichosporon asahii. Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de la etiología de la candidiasis cutánea en el Servicio de Micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Abstract in english This work corresponds to the study of 64 samples from 56 patients with clinical suspicion of cutaneous candidiasis, collected between November 2008 and August 2009 at the Human and Veterinarian Diagnostic Service of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the Instituto Biomédico of the Un [...] iversidad Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Candida genus species were isolated in 58 samples from 51 patients (38 women and 13 men), with the following distribution: C. parapsilosis 15, C. famata 11, C. albicans 9, C. haemulonii 7, C. guilliermondii 4, C. ciferrii 5, C. lipolytica 4, and C. tropicalis 3. Onicomycoses represented over 75% of the clinical manifestations. In cases where Candida was not isolated as etiologic agent, two Cryptococcus laurentii, one Trichosporum mucoides, and one Trichosporum asahii were identified. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the etiology of cutaneous candidiasis at the Mycology Service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense.

  2. Characteristics of Invasive Candidiasis in Gamma Interferon- and Interleukin-4-Deficient Mice: Role of Macrophages in Host Defense against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Káposzta, Rita; Tree, Peter; Maródi, László; Gordon, Siamon

    1998-01-01

    Murine models of invasive candidiasis were used to study the in vivo importance of gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in host defense against Candida albicans and to characterize the tissue inflammatory reactions, with special reference to macrophages (M?). Knockout (KO) IFN-?-deficient (GKO) and IL-4-deficient (IL-4 KO) and C57BL/6 parental mouse strains were challenged intraperitoneally with 108 C. albicans blastoconidia. Survival of GKO mice was significantly lower (16.7%) than that of C57BL/6 control (55.5%) and IL-4 KO (61.1%) animals, but was not correlated with the extent of organ colonization. Immunohistological analysis with a panel of myeloid and lymphoid markers revealed multiple renal abscesses, myocarditis, hepatitis, meningoencephalitis, and pneumonia in each strain, with a dominant presence of M?. In the absence of IFN-?, C. albicans induced striking changes in the phenotype of alveolar M? and extensive perivascular lymphoid infiltrates in the lung. Impairment in nitric oxide production by peritoneal M? was shown only in GKO mice, and they produced Candida-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, and IgG subclasses in lower titers. Our in vivo studies with KO mice elucidate a critical role for IFN-?, but not IL-4, in host defense against C. albicans. PMID:9529101

  3. Oral and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma--a complication or component of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, APS-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautemaa, Riina; Hietanen, Jarkko; Niissalo, Sirkku; Pirinen, Sinikka; Perheentupa, Jaakko

    2007-07-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease exceptionally common in Finland. It is associated with a limited T lymphocyte defect, an autoimmune response to various tissues, particularly endocrine glands. Most patients have chronic oral candidosis, which has been suggested to be carcinogenic. In Finland 92 patients have been diagnosed with APECED and 66 of them are alive. Our aim was to study the possible association of APECED with oral and oesophageal carcinoma. We evaluated the medical histories of all 92 patients for morbidity, causes of death, and known risk factors for oral cancer. We invited all current patients for a clinical examination of their oral mucosa. Six of the 92 had developed oral or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by the mean age of 37 (29-44years) and four of them had died from it. The six represent 10% of the patients older than 25years. Five of the six patients had long-lasting oral candidosis. Four of the six had smoked regularly for 15years or more. One patient had been on immunosuppressive therapy for 6years following kidney transplantation when SCC in her mouth occurred. The partial T cell defect of APECED seems to favour the growth of Candida albicans and predispose to chronic mucositis and SCC. Aggressive control of oral candidosis and close follow-up of oral mucosa is a necessity in patients with APECED. PMID:16997613

  4. Epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans species of Candida in 2,496 patients: data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) registry 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Andes, David R; Diekema, Daniel J; Horn, David L; Reboli, Annette C; Rotstein, Coleman; Franks, Billy; Azie, Nkechi E

    2014-01-01

    This analysis describes the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in patients enrolled in the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH Alliance) registry from 2004 to 2008. A total of 2,496 patients with non-albicans species of Candida isolates were identified. The identified species were C. glabrata (46.4%), C. parapsilosis (24.7%), C. tropicalis (13.9%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. lusitaniae (1.6%), C. dubliniensis (1.5%) and C. guilliermondii (0.4%); 111 infections involved two or more species of Candida (4.4%). Non-albicans species accounted for more than 50% of all cases of invasive candidiasis in 15 of the 24 sites (62.5%) that contributed more than one case to the survey. Among solid organ transplant recipients, patients with non-transplant surgery, and patients with solid tumors, the most prevalent non-albicans species was C. glabrata at 63.7%, 48.0%, and 53.8%, respectively. In 1,883 patients receiving antifungal therapy on day 3, fluconazole (30.5%) and echinocandins (47.5%) were the most frequently administered monotherapies. Among the 15 reported species, 90-day survival was highest for patients infected with either C. parapsilosis (70.7%) or C. lusitaniae (74.5%) and lowest for patients infected with an unknown species (46.7%) or two or more species (53.2%). In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge of the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in North America. The variability in species distribution in these centers underscores the importance of local epidemiology in guiding the selection of antifungal therapy. PMID:24991967

  5. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Invasive Candidiasis Due to Non-albicans Species of Candida in 2,496 Patients: Data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Registry 2004–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Andes, David R.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Horn, David L.; Reboli, Annette C.; Rotstein, Coleman; Franks, Billy; Azie, Nkechi E.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis describes the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in patients enrolled in the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH Alliance) registry from 2004 to 2008. A total of 2,496 patients with non-albicans species of Candida isolates were identified. The identified species were C. glabrata (46.4%), C. parapsilosis (24.7%), C. tropicalis (13.9%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. lusitaniae (1.6%), C. dubliniensis (1.5%) and C. guilliermondii (0.4%); 111 infections involved two or more species of Candida (4.4%). Non-albicans species accounted for more than 50% of all cases of invasive candidiasis in 15 of the 24 sites (62.5%) that contributed more than one case to the survey. Among solid organ transplant recipients, patients with non-transplant surgery, and patients with solid tumors, the most prevalent non-albicans species was C. glabrata at 63.7%, 48.0%, and 53.8%, respectively. In 1,883 patients receiving antifungal therapy on day 3, fluconazole (30.5%) and echinocandins (47.5%) were the most frequently administered monotherapies. Among the 15 reported species, 90-day survival was highest for patients infected with either C. parapsilosis (70.7%) or C. lusitaniae (74.5%) and lowest for patients infected with an unknown species (46.7%) or two or more species (53.2%). In conclusion, this study expands the current knowledge of the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in North America. The variability in species distribution in these centers underscores the importance of local epidemiology in guiding the selection of antifungal therapy. PMID:24991967

  6. An Evaluation of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Site Release® Vaginal Cream (Gynazole-1® Compared to Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets (Diflucan® in the Time to Relief of Symptoms in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell K. Skokos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is estimated that as many as 13 million cases of vulvovaginal infection occur in the United States annually, the majority of which are the result of Candida albicans infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal infections are often painful and distressing to the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the time to symptomatic relief of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC with butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release® vaginal cream (Gynazole-1® and oral fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan®.

  7. Frequência de leveduras em fluido vaginal de mulheres com e sem suspeita clínica de candidíase vulvovaginal Frequency of yeasts in vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luciano Andrioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a candidíase vulvovaginal em mulheres com e sem suspeita clínica a partir de fluido vaginal, identificando frequência de Candida spp. e associando a fatores de risco intrínsecos e extrínsecos. MÉTODOS: foram coletadas 286 amostras de pacientes atendidas em clínicas e postos de saúde entre Agosto de 2005 e Agosto de 2007. Foram 121 mulheres com suspeita e 165 sem suspeita clínica. Com zaragatoas estéreis, as amostras foram coletadas, transportadas ao laboratório em solução fisiológica 0,85%, semeadas em CHROMagar Candida e em meio ágar Sabouraud 4% com cloranfenicol. Foram realizados os procedimentos clássicos para identificação: macro e micromorfologia, zimograma e auxanograma. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de testes de frequência e tabelas de contingência (?2. RESULTADOS: Um total de 47,9% das mulheres com suspeita clínica obteve confirmação de candidíase pelos exames laboratoriais. Das pacientes sem suspeita clínica (Grupo Controle, 78,2% foram negativas para candidíase vulvovaginal pelos testes laboratoriais. Candida albicans foi a espécie prevalente com 74,5% dos casos. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas para os casos positivos, de acordo com as pacientes das duas cidades avaliadas (pPURPOSE: to study vulvovaginal candidiasis from the vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion, identifying the frequency of Candida spp., and associating it with intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. METHODS: a total of 286 samples from patients attended in private practices and public health units from August 2005 to August 2007 were collected, being 121 women under clinical suspicion and 165, without. The samples were collected with sterile swabs, taken to the laboratory in 0.85% physiological solution, and then seeded in CHROMagar Candida and in 4% agar Sabourad with chloramphenicol. Classical identification procedures were carried out: macro and micromorphology, zymogram and auxanogram. Data obtained were analyzed by frequency tests and contingency tables (?2. RESULTS: a total of 47.9% of the women under clinical suspicion got confirmation of candidiasis by the laboratorial tests. Among the patients without clinical suspicion (Control Group, 78.2% were vulvovaginal candidiasis negative according to the laboratorial tests. Candida albicans was the prevalent strain in 74.5% of the cases. There were significant differences among the positive cases, according to the patients from the two cities evaluated (p<0.05. Clothing was one differential aspect found among the two populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: the presence of predisposing factors does not necessarily define vulvovaginal candidiasis. Geographical localization has shown to be a relevant factor in the distribution of events. The type of clothing may be one of the reasons for it. Culture of samples from the vaginal contents, followed by microorganisms' identification, can be important.

  8. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Invasive Candidiasis Due to Non-albicans Species of Candida in 2,496 Patients: Data from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Registry 2004–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Michael A. Pfaller; David R. Andes; Diekema, Daniel J; Horn, David L; Reboli, Annette C; Rotstein, Coleman; Franks, Billy; Azie, Nkechi E.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis describes the epidemiology and outcomes of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans species of Candida in patients enrolled in the Prospective Antifungal Therapy Alliance (PATH Alliance) registry from 2004 to 2008. A total of 2,496 patients with non-albicans species of Candida isolates were identified. The identified species were C. glabrata (46.4%), C. parapsilosis (24.7%), C. tropicalis (13.9%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. lusitaniae (1.6%), C. dubliniensis (1.5%) and C. guillierm...

  9. A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of terconazole vaginal suppository versus oral fluconazole for treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Yuxia; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Huicong; Liang, Yiheng

    2015-06-01

    Terconazole is a new, broad-spectrum, triazole antifungal agent. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a 6-day course of a terconazole vaginal suppository (80 mg) with two doses of oral fluconazole (150 mg) for the treatment of severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (SVVC). In this prospective, randomized case-control study, 140 consecutive patients with SVVC were enrolled at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from July 1, 2013, through June 31, 2014. Patients with SVVC, initially at a 1:1 ratio, were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either the terconazole vaginal suppository or oral fluconazole. The patients had follow-up visits at 7-14 days and 30-35 days following the last dose of therapy. The clinical cure rates in the terconazole group and the fluconazole group were, respectively, 81.0% (47/58) and 75.8% (50/66) at follow-up day 7-14 and 60.3% (35/58) and 56.1% (37/66) at day 30-35. The mycological cure rates in the two groups were, respectively, 79.3% (46/58) and 71.2% (47/66) at follow-up day 7-14 and 62.1% (36/58) and 53.0% (35/66) at day 30-35 (P > .05 for all). Local irritation was the primary adverse event associated with terconazole, whereas systemic side effects were associated with fluconazole; however, these effects were minimal. This study demonstrated that a terconazole vaginal suppository (80 mg daily for 6 days) was as effective as two dose of oral fluconazole (150 mg) in the treatment of patients with SVVC; as such, terconazole could be a choice for therapy of this disorder. PMID:25877666

  10. Candida colonization as a risk marker for invasive candidiasis in mixed medical-surgical intensive care units: development and evaluation of a simple, standard protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F; Kabir, Masrura; Chen, Sharon C-A; Playford, E Geoffrey; Marriott, Deborah J; Jones, Michael; Lipman, Jeffrey; McBryde, Emma; Gottlieb, Thomas; Cheung, Winston; Seppelt, Ian; Iredell, Jonathan; Sorrell, Tania C

    2015-04-01

    Colonization with Candida species is an independent risk factor for invasive candidiasis (IC), but the minimum and most practicable parameters for prediction of IC have not been optimized. We evaluated Candida colonization in a prospective cohort of 6,015 nonneutropenic, critically ill patients. Throat, perineum, and urine were sampled 72 h post-intensive care unit (ICU) admission and twice weekly until discharge or death. Specimens were cultured onto chromogenic agar, and a subset underwent molecular characterization. Sixty-three (86%) patients who developed IC were colonized prior to infection; 61 (97%) tested positive within the first two time points. The median time from colonization to IC was 7 days (range, 0 to 35). Colonization at any site was predictive of IC, with the risk of infection highest for urine colonization (relative risk [RR]=2.25) but with the sensitivity highest (98%) for throat and/or perineum colonization. Colonization of ?2 sites and heavy colonization of ?1 site were significant independent risk factors for IC (RR=2.25 and RR=3.7, respectively), increasing specificity to 71% to 74% but decreasing sensitivity to 48% to 58%. Molecular testing would have prompted a resistance-driven decision to switch from fluconazole treatment in only 11% of patients infected with C. glabrata, based upon species-level identification alone. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were low (2% to 4%) and negative predictive values (NPVs) high (99% to 100%) regardless of which parameters were applied. In the Australian ICU setting, culture of throat and perineum within the first two time points after ICU admission captures 84% (61/73 patients) of subsequent IC cases. These optimized parameters, in combination with clinical risk factors, should strengthen development of a setting-specific risk-predictive model for IC. PMID:25673797

  11. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras / Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassiana Aparecida, Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os co [...] nhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de quatro ou mais episódios de CVV no período de 12 meses), bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influências do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulência dos agentes causais da infecção, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importância nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistêmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invasão por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicação no canal vaginal é favorecida por uma série de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta revisão. Também tem sido postulado que existem diferenças na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., não sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vários fatores de virulência têm sido propostos e são descritos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Este artigo de revisão bibliográfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da área da saúde em relação a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência dos agentes causais, que são pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualização e o conhecimento de conceitos básicos e clínicos relacionados com essa patologia são muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da área. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called [...] non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae). C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of women’s health.

  12. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Aparecida Álvares

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de quatro ou mais episódios de CVV no período de 12 meses, bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influências do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulência dos agentes causais da infecção, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importância nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistêmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invasão por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicação no canal vaginal é favorecida por uma série de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta revisão. Também tem sido postulado que existem diferenças na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., não sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vários fatores de virulência têm sido propostos e são descritos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Este artigo de revisão bibliográfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da área da saúde em relação a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência dos agentes causais, que são pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualização e o conhecimento de conceitos básicos e clínicos relacionados com essa patologia são muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da área.INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae. C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of women’s health.

  13. Frequência de leveduras em fluido vaginal de mulheres com e sem suspeita clínica de candidíase vulvovaginal / Frequency of yeasts in vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Luciano, Andrioli; Gílvia Simone Andrade, Oliveira; Cilene Souza, Barreto; Zulane Lima, Sousa; Maria Cristina Haun de, Oliveira; Irene Mauricio, Cazorla; Renato, Fontana.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a candidíase vulvovaginal em mulheres com e sem suspeita clínica a partir de fluido vaginal, identificando frequência de Candida spp. e associando a fatores de risco intrínsecos e extrínsecos. MÉTODOS: foram coletadas 286 amostras de pacientes atendidas em clínicas e postos de saúd [...] e entre Agosto de 2005 e Agosto de 2007. Foram 121 mulheres com suspeita e 165 sem suspeita clínica. Com zaragatoas estéreis, as amostras foram coletadas, transportadas ao laboratório em solução fisiológica 0,85%, semeadas em CHROMagar Candida e em meio ágar Sabouraud 4% com cloranfenicol. Foram realizados os procedimentos clássicos para identificação: macro e micromorfologia, zimograma e auxanograma. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de testes de frequência e tabelas de contingência (?2). RESULTADOS: Um total de 47,9% das mulheres com suspeita clínica obteve confirmação de candidíase pelos exames laboratoriais. Das pacientes sem suspeita clínica (Grupo Controle), 78,2% foram negativas para candidíase vulvovaginal pelos testes laboratoriais. Candida albicans foi a espécie prevalente com 74,5% dos casos. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas para os casos positivos, de acordo com as pacientes das duas cidades avaliadas (p Abstract in english PURPOSE: to study vulvovaginal candidiasis from the vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion, identifying the frequency of Candida spp., and associating it with intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. METHODS: a total of 286 samples from patients attended in private practices and pub [...] lic health units from August 2005 to August 2007 were collected, being 121 women under clinical suspicion and 165, without. The samples were collected with sterile swabs, taken to the laboratory in 0.85% physiological solution, and then seeded in CHROMagar Candida and in 4% agar Sabourad with chloramphenicol. Classical identification procedures were carried out: macro and micromorphology, zymogram and auxanogram. Data obtained were analyzed by frequency tests and contingency tables (?2). RESULTS: a total of 47.9% of the women under clinical suspicion got confirmation of candidiasis by the laboratorial tests. Among the patients without clinical suspicion (Control Group), 78.2% were vulvovaginal candidiasis negative according to the laboratorial tests. Candida albicans was the prevalent strain in 74.5% of the cases. There were significant differences among the positive cases, according to the patients from the two cities evaluated (p

  14. An unusual case: Renal candidiasis; Der besondere Fall: Renale Candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, Doerthe [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2009-03-15

    A 39-year old female patient suffering from congenital spastic tetraparesis, bilateral hip dysplasia and diabetes was hospitalized as an emergency because of violent pains in the right flank which emanated paravertebrally and into the pelvis. There was no fever or ague. The anamnesis included urolithiasis on the right side 5 years ago and an ileum conduit operation after a neurogenic disturbance of micturition 22 years ago. The sonographic pictures indicated no congestion of the kidneys. To exclude urolithiasis, a low-dose CT was carried out, followed by CT after application of a contrast medium. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of two cleansing pastes for the removal of biofilm from dentures and palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Cristina Damião, Andrucioli; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Heitor, Panzeri; Elza Helena Guimarães, Lara; Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas duas pastas, específica para prótese total e convencional para dentes naturais, quanto à habilidade de remoção de biofilme e cura de lesões do palato em pacientes com Candidíase Atrófica Crônica. Avaliou-se também o grau de correlação entre biofilme e grau de eritema. Vinte e quatro [...] pacientes (45-80 anos) foram distribuídos em: a) pasta específica (produto experimental); b) pasta convencional (pasta dental Sorriso). Para ambos os grupos foram fornecidas escovas dentais de cerdas macias. Assuperfícies internas (próteses superiores) foram evidenciadas (fluoresceína 1%) e fotografadas (45º) em 4 visitas (0, 15, 30 e 60 dias). Os slides foram escaneados e as áreas (total e biofilme) foram medidas (software Image Tool). Sobre slides avaliou-se o grau de eritema empregando-se o Índice Tecidual de Prótese. Houve redução significativa (1%) dos níveis de biofilme (análise de variância) entre as primeiras (0 e 15 dias) e últimas visitas (45 e 60 dias) e dos escores de eritema (Kruskal-Wallis) da primeira para quarta vistita para ambas pastas. O teste de Mann-Whitney mostrou diferença estatística entre as pastas para os níveis de biofilme e igualdade estatística para os escores de eritema. Os valores de correlação entre níveis de biofilme e grau de eritema foram de 0,3801 (pasta específica) e 0,3678 (pasta convencional). A pasta específica mostrou-se efetiva, mostrando que é possível a manutenção da higiene de próteses totais com o uso regular de higienizador em forma de pasta. Abstract in english The efficacy of 2 oral hygiene products, an experimental toothpaste specific for complete denture cleansing and a regular standard toothpaste, was compared in terms of denture biofilm removal and cure of palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis. The degree of correlation between [...] presence of biofilm and mucosa erythema was also evaluated. Twenty-four complete denture wearers (45-80 years old) were divided into 2 groups: experimental paste and standard toothpaste (Sorriso-Kolynos, Brazil). Both groups received soft toothbrushes. The internal surfaces of upper dentures were stained using 1% sodium fluorescein and photographed at a 45º angle at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The slides were scanned and the areas of interest (denture total area and biofilm area) were measured (Image Tool software). The degree of erythema was evaluated on slides according to the Prosthesis Tissue Index. There was a significant reduction (1%) in the degree of biofilm (ANOVA/Tukey) between the two initial visits (0 and 15 days) and the two final visits (30 and 60 days), and in the average erythema scores (Kruskal-Wallis) between 0 and 60 days, in both groups. The Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference (1%) between pastes in terms of biofilm degree, but no difference was found for the erythema score. Correlation values between biofilm and erythema degree were 0.3801 (experimental paste) and (0.3678 (standard toothpaste). We may therefore conclude that the experimental product was efficient for the removal of denture plaque biofilm.

  16. Aphthoid ulcerations in ileocolic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    A case of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma complicated by Candida tropicalis ileocolic infection is reported. Candida tropicalis is a saprophytic organism, less abundant in man than the more commonly known Candida albicans. These organisms may be the source of infection in debilitated or immune-deficient patients. A 55-year-old man presented to Emory Hospital 7 months before admission with weight loss. At that time the diagnosis of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma was made by bone-marrow biopsy.

  17. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  18. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how it can be prevented… Sources of Infection Candida species are normal inhabitants of the mouth, throat… Diagnosis & Testing See your healthcare provider… Treatment & Outcomes Antifungal treatment… Additional Information Resources and publications… ...

  19. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women / Prevalência de Candida albicans e não albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal: avaliação comparativa entre colonização, candidíase vaginal e candidíase vaginal recorrente em mulheres diabéticas e não diabéticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciene Setsuko Akimoto, Gunther; Helen Priscila Rodrigues, Martins; Fabrícia, Gimenes; André Luelsdorf Pimenta de, Abreu; Marcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) é causada pelo crescimento anormal de fungos do tipo leveduras na mucosa do trato genital feminino. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) são mais susceptíveis a infecções fúngicas, incluindo por espécies de Candida. O presente estudo investigou a f [...] requência de isolamento total de Candida spp. vaginal, e diferentes quadros clínicos (CVV e CVV recorrente- CVVR) em mulheres com DM tipo 2 comparadas às não diabéticas. A razão de cura do tratamento com fluconazol também foi avaliada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado no sistema público de saúde de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 717 mulheres de 17-74 anos de idade e, destas, 48 (6,7%) tinham DM 2 (média de 53,7 anos), independentemente de sinais e sintomas de CVV. As leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por métodos fenotípicos clássicos. RESULTADOS: No grupo de não diabéticas (controle), leveduras vaginais totais foram isoladas em 79 (11,8%) mulheres, e no grupo de diabéticas, em 9 (18,8%) (P = 0,000). O grupo de diabéticas mostrou mais mulheres sintomáticas (CVV + CVVR = 66,66%) do que colonizadas (33.33%), e significativamente mais colonização, CVV e CVVR, que as controle. A razão média de cura com fluconazol foi de 75.0% no grupo diabéticas e 86.7% no controle (P = 0.51). CONCLUSÃO: Nós encontramos que DM 2 em mulheres brasileiras associou-se com colonização vaginal por leveduras, CVV e CVVR, razão similar de isolamento de C. albicans e espécies não albicans. Boa taxa de cura foi obtida com fluconazol em ambos os grupos. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated th [...] e frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  20. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros / Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan Dieb, Miziara; Adriana da Silva, Lima; Rodrigo Antonio Cataldo de la, Cortina.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidíase oral (CO) e leucoplasia pilosa (LP) são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga vi [...] ral (CV) em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões) e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP) a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (p Abstract in english Oral candidiasis (OC) and hairy leukoplakia (HL) are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome) infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC) on HIV positive brazilian patie [...] nts, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions) and A6 (absence of lesions). Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: on the P group, (43 patients, 28 OC, 15 HL) the CD4+ counting was smaller with greater viral charge when compared to A group (P

  1. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidíase oral (CO e leucoplasia pilosa (LP são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga viral (CV em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (pOral candidiasis (OC and hairy leukoplakia (HL are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC on HIV positive brazilian patients, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions and A6 (absence of lesions. Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: on the P group, (43 patients, 28 OC, 15 HL the CD4+ counting was smaller with greater viral charge when compared to A group (P<0.001. After 6 months, 15 of the 81 patients from the A group were excluded as they have initiated antiretroviral therapy. Eighteen patients (11 OC and 7 HL were included on the P6 group. The others, who were free of lesions, were allocated on the A6 group. Again, CD4+ counting on the P6 group was smaller compared to the A6 group (P<0.001. The opposite occurred to the viral charge. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: OC and HL indicate CD4+ counting below 300 cells/mm³ and increased VC, thus being trustable clinical markers of the disease progression.

  2. Diagnosis and Testing of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A culture may also be performed; however, because Candida organisms are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, ... Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  3. Candidiasis in young hand-reared kangaroos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obendorf, D L

    1980-01-01

    Necropsies conducted on four young eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) revealed white encrustations adherent to the mucosa of the lips, gums, tongue and oesophagus. The non-glandular stomach was impacted with similar white curd-like material, much of which was ahderent to the mucosa. Histopathology revealed fungal mycelia and blastospores invading the stratified squamous epithelium resulting in focal erosion, ulceration and venous thrombosis. A predominantly neutrophilic leucocytic infiltration was produced in intra-epithelial and submucosal tissues. Candida albicans was isolated from the upper alimentary tract lesions of all cases. Failure to thrive on milk diets, prolonged episodes of diarrhoea and antibiotic therapy during hand-rearing were considered to be significant predisposing factors to infection. PMID:6990020

  4. Associação entre cultura de secreção vaginal, características sociodemográficas e manifestações clínicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de candidíase vulvovaginal / Association between vaginal secretion culture, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Tavares, Rodrigues; Ana Carolina, Gonçalves; Mariana Carolina Tocantins, Alvim; Didier Silveira, Castellano Filho; Juliana Barroso, Zimmermmann; Vânia Lúcia da, Silva; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e possíveis fatores predisponentes. MÉTODOS: Secreção vaginal das pacientes foi semeada em ágar Sabouraud e amostras de leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR [...] ). Dados demográficos, clínicos e fatores predisponentes foram obtidos por meio de questionário. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, Fischer e do ?², com auxílio do software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 69 pacientes, com idade entre 15 e 52 anos, predominando mulheres brancas (79,7%), com escolaridade de nível superior completo (58%), casadas (56,5%) e com vida sexual ativa (97,1%). Dentre elas, 34,8% eram gestantes, 7,2% diabéticas, 1,4% soropositivas para AIDS e 36,2% usavam anticoncepcional oral. Antibioticoterapia recente foi citada por 13% das pacientes, uso de antifúngico por 5,8% e de antitricomonas por 1,4%. Uso de corticosteroides foi relatado por 2,9% das participantes e de antineoplásicos, por 1,4%. Fluxo vaginal e prurido foram as principais queixas apresentadas, respectivamente, por 97,1 e 73,9% das pacientes, seguido de ardência (63,8%) e hiperemia (63,8%). Quando presente, o fluxo foi majoritariamente branco (88,1%) ou grumoso (86,6%). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela cultura em 55 (79,7%) pacientes, sendo 4 casos de infecção mista. A espécie prevalente foi C. albicans, seguida por um caso de C. glabrata, que foi encontrada em mais duas pacientes em associação com C. albicans. Nas outras duas infecções polimicrobianas, C. lusitaniae foi isolada com C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a positividade da cultura tenha sido alta e os dados clínicos de CVV sejam característicos, a sintomatologia não é patognomônica. C. albicans é a espécie prevalente, mas deve-se atentar para a ocorrência de outras espécies na etiologia de CVV, como a emergência de C. lusitaniae. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the etiology and the epidemiological profile of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and predisposing factors. METHODS: Vaginal secretions were streaked in Sabouraud agar and yeast samples were isolated and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Demographic an [...] d clinical data were obtained with a questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the ?² and Fischer tests were applied as needed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients aged from 15 to 52 years were evaluated. They were predominantly white (79.7%), with higher education (58%), married (56.5%) and sexually active (97.1%). Among them, 34.8% were pregnant, 7.2% diabetic, 1.4% seropositive for AIDS, and 36.2% were using oral contraceptives. Recent antibiotic therapy was mentioned by 13% of the patients, and antifungal or anti-trichomonas therapy was mentioned by 5.8 and 1.4% of the patients, respectively. Corticosteroid use was reported by 2.9% and antineoplastic by 1.4%. Vaginal discharge and itching were the main complaints (97.1 and 73.9%), followed by burning (63.8%) and erythema (63.8%). When present, the vaginal flow was predominantly white (88.1%) or lumpy (86.6%). The diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 55 (79.7%) patients, with mixed infections in 4 patients. The most prevalent species was C. albicans, followed by C. glabrata (one monoinfection and two mixed infections with C. albicans). C. lusitaniae and C. albicans were also identified in mixed infections (two patients). CONCLUSION: Despite the high culture positivity and clinical data characteristic of VVC, the symptoms were not pathognomonic. C. albicans is the most prevalent species, but other species are also involved in VVC etiology, such as the emergence of C. lusitaniae.

  5. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal / IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo José Victal de, Carvalho; Cristiane Martins, Cunha; Deise Aparecida de Oliveira, Silva; Mônica Camargo, Sopelete; Jane Eire, Urzedo; Tomaz Aquino, Moreira; Paula de Souza Abreu, Moraes; Ernesto Akio, Taketomi.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar níveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) específicos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidíase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sint [...] omas clínicos de candidíase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreção vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida não-albicans) e 12 mulheres controles assintomáticas (nove com cultura negativa). Amostras de soro e lavado vaginal foram obtidas para a detecção de anticorpos anti-C. albicans por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Pacientes sintomáticas com cultura positiva apresentaram níveis de IgA específicas significativamente maiores no lavado vaginal e menores no soro do que aquelas com cultura negativa. Níveis séricos de IgE específica foram extremamente baixos em relação ao lavado vaginal. Altos níveis de IgG total específica foram encontrados no soro e lavado vaginal em ambos os grupos, independente da presença do fungo. Níveis de IgG1 e IgG4 específicas foram significativamente maiores somente no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas e cultura positiva, com relação IgG1/IgG4 ligeiramente maior, indicando que a resposta de anticorpos IgG1 possa estar predominantemente envolvida na resolução da infecção fúngica. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicam resposta acentuada de IgA, IgG1 e IgG4 anti-C. albicans no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas com cultura positiva, sugerindo importante papel destes anticorpos na resposta imune local estimulada pela presença do fungo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) antibodies specific to C. albicans in serum and vaginal washes from women with or without vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to evaluate the role of these antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Thirty [...] women with clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (15 positive vaginal culture to C. albicans, 11 negative culture and 4 positive culture to non-C. albicans) and 12 asymptomatic control women were selected. Serum and vaginal wash samples were obtained for the detection of anti-C. albicans antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Symptomatic patients with positive culture showed significantly higher levels of specific IgA in vaginal washes and lower in serum than those with negative culture. Specific serum IgE levels were very low compared to vaginal IgE. High levels of total specific IgG were found in serum and vaginal washes in both groups, regardless the fungal presence or absence. Specific IgG1 e IgG4 levels were significantly higher only in vaginal washes from symptomatic patients with positive culture, with a slightly higher IgG1/IgG4 ratio, indicating that the IgG1 antibody response may be predominantly involved in the fungal clearance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a pronounced antibody response of IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 to C. albicans in vaginal washes in symptomatic patients with positive culture, suggesting a important role of these antibodies in the local immune response triggered by the presence of the fungus.

  6. Evaluation of the supply of antifungal medication for the treatment of vaginal thrush in the community pharmacy setting: a randomized controlled trial / Evaluación del suministro de medicación antifúngica para el tratamiento de la candidiasis vaginal en la farmacia comunitaria: ensayo controlado aleatorizado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carl R., Schneider; Lyndal, Emery; Raisa, Brostek; Rhonda M., Clifford.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La Sociedad Farmacéutica de Australia ha desarrollado una "guía" para el suministro de varios medicamentos sin prescripción al público general. Se ha publicado poca investigación evaluando el efecto de estas guías sobre la provisión de medicación en la práctica de la farmacia. Objetivo [...] s: Evaluar el suministro apropiado de antifúngicos sin receta para el tratamiento de candidiasis vaginal en farmacias comunitarias, con y sin guía. Un objetivo secundario fue describir la evaluación y el consejo proporcionado a los pacientes cuando solicitaban esta medicación. Métodos: Se realizó un ensayo controlado aleatorizado donde dos pacientes simulados condujeron visitas a 100 farmacias comunitarias aleatoriamente seleccionadas en una región metropolitana. Se comparó una solicitud de un producto con fluconazol (antifúngico oral que tiene guía) con una solicitud de un producto con clotrimazol (un antifúngico tópico sin guía). Los mismos datos de los pacientes fueron usados en ambas solicitudes. Las medidas de resultados en las visitas fueron la adecuación del suministro y la remisión al médico. Resultados: Un total de un 16% (n=16) de las visitas produjeron resultados apropiados; 10% (n=5) de fluconazol comparadas con el 22% (n=11) de clotrimazol (chi-square= 2,68, p=0,10). Hubo una diferencia significativa en el tipo de evaluación realizada por el personal de la farmacia entre las visitas del fluconazol y del clotrimazol. La solicitud de clotrimazol produjo un aumento significativo en la frecuencia de la evaluación de la causa de la solicitud (chi-square = 8,57, p=0,003), localización de los síntomas (chi-square= 8,27, p=0,004), e historia previa (chi-square = 5,09, p=0,02). Conclusiones: En general la práctica fue pobre, con la mayoría de las farmacias suministrando inadecuadamente la medicación antifúngica. Se requieren nuevas estrategias para mejorar la práctica actual de las farmacias comunitarias en el suministro de antifúngicos sin receta para la candidiasis vaginal. Abstract in english Background: The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia have developed "guidance" for the supply of several medicines available without prescription to the general public. Limited research has been published assessing the effect of these guidelines on the provision of medication within the practice of p [...] harmacy. Objectives: To assess appropriate supply of non-prescription antifungal medications for the treatment of vaginal thrush in community pharmacies, with and without a guideline. A secondary aim was to describe the assessment and counseling provided to patients when requesting this medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was undertaken whereby two simulated patients conducted visits to 100 randomly selected community pharmacies in a metropolitan region. A product-based request for fluconazole (an oral antifungal that has a guideline was compared to a product-based request for clotrimazole (a topical antifungal without a guideline). The same patient details were used for both requests. Outcome measures of the visits were the appropriateness of supply and referral to a medical practitioner. Results: Overall 16% (n=16) of visits resulted in an appropriate outcome; 10% (n=5) of fluconozaole requests compared with 22% (n=11) of clotrimazole requests (chi-square=2.68, p=0.10). There was a difference in the type of assessment performed by pharmacy staff between visits for fluconazole and clotrimazole. A request for clotrimazole resulted in a significant increase in frequency in regards to assessment of the reason for the request (chi-square=8.57, p=0.003), symptom location (chi-square=8.27, p=0.004), and prior history (chi-square=5.09, p=0.02). Conclusions: Overall practice was poor, with the majority of pharmacies inappropriately supplying antifungal medication. New strategies are required to improve current practice of community pharmacies for provision of non-prescription antifungals in the treatment of vaginal thrush.

  7. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil / Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto Fabio, Boatto; Maria Sayonara de, Moraes; Alexandre Paulo, Machado; Manoel João Batista Castelo, Girão; Olga, Fischman.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulh [...] eres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%), C. glabrata (20%), C. tropicalis (7,5%) e C. guilliermondii (2,5%) foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 [...] to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids), diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD) or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%), C. glabrata (20%), C. tropicalis (7,5%) and C. guilliermondii (2,5%) were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  8. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fabio Boatto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% e C. guilliermondii (2,5% foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal.PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids, diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% and C. guilliermondii (2,5% were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  9. Urinoma and arterial hypertension complicating neonatal renal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirinelli, D.; Schmit, P.; Biriotti, V.; Bensman, A.; Lupold, M.

    1987-02-01

    During antibiotic treatment for E.coli urinary tract infection and meningitis, a male new born developed a Candida albicans urinary tract infection with a mycotic kidney abcess and pelvicalyceal fungus balls diagnosed by US investigations and confirmed by radiology. Three weeks later a perirenal urinoma with arterial hypertension developed. After surgical treatment of the urinoma the arterial pressure returned to normal.

  10. Urinoma and arterial hypertension complicating neonatal renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During antibiotic treatment for E.coli urinary tract infection and meningitis, a male new born developed a Candida albicans urinary tract infection with a mycotic kidney abcess and pelvicalyceal fungus balls diagnosed by US investigations and confirmed by radiology. Three weeks later a perirenal urinoma with arterial hypertension developed. After surgical treatment of the urinoma the arterial pressure returned to normal. (orig.)

  11. Prevalence and Management of Non-albicans Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hetticarachchi, Nalin; Ashbee, Ruth; Wilson, Janet D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives It is thought that widespread use of “over-the-counter” azoles may increase the incidence of resistant Candida species such as C glabrata. Infections with species other than C. albicans frequently do not respond to standard azole treatments. Intravaginal nystatin is an option but is no longer available in the UK. In this paper, we review the prevalence of non-albicans candida over the past five years, and assess the efficacy of amphotericin and flucytosin...

  12. Treatment of chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis with posaconazole and ciclopiroxolamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Tietz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapy of chronic recurrent vulvovaginal can- didiasis (VVC caused by Candida glabrata is still rare in comparison to C. albicans infection, but therapy remains more difficult. Combination therapy with topical antifungals may improve therapy outcome, but still standard agents as fluconazole or itraconazole often fail. Posaconazole is a new systemic triazole with a wide antifungal spectrum including rare Candida species. Up to now, no clinical trials with posa- conazole in chronic recurrent VVC have been undertaken. Here, first results of the application of a new therapy regimen consisting of oral posaconazole in combination with topical ciclopiroxolamine are presented. 15 patients with chronic recurrent VVC caused by C. glabrata have been treated. 14 of these patients experienced successful therapy, clinical and mycological cure 30 days after begin of therapy has been observed. Long-term results are promising, as in 4 patients clinical and mycologic cure persists for more than 1 year up to now.

  13. Treatment of invasive candidiasis in the elderly: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flevari A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aikaterini Flevari,1 Maria Theodorakopoulou,1 Aristea Velegraki,2 Apostolos Armaganidis,1 George Dimopoulos1 1Department of Critical Care, University Hospital Attikon, Medical School, 2Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Fungi are major causes of infections among immunocompromised or hospitalized patients with serious underlying diseases and comorbidities. Candida species remain the most important cause of opportunistic infections worldwide, affecting predominantly patients over 65 years old, while they are considered to be the fourth most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The rapidly growing elderly population has specific physiological characteristics, which makes it susceptible to colonization and subsequent infection due to Candida species. Comorbidities and multidrug use should be taken into account any time the therapeutic regimen is under consideration. Different classes of antifungal drugs are available for the treatment of invasive fungal infections but echinocandins, apart from their activity against resistant strains (Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, seem to be safe, with limited adverse events and minimal drug–drug interactions in comparison to the other regimens. Therefore, these agents are strongly recommended when dealing with elderly patients suffering from an invasive form of Candida infection. Keywords: emerging fungal infections, elderly patients, treatment

  14. Treatment of invasive candidiasis in the elderly: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Flevari A; Theodorakopoulou M; Velegraki A; Armaganidis A; Dimopoulos G

    2013-01-01

    Aikaterini Flevari,1 Maria Theodorakopoulou,1 Aristea Velegraki,2 Apostolos Armaganidis,1 George Dimopoulos1 1Department of Critical Care, University Hospital Attikon, Medical School, 2Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Fungi are major causes of infections among immunocompromised or hospitalized patients with serious underlying diseases and comorbidities. Candida species remain the most important cause of opportunist...

  15. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Cota, Jason M.; Frei, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of ?-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key...

  16. Hyperplastic candidiasis - right-oral cavity, tonsil hypopharynx and larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Chourdia, Vijay

    2001-01-01

    A twenty five year old female, presented with burning in throat, Odynophagia and characteristic history of falling of granules, He had a verrucous type granular lesion right retromolar area., tonsil & its fossa, Lingual Surface Epiglottis & Hypoharyngeal wall, Right Aryepiglottic fold & ventricular fold Oedmatous and Scattered granules on both vocal folds & right Posterolateral border of tongue. Candida was detected in 10% Potassium Hydroxide, gram stained smear, prepared from tissue scrappin...

  17. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara María Duque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres embarazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%. Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes.During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivity to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%. All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  18. Indicación de nuevos antimicóticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva / Prescription of new antifungal drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moisés, Morejón García.

    1316-13-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micóticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminación en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresión propia del paciente en estado crítico, unido a la [...] aplicación de determinados procedimientos traumáticos -- catéteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilación, intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales, nutrición parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infección. Al respecto, se está empleando una gama de nuevos antimicóticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas) en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creación de protocolos terapéuticos puede disminuir el índice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones Abstract in english The invasive fungal infections have reached such an important dissemination in the intensive care units that today they constitute the fourth cause of acquired infections in this service, with a mortality of up to 50%. The immunodepression characteristic of the patient in critical state, together to [...] the application of certain traumatic procedures -- catheters, probes, endoscopies, ventilation, abdominal surgical interventions, parenteral nutrition, among other --, predispose to the infection. In this respect, a range of new antifungal drugs are being used (triazoles and equiniocandines) in the treatment of patients with invasive mycosis, on the base that the creation of therapeutic protocols can decrease the mortality index caused by these disorders

  19. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín / Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara María, Duque; Olga Lucía, Uribe; Andrés Felipe, Soto; Juan, Alarcón.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres emb [...] arazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%). Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes. Abstract in english During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivit [...] y to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%). All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  20. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  1. Is candidiasis the true cause of vulvovaginal irritation in women with diabetes mellitus?

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, B R; Logan, M N; Farrell, I; Barnett, A H

    1990-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is common in diabetic women and is often treated with antifungal agents on the assumption that the causative organism is Candida albicans. In a survey of 100 consecutive diabetic women attending a diabetes clinic 36 had complained to their general practitioner about vulvovaginal irritation during the past three years and 26 were treated with antifungal agents without a vaginal examination or swabs being taken. In a separate study 27 post-menopausal women with non-insulin depend...

  2. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Murillo, Neufeld; Marcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; Marcos Dornelas, Ribeiro; Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira, Amorim; Manuela da, Silva; Marcia dos Santos, Lazéra.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species ( [...] 45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Bioadhesive tablets containing cyclodextrin complex of itraconazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Erdal; Açma, Ay?e; Sinani, Genada; Aksu, Buket; Zloh, Mire; Mülaz?mo?lu, Lütfiye

    2014-08-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is commonly used in the treatment of Candida infections. It has a nephrotoxic effect and low bioavailability in patients who suffer from renal insufficiency, and its poor solubility in water makes ITR largely unavailable. Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are used to form inclusion complexes with drugs to improve their aqueous solubility and to reduce their side effects. In this study, ITR was complexed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CyD), methyl-?-cyclodextrin (Met-?-CyD) and sulphobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE7-?-CyD) to increase its water solubility and to reduce the side effects of the drug without decreasing antifungal activity. Complex formation between ITR and CyDs was evaluated using SEM, (1)H NMR and XRD studies. The antifungal activity of the complexes was analyzed on Candida albicans strains, and the susceptibility of the strains was found to be higher for the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD complex than for the complexes that were prepared with other CyDs. Vaginal bioadhesive sustained release tablet formulations were developed using the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD inclusion complex to increase the residence time of ITR in the vagina, thereby boosting the efficacy of the treatment. The swelling, matrix erosion and bioadhesion properties of formulations and the drug release rate of these tablets were analyzed, and the most therapeutically effective vaginal formulation was determined. PMID:24857873

  4. A 16-year-old boy with emphysematous gastritis and oesophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef, Daniel; Waran, Ariane; Vamvakiti, Ekaterini

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare and frequently fatal condition caused by invasion of gas-forming bacteria into the gastric wall. There have only been a handful of reported cases in the paediatric population, and none of these have evidence of candidal infection or mucormycosis. Patients typically present with abdominal pain, vomiting, malaena and haematemesis. Risk factors for emphysematous gastritis are those that interfere with the natural barriers to infection in the stomach. Diagnosis is made on the basis of typical appearances on abdominal CT. Treatment is generally conservative with surgery reserved for failed medical management or later complications. Antimicrobial cover should be broad with a low threshold for antifungals. It is important to look for predisposing factors for this condition, perhaps including an assessment of the patient's immunocompetency. We present a 16-year-old boy with global developmental delay who presented with this condition associated with candidal infection. PMID:25213783

  5. Successful treatment of fluconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis by a combination of fluconazole and terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, M A; Elewski, B

    1999-11-01

    Increasing incidence of resistance to conventional antifungal therapy has demanded that novel therapies be introduced. Recent in vitro studies have shown that combinations involving azoles and allylamines may be effective in inhibiting fluconazole-resistant fungi. In this report, we describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with white patches on her buccal mucosa, tongue, and palate with a bright erythematous erosive base. A fungal culture revealed Candida albicans. The patient failed to respond to the initially prescribed fluconazole therapy. Failure of therapy can be attributed to a developed resistance to fluconazole from the patient's intermittent use of this antifungal agent at varying dosages for the preceding 2 years due to a diagnosis of onychomycosis. In vitro testing of the culture from the patient showed elevated MICs of fluconazole, itraconzole, and terbinafine (MICs were 32, 0.5, and 64 microg/ml, respectively). Our goal was to combine therapies of fluconazole and terbinafine in an attempt to clear the fungal infection. Impressively, this combination resulted in the clearing of the clinical symptoms and the patient has successfully been asymptomatic for more than 12 months posttreatment. PMID:10548586

  6. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Basili, Dias; Márcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; José, Meirelles Filho; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 16 [...] 0 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed.

  7. Invasive candidiasis as a cause of sepsis in the critically ill patient

    OpenAIRE

    Delaloye, Julie; Calandra, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an increasingly frequent etiology of sepsis in critically ill patients causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Candida species are by far the predominant agent of fungal sepsis accounting for 10% to 15% of health-care associated infections, about 5% of all cases of severe sepsis and septic shock and are the fourth most common bloodstream isolates in the United States. One-third of all episodes of candidemia occur in the intensive care setting. Early diagnos...

  8. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intraarterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: Yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-Candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect within the pulmonary artery showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic Candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive. (orig.)conclusive. (orig.)

  9. Efficacy of continuous flucytosine infusion against Candida lusitaniae in experimental hematogenous murine candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Karyotakis, N C; Anaissie, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    Candida lusitaniae may cause life-threatening infections in the immunocompromised host and may be resistant to amphotericin B. Flucytosine (5-FC) is very active against C. lusitaniae isolates in vitro, while the in vivo response of murine infection to 5-FC is not as good. To evaluate the hypothesis that this discrepancy may be primarily due to the short half-life of 5-FC in mice, we compared the same total dosage of 75 mg of 5-FC per kg of body weight per day given by bolus injections or infu...

  10. Candidiasis: An unusual cause of persistent high-grade fever in mid-pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Jindal, Ratika; Singh, Anita; Goraya, SPS; Jindal, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Pyrexia can be extremely threatening during the normal progression of pregnancy if it occurs during the early phase of gestation as compared to the latter half of pregnancy. The degree of temperature rise, stage of pregnancy, and duration of the underlying illness are the important determinants for the outcome of pregnancy. Fever, resulting from the intrauterine infections, can be extremely hazardous for the newborn. Any history of fever (>24 h) during pregnancy mandate a complete clinical examination and thorough investigations. We report successful management of a rare case of prolonged high-grade pyrexia with unusual cause during mid-pregnancy. PMID:24404462

  11. Candidiasis: An unusual cause of persistent high-grade fever in mid-pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Sukhwinder Kaur; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Jindal, Ratika; Singh, Anita; Goraya, SPS; Jindal, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Pyrexia can be extremely threatening during the normal progression of pregnancy if it occurs during the early phase of gestation as compared to the latter half of pregnancy. The degree of temperature rise, stage of pregnancy, and duration of the underlying illness are the important determinants for the outcome of pregnancy. Fever, resulting from the intrauterine infections, can be extremely hazardous for the newborn. Any history of fever (>24 h) during pregnancy mandate a complete clinical ex...

  12. Immunodiagnosis of opportunistic mycoses: detection of fungal antigenemia by radioimmunoassays in systemic candidiasis and aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed radioimmunoassays to the Candida carbohydrate, mannan, and to an Aspergillus cell wall carbohydrate. They evaluate these radioimmunoassays with sera from rabbit models of disseminated mycoses, and further evaluate the radioimmunoassays for their diagnostic usefulness in a panel of patient sera. (Auth.)

  13. Successful Treatment of Fluconazole-Resistant Oropharyngeal Candidiasis by a Combination of Fluconazole and Terbinafine

    OpenAIRE

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Elewski, Boni

    1999-01-01

    Increasing incidence of resistance to conventional antifungal therapy has demanded that novel therapies be introduced. Recent in vitro studies have shown that combinations involving azoles and allylamines may be effective in inhibiting fluconazole-resistant fungi. In this report, we describe the case of a 39-year-old woman who presented with white patches on her buccal mucosa, tongue, and palate with a bright erythematous erosive base. A fungal culture revealed Can...

  14. Participation of neutrophils and delayed hypersensitivity in the clearance of experimental cutaneous candidiasis in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, B. D.; Sohnle, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of neutrophils and delayed hypersensitivity in the clearance of Candida albicans infections was investigated with the use of a model of the disease in inbred mice. Experimental infections were produced by rubbing C albicans onto the shaved skin of the flank without the use of occlusive dressings. After a single infection, delayed hypersensitivity to Candida developed in C57BL/6 mice, and the infection cleared more rapidly than in C3H/He mice, in which delayed hypersensitivity did ...

  15. Gene Polymorphisms in Pattern Recognition Receptors and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartinJaeger

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion. Genetic variation in TLR2 may significantly enhance susceptibility to RVVC by modulating host defense mechanisms against Candida. Additional studies are warranted to assess systematically the role of host genetic variation for susceptibility to RVVC.

  16. [Acute renal insufficiency during Candida albicans candidiasis in a 2-month old infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowicz, J; Koz?owski, M; Irga, N; Szalewska, M; Zurowska, A; Slusarczyk, M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper has been described the case of 2-month old infant with acute renal insufficiency caused by mechanical obstacle of fungal bezoars. Bilateral pyelostomy has been performed and fungal masses have been washed out from kidney pelvis. The applied treatment including administration of Fluconazole intravenously caused disappearance of acute renal insufficiency. In this paper authors described pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, and treatment of urinary tract fungal infection. PMID:9190641

  17. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García Heredia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se estudiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%. Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas.Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%. The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.

  18. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos / Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., García Heredia; S. D., García; E. F., Copolillo; M., Cora Eliseth; A. D., Barata; C. A., Vay; R. A., de Torres; N., Tiraboschi; A. M. R., Famiglietti.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se est [...] udiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%). Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas. Abstract in english Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between Decemb [...] er 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%). The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.

  19. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intra-arterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M.; Schumacher, R.; Hagel, K.J.; Hering, F.

    1983-10-01

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect, within the pulmonary artery, showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive.

  20. Fungal Iron Availability during Deep Seated Candidiasis Is Defined by a Complex Interplay Involving Systemic and Local Events

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Potrykus; David Stead; Maccallum, Donna M.; Urgast, Dagmar S.; Andrea Raab; Nico van Rooijen; Xf Rg Feldmann, J.; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional immunity – the withholding of nutrients by the host – has long been recognised as an important factor that shapes bacterial-host interactions. However, the dynamics of nutrient availability within local host niches during fungal infection are poorly defined. We have combined laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS), MALDI imaging and immunohistochemistry with microtranscriptomics to examine iron homeostasis in the host and pathogen in the murine ...

  1. Effect of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream and Miconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream Treatments in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lappin, Myra A.; Brooker, Doris C.; Francisco, Carol A; Dorfman, Joan

    1996-01-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, invesgtigator-blind, parallel study, 398 patients were dispensed topical butoconazole nitrate 2% cream for 3 days (n = 199) or miconazole nitrate 2% cream for 7 days (n = 199) for vaginal use. Efficacy analyses included 254 patients with culture-confirmed Candida (119 butoconazole and 135 miconazole users). Of the 398 patients issued study medication, 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, safety analyses included 389 patients (197 butoconazole and 192 ...

  2. Comparison of ketoconazole, Bay N7133, and Bay L9139 in the treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J. D.; Muller, G.

    1983-01-01

    The efficacies of ketoconazole and two new imidazole preparations, Bay N7133 and Bay L9139, were compared in a rat model of experimental candida vaginitis. With a dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg by gavage for 5 days, the cure rate for ketoconazole was 96% as compared with rates of 23 and 29% for Bay N7133 and Bay L9139, respectively (P less than 0.001). Follow-up vaginal cultures at 30 days revealed a relapse in only 1 of 27 rats treated with ketoconazole. Our subsequent experiment in which ketoco...

  3. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Kristen R; Morris Jonathan M; Roberts Christine L; Giles Warwick B; Simpson Judy M; Kotsiou George; Bowen Jennifer R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study design, we aim to evaluate w...

  4. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo.

  5. Role of secreted aspartyl proteases in Candida albicans virulence, host immune response and immunoprotection in murine disseminated candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Isabel Alexandra Duarte Ferreira Lopes

    2012-01-01

    A levedura polimórfica Candida albicans é um importante patógeno oportunista em humanos, sendo o mais frequente agente causador de infeções fúngicas invasivas. A integridade das barreiras físicas do hospedeiro, bem como do seu sistema imunitário, são fatores cruciais no controlo de infeções por leveduras do género Candida. Todavia, a grande adaptabilidade de C. albicans a diferentes nichos do hospedeiro é também um fator determinante. As interações fungo-hospede...

  6. Fluconazole Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing for Prevention and Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis in Children Supported with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Kevin M; Gonzalez, Daniel; Benjamin, Daniel K; Brouwer, Kim L R; Wade, Kelly C; Capparelli, Edmund; Barrett, Jeffrey; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Candida infections are a leading cause of infectious disease-related death in children supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The ECMO circuit can alter drug pharmacokinetics (PK); thus, standard fluconazole dosing may result in suboptimal drug exposures. The objective of our study was to determine the PK of fluconazole in children on ECMO. Forty children with 367 PK samples were included in the analysis. The PK data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM). A one-compartment model best described the data. Weight was included in the base model for clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V). The final model included the effect of serum creatinine (SCR) level on CL and the effect of ECMO on V as follows: CL (in liters per hour) = 0.019 × weight × (SCR/0.4)(-0.29) × exp(?CL) and V (in liters) = 0.93 × weight × 1.4(ECMO) × exp(?V). The fluconazole V was increased in children supported by ECMO. Consequently, children on ECMO require a higher fluconazole loading dose for prophylaxis (12 mg/kg of body weight) and treatment (35 mg/kg) paired with standard maintenance doses to achieve exposures similar to those of children not on ECMO. PMID:25896706

  7. Use of Antifungal Saponin SC-2 of Solanum Chrysotrichum for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: In Vitro Studies and Clinical Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-Arellano, Armando; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aida V; Alejandro ZAMILPA; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Tortoriello, Jaime; Martínez-Rivera, M Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Saponin SC-2 from Solanum chrysotrichum showed antifungal activity, demonstrated in vitro, which inhibited the growth of dermatophytes, and in vivo, to be effective in the treatment against tinea pedis and pityriasis capitis. Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of saponin SC-2 on Candida albicans and other Candida species, fluconazole and ketoconazole resistaent strains was demostrated. SC-2-associated ultrastructural alterations in several Candida species were observed. An exploratory clinic...

  8. Antifungal Susceptibility of 205 Candida spp. Isolated Primarily during Invasive Candidiasis and Comparison of the Vitek 2 System with the CLSI Broth Microdilution and Etest Methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, N.; Dehandschoewercker, L.; Bertout, S.; Bousquet, P.-J.; Rispail, P.; Lachaud, L.

    2009-01-01

    Infections due to Candida spp. are frequent, particularly in immunocompromised and intensive care unit patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests are now required to optimize antifungal treatment given the emergence of acquired antifungal resistance in some Candida species. An antifungal susceptibility automated method, the Vitek 2 system (VK2), was evaluated. VK2 was compared to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method and the Etest procedure. For this purpose, 205 clinical isolates of C...

  9. Therapeutic use of a cationic antimicrobial peptide from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana in the control of experimental candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi Diego C; Muñoz Julian E; Carvalho Danielle D; Belmonte Rodrigo; Faintuch Bluma; Borelli Primavera; Miranda Antonio; Taborda Carlos P; Daffre Sirlei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Antimicrobial peptides are present in animals, plants and microorganisms and play a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Gomesin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide purified from haemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. It has a broad-spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and tumour cells. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast that is part of the human microbiota. However, in immunocompromised patients, this fungus may cause skin, muco...

  10. Human Domain Antibodies against Virulence Traits of Candida albicans Inhibit Fungus Adherence to Vaginal Epithelium and Protect against Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardis, Flavia; Liu, Haiqun; O'Mahony, Rachel; La Valle, Roberto; Bartollino, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Grant, Steven; Brewis, Neil; Tomlinson, Ian; Basset, Christelle; Holton, John; Roitt, Ivan M.; Cassone, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Antibody variable domains (domain antibodies [DAbs]) are genetically engineered antibody fragments that include individual heavy-chain (VH) or k-chain (Vk) variable domains and lack the Fc region. Human DAbs against the 65-kDa mannoprotein (MP65) or the secretory aspartyl proteinase (SAP)–2 of Candida albicans (monospecific DAbs) or against both fungal antigens (heterodimeric, bispecific DAbs) were generated from phage expression libraries. Both monospecific and bispecific DAbs inhibited fu...

  11. Application of a diagnostic-therapeutic procedure using implant-supported dental prosthesis as a preventive therapy for candidiasis of upper gastrointestinal tract in complete denture users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, S; Loster, B W; Macura, A B; Wisniewska, G; Sliwowski, Z; Mazurkiewicz-Janik, M; Konturek, S J

    2008-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that the use of acrylic based prosthesis in edentulous patients had a direct impact on the increased incidence of oral mycosis and further episodes of mycosis in the digestive tract. This dependency is associated with formation of a space between the surface of the prostheses and adhering mucosal membrane, where a specific micro environment is being formed, which - as stated - creates a superior breeding ground mainly for microorganisms of the genus Candida. PMID:19075323

  12. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiana Aparecida Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CV...

  13. Disease: H01109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01109 Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC); Familial candidiasis (CANDF) Chronic mucocutaneo ... Bustamante J, Wright JF, Liu L, Lim HK, Migaud M, Israel ... L, Chrabieh M, Audry M, Gumbleton M, Toulon A, Bod ...

  14. Atividade antifúngica de produtos naturais indicados por raizeiros para tratamento de candidíase oral / Antifungal activity of natural products indicated by herb sellers (raizeiros) for the treatment of oral candidiasis / Actividad antifúngica de productos naturales indicados por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) para el tratamiento de la candidiasis oral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Maria, Freire Abílio; Bruno, da Silva Mesquita; Evelyn, Darly da Silva; Fabíola, Vilar de Queiroz Carvalho; Luciana Lucena, Aranha de Macêdo; Ricardo, Dias de Castro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente resistência das leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida frente aos antifúngicos sintéticos, atualmente disponíveis no comércio, impulsiona a busca por novos compostos antifúngicos de origem vegetal. Assim, o propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos d [...] ecoctos de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) e Punica granatum Linn (romã), vendidos por raizeiros em três feiras livres distintas (A, B e C), frente a três espécies de microorganismos do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis e C. krusei). O ensaio para determinação da atividade antifúngica dos produtos naturais foi realizado pelo método da difusão em meio sólido, em triplicata, onde discos de papel de filtro estéreis embebidos em 50 µL dos extratos foram colocados sobre o meio de cultura. Os resultados foram avaliados a partir da mensuração dos diâmetros dos halos de inibição de crescimento fúngico em milímetros (mm), sendo considerada a moda dos valores obtidos. Foi observada atividade antifúngica de S. terebenthifolius Raddi e de C. zeylanicum Breym sobre C. krusei. No entanto, diferenças foram identificadas entre os produtos obtidos nos diferentes locais. O decocto de Punica granatum Linn apresentou atividade antifúngica sobre as três cepas fúngicas utilizadas no estudo. Também foram verificadas diferenças entres os produtos obtidos nas feiras livres, sendo que apenas as amostras de Punica granatum Linn provenientes da feira A foram capazes de inibir o crescimento fúngico de todas as cepas analisadas. Desta forma, conclui-se que todos os produtos avaliados apresentam atividade antifúngica, havendo diferenças relacionadas aos locais de sua obtenção e sensibilidade das cepas ensaiadas. Abstract in spanish La resistencia cada vez mayor de levaduras del género candida a los antifúngicos sintéticos disponibles en la actualidad ha llevado a la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos antifúngicos de origen vegetal. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica in vitro de decocciones de Schinus [...] terebenthifolius Raddi (pimentero brasileño),Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) y Punica granatum Linn (granada) sobre tres especies del género Candida (C. albicans, C . tropicalis y C. krusei). Este material vegetal fue vendido por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) en tres ferias callejeras distintas (A, B y C). El ensayo para determinar la actividad antifúngica de los productos se realizó por triplicado. Se empleó el método de difusión en medio sólido, en el que discos de papel de filtro estériles fueron empapados en 50 µL de los extractos y colocados en medio de cultivo. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante la medición de los diámetros de los halos de inhibición del crecimiento fúngico, en milímetros, y se consideró la moda de los valores encontrados. Se observó actividad antifúngica de S. terebinthifolius Raddi y C. zeylanicum Breym contra C. krusei, pero fueron identificadas diferencias entre los productos obtenidos en diferentes lugares. La decocción de Punica granatum Linn presentó actividad antifúngica sobre las tres levaduras en estudio. Además, se encontraron diferencias entre los productos adquiridos en las ferias callejeras, pero sólo las muestras de Punica granatum Linn de la feria A fueron capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de hongos de todas las levaduras analizadas. Todos los productos evaluados mostraron actividad antifúngica, pero hubo diferencias en función de la localidad donde los productos fueron obtenidos y de la sensibilidad a las cepas ensayadas. Abstract in english An increasing resistance of Candida yeasts to the synthetic antifungals currently available has driven the search for new plant-derived antifungal compounds. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of decoctions from Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Brazi [...] lian pepper tree), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (cinnamon) and Punica granatum Linn (pom

  15. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis; Interets de la TEP au 18-FDG en pathologie infectieuse: a propos d'un cas de candidose systemique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avet, J.; Granjon, D.; Prevot, N.; Isnardi, V.; Dubois, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Stephan, J.L.; Berger, C. [service de pediatrie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France)

    2009-05-15

    We report the interest of the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  16. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo Lopes, Colombo; Thaís, Guimarães; Luis Fernando Aranha, Camargo; Rosana, Richtmann; Flavio de, Queiroz-Telles; Mauro José Costa, Salles; Clóvis Arns da, Cunha; Maria Aparecida Shikanai, Yasuda; Maria Luiza, Moretti; Marcio, Nucci.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidenc [...] e of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

  17. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Lopes Colombo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidence of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

  18. Quantitation of Candida albicans Ergosterol Content Improves the Correlation between In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Test Results and In Vivo Outcome after Fluconazole Treatment in a Murine Model of Invasive Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A.; Warnock, David W.; Morrison, Christine J.

    2000-01-01

    MIC end point determination for the most commonly prescribed azole antifungal drug, fluconazole, can be complicated by “trailing” growth of the organism during susceptibility testing by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards approved M27-A broth macrodilution method and its modified broth microdilution format. To address this problem, we previously developed the sterol quantitation method (SQM) for in vitro determination of fluconazole susceptibility, which measures cellular...

  19. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Atefe Namaki; Zahra Yekta; Kambiz Diba; Farzaneh Broomand; Fatemeh Bahadori

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. "nMaterials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to ph...

  20. Esophageal strictures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal stricture is a rare complication of paediatric cancer treatment that usually occurs after esophageal exposure to radiotherapy. We describe 4 cases of esophageal stricture during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients presented with refractory vomiting and were diagnosed with radiologic contrast studies. None of the patients had received radiotherapy. Esophageal candidiasis was seen in 2 patients but the remaining 2 patients had earlier systemic candidiasis. High-dose dexamethasone may predispose these children to both esophageal candidiasis and peptic esophagitis. The etiology of esophageal strictures during treatment for acute leukemia is likely to be multifactorial but systemic candidiasis may play a significant role.

  1. The Development of Mouse APECED Models Provides New Insight into the Role of AIRE in Immune Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    ANSARI, Aftab A.; Pavel Bostik; Pereira, Lara E

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy is a rare recessive autoimmune disorder caused by a defect in a single gene called AIRE (autoimmune regulator). Characteristics of this disease include a variable combination of autoimmune endocrine tissue destruction, mucocutaneous candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophies. The development of Aire-knockout mice has provided an invaluable model for the study of this dis...

  2. [In vitro antimicrobial, antiadherent and antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants on oral biofilm microorganisms and strains of the genus Candida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Pollianna Muniz; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira; Pereira, Maria do Socorro Vieira

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiadherent activity of aroeira-do-sertão, mallow and guava tree on oral biofilm microorganisms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro. The extracts were shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria of the oral biofilm and fungi of oral candidiasis, thus suggesting that these extracts can be used as alternative means of dental therapy. PMID:19448949

  3. Disease: H00363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00363 Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection with Candida species, predominantly with Ca ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) PMID:21350122 (gene) ...

  4. A novel renal epithelial cell in vitro assay to assess Candida albicans virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Edina K; MacCallum, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, can cause severe systemic infections in susceptible patient groups. Systemic candidiasis is mainly studied in the mouse intravenous challenge model, where progressive infection correlates with increased early renal chemokine levels.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by three specific features: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. Affected individuals typically have at least two of ... cramping; weakness; and fatigue. The third major feature, Addison disease, results from a malfunction of the small hormone- ...

  6. Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse

    OpenAIRE

    Rylander, E.; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  7. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment is simple and painless. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection, also known as candidiasis ( ... you can be treated appropriately. Do Guys Get Yeast Infections? Guys can get an infection of the ...

  8. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  9. Annular plaques on the tongue: what is your diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Tuba Çeleb?; B?laç, Cemal; B?laç, Dilek Bayraktar; Ecem??, Talat; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel

    2011-11-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient was diagnosed with candidiasis. After systemic and topical antifungal therapy, clinical improvement was observed. With this case, the clinical forms of oral candidiasis were discussed, and it was suggested that the clinical presentation of mucosal candidiasis may vary according to the stage of infection and individual immunity. PMID:22148032

  10. Cerebral candiasis: CT studies in a case of brain abscess and granuloma due to candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, A.; Wiethoelter, H.

    1982-08-01

    The CT features of a young female patient suffering from systemic candidiasis with intracerebral manifestation are reported. The definite diagnosis was made by spinal fluid cultures. The diffuse granulomatous lesions as well as an abscess formation remitted after specific therapy with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B for now more than 1 year. In contrast to reports of other cases with mycosis of the central nervous system this case of candidiasis shows lesions of primarily increased attenuation coefficients.

  11. Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Fries, Bettina C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: All humans are colonized with Candida species, mostly Candida albicans, yet some develop diseases due to Candida, among which genitourinary manifestations are extremely common. The forms of genitourinary candidiasis are distinct from each other and affect different populations. While vulvovaginal candidiasis affects mostly healthy women, candiduria occurs typically in elderly, hospitalized, or immunocompromised patients and in neonates. Despite its high incidence and clinical relevan...

  12. Selection of orlistat as a potential inhibitor for lipase from Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Khedidja, Benarous; Abderrahman, Linani

    2011-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species manifest in a number of diseases, including candidemia, vulvovaginal candidiasis, endocarditis, and peritonitis. Candida species have been reported to possess lipolytic activity due to the secretion of lipolytic enzymes such as esterases, lipases and phospholipases. Extra-cellular hydrolytic enzymes seem to play an important role in Candida overgrowth. Candidiasis is commonly treated with antimycotics such as clotrimazole and nystatin. The anti...

  13. Colonization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Outpatients in Taiwan with Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chien-Ching; Yang, Yun-Liang; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; McDonald, L Clifford; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Cheng, Hsiao-Hsu; Ho, Yong An; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    To understand the Candida colonization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected outpatients in Taiwan, we have conducted a prospective cohort study of Candida colonization and its risk factors at the National Taiwan University Hospital from 1999 to 2002. More than 50% of the patients were colonized with Candida species, and 12% developed symptomatic candidiasis. Patients colonized with fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species had a higher prevalence of candidiasis than those col...

  14. Candida Arthritis after Arthroscopic Arthroplasty in a Patient without Predisposing Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Oh, Jae-Min; Oh, Seong-Rheol; Yoo, Minwook; Lee, Myeung-Su

    2010-01-01

    Because candidiasis is usually associated with immunosuppression, candida arthritis in an immunocompetent patient is rare. The symptoms of candidiasis are similar to bacterial infections, tuberculosis, and autoimmune diseases. In our patient with no predisposing factors, candida arthritis was initially excluded because the probability of occurrence was low. The patient had no leukocytosis, the acid-fast bacteria (AFB) stain was negative, and the autoimmune antibody screen was negative. After ...

  15. Association of genotypes with infection types and antifungal susceptibilities in Candida albicans as revealed by recent molecular typing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Feng-yan

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism in the mucosa of healthy individuals, but is also the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. It causes from benign infections such as oral and vaginal candidiasis to fatal, systematic diseases in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. In addition to improved therapy, the rapid and accurate identification of the disease-causing strains is crucial for diagnosis, clinical treatment and epidemiological studies of candidiasis. A va...

  16. Antifungal activity of chemotype essential oils from rosemary against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Matsuzaki; Toshiyuki Tsujisawa; Tatsuji Nishihara; Mari Nakamura; Yasuaki Kakinoki

    2013-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is caused by Candida albicans. The symptoms including pain in the oral cavity affect our eating function. While some antifungal agents are commonly used for the treatment of candidiasis, occasional consumption of the effective dose cannot be tolerated due to side effects. There is also a possibility of induction of antifungal resistance, thus the development of replacement agents has been awaited. We aim to explore antimicrobial activities of essential oils. We evaluated the...

  17. Renal Failure Associated with APECED and Terminal 4q Deletion: Evidence of Autoimmune Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Iqbal, M.; Hamad Al-Mojalli; Anne Puel; Jean-Laurent Casanova; Albandary Al-Bakheet; Hindi Al-Hindi; Shelley Kennedy; Namik Kaya; Hadeel Al-Manea; Hamad Al-Zaidan; Ibrahim Bin Hussain; Saleh Al-Muhsen; Mohammed Al-Owain

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In a...

  18. Clinico-Mycological Study Of Superficial Fungal Infection In Children In An Urban Clinic In Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Barbhuiya Joyashree Nath; Das Sankar Kumar; Ghosh Arghyaprasun; Dey Sunil Kumar; Lahiri Aparna

    2002-01-01

    Seventy children up to the age of 12 years who were suffering from dermatophytosis, candidiasis or pityriasis versicolor were studied clinically and mycologically. Dermatophytosis was the major group, which constituted 52.86% of children. It was followed by candidiasis that constituted 40% of children and pityriasis versicolor was the least, being 7.14% of children. Amongst the clinical types of dermatophytosis, tinea capitis was the commonest (32.43%) followed by ...

  19. Biofilm Formation by Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, Gordon; Vande Walle, Kacy; Wickes, Brian L.; López-Ribot, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast closely related to Candida albicans that has been recently implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation, with cells in biofilms displaying properties dramatically different from free-living cells grown under normal laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the development of in vitro models of C. dubliniensis biofilms on the surf...

  20. Antifungal Susceptibilities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginitis and Epidemiology of Recurrent Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Sandra S; Galask, Rudolph P.; Messer, Shawn A.; Hollis, Richard J.; Diekema, Daniel J; Michael A. Pfaller

    2005-01-01

    There are limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing vulvovaginal candidiasis, since cultures are rarely performed. Susceptibility testing was performed on vaginal yeast isolates collected from January 1998 to March 2001 from 429 patients with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis. The charts of 84 patients with multiple positive cultures were reviewed. The 593 yeast isolates were Candida albicans (n = 420), Candida glabrata (n = 112), Candida parapsilosis (n = 30), Ca...

  1. ETHYL CELLULOSE BASED MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ANTI-FUNGAL VAGINAL GELS OF TIOCONAZOLE

    OpenAIRE

    ramesh shankarrao kalkotwar

    2013-01-01

    Valvovaginal Candidiasis is a fungal infection of the vagina and causes are itching, burning, soreness, dysparunia and phenohypical signs such as vaginal and vulvar erythema and edema caused by various species of the genus Candida. Tioconazole is an antifungal medication of the Imidazole class used to treat infections caused by a fungus or yeast. Negative aspects associated with oral systemic antifungal therapy for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis include its limited success rate, toxicity, contraind...

  2. Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans Requires the Five Isoforms of Protein Mannosyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Schaller, Martin; Corbucci, Cristina; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Prill, Stephan K. -h; Giasson, Luc; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2005-01-01

    The PMT gene family in Candida albicans encodes five isoforms of protein mannosyltransferases (Pmt proteins Pmt1p, Pmt2p, Pmt4p, Pmt5p, and Pmt6p) that initiate O mannosylation of secretory proteins. We compared virulence characteristics of pmt mutants in two complex, three-dimensional models of localized candidiasis, using reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM); in addition, mutants were tested in a mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis ...

  3. Echinocandins: A ray of hope in antifungal drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Neeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Amphotericin B and azole antifungals have been the mainstay of antifungal therapy so far. The high incidence of infusion related toxicity and nephrotoxicity with amphotericin B and the emergence of fluconazole resistant strains of Candida glabrata egged on the search for alternatives. Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of ? (1, 3-D- glucan synthase, a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Caspofungin was the first drug in this class to be approved. It is indicated for esophageal candidiasis, candidemia, invasive candidiasis, empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia and invasive aspergillosis. Response rates are comparable to those of amphotericin B and fluconazole. Micafungin is presently approved for esophageal candidiasis, for prophylaxis of candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT and in disseminated candidiasis and candidemia. The currently approved indications for anidulafungin are esophageal candidiasis, candidemia and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of infusion related adverse effects and nephrotoxicity is much lower than with amphotericin B. The main adverse effect is hepatotoxicity and derangement of serum transaminases. Liver function may need to be monitored. They are, however, safer in renal impairment. Even though a better pharmacoeconomical choice than amphotericin B, the higher cost of these drugs in comparison to azole antifungals is likely to limit their use to azole resistant cases of candidial infections and as salvage therapy in invasive aspergillosis rather than as first line drugs.

  4. Preventing invasive candida infections. Where could we do better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggimann, Philippe; Que, Yok-Ai; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Pagani, Jean-Luc

    2015-04-01

    Invasive candidiasis is associated with high mortality rates, ranging from 35% to 60%, in the range reported for septic shock. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis differ according to the patient's immune status; the majority of cases in immunocompromised hosts are candidaemia, whereas non-candidaemic systemic candidiasis accounts for the majority of cases in critically ill patients. In contrast to candidaemia, non-candidaemic systemic candidiasis is difficult to prove, especially in critically ill patients. Up to 80% of these patients are colonized, but only 5-30% develop invasive infection. The differentiation of colonization and proven infection is challenging, and evolution from the former to the latter requires seven to 10 days. This continuum from colonization of mucosal surfaces to local invasion and then invasive infection makes it difficult to identify those critically ill patients likely to benefit most from antifungal prophylaxis or early empirical antifungal treatment. Early empirical treatment of non-candidaemic systemic candidiasis currently relies on the positive predictive value of risk assessment strategies, such as the colonization index, candida score, and predictive rules based on combinations of risk factors such as candida colonization, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and abdominal surgery. Although guidelines recently scored these strategies as being supported by limited evidence, they are widely used at bedside and have substantially decreased the incidence of invasive candidiasis. PMID:25592726

  5. Anidulafungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sabol

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Sabol, Tawanda GumboUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: More antifungal agents have reached clinical use in the past two decades than at any other time. The echinocandins have been a welcome addition to this group, with the latest being anidulafungin. There are several lines of evidence to support anidulafungin’s role as primary therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic patients, and as alternative therapy to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis with azole intolerance or triazole-resistant Candida. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic studies in animals have demonstrated superior efficacy, defined as maximal microbial kill, when compared to fluconazole, regardless of the fluconazole susceptibility of the Candida species. These studies, as well as dose-effect studies in patients, also support the currently recommended dose of anidulafungin. A well designed randomized controlled trial has demonstrated anidulafungin’s efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis. In this paper, we argue that anidulafungin may be preferable to fluconazole for the treatment of candidemia. However, as of yet, the difference between anidulafungin and the other two licensed echinocandins as first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis is unclear. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence as of yet to support first-line use of anidulafungin in patients with neutropenia or aspergillosis.Keywords: anidulafungin, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, efficacy, candidiasis

  6. [Dermatomycosis--classification, etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi

    2008-12-01

    Dermatomycoses are common diseases in dermatological clinics. An epidemiological survey in Japan revealed that dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneous fungal infection (89.1%), followed by candidiasis (8.4%) and the Malassezia infections(2.4%). Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent, then in decreasing order, tinea unguium, tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea manuum, and tinea capitis including kerion. Among all dermatophyte infections, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated. Among cutaneous candidiasis, intertrigo was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosio interdigitalis and diaper candidiasis. Dermatomycoses may provoke several inflammatory reactions, but the organisms causing them are located in the keratin layer of the epidermis. Therefore, topical application is the first line therapy for the most dermatomycoses. PMID:19069093

  7. Fungal infections today: size of the problem and focus on the initial cost of therapy with echinocandin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Venditti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three candins had been approved for the treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC: caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Different drugs are associated with different needs for dose adjustment which might affect the total cost. A Spanish economic analysis estimated the budget impact of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin in the treatment of 100 patients with invasive candidiasis from the perspective of the Spanish hospital pharmacy setting. It has demonstrated that patients treated with anidulafungin did not required dose adjustment unlike caspofungin and micafungin, and the use of anidulafungin in the treatment of adult non-neutropenic patients with invasive candidiasis is a cost saving treatment option, from the pharmacy department perspective in Spain. The aim of this study was to estimate the initial costs of therapy with caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin in the perspective of the Italian hospital setting.

  8. Recalcitrant hypocalcaemia in autoimmune enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Myfanwy; Fairchild, Jan; Moore, David; Moore, Lynette; Henning, Paul; Tham, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome is a monogenic disorder associated with autoimmune destruction of both endocrine and nonendocrine tissues. The classic triad includes candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. Up to 25% of patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which can have an impact on the management of other aspects of the disease. The management of the case discussed was challenging because of the complex interplay between the manifestations and treatment of his hypoparathyroidism, Addison disease, and autoimmune enteropathy. Attempts at management of hypocalcemia were largely unsuccessful until the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune enteropathy. This case supports early consideration of immunosuppression in this condition. PMID:25404718

  9. Clinico-Mycological Study Of Superficial Fungal Infection In Children In An Urban Clinic In Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbhuiya Joyashree Nath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy children up to the age of 12 years who were suffering from dermatophytosis, candidiasis or pityriasis versicolor were studied clinically and mycologically. Dermatophytosis was the major group, which constituted 52.86% of children. It was followed by candidiasis that constituted 40% of children and pityriasis versicolor was the least, being 7.14% of children. Amongst the clinical types of dermatophytosis, tinea capitis was the commonest (32.43% followed by tinea corporis (27.03%. Candidial intertrigo was the commonest (42.86% from of candidiasis, followed by diaper dermatitis (32.14%. Most susceptible age group was school going children. Peak incidence of infection was during the months of June to September. T rubrum was the commonest dermatophyte isolated in culture. C. albicans was the most common species of candida isolated in culture.

  10. VULVOVAGINITIS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: ESTUDIO ETIOLOGICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Angélica, Martínez T.; Alberto, Barría P.; Ruth, Meneses; Pamela, Oyarzún; Jorge, Sandoval.

    Full Text Available La infección vulvovaginal (IVV) es una causa frecuente de consulta ginecológica en adolescentes siendo Vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y trichomoniasis sus etiologías más frecuentes. Estudios anteriores en adolescentes chilenas arrojan cifras disímiles respecto a la contribución de cada una de las [...] etiologías anteriores. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar las etiologías más frecuentes de IVV en adolescentes sintomáticas que consultaron en un Centro de atención adolescente del área Norte de Santiago. Se tomaron muestras de flujo vaginal de 100 adolescentes las que fueron analizadas mediante Gram y cultivo. Noventa y una pacientes tenían vida sexual activa y 9 eran vírgenes. Se detectó 62% de vulvovaginitis, correspondiendo 31% a vaginosis bacteriana (VB), 24% a candidiasis, 2% a trichomoniasis y 5% etiología mixta (VB asociado candidiasis). Se encontró IVV en ambos grupos de adolescentes. Al analizar los resultados por edad, se observó un aumento en la incidencia de vulvovaginitis en adolescentes de mayor edad Abstract in english Infectious Vulvovaginitis is a common pathology of the genital tract in female adolescents; Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis are the most common etiologies. In Chile, a few studies have been done about Vulvovaginitis in the adolescent patient, the results have been variable w [...] ith respect to different etiologies. Our objective was to identify the most common causes of infectious vulvovaginitis (IVV), in symptomatic girls that present to adolescent clinics in North Santiago (Chile). Vulvovaginal discharge samples were taken from 100 patients, and were analyzed using Gram staining techniques and microbiological cultures. Ninety one patients had sexual intercourse at least once; nine were virgins. IVV was found in both groups. Infectious vulvovaginitis was detected in 62% of the samples. The etiologies were: 31% bacterial vaginosis, 24% candidiasis, 2% trichomoniasis, and in 5% the result was mixed etiology (Bv and candidiasis). IVV was more frequent in older than younger girls

  11. VULVOVAGINITIS EN LA ADOLESCENCIA: ESTUDIO ETIOLOGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Martínez T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La infección vulvovaginal (IVV es una causa frecuente de consulta ginecológica en adolescentes siendo Vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y trichomoniasis sus etiologías más frecuentes. Estudios anteriores en adolescentes chilenas arrojan cifras disímiles respecto a la contribución de cada una de las etiologías anteriores. Nuestro objetivo fue identificar las etiologías más frecuentes de IVV en adolescentes sintomáticas que consultaron en un Centro de atención adolescente del área Norte de Santiago. Se tomaron muestras de flujo vaginal de 100 adolescentes las que fueron analizadas mediante Gram y cultivo. Noventa y una pacientes tenían vida sexual activa y 9 eran vírgenes. Se detectó 62% de vulvovaginitis, correspondiendo 31% a vaginosis bacteriana (VB, 24% a candidiasis, 2% a trichomoniasis y 5% etiología mixta (VB asociado candidiasis. Se encontró IVV en ambos grupos de adolescentes. Al analizar los resultados por edad, se observó un aumento en la incidencia de vulvovaginitis en adolescentes de mayor edadInfectious Vulvovaginitis is a common pathology of the genital tract in female adolescents; Bacterial Vaginosis (BV, Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis are the most common etiologies. In Chile, a few studies have been done about Vulvovaginitis in the adolescent patient, the results have been variable with respect to different etiologies. Our objective was to identify the most common causes of infectious vulvovaginitis (IVV, in symptomatic girls that present to adolescent clinics in North Santiago (Chile. Vulvovaginal discharge samples were taken from 100 patients, and were analyzed using Gram staining techniques and microbiological cultures. Ninety one patients had sexual intercourse at least once; nine were virgins. IVV was found in both groups. Infectious vulvovaginitis was detected in 62% of the samples. The etiologies were: 31% bacterial vaginosis, 24% candidiasis, 2% trichomoniasis, and in 5% the result was mixed etiology (Bv and candidiasis. IVV was more frequent in older than younger girls

  12. High-dose caspofungin salvage in a very-low-birth-weight infant with refractory candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Seo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is one of the most common causes of late-onset infection among very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW in most neonatal intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Standard therapy consists of the administration of amphotericin B, amphotericin B complex, and fluconazole. In many cases, candidiasis is not easily eradicated, despite the administration of these drugs. We report our experience of the addition of high-dose caspofungin to the conventional antifungal drugs in a VLBW infant with refractory candidemia.

  13. Plasma membrane Na/H antiporters contribute to the salt tolerance of pathogenic Candida species.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    New Jersey : American Society of Microbiology, 2008. s. 44-45. [Candida and Candidiasis /9./. 24.03.2008-28.03.2008, Jersey City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * Candida glabrata * salt tolerance * antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  15. Role of CgCnh1 antiporter in tolerance of Candida glabrata to alkali metal cations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    New Jersey : American Society of Microbiology, 2008. s. 46-47. [Candida and Candidiasis /9./. 24.03.2008-28.03.2008, Jersey City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * Candida glabrata * salt tolerance * antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  16. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  17. Secreted aspartic proteinases of Candida parapsilosis: Regulation of transcription of SAPP1 and SAPP2 genes and activation of respective proteinase precursors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Ji?í; Merkerová, M.; Hradilek, Martin; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    Denver : American Society for Microbiology, 2006. s. 35. [ASM Conferences. Candida and Candidiasis /8./. 13.03.2006-17.03.2006, Denver] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/05/0038; GA MŠk LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * aspartic protease Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. The Candida albicans CNH1 gene encodes an antiporter important for potassium and pH homeostasis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    Washington, DC : ASM, 2006. s. 50-50. ISBN 1-55581-382-8. [8th ASM Conference on Candida and Candidiasis . 13.03.2006-17.03.2006, Denver] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Keywords : Candida albicans * Na+,K+/H+ antiporter * potassium homeostasis * intracellular pH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  19. Enhanced activity of antifungal drugs using natural phenolics against yeast strains of Candida and Cryptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidiasis and cryptococcosis are diseases of widening global incidence as a result of increasing immunosuppressive disorders, such as AIDS. An enduring problem for treatment of these mycoses is recurrent development of resistance to introduced antifungal drugs. We examined the potential for enhan...

  20. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. Novel diagnostic assays and immune regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oftedal, Bergithe E. V.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-I) is a rare, monogenetic recessively inherited disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. The patients display different endocrine and ectodermal manifestations, where the majority develop at least two of the three main components of autoimmune adrenocortical failure (Addison’s disease), hypoparathyroidism and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In addition, patients frequently develop autoantibodi...

  1. Autoimmune Regulator: Characterization of Thymic Gene Regulation and Promoter Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Kont, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Tüümuse medullaarsed epiteelirakud ekspresseerivad AIRE (Autoimmuunne Regulaator) valku, mis suunab perifeersete koespetsiifiliste geenide avatud geeniekspressiooni. Mutatsioonid AIRE geenis toovad endaga kaasa haruldase autoimmuunhaiguse APECED (Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy), millega kaasneb immunoloogilise tolerantsuse kadumine mitmete endokriinorganite suhtes. Käesolevas töös leidsime, et koespetsiifiliste geenide ekspressioon sõltub Aire geeni koopiate ar...

  2. Candida lusitaniae as an Unusual Cause of Recurrent Vaginitis and its Successful Treatment With Intravaginal Boric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Nichols, W.S.; Margie Morgan; Neil S. Silverman

    2001-01-01

    Increasing use of short-course antifungal therapies in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis may enable the emergence of less-common, more resistant yeast strains as vaginal pathogens. We report the case of a patient with chronically symptomatic and repeatedly treated vaginal candidiasis whose infection was attributable to Candida lusitaniae, a previously unreported cause of candidal vaginitis .

  3. Relevance of culturing Candida species from intravascular catheters.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, R.; Clark, J. A.; Briski, L E; Wilson, F. M.

    1995-01-01

    The significance of isolating Candida species from intravascular catheters was examined retrospectively. Our findings demonstrate that these organisms are encountered among patients with proven invasive candidiasis or as an isolated finding. Febrile patients with yeasts in two or more additional sites may be at risk for invasive cadidiasis and may benefit from treatment.

  4. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... identify the type and sensitivity of the yeast. Treatment Antifungal drugs are used to treat candidiasis. The antibiotic nystatin is often prescribed for children with superficial infections such as oral thrush or a Candida- related diaper rash. The specific medicines given for ...

  5. Sequential Therapy with Caspofungin and Fluconazole for Candida albicans Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Baldassarri, Isabella; Marigliano, Anna; Arzeni, Daniela; Giannini, Daniele; Scalise, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    A sequential therapy of caspofungin (CAS) and fluconazole (FLC) administration for treatment of Candida albicans infection was investigated. Treatment with CAS followed by FLC was as effective as CAS treatment given alone for the same duration. Our data suggest that switching from CAS to FLC is a potentially explorable therapeutic option for treatment of systemic candidiasis.

  6. Control of Candida albicans Murine Vaginitis by Topical Administration of Polycarbophil-Econazole Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ghelardi, E.; Tavanti, A.; Lupetti, A.; Celandroni, F.; Boldrini, E.; Campa, M; S. Senesi

    1998-01-01

    The complexation of econazole with the mucoadhesive polycarbophil was found to significantly improve the therapeutic benefit of the drug in the topical treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis in mice, while no difference in the antimycotic activity exerted by econazole and polycarbophil-econazole could be detected in vitro.

  7. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Namaki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. "nMaterials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to physical examination. Two swabs of vaginal discharge were obtained for each woman, one for direct smear, another for culture. The culture medium was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. Patients were randomized into two groups of clotrimazole (vaginal cream for 7 days and 150 mg fluconazole in a single dose. Clinical and paraclinical responses were calculated."nResults: Clinical improvement occurred in 96 cases (80%. This value was 86.7% and 73.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole, respectively (P-value=0.04. Paraclinical response on tenth day of treatment was observed in 87 patients (72.5%. This value was 66.7% and 78.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (P-value=0.110. Mean days of treatment was 4.06 ±1.30 days for clotrimazole and 2.70 ±0.78 days for fluconazole (p value =0.031."nConclusion: Most of the clinical and paraclinical responses to the drugs used for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis are in the favour of fluconazole.

  8. Candida lusitaniae as an Unusual Cause of Recurrent Vaginitis and its Successful Treatment With Intravaginal Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Nichols

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of short-course antifungal therapies in patients with recurrent vulvovaginitis may enable the emergence of less-common, more resistant yeast strains as vaginal pathogens. We report the case of a patient with chronically symptomatic and repeatedly treated vaginal candidiasis whose infection was attributable to Candidalusitaniae, a previously unreported cause of candidal vaginitis .

  9. Severe methaemoglobinaemia after flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R L; Hansen-Flaschen, J; Casey, M P

    1989-01-01

    A patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed severe cyanosis after bronchoscopy (oxygen saturation 34%) from methaemoglobinaemia. This was thought to be due to enhanced absorption of local anaesthetic from the nasopharynx or trachea as a result of candidiasis. The patient responded dramatically to intravenous methylene blue. PMID:2705157

  10. ETUDE PHENOTYPIQUE E T MOLECULAIRE DES CA NDIDOSES VULVO - VAGINALES CHEZ DES P ATIENTES AU MAROC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BOURA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In vulvovaginal pathology, vaginal candidiasis is the most common etiologies. Candida albicans is involved in more than 75% in this pathology. Our study included 151 vaginal swabs from women atMedical center of the Institute Pasteur in Morocco. Each vaginal swab was exanimated by direct test and culture on specific media.Out 151 samples 18 were positive (11.9% by direct examination. However, culture results showed that 29/151(19.2%positive cases. The identification of positivecultures showed that Candida albicans is present in 21 cases 72%(21/29 of vaginal candidiasis followed byCandida glabrata with a frequency of 24% (7/29, andCandida tropicalis with a frequency of 3.4 % (1/29 .The clinical symptoms were essentially theleucorrhea, itching and sensation of burning.The most age range affected by vaginalcandidiasis is between 22 and 37 years.Our result showed that the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 19% in Moroccan patient with a predominance ofCandida albicans and a sharp increase invaginal candidiasis due to non albicans species.These results will have an impact on thediagnosis and treatement of vaginal candidisis in Morocco.

  11. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  12. Cavitating pulmonary cryptococcosis developing in an HIV antibody patient despite prior treatment with fluconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Coker, R J; Bell, D; Peters, B. S.; Murphy, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis developed in an HIV antibody positive patient who was taking fluconazole for oral candidiasis. This case highlights the poor response to therapy that may be seen, and the severe pulmonary complications that may ensue. The use of fluconazole prior to the development of cryptococcosis did not confer protection.

  13. Cutaneous Manifestation of Pediatric AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    P Alizadeh Taheri; SM Rohani

    2002-01-01

    Cutaneous disorders are the most common manifestation of HIV infection in both children and adults. The spectrum of these manifestations includes infections, neoplasm, drug reactions, nonspecific exanthemas and skin changes associated with nutritional deficits. Mucocutaneous candidiasis, herpetic gingivostomatitis and severe bacteriemia.

  14. Cancer drugs inhibit morphogenesis in the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Madhushree M, Routh; Nitin M, Chauhan; S Mohan, Karuppayil.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections are very common in cancer patients and it is a common practice to prescribe antifungal antibiotics along with anticancer drugs. Yeast to hyphal form switching is considered to be important in invasive candidiasis. Targeting morphogenetic switching may be useful against invasive ca [...] ndidiasis. In this study, we report the antimorphogenetic properties of thirty cancer drugs.

  15. Invasive Candida Infections in Patients With Haematological Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients: Current Epidemiology and Therapeutic Options.

    OpenAIRE

    Girmenia, Corrado; Finolezzi, Erica; Federico, Vincenzo; Santopietro, Michelina; Perrone, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades, the global epidemiological impact of invasive candidiasis (IC) in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) and in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has decreased and the incidence of invasive aspergillosis exceeded that of Candida infections. The use of prevention strategies, first of all antifungal prophylaxis with triazoles, contributed to ...

  16. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  17. Liposomal amphotericin B for invasive fungal infections : an experimental study in the leukopenic host

    OpenAIRE

    Etten, E.W.M. van

    1995-01-01

    Advances in medical treatment have improved the prognosis for patients with cancer. While significant progression has been made in eradicating certain malignant diseases, a growing concern for patients who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy is the development of fungal infections. Candidiasis is the most common nosocomial mycosis. There are several predisposing factors for hematogenously disseminated candidal infections in patients with cancer. These factors include granulocytop...

  18. Chronic invasive aspergillosis of paranasal sinuses: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Mengi, Rajiv; Tamgadge, Sandhya; Bhalerao, Sudhir S.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillosis of the nasal and paranasal sinuses is recognized as being second to candidiasis, among opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. However, invasive variant in normal and mildly immunocompromised hosts is a very rare occurrence. We report one such case of aspergillosis involving paranasal sinuses in mildly immunocompromised patient.

  19. [HIV infection in a patient with a referral diagnosis of sore throat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, A A; Bogomolov, B P

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection was documented in a patient with hairy leukoplakia and oral candidiasis who had the wrong referral diagnosis of sore throat in the absence of dental complaints. Dental treatment at an infectious hospital led to regression of oral mucosa lesions, but failed to arrest the progress of severe pneumonia presumably caused by a specific pathogen. PMID:25702435

  20. Nutrition and Its Relationship to Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lynn; Conn, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between food allergies and sensitivities and autism. Information is provided on two dietary problems (candidiasis and gluten/casein intolerance) and case histories of two three-year-old children with autism are provided to illustrate each of the problems. Diet and vitamin therapy interventions are also described.…

  1. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shethwala Nimisha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

  2. The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention of urogenital infections--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2009-06-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being used to treat and prevent urogenital infections. However, a critical assessment of their efficacy in major urogenital infections is lacking. We report the results of a systematic review to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention or treatment of three major urogenital infections: bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and urinary tract infection. Using multiple computerized databases, we extracted data from clinical trials using a lactobacillus-containing preparation to either prevent or treat a urogenital infection. Of 25 included studies, 18 studies used lactobacillus preparations for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections and seven studies focused solely on vaginal colonization. Four studies included patients with vaginal candidiasis, five included patients with urinary tract infections, and eight included patients with bacterial vaginosis. One included several types of genitourinary infections. Overall, lactobacilli were beneficial for the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis. No clear benefit was seen for candidiasis or urinary tract infection. Studies were heterogeneous, with some limited by a small population size. In conclusion, the use of certain lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri for prevention and treatment of recurrent urogenital infection is promising, especially for recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Scant data on the use of probiotics for urinary tract infection and vulvovaginal candidiasis precludes definitive recommendations. Further research and larger studies on types of lactobacilli strains, dosage of lactobacilli, optimal route and vehicle of administration are needed. PMID:19567343

  3. Identification of a novel STAT3 mutation in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine; Jakobsen, Marianne A

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome presenting with recurrent staphylococcal abscesses, pneumonia, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and report the identification of a novel STAT3 mutation at amino acid position 621, which has not previously been described. In addition, we review the immunological, infectious, and genetic features of hyper-IgE syndrome.

  4. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico / Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathaly, Ángel; Natalia, Echeverry; Paulina, Restrepo; Leonor, González; Libia, Rodríguez; Gloria, Vásquez.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES), es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crónica multisistémica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, d [...] iscoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnóstico de LES y establecer si existe relación entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunológicos, el compromiso sistémico y el tratamiento farmacológico. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES; se les realizó un examen estomatológico y se recolectó información demográfica, clínica y de tratamiento por medio de revisión de historias clínicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realizó análisis citológico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algún tipo de lesión en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; úlceras, en 17 y queilitis actínica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoció con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociación entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces más que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontró asociación con ningún compromiso sistémico y la presencia de lesiones orales. Abstract in english Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relati [...] onship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  5. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES, es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crónica multisistémica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, discoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnóstico de LES y establecer si existe relación entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunológicos, el compromiso sistémico y el tratamiento farmacológico. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES; se les realizó un examen estomatológico y se recolectó información demográfica, clínica y de tratamiento por medio de revisión de historias clínicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realizó análisis citológico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algún tipo de lesión en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; úlceras, en 17 y queilitis actínica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoció con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociación entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces más que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontró asociación con ningún compromiso sistémico y la presencia de lesiones orales.Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relationship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  6. Prevalencia de Lesiones de la Mucosa Oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Raposo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes mayores de 20 años, examinados en el mismo hospital (intervalo de confianza del 95%. La prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral fue de 66%. Las lesiones más prevalentes fueron; gránulos de Fordyce (30%, candidiasis atrófica (14,33%, mácula melanótica (13,67%, várices orales (7,33%, pigmentación fisiológica (6%, nevos (4%, efélides (3,33%, úlceras traumáticas (4%, leucoplasia (3% y queilitis angular (2,68%. Se encontró una relación directa entre el aumento de la edad y la presencia de candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices, siendo esta asociación estadísticamente significativa. Podemos concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población adulta de la muestra y que la cantidad de estas lesiones se incrementan con la edad (candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices orales, por lo que es necesario intensificar el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de ellas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the Hernan Henríquez Aravena Hospital in the city of Temuco Chile. Method: The sample consisted of 300 patients aged over 20 years, examined in the same hospital (confidence interval 95%. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 66%. The most prevalent lesions were; Fordyce granules (30%, atrophic candidiasis (14.33%, oral melanotic macule (13.67%, oral mucosal varicosities (7.33%, physiological pigmentation (6%, nevus (4%, ephelis (3.33%, traumatic ulcers (4%, leukoplakia (3% and angular cheilitis (2.68%. A direct ratio was found between increased age and the presence of atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and oral mucoral varicosities, this association being statistically significant. It may be concluded that there is a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the adult population of the sample and that the quantity of lesions increases with age (atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and mucosal varicosities, making it necessary to intensify their early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  7. Prevalencia de Lesiones de la Mucosa Oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco / Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Araceli, Raposo; María José, Monsalves; Paola, Aravena; Antonio, Sanhueza.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes mayores de 20 años, examinados en el mismo hospital (intervalo de confianza del 95%). La prevalencia de [...] las lesiones de la mucosa oral fue de 66%. Las lesiones más prevalentes fueron; gránulos de Fordyce (30%), candidiasis atrófica (14,33%), mácula melanótica (13,67%), várices orales (7,33%), pigmentación fisiológica (6%), nevos (4%), efélides (3,33%), úlceras traumáticas (4%), leucoplasia (3%) y queilitis angular (2,68%). Se encontró una relación directa entre el aumento de la edad y la presencia de candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices, siendo esta asociación estadísticamente significativa. Podemos concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población adulta de la muestra y que la cantidad de estas lesiones se incrementan con la edad (candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices orales), por lo que es necesario intensificar el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de ellas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the Hernan Henríquez Aravena Hospital in the city of Temuco Chile. Method: The sample consisted of 300 patients aged over 20 years, examined in the same hospital (confidence interval 95%). Results: The prevalence of [...] oral mucosal lesions was 66%. The most prevalent lesions were; Fordyce granules (30%), atrophic candidiasis (14.33%), oral melanotic macule (13.67%), oral mucosal varicosities (7.33%), physiological pigmentation (6%), nevus (4%), ephelis (3.33%), traumatic ulcers (4%), leukoplakia (3%) and angular cheilitis (2.68%). A direct ratio was found between increased age and the presence of atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and oral mucoral varicosities, this association being statistically significant. It may be concluded that there is a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the adult population of the sample and that the quantity of lesions increases with age (atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and mucosal varicosities), making it necessary to intensify their early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  8. Comparacion de la presencia de queilitis angular en niños VIH(+) y VIH(-), hijos de madres seropositivas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Carrasco C; María Elena, Guerra G; Vilma, Tovar.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En niños la vía más común de infección por VIH/SIDA es la forma vertical; es decir de madre infectada a hijo. Su inmunosupresión, permite la instalación de enfermedades oportunistas, siendo la cavidad bucal un lugar ideal para la presencia de estas lesiones. De ellas la más frecuente es la candidias [...] is bucal. Objetivo: Comparar la frecuencia de candidiasis bucal en su forma queilitis angular en niños VIH (+) con los VIH (-) verticalmente expuestos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó la Historia Clínica a un total de 59 niños (0 a 4 años), 32 VIH (+) y 27 VIH (-), que asistieron al CAPEI/UCV 2003-2004, siguiendo el protocolo correspondiente. Se realizó cultivo para determinar candidiasis. La prueba estadística fue Chi cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: De los 59 niños examinados, el 58,8% (30), presentaron alguna lesión en labio. El 50,5% de los niños (16) fueron diagnosticados con candidiasis en su forma de queilitis angular, de los cuales el 75,5% (12) eran VIH (+), en comparación con el 25,9% (4) eran VIH (-). Al aplicar la prueba de chi cuadrado de Pearson se observó una alta significación estadística (P= 0,001) en relación a la presencia de queilitis angular en ambos grupos Conclusión: Los resultados reflejan significancia estadística de la presencia de queilitis angular en los niños VIH(+), en la población estudiada lo que pone de manifiesto la importancia que tiene la participación del Odontopediatra en el manejo del diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones bucales en los niños VIH(+). Abstract in english Vertically-acquired infection HIV/AIDS is commonly seen in children; in other words, mother-to-child transmission. Immuno-compromised state, permit the installation of opportunist infections where the oral candidiasis is the most frequent. Objective: to compare frequency of oral candidiasis present [...] as angular cheilitis in children HIV (+) and VIH (-) vertically exposed. Subjects and Methods: 59 children (aged 0 to 4), 32 VIH (+) y 27 VIH (-) from the CAPEI/UCV 2003-2004, were clinically examinated following the corresponding protocol. Oral samples were cultured for Candida growth. Statistical analyses using Chi square the Pearson were made. Results: Of 59 children examined, 58, 8% (30) presented any lip lesion. 50, 5 % (16), were oral candidiasis as angular cheilitis diagnosed, where 75, 5% (12) were HIV (+) compare to 25,9% (4) VIH (-). The Chi square test show high statistical significance (P= 0,001) related to angular cheilitis in both groups. Conclusions: These results indicate the statistical significance of angular cheilitis in HIV (+) children in the total study group and shows up the fundamental Pediatric Dentistry participation in the diagnosis and treatment of oral lesion in children VIH (+).

  9. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I - a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K; Connor, Ellen L

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported. PMID:24945421

  10. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Roy, Sukhdev; Srivastava, J. N.

    2013-05-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment.

  11. Association of genotypes with infection types and antifungal susceptibilities in Candida albicans as revealed by recent molecular typing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feng-Yan

    2014-03-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism in the mucosa of healthy individuals, but is also the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. It causes from benign infections such as oral and vaginal candidiasis to fatal, systematic diseases in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. In addition to improved therapy, the rapid and accurate identification of the disease-causing strains is crucial for diagnosis, clinical treatment and epidemiological studies of candidiasis. A variety of methods for strain typing of C. albicans have been developed. The most commonly used methods with the focus on recently developed molecular typing or DNA-fingerprinting strategies and the recent findings in the association of specific and genetically similar genotypes with certain infection types and the correlation between azole susceptibilities and certain genotypes of C. albicans from China are reviewed. PMID:24772369

  12. Ash1 Protein, an Asymmetrically Localized Transcriptional Regulator, Controls Filamentous Growth and Virulence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2002-01-01

    In response to a number of distinct environmental conditions, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a morphological transition from a round, yeast form to a series of elongated, filamentous forms. This transition is believed to be critical for virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Here we describe the characterization of C. albicans ASH1, a gene that encodes an asymmetrically localized transcriptional regulatory protein involved in this response. We show that C. albicans ash1 mutants are defective in responding to some filament-inducing conditions. We also show that Ash1p is preferentially localized to daughter cell nuclei in the budding-yeast form of C. albicans cell growth and to the hyphal tip cells in growing filaments. Thus, Ash1p “marks” newly formed cells and presumably directs a specialized transcriptional program in these cells. Finally, we show that ASH1 is required for full virulence of C. albicans in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. PMID:12446785

  13. Echinocandins for candidemia: a rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Menichetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin represent a rational choice for the first-line therapy of candidemia/invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Among other properties characterizing echinocandins, it’s important to emphasize the broad spectrum of activity, the fungicidal activity against the majority of Candida spp., and the activity against the biofilm. Furthermore, echinocandins show greater efficacy than conventional amphotericin B and fluconazole, and similar efficacy to liposomal amphotericin B (but they are less toxic. Finally, echinocandins are recommended at the highest level of evidence (AI for the treatment of invasive candidiasis by IDSA and ESCMID guidelines.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.872

  14. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

  15. The crystal structure of protease Sapp1p from Candida parapsilosis in complex with the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Ji?í; Brynda, Ji?í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pachl, Petr; Pichová, Iva; ?ezá?ová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 27, ?. 1 (2012), s. 160-165. ISSN 1475-6366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ?R GA310/09/1945; GA ?R GA203/09/0820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : secreted aspartic protease * virulence factor * X-ray structure * candidiasis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2012

  16. Probiotic Interference of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 with the Opportunistic Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Gerwald A. Köhler; Senait Assefa; Gregor Reid

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most important Candida species causing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). VVC has significant medical and economical impact on women's health and wellbeing. While current antifungal treatment is reasonably effective, supportive and preventive measures such as application of probiotics are required to reduce the incidence of VVC. We investigated the potential of the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 towards control of C. albicans. In v...

  17. Patient mutation in AIRE disrupts P-TEFb binding and target gene transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Žumer, Kristina; Plemenitaš, Ana; Saksela, Kalle; Peterlin, B Matija

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a transcription factor that induces the expression of a large subset of otherwise strictly tissue restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, thereby enabling their presentation to developing T cells for negative selection. Mutations in AIRE lead to autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a rare monogenetic disease. Although it has been reported that AIRE interacts with proteins involved in nuclear transport, DNA-da...

  18. AIRE-PHD fingers are structural hubs to maintain the integrity of chromatin-associated interactome

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetani, Massimiliano; Matafora, Vittoria; Saare, Mario; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Mollica, Luca; Quilici, Giacomo; Chignola, Francesca; Mannella, Valeria; Zucchelli, Chiara; Peterson, Pärt; Bachi, Angela; Musco, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene cause autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE is expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells, where it promotes the expression of peripheral-tissue antigens to mediate deletional tolerance, thereby preventing self-reactivity. AIRE contains two plant homeodomains (PHDs) which are sites of pathological mutations. AIRE-PHD fingers are important for AIRE transcriptional activity and presumably play a crucial role in the...

  19. The Mouse Aire Gene: Comparative Genomic Sequencing, Gene Organization, and Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Blechschmidt, Karin; Schweiger, Michal; Wertz, Karin; Poulson, Richard; Christensen, Hoang-My; Rosenthal, Andre; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the human AIRE gene (hAIRE) result in the development of an autoimmune disease named APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy; OMIM 240300). Previously, we have cloned hAIRE and shown that it codes for a putative transcription-associated factor. Here we report the cloning and characterization of Aire, the murine ortholog of hAIRE. Comparative genomic sequencing revealed that the structure of the AIRE gene is highly conserved between human and mouse. ...

  20. Autoimmune regulator (AIRE)-deficient CD8+CD28low regulatory T lymphocytes fail to control experimental colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pomié, Céline; Vicente, Rita; Vuddamalay, Yirajen; Lundgren, Brita Ardesjö; Van der Hoek, Mark; Enault, Geneviève; Kagan, Jérémy; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Scott, Hamish S; Romagnoli, Paola; van Meerwijk, Joost P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) are responsible for autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome. AIRE directs expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymic medulla and in lymph node stromal cells and thereby substantially contributes to induction of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. Data from experimental mouse models showed that AIRE deficiency leads to impaired deletion of autospecific T-cell pr...

  1. A Functional Alternative Splicing Mutation in AIRE Gene Causes Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junyu; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liao, Yong; Guo, Luo; Wang, Honglian; He, Lin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Xing, Qinghe

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison’s disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequ...

  2. AIRE Functions As an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Daisuke; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; Matsushima, Akemi; Han, Hongwei; Ishido, Satoshi; HOTTA, HAK; Kudoh, Jun; SHIMIZU, NOBUYOSHI; Doucas, Vassilis; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Kuroda, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutation is responsible for the development of autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy, an organ-specific autoimmune disease with monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. AIRE is predominantly expressed in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus and is considered to play important roles in the establishment of self-tolerance. AIRE contains two plant homeodomain (PHD) domains, and the novel role of PHD as an E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase ha...

  3. DAXX is a new AIRE-interacting protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Meloni, Allesandra; Fiorillo, Edoardo; Corda, Denise; Incani, Federica; Serra, Maria Luisa; Contini, Antonella; Cao, Antonio; Rosatelli, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The AIRE protein plays a remarkable role as a regulator of central tolerance by controlling the promiscuous expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells. Defects in the AIRE gene cause the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, a rare disease frequent in Iranian Jews, Finns, and Sardinian population. To this day, the precise function of the AIRE protein in regulating transcription and its interacting proteins has yet to be entirely clari...

  4. Critical immunological pathways are downregulated in APECED patient dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pöntynen, Nora; Strengell, Mari; Sillanpää, Niko; Saharinen, Juha; Ulmanen, Ismo; Julkunen, Ilkka; Peltonen, Leena

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. AIRE functions as a transcriptional regulator, and it has a central role in the development of immunological tolerance. AIRE regulates the expression of ectopic antigens in epithelial cells of the thymic medulla and has been shown to participate in the development of peripheral tolerance. However, the mechanism of action of AIRE...

  5. Clearing the AIRE: on the pathophysiological basis of the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type-1.

    OpenAIRE

    N. Shikama; Nusspaumer, G; Holländer, GA

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 clinically manifests as the triad of hypoparathyroidism, primary adrenocortical insufficiency, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Mutations in the gene that encodes the autoimmune regulator protein, AIRE, have been identified as the cause of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1. The loss of immunologic tolerance to tissue-restricted antigens consequent to an absence of AIRE expression in the thymus results in the thymic export of autoreacti...

  6. DNA-PK contributes to the phosphorylation of AIRE: Importance in transcriptional activity

    OpenAIRE

    Liiv, Ingrid; REBANE, ANA; Org, Tõnis; Saare, Mario; Maslovskaja, Julia; Kisand, Kai; Juronen, Erkki; Valmu, Leena; Bottomley, Matthew James; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Peterson, Pärt

    2008-01-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is a key mediator of the central tolerance for tissue specific antigens and is involved in transcriptional control of many antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTEC). Mutations in the AIRE gene cause a rare disease named autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Here we report using GST pull-down assay, mass-spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation that a heterotrimeric complex of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (DNA...

  7. AIRE GENE MUTATIONS AND AUTOANTIBODIES TO INTERFERON OMEGA IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HYPOPARATHYROIDISM WITHOUT APECED

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract To assess autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations, class II HLA haplotypes, and organ or non-organ specific autoantibodies in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH) without associated Addison’s disease (AD) or chronic candidiasis (CC). Design, Patients and Measurements: 24 patients who had CH without AD or CC were included in the study. AIRE gene mutations in all 14 exons were studied using PCR in 24 patients, 105 healthy controls and 15 first-degree relati...

  8. Genital Candida Species Detected in Samples from Women in Melbourne, Australia, before and after Treatment with Antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Pirotta, Marie V; Garland, Suzanne M

    2006-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a common cause of morbidity, with three-quarters of women affected during their lifetimes. Use of antibiotics is an acknowledged trigger for VVC, which adversely affects women's physical and emotional health. Knowledge of patterns of genital Candida species-level identification is important for management, as Candida species other than Candida albicans often fail first-line treatment. A community sample of women with no vaginal symptoms, and who were pre...

  9. Laboratory Isolation and Identification of Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Pei Chong; Farida Jamal; Priya Madhavan

    2011-01-01

    The yeast Candida being the main cause of candidiasis is a commonly isolated pathogen from immunocompromised patients. Successfully identifying the species of Candida is important in the treatment and management of the disease. The trend in the resistance acquired by some species of Candida leads to the importance of identification to the species level. This may avoid prescription of antifungal drugs that may not be available to specific species, for instance Candida krusei is intrinsically r...

  10. Triazole Cross-Resistance among Candida spp.: Case Report, Occurrence among Bloodstream Isolates, and Implications for Antifungal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Magill, Shelley S.; Shields, Christine; Sears, Cynthia L; Choti, Michael; Merz, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Candida spp. are common causes of bloodstream infections among hospitalized patients. Fluconazole (FLC) remains a first-line therapy for candidemia; and voriconazole (VRC), an expanded-spectrum triazole, was recently approved for the treatment of candidemia in nonneutropenic patients. In vitro studies have suggested that VRC has potent activity against Candida spp. with reduced susceptibilities to FLC. We present a case report of invasive candidiasis and candidemia due to a Candida glabrata i...

  11. Global Surveillance of In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Candida: a Comparison with Caspofungin by CLSI-Recommended Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R.J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; DIEKEMA, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent that has recently been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infection and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to micafungin among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activity of micafungin against 2,656 invasive (bloodstream or sterile site) unique patient isolates of Candida spp. collected from 60 medical centers worldwide...

  12. Animal models of mucosal Candida infection

    OpenAIRE

    Naglik, Julian R.; Fidel, Paul L; Odds, Frank C

    2008-01-01

    Rodent models of oral, vaginal and gastrointestinal Candida infection are described and discussed in terms of their scientific merits. The common feature of all experimental mucosal Candida infections is the need for some level of host immunocompromise or exogenous treatment to ensure quantitatively reproducible disease. A growing literature describes the contributions of such candidiasis models to our understanding of certain aspects of fungal virulence and host response to mucosal Candida a...

  13. Fluconazole Susceptibility of Vaginal Isolates Obtained from Women with Complicated Candida Vaginitis: Clinical Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J. D.; Zervos, M.; Reed, B D; Hooton, T.; Soper, D.; Nyirjesy, P.; Heine, M. W.; Willems, J.; Panzer, H.

    2003-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence of azole resistance in oral candidiasis due to Candida species, little is known about the azole susceptibilities of the genital tract isolates responsible for vaginitis. The fluconazole susceptibilities of vaginal isolates obtained during a multicenter study of 556 women with complicated Candida vaginitis were determined by evaluating two fluconazole treatment regimens. Of 393 baseline isolates of Candida albicans, 377 (96%) were highly susceptible to fluconazole...

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VARIOUS CANDIDA SPECIES AND ITS ANTIFUNGAL SENSITIVITY TESTING ISOLATED FROM ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH VAGINITIS, IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, WESTERN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    PANCHAL P.A.; KATARA R.K.; MEHTA R.C.; SONI S.T.; NANERA A.; Trivedi, N A; Desai, K. J.; VEGAD M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: An estimated 75% of women will have at least one episode of VVC, and 40-45% will have two or more episodes within their lifetime and infection occurs more frequently in pregnant women-CDC. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis along with its antifungal susceptibility pattern among antenatal women attending Obstetric and Gynecology Department Sir T Hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.Methods: Vaginal swab specimens for cultu...

  15. Switching of Candida albicans during successive episodes of recurrent vaginitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Soll, D. R.; Galask, R; Isley, S; T. V. Rao; Stone, D.; Hicks, J; J.; Schmid; Mac, K; Hanna, C.

    1989-01-01

    Strain relatedness and switching were monitored in Candida albicans strains isolated from different body locations through three episodes of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis separated by two treatment-latency periods in a single patient. Strain relatedness was assessed by comparing Southern blot hybridization patterns with the relatively immobile mid-repeat sequence Ca3. The following conclusions are demonstrated. (i) Three different strains of C. albicans colonized the mouth, the area unde...

  16. Effect of pH on In Vitro Susceptibility of Candida glabrata and Candida albicans to 11 Antifungal Agents and Implications for Clinical Use

    OpenAIRE

    Danby, Claire S.; Boikov, Dina; Rautemaa-Richardson, Rina; Sobel, Jack D.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) due to Candida glabrata is challenging, with limited therapeutic options. Unexplained disappointing clinical efficacy has been reported with systemic and topical azole antifungal agents in spite of in vitro susceptibility. Given that the vaginal pH of patients with VVC is unchanged at 4 to 4.5, we studied the effect of pH on the in vitro activity of 11 antifungal agents against 40 C. glabrata isolates and compared activity against 15 fluconazole...

  17. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone Antonio; Girolamo Antonietta; De Bernardis Flavia; Mondello Francesca; Salvatore Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent investigations on the antifungal properties of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil, TTO) have been performed with reference to the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. However, there is a lack of in vivo data supporting in vitro results, especially regarding the antifungal properties of TTO constituents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the in vitro and the in vivo anti-Candida activity of two critical bioactive constituents of TTO,...

  18. Usage of antifungal drugs for therapy of genital Candida infections, purchased as over-the-counter products or by prescription: I. Analyses of a unique database.

    OpenAIRE

    Mårdh, Per-Anders; Wagstrom, Jolanta; Landgren, Maria; Holmén, Jan

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To present sales figures of antifungal drugs for treatment of genital Candida infections in females, which had been purchased in the Swedish county of Skåne (with approximately 1.2 million inhabitants) during the 1990s. To study the relative proportions of the drugs sold by prescription and as over-the-counter (OTC) products. METHODS: Sales figures of antifungal drugs for therapy of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and such recurrent infections (RVVC), for the years 1990--99, were ...

  19. Rutinemæssig oftalmologisk opfølgning anbefales ved candidæmi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Leemreize, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of candidaemia is increasing on a global scale. Secondary intraocular involvement is a rare but serious complication, which can cause considerable visual damage. Hence, current national and international guidelines recommend ophthalmological examination of all patients with verified candidaemia in order to ensure adequate therapy and reduce the risk of visual impairment. We present a case illustrating that initial symptoms and findings of ocular candidiasis may often be subtle which emphasizes the importance of consistent adherence to these guidelines.

  20. The Use of Swiss Albino Mice and Egyptian Toads (Bufo regularis) as Reliable Biological Test Animals for Screening Chemicals and Drugs Which Induce Leukaemia in Man. I: The Effect of Nizoral (Ketoconazole) on Leucocytes of Toads and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. El-Mofty; A. E. Essawy; M.H. Shwairebv; H.M. Abdel-Karim

    2000-01-01

    Nizoral (Ketoconazole) is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of systemic mycosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Administration of Nizoral into toads and mice induced pronounced alterations in leucocytes. Electron microscopical examination revealed that these alterations are leukaemic alterations and they are more or less similar to the criteria reported in human Leukaemia. The changes were all comparable to those observed after the administration of the carcinogenic chemical 7,12 dimet...

  1. Espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural candidiásico Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Di Stilio

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available La espondilodiscitis candidiásica asociada a absceso epidural es una enfermedad de aparición excepcional. Se presenta el caso de un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin en tratamiento quimioterápico que desarrolló candidiasis sistémica complicada con espondilodiscitis y absceso epidural por dicho germen.Candida spondylodiscitis associatd with epidural abscess is rarely seen. We present a patient with Hodgkin lymphoma who received chemotherapy and developed systemic Candida infection, which was complicated by Candida spondylodiscitis and epidural abscess.

  2. A colour atlas of diseases of the vulva and perigenital area

    OpenAIRE

    Veraldi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This international congress will put a lot of work into female health. We therefore de¬cided to present our clinical experience about an issue that is rarely discussed in der¬matological congresses, i.e. the diseases of the vulva and perigenital area. The diseases will be divided into different chapters: hereditary diseases (Darier disease); infectious diseases (herpes genitalis, genital warts, candidiasis, impetigo, erysipelas, syphilis); inflammatory diseases (allergic contact dermatit...

  3. Ash1 Protein, an Asymmetrically Localized Transcriptional Regulator, Controls Filamentous Growth and Virulence of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Inglis, Diane O.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2002-01-01

    In response to a number of distinct environmental conditions, the fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a morphological transition from a round, yeast form to a series of elongated, filamentous forms. This transition is believed to be critical for virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Here we describe the characterization of C. albicans ASH1, a gene that encodes an asymmetrically localized transcriptional regulatory protein involved in this response. We show that C. alb...

  4. Microbiological assay and HPLC Method for the determination of Fluconazole in pharmaceutical injectable formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado, Felipe K.; Souza, Marine?s J.; Melo, Janine; Rolim, Clarice M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Fluconazol es un agente antifúngico triazólico sintético empleado en el tratamiento de la candidiasis y de otras infecciones fúngicas. Un método por cromatografía líquida de gran eficacia y un ensayo microbiológico fueron desarrollados para la determinación de fluconazol en soluciones inyectables. Una columna Phenomenex Synergi Fusion RP-80 C18 (150 x 4.60 mm, 4 ?m) fue usada para la separación, utilizando elución isocrática con agua: metanol (55:45, v/v) y detección por ult...

  5. Effects of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Proteinase Inhibitors Saquinavir and Indinavir on In Vitro Activities of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases of Candida albicans Isolates from HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, Hans C; Schaller, Martin; Eder, Gabriele; Hamm, Gerald; Böhmer, Ursula; Hube, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    The effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinase inhibitors saquinavir and indinavir on the in vitro proteinase activity of Candida albicans were investigated with isolates from HIV-infected and uninfected patients with oral candidiasis. After exposure to the HIV proteinase inhibitors, proteinase activity was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects, which were similar to that of pepstatin A, and the ...

  6. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) Essential Oil: Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action on Candida spp., and Molecular Targets Affected in Human Whole-Genome Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonc?a; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-gen...

  7. Fluconazole Induced Fixed Drug Eruption

    OpenAIRE

    Coondoo Arijit; Benerjee Raghubir

    2003-01-01

    Triazole antifungals are commonly used in the treatment of oral, esophageal, and vaginal candidiasis. Fluconazole is frequently prescribed as the therapy modality for vaginal fungal infections. On rare occasions, fluconazole has been shown to cause fixed drug eruptions. Lesions of fixed drug eruptions vary in size and number, but have the same general appearance and symptoms. The authors report a case of fluconazole-induced fixed drug eruption in a 24-year-old woman with recurrent vaginal can...

  8. Fixed drug eruption resulting from fluconazole use: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Tavallaee Mahkam; Rad Mahnaz Mahmoudi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with a possible side effect of fixed drug eruption. However, this adverse drug effect is absent from the reported list of possible side effects of fluconazole. We are presenting a rare case in our report. Case presentation A 25-year-old Iranian woman developed fixed drug eruptions on different sites of her body after taking five doses of fluconazole to treat vaginal candidiasis. A positive patch test, positive oral challenge ...

  9. [2006 Epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of dermatomycoses and the causative fungus flora of dermatomycoses in Japan for 2006 was made on a total number of 63,029 outpatients who visited 16 dermatological clinics throughout Japan. The results were as follows. 1) Dermatophytosis was the most prevalent cutaneus fungal infection (7,582 cases) seen in these clinics, followed by candidiasis (842 cases) and then Malassezia infections (283 cases). 2) Among dermatophytoses, tinea pedis was the most frequent (4,779 cases : male 2,358, female 2,241), then in decreasing order, tinea unguium (2,582 cases : male 1,376, female 1,206), tinea corporis (564 cases : male 341, female 223), tinea cruris (309 cases : male 254, female 57), tinea manuum (145 cases : male 92, female 53), and tinea capitis including kerion (17 cases : male 12, female 5). 3) Tinea pedis and tinea unguium are seen to increase in the summer season, among the aged population. When compared to the last survey 2002 by clinical form, t. unguium patients increased 459 cases. 4) As the causative dermatophyte species, Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated among all dermatophyte infections except tinea capitis. Microsporum canis was slightly increased. M.gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum are small number. T.tonsurans was increased up to 37 cases. 5) Cutaneous candidiasis was seen in 842 cases (305 male, 537 female). Intertrigo (298 cases) was the most frequent clinical form, followed by erosion interdigitalis (136 cases), oral candidiasis (135 cases), onychia et paronychia (108 cases), genital and diaper candidiasis in total (88 cases). 6) Tinea versicolor was seen in 175 cases. Malassezia folliculitis were collected 108 cases, 63 cases are reported from one clinic. PMID:23149353

  10. The Use of Swiss Albino Mice and Egyptian Toads (Bufo regularis as Reliable Biological Test Animals for Screening Chemicals and Drugs Which Induce Leukaemia in Man. I: The Effect of Nizoral (Ketoconazole on Leucocytes of Toads and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Mofty

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nizoral (Ketoconazole is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of systemic mycosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Administration of Nizoral into toads and mice induced pronounced alterations in leucocytes. Electron microscopical examination revealed that these alterations are leukaemic alterations and they are more or less similar to the criteria reported in human Leukaemia. The changes were all comparable to those observed after the administration of the carcinogenic chemical 7,12 dimethylbenz (a anthracene.

  11. Annular Plaques on the Tongue: What Is Your Diagnosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan, Tuba C?elebl?; Bl?lac?, Cemal; Bl?lac?, Dilek Bayraktar; Eceml?s?, Talat; Ermertcan, Aylin Tu?rel

    2011-01-01

    Geographic tongue is an inflammatory disorder of the tongue characterized by asymptomatic erythematous patches with serpiginous borders. Candidiasis of the tongue may be confused with geographic tongue. A 63-year-old male patient with painful white annular lesions localized to the left side of his tongue is presented. He applied topical corticosteroid and antiinflammatory agents, but his lesions did not respond to those therapies. Using direct mycologic examination and culture, the patient wa...

  12. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi; Daniela Maira Cardozo; Sandra Mara Alessi Aristides; Ricardo Alberto Moliterno; Thaís Gomes Verzignassi Silveira; Rosilene Fressatti Cardoso; Dennis Armando Bertolini; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira; Maria Valdrinez Campana Lonardoni

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human ...

  13. Vulvar Myiasis During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício H. L. Morelhi; Bravo, Renato S; Vandira M. S. Pinheiro; Cláudio C. C. Santos; Nero A. Barreto; Rogério R. Tavares; Varella, Renata Q; Passos, Mauro R L

    2002-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. The location of this infestation at the vulvar area is, however, an extremely rare occurrence. The authors present two cases of vulvar myiasis affecting pregnant women. The first case is a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also HIV-positive. The second case is a 17-year-old preg...

  14. Vulvar myiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, M R; Carvalho, A.V.; Dutra, A L; Goulart Filho, R A; Barreto, N A; Salles, R S; Santos, C.C.; Tibúrcio, A S; Monteiro, A C; Tavares, R R

    1998-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. This infestation is, however, rarely seen in the vulvar area. We present a short review of the disease and the case of a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also positive for human immunodeficiency virus.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Essential Oil from the Seed of Anethum graveolens L. against Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zeng; Jun Tian; Yuechen Zheng; Xiaoquan Ban; Jingsi Zeng; Yehong Mao; Youwei Wang

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil produced from the seed of Anethum graveolens L. (Umbelliferae) was tested in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity. The microbroth dilution method was used in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), according to M27-A3 of the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI). And then, efficacy evaluation of essential oil in the prophylaxis and treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis was performed in immunosuppressed mice. The anti-Candida activ...

  16. Successful voriconazole treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient with acute biphenotypic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Teiichi; Imai, Kiyotoshi; Kagawa, Kumiko; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Kiyama, Yoshio; Ogasawara, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Kobayashi, Naoki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kasai, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    A 23-year old woman with acute biphenotypic leukemia (ABL) complained of chest pain with cough, high fever and hemoptysis during induction chemotherapy, although she had been treated with anti-biotics and micafungin. We made a clinical diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) based on a consolidation in the right upper lung field on a chest radiograph as well as a high level of serum beta-D-glucan (with no evidence of tuberculosis and candidiasis). We changed her treatment from mic...

  17. The phenotype of human STK4 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollahpour, Hengameh; Appaswamy, Giridharan; Kotlarz, Daniel; Diestelhorst, Jana; Beier, Rita; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Gertz, E Michael; Schambach, Axel; Kreipe, Hans H.; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Engelhardt, Karin R.; Rezaei, Nima; Grimbacher, Bodo; Lohrmann, Sabine; sherkat, Roya

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel clinical phenotype associating T- and B-cell lymphopenia, intermittent neutropenia, and atrial septal defects in 3 members of a consanguineous kindred. Their clinical histories included recurrent bacterial infections, viral infections, mucocutaneous candidiasis, cutaneous warts, and skin abscesses. Homozygosity mapping and candidate gene sequencing revealed a homozygous premature termination mutation in the gene STK4 (serine threonine kinase 4, formerly having the symbol M...

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aqel Kamal F; Badran Eman F; Issa Shireen Y; Shehabi Asem A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants. Methods Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics...

  19. Review of the pharmacology and clinical studies of micafungin

    OpenAIRE

    Bormann, Alison M.; Morrison, Vicki A

    2009-01-01

    Alison M Bormann1, Vicki A Morrison21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology and Infectious Disease, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Micafungin, like other members of the echinocandin class, has a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the synthesis of 1,3-?-D glucans in the fungal cell wall. It has been approved for treatment of esophageal candidiasis, invasive candi...

  20. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  1. Pathogenic microbial amyloids: Their function and the host response

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, MC; Lipke, PN; Klotz, SA

    2013-01-01

    Functional microbial amyloids are ubiquitous in nature and some contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Three pathogenic microbial amyloids are compared and their contribution to the disease process explained. The recent demonstration and visualization of fungal amyloid in human invasive candidiasis is discussed. Moreover, the binding of host serum amyloid P component to Candida functional amyloid in invasive human disease is presented in light of its possible role of masking f...

  2. Invasive fungal disease in PICU: epidemiology and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Brissaud, Olivier; Guichoux, Julie; Harambat, Jerome; Tandonnet, Olivier; Zaoutis, Theoklis

    2012-01-01

    Candida and Aspergillus spp. are the most common agents responsible for invasive fungal infections in children. They are associated with a high mortality and morbidity rate as well as high health care costs. An important increase in their incidence has been observed during the past two decades. In infants and children, invasive candidiasis is five times more frequent than invasive aspergillosis. Candida sp. represents the third most common agent found in healthcare-associated bloodstream infe...

  3. Anidulafungin: an evidence-based review of its use in invasive fungal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Susan L.; Vazquez, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    Susan L. Davis, Jose A. VazquezHenry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University College of Pharmacy, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USAIntroduction: Anidulafungin is a new echinocandin antifungal agent with indications for use in esophageal candidiasis and candidemia. The mortality and morbidity associated with fungal infections in healthcare facilities necessitates the development of new treatment options for these diseases.Aims: This review assesses the pharmacolog...

  4. Retinal microglia are activated by systemic fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Meneu Flores, Victoria; Noailles, Agustina; Megías, Javier; Gómez Vicente, Violeta; Carpena, Núria; Gil, María Luisa; Gozalbo, Daniel; Cuenca Navarro, Nicolás

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether systemic fungal infection could cause activation of retinal microglia and therefore could be potentially harmful for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Methods: Activation of retinal microglia was measured in a model of sublethal invasive candidiasis in C57BL/6J mice by (i) confocal immunofluorescence and (ii) flow cytometry analysis, using anti-CD11b, anti-Iba1, anti-MHCII and anti-CD45 antibodies. Results: Systemic fungal infection causes activation o...

  5. Uso de los propóleos en las piodermitis y micosis superficiales

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Castro, Myra M.

    1996-01-01

    Se estudian 600 pacientes con piodermitis y micosis superficiales:candidiasis y dermatofitosis, entre los años 1987 a 1991. Comparamos los tratamientos con medicamentos elaborados en nuestro laboratorio, a partir de propóleos pardos, con los de uso tradicional. Demostramos sensibilidad a los propóleos pardos de cítricos(recolectados en el municipio de Jagüey Grande de la provincia de Matanzas)en las cepas bacterianas Gram positiva y Gram negativa, aislada de nuestros casos, al igual que las c...

  6. Growth Hormone Deficiency, Short Stature, and Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in a Patient with Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Pun; Vikram Chandurkar

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APSs) include a cluster of autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions which have been classified into subtypes. APSs type 1 is characterized by at least two of the following: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, and autoimmune Addison's disease (AD). We report the chronological history of a female patient who presented with features most consistent with APS type 1, along with growth hormone deficiency and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis...

  7. AIRE deficiency in thymus of 2 patients with Omenn syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cavadini, Patrizia; Vermi, William; Facchetti, Fabio; Fontana, Stefania; Nagafuchi, Seiho; Mazzolari, Evelina; Sediva, Anna; Marrella, Veronica; Villa, Anna; Fischer, Alain; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Badolato, Raffaele

    2005-01-01

    Omenn syndrome is a severe primary immunodeficiency with putative autoimmune manifestations of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The disease is caused by hypomorphic mutations in recombination-activating genes that impair but do not abolish the process of VDJ recombination, leading to the generation of autoreactive T cells with a highly restricted receptor repertoire. Loss of central tolerance in genetically determined autoimmune diseases, e.g., autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ec...

  8. Is endometrial infection with Candida albicans a cause of recurrent vaginal thrush?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. R.; Wells, C.; Jolly, M.; Shah, P.; Savage, M.; Reginald, P.; Kitchen, V. S.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--It was hypothesised that the endometrium might act as a reservoir for candida, thus infecting the vagina as the endometrium is shed during menstruation. DESIGN--A prospective study of women with recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis. The endometrium was sampled and cultured for candida species. SETTING--Central London STD clinic. SUBJECTS--26 women were enrolled, of whom 20 completed the study. RESULTS--One patient had a positive endometrial culture for candida species, the isolate b...

  9. Preparation, In Vitro Characterization and Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of Buccal Polymeric Films Containing Chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Juliano, Claudia; Cossu, Massimo; Pigozzi, Paola; Rassu, Giovanna; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the suitability of some polymeric films as buccal systems for the delivery of the antiseptic drug chlorhexidine diacetate, considered as a valid adjunct in the treatment of oral candidiasis. Six different film formulations, mono- or double-layered, containing 5 or 10 mg of chlorhexidine diacetate, respectively, and alginate and/or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and/or chitosan as excipients, were prepared by a casting-solvent evaporation technique and ch...

  10. Toll-like receptor stimulation induces higher TNF-alpha secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with hyper IgE syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh, Mehdi; Henneke, Philipp; Rezaei, Nima; Ehl, Stephan; Thiel, Doerte; Matamoros, Nuria; Pietrogrande, Cristina; Espanol, Teresa; Litzman, Jiri; Franco, Jose L.; Sanal, Ozden; Kilic, Sara S.; Breborowicz, Anna; Plebani, Alessandro; Renner, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) are primary immunodeficiency disorders of unknown pathogenesis. Patients are typically affected with `cold' abscesses of the skin, recurrent cyst-forming pneumonia, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and other less frequent features such as progressive skeletal abnormalities. Defective signaling in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathways has been suggested as a responsible pathologic mechanism, however, in previous reports, 10 patients revealed no defect in inflammator...

  11. Identification and Phylogenetic Relationship of the Most Common Pathogenic Candida Species Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Koji; Biswas, Swarajit Kumar; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced a 396-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the most common clinically important Candida species: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. lusitaniae. The recently described species of Candida, C. dubliniensis, associated with mucosal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, was also included. Two to five strains of each species were examined. Some species represented intraspecies variation, which was ...

  12. In vitro susceptibilities of sucrose-negative Candida tropicalis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida norvegensis to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole, and ketoconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahearn, D G; McGlohn, M S

    1984-01-01

    The MICs and minimal lethal concentrations of four antimycotics, amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, miconazole nitrate, and ketoconazole, were determined for 25 yeast isolates representing species uncommonly implicated in candidiasis. A microdilution procedure was employed with complex and synthetic media. The isolates, in general, were susceptible to the same antimicrobial agents shown to be effective against Candida albicans, but differences between some of the species in relative susceptibi...

  13. Congenital Toxoplasma Infection: A Rare Reason of Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Balc?

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A few infections called with an acronym as TORCH may cause abortion, premature birth or congenital anomalies if acquired during the pregnancy. ORCH, as an acronym, stands for toxoplasmosis, other (syphilis, tuberculosis, listeria, candidiasis, parvovirus B19, varicella, HIV, hepatitis B, coxiella burnetii, rubellavirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and herpes simplex virus (HSV. Here, we present toxoplasma infection as a rare reason of neonatal hydrocephalus.

  14. Primary Rectal Amyloidosis in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Tae Oh; Bae, Jung Ho; Park, Jin Hyun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Tae Kyung; Song, Geun Am

    2009-01-01

    Amyloidosis can involve a single organ or multiple organs. The gastrointestinal tract is a common site of amyloid deposition. We report a rare case of solitary rectal amyloidosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus who had experienced recurrent oral candidiasis for 3 months and intermittent diarrhea for 6 months. The lesion was confirmed histologically and there were no detectable amyloid lesions at other gastrointestinal sites or systemic involvement.

  15. Lack of association between genotypes and virulence factors in C. albicans strains isolated from vaginal secretion Ausência de associação entre genótipos e fatores de virulência em C. albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Suemi Shinobu; Sueli Fumie Yamada Ogatta; Fenando Bizerra; Luciana Furlaneto; Rosane Marina Peralta; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    The physiopathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is still not completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a relationship between the different genotypes of Candida albicans, their main agent and the virulence of this yeast in vaginal isolates, and to check if there are laboratorial markers that can predict the ability of each isolate to develop VVC independently of symptoms. The production of exoenzymes protease, phospholipase and haemolysin, resista...

  16. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effect of lasioglossins on the Candida albicans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašperová, A.; Turánek, J.; ?e?ovský, Václav; Raška, M.

    Praha : Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v. v. i, 2011 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 54-57 ISBN 978-80-86241-44-9. - (Collection Symposium Series. 13). [Biologically Active Peptides /12./. Praha (CZ), 27.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida viability * flow cytometry analysis * antimicrobial activity * vaginal candidiasis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  17. Positions and Numbers of FKS Mutations in Candida albicans Selectively Influence In Vitro and In Vivo Susceptibilities to Echinocandin Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, M.; Tscherner, M.; Schaller, M.; Kuchler, K.; Mair, C.; Sartori, B.; Istel, F.; Arendrup, M. C.; Lass-flo?rl, C.

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia is the fourth most common kind of microbial bloodstream infection, with Candida albicans being the most common causative species. Echinocandins are employed as the first-line treatment for invasive candidiasis until the fungal species is determined and confirmed by clinical diagnosis. Echinocandins block the FKS glucan synthases responsible for embedding ?-(1,3)-d-glucan in the cell wall. The increasing use of these drugs has led to the emergence of antifungal resistance, and elev...

  18. RTI/STI prevalence among urban and rural women of Surat: A community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Kosambiya J; Desai Vikas; Bhardwaj Pankaj; Chakraborty Tanuja

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RTI/STI among women in urban and rural areas of Surat and analyze the influence of socioeconomic, socio-demographic and other determinants possibly related to RTI/STI. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study. Women aged 15-49 years (n = 102) were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination. Specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, hepatitis B, HI...

  19. In Vivo Efficacy of Anidulafungin and Caspofungin against Candida glabrata and Association with In Vitro Potency in the Presence of Sera?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Molina, Destiny; Olivo, Marcos; Graybill, John R.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that anidulafungin has greater potency than caspofungin against Candida glabrata. However, data from in vivo studies demonstrating that it has superior efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the activities of anidulafungin and caspofungin against C. glabrata in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Two clinical C. glabrata isolates were used, including one with reduced caspofungin susceptibility. MICs were determined by broth ...

  20. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas; Márcia Sacramento Cunha Machado; Bruno Fernando Borges da Costa e Silva; Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll Pimentel; Tatiana Teixeira Ferreira; Fernanda Maria Silva Leoni; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolesc...

  2. Hsp90 Governs Echinocandin Resistance in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans via Calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sheena D.; Robbins, Nicole; Zaas, Aimee K.; Schell, Wiley A.; PERFECT, JOHN R.; Cowen, Leah E.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the leading fungal pathogen of humans, causing life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. Treatment of candidiasis is hampered by the limited number of antifungal drugs whose efficacy is compromised by host toxicity, fungistatic activity, and the emergence of drug resistance. We previously established that the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which regulates the form and function of diverse client proteins, potentiates resistance to the azoles in C. albicans and ...

  3. Challenges in Management of Primary Hypoparathyroidism Associated with Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    I. R. Wallace; McConnell, V.; Bell, P M; Lindsay, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1) complicated by severe vascular insufficiency due to diffuse vascular calcification. APS1 is characterised clinically by multiple autoimmune conditions and development of at least two components of the triad of mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and autoimmune adrenal insufficiency. We highlight the problems in current serum calcium monitoring methods and suggest that fluctuations in serum calcium concentrations du...

  4. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  5. Prevalence of Candida Species in the Oral Cavity of Patients Undergoing Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Azizi; Masood Rezaei

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims. Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. Radiation to the head and neck affects the oral mucous membrane and produces xerostomia. Xerostomia alters the oral mucosa and predisposes them to colonization by Candida species. The aim of this study was evaluation of Candida species before and after radiotherapy. Materials and Methods. Twenty patients undergoing radiation therapy were selected. None of the patients had taken any antibi...

  6. Antibody Constant Region Peptides Can Display Immunomodulatory Activity through Activation of the Dectin-1 Signalling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Cenci, Elio; Monari, Claudia; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Gatti, Rita; Bistoni, Francesco; Polonelli, Luciano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB...

  7. The First Reported Case of Colonic Infection Caused by Candida tropicalis and a Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal tract infections caused by Candida species are rarely reported, and Candida albicans is the only pathogen that has been identified. The author reports a first case of colonic candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis in a 55-year-old female with diabetes mellitus type 2, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy. Diarrhea and fever were the presenting symptoms. Diagnosis was made based on deep tissue involvement on colonoscopy with biopsy and ...

  8. Systematic Phenotyping of a Large-Scale Candida glabrata Deletion Collection Reveals Novel Antifungal Tolerance Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzmu?ller, Tobias; Ma, Biao; Hiller, Ekkehard; Istel, Fabian; Tscherner, Michael; Brunke, Sascha; Ames, Lauren; Firon, Arnaud; Green, Brian; Cabral, Vitor; Marcet-houben, Marina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Quintin, Jessica; Seider, Katja; Frohner, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is a frequent cause of candidiasis, causing infections ranging from superficial to life-threatening disseminated disease. The inherent tolerance of C. glabrata to azole drugs makes this pathogen a serious clinical threat. To identify novel genes implicated in antifungal drug tolerance, we have constructed a large-scale C. glabrata deletion library consisting of 619 unique, individually bar-coded mutant strains, each lacking one specific gene,...

  9. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional ...

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VARIOUS CANDIDA SPECIES AND ITS ANTIFUNGAL SENSITIVITY TESTING ISOLATED FROM ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH VAGINITIS, IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, WESTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCHAL P.A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: An estimated 75% of women will have at least one episode of VVC, and 40-45% will have two or more episodes within their lifetime and infection occurs more frequently in pregnant women-CDC. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis along with its antifungal susceptibility pattern among antenatal women attending Obstetric and Gynecology Department Sir T Hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.Methods: Vaginal swab specimens for culture were drawn from 100 female attending obstetric and gynecology Department, Sir T Hospital, Bhavnagar during August 2009 to August 2011. The specimen was inoculated into Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and the isolated colonies were identified by battery of biochemical reactions. The specimen were also inoculated Chrom Candida differential agar. Antifungal sensitivity pattern of isolates was studied by Modified Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion technique on Muller Hinton agar with 2% glucose and Methylene blue.Result: In this study, a total number of 100 patients of vaginal Candidiasis were included, among them 40 samples indicates positivity, out of them 22 samples (55% indicate Candida albicans and 18 samples (45% are Non albicans species.Conclusion: Vaginal candidiasis is an extremely common infection in 60-70% women during their reproductive age at least once in their lives. There is an increase in infections with non-albicans Candida spp. and few of them are intrinsically resistant to azoles. Effective antifungal treatment is an important criterion in treating the candidial infections.

  11. Changing Trends of HIV/AIDS in Otorhinolaryngology with CD4 (+) Count Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirti, Y K; Yashveer, J K; Poorey, V K

    2015-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the vital cells of the immune system eventually leading to a fall in the cell mediated immunity. As the disease progresses CD4 (+) (cluster of differentiation4) cells reduce, therefore is a good indicator of the ongoing disease process [1]. HIV infection has myriads of disease presentation; the aim of our study was to correlate the otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the CD4 (+) counts. A clinical study, of 100 HIV positive patients was done from 2008 to 2011. A clinical evaluation revealed 76 % incidence of otorhinolaryngological findings. Oropharyngeal manifestations were the commonest, seen in 48 %, predominantly oropharyngeal candidiasis. Neck nodes were found in 20 % of the patients. 31 % had otological manifestations of which retracted tympanic membrane (eustachian tube dysfunction) was the commonest. 18 % had nasal symptoms of which rhinosinusitis was the commonest being 14 %. The mean CD4 (+) count was below 200 in patients who presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis, otitis externa and epistaxis. With the use and availability of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) more and more patients with higher CD4 (+) count are presenting with a different spectrum of more subtle disease manifestations, with lower incidence of the classical diseases like candidiasis. A routine otorhinolaryngological evaluation at every visit with high index of suspicion can help in better disease control and give a better quality of life. PMID:25621247

  12. Invasive Fungal Infections in the ICU: How to Approach, How to Treat

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    Elisabeth Paramythiotou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a growing problem in critically ill patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most of them are due to Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Invasive candidiasis includes candidaemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement and chronic disseminated candidiasis. During the last decades rare pathogenic fungi, such as Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Fusarium species and Scedosporium have also emerged. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment are of paramount importance for a favorable outcome. Besides blood cultures, several laboratory tests have been developed in the hope of facilitating an earlier detection of infection. The antifungal armamentarium has also been expanded allowing a treatment choice tailored to individual patients’ needs. The physician can choose among the old class of polyenes, the older and newer azoles and the echinocandins. Factors related to patient’s clinical situation and present co-morbidities, local epidemiology data and purpose of treatment (prophylactic, pre-emptive, empiric or definitive should be taken into account for the appropriate choice of antifungal agent.

  13. Clotrimazole: a review of its antifungal activity and therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, P R; Brogden, R N; Pinder, R M; Speight, T M; Avery

    1975-01-01

    Clotrimazole 2, a synthetic imidazole derivative, is primarily used locally in the treatment of vaginal and skin infections due to yeasts and dermatophytes. In vitro, it is most active against Candida spp., Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp. and Malazzesia fuffur (Pityrosporon orbiculare). In addition, it has some in vitro activity against certain Gram-positive bacteria, and at very high concentrations has activity against Trichomonas spp. In the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, clotrimazole vaginal tablets have produced cure rates comparable with those of conventional nystatin vaginal tablets. There have been no published comparisons with nystatin vaginal cream or foaming vaginal tablets - nystatin dosage forms preferred by some clinicians. Cootrimazole has also been successful in patients who had failed to respond to other antifungal agents such as nystatin and amphotericin B. Results in trichomonal vaginitis are not impressive. Skin infections caused by Candida or dermatophytes have been effectively treated with topical application of clotrimazole. In comparative trials, clotrimazole cream has been as effective as Whitfield's ointment and tolnaftate in the treatment of dermatophytoses, and as effective as nystatin in cutaneous candidiasis. Clotrimazole topical preparations are generally well tolerated, but local irritation has necessitated withdrawal of therapy in a few cases. Candidal septicemia and urinary and pulmonary candidiasis have been cured with oral clotrimazole therapy. Results in other types of serious fungal infections, including pulmonary aspergillosis, have been disappointing. A limiting factor in oral clotrimazole therapy is the high incidence of gastro-intestinal disturbances and neurological reactions. PMID:1097234

  14. [Investigation of glucocorticoid-induced side effects in patients with autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Aya; Doki, Kosuke; Homma, Masato; Sagae, Terumi; Saito, Reiko; Ito, Satoshi; Sumida, Takayuki; Kohda, Yukinao

    2009-04-01

    High dose glucocorticoids (GC) are commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The frequencies, occurrence day and dose-dependency for side effects may be different among the events such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, infectious disease, osteoporosis, and peptic ulcer. We investigated GC-induced side effects in 68 patients treated with GC for autoimmune diseases. Initial dose of GC (prednisolone equivalent) was 0.67+/-0.35 mg/kg/d. Hypercholesterolemia (66%), hypertension (62%), insomnia (50%), hypertriglyceridemia (44%), excessive appetite (38%), hyperglycemia (18%), digestive symptom (16%), moon-shaped face (13%) and oral candidiasis (12%) were observed in 63 patients treated with GC. Hypercholesterolemia, excessive appetite, digestive symptom, moon-shaped face, and oral candidiasis were associated with the initial dose of prednisolone greater than 0.80 mg/kg/d. Insomnia [median 6 days (range 1-88)], excessive appetite [7 days (2-57)], hypertension [8 days (1-37)], digestive symptom [15 days (1-87)] and hypercholesterolemia [19 days (3-77)] were observed early after 6-19 days starting GC. On the other hand, hypertriglyceridemia [33 days (2-131)], oral candidiasis [35 days (7-52)] and hyperglycemia [60 days (4-134)] were developed after 33-60 days starting GC. Since the frequencies, dose-dependency and occurrence day were different among the side effects of GC, medical staffs including physicians and pharmacists should pay attention such features of the events in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:19336998

  15. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

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    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a ?2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  16. Survey of mycotic infection in patients with AIDS

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    Kazemi A

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the fungous infections of AIDS stricken patients, a study which lasted 1.5 years was conducted, in which 21 patients were examined. The subjects were 20 males and a female. One of the male patients was from Uganda, another was an intravenous drug addict, and one had been abroad for sometimes and had received blood there. All other patients had also blood transfusion instances before 1984. To do the research, 414 laboratory specimens were gathered and examined regarding fungus involvement. The result showed 104 negative and 310 positive cases. Based on these findings and also clinical examination, all patients suffered from one or more fungous infections in the forms of oral candidiasis, perleche, candidal onychomycosis, perianal candidiasis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, tinea versicolor, pityrosporosis and rhodotrulosis. The latter caused skin lesion with scaling and is being reported for the first time. Candida parapsilosis and trichosporon pololans were also isolated specimens. However, concerning the diagnostic value of trichosporon pololans more investigation is needed.

  17. Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira, Konstantyner; Aline Medeiros da, Silva; Luana Fiengo, Tanaka; Heloísa Helena de Sousa, Marques; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre.

    2197-22-01

    Full Text Available A recorrência da candidíase oral em crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS é um acontecimento muito comum na prática clínica. O objetivo foi verificar os fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral, utilizando técnica de análise de sobrevida para eventos recorrentes. Estudo de coorte retrospectivo c [...] om 287 crianças, atendidas entre 1985 e 2009, em um serviço de saúde de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi utilizado o modelo marginal para eventos recorrentes de Prentice, Williams e Peterson para investigação dos fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral. Imunodepressão moderada (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) ou grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in spanish La repetición de candidiasis oral en los niños que viven con VIH/SIDA es muy común en la práctica clínica. El objetivo fue verificar los factores asociados al tiempo libre y la candidiasis oral, usando la técnica de análisis de supervivencia para eventos recurrentes. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte [...] retrospectiva con 287 niños que visitaron entre 1985 y 2009 un servicio de salud de São Paulo, Brasil. Se usó el modelo marginal para eventos recurrentes de Prentice, Williams y Peterson, con el fin de investigar los factores asociados. Moderada inmunodepresión (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) o grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in english In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children t [...] reated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p

  18. Manifestaciones orales en pacientes VIH/SIDA asociadas a tratamiento antirretroviral y el estado inmunológico en dos fundaciones de la ciudad de Cartagena Oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients associated with antiretroviral treatment and immune status in two foundations of Cartagena city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Jiménez Malagón

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre las manifestaciones orales de pacientes VIH/SIDA con la terapia antirretroviral y el estado inmunológico. Metodología: Estudio de tipo transversal, en una población de 166 pacientes pertenecientes a dos fundaciones de la ciudad de Cartagena, la información se recolectó a través de un examen estomatológico intraoral teniendo en cuenta los criterios para el diagnóstico clínico de las manifestaciones orales asociadas a VIH establecidos por el Centro Colaborador de la OMS sobre las manifestaciones orales del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, los datos como niveles de carga viral, CD4 y la terapia antirretroviral se obtuvieron de la historia clínica médica. Resultados: La prevalencia de manifestaciones orales asociadas a VIH fue del 59,5%, la candidiasis fue la manifestación oral más frecuente, con una prevalencia de 35,5%, los pacientes tratados con monoterapia presentaron menos manifestaciones orales que aquellos tratados con biterapia con valores estadísticamente significativo, OR: 0,20, IC: 0,00-0,96 (pObjective: The aim of this study was to determine the association between oral manifestations of AIDS patients with antiretroviral therapy and their immune status. Methodology: a cross-sectional study was done in a population of 166 patients from two Cartagena´s city foundations, the information was collected through an intraoral stomatological examination considering the standard for the clinical diagnosis of oral manifestations associated with AIDS established by the Collaborating Centre WHO about oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus, information such as viral load, CD4 and antiretroviral therapy were obtained from the medical history. Results: The prevalence of oral manifestations associated with AIDS was 59.5%, candidiasis was the most common oral manifestation with a prevalence of 35.5%, the patients treated with oral monotherapy had fewer events than those treated with combination therapy with statistically significant values, OR: 0.20, CI 0.00-0.96 (p<0.02, pseudomembranous candidiasis as oral manifestations associated with AIDS has less probabilities to occur when patients have CD4 levels above 500 cel./mm³ showing values statistically significant with a OR: 0.297, CI: 0103-0852 (p<0.03. Conclusions: Patients treated with monotherapy as antiretroviral drug therapy presented less oral manifestations than patients treated with dual therapy, about candidiasis, the subtype pseudomembranous candidiasis has less probabilities to occur when you have CD4 levels above 500 cel./mm³.

  19. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

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    Boji?-Mili?evi? Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific diagnosis and are implemented early in the course of Candida infection (that is, empirical therapy or before Candida infection occurs (that is, prophylaxis might improve patient survival and may be warranted. Selective and nonselective administration of anti-Candida prophylaxis is practiced in some ICUs. Several trials have tested this, but results were limited by low statistical power and choice of outcomes. Thus, the role of anti-Candida prophylaxis for patients in the ICU remains controversial. Initiating anti-Candida therapy for patients in the ICU who have suspected infection but have not responded to antibacterial therapy (empirical therapy is practiced in some hospitals. This practice, however, remains a subject of considerable debate. These patients are perceived to be at higher risk from invasive candidiasis and therefore are likely to benefit from empirical therapy. Nonetheless, empirical anti-Candida therapies have not been evaluated in a randomized trial and would share shortcomings that are similar to those described for prophylactic strategies. Current treatment guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA do not specify whether empirical anti-Candida therapy should be provided to immunocompetent patients. If such therapy is given, IDSA recommends that its use should be limited to patients with Candida colonization in multiple sites, patients with several other risk factors, and patients with no uncorrected causes of fever. Without data from clinical trials, determining an optimal anti-Candida strategy for patients in the ICU is challenging. Identifying such a strategy can help guide clinicians in choosing adequate therapy and may improve patient outcomes. In our study, we developed a decision analytic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of empirical anti-Candida therapy given to high-risk patients in the ICU, defined as those with altered temperature (fever or hypothermia or unexplained hypotension despite 3 days of antibacterial therapy in the ICU.

  20. Enfermedad fúngica invasora en pacientes hemato-oncológicos y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos bajo la perspectiva de los criterios diagnósticos EORTC/MSG / Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Rabagliati B; Gino, Fuentes L; Ana María, Guzmán D; Eric, Orellana U; Jorge, Oporto C; Igor, Aedo C; Marcelo, Garrido S; Bruno, Nervi N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) es una complicación grave en pacientes hemato-oncológicos (H-O) y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH). Objetivo: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas en pacientes adultos H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro, bajo los crit [...] erios diagnósticos revisados de EORTC/MSG. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de EFI en pacientes adultos del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero 2004 y enero 2008. Resultados: Se identificaron 41 episodios de EFI, correspondientes a 39 pacientes: 46,6 ± 9,9 años, 87,8% H-Oy 12,2% TPH. Se documentaron 15/41 (36,6%) EFI demostrada, 36,6% probable y 11/41 (26,8%) posible. En 26/41 (63,4%o) se diagnosticó aspergilosis (20 pulmonar, 3 rinosinusal, 1 laríngeo y un caso cerebral-pulmonar). En 7/41 (17,1%) se diagnosticó candidiasis, 5 candidemias y 2 candidiasis hepato-esplénica posibles; 4/41 (9,8%o) correspondió a mucormicosis demostrada (2 rinosinusal, 1 oral y 1 pulmonar); en 2/41 (4,9%o) fusariosis; 1/41(2,4%)) coinfección pulmonar por mucoral y Aspergillus sp y 1 caso de rinosinusitis por Alternaría sp. La frecuencia de EFI entre pacientes H-O con neutropenia febril fue 26,2%) y 6,4%) en los receptores de TPH. La mortalidad global fue de 36%). Conclusiones: Aspergilosis es la EFI más frecuente en H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro. Candidiasis es la segunda EFI en frecuencia; sin embargo, no se documentó entre los pacientes receptores de TPH, lo que puede relacionarse al uso de antifúngicos profilácticos en este grupo. Es necesaria la vigilancia continua para desarrollar guías clínicas locales y evaluar estrategias de uso de antifúngicos en distintos escenarios clínicos. Abstract in english Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a severe complication oceurring mostly in haemato-oncological (H-O) patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD oceurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. Pat [...] ients and Methods: IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. Results: A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 ± 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% oceurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6%) episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8%) possible. In 26 (63.4%) episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement). In 7 patients (17.1%) candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8%) Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%), and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaría sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evalúate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

  1. Enfermedad fúngica invasora en pacientes hemato-oncológicos y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos bajo la perspectiva de los criterios diagnósticos EORTC/MSG Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria

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    Ricardo Rabagliati B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI es una complicación grave en pacientes hemato-oncológicos (H-O y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH. Objetivo: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas en pacientes adultos H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro, bajo los criterios diagnósticos revisados de EORTC/MSG. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de EFI en pacientes adultos del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero 2004 y enero 2008. Resultados: Se identificaron 41 episodios de EFI, correspondientes a 39 pacientes: 46,6 ± 9,9 años, 87,8% H-Oy 12,2% TPH. Se documentaron 15/41 (36,6% EFI demostrada, 36,6% probable y 11/41 (26,8% posible. En 26/41 (63,4%o se diagnosticó aspergilosis (20 pulmonar, 3 rinosinusal, 1 laríngeo y un caso cerebral-pulmonar. En 7/41 (17,1% se diagnosticó candidiasis, 5 candidemias y 2 candidiasis hepato-esplénica posibles; 4/41 (9,8%o correspondió a mucormicosis demostrada (2 rinosinusal, 1 oral y 1 pulmonar; en 2/41 (4,9%o fusariosis; 1/41(2,4% coinfección pulmonar por mucoral y Aspergillus sp y 1 caso de rinosinusitis por Alternaría sp. La frecuencia de EFI entre pacientes H-O con neutropenia febril fue 26,2% y 6,4% en los receptores de TPH. La mortalidad global fue de 36%. Conclusiones: Aspergilosis es la EFI más frecuente en H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro. Candidiasis es la segunda EFI en frecuencia; sin embargo, no se documentó entre los pacientes receptores de TPH, lo que puede relacionarse al uso de antifúngicos profilácticos en este grupo. Es necesaria la vigilancia continua para desarrollar guías clínicas locales y evaluar estrategias de uso de antifúngicos en distintos escenarios clínicos.Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD is a severe complication oceurring mostly in haemato-oncological (H-O patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD oceurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. Patients and Methods: IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. Results: A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 ± 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% oceurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6% episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8% possible. In 26 (63.4% episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement. In 7 patients (17.1% candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8% Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%, and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaría sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evalúate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

  2. Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 109/L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P9/L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P9/L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common finidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

  3. Candida sp in the oral cavity with and without lesions: maximal inhibitory dilution of Propolis and Periogard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Rosa Vitória Palamin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty individuals of both sexes aged on average 45.2 years were evaluated at the Semiology Clinic of FORP-USP in order to isolate and identify yeasts from the oral cavity, with and without lesions, and to determine the maximal inhibitory dilution (MID of the commercial products Propolis (Apis-Flora and Periogard (Colgate against the strains isolated. Yeasts of the genus Candida were detected in the saliva of 9/19 (47.4% individuals with a clinically healthy mouth, 18/22 (81.8% of individuals with oral lesions, and in 4/9 (44.4% of patients with deviation from normality, and were detected in 19/22 (86.4% of the lesions. In the group with oral candidiasis, we isolated in tongue and lesion, respectively for each specie: C.tropicalis (8% and 10.7%, C.glabrata (4% and 3.6% and C.parapsilosis (2% and 3.6%, in addition to C.albicans (71.4% and 67.8% as the only species and the prevalent. The total cfu counts/ml saliva showed a higher mean value in the group with oral candidiasis (171.5% x 10(3 than in the control group (72.6 x 10(3 or the group with abnormalities (8.3 x 10(3. Most of the test strains 67/70 (95.71% were sensitive to the antiseptics, with Propolis presenting a MID of 1:20 for 54/70/77.1%, and Periogard a MID of 1:160 for 42/70 (60% strains from healthy sites, results similar to those obtained with strains from oral lesions. Different results were mainly observed among different species. The results indicate the possibility of using the antiseptics Propolis and Periogard (chlorhexidine for the prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis.

  4. Prevalence of oral lesions and the effects of HAART in adult HIV patients attending a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Eweka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions have been reported to be early clinical features of HIV infection. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of oral lesions and the management outcome using HAART in HIV Seropositive patients attending a tertiary hos- pital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a prospective study in 114 newly diagnosed adult HIV infected patients (not on antiretroviral therapy, who attended the PEPFAR clinic at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. They were assessed for oral lesions which were evaluated using EEC/WHO—Classification on the diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV. Data were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Oral examination was carried out and oral lesions detected were recorded. Presence or absence of oral lesions was evaluated following 3 months use of HAART. Results: 114 patients were enrolled into the study, 49(43.0% males and 65(57.0% females, with age range of 18-63 years. 42 (36.8% presented with oral lesions, 19 (45.2% of which had multiple lesions. Oral Candidiasis which accounted for 47.7% was the most common oral lesion observed followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (21.6% and oral hyperpigmentation (10.8%. Pseudomembraneous Candidiasis was the most common variant of oral Candidiasis seen. Prevalence of oral lesions was significantly associated with low CD4 count and high viral load. Eighty four percent (84% of oral lesions disappeared following 3 months of HAART treatment. Conclusion: Oral lesions are common features of HIV and a marker for progression of the disease to AIDS. There was significant reduction in oral lesions following 3 months treatment with HAART.

  5. Equinocandinas / Echinocandins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge A, Cortés L; July A, Russi N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las equinocandinas -caspofugina, micafungina y ani-dulafungina- son lipopéptidos que inhiben el crecimiento fúngico al unirse a la ?-(1,3) d glucano sintetasa, enzima esencial para la síntesis en la pared celular de hongos como Candida spp, y menos importante en el caso de especies de Aspergillus y [...] Fusarium. Se revisa la historia, farmacología y los diferentes ensayos clínicos que han evidenciado similar eficacia clínica a la de anfotericina B para el manejo de infecciones micóticas como candidemia, candidiasis invasora y aspergilosis, inclusive en casos refractarios al manejo inicial. Estos medicamentos tienen menor toxicidad y en pocos casos hay necesidad de retiro del tratamiento. Dado su espectro y tolerabilidad similar, su farmacología permite diferenciarlas. Se dispone de información limitada de estudios clínicos que las comparen entre ellas, limitando la extrapolación de la información a todo el grupo. Sin embargo, presentan eficacia clínica comprobada en pacientes con varias micosis invasoras. Abstract in english The echinocandins, caspofugin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are lipopeptides that inhibit fungal growth by binding to ? - (1.3) d glucan synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall, and it is essential in fungi such as Candida spp, but less important in th [...] e case of Aspergillus and Fusarium species. We review the history, pharmacology and clinical trials that have showed clinical efficacy similar to amphotericin B for the management of fungal infections such as candidemia, invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, even in cases refractory to initial treatment. These drugs have less toxicity and discontinuation is uncommonly required. Despite similar spectrum and tolerability, there are several pharmacological differences. Only a few clinical trials compare the clinical efficacy between them and their clinical application cannot be generalized. However, the echinocandins have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis and in others forms of systemic mycoses.

  6. Manifestaciones bucales de vih-sida en edad temprana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VILMA, TOVAR; MARÍA ELENA, GUERRA; LUCILA, BLANCO.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La transmisión vertical del Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana de la madre al niño durante el embarazo, parto y a través de la leche materna representa un 91% de todos los casos de Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida reportados en la población infantil de los EE.UU. La mejor manera de evitar la i [...] nfección en los niños es prevenir la infección en las mujeres y fomentar una atención prenatal precoz que incluya orientación y pruebas de detección del VIH. Objetivo: Determinar las manifestaciones bucales más frecuentes en niños VIH-SIDA. Materiales y métodos: Se examinaron clínicamente a 59 niños de 0 a 4 años siguiendo el protocolo establecido en el CAPEI/UCV entre 2002-2004. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el método de Clasificación Jerárquica de Ward, aplicado a todas las manifestaciones bucales estudiadas Resultados: Parotiditis: 20 (33,9%); Candidiasis 38 (54,4%); Queilitis 30 (50,8%); Gingivitis 25 (42,4%), GUN 1 (1,7%) Eritema lineal 19 (32,2); Epstein Barr 5 (8,5%); Virus del Herpes Simple 13 (22%). Conclusión: De acuerdo a la manifestación bucal observada se identifico a la candidiasis como la más relevante en los dos aspectos estudiados: Queilitis angular y Candidiasis pseudomembranosa. Abstract in english The vertical transmission their main mode of infection in children from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery and brest feeding about 91% of all cases. The better way to prevent the HIV infection is control and orientation to pregnant woman to make a test to detect HIV The objective of this stu [...] dy was to determine oral manifestations in children HIV/ADIS Materials and methods: Were examined 59 children to .evaluate oral lesions. aged 0 to 4 years follow CAPEI/UCV protocolo during 2002 - 2004. The statistical analyzed was jerarquica Ward classification. Results

  7. Equinocandinas Echinocandins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Cortés L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las equinocandinas -caspofugina, micafungina y ani-dulafungina- son lipopéptidos que inhiben el crecimiento fúngico al unirse a la ?-(1,3 d glucano sintetasa, enzima esencial para la síntesis en la pared celular de hongos como Candida spp, y menos importante en el caso de especies de Aspergillus y Fusarium. Se revisa la historia, farmacología y los diferentes ensayos clínicos que han evidenciado similar eficacia clínica a la de anfotericina B para el manejo de infecciones micóticas como candidemia, candidiasis invasora y aspergilosis, inclusive en casos refractarios al manejo inicial. Estos medicamentos tienen menor toxicidad y en pocos casos hay necesidad de retiro del tratamiento. Dado su espectro y tolerabilidad similar, su farmacología permite diferenciarlas. Se dispone de información limitada de estudios clínicos que las comparen entre ellas, limitando la extrapolación de la información a todo el grupo. Sin embargo, presentan eficacia clínica comprobada en pacientes con varias micosis invasoras.The echinocandins, caspofugin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are lipopeptides that inhibit fungal growth by binding to ? - (1.3 d glucan synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall, and it is essential in fungi such as Candida spp, but less important in the case of Aspergillus and Fusarium species. We review the history, pharmacology and clinical trials that have showed clinical efficacy similar to amphotericin B for the management of fungal infections such as candidemia, invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, even in cases refractory to initial treatment. These drugs have less toxicity and discontinuation is uncommonly required. Despite similar spectrum and tolerability, there are several pharmacological differences. Only a few clinical trials compare the clinical efficacy between them and their clinical application cannot be generalized. However, the echinocandins have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis and in others forms of systemic mycoses.

  8. Anti-Candida albicans activity and pharmacokinetics of pogostone isolated from Pogostemonis Herba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Cui; Liang, Hai-Chun; Chen, Hai-Ming; Tan, Li-Rong; Yi, Yu-Yang; Qin, Zhen; Zhang, Wei-Min; Wu, Dian-Wei; Li, Chu-Wen; Lin, Rong-Feng; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2012-12-15

    The present work was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity of pogostone (PO), a natural product isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. PO showed potent in vitro activity against clinical Candida spp. isolates tested in this study. PO and the reference drug voriconazole (VRC) were equally effective against all the fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains, with MIC ranging from 3.1 ?g/ml to 50 ?g/ml. Besides, PO was fungicidal against all Candida isolates with MFC ranging from 50 ?g/ml to 400 ?g/ml. By contrast, VRC was fungistatic as it failed to elicit a fungicidal effect against the Candida spp. isolates at the highest tested concentration (400 ?g/ml). Furthermore, oral and topical PO administration effectively reduced the fungal load in vagina of vulvovaginal candidiasis mouse models. Topical PO administration (1.0-4.0 mg/kg) demonstrated higher activity against the vulvovaginal candidiasis than VRC (4.0 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of PO were also investigated. The pharmacokinetics assay revealed that PO was easily absorbed after oral administration in mice, which might account for its in vivo anti-Candida effect. The acute toxicity test showed that the median lethal dose of PO in mice was 355 mg/kg, which was much higher than the daily dose used for the therapeutic experiments. This study demonstrated the potential of PO as a promising candidate for the treatment of Candida infections, particularly for vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:23159370

  9. Efficient Anaerobic Fermentation of Simple Sugars by Yeast Fuels Resistance Candida spp. Infections to Eradication by Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedosa I. Valentine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Human systemic Candida infections had proved difficult to eradicate by the medical health care system. Some practitioners and scholars see the problem as being due to drug resistance. For example an author wrote that ?secondary drug resistance is clearly being encountered in one setting, oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection usually following years or months of azole therapy. Approach: This research work understudied the nutritional strategies of yeast colonies to serve as a guide to understanding the survival strategies of Candida colonies in human Candidiasis. The aim of the research was to make some impute into more effective ways of eradicating human Candida infections. Ethanol was produced biologically by fermentation of sugar by micro-organisms. The yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae metabolises complex carbohydrates like starch in the absence of oxygen to ethanol, carbon dioxide and water. This study compared the average ethanol yield of hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed gelatinized cassava starch fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The starch was hydrolyzed by ? and ?-amylase enzymes. Fermentation of the starch was done with a 1% innoculums of a 12 h culture of saccharomyces cerevisiae incubated for 48 h under anaerobic conditions. Results: The results of the study showed that there was no starch hydrolysis in the absence of ? and ?-amylase enzymes. Starch hydrolysis in the presence of ? and ?-amylase enzyme took 1 h. There was no starch fermentation in the absence of saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield of starch which had been hydrolyzed by ? and ?-amylases prior to fermentation by saccharomyces cerevisae was 28 times higher than the ethanol yield of starch which had not been previously hydrolyzed by ? and ?-amylases. These results of the study suggest that yeast infections in human and animal tissues produce 28 times more ethanol yield from the glucose present in the host tissues (for tissue respiration than they would produce from the fermentation of unhydrolyzed starch outside the body tissues of the host (like from undigested starchy food trapped in the mouth and throat by oropharyngeal Candida infections. Conclusion: The findings of the study enables us to conclude that this innate ability of yeast species to easily produce large yields of ethanol from anaerobic fermentation of simple sugars like glucose creates a competitive advantage which enhances their continuous survival in systemic human body tissues where glucose available for host tissue respiration is ever present. The efficient eradication of such yeast infections in human victims (and animals should incorporate ways of diminishing the availability of excess hydrolyzed sugars in the host tissues (which the yeast colonies easily survive on. The escalating effect of stress (including oxidative stress on Candidiasis lnfection proliferation should also be communicated to systemic Candidiasis patients.

  10. Hyper-Immunoglobulin E Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnanraj Pushpa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hyper-IgE syndrome in a 6 year old boy with bronchial asthma is reported here with the various manifestations of multiple tender abscesses of the scalp, recurrent dermatophyte infections of his face and right thigh, eczematous lesions of his neck, shoulders and antecubital fossae, candidiasis of the tongue, angular cheilitis and total dystrophy of his right bit toe nail. Laboratory investigations revealed staphylococcus aureus infection of the scalp, Trichophyton rubrum infection of the face and the thigh and candidal onychomycosis. Immunological survey revealed markedly elevated serum lgE level.

  11. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  12. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, A.J.; Wara, W.M.; Wara, D.W.; Phillips, T.L.

    1977-07-01

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  13. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, M.; Aktas, E. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical School

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of mycotic infections and to improve the radiotherapy schedule in head and neck cancer patients. (author)

  14. Urgencias estomatológicas en pacientes con VIH/SIDA de la Clínica Estomatológica Docente "Yuri Gómez Reinoso" / Stomatology urgencies in HIV/AIDS patients in "Yuri Gómez Reinoso" Stomatology Teaching Clinic

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susel, Quesada Peña; Amílcar, González Sánchez.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal con el objetivo de identificar la edad, el sexo y la frecuencia de urgencias estomatológicas y su relación con el tiempo de infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana y el consumo de antirretrovirales. El universo lo constituyeron 3 [...] 2 pacientes mayores de edad, con infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, que se presentaron con urgencias estomatológicas en la clínica "Yuri Gómez Reinoso", en La Habana, Cuba, entre el mes de enero de 2008 e igual mes de 2010. Resultó que el 68,75 % correspondieron al sexo masculino, el 31,25 % con edades de 31 a 40 años, el 25 % presentaron estomatitis aftosa recurrente, el 21,8 % absceso dentoalveolar agudo, el 15,62 % pulpitis irreversible aguda y candidiasis eritematosa y el 37,5 % xerostomía. El 46,87 % de los pacientes con infección por el virus de 6 a 10 años de diagnóstico presentaron urgencias. El 46,9 % de los pacientes, no consumían medicamentos antirretrovirales y el 53,1 % sí lo consumían. Estas diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas (p= 0,8026). Se concluyó que en los pacientes estudiados, predominó el sexo masculino y los mayores de 31 años. Los tipos de urgencias mayormente tratadas fueron: estomatitis aftosa recurrente, absceso dentoalveolar agudo, pulpitis irreversible y candidiasis eritematosa. En la investigación no se constaron diferencias entre la presencia de urgencias y el consumo de antirretrovirales. Abstract in english A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted to identify age, sex and frequency of Stomatology urgencies and its relation to time of infection from HIV and of antiretroviral consumption drugs. Universe included 32 HIV/AIDS adult patients came with Stomatology urgencies in the [...] "Yuri Gómez Reinoso" Teaching Clinic between January, 2008 and January, 2010. The 68.75 % corresponded to male sex, the 31.25 % aged from 31 to 40, the 125 % had recurrent aphthous stomatitis, the 21.8 % had acute dentoalveolar abscess and the 15.62 % had acute irreversible pulpitis and erythematous candidiasis, the 37.5 % had Xerostomia. The 46.87 % of patients with HIV from 6 to 10 years of diagnosed had urgencies. The 46.9 % had no of antiretroviral drugs consumption but the 53.1 % yes; these differences were not statistically significant (p= 0.8026). We conclude that in study patients there was predominance of male sex and age over 31 years; the urgency types: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, acute dentoalveolar abscess, irreversible pulpitis and erythematous candidiasis in decreasing order without differences between the urgency presence and antiretroviral drugs consumption.

  15. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Peters, P.E.; Schellong, S.; Eiff, M. von

    1989-05-01

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis.

  16. The solution structure of the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator in complex with non-modified histone H3 tail reveals the antagonistic role of H3R2 methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Chignola, Francesca; Gaetani, Massimiliano; REBANE, ANA; Org, Tõnis; Mollica, Luca; Zucchelli, Chiara; Spitaleri, Andrea; Mannella, Valeria; Peterson, Pärt; Musco, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers are often present in chromatin-binding proteins and have been shown to bind histone H3 N-terminal tails. Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, which harbours two PHD fingers, cause a rare monogenic disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE activates the expression of tissue-specific antigens by directly binding through its first PHD finger (AIRE-PHD1) to histone H3 tails non-methylated at K4 (H3K4me0)...

  17. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respectere statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of mycotic infections and to improve the radiotherapy schedule in head and neck cancer patients. (author)

  18. Comparison of in vivo activity of fluconazole with that of amphotericin B against Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Fisher; Shen, S.H.; Haddad, J.; Tarry, W F

    1989-01-01

    Fluconazole (UK-49,858) is a new oral bis-triazole antifungal agent with demonstrated activity against Candida albicans. Because of the increasing importance of infections due to other species of Candida, we studied the efficacy of fluconazole in a rat model of established systemic candidiasis, using clinical isolates of C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, and C. Krusei. In normal rats, oral fluconazole at both 20 and 80 mg/kg per day for 7 days reduced both kidney and liver titers of C. tropicalis a...

  19. Efficacy of D0870 treatment of experimental Candida vaginitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Fidel, P.L.; Cutright, J L; Sobel, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    In this study, oral administration of the triazole D0870 was compared to oral administration of fluconazole in the treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis. With an estrogen-dependent murine model of Candida albicans vaginal infection, the effects of D0870 on several isolates, including fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant isolates, were tested. D0870, at doses of 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg of body weight given once over the course of a 10-day infection, was effective in eradicating vaginitis c...

  20. Fungicidal Activity of Fluconazole against Candida albicans in a Synthetic Vagina-Simulative Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.; Sobel, Jack D.; Elhalis, Hussain; Du, Wenjin; Akins, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Fluconazole (FLZ) has emerged as a highly successful agent in the management of systemic infections of Candida. Cure rates for symptomatic candidiasis following single 150-mg FLZ dose therapy exceed 90%. In vitro, however, FLZ is fungistatic only in a narrow pH range and is not effective at vaginal pH, 4.2. This study evaluated the effect of FLZ on Candida albicans under in vitro conditions resembling the vaginal microenvironment, using vagina-simulative medium (VS). We found that FLZ was fun...