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Sample records for candidiasis

  1. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...

  2. Candidiasis vaginal en primigestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karleidy Torres

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar evidencias de candidiasis vaginal en pacientes que acuden a la consulta prenatal de la Maternidad Castillo Plaza, utilizando como medio diagnostico el test Intray Colorex Yeast. Método: Se estudiaron embarazadas primigestas con sospecha clínica de candidiasis vaginal. Las muestras de secreción vaginal se inocularon en el medio Intray Colorex Yeast e incubaron a 37 °C durante 48 a 72 horas. Ambiente: Maternidad Castillo Plaza de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Resultados: Se demostró que un 38% (24 pacientes presentaron candidiasis vaginal. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (88%, seguida por glabrata (8% y krusei (4%. Conclusión: El desarrollo de colonias verdes, rosado oscuro y rosado claro (albicans, glabrata y krusei respectivamente sugiere la utilidad del medio Intray Colorex Yeast para la identificación rápida de las principales especies productoras de candidiasis.Objective: Determine evidence of vaginal candidiasis in first-pregnancy mothers who assisted to pregnancy control to the Maternidad Castillo Plaza, using the test Intray Colorex Yeast as a medium for diagnosis. Method: We were studied first-pregnancy mothers in prenatal control with clinical suspicion of vaginal candidiasis. The samples of the vaginal secretions were inoculated on Intray Colorex Yeast medium and incubated to 37°C during 48- 72 hours. Setting: Maternidad Castillo Plaza . Maracaibo, Estado Zulia Results: The study demostrated that 38% (24 patients presented vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (88% followed by glabrata (8% and krusei (4%. Conclusion: The development of the green colonies, dark pink and light pink characteristic of albicans, glabrata and krusei suggest the possible use of the Intray Colorex Yeast medium for quickly identification of the Candida species investigated.

  3. Candidiasis vaginal en primigestas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Karleidy, Torres; Augusto, Soto; Desiré, Sandrea; María, Villalobos; Agustin, Rodríguez; Manzur, Hassanhi; Luz Mila, Mesa.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar evidencias de candidiasis vaginal en pacientes que acuden a la consulta prenatal de la Maternidad Castillo Plaza, utilizando como medio diagnostico el test Intray Colorex Yeast. Método: Se estudiaron embarazadas primigestas con sospecha clínica de candidiasis vaginal. Las muestr [...] as de secreción vaginal se inocularon en el medio Intray Colorex Yeast e incubaron a 37 °C durante 48 a 72 horas. Ambiente: Maternidad Castillo Plaza de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Resultados: Se demostró que un 38% (24 pacientes) presentaron candidiasis vaginal. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (88%), seguida por glabrata (8%) y krusei (4%). Conclusión: El desarrollo de colonias verdes, rosado oscuro y rosado claro (albicans, glabrata y krusei respectivamente) sugiere la utilidad del medio Intray Colorex Yeast para la identificación rápida de las principales especies productoras de candidiasis. Abstract in english Objective: Determine evidence of vaginal candidiasis in first-pregnancy mothers who assisted to pregnancy control to the Maternidad Castillo Plaza, using the test Intray Colorex Yeast as a medium for diagnosis. Method: We were studied first-pregnancy mothers in prenatal control with clinical suspici [...] on of vaginal candidiasis. The samples of the vaginal secretions were inoculated on Intray Colorex Yeast medium and incubated to 37°C during 48- 72 hours. Setting: Maternidad Castillo Plaza . Maracaibo, Estado Zulia Results: The study demostrated that 38% (24 patients) presented vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (88%) followed by glabrata (8%) and krusei (4%). Conclusion: The development of the green colonies, dark pink and light pink characteristic of albicans, glabrata and krusei suggest the possible use of the Intray Colorex Yeast medium for quickly identification of the Candida species investigated.

  4. Candidiasis in captive pinnipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J L; Buck, J D; Spotte, S

    1984-12-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, and possible pathogenesis of candidiasis were studied in 5 species of pinnipeds in captivity: gray seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). The animals were kept outdoors in a freshwater exhibit. Candidiasis was characterized by purulent nasal discharge, inflammation of the lips at the mucocutaneous junction, periocular alopecia, vaginitis, and dermatitis. Administration of ketoconazole at dosages of 5 mg/kg BID and 10 mg/kg SID controlled the disease. Wild gulls were suspected as vectors of Candida albicans. PMID:6096327

  5. Oral candidiasis: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Arun; Verma, Renuka; Murari, Aditi; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your “beneficial flora” and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis o...

  6. Oesophageal candidiasis after omeprazole therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, A. J.; Lendrum, R.

    1992-01-01

    Oesophageal candidiasis was diagnosed incidentally at endoscopy in two patients receiving omeprazole therapy. There were no other predisposing factors for the development of candidiasis. The infection was resolved rapidly by anti-candidal therapy and by stopping omeprazole. These findings suggest that gastric acid secretion and physiological reflux of acid into the oesophagus may play a protective role in preventing candida infection.

  7. Oral candidiasis: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Verma, Renuka; Murari, Aditi; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2014-09-01

    Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Thrush. This is a fungal infection (Mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. When this happens, it can create a widespread havoc to our overall health and well-being of our body. PMID:25364186

  8. Oral Candidiasis and Oral Hyperplastic Candidiasis: Clinical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the oral cavity. It is common and underdiagnosed among the elderly, particularly in those who wear dentures and in many cases is avoidable with a good mouth care regimen. It can also be a mark of systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and is a common problem among the immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is caused by an overgrowth or infection of the oral cavity by a yeast-like fungus, candida.The important ones are C albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata , C pseudotropicalis, C guillierimondii, C krusei, C lusitaniae, C parapsilosis and C stellatoidea. C albicans, C glabrata and C tropicalis represent more than 80% of isolates from clinical infection. Oral candidiasis is the most common human fungal infection especially in early and later life. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing`s syndrome, malignancies and immunosuppressive conditions. The aim of the research is to describe the clinical manifestations of the disease.

  9. [Oropharyngeal candidiasis in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Marie; Gogly, Bruno; Tahmasebi, Farzad; Paillaud, Elena

    2011-03-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The prevalence in the hospital or institution varies from 13 to 47% of elderly persons. The main clinical types are denture stomatitis, acute atrophic glossitis, thrush and angular cheilitis. Diagnosis is usually made on clinical ground. Culture and sensitivity testing should be undertaken if initial therapy is unsuccessful. Predisposing factors of oral candidiasis could be local and/or systemic. Local factors include wearing dentures, impaired salivary gland function and poor oral health. Systemic factors include antibiotics and some other drugs, malnutrition, diabetes, immunosuppression and malignancies. Management involves an appropriate antifungal treatment and oral hygiene. Predisposing factors should be treated or eliminated where feasible. Oral hygiene involves cleaning the teeth and dentures. Dentures should be disinfected daily and left out overnight. PMID:21586373

  10. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K. Rungmei S. K.; Gurjar, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent ...

  11. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyefara, B. I.; Kim, H. C.; Danziger, R. N.; Carroll, M.; Greene, J. M.; Douglas, S. D.

    1994-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by T-cell dysregulation and chronic superficial candidal infections. We report on three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis who developed autoantibodies to erythrocytes. Our first patient, a 19-year-old female, developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that required multiple courses of treatment, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and danazol. During the last exacerbation of AIHA,...

  12. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Armin; Azim, Afzal; Baronia, Arvind Kumar; Marak, K Rungmei S K; Gurjar, Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC) has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies. PMID:25316979

  13. [Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larregina, A; Bartoletti, B; Romano, H; Paniccia, L; Polini, N N

    2004-01-01

    Chronic diseminated candidiasis--mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment. PMID:15176375

  14. Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  15. Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Larregina

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento.Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  16. Current treatment strategies for disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellberg, Brad J; Filler, Scott G; Edwards, John E

    2006-01-15

    The incidence of disseminated candidiasis has increased dramatically over the past several decades. Fortunately, in recent years, a variety of new antifungal agents have become available to treat these infections. On the basis of efficacy, safety, and cost considerations, fluconazole is the agent of choice for the empirical treatment of disseminated candidiasis in nonneutropenic, hemodynamically stable patients, unless a patient is suspected to be infected with an azole-resistant species (i.e., Candida glabrata or Candida krusei). For hemodynamically unstable or neutropenic patients, agents with broader species coverage, such as polyenes, echinocandins, or, possibly, voriconazole, are preferred for empirical treatment of candidemia. Modification of the initial, empirical regimen depends on the response to therapy and the subsequent identification of the species of the offending pathogen. Echinocandins or high-dose polyenes are preferred for the treatment of infections with C. glabrata or C. krusei. Central venous catheters should be removed from all patients who have disseminated candidiasis, if feasible, and antifungal therapy should be administered to all patients who have candidemia or proven candidiasis. PMID:16355336

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yapar N

    2014-01-01

    Nur Yapar Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, ?zmir, Turkey Abstract: The number of immunosuppressive patients has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are at risk for opportunistic infections, especially fungal infections. Candidiasis is one of the most frequent fungal infections determined in these immunosuppressive patients and its epidemiology has changed over the last two decades. Recently, ne...

  18. Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji? Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a disseminated invasive fungal infection that may affects patients with acute leukemia. The main clinical manifestation is a persistent fever in patients recovered from prolonged neutropenia after recent chemotherapy. CASE OUTLINE The authors present three patients, two women and one men, aged 23, 26 and 33 years, with acute leukemia; one with acute myeloblastic and two with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed hepatosplenic candidiasis. The diagnosis was based on prolonged fever, elevated serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, as well as characteristic lesions on computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and ultrasonographic findings and positive blood culture in one patient. The antifungal treatment was successful in one patient only. Two patients died due to progression of leukemia. CONCLUSION If leukemia patient in remission after chemotherapy develops a prolonged fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenic candidiasis has to be considered and all efforts should be done to diagnose it. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and imaging techniques. The positive cultures of fungi are not usually possible and are not mandatory. The antifungal treatment may be prolonged, sometimes 2 to 3 months or even more.

  19. Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda / Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Larregina; B., Bartoletti; H., Romano; L., Paniccia; N. N., Polini.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) M2, internado en el [...] Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC) y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento. Abstract in english Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia af [...] ter induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  20. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Scott G

    2012-04-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is critical for the host defense against vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidal colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. They also indicate that CARD9 is important for preventing both mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, whereas the Th17 response is necessary for the defense against mucocutaneous candidiasis. This article reviews the recent studies of genetic defects in humans that result in an increased susceptibility to candidiasis and discusses how these studies provide new insight into the host defense against different types of candidal infections. PMID:22015104

  1. Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Judy, Rodríguez Ortega; Josefa, Miranda Tarragó; Haydée, Morejón Lugones; Julio C, Santana Garay.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta [...] alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural. Abstract in english This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as exten [...] ded antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

  2. Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Rodríguez Ortega

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural.This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as extended antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

  3. La candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis / Candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isidro de Jesús, Nápoles González; Silvia María, Díaz Gómez; Elizabeth, Puig Capote; Nelia, Espeso Nápoles.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Cuando la candidiasis se asocia con la prótesis removible puede inducir a la formación de estomatitis subprótesis, esencialmente en aparatos desajustados y con muchos años de uso. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis. Método: Se r [...] ealizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente de La Vigía desde enero a marzo de 2008 en 30 pacientes mayores de 20 años y de ambos sexos con estomatitis subprótesis (10 en cada grado clínico de la lesión), portadores de prótesis removibles. Resultados: El comportamiento microbiológico de los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis afloró que no todos los pacientes afectados presentaron candidiasis, solo se evidenció la presencia de la misma en 21 para un 70 % de la muestra. Según el grado de la lesión esta afección se presentó en cuatro pacientes de grado I para un 19,04 %, 7 del grado II para un 33,33 % y en el 100 % del grado III con diferencia significativa entre la proporción de pacientes con cándida de los grados I y II con respecto al grado III (p Abstract in english Background: When candidiasis is associated with removable prosthesis may induced to the formation of stomatitis sub-prothesis, essentially in non-adjusted appliance and with many years of use. Objective: To determine the prevalence of candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis. Method: A [...] n observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study at " La Vigía" Teaching Odontology Clinic from January to March 2008 was conducted in 30 patients older than 20 years and from both sexes with stomatitis sub-prosthesis (10 in each clinical degree of the lesion), carriers of removable prosthesis. Results: The microbiological behavior of patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis showed that not all the affected patients presented candidiasis, only showed its presence in 21 for a 70% of the sample. According to the degree of the lesion this affection was presented in four patients of I degree for a 19.04%, 7 of II degree for a 33.33% and in the 100% of III degree with significant difference among the proportion of patients with Candida of I and II degrees regarding to III degree (p

  4. Candidiasis mucocutánea crónica: Informe de un caso / Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando Elías, Julián-González; Manuel Augusto, Valdebrán-Canales; Héctor Eduardo, Guidos-Morales.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La candidiasis mucocutánea crónica (CMC) es una inmunodeficiencia primaria que se caracteriza por infecciones candidiásicas persistentes o recurrentes en piel, uñas o membranas mucosas. La CMC puede asociarse con endocrinopatías, como hipoparatiroidismo, enfermedad de Addison, hipotiroidismo, diabet [...] es mellitus de tipo 1 o hipogonadismo; otras patologías asociadas son enfermedades autoinmunitarias, como gastritis autoinmunitarias y hepatitis autoinmunitaria. Se presenta una paciente con CMC con déficit específico de linfocitos T y células NK, sin otra enfermedad asociada. Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails and/or mucosal tissues. CMC can be associated with endocrinopathies such as hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus [...] or hypogonadism. Other associated conditions include autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune hepatitis. We report a patient with CMC and decreased T cell, natural killer cells without other associated condition.

  5. Candidiasis Multifocal bucal. reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LJ, Lazarde; O A, Añez.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen La Candidiasis es la micosis más común de la cavidad bucal. Candida albicans es la especie mayormente implicada, es un comensal inocuo que puede pasar de comensal a patógeno dependiendo del hospedero, del hongo y factores que alteren el microambiente de la cavidad bucal. Se presenta un caso [...] de paciente femenino que acudió al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la U.C.V., la cual presentaba placas blancas generalizadas en toda la mucosa bucal, fácilmente desprendibles y fisuras bilaterales en las comisuras. Se realizo toma de muestras de las mismas, para ser cultivadas en medio Agar-Sabouraud, en donde se confirmó la presencia de Candida y luego se realizó identificación de C. albicans. Se le indico tratamiento antimicótico (Nistatina) y se le realizó control a las cuatro semanas, donde se encontró remisión clínica de la lesión. Abstract in english Abstract Candidosis is the most common mycosis of the mouth. Candida albicans seems to be the most pathogenic species,commmensal organism and its conversion to pathogen depends on the alteration and lack of defensive mechanisms in the colonized person as well as on the presence of several virulence [...] factors. We present a case a 29 year-old female patient that assisted at the Stomatolgic Clinic Service in Dentist School UCV, with white multiple plaques an extensive area of the oral mucosa.Oral specimen was inoculated in Agar-Sabouraud culture medium. And Candida albicans was isolated.Topical antifungals was indicated, 30 days after the disappearance of clinical signs of candidiasis.

  6. Candidiasis Multifocal bucal. Reporte de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LJ, Lazarde; O A, Añez.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Candidiasis es la micosis más común de la cavidad bucal. Candida albicans es la especie mayormente implicada, es un comensal inocuo que puede pasar de comensal a patógeno dependiendo del hospedero, del hongo y factores que alteren el microambiente de la cavidad bucal. Se presenta un caso de pacie [...] nte femenino que acudió al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la U.C .V., la cual presentaba placas blancas generalizadas en toda la mucosa bucal, fácilmente desprendibles y fisuras bilaterales en las comisuras. Se realizo toma de muestras de las mismas, para ser cultivadas en medio Agar-Sabouraud, en donde se confirmó la presencia de Candida y luego se realizó identificación de C. albicans. Se le indico tratamiento antimicótico (Nistatina) y se le realizó control a las cuatro semanas, donde se encontró remisión clínica de la lesión. Abstract in english Candidosis is the most common mycosis of the mouth. Candida albicans seems to be the most pathogenic species,commmensal organism and its conversion to pathogen depends on the alteration and lack of defensive mechanisms in the colonized person as well as on the presence of several virulence factors. [...] We present a case a 29 year-old female patient that assisted at the Stomatolgic Clinic Service in Dentist School UCV, with white multiple plaques an extensive area of the oral mucosa.Oral specimen was inoculated in Agar-Sabouraud culture medium. And Candida albicans was isolated.Topical antifungals was indicated, 30 days after the disappearance of clinical signs of candidiasis.

  7. Symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Arslankoylu Ali Ertug; Kuyucu Necdet; Yilmaz Berna; Erdogan Semra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study aimed to examine the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to determine the risk factors associated with symptomatic candidiasis. Methods This retrospective study included 67 patients from a 7-bed PICU in a tertiary care hospital that had Candida-positive cultures between April 2007 and July 2009. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, ...

  8. Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir of echinocandin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ryan K; Nguyen, M Hong; Press, Ellen G; Clancy, Cornelius J

    2014-12-01

    FKS mutant Candida isolates were recovered from 24% (6/25) of abdominal candidiasis patients exposed to echinocandin. Candida glabrata (29%) and Candida albicans (14%) mutants were identified. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were recovered from 83% of FKS mutant infections. Mutations were associated with prolonged echinocandin exposure (P = 0.01), breakthrough infections (P = 0.03), and therapeutic failures despite source control interventions (100%). Abdominal candidiasis is a hidden reservoir for the emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida. PMID:25288081

  9. Lamisil versus clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandar Moghimipour; Mahin Najafyan; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Maryam Alwanian; Zahra Seifi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vul...

  10. [Local humoral immunity in vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouri, Imen; Hadrich, Inès; Abbes, Salma; Sellami, Hayet; Ayadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a significant problem facing women of child bearing age. It is now accepted that RVVC is the consequence of local immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to assess differential secretion of IgAs and IgG anti-C. albicans in vaginal secretions of patients with RVVC, VVC and asymptomatic women. Vaginal secretions collected from 3 groups of women: 14 patients with RVVC, 8 patients with VVC and 17 asymptomatic women. Overall analysis of vaginal secretions revealed that the prevalence of IgAs (73%) and IgG (33%) antibodies anti-C. albicans were significantly different. The prevalence of IgAs antibodies was 86% in patients with RVVC, 75% in women with VVC and 61% in asymptomatic women. IgG antibodies were detected in 43% of women with RVVC, in 37% of women with VVC and in 18% of asymptomatic women. Sensibility and specificity of detection of IgA in vaginal secretion were 54% and 83%, respectively. The prevalence of detection of IgAs and IgG were more important in patients than asymptomatic women. However, RVVC cannot be attributed only to the impairment of local humoral immunity and further proteomic investigations are needed. PMID:23587578

  11. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cortés M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

  12. Use of Recombinant Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pontón

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a frequent and often fatal complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and a definitive diagnostic method. The detection of antibodies against different Candida antigens may help in the diagnosis. However, the methods traditionally used for the detection of antibodies have been based on crude antigenic fungal extracts, which usually show low-reproducibility and cross-reactivity problems. The development of molecular biology techniques has allowed the production of recombinant antigens which may help to solve these problems. In this review we will discuss the usefulness of recombinant antigens in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  13. Bioadhesive Films Containing Fluconazole for Mucocutaneous Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. K.; Shah, D. R.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Fluconazole is a broad spectrum antifungal agent that has been extensively applied for the management of oral, pharyngeal and cutaneous candidiasis. Fluconazole has a high volume of distribution (0.55–0.65 l/kg) and has systemic toxicity due to high drug-drug interaction. The present study focuses on the formulation of bioadhesive film as a controlled release carrier for fluconazole. The formulation was intended to provide localized delivery of fluconazole exclusively at the site of infection, thereby reducing its total dose and hence, dose-related toxicities. Bioadhesive films were prepared by solvent casting method using sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol alone as well as in various combinations. Prepared films were evaluated for physical characteristics like, weight and content uniformity, film thickness, swelling index, microenvironment pH and folding endurance. In vitro drug release, in vitro and ex vivo residence time, bioadhesive strength and skin irritation were also studied. Accelerated stability study was conducted on the optimized formulation as per ICH guidelines. Weight of all the films were not more than 20 mg. Thickness of the films ranged between 0.09 to 0.15 mm whereas swelling indices showed a high extent of variation. Films composed of polyvinyl alcohol alone provided a swelling index of 6%. Bioadhesive strength was found to be more than 18 g. Microenvironment pH was near to 7.0 for most of the formulations. Ex vivo residence time of optimized batch was more than 5 h and it provided controlled drug release up to 8 h. As revealed in FT-IR and DSC studies, drug was found to be compatible with the excipients used in this study. PMID:25767319

  14. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs

  15. Oral Verrucous Carcinoma Mimicking a Chronic Candidiasis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Nata?lia Galva?o; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Hanemann, Joa?o Adolfo Costa; Pereira, Alessandro Anto?nio Costa

    2012-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma has a special propensity to mimic benign lesions of the oral cavity. A case of the oral verrucous carcinoma in maxillary alveolar ridge, extending to buccal vestibule, cheek, and labial mucosa, which was diagnosed and initially treated as chronic candidiasis, is presented. Clinical, histopathological, and therapeutic considerations related to diagnosis of the verrucous carcinoma in the oral cavity are discussed.

  16. La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África. Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH. Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa. It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to become a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

  17. La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elena, Morán López; Adis, Ferreiro Marín.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África). Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del [...] mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH). Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA. Abstract in english Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa). It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to bec [...] ome a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

  18. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis; Ecografia en el diagnostico de la candidiasis renal neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Torres, D.; Berbel, O.; Andres, V. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN NON-HEMATOLOGICAL PATIENTS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ratto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Candida is one of the most frequent pathogens isolated in bloodstream infections, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In addition to haematological patients, there are several other populations with a substantial risk of developing invasive candidiasis (IC. These include patients undergoing prolonged hospitalisation with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, those fitted with intravascular catheters, admitted to both adult and neonate intensive care units (ICU or gastrointestinal surgery wards and subjects with solid tumours undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. As a general rule, every immunocompromised patient might be at risk of Candida infection, including, for example, diabetic patients.

    The epidemiology of species responsible for IC has been changing, both at local and worldwide level, shifting from C. albicans to non-albicans species, that can be intrinsically resistant to fluconazole (C. krusei and, to some extent, C. glabrata, difficult to eradicate because of biofilm production (C. parapsilosis or than might acquire resistance to azole during therapy.

    Delaying the specific therapy has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality, but traditional microbiological diagnosis is poorly sensitive and slow. Thus, culture-based treatment may result in therapy started too late. In order to reduce the mortality in IC, several management strategies have been developed: prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy. Compared to prophylaxis, the latter approaches allow to reduce the use of antifungals by targeting only patients at very high risk of IC. Non-invasive serological markers and scores based on clinical prediction rules such as the presence of risk factors or Candida colonisation, have been developed with the aim of allowing prompt initiation of treatment. Although the use of these diagnostic tools in pre-emptive strategies is promising, the performance and cost-effectiveness should be tested in large trials.

    Agents recommended for initial treatment of candidemia in severely ill patients include echinocandins and lipid formulations of amphotericin B, while stable patients without risk factors for azole-resistance might be treated with fluconazole.


  20. Congenital candidiasis as a subject of research in medicine and human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczylas, Micha? M; Walat, Anna; Kordek, Agnieszka; Loniewska, Beata; Rudnicki, Jacek; Maleszka, Romuald; Torbé, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is a severe complication of candidal vulvovaginitis. It occurs in two forms,congenital mucocutaneous candidiasis and congenital systemic candidiasis. Also newborns are in age group the most vulnerable to invasive candidiasis. Congenital candidiasis should be considered as an interdisciplinary problem including maternal and fetal condition (including antibiotic therapy during pregnancy), birth age and rare genetic predispositions as severe combined immunodeficiency or neutrophil-specific granule deficiency. Environmental factors are no less important to investigate in diagnosing, treatment and prevention. External factors (e.g., food) and microenvironment of human organism (microflora of the mouth, intestine and genitalia) are important for solving clinical problems connected to congenital candidiasis. Physician knowledge about microorganisms in a specific compartments of the microenvironment of human organism and in the course of defined disorders of homeostasis makes it easier to predict the course of the disease and allows the development of procedures that can be extremely helpful in individualized diagnostic and therapeutic process. PMID:25281815

  1. A comparative histopathological study of systemic candidiasis in association with experimentally induced breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Z. W.; Chakravarthi, S.; Wong, S. F.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Thanikachalam, P. M.; Mak, J. W.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Tay, A.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic candidiasis is a fungal infection which coupled with solid malignancies places patients at high risk of succumbing to the disease. Few studies have shown evidence of the relationship between systemic candidiasis and malignancy-induced immunosuppression disease especially in breast cancer. At present, animal studies that exclusively demonstrate this relationship have yet to be conducted. The exact causative mechanism of systemic candidiasis is currently under much speculation. This st...

  2. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Cristina, Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi, Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves, Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho, Moraes; José Francisco, Höfling.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stom [...] atitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

  3. The Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Proposal of a Personalized Therapeutic Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Murina, F.; Graziottin, A.; Felice, R.; Radici, G. L.; Di Francesco, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVC) is an increasing challenge in clinical practice. Objective. The purpose of this study was to reduce the episodes of RVC through the intake of fluconazole 200?mg/dose with a personalized regimen at growing administration intervals with a probiotic. Method. 55 patients received a 200?mg fluconazole as an induction dose for 3 alternate days. Symptoms resolution after 10–14 days made the patients eligible to continue with a maintenance th...

  4. D-arabinitol in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmundsdottir, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    Invasiv candidiasis är en allvarlig jästsvampinfektion hos redan svårt sjuka patienter och denna infektion har ökat under de senaste årtiondena. Blododling, som ärreferensdiagnostisk metod för denna infektion, har relativt låg känslighet liksom detektion av Candidaspecifika antikroppar och antigener. Utvecklingen av PCR baserade diagnostik går långsamt och det saknas standardiserade metoder. D-arabinitol (DA) är en sockeralkohol som produceras in vitro och in vivo av de flesta hum...

  5. Insights from human studies into the host defense against candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Filler, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Candida spp. are the most common cause of mucosal and disseminated fungal infections in humans. Studies using mutant strains of mice have provided initial information about the roles of dectin-1, CARD9, and Th17 cytokines in the host defense against candidiasis. Recent technological advances have resulted in the identification of mutations in specific genes that predispose humans to develop candidal infection. The analysis of individuals with these mutations demonstrates that dectin-1 is crit...

  6. A CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moghaddami

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to Candida albicans in a 13 yr-old boy is reported. Evaluation of cell mediated immunity revealed cutaneous anergy to PPD and low level of T-Lymphocytes B-Cell count and immunoglobulin G (IgG were increased and there was a low level of serum iron. The patient was put under treatment with oral administration of Ketoconazole and ferrus sulfate, which resulted in some clinical improvement

  7. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljevi? Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  8. Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5% patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8% patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8% patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0% patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0% of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0% of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  9. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of ?-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  10. Candidiasis invasoras en recién nacidos: diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención / Invasive candidiasis in newborns: diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giannina, Izquierdo; María Elena, Santolaya.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras se han convertido en un problema cada vez más frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. La candidiasis invasora (CI) es una infección que se asocia a una significativa morbi-mortalidad, en especial en los recién nacidos (RN) prematuros. El objeti [...] vo de este documento es sugerir acciones de vigilancia, prevención farmacológica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de las CI en el RN. Abstract in english Invasive fungal infections have become an increasingly common problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates, especially in pre-term infants. The aim of this review is to suggest actions in monitoring, preventio [...] n, treatment and follow up of IC in the newborn infant.

  11. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Vazquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.Keywords: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, HAART, antifungal agents, HIV, AIDS

  12. Occurrences of candidiasis in a Fisher's lovebird and a budgerigar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Aoyagi, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, J

    2001-08-01

    Two cage birds, a two-month-old Fisher's lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) and a one-year-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), manifested clinical symptoms with general weakness, loss of appetite and ruffled feathers, then died. Pathological findings revealed a large quantity of yellowish-white pseudomembrane on the mucosal membrane of the esophagus and crop in these two birds. Histopathologically, blastospores (5.5 microm long x 3.4 microm wide) and pseudohyphae were detected in the lesions of conspicuous parakeratosis and moderate acanthosis in the stratified squamous epithelium. These two birds were diagnosed as having had candidiasis. PMID:11558556

  13. Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in hepatosplenic candidiasis-related IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC is a form of invasive fungal infection that occurs most commonly in patients with acute leukemia treated with chemotherapy and requires protracted antifungal therapy. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is best characterized as a dysregulated inflammatory responses triggered by rapid resolution of immunosuppression.

    We present a child diagnosed with standard-risk precursor B cell-acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed HSC and Candida-related IRIS during recovery of neutropenia associated with induction chemotherapy. Addition of corticosteroid therapy to antifungal treatment is associated with the resolution of the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings

  14. Management of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, Jad; Kanafani, Zeina A; Kanj, Souha S

    2013-06-01

    Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at increased risk of encountering bloodstream infections (BSIs) with Candida spp., associated with an elevated crude mortality rate. This supports the significance of early detection of infection and identification of the most effective management approach. A review of the various antifungal treatments and an evaluation of the diverse management approaches for invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients is necessary for guiding evidence-based decision-making. Different early detection schemes for invasive candidiasis are well documented in the literature. Other than the common use of blood cultures, new methods entail the use of risk prediction scores and biomarker tests. Regarding management strategies, different options are currently supported. These include prophylaxis, empirical therapy, pre-emptive therapy, and treatment of culture-documented infections. The choice of treatment is greatly dependent on several factors related to the patient and/or to the surrounding environment. Attention needs to be given to previous exposure to azoles, epidemiological data on dominant Candida spp. in local ICUs, severity of illness and associated morbidities. This paper summarises the most recent literature as well as the guidelines issued by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The objective is to identify the best diagnosis and management approaches for serious Candida infections in critically ill patients. In addition, this article addresses an important aspect associated with managing candidaemia in critically ill patients pertaining to the decision for intravenous catheter removal. PMID:23664579

  15. A radioimmunoassay method for the rapid detection of Candida antibodies is experimental systematic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbits were employed as experimental models to evaluate a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for the diagnosis of systematic candidiasis. Ten rabbits were incubated subcutaneously to mimic superficial candidiasis and were found to produce no antibodies to Candida as determined by both immunodiffusion and RIA procedures. However, 94 per cent of 18 rabbits systematically infected by intravenous injection of Candida cells were observed to produce antibody as assessed by the RIA technique. These data encourage further tests with human sera and the continued development of this RIA procedure as a useful tool in the early serodiagnosis of systematic candidiasis. (Auth.)

  16. Fluconazole for ketoconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1 infected patients.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of fluconazole in doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/day in controlling oropharyngeal candidiasis was retrospectively evaluated in 16 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients. 13 patients received fluconazole due to failure of treatment with ketoconazole, and among these 11 (84%) initially showed complete or partial remission of oropharyngeal candidiasis. 3 (27%) of these subsequently developed failure of treatment within a median observation period of 38 days. No major toxicities were observed. Fluconazole appears promising in the therapy of ketoconazole-resistant candidiasis.

  17. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including 99mTc-sulfur colloid and 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. 99mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With 67Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  18. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  19. Role of posaconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voichita Ianas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Voichita Ianas1, Kathryn R Matthias2, Stephen A Klotz11Section of Infectious Diseases and Department of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USAAbstract: Posaconazole is the newest azole antifungal approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and possesses a broad spectrum of activity against numerous yeasts and filamentous fungi. It is available as an oral suspension and is generally well tolerated by patients, but gastrointestinal absorption is sometimes inadequate and remains a clinical concern in treating deep-seated infections. It is used routinely and effectively for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed hosts and is an effective treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, including azole-resistant disease.Keywords: posaconazole, azole, yeasts, filamentous fungi

  20. Microsatellite analysis of Candida isolates from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouri, Imen; Sellami, Hayet; Abbes, Salma; Hadrich, Ines; Mahfoudh, Nadia; Makni, Hafedh; Ayadi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the most common causative agents of both vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). Studying the population structure and genotype differentiation of Candida species that cause RVVC may lead to a significant improvement in clinical management. A total of 106 isolates were collected from 55 patients who were subdivided into three groups. Group I comprised 15 patients with RVVC (n=50 isolates); group II comprised 16 patients, who had a history of at least two episodes of VVC in the last year (n=32 isolates, two from each patient); and group III comprised 24 patients (n=24 isolates) who had experienced a single episode of VVC in the previous 1 year period. C. albicans microsatellite markers CAI, CAIII and CAIV and C. glabrata RPM2, MTI and ERG3 microsatellites were amplified in a multiplex PCR. All isolates were subjected to population genetic analysis, which provided evidence that there is a predominantly clonal population structure of C. albicans in each group. However, recombination was detected to some degree in C. albicans isolates in group III. A genetic homogeneity between the different C. albicans groups was observed. Although, C. glabrata isolates showed an important genetic differentiation between group I and group III (F(ST)=0.207). Genotype analysis revealed that the dominant genotypes of C. glabrata and C. albicans strains were more prevalent in patients with RVVC. The frequent scenario for cases of recurrent infection in our study was strain replacement (53.3%). In conclusion, the identification of recurrence-associated genotypes and a specific C. glabrata population structure in the RVVC group could be a significant marker for further investigations of virulence factors and RVVC management. PMID:22538998

  1. Determination of Vaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to Shahid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollahi omran A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Genital tract infections are among the mostcommon causes of patients referred to therapeutic centers. Nearly 75% ofwomen suffer from genital Candida infection, at least once in their lifetime.The aim of present study was detection of Candida species causing vaginitisand the evaluation of antimycotic effects of ketoconazol, clotrimazole andfluconazole against Candida species.Material and Methods: In this study, 210 vaginal samples were obtainedfrom the patients suspected of Vaginal Candidiasis. Direct examination andculture were carried out for all specimens to detect the yeast. The isolatedyeast species were then identified, using various different tests such as cultureon corn meal agar, tween-80, germ tube test, and assimilation test by API 20Ckit by using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and microdilution broth, MIC90 andMIC50 of drug were measured and determined their drug resistance.Results: In the present study, 100 yeast colonies were isolated from patients;%80 are C. albicans and the rest are C. parapsilosis(2%, C. tropicalis(6%, C.glabrata(4%, C. krusei(2%, C. guilliermondii (3%, C.stellatoidea(3%. Interms of drug resistance test MIC50 and MIC90 of fluconazole for candidaalbicans are 5.33 and 35.27?g/ ml, respectively, and for non-albicans candidaare 3 and 21.4?g/ml, respectively. Clotrimazole MIC for Candida albicans(MIC50, MIC90 0.97 and 4.9?g/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 0.63and 3.4/ml, respectively. Kectoconazole MIC for Candida albicans 2.43 and16.45?g/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 1.12 and 6.6?g/ml,respectively.Conclusion: Clotrimazole has been better than the two other drugs forCandida species on the whole, non albicans species are more sensitive thanalbicans species in the presence of the drugs used in this study.Key words: Candida, vaginal candidiasis, Resistance drug , Tonekabon.

  2. Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichert Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB, but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

  3. Cerebral candidiasis in a 4-year-old boy after intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral candidiasis is a devastating disease which contributes to a high mortality. Most of the cerebral candidiasis are never microbiologically or radiologically confirmed. In this case, a 4-year-old boy who developed cerebral candidiasis was successfully rescued and presented. The diagnosis of cerebral candidiasis was established based on both microbiologic and radiologic examinations. The pathogen was revealed to be Candida albicans by cerebrospinal fluid and central venous catheter cultures, and the cerebral involvement was recorded by series head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with an appearance of special encephalitis demonstrated. The imaging studies played a critical role throughout the diagnosis and treatment. Familiarity with the imaging findings in the appropriate clinical setting may result in a heightened level of awareness of this infection and, consequently, in earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24776957

  4. Developments in the treatment of candidiasis: more choices and new challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperis, George; Myriounis, Nikolaos; Spanakis, Elias K; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2006-11-01

    The incidence of oesophageal candidiasis, candidaemia and disseminated candidiasis has increased dramatically. In addition to the amphotericin B formulations and fluconazole, the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and the newer triazoles posaconazole and voriconazole are in the last stages of development and are becoming available for the management of candidiasis. This review presents these new agents and addresses their role in the treatment of candidiasis. All new antifungal agents exhibit potent activity against Candida spp. and echinocandins are fungicidal against most Candida spp. but appear to be less potent against certain species, such as Candida parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii. Systemic antifungal therapy can now be individualised based on the severity of the infection, comorbid conditions and the Candida spp. causing the infection. Studies are needed to investigate the possible development of resistance and the efficacy of these antifungal agents against the more resistant Candida spp. PMID:17040194

  5. Candidiasis Bucal: Una revisión sistemática de las pruebas de laboratorio / Oral Candidiasis: A systematic review about labs prubes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elba, Añez; Thaìs, Rojas-Morales; José Luis, Calleja; Rita, Navas.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el manejo de la Candidiasis Bucal, los hallazgos clínicos no suelen ser suficientes, para determinar su diagnóstico e instaurar un tratamiento, siendo necesaria la realización de pruebas microbiológicas que garanticen una respuesta a la terapéutica instaurada, evitándose así, la resistencia a cie [...] rtos medicamentos. En la actualidad existe gran cantidad de pruebas de laboratorio para llegar a un diagnostico diferencial entre especies de Càndida, por lo que este artículo tiene por objetivo profundizar cuales de estas pruebas poseen mayor evidencia clínica en la determinación de la Candidiasis Bucal. Se utilizó la revisión sistemática como metodología que proporciona una apreciación crítica de datos que de otra manera serían inmanejables, integrando de manera eficiente toda información valida, la cual nos aporte una base racional para tomar decisiones en el establecimiento de políticas de atención. Al analizar los diversos trabajos, se determinó que las pruebas de laboratorio existentes, poseen poca evidencia clínica acerca de su utilidad, recomendándose realizar estudios que cumplan con los criterios de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo que garanticen su validez clínica. Abstract in english Oral mycosis management, the clinics reward’s its not be enough, to determine it’s diagnosis and restore a treatment. It is be necessary to make labs prubes microbiology that guarantied a response an adequate treatment, it to avoid its resistance to some medicament. Actually exist a lot of labs prub [...] es to find a differential diagnosis between species of Candida, the objective of this article its to low about which one of the labs prubes have the greatest clinic evidence to determine Oral Candidiasis, its used systematic review as methodology to proportion a critic appreciation of information in other way it would be unmanageable, to integrate of efficiency way validity information, the which one proportionated us a base rational to make decisions to establishment attention politics . At analyzed the different works, it determine that the existent lab prubes, it isn’t clinic evidence of its utility, we recommended to make studies that perform with the criterions sensibility, specify and predictive value.

  6. Human Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapy in the Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Paroni Sterbini; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Cecilia Martini; Francesca Bugli; Riccardo Torelli; Brunella Posteraro; Margherita Cacaci

    2013-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) represents the leading fungal infection of humans causing life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed and neutropenic individuals including also the intensive care unit patients. Despite progress in recent years in drugs development for the treatment of IC, morbidity and mortality rates still remain very high. Historically, cell-mediated immunity and innate immunity are considered to be the most important lines of defense against candidiasis. Nevertheless recent evi...

  7. Protein carbonyl group content in patients affected by familiar chronic nail candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Salpietro, D. C.; Ferlazzo, B.; Dallapiccola, B.; Merlino, M. V.; Briuglia, S.; Minciullo, P. L.; Merendino, R. A.; Cimino, F.; Tomaino, A.; Gangemi, S.; Saija, A.

    2003-01-01

    Familiar chronic nail candidiasis (FCNC) is a rare disorder characterized by early-onset infections caused by different species of Candida, restricted to the nail of the hands and feet, and associated with a low serum concentration of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Host defense mechanisms against candidiasis require the cooperation of many immune cells through several candidacidal mechanisms, including oxygen-dependent killing mechanisms, mediated by a superoxide anion radical myeloperoxi...

  8. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Rad Dmd, Msc; Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi PhD; Shahla Kakoei Dds, Msc; Md, Maryam Bahador; Dds, Nazila Lashkarizadeh

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization...

  9. Urine d-Arabinitol/l-Arabinitol Ratio in Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis in Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmundsdo?ttir, Gudru?n; Christensson, Bertil; Bjo?rklund, Lars J.; Ha?kansson, Kristina; Pehrson, Christina; Larsson, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    Infants treated in neonatal intensive care units suffer an increased risk for invasive candidiasis, but the diagnosis is sometimes difficult. d-arabinitol is a metabolite of most pathogenic Candida species. An elevated urine d-arabinitol/l-arabinitol (DA/LA) ratio is a sensitive sign of invasive candidiasis in children with cancer, but the method has not been previously evaluated for newborn infants. We therefore enrolled 117 infants in a neonatal intensive care unit, and 411 urine samples we...

  10. Determinants of incident vulvovaginal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women.

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Matityahu; Emma Shifrin; Howard Minkoff; Joseph Feldman

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mucosal infections including vulvovaginal candidiasis are a common problem for women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our objective was to determine which factors predict the development of symptomatic disease among HIV-infected women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study from 1991 to 1995, 205 HIV-positive women were evaluated every 6 months for occurrences of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Included in the study were all initially asymptomatic women, whether ...

  11. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin - review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckner A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Working by a distinct cell wall-specific mechanism of action, the echinocandin class of antifungals has substantially expanded the range of available treatments for invasive Candida infections. Anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were investigated versus drugs from earlier antifungal classes in large clinical trials that demonstrated their excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis. Therefore, and supported by a number of favourable pharmacological characteristics, the echinocandins rapidly became established in guidelines and clinical practice as primary treatment options for moderately to severely ill patients with invasive candidiasis. This article reviews the relevant clinical evidence that forms the basis for the use of echinocandins in the management of invasive candidiasis, and discusses their current role in the context of recent guideline recommendations and treatment optimization strategies.

  12. Intestinal candidiasis: an uncommon cause of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Herran, Carlos E; Pelaez, Liset; Sola, Juan E; Urbiztondo, Arnel K; Rodriguez, Maria M

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans produces intestinal perforation and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm newborns. We reviewed pathology files in neonates with a diagnosis of NEC (10-year period), gathered history, and reviewed histological materials. Of 249 autopsies, two (0.8%) had systemic candidiasis. From 66 surgical cases with a diagnosis of NEC, five cases (7.5%) had intestinal candidiasis. Candida albicans grew in pre- and post-mortem blood, lung, or peritoneal fluid in all cases. Histologically, the small bowel revealed fungi, sometimes intravascular. Systemic candidiasis with intestinal involvement is an important complication of prematurity and a prevalent cause of sepsis. The presence of intraluminal fungi with associated vascular occlusion may lead to bowel ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. PMID:20450270

  13. Application of enzyme-immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of aspergillosis, candidiasis, and zygomycosis in three lovebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; de las Mulas, J M; Jensen, H E

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillosis, candidiasis, and zygomycosis were diagnosed in tissues from three lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) using indirect enzyme-immunohistochemical techniques. In these techniques, the first antibody was raised against fungal antigen. A second antibody, which was raised in another animal species, was added to link the first antibody to enzyme-immunocomplexes. The reactivity of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was visualized by immunoreactivity of alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocomplexes. All three birds examined had dermal candidiasis. In addition, one of the birds was diagnosed with concomitant acute ocular aspergillosis, and another bird was diagnosed with chronic zygomycotic myocarditis. PMID:8257396

  14. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) Enriched with Zn as Immunostimulator for Vaginal Candidiasis Patient

    OpenAIRE

    HERY WINARSI; HERNAYANTI; AGUS PURWANTO

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance on the immune system and deficiency of Zn is two factors which often trigger vaginal candidiasis patient. The aim of the research was to study the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) enriched with Zn to the amount of neutrophil and lymphocyte subset cells, and the level of IL-2 and IgG in vaginal candidiasis patient. Thirty women were grouped into three (ten women in each group): A, B and C, and intervened for two months. Women in A group were intervened with two tablespoon/day; t...

  15. Candidiasis Eritematosa de la cavidad bucal. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L J, Lazarde; B I, Avilán.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen La Candidiasis bucal, causada principalmente por Candida albicans, es de gran importancia estomatológica, por su frecuencia y variedad clínica. Estas infecciones se observan frecuentemente en personas con distintos tipos de factores predisponentes. Las formas clínicas de Candidiasis bucal es [...] variable y se han usado diferentes clasificaciones. Se presenta un caso clínico de paciente femenina, con lesión eritematosa en el dorso de la lengua y paladar, la cual refería dolor y ardor bucal. Se le realizó toma de muestra de las lesiones para ser cultivadas y posteriormente se identificó la presencia de C. albicans, lo que confirmó el diagnóstico clínico de Candidiasis Eritematosa. Se le realizó terapia antimicótica (Nistatina), el control a las dos semanas reveló mejoría de la lesión y luego a las cuatro semanas se pudo evidenciar total remisión de la lesión así como de la sintomatología. Abstract in english Abstract Oral Candidosis, caused maily by Candida albicans,has an important stomatological repercussion, because of his frequency and clinical variety. These infections are frequently observed in persons with different types of predisposing factors. The clinical characteristics of oral candidosis is [...] variabke, and different classifications have been used.this is a case report,female of sexty-five yeasr old with red lesion on the dorsal tongue and hard palate, patient may complain of a burning sensation. Epithelial smears and imprint cultures were obtained and subjeted to species identificacion of Candida albicans, diagnostic Erythematous Candidiasis were confirmed.

  16. Anti-fungal resistance in candida isolated from oral and diaper rash candidiasis in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Jasem; Motaghi, Mahsa; panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Azizian, Mitra; Pakzad, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis infections in children. The children referring to private and public clinics in Ilam, Iran were exmined for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. In this study, 248 oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis samples were collected and cultured.Candida species were identified by using standard methods. Resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, nystatin, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, and posaconazole were determined using the CLSI M44-A standard disk diffusion method. From the 248 studied samples, 149 were positive for Candida, among which the Candida albicans was the most prevalent (64.4%). The resistance of different Candida species to nystatin, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were 4, 43, 34.2, 34.9, 21.5, 6, and 6.7%, respectively. No resistance to amphotericin B was observed. Considering rather low resistance to nystatin, this drug is the best choice for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. PMID:25512681

  17. Addition of Caspofungin to Fluconazole Does Not Improve Outcome in Murine Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Graybill, John R.; Bocanegra, Rosie; Najvar, Laura K.; Hernandez, Steve; Larsen, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Caspofungin is a potent antifungal inhibiting glucan synthesis in Candida species. However, caspofungin is not 100% curative in candidiasis. Therefore, we evaluated combinations of fluconazole with caspofungin for murine candidemia. We could not show any benefit of combined therapy over individual antifungal drugs.

  18. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tavakkol

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were cultured in Sabourauds medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol then cultures were tested with common mycological lab tests. In 80% of patients oral candidiasis have been diagnosed. In the investigation a direct relation between the oral candidiasis and removal of denture at night, denture cleanliness, presence of any suction and symptoms of denture stomatitis was shown. No relation between the oral candidiasis and sex, smoking habit, succeptible disease, angular cheilitis; the recent condition of denture and the retention of denture were found. The findings of our investigation indicates that candida albicans is the causative agent of denture stomatitis while other factors such as denture cleanliness, removal of denture at night and presence of any suction may be considered as well.

  20. Prevalence of oral candidiasis in hospitalized patients and evaluation of risk factors

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    Roberta Targa STRAMANDINOLI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral candidiasis (OC is an opportunistic fungalinfection, prevalent mainly in immunosuppressed patients. Objective:To investigate the prevalence of OC in hospitalized patients in twouniversity hospitals of Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba-PR, relating with local and systemic predisposing factors. Material and methods: A total of 160 patients were evaluated between the months of July to October 2006. Besides the analysis of medical records, each patient was questioned and intra-and extra-oral linically evaluated,looking for injuries consistent with candidiasis. Results: The results were analyzed by the tests of the chi-square (x2 and the difference between two ratios, with a level of significance of 5%. Prevalence of oral candidiasis was 30% (n = 48. In relation to the local risk factors, prevalence of oral candidiasis was statistically dependent on the use of upper removable total or partial prosthesis, on the time of use of the same prosthesis, on the use of prosthesis during hospitalization, on the hygiene condition, on the frequency of cleaning and on the continued use of the prosthesis (p < 0.05. Among the systemic factors analyzed,prevalence of oral candidiasis was statistically dependent on the age of the patients and on the use of nasogastric probe (p < 0.05. Conclusion:Results indicate that local risk factors have a strong association with the prevalence of OC in hospitalized patients, emphasizing the importance regarding the oral hygiene care and the prosthesis of these patients, especially the ones that use a nasogastric probe.

  1. Oral Candidiasis in children and adolescents with cancer: Identification of Candida spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haylen, González Gravina; Evelyn, González de Morán; Olga, Zambrano; María, Lozano Chourio; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Sandra, Robertis; Luz, Mesa.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis represents a serious problem for children with cancer. The mortality rate of this infection has increased due to fungal septicemia, associated with a primary buccal infection. Objective: Identify the Candida spp. in buccal lesions of patients with cancer, establish the predominant s [...] pecies and correlate them to age and sex of the patient, clinical presentation, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic therapy received. Study design: 62 patients, between 0-16 years, were investigated in a cross sectional study. Sample inclusion criteria: Patients with malignant neoplasic disease that were receiving cytostatic treatment and had suspicious lesions of oral candidiasis. Patients with antifungal therapy, active caries, calculus or intraoral appliances were excluded. A clinical evaluation was carried out. The lesion sample was taken and studied by direct exam and culture in CHROMagar-Candida and Sabouraud-Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol. The identification of the isolated yeast was done by the filamentation test, carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. Results: Most of the cases (69.35%) were positive to oral candidiasis, C. albicans was the most frequent species found, followed by C. parapsilosis (14.89%), C. tropicalis (12.77%), C. krusei (4.26%), C. glabrata (2.13%) and C. lusitaniae (2.13 %). In some cases more than one specie were isolated (9.30%). The most frequent location of the lesion was in the tongue (72.70%). The pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most frequent clinical presentation found (78.71%). There were not significant statistically differences with regard to sex and age of the patient, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic agent received. Conclusion: The results suggest that oral candidiasis is a frequent complication in the pediatric oncological population, being C. albicans the main etiological agent, however, there is an important participation of other Candida species.

  2. Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis

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    Catalina de Bedout

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local.Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

  3. Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano / Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Catalina, de Bedout; Beatriz L, Gómez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, s [...] e han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species ha [...] ve been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches) is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

  4. Oral candidiasis as a clinical marker of highly active antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-infected patients / La candidiasis bucal como marcador clínico de falla a la terapia antirretroviral altamente efectiva en pacientes infectados con VIH/sida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Lopez-Verdin; Amalia, Torrecilla-Ramirez; Ana Cristina, Horta-Sandoval; Jaime Federico, Andrade-Villanueva; Ronell, Bologna-Molina.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La candidiasis bucal es una infección oportunista fácilmente detectable en la clínica, por lo que se ha utilizado para valorar tanto el estado inmunológico de los pacientes con VIH como la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral, altamente efectiva debido a que se encuentra sujeta a [...] diversos factores para lograr el éxito terapéutico. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis bucal entre indicadores asociados al éxito de la terapia antirretroviral. Material y método: Estudio transversal, analítico en donde inicialmente se realizaron grupos de acuerdo al uso o no de la terapia antirretroviral para proseguir con un interrogatorio que incluía preguntas sobre otros factores relacionados con la infección por cándida, así como la medición del flujo salival y la evaluación clínica de la cavidad bucal para determinar la frecuencia de la candidiasis. Resultados: La diferencia en la frecuencia de la candidiasis bucal entre los grupos con y sin terapia antirretroviral fue significativa, además de obtener una OR = 2,6 (1,58-4,48) y la asociación con la disminución en el conteo de linfocitos de CD4. Discusión: La resistencia a la terapia antirretroviral constituye uno de los problemas fundamentales en el éxito del tratamiento, en los pacientes infectados con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, al igual que las toxicidades y los problemas de adherencia. Los sensores clínicos como la candidiasis bucal son parámetros de fácil acceso para la detección temprana de falla en la terapia. Abstract in english Introduction: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection that is readily detectable in the clinic. It has been used to assess the immune status of HIV patients as well as the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency of oral candidiasis infectio [...] n among various indicators associated with antiretroviral therapy effectiveness. Material and methods: Cross-sectional and analytical study, in which groups were initially created based on the use or not of antiretroviral therapy. Participants were subjected to questions on factors related to Candida infection, salivary flow measurements and a clinical examination of the oral cavity to determine the frequency of candidiasis Results: The difference in the frequency of oral candidiasis between groups with and without antiretroviral therapy was significant (OR 2.6 IC95% 1.5-4.4). There were also a significant association with decreased number of CD4 lymphocytes.. Discussion: Resistance to anti-retroviral therapy constitutes one of the fundamental barriers to a successful treatment in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, as do toxicities and adherence problems. Clinical markers such oral candidiasis is an easily and accesible parameter for the early detection of treatment failure.

  5. A Case of Gingival Candidiasis with Bone Destruction on Gastric Cancer Patient Receiving Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seungtaek; Kil, Tae-jun; Kim, Hye Ryun; Han, Seonhui; Rha, Sun Young

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of gingival candidiasis in an advanced gastric cancer patient while receiving palliative cytotoxic chemotherapy. A 46-year-old male patient admitted to our hospital for known advanced gastric cancer with newly developed multiple liver metastases. While receiving 2nd line cytotoxic chemotherapy with 5FU, leucovorin, and paclitxel, he complained of gingival swelling accompanied by pain and whitish plaque. Due to lack of response to the conservative oral care, incisional biopsy of gingiva was done and the pathology confirmed gingival candidiasis. Although the lesion healed apparently after two-week antifungal therapy, pain as well as bony destruction remains. By presenting this case report, we intend to emphasize the immunocompromising effect of cancer while being on systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25614845

  6. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio, Chambô Filho; João Basilio de, Souza Filho; Christine Chambô, Pignaton; Ingrid, Zon; Alan Santos, Fernandes; Lia Quintaes, Cardoso.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidaz [...] ole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membranes of onset in adolescence besides cutaneous horns in nipples. The clinical picture, family history, culture and anatomopathological studies were consistent with chronic infection by candida. Treatment with systemic antifungals obtained partial response of lesions characterizing a clinical picture of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis.

  7. Congenital candidiasis: confirmation of mother-neonate transmission using molecular analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiraboschi, Iris Carla Niveyro; Niveyro, Carla; Mandarano, Ana Maria; Messer, Shawn A; Bogdanowicz, Elizabeth; Kurlat, Isabel; Lasala, María Beatriz

    2010-02-01

    We describe a case of congenital acquired candidiasis in a preterm female delivered through Caesarean section due to the premature rupture of the amniotic membrane. The neonate presented with suspected chorioamnionitis and erythematous desquamative skin. Candida albicans was isolated from the placenta, mouth, groin, and periumbilical lesions. The infant developed candidemia due to Candida albicans and the same yeast was also isolated from a catheter. Culture inoculated with swabs from the mouth and vagina of the mother yielded C. albicans and C. krusei. All C. albicans isolates from the mother and the neonate were visually indistinguishable by molecular typing techniques which included chromosomal karyotyping and restriction endonuclease analysis followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These findings allowed the clinical condition to be confirmed as congenital acquisition of candidiasis in this case. PMID:19306215

  8. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Andresa Aparecida Berretta; Patrícia Alves de Castro; Amanda Henriques Cavalheiro; Vanessa Silveira Fortes; Vinícius Pedro Bom; Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento; Franciane Marquele-Oliveira; Vinícius Pedrazzi; Leandra Naira Zambelli Ramalho; Gustavo Henrique Goldman

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evalua...

  9. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors to Candidiasis Infection in Women Supported by Health Centers of Tabriz, 2004.

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    J Babapour

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginits is probably the most common infection in women during their reproductive years, resulting in 5-10 million health-care visits a year, worldwide. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (vvc is the second-most common form of vaginitis in the United States, which is associated with use of oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen and hormonal therapies. Midwives play an important role not only in the assessment and management of vaginal infections, but also in educating women about vaginal health. Recognizing risk factors associated with infections are the key to vaginal health.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Candidal vaginitis in women referring to Tabriz health centers. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out on 1000 women aged 15-49 years who were selected by multiple random method. A sample of vaginal discharge was taken from the posterior fornix of the cervix and from the vaginal wall using sterile cotton swabs. The mycelium was observed by microscopic examination of a wet mount of the secretions. Another sample was taken for culturing in Agar sabura and transported to the laboratory. In addition, questionnaires with personal and reproductive information were completed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 15 and chi-square and, t student statistical tests were used for analysis. Results : This investigation indicated that prevalence of candidiasis was 25.2%. There was no meaningful statistical relationship between age, marriage age, occupation, education status, body mass index, day of menstruation cycle and abortion history with candidal vaginitis (p>.05,but a statistically significant relationship was observed between number of deliveries, vaginal Ph with candidiasis. Also, there was a reverse statistical relationship between OCP, DMPA methods and candidiasis. Conclusion: Midwives and other health professionals have an important role to play by giving more information to women about infections and associated risk factors, thus improving their quality of life.

  10. Mucocutaneous candidiasis: the IL-17 pathway and implications for targeted immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huppler, Anna R.; Bishu, Shrinivas; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    IL-17 and related cytokines are direct and indirect targets of selective immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and other diseases of pathologic inflammation. Insights into the potential adverse effects of IL-17 blockade can be drawn from the experience of patients with deficiencies in the IL-17 pathway. A unifying theme of susceptibility to mucocutaneous candidiasis is seen in both mice and humans with a variety of genetic defects that converge on this pathway. Muc...

  11. Antifungal Activity of LY303366, a Novel Echinocandin B, in Experimental Disseminated Candidiasis in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Groll, Andreas H.; Candelario, Myrna; Sein, Tin; Bell, Aaron; Lyman, Caron A.; Mcmillian, Carl L.; Bacher, John; Walsh, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The safety and antifungal activity of LY303366 (LY), a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic echinocandin, were studied against disseminated candidiasis in persistently neutropenic rabbits. In vitro time-kill assays demonstrated that LY has concentration-dependent fungicidal activity. The pharmacokinetics of LY in the plasma of nonneutropenic rabbits suggested a linear relationship between dose and area under the curve (AUC). The times spent above the MIC during the experimental dosing interval of...

  12. Caspofungin Dose Escalation for Invasive Candidiasis Due to Resistant Candida albicans ?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie A.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot...

  13. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin - review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Glöckner A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Working by a distinct cell wall-specific mechanism of action, the echinocandin class of antifungals has substantially expanded the range of available treatments for invasive Candida infections. Anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were investigated versus drugs from earlier antifungal classes in large clinical trials that demonstrated their excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis. Therefore, and supported by a number of fa...

  14. Efficacy of the Echinocandin Caspofungin against Disseminated Aspergillosis and Candidiasis in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppressed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abruzzo, George K.; Gill, Charles J.; Flattery, Amy M.; Kong, Li; Leighton, Claire; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Pikounis, V. Bill; Bartizal, Ken; Rosen, Hugh

    2000-01-01

    The in vivo efficacy of the echinocandin antifungal caspofungin acetate (caspofungin; MK-0991) was evaluated in models of disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis in mice with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Caspofungin is a 1,3-?-d-glucan synthesis inhibitor efficacious against a number of clinically relevant fungi including Aspergillus and Candida species. Models of CY-induced transient or chronic leukopenia were used with once daily administration of therapy initiated 2...

  15. Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Susana; Iglesias Piñeiro M; Sanz Yolanda; Yepes Jeannet; Uriarte Beatriz; Vello Cuadrado Rocío A; González Paulino; Rojas Giraldo María J; Horcajuelo Jesús; del Pozo Marta; Teira Blanca; Rodríguez-Moñino Ana; Díaz Yolanda; De-Alba Romero Cristina; Wiesmann Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This wo...

  16. Immunological Effects of Honey Bee Venom in Mice with Intracerebral Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Nermine K. M.; Elsayed, Abeer A.

    2009-01-01

    Bee Venom (BV) is a natural substance, reported to booster the immune system. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of bee venom in stimulation of the immune system in mice infected with intracerebral Candidiasis probing for its possible use in treatment of this ailment. In vivo study included three groups of mice; bee venom-treated Candida infected group, untreated Candida-infected group and control group. Mice in the first two groups received intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of ...

  17. Invasive candidiasis due to Candida norvegensis in a liver transplant patient: case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Musso; Maddalena Giannella; Mario Antonini; Eugenio Bordi; Giuseppe Maria Ettorre; Loretta Tessitore; Andrea Mariano; Alessandro Capone

    2014-01-01

    Candida norvegensis is an emerging fluconazole-resistant pathogen isolated in most cases from skin and mucous membranes of immunocompromized patients. Documented invasive candidiasis (IC) due to C. norvegensis has been rarely reported, thus the clinical features of patients at risk for this pathogen are poorly defined. We report a liver transplant patient who developed IC due to C. norvegensis and review other cases of C. norvegensis IC published in the literature.

  18. Candida glabrata Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients Receiving Radiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Redding, Spencer W.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Coco, Brent J.; Sadkowski, Lee; Fothergill, Annette W.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Eng, Tony Y.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Candida glabrata colonization is common in patients receiving radiation treatment for head and neck cancer, but to our knowledge has never been described as the infecting organism with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). This study presents the first three patients described with C. glabrata OPC in this patient population. Patient 1 developed C. glabrata OPC and required fluconazole, 800 mg/day, for clinical resolution. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed a MIC of fluconazole of >64 ?g/m...

  19. ?-D-Glucan Assay in Diagnosis and Monitoring the Systemic Candidiasis in a Rat Model

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    Hossein Khodadadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of ?-D-Glucan (BDG in the serum aids to diagnose the invasive fungal infections. The current study evaluated the diagnostic potential value of BDG assay in monitoring the disease in experimental systemic candidiasis in a rat model. The results can provide a useful preliminary data to improve this approach in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate ?-D-Glucan assay in diagnosis and monitoring the systemic candidiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty one rats were infected with 106 Candida albicans blastospore per rat. Twelve rats were considered as the negative controls (six immunocompromised rats without infection and six intact rats. During a week, every 24 hours the BDG sera level was determined by both Fungitell and Wako kits. To confirm the systemic infection in each rat, the suspensions of their internal organs were cultivated on agar plates and the number of colony forming units (CFU of C. albicans was counted. Results: All the infected rats were positive with BDG tests. An increasing level of BDG was observed during early days after injection. The cutoff value for discrimination of BDG positive sera was obtained from the negative sera by the Fungitell kit. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values assessed for the Fungitell kit were 95%, 66.6%, 90.47% and 80%, respectively. These criteria for those of Wako were 90%, 83.3%, 94.7% and 71.4%, respectively. Conclusions: While BDG assay seems to be a sensitive and specific adjunctive tool to diagnose and monitor the experimental systemic candidiasis, it seems that measuring the positive cutoff value in different laboratory conditions is necessary for favorable establishment of these tests. Keywords: Beta-D-glucan; Systemic candidiasis; Diagnosis

  20. Human Recombinant Antimannan Immunoglobulin G1 Antibody Confers Resistance to Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mason X.; Bohlman, M. Charlotte; Itatani, Carol; Burton, Dennis R.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; St Jeor, Stephen C.; Kozel, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Mannan is a major cell wall component found in Candida species. Natural antimannan antibody is present in sera from most normal adults, but its role in host resistance to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis is unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop recombinant human antimannan antibody and to study its protective function. A phage Fab display combinatorial library containing Fab genes from bone marrow lymphocytes was screened with Candida albicans yeast cells and chemically pur...

  1. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  2. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PATUSSI, Cleverson; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; MUNHOZ, Eduardo Ciliao; ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; SCHUSSEL, Juliana Lucena.

    2014-09-26

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient’s recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, [...] particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  3. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

  4. Prevalencia de Candidiasis Bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA: Estudio retrospectivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    V, Tovar; E, Albornoz; M, Guerra; J, Lazarde.

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de Candidiasis Bucal en un grupo de pacientes VIH/SIDA que acudieron al Servicio de Atención a Pacientes con Enfermedades Infectocontagiosas (SAPEI) de la Facultad de Odontología de la UCV. Se estudiaron 509 pacientes de los cuales 151 pacientes [...] al examen clínico presentaron lesiones bucales de Candidiasis, de estos, 119 eran hombres y 32 mujeres, con un rango de edades entre 19 y 64 años y un promedio de 38,12 años. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según los factores predisponentes o facilitadores de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) en: heterosexuales, homosexuales, uso de drogas por vía parenteral, transfusión sanguínea o por factor desconocido. A todos los sujetos se les examinó la cavidad bucal y se realizó toma de muestra bucal la cual fue sembrada en el medio de Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud e incubadas a 37°C por 48-72 horas. La prevalencia de lesiones candidiásicas bucales fue de 29,66%. Abstract in english The aim of this study has been to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis. Of 509 AIDS patients only 151 showed oral Candida lesions, 119 men and 32 female, and ranged in age 19 a 64 years old. Patients were grouped attending the predisposing factors for VIH infection in: heterosexuals, homosex [...] uals, intravenous drug users, transfusion or having unknown factors. Oral cavity was examined and an oral specimen was inoculated culture medium Sabouraud. The prevalence of oral Candida lesions was 29.66%.

  5. Mucocutaneous candidiasis: the IL-17 pathway and implications for targeted immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppler, Anna R; Bishu, Shrinivas; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2012-01-01

    IL-17 and related cytokines are direct and indirect targets of selective immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and other diseases of pathologic inflammation. Insights into the potential adverse effects of IL-17 blockade can be drawn from the experience of patients with deficiencies in the IL-17 pathway. A unifying theme of susceptibility to mucocutaneous candidiasis is seen in both mice and humans with a variety of genetic defects that converge on this pathway. Mucocutaneous candidiasis is a superficial infection of mucosal, nail or skin surfaces usually caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. The morbidity of the disease includes significant pain, weight loss and secondary complications, including carcinoma and aneurysms. This review describes the known human diseases associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) as well as the known and proposed connections to IL-17 signaling. The human diseases include defects in IL-17 signaling due to autoantibodies (AIRE deficiency), receptor mutations (IL-17 receptor mutations) or mutations in the cytokine genes (IL17F and IL17A). Hyper-IgE syndrome is characterized by elevated serum IgE, dermatitis and recurrent infections, including CMC due to impaired generation of IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Mutations in STAT1, IL12B and IL12RB1 result in CMC secondary to decreased IL-17 production through different mechanisms. Dectin-1 defects and CARD9 defects result in susceptibility to C. albicans because of impaired host recognition of the pathogen and subsequent impaired generation of IL-17-producing T cells. Thus, recent discoveries of genetic predisposition to CMC have driven the recognition of the role of IL-17 in protection from mucosal fungal infection and should guide counseling and management of patients treated with pharmacologic IL-17 blockade. PMID:22838497

  6. Ketoconazole hepatotoxicity in a patient treated for environmental illness and systemic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusko, C.S.; Marten, J.T. (Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Environmental illness, a hypothesized disease caused by exposure to substances such as combustion products, pesticides, food additives, and Candida albicans, is discussed. The case of a patient with environmental illness and systemic candidiasis for six weeks with ketoconazole, liver enzyme concentrations increased. One month after discontinuation of ketoconazole, the liver enzyme concentrations decreased; however, over the next five months, liver enzymes and bilirubin increased. The patient developed encephalopathy and eventually was transferred to a medical center for possible liver transplant. A review of the literature pertaining to ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is also presented.16 references.

  7. Central Nervous System Candidiasis Presenting with Persistent Brain Parenchymal Microabscess in a Premature Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yueh Hsu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidal meningitis is a serious complication of systemic candidiasis and cause ofmajor morbidity and mortality. This is especially true in very low birth weight prematureinfants. We describe a premature neonate who suffered from systemic candidal infectionwith brain parenchymal involvement detected by cranial ultrasound. This patient survivedafter antifungal treatment but delayed neurodevelopmental outcome was noted in the subsequentfollow-up. Physicians should be more alert to the early diagnosis of fungal infection inpremature babies as central nervous system candidal infection can result in neurodevelopmentaldelay in such infants.

  8. Hybridoma Passage In Vitro May Result in Reduced Ability of Antimannan Antibody To Protect against Disseminated Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Hong; Cutler, Jim E.

    2006-01-01

    We previously reported the enhanced resistance of monoclonal antibodies B6.1 (an immunoglobulin M [IgM]) and C3.1 (an IgG3) against experimental candidiasis. Both MAbs recognize the same fungal epitope. We have since found that a highly passaged B6.1 hybridoma (hp-B6.1) resulted in antibody that has little protective potential. The potential clinical applicability of the antibody and our interest in understanding antibody protection against candidiasis led us to investigate an explanation for...

  9. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  10. Polymeric microparticles-based formulation for the eradication of cutaneous candidiasis: development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Jamwal, Sumit; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous candidiasis is a common topical fungal infection which may be more prominent in patients associated with AIDS. It is usually treated by conventional formulations such as cream, gel, which show various adverse effects on skin along with systemic absorption. To overcome these drawbacks, various novel drug delivery systems have been explored. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based microparticulate systems have shown good dermal penetration after topical application. Therefore, in the present study clotrimazole-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared for targeted dermal delivery. Microspheres were prepared by using a single emulsification (oil-in-water, O/W) evaporation technique and characterized for different parameters. Prepared microparticulate systems were dispersed in Carbopol 934® gel and antifungal activity was carried out on experimentally induced cutaneous candidiasis in immunosuppressed guinea pigs. Particle size of optimized formulation was 2.9?µm along with 74.85% entrapment of drug. Skin retention studies revealed that drug accumulation in the skin was higher with microspheres gel as compared to marketed gel. Confocal microscopy of skin further confirmed penetration of microspheres up to 50?µm into the dermal region. In-vivo antifungal activity studies demonstrated that microsphere gel showed better therapeutic activity, lowest number of cfu/ml was recorded, as compared to marketed gel after 96?h of application. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that PLGA microparticles may be promising carriers to deliver clotrimazole intradermally for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:23560821

  11. Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO Enriched with Zn as Immunostimulator for Vaginal Candidiasis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERY WINARSI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbance on the immune system and deficiency of Zn is two factors which often trigger vaginal candidiasis patient. The aim of the research was to study the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO enriched with Zn to the amount of neutrophil and lymphocyte subset cells, and the level of IL-2 and IgG in vaginal candidiasis patient. Thirty women were grouped into three (ten women in each group: A, B and C, and intervened for two months. Women in A group were intervened with two tablespoon/day; those in B group were intervened with one tablespoon/day; while those in C group served as control (placebo. Blood was sampled at baseline time, one and two months after intervention. Hematological test by Micros-OT was done on a part of blood, and the plasma was used for IL-2 and IgG level tests using ELISA. The virgin coconut oil enriched with Zn maintained the number of neutrophil and NK cells, but increased Tc cells from 521 to 649 cells/mm3, increased Th cells from 1.090 to 1.380 cells/mm3. The enriched VCO also increase level of IL-2 from 0.25313 to 0.27337 pg/ml, while the IgG level changed from equivocal to negative. The recommended dosage was one tablespoon each day.

  12. Common polymorphisms in critical genes of innate immunity do not contribute to the risk for chronic disseminated candidiasis in adult leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Hwa; Taylor, James G; Foster, Charles B; Walsh, Thomas J; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Ruutu, Tapani; Palotie, Aarno; Chanock, Stephen J

    2005-06-01

    Chronic disseminated candidiasis is a serious fungal infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those undergoing therapy for acute leukemia. Coordination between innate and adaptive immune system is critical to resistance or susceptibility to Candida infection. In order to investigate possible genetic contribution to chronic disseminated candidiasis of key molecules in the innate immune pathway, we performed a case control study using the candidate gene approach. Forty subjects with chronic disseminated candidiasis and 50 controls without chronic disseminated candidiasis but an underlying diagnosis of leukemia were enrolled in the Helsinki University Central Hospital during the period 1980-1998. Candidate genes were selected for analysis based upon the following criteria: a common polymorphism (>5% frequency) and existence a priori of clinical and biological data suggesting a role for the variant in the pathogenesis of chronic disseminated candidiasis. Six genes were selected from critical microbicidal and innate immune pathways, including three low-affinity Fcgamma receptors (FCGR2A, FCGR3A and FCGR3B), chitotriosidase (CHIT1), p22-phox NADPH oxidase (CYBA), and mannose binding lectin (MBL2). There was no statistically significant association of susceptibility to chronic disseminated candidiasis with the polymorphisms in this study. Common variants in the six studied genes most likely do not contribute to the risk for chronic disseminated candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia. PMID:16110781

  13. [The efficacy of high-intensity laser irradiation in the combined treatment of patients with esophageal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preobrazhenski?, V N; Kasatkin, N N

    1996-01-01

    High-intensity impulse laser radiation proved effective in 23 patients with esophageal candidiasis. The highest effect was achieved in its use with nistatin. In low laser efficacy radiation should be combined with transendoscopic administration of granulocytes concentrate. This produced clinico-endoscopic remission in 98.3% of the cases. PMID:8771650

  14. Perfil epidemiológico de la candidiasis invasora en unidades de pacientes críticos en un hospital universitario / Epidemiologial profile of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units at a university hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Cristina, Ajenjo H; Andrés, Aquevedo S; Ana María, Guzmán D; Helena, Poggi M; Mario, Calvo A; Claudia, Castillo V; Eugenia, León C; Max, Andresen H; Jaime, Labarca L.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología de candidiasis invasora (CI) ha cambiado, lo cual no ha sido suficientemente estudiado en Chile. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico de CI en pacientes críticos. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo entre octubre 2001 y agosto 2003, en pacientes críti [...] cos adultos con sospecha o confimnación de CI. Resultados: 53 pacientes cumplieron criterios de CI. De ellos, 18 (33,9%) tuvieron candidemia, 22(41,5%) CI diseminada y 13(24,5%) CI local. Entre las candidemias, hubo 8 C. albicans (44,4%) y 10 Candida no albicans (55,6%), predominando C. tropicalis (27,7%). Un 88,8% de las candidemias fueron susceptibles a fluconazol. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 24,5%, significativamente menor en pacientes con candidemias vs CI diseminada (16,6 vs 31,8%, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: Se observó una mayor proporción de Candida no albicans en candidemias de pacientes críticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de estas cepas fue susceptible a fluconazol. La mortalidad global fue menor en candidemias. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis (IC) epidemiology has changed in critically ill patients and limited data are available in Chile. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological profile of IC in critically ill patients. Methods: Observational prospective study conducted from October 2001 to Augu [...] st 2003 in critically ill adults with suspected or confirmed IC. Results: 53 patients met criteria for IC, finding 18 (33.9%) candidemias, 22 (41.5%) disseminated IC, and 13 (24.5%) local IC. We identified 8 (44.4%) C. albicans and 10 (55.6%) non-albicans Candida in candidemias. C. tropicalis was the predominant non-albicans species (27.7%). An 88.8 % of Candidas sp recovered in candidemias were fluconazole susceptible. Overall hospital mortality was 24.5%. Mortality in candidemia was significantly lower than in disseminated IC (16.6 vs 31.8%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: A higher proportion of non-albicans Candida was observed in candidemias from critically ill patients. However, most of these strains were fluconazole susceptible. A lower overall mortality was observed in candidemias.

  15. Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERARDO MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %, Candida tropicalis (8,1 % y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %. Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 % que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %. De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS, el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos.A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %, Candida tropicalis (8.1 %, and Torulopsis glabrata (8.1 %. It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 % than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %. Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA, the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

  16. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  17. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later challenged with a lethal dose of C. albicans. The data indicated that the vaccine elicited a strong IgG response and increased the survival rate of the vaccinated mice. Furthermore, L. casei acted as a potent adjuvant and induced high antibody titers that were comparable to those induced by strong adjuvants such as the cholera toxin. Overall, the molecular display method can be used to rapidly develop vaccines that can be conveniently administered and require minimal processing. PMID:25853077

  18. Algunas consideraciones sobre Candida Albicans como agente etiológico de candidiasis bucal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo, se describen los principales aspectos referentes a Candida albicans, microorganismo mayormente implicado en la Candidiasis Bucal, entre los cuales se destacan: Historia, taxonomía, características morfológicas y fisiológicas (haciendo especial énfasis en la ultraestructura d [...] el hongo), características de cultivo, algunas consideraciones ecológicas, así como una serie de factores específicos que afectan en la distribución de Candida en la cavidad bucal. Abstract in english In this article, we make reference about some considerations of Candida albicans, the most important aetiological agent implicated in Oral Candidiosis refering to: History, taxonomy, morphological and physiological characteristics (making special emphasis in ultrastructure), culture characteristics, [...] ecological aspects and specific factors afected Candida distribution within the oral cavity.

  19. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was necropsied. Fragments of tissue were collected and processed for histology. Coloration of H.E. and Groccot was made. For mycology was collected tissue, exsudate, and skin crusts. Direct exam was made, and samples cultivated at 37oC in agar Sabouraud with cloranfenicol and agar corn. Macroscopically the animal presented; itself extremely thin with ulcerative lesions on the skin, ranging from 1 to 4 cm. Histologically, on dermis ulcerations, there was mononuclear infiltrate and fibroblastic proliferation. With Groccot, it was observed intralesionally hyphae and blastoconidia. The direct exam showed round and/or ovalate gram positive cells, compatible with yeast. The cultives showed shining colonies with a smooth surface, some of them with edges fringed and white-yellowish coloration. The colonies showed yeast cells with ovalate or alongate forms and sprouting unipolar on microscopy. With microcultive, it was found globosous blastoconidia, with wall thick and pseudohyfaes abundant and ramified. There was the formation of a germinative tube, confirming the C. albicans species. This study shows the risk of candidiasis in wildlife primates living on captivity.

     

    KEY WORDS: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, Cebus apella, skin.

  20. Disseminated histoplasmosis with concurrent oral candidiasis in an Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, E M; Belcher, C; Levine, G; Johnson, M; Heatley, J J; Kiupel, M; Giri, D

    2011-04-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, a zoonotic fungal organism, is an important disease in animals and humans, particularly those with compromised immune systems. Reports of disseminated histoplasmosis in an avian species are not available within the current literature. Candida albicans, another fungal agent with zoonotic importance, is a commensal of the avian digestive tract that is often associated with opportunistic infections particularly in young or immunocompromised birds. This report describes a case of concomitant histoplasmosis and candidiasis in an Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) characterized by severe granulomatous glossitis, blepharitis and osteomyelitis with numerous intrahistiocytic and extracellular yeasts (H. capsulatum) as well as intralesional hyphae, pseudohyphae and conidia (C. albicans). To our knowledge, co-infection with H. capsulatum and C. albicans has not been reported in an avian species. PMID:21500041

  1. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rad DMD, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization and infection and resistance to antifungal drugs in these patients.METHODS: Thirty patients receiving a 6-week course of radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer at theOncology Unit in Shafa Hospital, in 2008, were enrolled in the study. Specimens from patients were cultured weeklyfor Candida. All isolates were plated on CHROM agar and RPMI-based medium. They were subcultured and submittedfor antifungal susceptibility testing (nystatin, fluconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole and molecular typing.RESULTS: Infection (clinical and microbiological evidence occurred in 50% of the patients and Candida colonization(only microbiological evidence occurred in 70% of subjects in the first week. Candida albicans alone was isolated in94.9% of patient visits with positive cultures. Candida tropicalis was isolated from 5.1% of patient visits with positivecultures. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin, but did not respond to the other antifungal drugsCONCLUSIONS: The irradiation-induced changes of the intraoral environment such as xerostomia lead to increasedintraoral colonization by Candida species. All yeast isolates were susceptible to nystatin. Thus prophylactic therapywith nystatin should be considered for these patients.

  2. Efficacy of oral cochleate-amphotericin B in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, R; Paderu, P; Delmas, G; Chen, Z W; Mannino, R; Zarif, L; Perlin, D S

    2000-09-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis. PMID:10952579

  3. Caspofungin Dose Escalation for Invasive Candidiasis Due to Resistant Candida albicans ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Najvar, Laura K.; Bocanegra, Rosie A.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot 1 point mutations. Mice received daily caspofungin treatment for 7 days and were then followed off therapy for 2 weeks to assess survival. Kidney tissue and blood were collected, and fungal burden and serum (1?3)-?-d-glucan were measured. Significant differences in virulence were observed among the three C. albicans isolates, which translated into differences in responses to caspofungin. The most virulent of the resistant isolates studied (isolate 43001; Fks1p F641S) did not respond to caspofungin doses of up to 10 mg/kg of body weight, as there were no differences in survival (survival range, 0 to 12% with treatment), tissue burden, or (1?3)-?-d-glucan concentration compared to those for untreated controls. Higher doses of caspofungin did improve survival against the second resistant isolate (53264; Fks1p S645P) that demonstrated reduced virulence (5 and 10 mg/kg; 80% survival). In contrast, caspofungin doses as low as 1 mg/kg improved survival (85 to 95%) and reduced tissue burden and (1?3)-?-d-glucan concentration against the susceptible isolate (ATCC 90028). These data suggest that caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis may not be consistently effective against resistant C. albicans isolates, and this may be associated with the virulence of the strain. PMID:21502632

  4. Caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis due to resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Bocanegra, Rosie A; Kirkpatrick, William R; Patterson, Thomas F

    2011-07-01

    Previous in vivo studies have reported caspofungin dose escalation to be effective against Candida glabrata with reduced susceptibility. We hypothesized that higher doses of caspofungin would be effective against invasive candidiasis caused by the more virulent species Candida albicans, including isolates resistant to this echinocandin. Immunocompetent mice were inoculated with one of three C. albicans isolates, including one susceptible and two resistant isolates with different FKS1 hot spot 1 point mutations. Mice received daily caspofungin treatment for 7 days and were then followed off therapy for 2 weeks to assess survival. Kidney tissue and blood were collected, and fungal burden and serum (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan were measured. Significant differences in virulence were observed among the three C. albicans isolates, which translated into differences in responses to caspofungin. The most virulent of the resistant isolates studied (isolate 43001; Fks1p F641S) did not respond to caspofungin doses of up to 10 mg/kg of body weight, as there were no differences in survival (survival range, 0 to 12% with treatment), tissue burden, or (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan concentration compared to those for untreated controls. Higher doses of caspofungin did improve survival against the second resistant isolate (53264; Fks1p S645P) that demonstrated reduced virulence (5 and 10 mg/kg; 80% survival). In contrast, caspofungin doses as low as 1 mg/kg improved survival (85 to 95%) and reduced tissue burden and (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan concentration against the susceptible isolate (ATCC 90028). These data suggest that caspofungin dose escalation for invasive candidiasis may not be consistently effective against resistant C. albicans isolates, and this may be associated with the virulence of the strain. PMID:21502632

  5. Therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of aminocandin (IP960) against disseminated candidiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najvar, L K; Bocanegra, R; Wiederhold, N P; Lambros, C; Najarian, N; Patterson, T F; Graybill, J R

    2008-06-01

    Extended interval dosing of the echinocandins has been suggested as a potential strategy to overcome the need for daily intravenous administration. This study evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of single doses of aminocandin, a new echinocandin in preclinical development, in a murine model of invasive candidiasis. For therapy, groups of mice were infected with Candida albicans, followed by a single dose of aminocandin (1-15 mg/kg) or placebo (mannitol 5% w/v) administered 1 day after inoculation. As prophylaxis, mice were given a single dose (5 or 30 mg/kg) of aminocandin, caspofungin, or placebo at increasing intervals between dose and inoculation. In both treatment and prophylaxis studies, survival was assessed at 21 days post-inoculation. The reduction in fungal burden was assessed in kidney tissue on day 8 post-inoculation. For treatment, single doses of aminocandin of >/=2.5 mg/kg prolonged survival significantly. In addition, the two doses evaluated for reductions in fungal burden (5 and 15 mg/kg) revealed fungicidal activity. As prophylaxis, both aminocandin and caspofungin 5 and 30 mg/kg prolonged survival when given 7 days before inoculation. Aminocandin and caspofungin 30 mg/kg were both able to prolong survival when the interval between dose and inoculation was increased to 10 days. When this interval was extended to 14 days, only aminocandin 30 mg/kg prolonged survival and reduced fungal burden. These results demonstrate that single doses of aminocandin are effective as treatment and prophylaxis, and suggest that extended interval dosing may be a useful strategy for treating invasive candidiasis. PMID:18397335

  6. Evaluation on the aire gene mutations in a cohort of Italian patients with autoimmune-polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal-distrophy (Apeced) and in their relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano, Roberta

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Autoimmune-Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal-Dystrophy (APECED) is a rare syndrome characterized by chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease. APECED has been associated with mutations in AutoImmune REgulator (AIRE) gene. Our aim is to perform a genetic analysis of the AIRE gene in Italian APECED patients and in their relatives. Design: AIRE mutations were determined by DNA sequencing in all subjects. Patients were tested for clinical autoimmu...

  7. Evolución favorable de trillizos prematuros con candidiasis sistémica neonatal tratados con caspofungina / Successfully evolution of premature triplets with systemic neonatal candidiasis treated with caspofungin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana E., Granados-Perales; J. Horacio, Ugalde-Fernández.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las infecciones por especies de Candida son un problema que se ha incrementado de manera importante en pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) y son una causa común de morbi-mortalidad en dicha población. La anfotericina B ha sido considerada como el principa [...] l agente terapéutico antifúngico; sin embargo, se ha asociado con efectos adversos como la fungemia persistente debido al aumento en la resistencia a Candida, particularmente especies no albicans, a menudo resistentes también a otros antifúngicos, como el fluconazol. Casos clínicos: Se trata de recién nacidos trillizos de 29 semanas de gestación, quienes recibieron soporte avanzado en la UCIN, incluyendo ventilación mecánica (VM), inserción de catéteres venosos centrales, nutrición parenteral total (NPT) y varios esquemas de antibióticos de amplio espectro, desarrollando sepsis por Candida parapsillosis en los tres casos; la terapia antifúngica fue iniciada con fluconazol, posteriormente con anfotericina B convencional y anfotericina B liposomal, sin mejoría clínica y con hemocultivos positivos. El deterioro fue revertido después del inicio de caspofungina (2 mg/kg/día) añadida a la anfotericina B liposomal. Los tres pacientes se recuperaron totalmente, sin ningún efecto adverso y con adecuada tolerancia. Conclusiones: La caspofungina resultó ser efectiva y bien tolerada en los pacientes tratados a dosis de 2 mg/kg/ día, por lo que se puede considerar una alternativa de tratamiento de la candidiasis invasiva en neonatos prematuros, aunque la dosis óptima no se ha determinado. Abstract in english Background: Infections caused by Candida sp. have been significantly increasing in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and are the most common causes of morbi-mortality in this population group. Amphotericin B has been considered to be the standard antifungal therapy. However, it has be [...] en associated with adverse effects such as persistent fungemia due to the increase of Candida resistance, in particular the non-albicans species, similar to the resistance shown by other antifungals such as fluconazol. Clinical cases: Triplets of gestational age of 29 weeks received advanced life support in the NICU, including mechanical ventilation (MV), insertion of venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and multiple regimes of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The three patients developed C. parapsilosis sepsis. Antifungal therapy was initiated with fluconazol prior to the use of conventional amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B. There was no clinical improvement and blood cultures remained positive. Clinical improvement was noted after the initiation of caspofungin (2 mg/kg/day) in addition to the use of liposomal amphotericin B. The triplets recovered completely with adequate tolerance to the medication and without adverse effects. Conclusion: Use of caspofungin proved to be an effective and well-tolerated therapy in these patients (2 mg/ kg/day). It can be considered an alternative treatment for invasive candidiasis in premature neonates, although optimal dosage remains undetermined.

  8. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  9. Identification and characterization of molecular genetic bases responsible for the predisposition to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Luyan

    2013-01-01

    My project consists in the molecular and immunological identification and characterization of patients with increased susceptibility to fungal infections with Candida sp. suffering from the Mendelian syndrome of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC).CMC is characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the skin, nails and mucosae by Candida fungi, especially C. albicans. CMC is frequently associated with other opportunistic infections in some acquired or primary immunodeficiencies, ...

  10. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Makanjuola, Olufunmilola Bamidele; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal...

  11. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Kristen; Roberts Christine L; Kotsiou George; Morris Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of prete...

  12. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF PULMONARY CANDIDIASIS AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS AND USE OF CHROMAGAR IN IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mathavi, S.; Shankar, R.; Kavitha, A.; Sasikala, G.; Indra Priyadharsini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, fungal infections are on the rise due to various predisposing factors such as long term administration of antibiotics, use of steroids, pulmonary tuberculosis, immunosuppressive drugs and HIV infection. When host resistance is lowered, these opportunistic fungi may become fatal. Candida albicans was the most important pathogen causing pulmonary candidiasis. In recent times, there is increase in incidence of non-albicans Candida. Identification to the species lev...

  13. Caspofungin MICs Correlate with Treatment Outcomes among Patients with Candida glabrata Invasive Candidiasis and Prior Echinocandin Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Ryan K.; Nguyen, M. Hong; Press, Ellen G.; Updike, Cassaundra L.; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in Candida glabrata FKS genes, which encode the echinocandin target enzyme, are independent risk factors for treatment failures during invasive candidiasis. We retrospectively compared the ability of caspofungin susceptibility testing methods to identify C. glabrata FKS mutant isolates and predict outcomes among patients at our center. Eight percent (10/120) of sterile-site C. glabrata isolates harbored FKS1 (n = 3) or FKS2 (n = 7) mutations, including 32% (10/32) recovered from ...

  14. CARD9 deficiency and spontaneous central nervous system candidiasis: complete clinical remission with GM-CSF therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavino, Christina; Cotter, Anthony; Lichtenstein, Daniel; Lejtenyi, Duncan; Fortin, Claude; Legault, Catherine; Alirezaie, Najmeh; Majewski, Jacek; Sheppard, Donald C; Behr, Marcel A; Foulkes, William D; Vinh, Donald C

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate autosomal-recessive Caspase Recruitment Domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) deficiency in a patient with relapsing C. albicans meningoencephalitis. We identified a novel, hypomorphic mutation with intact Th17 responses, but impaired GM-CSF responses. We report complete clinical remission with adjunctive GM-CSF therapy, suggesting that a CARD9/GM-CSF axis contributes to susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24704721

  15. A Supplement Based on Zn-Enriched Virgin Coconut Oil as an Antifungal agent for Vaginal Candidiasis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    HERY WINARSI; HERNAYANTI; AGUS PURWANTO

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the amount of Candida albicans in vaginal secretion of Vaginal Candidiasis patients administered with Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil. Thirty respondents were selected based on several criteria as follows: the number of C. albicans colonies in the vaginal secretion was more than 105 cfu.ml-1, voluntary, healthy, willing to sign the informed consent and resided in Purwokerto. In Group A, 10 women were administered 2 tablespoons per day of Zn-enriched v...

  16. Avaliação da resposta imune celular em pacientes com candidíase recorrente / Evaluation of cellular immune response in patients with recurrent candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucas P., Carvalho; Olívia, Bacellar; Nilma A., Neves; Edgar M., Carvalho; Amélia R. de, Jesus.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A candidíase recorrente cutânea ou mucosa é caracterizada pela ocorrência de, no mínimo, 4 episódios de candidíase no período de um ano. Não são conhecidos os fatores que levam à recorrência desta infecção. O presente estudo avaliou a resposta linfoproliferativa e a produção de IFN-g de pacientes co [...] m candidíase recorrente. Os índices de estimulação da resposta linfoproliferativa em culturas de células de pacientes com candidíase recorrente estimuladas com antígeno de Candida albicans, PPD e TT foram respectivamente de 6±8, 17±20 e 65±30. A adição de anticorpo monoclonal anti-IL-10 às culturas de células de 6 pacientes aumentou a resposta linfoproliferativa de 735±415 para 4143±1746 cpm. A produção de IFN-g em culturas de células estimuladas com antígeno de Candida, foi 162±345pg/ml. Pacientes com candidíase recorrente apresentam uma deficiência na resposta linfoproliferativa e na produção de IFN-g, podendo a resposta imune celular ao antígeno de Candida ser restaurada parcialmente através da neutralização da IL-10 in vitro. Abstract in english Recurrent cutaneous or mucosal candidiasis is characterized by the occurrence of at least four candidiasis episodes within a one-year period. The factors involved in recurrence of infection are still unknown. In the present study the lymphoproliferative response and the IFN-g production by candidias [...] is patients were evaluated. The stimulation index of mononuclear cell cultures of candidiasis patients stimulated with Candida albicans antigen, PPD and TT were 6±8, 17±20 and 65±30, respectively. The addition of monoclonal antibody anti-IL-10 to Candida albicans antigen stimulated cultures raised the lymphoproliferative response from 735±415 to 4143±1746 cpm. The IFN-g production by cells of candidiasis patients stimulated with Candida albicans antigen was 162±345pg/ml. Candidiasis patients have an impairment in the lymphoproliferative response specific to C. albicans antigen and on IFN-g production and the lymphoproliferative response can be partially restored, in vitro, by IL-10 neutralization.

  17. Valor predictivo de la candidiasis oral como marcador de evolución a SIDA / Predictive value of oral candidiasis as a marker of progression to AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javier, Fernández Feijoo; Pedro, Diz Dios; Xosé Luis, Otero Cepeda; Jacobo, Limeres Posse; Javier de, la Fuente Aguado; Antonio, Ocampo Hermida.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la validez de la candidiasis oral (CO) como marcador clínico de evolución en los pacientes infectados por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana. Diseño del estudio: En 1992, se efectuó una exploración oral a un colectivo de 200 pacientes infectados por VIH, con una edad media [...] de 36,8±7 años (rango 25-46 años) para establecer el diagnóstico de CO. Se registraron las variables edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad, conducta de riesgo, número de linfocitos CD4/µL, estadio clínico y tratamiento antirretroviral. De los 200 pacientes del grupo de estudio, 157 no cumplían criterios de SIDA en el momento de la exploración basal y a éstos se les efectuó un seguimiento semestral hasta que cumplieron dichos criterios, concluyendo el estudio al final de 2001. Resultados: De los 157 pacientes seleccionados, 71 (45,2%) no presentaron CO y de éstos el 28,7% evolucionó a SIDA durante el período de seguimiento. De los 86 (54,8%) pacientes con CO, el 48,2% evolucionó a SIDA (RR=2,71). Al trasladar el origen del estudio al año 1997 cuando se inició la administración de la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE), no se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de pacientes que evolucionaron a SIDA en relación a la existencia o no de CO en la exploración basal. El análisis multivariante demostró que la asociación de la variable de exposición CO con la evolución a SIDA no alcanzó un valor predictivo. Conclusiones: El valor pronóstico a largo plazo de la CO, no se ha determinado en pacientes que reciben terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE). La recuperación inmunológica y la disminución de enfermedades oportunistas observadas tras la administración de TAAE, hacen que muchos pacientes que alcanzaron la condición de SIDA no cumplan en la actualidad dichos criterios, lo que obliga a renovar la propia definición del síndrome para poder evaluar marcadores de pronóstico. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the validity of oral candidiasis (OC) as a clinical marker of progression in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Study design: In 1992, an oral examination was carried out on a group of 200 HIV-infected patients with a mean age of 36.8 ± 7 years (range 25-46 [...] years) to establish the diagnosis of OC. The following variables were recorded: age, sex, duration of the disease, risk behaviour, CD4 lymphocyte count, clinical stage and antiretroviral treatment. Of the 200 patients in the group evaluated, 157 did not fulfil the criteria for AIDS at the time of the baseline examination; these patients constitute the study group and underwent 6-monthly follow-up until they fulfilled these criteria. The study was concluded at the end of 2001. Results: Of the 157 patients selected, 71 (45.2%) did not present OC and, of these, 28.7% progressed to AIDS during the follow-up period. Of the 86 (54.8%) patients with OC, 48.2% progressed to AIDS (RR= 2.71). If the start date of the study was taken as 1997, when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced, no differences were found in the percentage of patients who progressed to AIDS with respect to the presence or absence of OC at the baseline examination. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the association of the presence of OC with progression to AIDS did not reach a predictive value. Conclusions: The long-term prognostic value of OC has not been established in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The immunological recovery and the reduction in the number of opportunistic diseases observed after the administration of HAART means that many patients who developed AIDS do not currently satisfy these criteria, making a review of the definition of the syndrome itself a necessity in order to be able to evaluate prognostic markers.

  18. Efficient diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis by use of a new rapid immunochromatography test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Pilon, Françoise; Beucher, Bertrand; Poulain, Daniel; Robert, Raymond

    2009-12-01

    The clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are nonspecific, and misdiagnosis is common, leading to a delay in the initiation of antifungal treatment. We evaluated a new immunochromatography test (ICT), the CandiVagi assay (SR2B, Avrille, France), for the rapid diagnosis of VVC. This test, which employs an immunoglobulin M antibody directed against the beta-1,2-mannopyranosyl epitopes found in the yeast cell wall, was compared with direct microscopic examination and culture of vaginal swabs. Two-hundred five women were investigated, including 130 women with symptomatic vaginitis and 75 asymptomatic controls. Two vaginal swabs were obtained from each woman: one was used to prepare a wet mount and Gram-stained preparations for direct microscopic examination and was also cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar for the isolation of Candida spp., and the second swab was used for ICT. The sensitivities of microscopic examination, culture, and ICT for the diagnosis of VVC were 61%, 100%, and 96.6%, respectively, while the specificities of the three methods were 100%, 82%, and 98.6%, respectively. ICT had a negative predictive value of 98.6%, a positive predictive value of 96.6%, and an efficiency of 98%. ICT provided a rapid result and a better compromise between sensitivity and specificity than conventional microscopy and culture for the diagnosis of VVC. This easy-to-perform diagnostic test will be useful to practitioners treating women with symptoms of vaginitis. PMID:19794036

  19. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79?%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4?%), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3?%), Candida tropicalis (3.2?%) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1?%). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (Pketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  20. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinícius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  1. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients’ clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts’ opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

  2. Prevalence of Candida albicans-closely related yeasts, Candida africana and Candida dubliniensis, in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Jianling

    2014-08-01

    Isolates of Candida africana and C. dubliniensis were recovered from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The isolates were initially identified as C. albicans through use of the API Candida System. We retrospectively reexamined 1014 vaginal isolates presumptively determined to be C. albicans at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from 1 January 2003 through 31 December 2012. Our objective was to determine, via detection of the HWP1 gene, if any of the isolates were C. africana or C. dubliniensis. One and a half percent of these isolates (15/1014) were found to be C. africana, whereas C. dubliniensis was not detected. The 15 C. africana isolates were susceptible to nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole. Candida africana could not be recovered from clinical vaginal specimens from the 15 patients at follow-up on days 7-14 and days 30-35 when treated with different antifungal agents. We conclude that C. africana, but not C. dubliniensis, was present in the vaginal samples of patients with VVC. The C. africana isolates were susceptible to the tested antifungal agents. VVC caused by C. africana appears to respond well to current therapies. PMID:25023482

  3. Sentinel surveillance of invasive candidiasis in Spain: epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, M C; Tellería, O; Cisterna, R

    2015-01-01

    In order to know the epidemiology and the changes of antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis (IC) we carried out this prospective study of Candida strains belonging to patients admitted to 26 Spanish hospitals from June 2011 to June 2012 diagnosed with IC. Clinical information and the identity of the Candida species were collected and antifungal susceptibility was tested using broth microdilution in five agents: amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. A total of 705 cases-isolates were documented. Most of the patients suffered from candidemia and several underlying diseases and more than half of them were neutropenic or under immunosuppressive therapy, factors associated with higher mortality. Thirty percent of global mortality was documented. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species, although an increase of non-C. albicans species was observed. Resistance to fluconazole was of 3.4%, lower than in previous years (6.3%). C. parapsilosis presented a higher MIC90 of echinocandins compared to other species. PMID:25439581

  4. Asociación de LT-CD4 y carga viral con candidiasis bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA en Talca, Chile Association between LT-CD4 and the viral load with oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Talca, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brevis Azocar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis bucal aparece con frecuencia en las personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y puede causar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones. En los pacientes VIH la carga viral es considerada uno de los principales predictores en la progresión de la enfermedad. Se realizó un estudio en 29 pacientes adultos VIH-positivos para evaluar los niveles de linfocitos T-CD4 y carga viral; se estableció una relación con las manifestaciones de la candidiasis bucal. El análisis estadístico mostró que hubo relación entre la manifestación de la candidiasis bucal y la carga viral, pues en pacientes con cargas virales superiores a 10 000 copias/mL, las lesiones fueron más frecuentes.Oral candidiasis is frequently appearing in persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and may to cause many clinical and complications manifestations. In HIV patients the viral load is considered one of the main predictors in disease progression. A study was conducted in 29 HIV-positive adult patients to assess the T-CD4 lymphocyte levels and the viral load establishing a relationship with oral candidiasis manifestations. The statistical analysis showed that there was a relationship between the oral candidiasis manifestation and the viral load since in patients with viral load higher than 10 000 copies/mL, lesions were more frequent.

  5. Asociación de LT-CD4 y carga viral con candidiasis bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA en Talca, Chile / Association between LT-CD4 and the viral load with oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Talca, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Brevis Azocar; Evelyn, Pérez Marín; Paulina, Abaca C; Cesar, Coronado Gallardo; Mario, Cantín López.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La candidiasis bucal aparece con frecuencia en las personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y puede causar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones. En los pacientes VIH la carga viral es considerada uno de los principales predictores en la progresión de la enf [...] ermedad. Se realizó un estudio en 29 pacientes adultos VIH-positivos para evaluar los niveles de linfocitos T-CD4 y carga viral; se estableció una relación con las manifestaciones de la candidiasis bucal. El análisis estadístico mostró que hubo relación entre la manifestación de la candidiasis bucal y la carga viral, pues en pacientes con cargas virales superiores a 10 000 copias/mL, las lesiones fueron más frecuentes. Abstract in english Oral candidiasis is frequently appearing in persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and may to cause many clinical and complications manifestations. In HIV patients the viral load is considered one of the main predictors in disease progression. A study was conducted in 29 HIV-positive [...] adult patients to assess the T-CD4 lymphocyte levels and the viral load establishing a relationship with oral candidiasis manifestations. The statistical analysis showed that there was a relationship between the oral candidiasis manifestation and the viral load since in patients with viral load higher than 10 000 copies/mL, lesions were more frequent.

  6. Candidíase invasiva e alterações bucais em recém-nascidos prematuros / Invasive candidiasis and oral manifestations in premature newborns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Endrigo, Tinoco-Araujo; Diana Ferreira Gadelha, Araújo; Patrícia Gomes, Barbosa; Paulo Sérgio da Silva, Santos; Ana Myriam Costa de, Medeiros.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de candidíase invasiva em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e avaliar alterações bucais e colonização bucal por Candida spp. em recém-nascidos prematuros com baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico descritivo em duas etapas. Na primeira, analisou-se prevalên [...] cia de candidíase invasiva em base de dados de 295 prematuros com tempo de internação superior a 10 dias e peso ao nascer inferior a 2.000g. Na segunda etapa, avaliaram-se alterações bucais e colonização por Candida spp. em 65 pacientes com peso inferior a 2.000g, com até 4 semanas de idade, internados há mais de 10 dias e apresentando alterações bucais compatíveis com lesões fúngicas. Coletaram-se amostras com swab bucal e identificou-se a colonização fúngica. RESULTADOS: Na análise da base de dados, constatou-se que a prevalência de candidíase foi de 5,4%. Houve correlação com o tempo prolongado de internação (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to evaluate oral diseases and Candida spp. colonization in low birth weight preterm newborns. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study performed in two stages. First, prevalence of candidiasis was [...] analyzed in a database of 295 preterm patients admitted to hospital for over 10 days and birth weight less than 2,000g. In the second stage, oral changes and Candida spp. colonization were assessed in 65 patients weighing less than 2,000g, up to 4 week-old, hospitalized for over 10 days and presenting oral abnormalities compatible with fungal lesions. Swab samples were collected in the mouth to identify fungi. RESULTS: Prevalence of candidiasis was 5.4% in the database analyzed. It correlated with prolonged hospital length of stay (p

  7. Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care

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    Hernández Susana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression.. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient.

  8. [Inhibitory activity of vaginal Lactobacillus bacteria on yeasts causing vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strus, Magdalena; Brzychczy-W?och, Monika; Kucharska, Agnieszka; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Heczko, Piotr B

    2005-01-01

    Growing frequency of therapeutical failures of vulvovaginal candidiasis, resulting from resistance of certain species of Candida to imidazole agents, raises interest in the use of probiotics from Lactobacillus genera as prophylaxis. Unfortunately, little is known about inhibitory mechanisms of Lactobacillus on Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of selected Lactobacillus species, representing the physiological vaginal flora, against Candida as well as investigation whether their inhibitory activity against Candida is related strictly to hydrogen peroxide and lactic acid production. 125 strains from vaginal smears of healthy women were classified by making use of phenotypic and genotypic methods. The majority of strains belonged to L. acidophilus: L. acidophilus sensu stricto, L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. johnsonii as well as L. fermentum and L. plantarum species. Culture supernatants of selected 25 strains representing the isolated species were examined for their inhibitory activity against the growth of Candida albicans and C. glabrata. The results showed that the strongest and the fastest activity against C. albicans was demonstrated by L. delbrueckii strains, producing the largest quantities of hydrogen peroxide. On the other hand, extended activity, demonstrable after 24 hours, was shown by non-H2O2 producing L. plantarum supernatants. Growth of C. glabrata was not inhibited by any of the examined strains of Lactobacillus. Comparison of activity of live active cultures of Lactobacillus strains and their mixtures with this of pure H2O2 and lactic acid has shown that pure chemical compounds were less active than the cultures. This suggests that mixtures of Lactobacillus strains are in cooperation with each other using many different metabolites. PMID:16130291

  9. Vaginal nystatin versus oral fluconazole for the treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Wu, Cong; Xu, Lixuan; Li, Jianling

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common condition that can physically and psychologically impact patients. We compared the efficacy and safety of vaginal nystatin suppositories for 14 days each month versus standard oral fluconazole regimens for the treatment for RVVC. Patients (n = 293) were enrolled in the study from April 2010 to September 2013. After the initial therapy, the mycological cure rates were 78.3 % (119/152) and 73.8 % (104/141) in the nystatin group and fluconazole group, respectively (95 % CI, 0.749-2.197, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates at the end of maintenance therapy were 80.7 % (96/119) and 72.7 % (72/99) in the two groups, respectively (95 % CI, 0.954-3.293, p > 0.05).The mycological cure rates at the end without treatment for 6 months were 81.25 % (78/96) and 82.19 % (60/73) in the two groups, respectively (95 % CI, 0.427-2.066, p > 0.05). The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. albicans were 84.0 % (89/106) and 81.8 % (99/121) in the two groups, respectively. The mycological cure rates of RVVC caused by C. glabrata were 64.3 % (27/42) and 12.5 % (2/16) in the two groups, respectively. The initial and 6-month maintenance therapy were successful in five of the nine patients in the nystatin group with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida, whereas in the fluconazole group, initial therapy failed in all patients with RVVC caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida (n = 7). We conclude that both fluconazole and nystatin therapies are effective in treating RVVC. Nystatin may also be effective for the treatment for RVVC caused by C. glabrata or fluconazole-resistant Candida. PMID:25416649

  10. The investigational agent E1210 is effective in treatment of experimental invasive candidiasis caused by resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Fothergill, Annette W; McCarthy, Dora I; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; Kirkpatrick, William R; Everson, Michael P; Duncanson, Frederick P; Patterson, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo activity of the inositol acyltransferase inhibitor E1210 was evaluated against echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans. E1210 demonstrated potent in vitro activity, and in mice with invasive candidiasis caused by echinocandin-resistant C. albicans, oral doses of 10 and 40 mg E1210/kg of body weight twice daily significantly improved survival and reduced fungal burden compared to those of controls and mice treated with caspofungin (10 mg/kg/day). These results demonstrate the potential use of E1210 against resistant C. albicans infections. PMID:25331706

  11. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

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    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in pregnancy significantly reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth. If it can be demonstrated that treating asymptomatic candidiasis reduces preterm births this will change current practice and would directly impact the management of every pregnant woman. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000607077

  12. Comparison of anidulafungin's and fluconazole's in vivo activity in neutropenic and non-neutropenic models of invasive candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, N P; Najvar, L K; Bocanegra, R; Kirkpatrick, W R; Patterson, T F

    2012-02-01

    We compared the rate and extent of anidulafungin's and fluconazole's activity in neutropenic and non-neutropenic mice with Candida albicans invasive candidiasis. In immunocompetent mice, anidulafungin significantly improved survival vs. controls and fluconazole, and significant reductions in (1?3)-?-D-glucan and fungal burden were observed. In neutropenic animals, the highest doses of anidulafungin (5 mg/kg) and fluconazole (10 mg/kg) also improved survival and reduced fungal burden. However, there were no differences in survival between these antifungals as anidulafungin's activity was attenuated in this model. These results demonstrate that the extent of anidulafungin in vivo efficacy may be dependent on host immune status. PMID:22128831

  13. Susceptibilidad antifúngica de Candida albicans recuperadas de pacientes con SIDA y candidiasis orofaríngea y esofágica: Experiencia con Etest® Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis: Experience with Etest®

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    Cecilia Tapia P

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC and esophageal candidiasis (EPC are frequent complications in AIDS patients. The use of Fluconazole, an effective and a low toxicity drug, has been associated to the emergency of secondary resistant strains. For this reason, in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests are necessary to predict a therapeutic failure. Etest® is an easy to perform alternative test, that has showed a good agreement with the broth microdilution reference method (NCCLS, document M27-A. Aim: To measure the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients complicated with OPC and EPC to Amphotericin B (AmB and Fluconazole (Flu using Etest®. Material and methods: Twenty strains from 20 AIDS patients were studied. AmB was tested in RPMI 1640 agar and Flu in Casitone agar. Results: All studied strains showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs 256 mg/mL was isolated from a patient previously treated with Flu. Conclusions: In AIDS patients with OPC and EPC, the susceptibility to Flu of the isolates should be screened, to detect resistant strains. Etest®; is a reliable alternative in these cases, for laboratories that cannot use the reference method (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 515-19.

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Simone Fg; Barbosa, Júnia O; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia Ca; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio Oc; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of C. albicans filamentation. For in vivo study, Galleria mellonella was used as an infection model to evaluate the effects of L. acidophilus on candidiasis by survival analysis, quantification of C. albicans CFU/mL, and histological analysis. The direct effects of L. acidophilus cells on C. albicans, as well as the indirect effects using only a Lactobacillus culture filtrate, were evaluated in both tests. The in vitro results showed that both L. acidophilus cells and filtrate were able to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and filamentation. In the in vivo study, injection of L. acidophilus into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, the number of C. albicans CFU/mL recovered from the larval hemolymph was lower in the group inoculated with L. acidophilus compared to the control group. In conclusion, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibited in vitro biofilm formation by C. albicans and protected G. mellonella against experimental candidiasis in vivo. PMID:25654408

  15. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

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    SH Mirhendi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  16. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the N-terminal fragment of Candida albicans hyphal wall protein 1

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    Pontón José

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis is difficult because there are no specific clinical manifestations of the disease and colonization and infection are difficult to distinguish. In the last decade, much effort has been made to develop reliable tests for rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis, but none of them have found widespread clinical use. Results Antibodies against a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the Candida albicans germ tube-specific antigen hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1 generated in Escherichia coli were detected by both immunoblotting and ELISA tests in a group of 36 hematological or Intensive Care Unit patients with invasive candidiasis and in a group of 45 control patients at high risk for the mycosis who did not have clinical or microbiological data to document invasive candidiasis. Results were compared with an immunofluorescence test to detect antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes (CAGT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of a diagnostic test based on the detection of antibodies against the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by immunoblotting were 27.8 %, 95.6 %, 83.3 % and 62.3 %, respectively. Detection of antibodies to the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by ELISA increased the sensitivity (88.9 % and the negative predictive value (90.2 % but slightly decreased the specificity (82.6 % and positive predictive values (80 %. The kinetics of antibody response to the N-terminal fragment of Hwp1 by ELISA was very similar to that observed by detecting antibodies to CAGT. Conclusion An ELISA test to detect antibodies against a recombinant N-terminal fragment of the C. albicans germ tube cell wall antigen Hwp1 allows the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis with similar results to those obtained by detecting antibodies to CAGT but without the need of treating the sera to adsorb the antibodies against the cell wall surface of the blastospore.

  17. Beneficial effect of Mentha suaveolens essential oil in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis assessed by real-time monitoring of infection

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    Bistoni Francesco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal candidiasis is a frequent and common distressing disease affecting up to 75% of the women of fertile age; most of these women have recurrent episodes. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been shown to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-fungal activity of essential oil from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS in an experimental infection of vaginal candidiasis. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity of EOMS was assessed. The in vitro activity was evaluated under standard CLSI methods, and the in vivo analysis was carried out by exploiting a novel, non-invasive model of vaginal candidiasis in mice based on an in vivo imaging technique. Differences between essential oil treated and saline treated mice were evaluated by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Viable count data from a time kill assay and yeast and hyphae survival test were compared using the Student's t-test (two-tailed. Results Our main findings were: i EOMS shows potent candidastatic and candidacidal activity in an in vitro experimental system; ii EOMS gives a degree of protection against vaginal candidiasis in an in vivo experimental system. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that the essential oil of a Moroccan plant Mentha suaveolens is candidastatic and candidacidal in vitro, and has a degree of anticandidal activity in a model of vaginal infection, as demonstrated in an in vivo monitoring imaging system. We conclude that our findings lay the ground for further, more extensive investigations to identify the active EOMS component(s, promising in the therapeutically problematic setting of chronic vaginal candidiasis in humans.

  18. Low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination versus fluconazole in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

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    Jan Susilo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common fungal diseases. Candida albicans is the most common causative fungus and has been isolated from more than 80% of specimens obtained from women with VC. Ketoconazole is the first orally active antifungal, the dosage for VC is 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. Fluconazole is the newer oral antifungal, its dosage for VC is a single oral dose of 150 mg. Since fluconazole 150 mg is considerably expensive, a single dose of 100 mg ketoconazole and 40 mg fluconazole in combination has been tested for the treatment of VC. The results showed that from 11 women with confirmed VC, 1-2 weeks after drug administration, the mycological culture was negative in 8 women, positive in 1 woman, and 2 woman lost to follow-up. This promising result led to the present study with the objective to confirm the efficacy and safety of the above combination in a formal clinical trial.Methods: A total of 165 female patients, aged 18 years or older, with the diagnosis of VC from clinical symptoms (pruritus or burning or excessive discharge and positive microscopic smear (pseudohyphae and/or yeast cells were randomized to receive a single dose of either keto-fluco combination (n = 85 or fluconazole (n = 80, and returnedfor follow-up visit on day 8.Results: Among these patients, 39 patients had negative baseline culture, leaving 126 patients eligible for efficacy evaluation. The mycological eradication in the keto-fluco group was 74.5% (41 patients from a total of 55 patients with available mycological culture, while that in the fluconazole group was 70.2% (40 patients from 57 patients with available culture and this difference was not significant. The clinical favorable response (clinical cure and clinical improvement in the keto-fluco arm (n = 60 was 98.3%, while that in the fluconazole group (n = 66 was 100%. Adverse events were found in 5 patients, 3 patients in the keto-fluco group (3/85 = 3.5% and 2 patients in the fluconazole group (2/80 = 2.5%.Conclusion: The present study showed that the efficacy and safety of ketoconazole 100 mg and fluconazole 40 mg combination was not inferior compared to fluconazole 150 mg in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:205-11Keywords: fluconazole, low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination, single dose, vaginal candidiasis

  19. The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis / Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Botler, Wilheim; Demócrito de Barros, Miranda-Filho; Rodrigo Albuquerque, Nogueira; Rossana Sette de Melo, Rêgo; Kedma de Magalhães, Lima; Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão, Pereira.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e s [...] ua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5%) apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5%) tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5%) era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5%) eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 Abstract in english CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in i [...] ts pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5%) had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5%) were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5%) were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5%) were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count

  20. The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica

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    Ana Botler Wilheim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in its pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5% had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5% were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5% were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5% were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e sua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5% apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5% tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5% era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5% eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 <200. Espécies de Candida não-albicans foram detectadas em 22,7% dos pacientes HIV positivos e em 45% dos pacientes não infectados. A resistência ao fluconazol foi observada em seis amostras (14,28% e a sensibilidade dose-dependente em duas (4,76%. CONCLUSÃO:A prevalência de candidíase esofágica foi baixa, embora dentro de variação esperada. Pacientes homens e que estavam internados foram os mais acometidos. Houve variação nas espécies encontradas, de acordo com as características dos grupos estudados. Tanto a resistência ao fluconazol como a sensibilidade dose-dependente foram consideradas altas.

  1. Fabrication of a novel scaffold of clotrimazole-microemulsion-containing nanofibers using an electrospinning process for oral candidiasis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-02-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded microemulsion-containing nanofiber mats were developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis applications. The microemulsion was composed of oleic acid (O), Tween 80 (T80), and a co-surfactant such as benzyl alcohol (BzOH), ethyl alcohol (EtOH) or isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The nanofiber mats were obtained by electrospinning a blended solution of a CZ-loaded microemulsion and a mixed polymer solution of 2% (w/v) chitosan (CS) and 10% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a weight ratio of 30:70. The nanofiber mats were characterized using various analytical techniques. The entrapment efficiency, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The average diameter of the nanofiber mats was in the range of 105.91-125.56nm. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) results revealed the amorphous state of the CZ-loaded microemulsions incorporated into the nanofiber mats. The entrapment efficiency of CZ in the mats was approximately 72.58-98.10%, depended on the microemulsion formulation. The release experiment demonstrated different CZ release characteristics from nanofiber mats prepared using different CZ-loaded microemulsions. The extent of drug release from the fiber mats at 4h was approximately 64.81-74.15%. The release kinetics appeared to follow Higuchi's model. In comparison with CZ lozenges (10mg), the nanofiber mats exhibited more rapid killing activity. Moreover, the nanofiber mats demonstrated desirable mucoadhesive properties and were safe for 2h. Therefore, the nanofiber mats have the potential to be promising candidates for oral candidiasis applications. PMID:25543979

  2. Correlation Between HIV and Sexual Behavior, Drug Use, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis Among Female Sex Workers in a Mekong Delta Province of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Khuu, Nghia Van; Truong, Phong Hoai; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Truong, Lien Xuan Thi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam, a survey of 406 FSWs in Soc Trang province was conducted between May and August, 2003. The participants were interviewed, using a standardized interview, to obtain information about sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and gynecologic and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history. The prevalence of HIV was 3.3%. An increased risk for HIV was associated with ever using illicit drugs, direct sex work, early sexual debut, age of FSWs, and infection with candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Reduced likelihood of HIV was only associated with withdrawal as a contraceptive method. A strong association of HIV with drug use and candidiasis and trichomoniasis infection among FSWs was found. Needle/syringe exchange, STI treatment, and methadone programs targeting FSWs should be implemented, and should include 100% condom use promotion. PMID:19085101

  3. Correlation between HIV and sexual behavior, drug use, trichomoniasis and candidiasis among female sex workers in a Mekong Delta province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Khuu, Nghia Van; Truong, Phong Hoai; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Truong, Lien Xuan Thi; Detels, Roger

    2009-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam, a survey of 406 FSWs in Soc Trang province was conducted between May and August, 2003. The participants were interviewed, using a standardized interview, to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, and gynecologic and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history. The prevalence of HIV was 3.3%. An increased risk for HIV was associated with ever using illicit drugs, direct sex work, early sexual debut, age of FSWs, and infection with candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Reduced likelihood of HIV was only associated with withdrawal as a contraceptive method. A strong association of HIV with drug use and candidiasis and trichomoniasis infection among FSWs was found. Needle/syringe exchange, STI treatment, and methadone programs targeting FSWs should be implemented, and should include 100% condom use promotion. PMID:19085101

  4. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabíola Araújo, Oliveira; Viola, Pfleger; Katrin, Lang; Jörg, Heukelbach; Iracema, Miralles; Francisco, Fraga; Anastácio Queiroz, Sousa; Marina, Stoffler-Meilicke; Ralf, Ignatius; Ligia Franco Sansigolo, Kerr; Hermann, Feldmeier.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among wome [...] n of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human papillomavirus (HPV), ligase chain reaction (LCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592). The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7), chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6), trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1), gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6), syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1), and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6) and 12.5% (10.0-15.5), respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  5. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mh, Wilke

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatm...

  6. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  7. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabíola Araújo; Pfleger, Viola; Lang, Katrin; Heukelbach, Jörg; Miralles, Iracema; Fraga, Francisco; Sousa, Anastácio Queiroz; Stoffler-Meilicke, Marina; Ignatius, Ralf; Kerr, Ligia Franco Sansigolo; Feldmeier, Hermann

    2007-09-01

    Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human papillomavirus (HPV), ligase chain reaction (LCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS) for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592). The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7), chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6), trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1), gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6), syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1), and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6) and 12.5% (10.0-15.5), respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic. PMID:17924006

  8. Effects of the Hematoregulatory Peptide SK&F 107647 Alone and in Combination with Amphotericin B against Disseminated Candidiasis in Persistently Neutropenic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Lyman, Caron A.; Gonzalez, Corina; Schneider, Mark; Lee, James; Walsh, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of the hematoregulatory peptide SK&F 107647 were examined in a persistently and profoundly neutropenic rabbit model of disseminated candidiasis in order to determine its potential to enhance resistance against infection and its role as an adjunct to conventional antifungal chemotherapy. In healthy animals, SK&F 107647 elicited a time-dependent increase in CD11b-positive monocytes and neutrophils. When administered to neutropenic rabbits infected with Candida albicans, no significa...

  9. Isolation and characterization of antifungal compounds from Clerodendron glabrum var glabrum (Verbenaceae) used traditionally to treat candidiasis in Venda, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Masevhe, Ndivhaleni Anox

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize antifungal compounds from the most active medicinal plant species that could be used to address secondary infection problems in immunocompromised patients. An ethnobotanical study was conducted and 45 medicinal plant species used traditionally to treat candidiasis and related infections in HIV/AIDS patients were identified and documented. The most popular plant species used included Acacia caffra, Clerodendrum glabrum, Croton gratissimu...

  10. Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Prieto Santa Anna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol, entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adultos infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 % como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %. Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejor??a o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes.A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34,97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92% and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%. Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

  11. Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos / Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luz Marina, Prieto Santa Anna; María Teresa, Illnait Zaragozí; Edna G., Ramos Rodallegas; Bonfilio, Lazcano Herrero; Norma, Márquez Sánchez; Nereyda, Cantelar de Francisco; Julián, Manzur Katriba; Gerardo, Martínez Machín.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina ) y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol), entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adulto [...] s infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir) y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 %) como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %). Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejoría o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes. Abstract in english A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine) and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole) was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34, [...] 97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92%) and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%). Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

  12. Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali, Mikaeili; Isaac, Karimi; Tayebeh, Shamspur; Babak, Gholamine; Masoud, Modaresi; Ali, Khanlari.

    1035-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av). The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major compo [...] nents of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g) skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40%) prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

  13. Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mikaeili

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av. The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major components of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each: NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40% prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

  14. Salvage therapy of refractory chronic disseminated candidiasis in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia and secondary prophylaxis during allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehreschild, Jörg J; Krüger, Karsten; Kurzai, Oliver; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Behringer, Karolin; Töx, Ulrich; Cornely, Oliver A

    2006-01-01

    We report on the treatment course of a 27-year-old male patient with acute myeloid leukaemia M1 and chronic disseminated candidiasis. After induction chemotherapy, the patient developed oesophageal candidiasis while participating in a voriconazole vs. placebo prophylaxis trial. He was then switched to oral fluconazole 400 mg q.i.d. After 6 days of futile fluconazole therapy he was switched to caspofungin 50 mg q.i.d. Caspofungin dose was later increased to 100 mg q.i.d after disseminated candidiasis with involvement of lung, spleen and liver was diagnosed. Following 63 days of caspofungin without resolution of symptoms, i.e. being persistently febrile, and emergence of soft tissue Candida abscesses, he was included into a trial allowing compassionate use of posaconazole as salvage therapy for refractory invasive fungal infections. Symptoms rapidly resolved under posaconazole 200 mg q.i.d. treatment and the patient was able to undergo allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation on secondary prophylaxis with posaconazole. PMID:16961582

  15. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammad Aamir, Mirza; Mohammad Akhlaquer, Rahman; Sushama, Talegaonkar; Zeenat, Iqbal.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em á [...] gua e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA), ácido fúlvico (FA), ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD), 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD) e cafeína (Caff). O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC), difração de raios-X (XRD), ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Abstract in english A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually [...] its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and caffeine (Caff). The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.

  16. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aamir Mirza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA, ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD and caffeine (Caff. The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em água e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA, ácido fúlvico (FA, ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD, 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD e cafeína (Caff. O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC, difração de raios-X (XRD, ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal.

  17. TLR-2 Signaling Promotes IL-17A Production in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory Cells during Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Cohen, Samuel; Zhang, Yifan; Weinberg, Aaron; Pandiyan, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (Tregs) produce effector cytokines under inflammatory conditions. However, the direct role of microbial agents that serve as toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in the induction of effector cytokines in Tregs is less clear. Here we show that CD4+Foxp3+Tregs produce the effector cytokine IL-17A during oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and inflammatory bowel disease in a TLR-2/Myd88 signaling dependent manner. TLR-2 ligands promote proliferation in Tregs in the presence and absence of TCR signals and inflammatory cytokines in vitro. The proliferation is directly dependent on TLR-2 expression in Tregs. Consistent with this, Tlr2-/- mice harbor fewer thymically derived Tregs and peripheral Tregs under homeostatic conditions in vivo. However, under Th17 inducing conditions, IL-6 and TLR-2 signaling both in Tregs as well as antigen presenting cells (APC) are critical for maximal ROR-?t and IL-17A up-regulation in Foxp3+ Tregs. The minimal and transient loss of Foxp3 expression and suppressive properties are due to the presence of IL-6 in the milieu, but not the direct effect of TLR-2 signaling in Tregs. Taken together, our data reveal that TLR-2 signaling promotes not only proliferation, but also IL-17A in Tregs, depending on the cytokine milieu. These IL-17A producing Tregs may be relevant in mucosal infections and inflammation. PMID:25790134

  18. Association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and HIV RNA levels in plasma and genital secretions among women on HAART

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Apalata; W H, Carr; B, Longo-Mbenza; W A, Sturm; P, Moodley.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHOD: Women with [...] VVC on HAART were recruited from a primary healthcare clinic in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, between June 2011 and December 2011. VVC was diagnosed clinically, supported by Gram staining and culture of genital secretions. HIV RNA load was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CD4+ counts were obtained from patients' medical records. RESULTS: Plasma HIV RNA was detected in 42 of 60 (70%) patients on HAART. The mean duration (± standard deviation) on HAART for these patients was 4.2 (±1.6) months v. 10.7 (±1.4) months for the remaining 18 patients (p10 000 copies/ml (p=0.032) and genital absolute counts of neutrophils >10 cells/5 high microscopic fields (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: Given that the majority of women had recently initiated HAART (allowing a high rate of detectable plasma HIV RNA), there was insufficient evidence to conclude that VVC was predictive of high plasma HIV RNA levels. It is more likely that this cohort of immunosuppressed women were prone to develop VVC. Plasma HIV loads and local genital inflammation were predictors of genital HIV detectability.

  19. Candida parapsilosis Sensu Stricto and the Closely Related Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuxia; Shan, Yingying; Fan, Shangrong; Li, Jianling; Liu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical characteristics and in vitro susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). We analysed 63 vaginal C. parapsilosis specimens. After the molecular analyses, the isolates were characterised as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (77.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (7.9 %) and C. metapsilosis (14.3 %). The signs and symptoms of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis sensu lato, including itching, erythema and abnormal discharge, were milder than those caused by C. albicans. None of the C. parapsilosis sensu lato isolates were resistant to fluconazole, miconazole or itraconazole. The resistance rates of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole were 2.3, 1.5, 3.1 and 0.8 %, respectively. Both C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. albicans were susceptible to nystatin. The mycological eradication rate at follow-up days 7-14 and 30-35 were 77.8 % (49/63) and 76.2 % (48/63), respectively, when treated with various antifungal agents and regimens. We conclude that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the closely related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were present in the vaginal samples of VVC patients. The symptoms and signs of VVC caused by C. parapsilosis are milder than those caused by C. albicans. The antifungal susceptibility and therapeutic efficacy in patients colonised by C. parapsilosis sensu lato were similar to those observed in C. albicans-colonised patients. PMID:25322705

  20. A Supplement Based on Zn-Enriched Virgin Coconut Oil as an Antifungal agent for Vaginal Candidiasis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERY WINARSI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the amount of Candida albicans in vaginal secretion of Vaginal Candidiasis patients administered with Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil. Thirty respondents were selected based on several criteria as follows: the number of C. albicans colonies in the vaginal secretion was more than 105 cfu.ml-1, voluntary, healthy, willing to sign the informed consent and resided in Purwokerto. In Group A, 10 women were administered 2 tablespoons per day of Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil. In Group B, 10 women were administered 1 tablespoon per day of Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil; and in Group C, 10 women served as control group. Vaginal secretions were taken 3 times, before intervention (at baseline time, at 1 month and 2 months after intervention. Samples were taken by collecting vaginal secretions from the vaginal proximal region using a sterile cotton bud, which was then put into a tube containing sterile carrier media. The vaginal secretions were tested for the number of total C. albicans using Pour Plate Method. Two months after treatment, the number of colonies decreased from 4.4x106 to 2.5x106 cfu ml-1 (p=0.03 in Group A. There was no significant difference in the number of colonies between Group A and Group B, the number of C. albicans colonies was still above the normal range. Therefore, the recommended dosage of intervention with Zn-enriched virgin coconut oil is one tablespoon a day.

  1. Contribution of (1,3)-Beta-d-Glucan to Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis after Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, E; El Anbassi, S; Sitterle, E; Foulet, F; Merle, J C; Botterel, F

    2015-03-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) causes high morbidity and mortality rates after liver transplantation, in part due to delayed diagnosis. The fungal cell wall component (1,3)-beta-d-glucan (BG) could be an early biomarker of IC. This preliminary prospective study was designed to evaluate the contribution of BG measurements to the diagnosis of IC after liver transplantation. All consecutive patients who underwent liver transplantation at Henri Mondor Hospital in France between January and June 2013 were enrolled prospectively in the study. They were monitored weekly for colonization by Candida, and colonization index values were calculated. Serum samples were tested for BG (Fungitell; Cape Cod Inc.) at least weekly between liver transplantation and discharge from the hospital. A total of 52 patients (including 39 male patients) were enrolled, with a median age of 55 years (range, 31 to 69 years). The median Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 27 (range, 6 to 40). Cultures from 42 patients (81%) yielded Candida spp., with the most common Candida species isolated being Candida glabrata (47%). Six cases of documented IC were found for four of the 52 patients. On the day the clinical diagnosis of IC was made, analysis based on combining two sequential BG-positive samples (>146 pg/ml) and a colonization index of ?0.5 revealed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) results of 83%, 89%, 50%, and 97.6%, respectively. The detection of BG associated with Candida colonization may be a promising tool based on a high NPV that can rule out IC among high-risk patients. PMID:25520448

  2. Prospective Survey of (1?3)-?-d-Glucan and Its Relationship to Invasive Candidiasis in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit Setting?

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, John F.; Sims, Charles; Paetznick, Victor; Rodriguez, Jose; Finkelman, Malcolm A.; Rex, John H.; Ostrosky-zeichner, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Non-culture-based diagnostic strategies are needed for diagnosing invasive candidiasis (IC). We evaluated serial serum (1?3)-?-d-glucan (BG) levels in patients in the surgical trauma intensive care unit (SICU) patients with clinical evidence of IC. Serum samples from patients admitted to the SICU for a minimum of 3 days were collected twice weekly and analyzed for BG by using a Fungitell kit with a positive cutoff of ?80 pg/ml. Diagnosis of IC was done using a set of predefined and valid...

  3. Comparison of single administration with an ovule of 600 mg fenticonazole versus a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal pessary in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, W; Azzollini, E; Ruffmann, R

    1989-01-01

    Fenticonazole is an imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. The therapeutic activity and tolerability of 600 mg fenticonazole versus 500 mg clotrimazole were evaluated in an investigator-blind trial in 80 patients with mycologically confirmed vaginal candidiasis. Fenticonazole was administered as an ovule and clotrimazole as a vaginal pessary, both in a single administration. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed by microbiological and clinical criteria 7 days after the start of treatment. Patients cured at the end of the trial were rechecked 4-5 weeks after the start of therapy in order to identify and evaluate possible relapse. Both treatments resulted in a statistically significant reduction in vaginal symptoms (erythema, itching, discharge and oedema) and in elimination of Candida albicans in about 90% of patients. The tolerance of both treatments was excellent since no local or systemic signs or symptoms of toxicity were reported. An equally high efficacy and safety for both drugs in the elimination of symptoms and objective evidence of vaginal candidiasis was indicated. PMID:2676652

  4. Enzymatic activity profile of a Brazilian culture collection of Candida albicans isolated from diabetics and non-diabetics with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is a fundamental virulence factor of Candida albicans to develop disease. The objective of this study was to characterise the virulence of 148 clinical isolates of C. albicans from oral candidiasis by assessing the expression of phospholipase (PL) and secreted aspartyl proteinase (SAP). Isolates were obtained from healthy subjects (HS) and diabetics (DOC) and non-diabetics with oral candidiasis (NDOC). An aliquot (5 ?l) of each cell suspension was inoculated on PL and SAP agar plates and incubated. Enzymes secretion was detected by the formation of an opaque halo around the colonies and enzymatic activity (PZ) was determined by the ratio between colony diameter and colony diameter plus the halo zone. Statistical comparisons were made by a one-way anova followed by Tukey's post hoc test (? = 0.05). The clinical sources of C. albicans had significant effect (P < 0.001) on the PZ values of both enzymes. For PL, clinical isolates from NDOC and DOC had highest enzymatic activity than those from HS (P < 0.05), with no significant differences between them (P = 0.506). For SAP, C. albicans from NDOC showed the lower enzymatic activity (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between isolates from HS and DOC (P = 0.7051). C. albicans isolates from NDOC and DOC patients showed an increased production of PL. PMID:24329754

  5. Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil / Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil / Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rangeli, Basso; Nelci, Lopes da Silva; Karina, Braccini Pereira; Adelina, Mezzari; Alexandre, Meneghello Fuentefria.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR), a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasi [...] l. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30%) dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) e Candida spp. (11,1%). Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV) y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR), a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur [...] de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30%) casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) y Candida spp. (11,1%). En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycologic [...] al examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30%) cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  6. Candidíase sistêmica com localização encefálica: estudo anátomo-clínico de cinco casos Septicaemia candidiasis with cerebral involvement: a report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Souza Queiroz

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas septicemias por Candida, a localização encefálica é rara, e apenas quatro casos isolados foram publicados no Brasil. Os AA. apresentam cinco observações anátomo-clínicas de candidíase do sistema nervoso central, diagnosticadas somente pela autópsia. Quatro dos pacientes eram adultos e apenas uma criança foi estudada. Todos eram portadores de uma ou mais doenças de base e foram submetidos à terapêutica antibiótica múltipla e prolongada. Os sintomas neurológicos eventualmente atribuíveis à infecção fúngica limitaram-se a convulsões em um caso e rigidez de nuca em outro. Em nenhum as lesões assumiram gravidade suficiente para serem responsabilizadas como causa imediata da morte. Revelaram-se múltiplas e microscópicas em três pacientes, com caráter exsudativo e granulomatoso; macroscópicas em um caso, com aspecto necro-hemorrágico. Na criança, dois granulomas apenas foram observados. O agente etiológico foi identificado como Candida, nos cortes histológicos, pela técnica de impregnação argêntica de Grocott. Os autores discutem a patogênese e a anatomia patológica da candidíase sistêmica, bem como seu diagnóstico clínico-laboratorial e a terapêutica. Os achados clínicos e an átomo-patológicos dos presentes casos são analisados à luz da literatura, enfatizando que a incidência de monilíase sistêmica no Brasil deve ser muito superior ao sugerido pela escassa casuística nacional.Central nervous system involvement in Candida septicaemia is rare and not more than four cases have been published in Brazil. Five new cases of systemic candidiasis with cerebral lesions are reported. All patients (four adults and a child had serious underlying diseases and were submitted to heavy long-term antibiotic therapy with multiple drugs. Seizures in one case and neck stiffness in another were the only neurologic signs that could be attributed to candidiasis. In no case were the lesions severe enough to be considered an immediate cause of death. In three patients, no macroscopic changes were evident in the brain, but microabscesses and granulomata were observed on microscopical examination; another patient had two gross areas with necrotic and haemorrhagic appearance in the cerebral hemispheres; the child had only two microscopic granulomata. The aetiological agent was demonstrated by Grocott's methenamine silver technique in all cases. Involvement of organs other than the central nervous system could be demonstrated in three autopsies. Discussion is confined mainly to such aspects as the contributory factors in the pathogenesis of systemic candidiasis as well as the marked rise in the incidence of this condition in the past few decades. It is suggested that the frequence of monilial septicaemia in Brazil may be far more serious than apparent from the scarcity of reported cases.

  7. Candidíase sistêmica com localização encefálica: estudo anátomo-clínico de cinco casos / Septicaemia candidiasis with cerebral involvement: a report of five cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano de Souza, Queiroz; Anamarli, Nucci; J. Lopes de, Faria.

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nas septicemias por Candida, a localização encefálica é rara, e apenas quatro casos isolados foram publicados no Brasil. Os AA. apresentam cinco observações anátomo-clínicas de candidíase do sistema nervoso central, diagnosticadas somente pela autópsia. Quatro dos pacientes eram adultos e apenas uma [...] criança foi estudada. Todos eram portadores de uma ou mais doenças de base e foram submetidos à terapêutica antibiótica múltipla e prolongada. Os sintomas neurológicos eventualmente atribuíveis à infecção fúngica limitaram-se a convulsões em um caso e rigidez de nuca em outro. Em nenhum as lesões assumiram gravidade suficiente para serem responsabilizadas como causa imediata da morte. Revelaram-se múltiplas e microscópicas em três pacientes, com caráter exsudativo e granulomatoso; macroscópicas em um caso, com aspecto necro-hemorrágico. Na criança, dois granulomas apenas foram observados. O agente etiológico foi identificado como Candida, nos cortes histológicos, pela técnica de impregnação argêntica de Grocott. Os autores discutem a patogênese e a anatomia patológica da candidíase sistêmica, bem como seu diagnóstico clínico-laboratorial e a terapêutica. Os achados clínicos e an átomo-patológicos dos presentes casos são analisados à luz da literatura, enfatizando que a incidência de monilíase sistêmica no Brasil deve ser muito superior ao sugerido pela escassa casuística nacional. Abstract in english Central nervous system involvement in Candida septicaemia is rare and not more than four cases have been published in Brazil. Five new cases of systemic candidiasis with cerebral lesions are reported. All patients (four adults and a child) had serious underlying diseases and were submitted to heavy [...] long-term antibiotic therapy with multiple drugs. Seizures in one case and neck stiffness in another were the only neurologic signs that could be attributed to candidiasis. In no case were the lesions severe enough to be considered an immediate cause of death. In three patients, no macroscopic changes were evident in the brain, but microabscesses and granulomata were observed on microscopical examination; another patient had two gross areas with necrotic and haemorrhagic appearance in the cerebral hemispheres; the child had only two microscopic granulomata. The aetiological agent was demonstrated by Grocott's methenamine silver technique in all cases. Involvement of organs other than the central nervous system could be demonstrated in three autopsies. Discussion is confined mainly to such aspects as the contributory factors in the pathogenesis of systemic candidiasis as well as the marked rise in the incidence of this condition in the past few decades. It is suggested that the frequence of monilial septicaemia in Brazil may be far more serious than apparent from the scarcity of reported cases.

  8. Diaper Dermatitis (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Self-Care Guidelines When to Seek Medical Care Treatments Your Provider May Prescribe References/Trusted Links Related diseases: Diaper Rash (Irritant Diaper Dermatitis) Irritant Contact Dermatitis View ...

  9. Novel oral amphotericin B formulation (iCo-010) remains highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis following exposure to tropical temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasan, Kishor M; Sivak, Olena; Bartlett, Karen; Wasan, Ellen K; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2014-08-29

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the antifungal activity of amphotericin B (AmB) in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis following administration of a novel oral AmB formulation (iCo-010) that has been pre-exposed to tropical temperatures. Methods: Amphotericin B (AmB) was prepared as a 5?mg/mL dispersion in a mixture of Peceol, Gelucire 44/14 and VitE-TPGS 2,3 (iCo-010). The formulation was protected from light and incubated in a sealed container at 43?°C for 60 days. Mice infected with Candida albicans were treated with either iCo-010 formulation pre-incubated at 43?°C for 60 days or freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation at doses of 5, 10 and 20?mg/kg once daily for five consecutive days. Single intravenous 5?mg/kg dose of AmBisome® was used as a positive control group. Seven days following the last dose, the kidney, liver, spleen, lung, heart and brain were removed and the number of colony forming units (CFUs) was determined as a measure of tissue fungal load. In addition, the concentration of AmB within each tissue was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: There were no significant differences in the reduction of CFUs and the concentration of AmB recovered in all organs at all iCo-010 doses tested between the freshly prepared iCo-010 formulation compared to the formulation that was incubated at 43?°C for 60 days. Conclusions: A novel oral AmB formulation, iCo-010, incubated at 43?°C for 60 days to simulate the exposure of the formulation to tropical temperatures remained highly effective against murine systemic candidiasis. PMID:25170660

  10. Anidulafungin compared with fluconazole for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans: a multivariate analysis of factors associated with improved outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Reisman Arlene L; Schlamm Haran T; Kett Daniel H; Pappas Peter G; Rotstein Coleman; Shorr Andrew F; Reboli Annette C; Biswas Pinaki; Walsh Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Systemic infections due to C. albicans exhibit good susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins. However, the echinocandin anidulafungin was recently demonstrated to be more effective than fluconazole for systemic Candida infections in a randomized, double-blind trial among 245 patients. In that trial, most infections were caused by C. albicans, and all respective isolates ...

  11. Candidíase oral como marcador de prognóstico em pacientes portadores do HIV / Oral candidiasis as prognostic marker of HIV-infected patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdinês Gonçalves dos Santos, Cavassani; Jozias de, Andrade Sobrinho; Maria da Graça Naclério, Homem; Abrão, Rapoport.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A candidíase oral é uma das doenças oportunistas mais fortemente associadas à infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV). Vários relatos epidemiológicos enfatizam a prevalência da candidíase em pacientes HIV positivos e ressaltam a sua importância como marcador da progressão da [...] doença e preditivo para o aumento da imunodepressão. Objetivo: Verificar as alterações estomatológicas em pacientes portadores do HIV tratados no Hospital Heliópolis - São Paulo, Brasil e comparar com a literatura. Forma de Estudo: Retrospectivo clínico não-randomizado. Casuística e Método: Foram analisados 431 pacientes HIV+/AIDS (298 homens e 133 mulheres) no Hospital Heliópolis - São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1995 a 2001. Resultados: A idade média mais comum foi dos 31 aos 40 anos (47,10%); a via de contágio mais comum foi a sexual (71,26%). Dentre as patologias, a candidíase apresentou maior prevalência (29,69%), seguida pela gengivite (16,70%) e queilite angular (14,15%). Conclusões: Concluímos que o exame oral e o diagnóstico precoce da candidíase em pacientes infectados pelo HIV são fundamentais para o tratamento imediato, melhorando a sua qualidade de vida, uma vez que a candidíase é uma lesão bucal muito freqüente nesta população. Abstract in english Introduction: Strongly associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV), oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections. Various epedemiological data now emphasize the prevalence of candidiasis in HIV-infected patients and its importance as useful marker for disease progression [...] and prediction for increasing immunossupression. Aim: The purposes of this study were to assess a group of HIV positive patients treated in Heliopólis Hospital, Hosphel - São Paulo, Brazil and refer the oral changing related to the syndrom and compared the results to the literature. Study design: Retrospective clinical no randomized. Casuistic and method: Four hundred thirty one HIV+/AIDS brazilian patients (298 men and 133 women) were examined in the Heliópolis Hospital, Hosphel - São Paulo, Brazil in the period from 1995 to 2001. Results: The most common mean age were 31 to 40 years (47,10%), in more than 70% of the examinated subjects were contaminated through sexual means. Candideasis were the usual infection (29,69%), followed by gingivitis (16,70%) and angular cheilitis (14,15%). Conclusions: Oral lesions occur commonly in HIV infection. A comprehensive oral examination may not only suggest HIV disease but may also be useful in monitoring the disease progression.

  12. Candidíase oral como marcador de prognóstico em pacientes portadores do HIV Oral candidiasis as prognostic marker of HIV-infected patients

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    Valdinês Gonçalves dos Santos Cavassani

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A candidíase oral é uma das doenças oportunistas mais fortemente associadas à infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana (HIV. Vários relatos epidemiológicos enfatizam a prevalência da candidíase em pacientes HIV positivos e ressaltam a sua importância como marcador da progressão da doença e preditivo para o aumento da imunodepressão. Objetivo: Verificar as alterações estomatológicas em pacientes portadores do HIV tratados no Hospital Heliópolis - São Paulo, Brasil e comparar com a literatura. Forma de Estudo: Retrospectivo clínico não-randomizado. Casuística e Método: Foram analisados 431 pacientes HIV+/AIDS (298 homens e 133 mulheres no Hospital Heliópolis - São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1995 a 2001. Resultados: A idade média mais comum foi dos 31 aos 40 anos (47,10%; a via de contágio mais comum foi a sexual (71,26%. Dentre as patologias, a candidíase apresentou maior prevalência (29,69%, seguida pela gengivite (16,70% e queilite angular (14,15%. Conclusões: Concluímos que o exame oral e o diagnóstico precoce da candidíase em pacientes infectados pelo HIV são fundamentais para o tratamento imediato, melhorando a sua qualidade de vida, uma vez que a candidíase é uma lesão bucal muito freqüente nesta população.Introduction: Strongly associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV, oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections. Various epedemiological data now emphasize the prevalence of candidiasis in HIV-infected patients and its importance as useful marker for disease progression and prediction for increasing immunossupression. Aim: The purposes of this study were to assess a group of HIV positive patients treated in Heliopólis Hospital, Hosphel - São Paulo, Brazil and refer the oral changing related to the syndrom and compared the results to the literature. Study design: Retrospective clinical no randomized. Casuistic and method: Four hundred thirty one HIV+/AIDS brazilian patients (298 men and 133 women were examined in the Heliópolis Hospital, Hosphel - São Paulo, Brazil in the period from 1995 to 2001. Results: The most common mean age were 31 to 40 years (47,10%, in more than 70% of the examinated subjects were contaminated through sexual means. Candideasis were the usual infection (29,69%, followed by gingivitis (16,70% and angular cheilitis (14,15%. Conclusions: Oral lesions occur commonly in HIV infection. A comprehensive oral examination may not only suggest HIV disease but may also be useful in monitoring the disease progression.

  13. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

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    Wilke MH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin is not more expensive than using other established therapies. Micafungin has proven to be cost-effective in prophylaxis if the local fungal epidemiology indicates a high level of resistance to fluconazole. Switch strategies involving early initiation of broadly active therapy with switch to cheaper alternatives according to microbiology results and clinical status and early initiation of an appropriate therapy have been proven to be cost-efficient independent of the antifungal agent.

  14. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  15. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato) sobre candidose oral / Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) gel on oral candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida, Paiva; Rodrigo Alves, Ribeiro; Jozinete Vieira, Pereira; Neuza Maria Cavalcante, Oliveira.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas [...] tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel), composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel) utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis. Abstract in english In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant [...] of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel), with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel) used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  16. Etiologia dos casos de candidíase cutânea atendidos no serviço de micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil / Etiology of cutaneous candidiasis cases seen at the mycology service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil / Etiología de casos de candidiasis cutánea atendidos en el servicio de micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Silva Barbedo; Simone Cristina, Pereira Brito; Fabíola Cristina, de Oliveira Kegele; Jânio, Alves Cordeiro; Jeferson, Carvalhaes de Oliveira; Diana Bridon, da Graça Sgarbi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudadas 64 amostras oriundas de 56 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidíase cutânea, coletadas de novembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009, no serviço de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano e Veterinário do Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico da Universid [...] ade Federal Fluminense. Foram isoladas espécies de Candida em 58 amostras de 51 pacientes, trinta e oito mulheres e treze homens, com a seguinte distribuição: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica e 3 C . tropicalis. As onicomicoses representaram mais de 75% das manifestações clínicas. Nos casos em que não foi Candida isolada como o agente etiológico, foram identificados dois Cryptococcus laurentii, um Trichosporon mucoides e um Trichosporon asahii. Este trabalho é uma contribuição para o entendimento da etiologia de candidíase cutânea no serviço de Micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudiaron 64 muestras procedentes de 56 pacientes con sospecha clínica de candidiasis cutánea, recolectadas entre noviembre de 2008 a agosto de 2009 en el servicio de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano y Veterinario del Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto Biomédic [...] o de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Se aislaron especies del género Candida en 58 muestras de 51 pacientes, treinta y ocho mujeres y trece hombres, con la siguiente distribución: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica y 3 C . tropicalis. Las onicomicosis representaron más del 75% de las manifestaciones clínicas. En los casos donde no se aisló Candida como agente etiológico se identificaron dos Cryptococcus laurentii, un Trichosporon mucoides y un Trichosporon asahii. Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de la etiología de la candidiasis cutánea en el Servicio de Micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Abstract in english This work corresponds to the study of 64 samples from 56 patients with clinical suspicion of cutaneous candidiasis, collected between November 2008 and August 2009 at the Human and Veterinarian Diagnostic Service of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the Instituto Biomédico of the Un [...] iversidad Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Candida genus species were isolated in 58 samples from 51 patients (38 women and 13 men), with the following distribution: C. parapsilosis 15, C. famata 11, C. albicans 9, C. haemulonii 7, C. guilliermondii 4, C. ciferrii 5, C. lipolytica 4, and C. tropicalis 3. Onicomycoses represented over 75% of the clinical manifestations. In cases where Candida was not isolated as etiologic agent, two Cryptococcus laurentii, one Trichosporum mucoides, and one Trichosporum asahii were identified. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the etiology of cutaneous candidiasis at the Mycology Service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense.

  17. Candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer interned in a university hospital / Candidíases em pacientes pediátricos com câncer internados em um hospital universitário

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria Rabelo De Carvalho, Parahym; Luciana Resende Bandeira de, Melo; Vera Lúcia Lins De, Morais; Rejane Pereira, Neves.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os fungos são causas comuns de infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos e espécies de Candida são freqüentemente envolvidas nesses casos. A fim de investigar infecção fúngica em pacientes pediátricos com câncer, amostras clínicas foram coletadas de cento e vinte dois pacientes internados no Hospita [...] l Universitário Oswaldo Cruz em Recife, Brasil. Leveduras foram isoladas de trinta e quatro amostras clínicas. As leveduras isoladas foram: Candida albicans (catorze isolados), C. parapsilosis (nove isolados), C. guilliermondii (dois isolados) e C. tropicalis (dois isolados). Descobrimos que candidemia foi mais freqüente em doentes com hematologias malignas e que C. parapsilosis apresentou maior mortalidade. Abstract in english Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz Uni [...] versity Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates), C. parapsilosis (nine isolates), C. guilliermondii (two isolates) and C. tropicalis (two isolates). We found that candidemia was most frequent in patients with malignant hematology and that C. parapsilosis infections caused the highest mortality.

  18. Use of antifungal saponin SC-2 of Solanum chrysotrichum for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: in vitro studies and clinical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Arellano, Armando; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Rodríguez-Tovar, Aida V; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Tortoriello, Jaime; Martínez-Rivera, M Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Saponin SC-2 from Solanum chrysotrichum showed antifungal activity, demonstrated in vitro, which inhibited the growth of dermatophytes, and in vivo, to be effective in the treatment against tinea pedis and pityriasis capitis. Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of saponin SC-2 on Candida albicans and other Candida species, fluconazole and ketoconazole resistaent strains was demostrated. SC-2-associated ultrastructural alterations in several Candida species were observed. An exploratory clinical, randomized, double-blind, and controlled ketoconazole study of ketoconazole was conducted with the aim of assessing the effectiveness and tolerability of an herbal medicinal product containing SC-2, on women with Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The results exhibited a percentage of therapeutic clinical effectiveness similar to that of ketoconazole (X(2), p ?0.30), but obtained a smaller percentage of mycological effectiveness, and 100% tolerability. In conclusion, saponin SC-2 possesses fungicidale and fungistatic activity on Candida albicans and other multi resistant Candida species, causes morphological changes and fungal death, and it is an alternative therapy for the treatment of VVC. PMID:24146467

  19. Candida colonization as a risk marker for invasive candidiasis in mixed medical-surgical intensive care units: development and evaluation of a simple, standard protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna F; Kabir, Masrura; Chen, Sharon C-A; Playford, E Geoffrey; Marriott, Deborah J; Jones, Michael; Lipman, Jeffrey; McBryde, Emma; Gottlieb, Thomas; Cheung, Winston; Seppelt, Ian; Iredell, Jonathan; Sorrell, Tania C

    2015-04-01

    Colonization with Candida species is an independent risk factor for invasive candidiasis (IC), but the minimum and most practicable parameters for prediction of IC have not been optimized. We evaluated Candida colonization in a prospective cohort of 6,015 nonneutropenic, critically ill patients. Throat, perineum, and urine were sampled 72 h post-intensive care unit (ICU) admission and twice weekly until discharge or death. Specimens were cultured onto chromogenic agar, and a subset underwent molecular characterization. Sixty-three (86%) patients who developed IC were colonized prior to infection; 61 (97%) tested positive within the first two time points. The median time from colonization to IC was 7 days (range, 0 to 35). Colonization at any site was predictive of IC, with the risk of infection highest for urine colonization (relative risk [RR] = 2.25) but with the sensitivity highest (98%) for throat and/or perineum colonization. Colonization of ?2 sites and heavy colonization of ?1 site were significant independent risk factors for IC (RR = 2.25 and RR = 3.7, respectively), increasing specificity to 71% to 74% but decreasing sensitivity to 48% to 58%. Molecular testing would have prompted a resistance-driven decision to switch from fluconazole treatment in only 11% of patients infected with C. glabrata, based upon species-level identification alone. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were low (2% to 4%) and negative predictive values (NPVs) high (99% to 100%) regardless of which parameters were applied. In the Australian ICU setting, culture of throat and perineum within the first two time points after ICU admission captures 84% (61/73 patients) of subsequent IC cases. These optimized parameters, in combination with clinical risk factors, should strengthen development of a setting-specific risk-predictive model for IC. PMID:25673797

  20. Anidulafungin versus caspofungin in a mouse model of candidiasis caused by anidulafungin-susceptible Candida parapsilosis isolates with different degrees of caspofungin susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Hamilos, Georgios; Tzardi, Maria; Lewis, Russell E; Samonis, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis isolates occasionally display resistance in vitro to echinocandins and cause breakthrough infections to echinocandins. The degree of the in vivo cross-resistance among echinocandins and the fitness loss associated with caspofungin (CAS) resistance of C. parapsilosis are not well studied. We compared the activities of CAS and anidulafungin (ANF), each given at 2 dosing schedules (high dose or low dose) in a nonneutropenic mouse model of invasive candidiasis (IC) caused by ANF-susceptible isolates of C. parapsilosis with different degrees of susceptibility to CAS (CAS resistant [CAS-R], MIC, >16 mg/liter; CAS intermediate [CAS-I], MIC, 4 mg/liter; and CAS susceptible [CAS-S], MIC, 2 mg/liter). We analyzed tissue fungal burden, histopathology, and weight loss patterns. Increasing CAS resistance was associated with reduced virulence of C. parapsilosis isolates (mortality rates for CAS-S versus CAS-I versus CAS-R, 100% versus 11.1% versus 0%, respectively; P echinocandin were active against infection with the CAS-I isolate when assessed by fungal burden reduction and weight gain. In contrast to CAS-S and CAS-I isolates, there was no reduction in fungal burden in mice infected with the CAS-R isolate following treatment with either echinocandin, each given at a high or low dose. Nevertheless, mice infected with the CAS-R isolate had reduced disease severity following echinocandin treatment, suggesting that echinocandins have activity in vivo, even against echinocandin-resistant strains. A complex interplay of residual echinocandin activity, decreased virulence, and/or fitness of isolates with altered cell wall and possible immunomodulatory effects can be encountered in vivo during infection with CAS-resistant C. parapsilosis isolates. PMID:24145540

  1. Interference of confounding factors on the use of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Cascio, G; Koncan, R; Stringari, G; Russo, A; Azzini, A; Ugolini, A; Ligozzi, M; Polati, E; Cornaglia, G; Concia, E; Schweiger, V

    2015-02-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an increasing problem in intensive care units (ICUs), and conventional diagnostic methods are not always reliable or timely enough to deliver appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The dosage of fungal antigens in serum is a promising diagnostic technique, but several confounding factors, such as treatment with immunoglobulins (Ig), albumin, or antifungals, could interfere with the correct interpretation of the (1,3)-beta-D-glucan (BG) assay. This study assessed the reliability of the BG assay and the influence of timing and dosage of major confounding factors on circulating levels of IFI biomarkers. 267 ICU patients who underwent a BG assay were retrospectively studied. The timing and dosage of albumin, use of azole treatment, and infusions of intravenous IgG, red blood cells, concentrated platelets, and frozen plasma were analyzed to find possible correlations with the BG results. The sensitivity and specificity of the BG assay were calculated. The BG test in serum showed high sensitivity (82.9 %) but low specificity (56.7 %). The optimal cut-off for the test was 95.9 pg/mL. The mean BG level in proven invasive candidiasis was around 400 pg/mL. The only factor that was found to significantly confound (p?

  2. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras / Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassiana Aparecida, Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os co [...] nhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de quatro ou mais episódios de CVV no período de 12 meses), bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influências do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulência dos agentes causais da infecção, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importância nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistêmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invasão por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicação no canal vaginal é favorecida por uma série de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta revisão. Também tem sido postulado que existem diferenças na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., não sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vários fatores de virulência têm sido propostos e são descritos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Este artigo de revisão bibliográfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da área da saúde em relação a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência dos agentes causais, que são pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualização e o conhecimento de conceitos básicos e clínicos relacionados com essa patologia são muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da área. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called [...] non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae). C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of women’s health.

  3. Anidulafungin compared with fluconazole for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans: a multivariate analysis of factors associated with improved outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reisman Arlene L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most common cause of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Systemic infections due to C. albicans exhibit good susceptibility to fluconazole and echinocandins. However, the echinocandin anidulafungin was recently demonstrated to be more effective than fluconazole for systemic Candida infections in a randomized, double-blind trial among 245 patients. In that trial, most infections were caused by C. albicans, and all respective isolates were susceptible to randomized study drug. We sought to better understand the factors associated with the enhanced efficacy of anidulafungin and hypothesized that intrinsic properties of the antifungal agents contributed to the treatment differences. Methods Global responses at end of intravenous study treatment in patients with C. albicans infection were compared post-hoc. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to predict response and to adjust for differences in independent baseline characteristics. Analyses focused on time to negative blood cultures, persistent infection at end of intravenous study treatment, and 6-week survival. Results In total, 135 patients with C. albicans infections were identified. Among these, baseline APACHE II scores were similar between treatment arms. In these patients, global response was significantly better for anidulafungin than fluconazole (81.1% vs 62.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] for difference, 3.7-33.9. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the odds ratio for global response was 2.36 (95% CI, 1.06-5.25. Study treatment and APACHE II score were significant predictors of outcome. The most predictive logistic regression model found that the odds ratio for study treatment was 2.60 (95% CI, 1.14-5.91 in favor of anidulafungin, and the odds ratio for APACHE II score was 0.935 (95% CI, 0.885-0.987, with poorer responses associated with higher baseline APACHE II scores. Anidulafungin was associated with significantly faster clearance of blood cultures (log-rank p p Conclusions In patients with C. albicans infection, anidulafungin was more effective than fluconazole, with more rapid clearance of positive blood cultures. This suggests that the fungicidal activity of echinocandins may have important clinical implications. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00058682

  4. An unusual case: Renal candidiasis; Der besondere Fall: Renale Candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, Doerthe [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2009-03-15

    A 39-year old female patient suffering from congenital spastic tetraparesis, bilateral hip dysplasia and diabetes was hospitalized as an emergency because of violent pains in the right flank which emanated paravertebrally and into the pelvis. There was no fever or ague. The anamnesis included urolithiasis on the right side 5 years ago and an ileum conduit operation after a neurogenic disturbance of micturition 22 years ago. The sonographic pictures indicated no congestion of the kidneys. To exclude urolithiasis, a low-dose CT was carried out, followed by CT after application of a contrast medium. (orig.)

  5. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Diabetes or other glandular (endocrine) disorders Genetic disorders such as Down syndrome A course of oral antibiotics Chemotherapy Leukemia or lymphoma Poor nutrition Immune deficiency, such as HIV/AIDS ...

  6. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  7. Comparison of two cleansing pastes for the removal of biofilm from dentures and palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Cristina Damião, Andrucioli; Leandro Dorigan de, Macedo; Heitor, Panzeri; Elza Helena Guimarães, Lara; Helena de Freitas Oliveira, Paranhos.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram comparadas duas pastas, específica para prótese total e convencional para dentes naturais, quanto à habilidade de remoção de biofilme e cura de lesões do palato em pacientes com Candidíase Atrófica Crônica. Avaliou-se também o grau de correlação entre biofilme e grau de eritema. Vinte e quatro [...] pacientes (45-80 anos) foram distribuídos em: a) pasta específica (produto experimental); b) pasta convencional (pasta dental Sorriso). Para ambos os grupos foram fornecidas escovas dentais de cerdas macias. Assuperfícies internas (próteses superiores) foram evidenciadas (fluoresceína 1%) e fotografadas (45º) em 4 visitas (0, 15, 30 e 60 dias). Os slides foram escaneados e as áreas (total e biofilme) foram medidas (software Image Tool). Sobre slides avaliou-se o grau de eritema empregando-se o Índice Tecidual de Prótese. Houve redução significativa (1%) dos níveis de biofilme (análise de variância) entre as primeiras (0 e 15 dias) e últimas visitas (45 e 60 dias) e dos escores de eritema (Kruskal-Wallis) da primeira para quarta vistita para ambas pastas. O teste de Mann-Whitney mostrou diferença estatística entre as pastas para os níveis de biofilme e igualdade estatística para os escores de eritema. Os valores de correlação entre níveis de biofilme e grau de eritema foram de 0,3801 (pasta específica) e 0,3678 (pasta convencional). A pasta específica mostrou-se efetiva, mostrando que é possível a manutenção da higiene de próteses totais com o uso regular de higienizador em forma de pasta. Abstract in english The efficacy of 2 oral hygiene products, an experimental toothpaste specific for complete denture cleansing and a regular standard toothpaste, was compared in terms of denture biofilm removal and cure of palatal lesions in patients with atrophic chronic candidiasis. The degree of correlation between [...] presence of biofilm and mucosa erythema was also evaluated. Twenty-four complete denture wearers (45-80 years old) were divided into 2 groups: experimental paste and standard toothpaste (Sorriso-Kolynos, Brazil). Both groups received soft toothbrushes. The internal surfaces of upper dentures were stained using 1% sodium fluorescein and photographed at a 45º angle at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The slides were scanned and the areas of interest (denture total area and biofilm area) were measured (Image Tool software). The degree of erythema was evaluated on slides according to the Prosthesis Tissue Index. There was a significant reduction (1%) in the degree of biofilm (ANOVA/Tukey) between the two initial visits (0 and 15 days) and the two final visits (30 and 60 days), and in the average erythema scores (Kruskal-Wallis) between 0 and 60 days, in both groups. The Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference (1%) between pastes in terms of biofilm degree, but no difference was found for the erythema score. Correlation values between biofilm and erythema degree were 0.3801 (experimental paste) and (0.3678 (standard toothpaste). We may therefore conclude that the experimental product was efficient for the removal of denture plaque biofilm.

  8. Pharmacodynamic Target Evaluation of a Novel Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor, SCY-078 (MK-3118), Using an In Vivo Murine Invasive Candidiasis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Alexander J; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

    2015-02-01

    Echinocandins inhibit the synthesis of ?-1,3-d-glucan in Candida and are the first-line therapy in numerous clinical settings. Their use is limited by poor oral bioavailability, and they are available only as intravenous therapies. Derivatives of enfumafungin are novel orally bioavailable glucan synthase inhibitors. We performed an in vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) evaluation with a novel enfumafungin derivative, SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118), in a well-established neutropenic murine model of invasive candidiasis against C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis. The SCY-078 MICs varied 8-fold. Oral doses of 3.125 to 200 mg/kg SCY-078 salt in sterile water produced peak levels of 0.04 to 2.66 ?g/ml, elimination half-lives of 5.8 to 8.5 h, areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24 h) of 0.61 to 41.10 ?g · h/ml, and AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC0-?) values of 0.68 to 40.31 ?g · h/ml. The pharmacokinetics (PK) were approximately linear over the dose range studied. Maximum response (Emax) and PK/PD target identification studies were performed with 4 C. albicans, 4 C. glabrata, and 3 C. parapsilosis isolates. The PD index AUC/MIC was explored by using total (tAUC) and free (fAUC) drug concentrations. The maximum responses were 4.0, 4.0, and 4.3 log10 CFU/kidney reductions for C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis, respectively. The AUC/MIC was a robust predictor of efficacy (R(2), 0.53 to 0.91). The 24-h PD targets were a static dose of 63.5 mg/kg, a tAUC/MIC of 500, and an fAUC/MIC of 1.0 for C. albicans; a static dose of 58.4 mg/kg, a tAUC/MIC of 315, and an fAUC/MIC of 0.63 for C. glabrata; and a static dose of 84.4 mg/kg, a tAUC/MIC of 198, and an fAUC/MIC of 0.40 for C. parapsilosis. The mean fAUC/MIC values associated with a 1-log kill endpoint against these species were 1.42, 1.26, and 0.91 for C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. parapsilosis, respectively. The static and 1-log kill endpoints were measured relative to the burden at the start of therapy. The static and 1-log kill doses, as well as the total and free drug AUC/MIC PD targets, were not statistically different between species but were numerically lower than those observed for echinocandins. SCY-078 is a promising novel oral glucan synthase inhibitor against Candida species, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:25512406

  9. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women / Prevalência de Candida albicans e não albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal: avaliação comparativa entre colonização, candidíase vaginal e candidíase vaginal recorrente em mulheres diabéticas e não diabéticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciene Setsuko Akimoto, Gunther; Helen Priscila Rodrigues, Martins; Fabrícia, Gimenes; André Luelsdorf Pimenta de, Abreu; Marcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) é causada pelo crescimento anormal de fungos do tipo leveduras na mucosa do trato genital feminino. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) são mais susceptíveis a infecções fúngicas, incluindo por espécies de Candida. O presente estudo investigou a f [...] requência de isolamento total de Candida spp. vaginal, e diferentes quadros clínicos (CVV e CVV recorrente- CVVR) em mulheres com DM tipo 2 comparadas às não diabéticas. A razão de cura do tratamento com fluconazol também foi avaliada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado no sistema público de saúde de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 717 mulheres de 17-74 anos de idade e, destas, 48 (6,7%) tinham DM 2 (média de 53,7 anos), independentemente de sinais e sintomas de CVV. As leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por métodos fenotípicos clássicos. RESULTADOS: No grupo de não diabéticas (controle), leveduras vaginais totais foram isoladas em 79 (11,8%) mulheres, e no grupo de diabéticas, em 9 (18,8%) (P = 0,000). O grupo de diabéticas mostrou mais mulheres sintomáticas (CVV + CVVR = 66,66%) do que colonizadas (33.33%), e significativamente mais colonização, CVV e CVVR, que as controle. A razão média de cura com fluconazol foi de 75.0% no grupo diabéticas e 86.7% no controle (P = 0.51). CONCLUSÃO: Nós encontramos que DM 2 em mulheres brasileiras associou-se com colonização vaginal por leveduras, CVV e CVVR, razão similar de isolamento de C. albicans e espécies não albicans. Boa taxa de cura foi obtida com fluconazol em ambos os grupos. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated th [...] e frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  10. A prospective two-year assessment of miconazole resistance in Candida spp. With repeated treatment with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment in neonates and infants with moderate to severe diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Daisy; van Rossem, Koen

    2013-01-01

    A petrolatum and zinc oxide-based ointment containing 0.25% miconazole nitrate is reported to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis (DDCC). This prospective, multicenter, open-label, long-term, phase IV study investigated the potential resistance of Candida spp. to repeated topical use of 0.25% miconazole nitrate in infants age 15 months and younger with moderate to severe DDCC. For initial and recurring episodes of DDCC over the 2-year study period, subjects were treated with a 7-day course of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment (active components: miconazole nitrate 0.25%, zinc oxide 15%, and white petrolatum 81.35%) with a 7-day follow-up. Clinical and mycologic evaluations were conducted before treatment (day 0) and 7 days after treatment (day 14). Potential resistance to miconazole was defined using an arbitrary breakpoint of minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 ?g/mL. There was no evidence of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. after single or repeated treatment courses of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment. For the initial episode of DDCC, 83 of 168 subjects (49.4%) achieved a clinical cure, 77 (45.8%) achieved a mycologic cure, and 49 (29.2%) achieved an overall cure (clinical and mycologic). The overall cure rate for recurrent episodes of DDCC was similar to or numerically greater than rates observed for the initial episode. Treatment of DDCC with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment was effective and generally well tolerated. No evidence of the development of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. was observed. PMID:23675632

  11. Identificação de espécies de Candida e susceptibilidade antifúngica in vitro: estudo de 100 pacientes com candidíases superficiais / Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility in vitro: a study on 100 patients with superficial candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisete I., Crocco; Lycia M. J., Mimica; Laura H., Muramatu; Cristina, Garcia; Valéria M., Souza; Ligia R. B., Ruiz; Clarisse, Zaitz.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Leveduras do gênero Candida determinam colonização, infecções superficiais e infecções sistêmicas em imunodeprimidos. As várias apresentações da doença levam à necessidade de utilizar diferentes métodos diagnósticos e tratamentos. OBJETIVOS: Diferenciar as espécies de Candida e correlaci [...] oná-las com as regiões anatômicas. Avaliar a susceptibilidade a cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol e anfotericina B. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 100 pacientes imunocompetentes com candidíase cutânea ou mucosa atendidos na Santa Casa de S. Paulo entre maio de 1999 e julho de 2001. Correlacionou-se a região acometida e a espécie de Candida, isolada através técnica CHROMagar Candida®. Avaliou-se a susceptibilidade das espécies a cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol e anfotericina B, através do Etest®. RESULTADOS: C. albicans foi isolada em 76,0% dos materiais, C. krusei em 19% e C. tropicalis em 1%. Não houve correlação significante entre a região acometida e as espécies. A maioria das amostras mostrou susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos. CONCLUSÃO: C. albicans foi a espécie mais observada. A maioria das amostras de Candida mostrou-se susceptível aos antifúngicos. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Yeasts of the genus Candida create colonization, superficial infections and systemic infections in immunodeficient individuals. The presentations of the disease lead to the necessity of using various diagnostic methods and treatments. OBJECTIVES: To differentiate among the Candida specie [...] s, correlate them with the anatomical region involved and evaluate in vitro susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. METHODS: An evaluation of 100 cases of immunocompetent patients with cutaneous or mucous candidiasis attended at the Santa Casa de Sao Paulo Hospital from May 1999 to July 2001. This study attempted to correlate the site of the involvement and the Candida species, isolated using the CHROMagar Candida® technique. The species were evaluated using the Etest® antifungal susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. RESULTS: C. albicans was isolated in 76% of the material, C. krusei in 19% and C. tropicalis in 1%. It was not possible to establish a significant correlation between the involved area and the species isolated. Most of the samples proved to be susceptible to the antifungals tested. CONCLUSIONS: C. albicans was the most commonly observed species. The majority of samples presented susceptibility to the tested antifungals.

  12. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros / Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivan Dieb, Miziara; Adriana da Silva, Lima; Rodrigo Antonio Cataldo de la, Cortina.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Candidíase oral (CO) e leucoplasia pilosa (LP) são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga vi [...] ral (CV) em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões) e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP) a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (p Abstract in english Oral candidiasis (OC) and hairy leukoplakia (HL) are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome) infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC) on HIV positive brazilian patie [...] nts, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions) and A6 (absence of lesions). Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: on the P group, (43 patients, 28 OC, 15 HL) the CD4+ counting was smaller with greater viral charge when compared to A group (P

  13. Identificação de espécies de Candida e susceptibilidade antifúngica in vitro: estudo de 100 pacientes com candidíases superficiais Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility in vitro: a study on 100 patients with superficial candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisete I. Crocco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Leveduras do gênero Candida determinam colonização, infecções superficiais e infecções sistêmicas em imunodeprimidos. As várias apresentações da doença levam à necessidade de utilizar diferentes métodos diagnósticos e tratamentos. OBJETIVOS: Diferenciar as espécies de Candida e correlacioná-las com as regiões anatômicas. Avaliar a susceptibilidade a cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol e anfotericina B. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 100 pacientes imunocompetentes com candidíase cutânea ou mucosa atendidos na Santa Casa de S. Paulo entre maio de 1999 e julho de 2001. Correlacionou-se a região acometida e a espécie de Candida, isolada através técnica CHROMagar Candida®. Avaliou-se a susceptibilidade das espécies a cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol e anfotericina B, através do Etest®. RESULTADOS: C. albicans foi isolada em 76,0% dos materiais, C. krusei em 19% e C. tropicalis em 1%. Não houve correlação significante entre a região acometida e as espécies. A maioria das amostras mostrou susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos. CONCLUSÃO: C. albicans foi a espécie mais observada. A maioria das amostras de Candida mostrou-se susceptível aos antifúngicos.BACKGROUND: Yeasts of the genus Candida create colonization, superficial infections and systemic infections in immunodeficient individuals. The presentations of the disease lead to the necessity of using various diagnostic methods and treatments. OBJECTIVES: To differentiate among the Candida species, correlate them with the anatomical region involved and evaluate in vitro susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. METHODS: An evaluation of 100 cases of immunocompetent patients with cutaneous or mucous candidiasis attended at the Santa Casa de Sao Paulo Hospital from May 1999 to July 2001. This study attempted to correlate the site of the involvement and the Candida species, isolated using the CHROMagar Candida® technique. The species were evaluated using the Etest® antifungal susceptibility to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B. RESULTS: C. albicans was isolated in 76% of the material, C. krusei in 19% and C. tropicalis in 1%. It was not possible to establish a significant correlation between the involved area and the species isolated. Most of the samples proved to be susceptible to the antifungals tested. CONCLUSIONS: C. albicans was the most commonly observed species. The majority of samples presented susceptibility to the tested antifungals.

  14. Mucocutaneous candidiasis or psoriasis? A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Armin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Pustular psoriasis is a rare form of psoriasis in childhood. The prevalence of psoriasis in various parts of the world varies from 0.1% to 3% and the most frequently observed variant is the plaque type, followed by the guttate psoriasis.

    CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old boy with a history of repeated self-limited arthritis, onycholysis, recurrent erythematous skin, diaper rash, fever and pustular lesions, had several hospital admissions with no benefits. After a 2-year delay in the diagnosis, he was treated as a case of pustular psoriasis which was shown by skin biopsy.

    KEY WORDS: Pustular psoriasis, arthritis, children.

  15. Diagnosis and Testing of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  16. Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  17. Treatment and Outcomes of Genital / Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact CDC–INFO Fungal Diseases Types of Diseases Aspergillosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & Testing Treatment Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Blastomycosis Definition Symptoms ...

  18. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidíase oral (CO e leucoplasia pilosa (LP são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga viral (CV em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (pOral candidiasis (OC and hairy leukoplakia (HL are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC on HIV positive brazilian patients, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions and A6 (absence of lesions. Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: on the P group, (43 patients, 28 OC, 15 HL the CD4+ counting was smaller with greater viral charge when compared to A group (P<0.001. After 6 months, 15 of the 81 patients from the A group were excluded as they have initiated antiretroviral therapy. Eighteen patients (11 OC and 7 HL were included on the P6 group. The others, who were free of lesions, were allocated on the A6 group. Again, CD4+ counting on the P6 group was smaller compared to the A6 group (P<0.001. The opposite occurred to the viral charge. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: OC and HL indicate CD4+ counting below 300 cells/mm³ and increased VC, thus being trustable clinical markers of the disease progression.

  19. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Victal de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar níveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4 específicos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidíase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sintomas clínicos de candidíase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreção vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida não-albicans e 12 mulheres controles assintomáticas (nove com cultura negativa. Amostras de soro e lavado vaginal foram obtidas para a detecção de anticorpos anti-C. albicans por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Pacientes sintomáticas com cultura positiva apresentaram níveis de IgA específicas significativamente maiores no lavado vaginal e menores no soro do que aquelas com cultura negativa. Níveis séricos de IgE específica foram extremamente baixos em relação ao lavado vaginal. Altos níveis de IgG total específica foram encontrados no soro e lavado vaginal em ambos os grupos, independente da presença do fungo. Níveis de IgG1 e IgG4 específicas foram significativamente maiores somente no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas e cultura positiva, com relação IgG1/IgG4 ligeiramente maior, indicando que a resposta de anticorpos IgG1 possa estar predominantemente envolvida na resolução da infecção fúngica. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicam resposta acentuada de IgA, IgG1 e IgG4 anti-C. albicans no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas com cultura positiva, sugerindo importante papel destes anticorpos na resposta imune local estimulada pela presença do fungo.PURPOSE: To determine the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG4 antibodies specific to C. albicans in serum and vaginal washes from women with or without vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to evaluate the role of these antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Thirty women with clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (15 positive vaginal culture to C. albicans, 11 negative culture and 4 positive culture to non-C. albicans and 12 asymptomatic control women were selected. Serum and vaginal wash samples were obtained for the detection of anti-C. albicans antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Symptomatic patients with positive culture showed significantly higher levels of specific IgA in vaginal washes and lower in serum than those with negative culture. Specific serum IgE levels were very low compared to vaginal IgE. High levels of total specific IgG were found in serum and vaginal washes in both groups, regardless the fungal presence or absence. Specific IgG1 e IgG4 levels were significantly higher only in vaginal washes from symptomatic patients with positive culture, with a slightly higher IgG1/IgG4 ratio, indicating that the IgG1 antibody response may be predominantly involved in the fungal clearance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a pronounced antibody response of IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 to C. albicans in vaginal washes in symptomatic patients with positive culture, suggesting a important role of these antibodies in the local immune response triggered by the presence of the fungus.

  20. Candidiasis in cockatiel nestlings and mucormycosis in a pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, B; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C; Hall, C F

    1979-01-01

    Deaths of cockatiel nestlings caused by Candida albicans, and of a pigeon caused by air-sac infection with Absidia corymbifera, are described. Lesions in the cockatiels were pseudomembranes and ulcers in the mouth, esophagus, and crop. In the pigeon the air sacs were thickened and contained a grayish gelatinous exudate. PMID:393241

  1. Treatment of invasive candidiasis in the elderly: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flevari A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aikaterini Flevari,1 Maria Theodorakopoulou,1 Aristea Velegraki,2 Apostolos Armaganidis,1 George Dimopoulos1 1Department of Critical Care, University Hospital Attikon, Medical School, 2Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Athens, Greece Abstract: Fungi are major causes of infections among immunocompromised or hospitalized patients with serious underlying diseases and comorbidities. Candida species remain the most important cause of opportunistic infections worldwide, affecting predominantly patients over 65 years old, while they are considered to be the fourth most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The rapidly growing elderly population has specific physiological characteristics, which makes it susceptible to colonization and subsequent infection due to Candida species. Comorbidities and multidrug use should be taken into account any time the therapeutic regimen is under consideration. Different classes of antifungal drugs are available for the treatment of invasive fungal infections but echinocandins, apart from their activity against resistant strains (Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, seem to be safe, with limited adverse events and minimal drug–drug interactions in comparison to the other regimens. Therefore, these agents are strongly recommended when dealing with elderly patients suffering from an invasive form of Candida infection. Keywords: emerging fungal infections, elderly patients, treatment

  2. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín / Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara María, Duque; Olga Lucía, Uribe; Andrés Felipe, Soto; Juan, Alarcón.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres emb [...] arazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%). Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes. Abstract in english During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivit [...] y to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%). All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  3. Indicación de nuevos antimicóticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva / Prescription of new antifungal drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moisés, Morejón García.

    1316-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las infecciones micóticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminación en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresión propia del paciente en estado crítico, unido a la [...] aplicación de determinados procedimientos traumáticos -- catéteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilación, intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales, nutrición parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infección. Al respecto, se está empleando una gama de nuevos antimicóticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas) en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creación de protocolos terapéuticos puede disminuir el índice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones Abstract in english The invasive fungal infections have reached such an important dissemination in the intensive care units that today they constitute the fourth cause of acquired infections in this service, with a mortality of up to 50%. The immunodepression characteristic of the patient in critical state, together to [...] the application of certain traumatic procedures -- catheters, probes, endoscopies, ventilation, abdominal surgical interventions, parenteral nutrition, among other --, predispose to the infection. In this respect, a range of new antifungal drugs are being used (triazoles and equiniocandines) in the treatment of patients with invasive mycosis, on the base that the creation of therapeutic protocols can decrease the mortality index caused by these disorders

  4. Prevalence of Candidiasis in the Women with Leucorrhoea Attended to Health Centers in Hamadan , 1996

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Fallah; Soghra Rabiee; Abbas Hassani; Masoomeh Ghaderi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Genital tract infections are one of the most common causes of referring to obstetrics clinics. The most common agents of genitalia infection are yeast (Candida) and parasite ...

  5. Bioadhesive tablets containing cyclodextrin complex of itraconazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Erdal; Açma, Ay?e; Sinani, Genada; Aksu, Buket; Zloh, Mire; Mülaz?mo?lu, Lütfiye

    2014-08-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is commonly used in the treatment of Candida infections. It has a nephrotoxic effect and low bioavailability in patients who suffer from renal insufficiency, and its poor solubility in water makes ITR largely unavailable. Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are used to form inclusion complexes with drugs to improve their aqueous solubility and to reduce their side effects. In this study, ITR was complexed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CyD), methyl-?-cyclodextrin (Met-?-CyD) and sulphobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE7-?-CyD) to increase its water solubility and to reduce the side effects of the drug without decreasing antifungal activity. Complex formation between ITR and CyDs was evaluated using SEM, (1)H NMR and XRD studies. The antifungal activity of the complexes was analyzed on Candida albicans strains, and the susceptibility of the strains was found to be higher for the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD complex than for the complexes that were prepared with other CyDs. Vaginal bioadhesive sustained release tablet formulations were developed using the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD inclusion complex to increase the residence time of ITR in the vagina, thereby boosting the efficacy of the treatment. The swelling, matrix erosion and bioadhesion properties of formulations and the drug release rate of these tablets were analyzed, and the most therapeutically effective vaginal formulation was determined. PMID:24857873

  6. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

  7. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Basili, Dias; Márcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; José, Meirelles Filho; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

    1300-13-01

    Full Text Available Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 16 [...] 0 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed.

  8. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and the Outcome of Invasive Candidiasis: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; Vosse, Esther; Velez Edwards, Digna R.; Smith, P. Brian; Alexander, Barbara D.; Yang, John C.; Kremer, Dennis; Laird, Gregory M.; Oosting, Marije; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Meer, Jos W. M.; Dissel, Jaap T.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Perfect, John R.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the role of genetic variation in cytokine and cytokine receptor genes in susceptibility and severity of bloodstream infections with Candida species, which revealed a major role for functional polymorphisms in interleukin-10 and interleukin-12p40 in predisposing to persistent fungemia.

  9. In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Characterization of Anidulafungin in a Neutropenic Murine Candidiasis Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Andes, D.; Diekema, D. J.; Pfaller, M. A.; Prince, R. A.; Marchillo, K.; Ashbeck, J.; Hou, J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple in vivo studies have characterized the pharmacodynamics of drugs from the triazole and polyene antifungal drug classes. Fewer studies have investigated these pharmacodynamic relationships for the echinocandin drug class. We used a neutropenic murine model of disseminated Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata infection to characterize the time course of activity of the new echinocandin anidulafungin. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) indices (the percent...

  10. Quantification of arabinitol in serum by selected ion monitoring as a diagnostic technique in invasive candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Roboz, J.; Suzuki, R.; Holland, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    D-Arabinitol was identified by mass spectrometry as a metabolite of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. For quantification, serum was deproteinized with acetone, the supernatant was evaporated to dryness, the silyl derivative was formed, and a portion was injected into a combined gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer system. Erythritol or 2-deoxy-galactitol was the internal standard. The protonated molecular ions, obtained in chemical ionization with isobutane, were monitored. For 39 norma...

  11. Cervical Mucins Carry ?(1,2)Fucosylated Glycans that Partly Protect from Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Thomsson, Kristina A.; Karnak, David M.; Holmén Larsson, Jessica M.; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Bäckström, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2009-01-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple ?(1,2)fucosylated glycans, but ?(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining for ?(1,2)fucosylated glycans. Hysterectomy to remove cervical mucus eliminated UEA-I and acid mucin staining in vaginal epithelial cells from wild type mice indicating the cervix as the source of UEA-I positive epithelial cells. To assess binding of ?(1,2) fucosylated glycans on C. albicans infection, an in vitro adhesion assay was performed with vaginal epithelial cells from wild type and Fut2-null mice. Vaginal epithelial cells from Fut2-null mice were found to bind increased numbers of C. albicans compared to vaginal epithelial cells obtained from wild type mice. Hysterectomy lessened the difference between Fut2-null and wild type mice in binding of C. ablicans in vitro and susceptibility to experimental C. albicans vaginitis in vivo. We generated a recombinant fucosylated MUC1 glycanpolymer to test whether the relative protection of wild type mice compared to Fut2-null mice could be mimicked with exogenous mucin. While a small portion of the recombinant MUC1 epitopes displayed ?(1,2)fucosylated glycans, the predominant epitopes were sialylated due to endogenous sialyltransferases in the cultured cells. Intravaginal instillation of recombinant MUC1 glycanpolymer partially reduced experimental yeast vaginitis suggesting that a large glycanpolymer, with different glycan epitopes, may affect fungal burden. PMID:19326211

  12. Cervical mucins carry alpha(1,2)fucosylated glycans that partly protect from experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Steven E; Hurd, Elizabeth A; Thomsson, Kristina A; Karnak, David M; Holmén Larsson, Jessica M; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Bäckström, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2009-12-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, but alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining for alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans. Hysterectomy to remove cervical mucus eliminated UEA-I and acid mucin staining in vaginal epithelial cells from wild type mice indicating the cervix as the source of UEA-I positive epithelial cells. To assess binding of alpha(1-2) fucosylated glycans on C. albicans infection, an in vitro adhesion assay was performed with vaginal epithelial cells from wild type and Fut2-null mice. Vaginal epithelial cells from Fut2-null mice were found to bind increased numbers of C. albicans compared to vaginal epithelial cells obtained from wild type mice. Hysterectomy lessened the difference between Fut2-null and wild type mice in binding of C. ablicans in vitro and susceptibility to experimental C. albicans vaginitis in vivo. We generated a recombinant fucosylated MUC1 glycanpolymer to test whether the relative protection of wild type mice compared to Fut2-null mice could be mimicked with exogenous mucin. While a small portion of the recombinant MUC1 epitopes displayed alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, the predominant epitopes were sialylated due to endogenous sialyltransferases in the cultured cells. Intravaginal instillation of recombinant MUC1 glycanpolymer partially reduced experimental yeast vaginitis suggesting that a large glycanpolymer, with different glycan epitopes, may affect fungal burden. PMID:19326211

  13. Cervical Mucins Carry ?(1,2)Fucosylated Glycans that Partly Protect from Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Domino, Steven E.; Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Thomsson, Kristina A.; Karnak, David M.; Holme?n Larsson, Jessica M.; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Ba?ckstro?m, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2009-01-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple ?(1,2)fucosylated glycans, but ?(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining f...

  14. Gene Polymorphisms in Pattern Recognition Receptors and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartinJaeger

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion. Genetic variation in TLR2 may significantly enhance susceptibility to RVVC by modulating host defense mechanisms against Candida. Additional studies are warranted to assess systematically the role of host genetic variation for susceptibility to RVVC.

  15. Bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing spray dried microspheres loaded with clotrimazole for treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Naresh Vishal; Natasha, Shirodker; Getyala, Anil; Bhat, Ramnath Sudeendra

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate novel bioadhesive vaginal tablets containing clotrimazole loaded microspheres in order to provide long-term therapeutic activity at the site of infection. Tablets were prepared by incorporating drug loaded microspheres and using bioadhesive polymers hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and Carbopol. Microspheres were prepared by the spray drying technique using Eudragit RS-100 and Eudragit RL-100. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FTIR, particle size analysis and evaluated for percentage yield, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. To achieve bioadhesion to the mucosal tissue, optimized microspheres were incorporated into bioadhesive tablets and were evaluated for in vitro drug release, in vitro and in vivo mucoadhesion. FTIR and DSC studies showed that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. The sphericity factor indicated that the prepared microspheres were spherical. Formulation Mt6 indicated a controlled in vitro drug release and good bioadhesive strength. The in vivo images confirmed the bioadhesion and retention property of tablets up to 24 h. The results indicated that this drug delivery system can be explored for controlled intravaginal drug release. PMID:24152896

  16. Formulation and evaluation of in situ gels containing clotrimazole for oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gel dosage forms are successfully used as drug delivery systems to control drug release and protect the medicaments from a hostile environment. The main objective is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral topical gels of clotrimazole based on the concept of pH triggered and ion activated systems. The system utilizes polymers that exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters. A pH triggered system consisting of carbopol 934P (0.2-1.4% w/v and ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.1-0.75% w/v along with hydroxylpropylmethylcelluose E50LV was used to prolong the release of clotrimazole (0.1% w/v. Formulations were evaluated for gelling capacity, viscosity, gel strength, bioadhesive force, spreadability, microbiological studies and in vitro release. The use of carbopol as in situ gel forming system was substantiated by the property to transform into stiff gels when the pH was raised, whereas in gellan gum this transformation occurred in the presence of monovalent/divalent cations. Effect of calcium carbonate and other process parameters optimized and found that increase in calcium ions produced stronger gels. The drug content, clarity, and pH of the formulation were found to be satisfactory. The viscosity was found to be in the range 5 to 85 centipoise for the sol, whereas for the gels it was up to 16000 centipoise. The formulation showed pseudoplastic flow with thixotrophy. The maximum gel strength (using texture analyzer and bioadhesion was found to be up to 6.5 g and 4 g, respectively. The optimized formulations were able to release the drug up to 6 h. The formulation containing gellan gum showed better sustained release compared to carbopol based gels.

  17. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos / Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., García Heredia; S. D., García; E. F., Copolillo; M., Cora Eliseth; A. D., Barata; C. A., Vay; R. A., de Torres; N., Tiraboschi; A. M. R., Famiglietti.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se est [...] udiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%). Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas. Abstract in english Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between Decemb [...] er 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%). The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.

  18. A comparative clinicopathologic study of endogenous mycotic endophthalmitis: variations in clinical and histopathologic changes in candidiasis compared to aspergillosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, N. A.; Hidayat, A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endophthalmitis caused by endogenous Candida and Aspergillus species has emerged as a visually threatening complication in patients with immune deficiency of various causes. Twenty-five patients who underwent enucleation, 13 with endogenous Aspergillus endophthalmitis and 12 with endogenous Candida intraocular infections, were evaluated. Both clinical features and intraocular spread of the fungi were studied to determine which clinical and/or histopathologic features could help disti...

  19. Interplay between Protective and Inhibitory Antibodies Dictates the Outcome of Experimentally Disseminated Candidiasis in Recipients of a Candida albicans Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Bromuro, Carla; Torosantucci, Antonella; Chiani, Paola; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano; Cassone, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Mice immunized with heat-inactivated, whole yeast-form cells (Y cells) of Candida albicans developed intense, specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. However, they were modestly protected against a lethal challenge by the fungus, and their sera did not confer passive protection upon nonimmunized animals. Surprisingly, this immune serum conferred an elevated degree of passive protection to normal and SCID mice when preadsorbed on whole C. albicans cells. After adsorption, no antib...

  20. Comparison of ketoconazole, Bay N7133, and Bay L9139 in the treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J. D.; Muller, G.

    1983-01-01

    The efficacies of ketoconazole and two new imidazole preparations, Bay N7133 and Bay L9139, were compared in a rat model of experimental candida vaginitis. With a dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg by gavage for 5 days, the cure rate for ketoconazole was 96% as compared with rates of 23 and 29% for Bay N7133 and Bay L9139, respectively (P less than 0.001). Follow-up vaginal cultures at 30 days revealed a relapse in only 1 of 27 rats treated with ketoconazole. Our subsequent experiment in which ketoco...

  1. Formulation, toxicity, and antifungal activity in vitro of liposome-encapsulated nystatin as therapeutic agent for systemic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, R. T.; Hopfer, R. L.; Gunner, L. A.; Juliano, R. L.; Lopez-berestein, G.

    1987-01-01

    Multilamellar vesicles containing nystatin (NYS) were compared with vesicles containing the free drug for toxicity to erythrocytes and for antifungal activity in vitro. Liposomal nystatin was as active as free NYS was against a wide variety of yeasts and fungi. The antifungal activity against Candida albicans was maintained with different liposome compositions and without sterols. Liposome encapsulation also protected the erythrocytes from the toxicity of free NYS.

  2. Effect of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream and Miconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream Treatments in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Lappin, Myra A.; Brooker, Doris C.; Francisco, Carol A.; Dorfman, Joan

    1996-01-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, invesgtigator-blind, parallel study, 398 patients were dispensed topical butoconazole nitrate 2% cream for 3 days (n = 199) or miconazole nitrate 2% cream for 7 days (n = 199) for vaginal use. Efficacy analyses included 254 patients with culture-confirmed Candida (119 butoconazole and 135 miconazole users). Of the 398 patients issued study medication, 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, safety analyses included 389 patients (197 butoconazole and 192 ...

  3. Secreted Aspartic Protease Cleavage of Candida albicans Msb2 Activates Cek1 MAPK Signaling Affecting Biofilm Formation and Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Chadha, Sonia; Tati, Swetha; Conti, Heather R.; Hube, Bernhard; Cullen, Paul J.; Edgerton, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a small cytoplasmic domain, are known to regulate various signaling pathways. In Candida albicans, the mucin Msb2 regulates the Cek1 MAPK p...

  4. Formulation design and evaluation of metronidazole microspheres in a bioadhesive gel for local therapy of vaginal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hani, Umme; Bhat, Sudeendra R.; Shivakumar, Hosakote G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a novel vaginal delivery system composed of metronidazole microspheres dispersed within a bioadhesive gel. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method using Eudragit RS-100 and RL-100 polymers with different drug/polymer ratios. Microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, FT-IR and particle size analysis and evaluated for morphology, drug loading and in vitro drug release in simulated vaginal fluid. The % yield, actual drug loa...

  5. Single-Dose AmBisome (Liposomal Amphotericin B) as Prophylaxis for Murine Systemic Candidiasis and Histoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, April; Adler-moore, Jill P.; Proffitt, Richard T.

    2000-01-01

    AmBisome is a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B that has broad-spectrum antifungal activity and greatly reduced toxicity compared to the parent drug. In this study, amphotericin B deoxycholate (Fungizone) (1 mg/kg) and AmBisome (1 to 20 mg/kg) were tested as single-dose prophylactic agents in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed C57BL/6 mice challenged with either Candida albicans or Histoplasma capsulatum. Prophylactic efficacy was based on survival and fungal burden in the target...

  6. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Aamir Mirza; Mohammad Akhlaquer Rahman; Sushama Talegaonkar; Zeenat Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and caffeine (Caff). The...

  7. [The significance of yeastlike fungi of the genus Candida in the clinical picture of candidiasis of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volosevich, L I; Sheremet, Z A

    1989-10-01

    Results are reported of a study of the antilysozyme activity of 72 strains of yeastlike Candida fungi. A comparative analysis is made of the antilysozyme activity of yeastlike Candida fungi isolated in patients of all age groups. The authors emphasize the relation of these factors to variants of the clinical course of the oral cavity mucosa candidosis, Candida carrier state and capacity of Candida fungi to persistence. It is recommended to use the antilysozyme test for predicting the course of the disease. PMID:2617968

  8. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo.

  9. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the interest of the PET with 18F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with 18F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  10. Drug resistance of yeasts isolated from oropharyngeal candidiasis in aids patients / Resistência à drogas de leveduras isoladas de candidíase orofaríngea em pacientes com Aids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria do Rosário Rodrigues, Silva; Claudete Rodrigues de, Paula; Soraya Cristina, Silva; Théo Rodrigues, Costa; Márcio Rodrigues, Costa.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre oitenta e seis amostras da mucosa oral de pacientes com AIDS, 59 (68,60%) foram positivas para leveduras do gênero Candida. A identificação, feita pela produção de tubo germinativo e clamidósporos e através de assimilação e fermentação de hidratos de carbono, revelou 52 cepas (88,13%) de C.alb [...] icans, 4 (6,77%) de C. tropicalis e 3 (5,08%) de C.krusei. Avaliação destas leveduras para susceptibilidade in vitro frente a anfotericina B, flucitosina, itraconazol, fluconazol e cetoconazol, foi realizada pelo método de diluição em ágar. Comparando-se os valores de concentração inibitória mínima encontrados com os níveis séricos alcançados por estes antifúngicos verificou-se que apenas 8,47% e 5,08% das 59 leveduras foram resistentes a anfotericina B e flucitosina, respectivamente. Foi registrada uma percentagem de cepas resistentes aos derivados azólicos, sendo 25,42% ao itraconazol, 45,76% ao cetoconazol e 66,10% ao fluconazol. Abstract in english Candida spp was isolated from 59 (68.60%) out of eighty six samples of oral mucosa of AIDS patients. The identification, based or the production of a germ tube and chlamydospores, and on the assimilation and fermentation of carbohydrates, revealed 52 strains (88.13%) of C. albicans, 4 (6.77%) of C. [...] tropicalis and 3 (5.08%) of C. krusei. The susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, fluconazole and ketoconazole was determined using the agar dilution method. Comparing the minimum inhibitory concentration values found in the susceptibility test with the serum levels achieved by these drugs, only 8.47% and 5.08% of the yeasts strains proved to be resistant to amphotericin B and flucitosyne, respectively. A high frequency of strains resistant to azole derivatives (25.42%, to itraconazole, 45.76%, to ketoconazole and 66.10% to fluconazole) was observed.

  11. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiana Aparecida Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CV...

  12. Antifungal Susceptibility of 205 Candida spp. Isolated Primarily during Invasive Candidiasis and Comparison of the Vitek 2 System with the CLSI Broth Microdilution and Etest Methods?

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgeois, N.; Dehandschoewercker, L.; Bertout, S.; Bousquet, P. -j; Rispail, P.; Lachaud, L.

    2009-01-01

    Infections due to Candida spp. are frequent, particularly in immunocompromised and intensive care unit patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests are now required to optimize antifungal treatment given the emergence of acquired antifungal resistance in some Candida species. An antifungal susceptibility automated method, the Vitek 2 system (VK2), was evaluated. VK2 was compared to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method and the Etest procedure. For this purpose, 205 clinical isolates of C...

  13. Use of Antifungal Saponin SC-2 of Solanum Chrysotrichum for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: In Vitro Studies and Clinical Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera-arellano, Armando; Lo?pez-villegas, Edgar O.; Rodri?guez-tovar, Aida V.; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jime?nez-ferrer, Enrique; Tortoriello, Jaime; Marti?nez-rivera, M. Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Saponin SC-2 from Solanum chrysotrichum showed antifungal activity, demonstrated in vitro, which inhibited the growth of dermatophytes, and in vivo, to be effective in the treatment against tinea pedis and pityriasis capitis. Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of saponin SC-2 on Candida albicans and other Candida species, fluconazole and ketoconazole resistaent strains was demostrated. SC-2-associated ultrastructural alterations in several Candida species were observed. An exploratory clinic...

  14. Correlation Between HIV and Sexual Behavior, Drug Use, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis Among Female Sex Workers in a Mekong Delta Province of Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Khuu, Nghia; Truong, Phong Hoai; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Truong, Lien Xuan Thi; Detels, Roger

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of HIV and correlates of HIV infection among female sex workers (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam, a survey of 406 FSWs in Soc Trang province was conducted between May and August, 2003. The participants were interviewed, using a standardized interview, to obtain information about sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and gynecologic and sexually transmitted infection (STI) history. The prevalence of HIV was 3.3%. An increased risk for HIV was associa...

  15. Atividade antifúngica de produtos naturais indicados por raizeiros para tratamento de candidíase oral / Antifungal activity of natural products indicated by herb sellers (raizeiros) for the treatment of oral candidiasis / Actividad antifúngica de productos naturales indicados por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) para el tratamiento de la candidiasis oral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Maria, Freire Abílio; Bruno, da Silva Mesquita; Evelyn, Darly da Silva; Fabíola, Vilar de Queiroz Carvalho; Luciana Lucena, Aranha de Macêdo; Ricardo, Dias de Castro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente resistência das leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida frente aos antifúngicos sintéticos, atualmente disponíveis no comércio, impulsiona a busca por novos compostos antifúngicos de origem vegetal. Assim, o propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos d [...] ecoctos de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) e Punica granatum Linn (romã), vendidos por raizeiros em três feiras livres distintas (A, B e C), frente a três espécies de microorganismos do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis e C. krusei). O ensaio para determinação da atividade antifúngica dos produtos naturais foi realizado pelo método da difusão em meio sólido, em triplicata, onde discos de papel de filtro estéreis embebidos em 50 µL dos extratos foram colocados sobre o meio de cultura. Os resultados foram avaliados a partir da mensuração dos diâmetros dos halos de inibição de crescimento fúngico em milímetros (mm), sendo considerada a moda dos valores obtidos. Foi observada atividade antifúngica de S. terebenthifolius Raddi e de C. zeylanicum Breym sobre C. krusei. No entanto, diferenças foram identificadas entre os produtos obtidos nos diferentes locais. O decocto de Punica granatum Linn apresentou atividade antifúngica sobre as três cepas fúngicas utilizadas no estudo. Também foram verificadas diferenças entres os produtos obtidos nas feiras livres, sendo que apenas as amostras de Punica granatum Linn provenientes da feira A foram capazes de inibir o crescimento fúngico de todas as cepas analisadas. Desta forma, conclui-se que todos os produtos avaliados apresentam atividade antifúngica, havendo diferenças relacionadas aos locais de sua obtenção e sensibilidade das cepas ensaiadas. Abstract in spanish La resistencia cada vez mayor de levaduras del género candida a los antifúngicos sintéticos disponibles en la actualidad ha llevado a la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos antifúngicos de origen vegetal. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica in vitro de decocciones de Schinus [...] terebenthifolius Raddi (pimentero brasileño),Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) y Punica granatum Linn (granada) sobre tres especies del género Candida (C. albicans, C . tropicalis y C. krusei). Este material vegetal fue vendido por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) en tres ferias callejeras distintas (A, B y C). El ensayo para determinar la actividad antifúngica de los productos se realizó por triplicado. Se empleó el método de difusión en medio sólido, en el que discos de papel de filtro estériles fueron empapados en 50 µL de los extractos y colocados en medio de cultivo. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante la medición de los diámetros de los halos de inhibición del crecimiento fúngico, en milímetros, y se consideró la moda de los valores encontrados. Se observó actividad antifúngica de S. terebinthifolius Raddi y C. zeylanicum Breym contra C. krusei, pero fueron identificadas diferencias entre los productos obtenidos en diferentes lugares. La decocción de Punica granatum Linn presentó actividad antifúngica sobre las tres levaduras en estudio. Además, se encontraron diferencias entre los productos adquiridos en las ferias callejeras, pero sólo las muestras de Punica granatum Linn de la feria A fueron capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de hongos de todas las levaduras analizadas. Todos los productos evaluados mostraron actividad antifúngica, pero hubo diferencias en función de la localidad donde los productos fueron obtenidos y de la sensibilidad a las cepas ensayadas. Abstract in english An increasing resistance of Candida yeasts to the synthetic antifungals currently available has driven the search for new plant-derived antifungal compounds. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of decoctions from Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Brazi [...] lian pepper tree), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (cinnamon) and Punica granatum Linn (pom

  16. Disease: H01109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01109 Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC); Familial candidiasis (CANDF) Chronic mucocutaneo ... Toubiana J, Itan Y, Audry M, Nitschke P, Masson C, Toth ... B, Flatot J, Migaud M, Chrabieh M, Kochetkov T, Bo ...

  17. Identificação de espécies de Candida e susceptibilidade antifúngica in vitro: estudo de 100 pacientes com candidíases superficiais Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility in vitro: a study on 100 patients with superficial candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Crocco, Elisete I.; Mimica, Lycia M. J.; Muramatu, Laura H.; Cristina Garcia; Souza, Vale?ria M.; Ruiz, Ligia R. B.; Clarisse Zaitz

    2004-01-01

    FUNDAMENTO: Leveduras do gênero Candida determinam colonização, infecções superficiais e infecções sistêmicas em imunodeprimidos. As várias apresentações da doença levam à necessidade de utilizar diferentes métodos diagnósticos e tratamentos. OBJETIVOS: Diferenciar as espécies de Candida e correlacioná-las com as regiões anatômicas. Avaliar a susceptibilidade a cetoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol e anfotericina B. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 100 pacientes imunocompetentes co...

  18. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis; Interets de la TEP au 18-FDG en pathologie infectieuse: a propos d'un cas de candidose systemique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avet, J.; Granjon, D.; Prevot, N.; Isnardi, V.; Dubois, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Stephan, J.L.; Berger, C. [service de pediatrie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France)

    2009-05-15

    We report the interest of the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  19. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Atefe Namaki; Zahra Yekta; Kambiz Diba; Farzaneh Broomand; Fatemeh Bahadori

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. "nMaterials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to ph...

  20. Disease: H00363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00363 Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection with Candida species, predominantly with Ca ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) PMID:21350122 (gene) ...

  1. Casuística de las micosis de la cavidad bucal, reportadas en el Laboratorio de la Cátedra de Microbiología, Facultad de Odontología, U.C.V. (1997-2001)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Guilarte; Germán, Pardi; Adriana, De Stéfano; Aura, Pacheco; Elio, Dinatale.

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese do artigo o presente, uma revisão transforma-se dos exemplos do micosis da cavidade oral a que la foram relatados em um período de 5 anos (janeiro1997-Diciembre2001) no laboratório da cadeira do microbiologia da faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade Central de Venezuela, sendo candidiasis Atrófic [...] a o micosis que foi relatado a maioria freqüentemente no lapso antes do mencionado. O outro micosis relatado era: Candidiasis Hiperplásica, Candidiasis Pseudomembranosa, , e os ferimentos associaram como o rhomboid angular e médio de Queilitis Glositis. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo, se hace una revisión de los casos de micosis de la cavidad bucal que se han reportado en un período de 5 años (Enero 1997-Diciembre 2001) en el Laboratorio de la Cátedra de Microbiología de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, siendo Candidiasis [...] Atrófica la micosis que se reportó con mayor frecuencia en el lapso antes mencionado. Otras micosis reportadas fueron: Candidiasis Hiperplásica, Candidiasis Pseudomembranosa, , y lesiones asociadas como Queilitis Angular y Glositis Romboidal Media. Abstract in english In this article, we make a review of the most frequent oral mycosis that have been reported on a period of five years (January 1997-December 2001) in the laboratory of Microbiology at Dental School of Central University of Venezuela. Atrophic candidiasis was the most frequent mycosis of the oral cav [...] ity reported. Other mycosis reported were: Hyperplasic Candidiasis, Pseudomembranous Candidiasis, and lesions related with oral mycosis like Angular Cheiulitis and Medium Romboidal Glositis.

  2. [The antilysozyme activity of yeasts in the genus Candida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Z A; Volosevich, L I

    1990-01-01

    The fungi of the genus Candida isolated from patients with oral mucosa candidiasis and from candidiasis carriers have been studied for their antilysozyme activity. These fungi (Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. quilliermondii) are antilysozyme-active. A high antilysozyme activity of the fungi isolated from patients with oral mucosa candidiasis permits supposing that the presence of this trait may be one of the factors of microorganism pathogenicity. The effective antimycotic therapy (clotrimasole, sanguirhitrin) decreases the antilysozyme activity of fungi of the genus Candida. PMID:2377084

  3. Diabetes: Oral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poor healing in the mouth Oral candidiasis ( thrush ) Burning mouth and/or tongue Uncontrolled diabetes hurts your white ... conditions related to diabetes also can cause a burning sensation in the mouth. Your dentist or a specialist can examine you ...

  4. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  5. Diaper Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any area that is not covered by the diaper. Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe The doctor may suggest ... Self-Care Guidelines When to Seek Medical Care Treatments Your Provider May Prescribe ... (Candidiasis) View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum ...

  6. Biofilm Formation by Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramage, Gordon; Vande Walle, Kacy; Wickes, Brian L.; Lo?pez-ribot, Jose? L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast closely related to Candida albicans that has been recently implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation, with cells in biofilms displaying properties dramatically different from free-living cells grown under normal laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the development of in vitro models of C. dubliniensis biofilms on the surf...

  7. Renal Failure Associated with APECED and Terminal 4q Deletion: Evidence of Autoimmune Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar Iqbal, M.; Hamad Al-Mojalli; Anne Puel; Jean-Laurent Casanova; Albandary Al-Bakheet; Hindi Al-Hindi; Shelley Kennedy; Namik Kaya; Hadeel Al-Manea; Hamad Al-Zaidan; Ibrahim Bin Hussain; Saleh Al-Muhsen; Mohammed Al-Owain

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In a...

  8. Optimizing Echinocandin Dosing and Susceptibility Breakpoint Determination via In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Evaluation against Candida glabrata with and without fks Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Lepak, Alexander; Castanheira, Mariana; Diekema, Daniel; Pfaller, Michael; Andes, David

    2012-01-01

    Echinocandins are a preferred therapy for invasive candidiasis due to their potency and broad spectrum. Resistance, especially in Candida glabrata, is an emerging threat to their use. Pharmacodynamic (PD) studies examining reduced susceptibility secondary to fks mutations in C. glabrata are lacking. The current study explored PD targets for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin in an in vivo invasive candidiasis model against 11 C. glabrata isolates with known or putative fks mutations. ...

  9. Association of genotypes with infection types and antifungal susceptibilities in Candida albicans as revealed by recent molecular typing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Feng-yan

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal microorganism in the mucosa of healthy individuals, but is also the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. It causes from benign infections such as oral and vaginal candidiasis to fatal, systematic diseases in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. In addition to improved therapy, the rapid and accurate identification of the disease-causing strains is crucial for diagnosis, clinical treatment and epidemiological studies of candidiasis. A va...

  10. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nana Philip N; Tonye Rebecca N; Fx, Mbopi-keou; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Mbu Enow R; Ji, Leke Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008) pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008) were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs...

  11. Oral lesions in children born to HIV-1 positive women.

    OpenAIRE

    Palomba, Elvia Luana; Sinicco, Alessandro; Tovo, Pier Angelo

    1993-01-01

    A cohort of 69 children born to HIV-1 positive women was studied to evaluate types, prevalences and relationships to clinical stages of HIV-1-related oral lesions. In addition, relationships among C. albicans biotypes, clinical features of oral candidiasis and HIV-1 disease were investigated. C. albicans biotypes did not correlate with clinical features of oral lesions, disease stages and CD4+ lymphocyte count. Of 8 patients with recurrent oral candidiasis, 4 changed clinical features and 5 c...

  12. Genetic diversity among Candida albicans isolates associated with vertical transmission in preterm triplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Gautier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Fily, Antoine; François, Nadine; Loridant, Séverine; Jawhara, Samir; d'Enfert, Christophe; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem

    2014-10-01

    We report a case of congenital candidiasis in triplets, in the context of premature labor at 25 weeks gestation, without symptomatic vaginitis or chorioamnionitis. All three infants died as a result of prematurity, aggravated by systemic candidiasis. Multi-locus sequence typing confirmed vertical transmission of Candida albicans from the mother to the triplets and revealed a slight diversity among the strains isolated from the neonates. PMID:25151365

  13. Sensitivity of Vaginal Isolates of Candida to Eight Antifungal Drugs Isolated From Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Salehei; Zahra Seifi; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Candida vaginitis is a common fungal infection among adult women and it has been estimated that 75% of all adult women experience at least one period of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime. Several predisposing factors, such as diabetes mellitus,using contraceptive, pregnancy, and broad-spectrum antibiotics are reported as main risk factors for the infection. While, the main etiologic agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis is Candida albicans, more antifungal resistance has bee...

  14. Determination of Candida species nestled in denture fissures

    OpenAIRE

    Koba, Chiharu; Koga, Chihiro; Cho, Tamaki; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of elderly individuals, Candida is occasionally recognised as a fungal cause of aspiration pneumonia. In addition, there are numerous investigational reports on oral candidiasis. However, there are currently no reports on Candida contamination of denture base materials. This study was conducted to investigate Candida species in the oral cavity, denture parts and oral lesions of older/elderly subjects with oral candidiasis. The Candida strains were isolated and the spec...

  15. Echinocandins: A ray of hope in antifungal drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Neeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Amphotericin B and azole antifungals have been the mainstay of antifungal therapy so far. The high incidence of infusion related toxicity and nephrotoxicity with amphotericin B and the emergence of fluconazole resistant strains of Candida glabrata egged on the search for alternatives. Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of ? (1, 3-D- glucan synthase, a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Caspofungin was the first drug in this class to be approved. It is indicated for esophageal candidiasis, candidemia, invasive candidiasis, empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia and invasive aspergillosis. Response rates are comparable to those of amphotericin B and fluconazole. Micafungin is presently approved for esophageal candidiasis, for prophylaxis of candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT and in disseminated candidiasis and candidemia. The currently approved indications for anidulafungin are esophageal candidiasis, candidemia and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of infusion related adverse effects and nephrotoxicity is much lower than with amphotericin B. The main adverse effect is hepatotoxicity and derangement of serum transaminases. Liver function may need to be monitored. They are, however, safer in renal impairment. Even though a better pharmacoeconomical choice than amphotericin B, the higher cost of these drugs in comparison to azole antifungals is likely to limit their use to azole resistant cases of candidial infections and as salvage therapy in invasive aspergillosis rather than as first line drugs.

  16. Anidulafungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sabol

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Sabol, Tawanda GumboUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: More antifungal agents have reached clinical use in the past two decades than at any other time. The echinocandins have been a welcome addition to this group, with the latest being anidulafungin. There are several lines of evidence to support anidulafungin’s role as primary therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic patients, and as alternative therapy to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis with azole intolerance or triazole-resistant Candida. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic studies in animals have demonstrated superior efficacy, defined as maximal microbial kill, when compared to fluconazole, regardless of the fluconazole susceptibility of the Candida species. These studies, as well as dose-effect studies in patients, also support the currently recommended dose of anidulafungin. A well designed randomized controlled trial has demonstrated anidulafungin’s efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis. In this paper, we argue that anidulafungin may be preferable to fluconazole for the treatment of candidemia. However, as of yet, the difference between anidulafungin and the other two licensed echinocandins as first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis is unclear. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence as of yet to support first-line use of anidulafungin in patients with neutropenia or aspergillosis.Keywords: anidulafungin, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, efficacy, candidiasis

  17. [Increased sensitivity to Candida in patients with bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronina, E V; Karaev, Z O; Alferov, V P

    1990-01-01

    As many as 86 children aged 3 to 14 years with bronchial asthma were examined using mycological, immunological and allergological methods including the prick-test, basophil degranulation test (direct Shelley's test) and leukocyte migration inhibition test with Candida antigen. As far as the patients living in the vicinity of a microbiological factory are concerned, hypersensitivity to Candida was detected in 83.3% of cases, primarily that of the delayed type (37%). In children with verified candidiasis, hypersensitivity to Candida fungi was also detectable in 83.3% of cases, but in the majority of patients (47%), it was of the immediate type. In the control group, allergic candidiasis was diagnosed in 20% of cases. Clinically, bronchial asthma associated with allergic candidiasis was characterized by refractory, lingering obstructive bronchitis amenable to antimycotic drugs. PMID:2204874

  18. In vitro activity of voriconazole against Mexican oral yeast isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Vargas, Luis Octavio; Eraso, Elena; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Aguirre, José Manuel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico. PMID:19389066

  19. Oral lesions in Mexican HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, V; González, A; de la Rosa, E; González, M; Rivera, I; Hernández, C; Ponce de León, S

    1990-11-01

    One hundred and twenty-five HIV-infected patients, of whom 49 (39%) were at early stages of the infection (CDC-II & III) and 76 (61%) in CDC IV, were prospectively examined. In 100 (80%) one or more oral mucosal lesions were observed; candidiasis (51%) and hairy leukoplakia (43%) were the commonest. Erythematous candidiasis was more often seen (35%) than the pseudomembranous type (16%), and appeared with the higher values at early than later stages. The prevalence of hairy leukoplakia, oral hyperpigmentation and xerostomia were incremented in groups CDC-IV. Pseudomembranous candidiasis and exfoliative cheilitis increased significantly with severity of disease. Our study demonstrates that oral alterations associated to HIV are a frequent finding, both at early (76%) and late (83%) stages of the infection in Mexican patients. PMID:1962816

  20. Fungal infections today: size of the problem and focus on the initial cost of therapy with echinocandin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Venditti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three candins had been approved for the treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC: caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Different drugs are associated with different needs for dose adjustment which might affect the total cost. A Spanish economic analysis estimated the budget impact of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin in the treatment of 100 patients with invasive candidiasis from the perspective of the Spanish hospital pharmacy setting. It has demonstrated that patients treated with anidulafungin did not required dose adjustment unlike caspofungin and micafungin, and the use of anidulafungin in the treatment of adult non-neutropenic patients with invasive candidiasis is a cost saving treatment option, from the pharmacy department perspective in Spain. The aim of this study was to estimate the initial costs of therapy with caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin in the perspective of the Italian hospital setting.

  1. Mendelian traits causing susceptibility to mucocutaneous fungal infections in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Karin R; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2012-02-01

    Mucocutaneous candidiasis and dermatophyte infections occur either in isolation or alongside other symptoms in patients with various primary immunodeficiency diseases with diverse genetic defects, which result in impaired IL-17 immunity, IL-22 immunity, or both. In patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, disease-associated polymorphisms in DECTIN1 act on the level of fungal recognition, whereas mutations in caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) disturb the subsequent spleen tyrosine kinase 2-CARD9/BCL10/MALT1-driven signaling cascade, impairing nuclear factor ?B-mediated maturation of antigen-presenting cells and priming of naive T cells to differentiate into the T(H)17 cell lineage. T(H)17-priming cytokines signal through the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, which in turn induces the T(H)17 lineage-determining transcription factor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor ?t. Dominant-negative mutations in STAT3 result in reduced numbers of T(H)17 cells, causing localized candidiasis in patients with hyper-IgE syndrome. In patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, gain-of-function STAT1 mutations shift the cellular response toward T(H)17 cell-inhibiting cytokines. T(H)17 cells secrete IL-17 and IL-22, which are cytokines with potent antifungal properties, including production of antimicrobial peptides and activation and recruitment of neutrophils. Neutrophils mediate microbial killing through phagocytosis, degranulation, and neutrophil extracellular traps. Mutations in IL17F and IL17R in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, as well as neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17 and IL-22 in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, directly impair IL-17 and IL-22 immunity. PMID:22284928

  2. Anticandidal activity of Santolina chamaecyparissus volatile oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, B; Sriram, S; Dhanaraj, S A; Elango, K; Chinnaswamy, K

    1997-01-01

    A search for naturally occurring drugs with antifungal activity lead to Santolina oil, a volatile oil distillate of Santolina chamaecyparissus. The studies revealed that Santolina oil was effective in controlling experimental candidiasis in vitro and in vivo. It had a synergistic effect on clotrimazole in controlling Candida albicans in vitro. It significantly controlled experimental vaginal candidiasis and experimental systemic candidosis. Santolina oil was able to control the superficial cutaneous mycoses. It is recommended as a potential candidate for further studies, including clinical studies. PMID:9032628

  3. High-dose caspofungin salvage in a very-low-birth-weight infant with refractory candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Seo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is one of the most common causes of late-onset infection among very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW in most neonatal intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Standard therapy consists of the administration of amphotericin B, amphotericin B complex, and fluconazole. In many cases, candidiasis is not easily eradicated, despite the administration of these drugs. We report our experience of the addition of high-dose caspofungin to the conventional antifungal drugs in a VLBW infant with refractory candidemia.

  4. Rapid Detection of Vaginal Candida Species by Newly Developed Immunochromatography? †

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Takahashi, Kengo; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Nakae, Taiji; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Omura, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    For the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis, we developed a simple immunochromatographic method that enables the detection of vaginal Candida spp. within about 30 min. Overall, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this method appeared to be 80.3, 99.3, 98.0, and 92.0%, respectively.

  5. Identification of a novel STAT3 mutation in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine; Jakobsen, Marianne A

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome presenting with recurrent staphylococcal abscesses, pneumonia, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and report the identification of a novel STAT3 mutation at amino acid position 621, which has not previously been described. In addition, we review the immunological, infectious, and genetic features of hyper-IgE syndrome.

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana?

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples.

  7. Corticosteróides inalados no tratamento da alergia respiratória: segurança versus eficácia Inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of respiratory allergy: safety vs. efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Maria Ca?ndida V.; Dirceu Solé

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Revisar os mecanismos moleculares de ação, eficácia e potenciais efeitos adversos relacionados aos corticosteróides inalados (CEI) em crianças com asma persistente. FONTES DOS DADOS: Artigos de língua inglesa da base de dados MEDLINE. Foram empregados os termos: corticosteroids, inhaled corticosteroids, asthma, children, beclomethasone, fluticasone, budesonide, ciclesonide, growth, adrenal insufficiency, bone mineral density, oral candidiasis. Foram selecionados guias de trata...

  8. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm. (orig.)

  9. [Condition of the periodontium and mouth mucosa in workers exposed to fluorides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilewicz, L; Chru?ciel, H; Koryci?ska-Wro?ska, W; Maniak, B; Szlachta, R; Mniszkowa, M; Waszkiewicz-Go?o?, H; Wróbel, J

    1982-01-01

    Stomatological and mycological examinations of the workers at the fusion department of the RZWM "Silesia" showed a considerable intensification of paradontium diseases (about 80% of cases). Leukoplakia and candidiasis were the most common changes found on the mucous membrane in the oral cavity. Mycological investigations carried out on the Sabourand culture showed Candida albicans in 73,7% of cases. PMID:7144539

  10. Is incidental recovery of yeast from enteric pathogen stool cultures obtained from hospitalized patients clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Rachel A; Iwen, Peter C; Qiu, Fang; Rupp, Mark E; Hermsen, Elizabeth D

    2011-03-01

    A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate gastrointestinal colonization with yeast as a predictor of invasive candidiasis (IC) in patients who underwent an enteric pathogen test. No significant association was detected between gastrointestinal colonization and IC. However, gastrointestinal colonization with yeast was associated with increased antimicrobial exposure and median length of hospitalization. PMID:24470899

  11. Is incidental recovery of yeast from enteric pathogen stool cultures obtained from hospitalized patients clinically significant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D. Hermsen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A matched case-control study was conducted to investigate gastrointestinal colonization with yeast as a predictor of invasive candidiasis (IC in patients who underwent an enteric pathogen test. No significant association was detected between gastrointestinal colonization and IC. However, gastrointestinal colonization with yeast was associated with increased antimicrobial exposure and median length of hospitalization.

  12. Co-administration of immunomodulator tuftsin and liposomised nystatin can combat less susceptible Candida albicans infection in temporarily neutropenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood A; Nasti, T H; Saima, Khanam; Mallick, A I; Firoz, Ahmad; Wajahul, Haq; Ahmad, Nadeem; Mohammad, Owais

    2004-07-01

    In order to develop a prospective chemotherapeutic agent against opportunistic infections, it is important to know that host factors such as degree of immunological debility as well as recovery of immune functions to normality may contribute significantly to a successful elimination of the pathogens. We demonstrated previously that concomitant delivery of antimicrobial agents and immunomodulators to the pathogen harbouring-host contributes to the complete elimination of the deep-seated fungal infections (aspergillosis and candidiasis) in animals with normal immune status. Considering that neutropenic hosts are the main targets of such infections, it can be argued about the potential of the immunomodulator-based therapy in subjects with non-functional immune system. To resolve the hypothesis, we studied the role of immunomodulator tuftsin against experimental murine candidiasis in temporarily neutropenic Balb/c mice. The neutropenic mice were challenged with an isolate of Candida albicans that was showing less susceptibility to both free and liposomised-amphotericin B. The co-administration of tuftsin increased the efficiency of liposomised-polyene antibiotics (nystatin and amphotericin B) against experimental murine candidiasis in immunocompromised Balb/c mice. Pretreatment with liposomised tuftsin prior to C. albicans infection clearly enhanced protection against candidiasis, suggesting a prophylactic role of tuftsin in normal and temporarily neutropenic animals. PMID:15196575

  13. Sequential Therapy with Caspofungin and Fluconazole for Candida albicans Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Baldassarri, Isabella; Marigliano, Anna; Arzeni, Daniela; Giannini, Daniele; Scalise, Giorgio

    2004-01-01

    A sequential therapy of caspofungin (CAS) and fluconazole (FLC) administration for treatment of Candida albicans infection was investigated. Treatment with CAS followed by FLC was as effective as CAS treatment given alone for the same duration. Our data suggest that switching from CAS to FLC is a potentially explorable therapeutic option for treatment of systemic candidiasis.

  14. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shethwala Nimisha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

  15. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shethwala, Nimisha D; Mulla, Summaiya A; Kosambiya, J K; Desai, Vikas K

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs) from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%), trichomoniasis in six (2%), candidiasis in 31 (10.33%), HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%), HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33%) and rapid plasma regain (RPR) reactivity in 20 (6.66%) cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%), candidiasis in six (17.14%), syphilis in five (14.28%) and HBsAg in two (5.71%). One (2.85%) HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis. PMID:19332911

  16. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  17. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Namaki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. "nMaterials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to physical examination. Two swabs of vaginal discharge were obtained for each woman, one for direct smear, another for culture. The culture medium was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. Patients were randomized into two groups of clotrimazole (vaginal cream for 7 days and 150 mg fluconazole in a single dose. Clinical and paraclinical responses were calculated."nResults: Clinical improvement occurred in 96 cases (80%. This value was 86.7% and 73.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole, respectively (P-value=0.04. Paraclinical response on tenth day of treatment was observed in 87 patients (72.5%. This value was 66.7% and 78.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (P-value=0.110. Mean days of treatment was 4.06 ±1.30 days for clotrimazole and 2.70 ±0.78 days for fluconazole (p value =0.031."nConclusion: Most of the clinical and paraclinical responses to the drugs used for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis are in the favour of fluconazole.

  18. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. Novel diagnostic assays and immune regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oftedal, Bergithe E. V.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS-I) is a rare, monogenetic recessively inherited disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. The patients display different endocrine and ectodermal manifestations, where the majority develop at least two of the three main components of autoimmune adrenocortical failure (Addison’s disease), hypoparathyroidism and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In addition, patients frequently develop autoantibo...

  19. Nutrition and Its Relationship to Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lynn; Conn, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between food allergies and sensitivities and autism. Information is provided on two dietary problems (candidiasis and gluten/casein intolerance) and case histories of two three-year-old children with autism are provided to illustrate each of the problems. Diet and vitamin therapy interventions are also described.…

  20. Cannulation of the Mouse Submandibular Salivary Gland via the Wharton's Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Kuriki, Yusuke; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Gjerde, Eva M.; Khalili, Saeed; Mui, Brennan; Zheng, Changyu; Tran, Simon D.

    2011-01-01

    Severe salivary gland hypofunction is frequently found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome and those who receiving therapeutic irradiation in their head and neck regions for cancer treatment. Both groups of patients experience symptoms such as xerostomia (dry mouth), dysphagia (impaired chewing and swallowing), severe dental caries, altered taste, oro-pharyngeal infections (candidiasis), mucositis, pain and discomfort.

  1. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico / Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathaly, Ángel; Natalia, Echeverry; Paulina, Restrepo; Leonor, González; Libia, Rodríguez; Gloria, Vásquez.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES), es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crónica multisistémica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, d [...] iscoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnóstico de LES y establecer si existe relación entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunológicos, el compromiso sistémico y el tratamiento farmacológico. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES; se les realizó un examen estomatológico y se recolectó información demográfica, clínica y de tratamiento por medio de revisión de historias clínicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realizó análisis citológico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algún tipo de lesión en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; úlceras, en 17 y queilitis actínica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoció con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociación entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces más que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontró asociación con ningún compromiso sistémico y la presencia de lesiones orales. Abstract in english Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relati [...] onship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  2. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES, es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crónica multisistémica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, discoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnóstico de LES y establecer si existe relación entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunológicos, el compromiso sistémico y el tratamiento farmacológico. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES; se les realizó un examen estomatológico y se recolectó información demográfica, clínica y de tratamiento por medio de revisión de historias clínicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realizó análisis citológico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algún tipo de lesión en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; úlceras, en 17 y queilitis actínica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoció con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociación entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces más que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontró asociación con ningún compromiso sistémico y la presencia de lesiones orales.Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relationship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  3. Prevalencia de Lesiones de la Mucosa Oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Raposo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes mayores de 20 años, examinados en el mismo hospital (intervalo de confianza del 95%. La prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral fue de 66%. Las lesiones más prevalentes fueron; gránulos de Fordyce (30%, candidiasis atrófica (14,33%, mácula melanótica (13,67%, várices orales (7,33%, pigmentación fisiológica (6%, nevos (4%, efélides (3,33%, úlceras traumáticas (4%, leucoplasia (3% y queilitis angular (2,68%. Se encontró una relación directa entre el aumento de la edad y la presencia de candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices, siendo esta asociación estadísticamente significativa. Podemos concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población adulta de la muestra y que la cantidad de estas lesiones se incrementan con la edad (candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices orales, por lo que es necesario intensificar el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de ellas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the Hernan Henríquez Aravena Hospital in the city of Temuco Chile. Method: The sample consisted of 300 patients aged over 20 years, examined in the same hospital (confidence interval 95%. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 66%. The most prevalent lesions were; Fordyce granules (30%, atrophic candidiasis (14.33%, oral melanotic macule (13.67%, oral mucosal varicosities (7.33%, physiological pigmentation (6%, nevus (4%, ephelis (3.33%, traumatic ulcers (4%, leukoplakia (3% and angular cheilitis (2.68%. A direct ratio was found between increased age and the presence of atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and oral mucoral varicosities, this association being statistically significant. It may be concluded that there is a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the adult population of the sample and that the quantity of lesions increases with age (atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and mucosal varicosities, making it necessary to intensify their early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  4. Prevalencia de Lesiones de la Mucosa Oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco / Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Araceli, Raposo; María José, Monsalves; Paola, Aravena; Antonio, Sanhueza.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes mayores de 20 años, examinados en el mismo hospital (intervalo de confianza del 95%). La prevalencia de [...] las lesiones de la mucosa oral fue de 66%. Las lesiones más prevalentes fueron; gránulos de Fordyce (30%), candidiasis atrófica (14,33%), mácula melanótica (13,67%), várices orales (7,33%), pigmentación fisiológica (6%), nevos (4%), efélides (3,33%), úlceras traumáticas (4%), leucoplasia (3%) y queilitis angular (2,68%). Se encontró una relación directa entre el aumento de la edad y la presencia de candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices, siendo esta asociación estadísticamente significativa. Podemos concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población adulta de la muestra y que la cantidad de estas lesiones se incrementan con la edad (candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices orales), por lo que es necesario intensificar el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de ellas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the Hernan Henríquez Aravena Hospital in the city of Temuco Chile. Method: The sample consisted of 300 patients aged over 20 years, examined in the same hospital (confidence interval 95%). Results: The prevalence of [...] oral mucosal lesions was 66%. The most prevalent lesions were; Fordyce granules (30%), atrophic candidiasis (14.33%), oral melanotic macule (13.67%), oral mucosal varicosities (7.33%), physiological pigmentation (6%), nevus (4%), ephelis (3.33%), traumatic ulcers (4%), leukoplakia (3%) and angular cheilitis (2.68%). A direct ratio was found between increased age and the presence of atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and oral mucoral varicosities, this association being statistically significant. It may be concluded that there is a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the adult population of the sample and that the quantity of lesions increases with age (atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and mucosal varicosities), making it necessary to intensify their early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  5. Mortality due to systemic mycoses as a primary cause of death or in association with AIDS in Brazil: a review from 1996 to 2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marli, Prado; Marcelo Barbosa da, Silva; Ruy, Laurenti; Luiz R, Travassos; Carlos P, Taborda.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Deaths caused by systemic mycoses such as paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis and zygomycosis amounted to 3,583 between 1996-2006 in Brazil. When analysed as the underlying cause of death, paracoccidioidomycosis represented the most [...] important cause of deaths among systemic mycoses (~ 51.2%). When considering AIDS as the underlying cause of death and the systemic mycoses as associated conditions, cryptococcosis (50.9%) appeared at the top of the list, followed by candidiasis (30.2%), histoplasmosis (10.1%) and others. This mortality analysis is useful in understanding the real situation of systemic mycoses in Brazil, since there is no mandatory notification of patients diagnosed with systemic mycoses in the official health system.

  6. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Roy, Sukhdev; Srivastava, J. N.

    2013-05-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment.

  7. Inhibitors of the Glyoxylate Cycle Enzyme ICL1 in Candida albicans for Potential Use as Antifungal Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Hong-Leong; Lim, Vuanghao; Sandai, Doblin

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis in humans. In recent years, metabolic pathways in C. albicans have been explored as potential antifungal targets to treat candidiasis. The glyoxylate cycle, which enables C. albicans to survive in nutrient-limited host niches and its. Key enzymes (e.g., isocitrate lyase (ICL1), are particularly attractive antifungal targets for C. albicans. In this study, we used a new screening approach that better reflects the physiological environment that C. albicans cells experience during infection to identify potential inhibitors of ICL. Three compounds (caffeic acid (CAFF), rosmarinic acid (ROS), and apigenin (API)) were found to have antifungal activity against C. albicans when tested under glucose-depleted conditions. We further confirmed the inhibitory potential of these compounds against ICL using the ICL enzyme assay. Lastly, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these compounds using Lipinski's rule-of-five and ADMET analysis. PMID:24781056

  8. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type I - a novel AIRE mutation in a North American patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibregtse, Kelly Egan; Wolfgram, Peter; Winer, Karen K; Connor, Ellen L

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1), also referred to as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare autoimmune disease that results from autosomal recessive mutations of the human autoimmune regulatory (AIRE) gene. We present the case of a 17-year-old North American girl of primarily Norwegian descent with a novel AIRE gene mutation causing APS-1. In addition to the classic triad of chronic candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism and autoimmune adrenocortical insufficiency, she also has vitiligo, intestinal malabsorption, autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune hypothyroidism, myositis, myalgias, chronic fatigue, and failure to thrive. Genetic testing revealed heterozygosity for c.20_115de196 and c.967_979del13 mutations in the AIRE gene. The AIRE gene c.20_115de196 mutation has not been previously reported. PMID:24945421

  9. Echinocandins for candidemia: a rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Menichetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin represent a rational choice for the first-line therapy of candidemia/invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Among other properties characterizing echinocandins, it’s important to emphasize the broad spectrum of activity, the fungicidal activity against the majority of Candida spp., and the activity against the biofilm. Furthermore, echinocandins show greater efficacy than conventional amphotericin B and fluconazole, and similar efficacy to liposomal amphotericin B (but they are less toxic. Finally, echinocandins are recommended at the highest level of evidence (AI for the treatment of invasive candidiasis by IDSA and ESCMID guidelines.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.872

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana, antiaderente e antifúngica in vitro de plantas medicinais brasileiras sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e cepas do gênero Candida In vitro antimicrobial, antiadherent and antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants on oral biofilm microorganisms and strains of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollianna Muniz Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana, antifúngica e antiaderente da aroeira-do-sertão, malva e goiabeira sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e candidose oral. Os extratos mostraram-se eficazes, inibindo o crescimento das bactérias do biofilme dental e fungos da candidose oral, sugerindo a utilização dessas plantas como meio alternativo na terapêutica odontológica.The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiadherent activity of aroeira-do-sertão, mallow and guava tree on oral biofilm microorganisms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro. The extracts were shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria of the oral biofilm and fungi of oral candidiasis, thus suggesting that these extracts can be used as alternative means of dental therapy.

  11. The First Reported Case of Colonic Infection Caused by Candida tropicalis and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneenararat, Surat

    2014-01-01

    Lower gastrointestinal tract infections caused by Candida species are rarely reported, and Candida albicans is the only pathogen that has been identified. The author reports a first case of colonic candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis in a 55-year-old female with diabetes mellitus type 2, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and neutropenia induced by chemotherapy. Diarrhea and fever were the presenting symptoms. Diagnosis was made based on deep tissue involvement on colonoscopy with biopsy and positive hemoculture. This alerted the physician to be aware of Candida non-albicans as a cause of colonic infection. Fungal culture should always be done to identify specific Candida species, leading to appropriate antifungal therapy. A review of the literature on colonic candidiasis is also presented here. PMID:25028576

  12. Candida albicans Biofilm Chip (CaBChip) for High-throughput Antifungal Drug Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-ribot, Jose L.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans remains the main etiological agent of candidiasis, which currently represents the fourth most common nosocomial bloodstream infection in US hospitals1. These opportunistic infections pose a growing threat for an increasing number of compromised individuals, and carry unacceptably high mortality rates. This is in part due to the limited arsenal of antifungal drugs, but also to the emergence of resistance against the most commonly used antifungal agents. Further complicating tr...

  13. Modification of Surface Properties of Biomaterials Influences the Ability of Candida albicans To Form Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Patel, Jasmine D.; Li, Jian; Zhou, Guangyin; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Mccormick, Thomas S.; Anderson, James M.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans biofilms form on indwelling medical devices (e.g., denture acrylic or intravenous catheters) and are associated with both oral and invasive candidiasis. Here, we determined whether surface modifications of polyetherurethane (Elasthane 80A [E80A]), polycarbonateurethane, and poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) can influence fungal biofilm formation. Polyurethanes were modified by adding 6% polyethylene oxide (6PEO), 6% fluorocarbon, or silicone, while the PET surface was modifie...

  14. Review of the literature for a case with candidal esophagitis at HIV negative young adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Tanr?verdi

    2008-01-01

    Candidal esophagitis, frequently seen in HIV seropositive patients, may develop in HIV seronegative patients due to various etiologic reasons. In this case, investigation of esophagitis diagnosis and the etiologic factors were aimed to be presented by using literature data. The potential contribution of severe emotional stress and depression to the etiology of esophageal candidiasis in a HIV seronegative case via the negative impact on the immunologic system was discussed.

  15. Glutathione Metabolism in Candida albicans Resistant Strains to Fluconazole and Micafungin

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, Bruno; Angiolella, Letizia; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Vavala, Elisabetta; Macone, Alberto; Colone, Marisa; Pitari, Giuseppina; Stringaro, Annarita; Dupre?, Silvestro; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Currently available therapies for candidiasis are based on antifungal drugs belonging to azole and echinocandin families that interfere with different aspects of fungal metabolism. These drugs, beyond their specific effects, elicit also a cellular stress including an unbalance of redox state that is counteracted not only utilizing antioxidant species but also increasing the outcome export by transporters to detoxify the internal environment. These cellular actions are both based on the cytoso...

  16. Hsp90 Governs Echinocandin Resistance in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans via Calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sheena D.; Robbins, Nicole; Zaas, Aimee K.; Schell, Wiley A.; Perfect, John R.; Cowen, Leah E.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the leading fungal pathogen of humans, causing life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. Treatment of candidiasis is hampered by the limited number of antifungal drugs whose efficacy is compromised by host toxicity, fungistatic activity, and the emergence of drug resistance. We previously established that the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which regulates the form and function of diverse client proteins, potentiates resistance to the azoles in C. albicans and ...

  17. Positions and Numbers of FKS Mutations in Candida albicans Selectively Influence In Vitro and In Vivo Susceptibilities to Echinocandin Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, M.; Tscherner, M.; Schaller, M.; Kuchler, K.; Mair, C.; Sartori, B.; Istel, F.; Arendrup, M. C.; Lass-flo?rl, C.

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia is the fourth most common kind of microbial bloodstream infection, with Candida albicans being the most common causative species. Echinocandins are employed as the first-line treatment for invasive candidiasis until the fungal species is determined and confirmed by clinical diagnosis. Echinocandins block the FKS glucan synthases responsible for embedding ?-(1,3)-d-glucan in the cell wall. The increasing use of these drugs has led to the emergence of antifungal resistance, and elev...

  18. Global Surveillance of In Vitro Activity of Micafungin against Candida: a Comparison with Caspofungin by CLSI-Recommended Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaller, M. A.; Boyken, L.; Hollis, R. J.; Messer, S. A.; Tendolkar, S.; Diekema, D. J.

    2006-01-01

    Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent that has recently been approved for the prevention of invasive fungal infection and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to micafungin among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activity of micafungin against 2,656 invasive (bloodstream or sterile site) unique patient isolates of Candida spp. collected from 60 medical centers worldwide...

  19. [The prevention and treatment of a Candida-mycosis type of dysbacteriosis in chronic bronchitis in older patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrystych, T M; Shestakova, K H; Krakov'iats'ka, N V

    1999-01-01

    Changes were studied in the clinical picture and microecological setting of the large intestine in elderly and old patients with chronic bronchitis (n = 17) against the background of antibacterial therapy that leads to the development of dysbacteriosis, including that with increased content of Candida. Shown in elderly and old patients with chronic bronchitis is efficacy of the outlined treatment option for the prophylaxis of candidiasis type dysbacteriosis (diphlucan, linaex, decamevite, nitroxoline). PMID:10474952

  20. Conserved and Divergent Roles of Bcr1 and CFEM Proteins in Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chen; Vidanes, Genevieve M.; Maguire, Sarah L.; Guida, Alessandro; Synnott, John M.; Andes, David R.; Butler, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a pathogenic fungus that is major cause of hospital-acquired infection, predominantly due to growth as biofilms on indwelling medical devices. It is related to Candida albicans, which remains the most common cause of candidiasis disease in humans. The transcription factor Bcr1 is an important regulator of biofilm formation in vitro in both C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. We show here that C. parapsilosis Bcr1 is required for in vivo biofilm development in a rat cathet...

  1. Fungal Disease in Britain and the United States 1850–2000 : Mycoses and Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Homei, Aya; Worboys, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we discuss the changing medical and public profile of fungal infections in the period 1850–2000. We consider four sets of diseases: ringworm and athlete’s foot (dermatophytosis); thrush or candidiasis (infection with Candida albicans); endemic, geographically specific infections in North America (coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and histoplasmosis) and mycotoxins; and aspergillosis (infection with Aspergillus fumigatus). We discuss each disease in relation to developing med...

  2. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  3. Evaluation of oral ulcers appearing in pemphigus patients treated with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Kapasi Akila

    1992-01-01

    Twenty cases of pemphigus with oral ulcers who were being treated with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse therapy were evaluated for the cause of ulcers. The lesions were first classified into pemphigus ulcers, aphthous ulcers, pyogenic infection and candidiasis on the basis of clinical characteristics. Smears from these ulcers were then stained with Giemsa stain to look for acantholytic cells and bacteria. Another smear was mounted in 10% KOH to look for candida. Seven patients were...

  4. A Community-based Oral Health Promotion Model for HIV Patients in Nairobi, East District in Kenya: a Study Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Frencken, Jo E.; Jan Mulder; Koyio, Lucina N.; Sanden, Wil J. M.; Andre van der Ven; Creugers, Nico H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: General HIV-related orofacial lesions, most commonly oropharyngeal candidiasis, have a typical clinical appearance and can be recognised by members of the community. Although affected patients often experience pain leading to compromised eating and swallowing, barriers such as social stigma and lack of knowledge regarding available services may prevent them from seeking early care. Educating the community about these lesions through community health workers (CHWs) who are democrat...

  5. Identification and Phylogenetic Relationship of the Most Common Pathogenic Candida Species Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b Gene Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Koji; Biswas, Swarajit Kumar; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2000-01-01

    We sequenced a 396-bp region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the most common clinically important Candida species: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. lusitaniae. The recently described species of Candida, C. dubliniensis, associated with mucosal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, was also included. Two to five strains of each species were examined. Some species represented intraspecies variation, which was ...

  6. Oral hairy leukoplakia of the lips with CMV retinitis in a woman with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh R; Williams Jeyakumar; Krishnaram A; Sethuraman R; Venkatram M; Jayapaul K

    1992-01-01

    A female prostitute, seropositive for HIV by ELISA and Western blot, presenting with mucous lesions of tongue and lower lip and also with unilateral loss of vision of the right eye is discussed. The tongue and lip lesions were confirmed by histopathological examination to be hairy leukoplakia, and the loss of vision was found to be due to retinitis-probably due to cytomegalovirus infection. The patient also had candidiasis, both oral and genital and lymphopaenia.

  7. Usage of antifungal drugs for therapy of genital Candida infections, purchased as over-the-counter products or by prescription: 2. Factors that may have influenced the marked changes in sales volumes during the 1990s.

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Holmén; Maria Landgren; Jolanta Wågström; Rdh, Per-anders M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and such recurrent infections (RVVC) has been difficult to study as the majority of episodes of these conditions are self-treated by the women affected. In Sweden, all pharmacies are owned by the state and all prescriptions and over-the-counter (OTC) products, such as antifungals, are registered in a database, which offers unique possibilities to study the epidemiology of VVC/RVVC. OBJECTIVES: To analyze all prescriptions and OTC ...

  8. Biofilm formation ability by non-Candida albicans Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, So?nia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosa?rio; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2007-01-01

    The number of infections caused by Candida species has greatly increased in the past ten years. This has been attributed with an increase in the number of AIDS patients, the elderly population and immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the increased use of indwelling medical devices has also been implicated with the rise of candidal infections. Most candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, however, recently, new non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been ...

  9. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM ORAL LESIONS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar, V. P.; Kumar, S.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 60 patients suspected to have AIDS with oral lesions suggestive of oral candidiasis were studied. Candida species were isolated from 50 patients. Candida albicans was the commonest isolate (70 %) followed Candida parapsilosis(15%), Candida glabrata (7.5%) and Candida tropicalis (5%) respectively. Candida dubliniensis was isolated from a single case only. Though the reports from developed countries show more prevalence of the novel species Candida dubliniensis, in our study it was i...

  10. Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis : comparison of biofilm formation in terms of biomass and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosa?rio

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis are two species responsible for oral candidiasis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Microbial infection is preceded by adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm formation represents the most common form of C. albicans in the oral cavity and is considered to be one of the most important virulence factors. In this study, the biofilm formation ability of C. dubliniensis was compared with that of C. albicans in terms of biomass (...

  11. Farnesol : beyond morphogenesis control in non-candida albicans candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosa?rio

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade the incidence of candidiasis increased dramatically. Although Candida albicans remains the most frequent cause of infections, non-Candida albicans candida (NCAC) species are emerging as new pathogens. Candida infections are often associated with biofilms that can develop on natural surfaces and medical devices. In a similar manner to other microorganisms, signalling pathways may control the diversity and distribution of Candida species within biofilms. E,...

  12. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Deorukhkar, Sachin C.; Santosh Saini; Stephen Mathew

    2014-01-01

    The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species d...

  13. Biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species : quantification, structure and matrix composition

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, So?nia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Martins, Anto?nio; Oliveira, Rosa?rio; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-01-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to C. albicans, but recently, non- Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been identified as common pathogens. The ability of Candida species to form biofilms has important clinical repercussions due to their increased resistance to antifungal therapy and the ability of yeast cells within the biofilms to withstand host immune defenses. Given this clinical importance of the biofilm growth form, the aim of this study was to ...

  14. AIRE-PHD fingers are structural hubs to maintain the integrity of chromatin-associated interactome

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetani, Massimiliano; Matafora, Vittoria; Saare, Mario; Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Mollica, Luca; Quilici, Giacomo; Chignola, Francesca; Mannella, Valeria; Zucchelli, Chiara; Peterson, Pa?rt; Bachi, Angela; Musco, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene cause autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE is expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells, where it promotes the expression of peripheral-tissue antigens to mediate deletional tolerance, thereby preventing self-reactivity. AIRE contains two plant homeodomains (PHDs) which are sites of pathological mutations. AIRE-PHD fingers are important for AIRE transcriptional activity and presumably play a crucial role in the...

  15. The autoimmune regulator PHD finger binds to non-methylated histone H3K4 to activate gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Org, To?nis; Chignola, Francesca; Hete?nyi, Csaba; Gaetani, Massimiliano; Rebane, Ana; Liiv, Ingrid; Maran, Uko; Mollica, Luca; Bottomley, Matthew J.; Musco, Giovanna; Peterson, Pa?rt

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene autoimmune regulator (AIRE) cause autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy. AIRE is expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells, where it promotes the expression of tissue-restricted antigens. By the combined use of biochemical and biophysical methods, we show that AIRE selectively interacts with histone H3 through its first plant homeodomain (PHD) finger (AIRE–PHD1) and preferentially binds to non-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me0). Accordingly, in viv...

  16. Manifestaciones bucales en embarazadas recien diagnosticadas con infecccion por vih/sida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M E, Guerra; V, Tovar; E, Garrido; Lucila, Blanco; A, Ferreira; A, Carvajal; JR, León.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de determinar las manifestaciones bucales más frecuentes en las embarazadas VIH/SIDA. que acudieron al CAPEI/UCV en el 2006. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Previo consentimiento informado se les realizó la Historia Clínica 30 embarazadas que incluyó examen clínico para [...] diagnosticar las manifestaciones bucales. El análisis estadístico fue descriptivo utilizando la Clasificación Jerárquica de Ward. RESULTADOS: la manifestación bucal observada con mayor frecuencia en las embarazadas fue la gingivitis 16 (53;3%), seguida de candidiasis pseudomembranosa y queilitis angular ambas con 9 (30%), aftas recurrentes 6 (20%), eritema marginal lineal 5 (16,67%), xerostomia y candidiasis eritematosas 3 (6,67%) y parotiditis con 1 (3,3%) .CONCLUSIÓN: Las manifestaciones bucales observadas en las embarazadas VIH/SIDA resaltan la importancia del odontólogo en el diagnóstico y manejo de las mismas en nuestra consulta. Abstract in english This study was made with the objective to determine the more frequent oral manifestations in the pregnant VIH/SIDA. that they went to the CAPEI/UCV in 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previous informed consent was made the Clinical History to them 30 pregnant ones that included clinical examination to d [...] iagnose the oral manifestations. Tests concerning proportions were descriptive using jerarquica ward classification. RESULTS: observed oral manifestation most frequently in the pregnant women was gingivitis 16 (53; 3%),, candidiasis pseudomembranosa 9 (30%), queilitis angular 9 (30%), la aftas recurrentes con 6 (20%), lineal erithema con 5 (16,67%), la xerostomia y candidiasis eritematosas 3 (6,67%); parotiditis 1 (3,3%) CONCLUSION: The presence of oral manifestations that we saw in pregnant HIV women gives relevance to the dentistry in the diagnosis and handling of the infection.

  17. Fluconazole-induced Stevens-Jonson syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Keshri, Umashanker P.; Naresh Kumar,; Rajiv Kumar,; Manju Gari

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old girl self-administered tab fluconazole for vulvovaginal candidiasis and developed fever, myalgia and erythematous papular eruptions with itching at both upper and lower lip, mucous membrane of the mouth, vaginal region, which subsequently changed into blister and multiple ulcers. She also had difficulty in swallowing due to painful erosions of the mouth and oropharynx and severe burning pain at vulval and vaginal region. There was bilateral conjunctival hemorrhage. Investigation...

  18. Phospholipase activity of Candida albicans isolated from vagina and urine samples

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Miry; Majid Zarrin; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objective: Candida albicans is the most virulent among the Candida species, and can cause several forms of candidiasis in human. Extracellular phospholipases in C. albicans is discussed as one of the virulence factors. The present study, focused on extracellular phospholipase activities in different isolates of C. albicans isolated from vagina and urine samples from Ahvaz, Iran. In addition, phospholipase activities were compared in C. albicans isolated from two different sou...

  19. Inborn errors of mucocutaneous immunity to Candida albicans in humans: a role for IL-17 cytokines?

    OpenAIRE

    Puel, Anne; Picard, Capucine; Cypowyj, Sophie; Lilic, Desa; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-laurent

    2010-01-01

    The various clinical manifestations of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) often result from acquired T-cell immunodeficiencies. More rarely, CMC results from inborn errors of immunity, the recent dissection of which has shed light on the molecular mechanisms of mucocutaneous immunity to Candida albicans. CMC may accompany various other infectious diseases in patients with almost any broad and profound T-cell primary immunodeficiency. By contrast, CMC is one of the few key infections in p...

  20. Antibody Constant Region Peptides Can Display Immunomodulatory Activity through Activation of the Dectin-1 Signalling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Cenci, Elio; Monari, Claudia; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Gatti, Rita; Bistoni, Francesco; Polonelli, Luciano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB...

  1. The Use of Swiss Albino Mice and Egyptian Toads (Bufo regularis as Reliable Biological Test Animals for Screening Chemicals and Drugs Which Induce Leukaemia in Man. I: The Effect of Nizoral (Ketoconazole on Leucocytes of Toads and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Mofty

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nizoral (Ketoconazole is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of systemic mycosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Administration of Nizoral into toads and mice induced pronounced alterations in leucocytes. Electron microscopical examination revealed that these alterations are leukaemic alterations and they are more or less similar to the criteria reported in human Leukaemia. The changes were all comparable to those observed after the administration of the carcinogenic chemical 7,12 dimethylbenz (a anthracene.

  2. A colour atlas of diseases of the vulva and perigenital area

    OpenAIRE

    Veraldi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This international congress will put a lot of work into female health. We therefore de¬cided to present our clinical experience about an issue that is rarely discussed in der¬matological congresses, i.e. the diseases of the vulva and perigenital area. The diseases will be divided into different chapters: hereditary diseases (Darier disease); infectious diseases (herpes genitalis, genital warts, candidiasis, impetigo, erysipelas, syphilis); inflammatory diseases (allergic contact dermatit...

  3. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Maia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  4. Uso de los propóleos en las piodermitis y micosis superficiales

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Castro, Myra M.

    1996-01-01

    Se estudian 600 pacientes con piodermitis y micosis superficiales:candidiasis y dermatofitosis, entre los años 1987 a 1991. Comparamos los tratamientos con medicamentos elaborados en nuestro laboratorio, a partir de propóleos pardos, con los de uso tradicional. Demostramos sensibilidad a los propóleos pardos de cítricos(recolectados en el municipio de Jagüey Grande de la provincia de Matanzas)en las cepas bacterianas Gram positiva y Gram negativa, aislada de nuestros casos, al igual que ...

  5. Cushing's syndrome--transitory immune deficiency state?

    OpenAIRE

    Wu?rzburger, M. I.; Prelevic?, G. M.; Brkic?, S. D.; Vuckovic?, S.; Pendic?, B.

    1986-01-01

    A 28 year old female patient with Cushing's syndrome due to an adrenal adenoma also suffered from recurrent urinary infections (proteus), tonsillitis (streptococcus), permanent candidiasis and perimandibular abscess (Staphylococcus pyogenes). Suppression of cellular and humoral immunity was confirmed by in vitro tests. After successful right adrenalectomy the clinical signs of Cushing's syndrome disappeared and no evidence of either bacterial or fungal infection were noted one year postoperat...

  6. Antifungal Activity of 3?-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin)†

    OpenAIRE

    Sugar, Alan M.; Mccaffrey, Ronald P.

    1998-01-01

    The antifungal activity of the nucleoside analog 3?-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin) was studied in a murine model of invasive candidiasis. When protected from deamination by either deoxycoformycin or coformycin, both of which are adenosine deaminase inhibitors, cordycepin exhibited potent antifungal efficacy, as demonstrated by prolongation of survival and a decrease in CFU in the kidneys of mice treated with cordycepin plus an adenosine deaminase inhibitor. The antifungal effect was seen with ...

  7. IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF GANDHAKA RASAYANA

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar T; Gs, Vijay Kumar; Yumnam Dhanesori Devi

    2010-01-01

    Many herbo-mineral remedies individually or in combination have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. Gandhaka Rasayana is a compound preparation, being used by Ayurvedic physicians in clinical practice for thousands of years, in the treatment of skin diseases of bacterial and fungal origin. So the drug is selected to study its anti-fungal effect on Candida albicans. Candidiasis is the most common mycotic disorder of the skin affecting the immune-co...

  8. Candidose úlcero-vegetante da perna Vegetant ulcer of the leg by Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Cucé; Walter Belda Júnior; Alberto Salebian

    1986-01-01

    Os Autores apresentam caso de paciente portadora de lesão única, úlcero-vegetante, localizada no 1/3 inferior da perna direita, causada pela Candida albicans. Submetida à terapêutica com Ketoconazol na dose de 400 mg diários durante o primeiro mês de tratamento e 200 mg diários no segundo mês, evoluiu para cura, sem recidiva e com negativação do título de anticorpos anti Candida albicans (fixação do complemento).A case of ulcerative and vegetative cutaneous candidiasis as a sing...

  9. Urogenital probiotics : potential role of Lactobacillus in the prevention of urogenital infections in women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro?nnqvist, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The human vaginal ecosystem is dominated by Lactobacillus species. An altered vaginal flora can result in symptomatic conditions such as bacterial vaginosis and vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, and urogenital colonisation by uropathogenic bacteria can cause urinary tract infection. The protective role of lactobacilli is gradually being accepted and clinical studies have been carried out in order to evaluate the use of promising probiotic bacteria, which are defined as “live microorganisms which w...

  10. Effect of challenge with Candida albicans strains with different levels of virulence on plasma proteins in burned mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Neely, A. N.; Childress, C. M.; Holder, I. A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, transferrin, and fibrinogen were measured by radial immunodiffusion in plasma samples from burned versus unburned mice challenged with high-virulence Candida albicans MY 1044 or its low-virulence mutant, MY 1049. Early decreases in these proteins were found after burn and/or MY 1044 but not MY 1049 challenge. These decreases may contribute to increased susceptibility of mice that were burned and challenged by MY 1044 to lethal candidiasis.

  11. Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) Essential Oil: Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action on Candida spp., and Molecular Targets Affected in Human Whole-Genome Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Freires, Irlan Almeida; Murata, Ramiro Mendonc?a; Furletti, Vivian Fernandes; Sartoratto, Adilson; Alencar, Severino Matias; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Oliveira Rodrigues, Janaina Aparecida; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic fungal infection of the oral cavity with increasingly worldwide prevalence and incidence rates. Novel specifically-targeted strategies to manage this ailment have been proposed using essential oils (EO) known to have antifungal properties. In this study, we aim to investigate the antifungal activity and mode of action of the EO from Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) leaves on Candida spp. In addition, we detected the molecular targets affected in whole-gen...

  12. In Vitro Activity of Caspofungin against Candida albicans Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Stefano P.; Vandewalle, Kacy; Ramage, Gordon; Patterson, Thomas F.; Wickes, Brian L.; Graybill, John R.; Lo?pez-ribot, Jose? L.

    2002-01-01

    Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation on biological or inanimate surfaces. Candida albicans biofilms are recalcitrant to treatment with conventional antifungal therapies. Here we report on the activity of caspofungin, a new semisynthetic echinocandin, against C. albicans biofilms. Caspofungin displayed potent in vitro activity against sessile C. albicans cells within biofilms, with MICs at which 50% of the sessile cells were inhibited well within the drug's ...

  13. A Screening Assay Based on Host-Pathogen Interaction Models Identifies a Set of Novel Antifungal Benzimidazole Derivatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Burger-kentischer, Anke; Finkelmeier, Doris; Keller, Petra; Bauer, Jo?rg; Eickhoff, Holger; Kleymann, Gerald; Abu Rayyan, Walid; Singh, Anurag; Schro?ppel, Klaus; Lemuth, Karin; Wiesmu?ller, Karl-heinz; Rupp, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Fungal infections are a serious health problem in clinics, especially in the immune-compromised patient. Disease ranges from widespread superficial infections like vulvovaginal infections to life-threatening systemic candidiasis. Especially for systemic mycoses, only a limited arsenal of antifungals is available. The most commonly used classes of antifungal compounds used include azoles, polyenes, and echinocandins. Due to emerging resistance to standard therapy, significant side effects, and...

  14. A monoclonal antibody to Candida albicans enhances mouse neutrophil candidacidal activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Caesar-tonthat, T. C.; Cutler, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) to Candida albicans (MAb B6.1) that protects against candidiasis and the nonprotective MAb B6 were compared for ability to support neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte [PMN]) candidacidal activity. Both MAbs are immunoglobulin M, and each recognizes distinct C. albicans mannan cell wall determinants. PMN candidacidal activity was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and by an in vitro killing assay. The results indicated that MAb B6.1, but not MAb B6, en...

  15. Biochemical characterization of Candida albicans epitopes that can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y.; Kanbe, T.; Cherniak, R.; Cutler, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    We previously reported that the immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.1 protects mice against disseminated candidiasis, whereas the IgM MAb B6 does not. Both MAbs are specific for an adhesin fraction isolated from the cell surface of Candida albicans, but their epitope specificities differ. In the present study, we examined the surface locations of both epitopes and obtained structural information regarding the B6.1 epitope. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopic analysis of C....

  16. Posaconazole Activity against Candida glabrata after Exposure to Caspofungin or Amphotericin B?

    OpenAIRE

    Spreghini, Elisabetta; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Milici, Maria Eleonora; Scalise, Giorgio; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sequential therapy with caspofungin (CAS) or amphotericin B (AMB) followed by posaconazole (POS) against Candida glabrata. The susceptibilities to POS of yeast cells pre-exposed to CAS or AMB were identical to those of untreated cells as shown by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth dilution, cell viability, and disk diffusion methods. We then investigated the activity of sequential regimens in an experimental model of disseminated candidiasis...

  17. Screening of Venda medicinal plants for antifungal activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Steenkamp, Vanessa; Fernandes, Anthony C.; Rensburg, Connie E. J.; Rensburg, C. E. J.

    2007-01-01

    Crude methanol and water extracts of 32 plant species, used for the treatment of infectious diseases in Venda, were screened for in vitro activity against Candida albicans standard strain (ATCC 10231) and five clinical isolates. Water extracts of 16 plant species and methanol extracts of 11 plant species inhibited candidiasis growth. Inhibition at < 1 mg/ml, against the C. albicans strains tested, was observed for the methanol extracts of Combretum molle (root), Piper capense (bark), Solanum ...

  18. DNA-PK contributes to the phosphorylation of AIRE: Importance in transcriptional activity

    OpenAIRE

    Liiv, Ingrid; Rebane, Ana; Org, To?nis; Saare, Mario; Maslovskaja, Julia; Kisand, Kai; Juronen, Erkki; Valmu, Leena; Bottomley, Matthew James; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Peterson, Pa?rt

    2008-01-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is a key mediator of the central tolerance for tissue specific antigens and is involved in transcriptional control of many antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTEC). Mutations in the AIRE gene cause a rare disease named autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Here we report using GST pull-down assay, mass-spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation that a heterotrimeric complex of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (DNA...

  19. Analysis of Vaginal Lactobacilli from Healthy and Infected Brazilian Women? †

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Rafael C. R.; Franceschini, Si?lvio A.; Patta, Maristela C.; Quintana, Silvana M.; Nunes, A?lvaro C.; Moreira, Joa?o L. S.; Anukam, Kingsley C.; Reid, Gregor; Martinis, Elaine C. P.

    2008-01-01

    Culture-dependent PCR-amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis and culture-independent (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methodologies were used to examine vaginal lactobacilli from Brazilian women who were healthy or had been diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or bacterial vaginosis. Only Lactobacillus crispatus was detected accordingly by both methods, and H2O2-producing lactobacilli were not associated with protection against VVC.

  20. Involvement of mannose receptor in cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor responses, but not in chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta (MIP-1beta), MIP-2, and KC responses, caused by attachment of Candida albicans to macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Y.; Klein, T. W.; Friedman, H.

    1997-01-01

    The production of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) and other cytokines by macrophages in response to fungal infection is thought to be critical during the course of candidiasis. However, the mechanism of cytokine synthesis by macrophages in response to fungi is not well understood. Therefore, the response of macrophages to Candida albicans was examined in terms of receptor-mediated chemokine and other cytokine mRNA induction. Attachment of C. albicans to murine thioglycollate-elicited perit...

  1. Lack of association between genotypes and virulence factors in C. albicans strains isolated from vaginal secretion Ausência de associação entre genótipos e fatores de virulência em C. albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Suemi Shinobu; Sueli Fumie Yamada Ogatta; Fenando Bizerra; Luciana Furlaneto; Rosane Marina Peralta; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    The physiopathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is still not completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a relationship between the different genotypes of Candida albicans, their main agent and the virulence of this yeast in vaginal isolates, and to check if there are laboratorial markers that can predict the ability of each isolate to develop VVC independently of symptoms. The production of exoenzymes protease, phospholipase and haemolysin, resista...

  2. Vulvar myiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, M. R.; Carvalho, A. V.; Dutra, A. L.; Goulart Filho, R. A.; Barreto, N. A.; Salles, R. S.; Santos, C. C.; Tibu?rcio, A. S.; Monteiro, A. C.; Tavares, R. R.

    1998-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. This infestation is, however, rarely seen in the vulvar area. We present a short review of the disease and the case of a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also positive for human immunodeficiency virus.

  3. Enzymatic Dysfunction of Mitochondrial Complex I of the Candida albicans goa1 Mutant Is Associated with Increased Reactive Oxidants and Cell Death ?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dongmei; Chen, Hui; Florentino, Abigail; Alex, Deepu; Sikorski, Patricia; Fonzi, William A.; Calderone, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that deletion of GOA1 (growth and oxidant adaptation) of Candida albicans results in a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP synthesis, increased sensitivity to oxidants and killing by human neutrophils, and avirulence in a systemic model of candidiasis. We established that translocation of Goa1p to mitochondria occurred during peroxide stress. In this report, we show that the goa1? (GOA31), compared to the wild type (WT) and a gene-reconstituted (GOA32) stra...

  4. Physiological traits associated with success of Candida albicans strains as commensal colonizers and pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, J.; Hunter, P. R.; White, G. C.; Nand, A. K.; Cannon, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting with the moderately repetitive sequence Ca3 has repeatedly identified groups of genetically similar strains of Candida albicans that are more frequently isolated than other groups of strains from human hosts in a geographical locale. Members of these groups are found in approximately 30% of healthy individuals and in up to 70% of patients suffering from candidiasis. The high prevalence of these strains implies that they are more successful in colonizing human hosts and in c...

  5. Pharmacology and metabolism of voriconazole and posaconazole in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis-review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sandherr M; Maschmeyer G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Invasive fungal infections, predominantly aspergillosis and candidiasis, are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Primarily, patients with acute leukemia undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy and allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients are affected. Up to 60% of patients with invasive aspergillosis, the most common invasive mycosis among patients with hematologic malignancies, may still die of their infection, once it has bec...

  6. The Mouse Aire Gene: Comparative Genomic Sequencing, Gene Organization, and Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Blechschmidt, Karin; Schweiger, Michal; Wertz, Karin; Poulson, Richard; Christensen, Hoang-my; Rosenthal, Andre; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-laure

    1999-01-01

    Mutations in the human AIRE gene (hAIRE) result in the development of an autoimmune disease named APECED (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy; OMIM 240300). Previously, we have cloned hAIRE and shown that it codes for a putative transcription-associated factor. Here we report the cloning and characterization of Aire, the murine ortholog of hAIRE. Comparative genomic sequencing revealed that the structure of the AIRE gene is highly conserved between human and mouse. ...

  7. Microbiological assay and HPLC Method for the determination of Fluconazole in pharmaceutical injectable formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado, Felipe K.; Souza, Marine?s J.; Melo, Janine; Rolim, Clarice M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Fluconazol es un agente antifúngico triazólico sintético empleado en el tratamiento de la candidiasis y de otras infecciones fúngicas. Un método por cromatografía líquida de gran eficacia y un ensayo microbiológico fueron desarrollados para la determinación de fluconazol en soluciones inyectables. Una columna Phenomenex Synergi Fusion RP-80 C18 (150 x 4.60 mm, 4 ?m) fue usada para la separación, utilizando elución isocrática con agua: metanol (55:45, v/v) y detección por ult...

  8. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    OpenAIRE

    Shethwala Nimisha; Mulla Summaiya; Kosambiya J; Desai Vikas

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs) from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, B...

  9. RTI/STI prevalence among urban and rural women of Surat: A community-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Kosambiya J; Desai Vikas; Bhardwaj Pankaj; Chakraborty Tanuja

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of RTI/STI among women in urban and rural areas of Surat and analyze the influence of socioeconomic, socio-demographic and other determinants possibly related to RTI/STI. Method: A community-based cross-sectional study. Women aged 15-49 years (n = 102) were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination. Specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis of chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, hepatitis B, HI...

  10. Invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Shoham, Shmuel; Marr, Kieren A.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a major problem in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Overall, the most common fungal infection in SOT is candidiasis, followed by aspergillosis and cryptococcosis, except in lung transplant recipients, where aspergillosis is most common. Development of invasive disease hinges on the interplay between host factors (e.g., integrity of anatomical barriers, innate and acquired immunity) and fungal factors (e.g., exposure, virulence and resistance to prophylax...

  11. Histatin 5 Resistance of Candida glabrata Can Be Reversed by Insertion of Candida albicans Polyamine Transporter-Encoding Genes DUR3 and DUR31

    OpenAIRE

    Tati, Swetha; Jang, Woong Sik; Li, Rui; Kumar, Rohitashw; Puri, Sumant; Edgerton, Mira

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are predominant fungi associated with oral candidiasis. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a small cationic human salivary peptide with high fungicidal activity against C. albicans, however many strains of C. glabrata are resistant. Since Hst 5 requires fungal binding to cell wall components prior to intracellular translocation, reduced Hst 5 binding to C. glabrata may be the reason for its insensitivity. C. glabrata has higher surface levels of ?-1,3-glucans as comp...

  12. Combined topical flucytosine and amphotericin B for refractory vaginal Candida glabrata infections

    OpenAIRE

    White, D.; Habib, A.; Vanthuyne, A.; Langford, S.; Symonds, M.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with vaginitis due to highly azole resistant Candida glabrata can be particularly difficult to treat. We describe three cases of longstanding vaginal candidiasis due to C glabrata. These had failed to respond to local and systemic antifungals. Flucytosine (1 g) and amphotericin B (100 mg) formulated in lubricating jelly base in a total 8 g delivered dose, was used per vagina once daily for 14 days with significant improvement, both clinically and microbiologically.

  13. Cytotoxic and cytokine inducing properties of Candida glabrata in single and mixed oral infection models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lulu; Kashleva, Helena; Dongari-bagtzoglou, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection, with Candida albicans being the most prevalent etiologic agent and Candida glabrata emerging as an important pathogen. C. glabrata is frequently co-isolated with C. albicans from oral lesions. Although C. albicans has been shown to trigger significant cytokine responses and cell damage, C. glabrata has not been systematically studied yet. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ability of C. glabrata to induce proinflammatory cyt...

  14. Effects of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Proteinase Inhibitors Saquinavir and Indinavir on In Vitro Activities of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases of Candida albicans Isolates from HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, Hans C.; Schaller, Martin; Eder, Gabriele; Hamm, Gerald; Bo?hmer, Ursula; Hube, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    The effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinase inhibitors saquinavir and indinavir on the in vitro proteinase activity of Candida albicans were investigated with isolates from HIV-infected and uninfected patients with oral candidiasis. After exposure to the HIV proteinase inhibitors, proteinase activity was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These inhibitory effects, which were similar to that of pepstatin A, and the ...

  15. MOLECULAR BACKGROUND AND GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE CORRELATION IN APECED PATIENTS FROM CAMPANIA AND IN THEIR RELATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Arvat, Emanuela; Giordano, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune-Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal-Distrophy (APECED) is a recessive disease, caused by mutations in the AutoImmune REgulator (AIRE) gene. Different mutations are peculiar of particular populations. In Italy three hot spots areas where APECED shows an increased prevalence, have been identified in Sardinia, Apulia and in the Venetian region. Aim: in this study we analyzed AIRE mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation in APECED patients originating from Campani...

  16. Multiple opportunistic infections in an unusual patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Ravindra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marked decrease in incidence has been observed for most central nervous system opportunistic infections after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In developing countries, where highly active antiretroviral therapy is still unavailable, unusual patients are encountered. We are reporting an untreated patient who, in addition to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, also had disseminated tuberculosis and oral candidiasis. Neuroimaging showed a very extensive white matter and gray matter involvement producing a picture of "JC virus encephalitis".

  17. Oral hairy leukoplakia of the lips with CMV retinitis in a woman with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A female prostitute, seropositive for HIV by ELISA and Western blot, presenting with mucous lesions of tongue and lower lip and also with unilateral loss of vision of the right eye is discussed. The tongue and lip lesions were confirmed by histopathological examination to be hairy leukoplakia, and the loss of vision was found to be due to retinitis-probably due to cytomegalovirus infection. The patient also had candidiasis, both oral and genital and lymphopaenia.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of a Novel Triazole, Isavuconazole: Mathematical Modeling, Importance of Tissue Concentrations, and Impact of Immune Status on Antifungal Effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Warn, Peter A.; Sharp, Andrew; Parmar, Arvind; Majithiya, Jayesh; Denning, David W.; Hope, William W.

    2009-01-01

    Isavuconazole is a triazole with broad-spectrum activity against medically important fungal pathogens. We investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of isavuconazole in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis. We determined the pharmacokinetics in both plasma and kidney. The relationship between tissue concentrations and the resultant antifungal effect was described using a mathematical model. The pharmacodynamic parameter that optimally links drug exposure with the antifungal ...

  19. Evaluation of a digital microfluidic real-time PCR platform to detect DNA of Candida albicans in blood

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, W. A.; Benton, J. L.; Smith, P. B.; Poore, M.; Rouse, J. L.; Boles, D. J.; Johnson, M. D.; Alexander, B. D.; Pamula, V. K.; Eckhardt, A. E.; Pollack, M. G.; Benjamin, D. K.; Perfect, J. R.; Mitchell, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Candida frequently cause life-threatening infections in neonates, transplant and intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and others with compromised host defenses. The successful management of systemic candidiasis depends upon early, rapid diagnosis. Blood cultures are the standard diagnostic method, but identification requires days and less than half of the patients are positive. These limitations may be eliminated by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Candida D...

  20. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin. killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino Lemos, Janine; Costa, Carolina Rodrigues; Arau?jo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Souza, Lu?cia Kioko Hasimoto E.; Silva, Maria Do Rosa?rio Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing pattern...

  1. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin: killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates Teste de suscetibilidade de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa orofaringeana de pacientes HIV+, ao fluconazol, anfotericcina B e caspofungina: cinética de morte de caspofungina e anfotericina B contra isolados fluconazol resistentes e suscetíveis

    OpenAIRE

    Janine Aquino Lemos; Carolina Rodrigues Costa; Crystiane Rodrigues Araújo; Souza, Lu?cia Kioko Hasimoto E.; Maria do Rosário Rodrigues Silva

    2009-01-01

    A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing pattern...

  2. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  3. Laryngeal tuberculosis: A case of a non-healing laryngeal lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Thornley, Hk Chen And P.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of laryngeal tuberculosis in a 47-year-old Korean man. Laryngeal tuberculosis is rare and currently accounts for less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis. Clinical features of laryngeal tuberculosis include hoarseness, odynophagia and dyspnoea. Macroscopically, laryngeal tuberculosis may mimic laryngeal carcinoma, chronic laryngitis or laryngeal candidiasis. The diagnosis is often delayed due to a low index of clinical suspicion and hence may pose a significant public health...

  4. Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Antimicrobial Drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Karla K. A.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Souza, Celestina E. S.; Braga, Maria F. B. M.; Guedes, Gla?ucia M. M.; Costa, Jose? G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a pote...

  5. Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti Sekhar; Bhattacharya Mihir K; Roy Arnab; Pal Jyotirmoy; Santra Poonam; Firdaus Rushna; Saha Kallol; Sadhukhan Provash C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Opportunistic Infections (OIs) and co-infections are the major cause of deaths amongst HIV infected individuals and this mostly depends upon the risk factors, type of exposure and geographic region. The commonest types of infections reported are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Due to the scarcity of OIs data available from this region, we had designed a study to determine t...

  6. Invasive Fungal Infections in the ICU: How to Approach, How to Treat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Paramythiotou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are a growing problem in critically ill patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Most of them are due to Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Invasive candidiasis includes candidaemia, disseminated candidiasis with deep organ involvement and chronic disseminated candidiasis. During the last decades rare pathogenic fungi, such as Aspergillus species, Zygomycetes, Fusarium species and Scedosporium have also emerged. Timely diagnosis and proper treatment are of paramount importance for a favorable outcome. Besides blood cultures, several laboratory tests have been developed in the hope of facilitating an earlier detection of infection. The antifungal armamentarium has also been expanded allowing a treatment choice tailored to individual patients’ needs. The physician can choose among the old class of polyenes, the older and newer azoles and the echinocandins. Factors related to patient’s clinical situation and present co-morbidities, local epidemiology data and purpose of treatment (prophylactic, pre-emptive, empiric or definitive should be taken into account for the appropriate choice of antifungal agent.

  7. Survey of mycotic infection in patients with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi A

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the fungous infections of AIDS stricken patients, a study which lasted 1.5 years was conducted, in which 21 patients were examined. The subjects were 20 males and a female. One of the male patients was from Uganda, another was an intravenous drug addict, and one had been abroad for sometimes and had received blood there. All other patients had also blood transfusion instances before 1984. To do the research, 414 laboratory specimens were gathered and examined regarding fungus involvement. The result showed 104 negative and 310 positive cases. Based on these findings and also clinical examination, all patients suffered from one or more fungous infections in the forms of oral candidiasis, perleche, candidal onychomycosis, perianal candidiasis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, tinea versicolor, pityrosporosis and rhodotrulosis. The latter caused skin lesion with scaling and is being reported for the first time. Candida parapsilosis and trichosporon pololans were also isolated specimens. However, concerning the diagnostic value of trichosporon pololans more investigation is needed.

  8. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:22855041

  9. Changing Trends of HIV/AIDS in Otorhinolaryngology with CD4 (+) Count Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirti, Y K; Yashveer, J K; Poorey, V K

    2015-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) affects the vital cells of the immune system eventually leading to a fall in the cell mediated immunity. As the disease progresses CD4 (+) (cluster of differentiation4) cells reduce, therefore is a good indicator of the ongoing disease process [1]. HIV infection has myriads of disease presentation; the aim of our study was to correlate the otorhinolaryngological manifestations with the CD4 (+) counts. A clinical study, of 100 HIV positive patients was done from 2008 to 2011. A clinical evaluation revealed 76 % incidence of otorhinolaryngological findings. Oropharyngeal manifestations were the commonest, seen in 48 %, predominantly oropharyngeal candidiasis. Neck nodes were found in 20 % of the patients. 31 % had otological manifestations of which retracted tympanic membrane (eustachian tube dysfunction) was the commonest. 18 % had nasal symptoms of which rhinosinusitis was the commonest being 14 %. The mean CD4 (+) count was below 200 in patients who presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis, otitis externa and epistaxis. With the use and availability of HAART (Highly active antiretroviral therapy) more and more patients with higher CD4 (+) count are presenting with a different spectrum of more subtle disease manifestations, with lower incidence of the classical diseases like candidiasis. A routine otorhinolaryngological evaluation at every visit with high index of suspicion can help in better disease control and give a better quality of life. PMID:25621247

  10. Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira, Konstantyner; Aline Medeiros da, Silva; Luana Fiengo, Tanaka; Heloísa Helena de Sousa, Marques; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre.

    2197-22-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health and Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A recorrência da candidíase oral em crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS é um acontecimento muito comum na prática clínica. O objetivo foi verificar os fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral, utilizando técnica de análise de sobrevida para eventos recorrentes. Estudo de coorte retrospectivo c [...] om 287 crianças, atendidas entre 1985 e 2009, em um serviço de saúde de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi utilizado o modelo marginal para eventos recorrentes de Prentice, Williams e Peterson para investigação dos fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral. Imunodepressão moderada (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) ou grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in spanish La repetición de candidiasis oral en los niños que viven con VIH/SIDA es muy común en la práctica clínica. El objetivo fue verificar los factores asociados al tiempo libre y la candidiasis oral, usando la técnica de análisis de supervivencia para eventos recurrentes. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte [...] retrospectiva con 287 niños que visitaron entre 1985 y 2009 un servicio de salud de São Paulo, Brasil. Se usó el modelo marginal para eventos recurrentes de Prentice, Williams y Peterson, con el fin de investigar los factores asociados. Moderada inmunodepresión (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) o grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in english In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children t [...] reated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p

  11. Comparacion de la presencia de queilitis angular en niños VIH(+) y VIH(-), hijos de madres seropositivas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    William, Carrasco C; María Elena, Guerra G; Vilma, Tovar.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En niños la vía más común de infección por VIH/SIDA es la forma vertical; es decir de madre infectada a hijo. Su inmunosupresión, permite la instalación de enfermedades oportunistas, siendo la cavidad bucal un lugar ideal para la presencia de estas lesiones. De ellas la más frecuente es la candidias [...] is bucal. Objetivo: Comparar la frecuencia de candidiasis bucal en su forma queilitis angular en niños VIH (+) con los VIH (-) verticalmente expuestos. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó la Historia Clínica a un total de 59 niños (0 a 4 años), 32 VIH (+) y 27 VIH (-), que asistieron al CAPEI/UCV 2003-2004, siguiendo el protocolo correspondiente. Se realizó cultivo para determinar candidiasis. La prueba estadística fue Chi cuadrado de Pearson. Resultados: De los 59 niños examinados, el 58,8% (30), presentaron alguna lesión en labio. El 50,5% de los niños (16) fueron diagnosticados con candidiasis en su forma de queilitis angular, de los cuales el 75,5% (12) eran VIH (+), en comparación con el 25,9% (4) eran VIH (-). Al aplicar la prueba de chi cuadrado de Pearson se observó una alta significación estadística (P= 0,001) en relación a la presencia de queilitis angular en ambos grupos Conclusión: Los resultados reflejan significancia estadística de la presencia de queilitis angular en los niños VIH(+), en la población estudiada lo que pone de manifiesto la importancia que tiene la participación del Odontopediatra en el manejo del diagnóstico y tratamiento de las lesiones bucales en los niños VIH(+). Abstract in english Vertically-acquired infection HIV/AIDS is commonly seen in children; in other words, mother-to-child transmission. Immuno-compromised state, permit the installation of opportunist infections where the oral candidiasis is the most frequent. Objective: to compare frequency of oral candidiasis present [...] as angular cheilitis in children HIV (+) and VIH (-) vertically exposed. Subjects and Methods: 59 children (aged 0 to 4), 32 VIH (+) y 27 VIH (-) from the CAPEI/UCV 2003-2004, were clinically examinated following the corresponding protocol. Oral samples were cultured for Candida growth. Statistical analyses using Chi square the Pearson were made. Results: Of 59 children examined, 58, 8% (30) presented any lip lesion. 50, 5 % (16), were oral candidiasis as angular cheilitis diagnosed, where 75, 5% (12) were HIV (+) compare to 25,9% (4) VIH (-). The Chi square test show high statistical significance (P= 0,001) related to angular cheilitis in both groups. Conclusions: These results indicate the statistical significance of angular cheilitis in HIV (+) children in the total study group and shows up the fundamental Pediatric Dentistry participation in the diagnosis and treatment of oral lesion in children VIH (+).

  12. Enfermedad fúngica invasora en pacientes hemato-oncológicos y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos bajo la perspectiva de los criterios diagnósticos EORTC/MSG Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rabagliati B

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI es una complicación grave en pacientes hemato-oncológicos (H-O y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH. Objetivo: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas en pacientes adultos H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro, bajo los criterios diagnósticos revisados de EORTC/MSG. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de EFI en pacientes adultos del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero 2004 y enero 2008. Resultados: Se identificaron 41 episodios de EFI, correspondientes a 39 pacientes: 46,6 ± 9,9 años, 87,8% H-Oy 12,2% TPH. Se documentaron 15/41 (36,6% EFI demostrada, 36,6% probable y 11/41 (26,8% posible. En 26/41 (63,4%o se diagnosticó aspergilosis (20 pulmonar, 3 rinosinusal, 1 laríngeo y un caso cerebral-pulmonar. En 7/41 (17,1% se diagnosticó candidiasis, 5 candidemias y 2 candidiasis hepato-esplénica posibles; 4/41 (9,8%o correspondió a mucormicosis demostrada (2 rinosinusal, 1 oral y 1 pulmonar; en 2/41 (4,9%o fusariosis; 1/41(2,4% coinfección pulmonar por mucoral y Aspergillus sp y 1 caso de rinosinusitis por Alternaría sp. La frecuencia de EFI entre pacientes H-O con neutropenia febril fue 26,2% y 6,4% en los receptores de TPH. La mortalidad global fue de 36%. Conclusiones: Aspergilosis es la EFI más frecuente en H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro. Candidiasis es la segunda EFI en frecuencia; sin embargo, no se documentó entre los pacientes receptores de TPH, lo que puede relacionarse al uso de antifúngicos profilácticos en este grupo. Es necesaria la vigilancia continua para desarrollar guías clínicas locales y evaluar estrategias de uso de antifúngicos en distintos escenarios clínicos.Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD is a severe complication oceurring mostly in haemato-oncological (H-O patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD oceurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. Patients and Methods: IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. Results: A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 ± 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% oceurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6% episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8% possible. In 26 (63.4% episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement. In 7 patients (17.1% candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8% Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%, and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaría sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evalúate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

  13. Enfermedad fúngica invasora en pacientes hemato-oncológicos y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos bajo la perspectiva de los criterios diagnósticos EORTC/MSG / Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Rabagliati B; Gino, Fuentes L; Ana María, Guzmán D; Eric, Orellana U; Jorge, Oporto C; Igor, Aedo C; Marcelo, Garrido S; Bruno, Nervi N.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) es una complicación grave en pacientes hemato-oncológicos (H-O) y receptores de trasplante de precursores hematopoyéticos (TPH). Objetivo: Describir las EFI diagnosticadas en pacientes adultos H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro, bajo los crit [...] erios diagnósticos revisados de EORTC/MSG. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio de vigilancia de EFI en pacientes adultos del Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile entre enero 2004 y enero 2008. Resultados: Se identificaron 41 episodios de EFI, correspondientes a 39 pacientes: 46,6 ± 9,9 años, 87,8% H-Oy 12,2% TPH. Se documentaron 15/41 (36,6%) EFI demostrada, 36,6% probable y 11/41 (26,8%) posible. En 26/41 (63,4%o) se diagnosticó aspergilosis (20 pulmonar, 3 rinosinusal, 1 laríngeo y un caso cerebral-pulmonar). En 7/41 (17,1%) se diagnosticó candidiasis, 5 candidemias y 2 candidiasis hepato-esplénica posibles; 4/41 (9,8%o) correspondió a mucormicosis demostrada (2 rinosinusal, 1 oral y 1 pulmonar); en 2/41 (4,9%o) fusariosis; 1/41(2,4%)) coinfección pulmonar por mucoral y Aspergillus sp y 1 caso de rinosinusitis por Alternaría sp. La frecuencia de EFI entre pacientes H-O con neutropenia febril fue 26,2%) y 6,4%) en los receptores de TPH. La mortalidad global fue de 36%). Conclusiones: Aspergilosis es la EFI más frecuente en H-O y receptores de TPH de nuestro centro. Candidiasis es la segunda EFI en frecuencia; sin embargo, no se documentó entre los pacientes receptores de TPH, lo que puede relacionarse al uso de antifúngicos profilácticos en este grupo. Es necesaria la vigilancia continua para desarrollar guías clínicas locales y evaluar estrategias de uso de antifúngicos en distintos escenarios clínicos. Abstract in english Introduction: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a severe complication oceurring mostly in haemato-oncological (H-O) patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD oceurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. Pat [...] ients and Methods: IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. Results: A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 ± 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% oceurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6%) episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8%) possible. In 26 (63.4%) episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement). In 7 patients (17.1%) candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8%) Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%), and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaría sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evalúate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

  14. Equinocandinas / Echinocandins

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge A, Cortés L; July A, Russi N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las equinocandinas -caspofugina, micafungina y ani-dulafungina- son lipopéptidos que inhiben el crecimiento fúngico al unirse a la ?-(1,3) d glucano sintetasa, enzima esencial para la síntesis en la pared celular de hongos como Candida spp, y menos importante en el caso de especies de Aspergillus y [...] Fusarium. Se revisa la historia, farmacología y los diferentes ensayos clínicos que han evidenciado similar eficacia clínica a la de anfotericina B para el manejo de infecciones micóticas como candidemia, candidiasis invasora y aspergilosis, inclusive en casos refractarios al manejo inicial. Estos medicamentos tienen menor toxicidad y en pocos casos hay necesidad de retiro del tratamiento. Dado su espectro y tolerabilidad similar, su farmacología permite diferenciarlas. Se dispone de información limitada de estudios clínicos que las comparen entre ellas, limitando la extrapolación de la información a todo el grupo. Sin embargo, presentan eficacia clínica comprobada en pacientes con varias micosis invasoras. Abstract in english The echinocandins, caspofugin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are lipopeptides that inhibit fungal growth by binding to ? - (1.3) d glucan synthase. This enzyme is responsible for the formation of the peptidoglycan cell wall, and it is essential in fungi such as Candida spp, but less important in th [...] e case of Aspergillus and Fusarium species. We review the history, pharmacology and clinical trials that have showed clinical efficacy similar to amphotericin B for the management of fungal infections such as candidemia, invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis, even in cases refractory to initial treatment. These drugs have less toxicity and discontinuation is uncommonly required. Despite similar spectrum and tolerability, there are several pharmacological differences. Only a few clinical trials compare the clinical efficacy between them and their clinical application cannot be generalized. However, the echinocandins have demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis and in others forms of systemic mycoses.

  15. Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 109/L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P9/L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P9/L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common finidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

  16. Prevalence of oral lesions and the effects of HAART in adult HIV patients attending a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Eweka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions have been reported to be early clinical features of HIV infection. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of oral lesions and the management outcome using HAART in HIV Seropositive patients attending a tertiary hos- pital in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a prospective study in 114 newly diagnosed adult HIV infected patients (not on antiretroviral therapy, who attended the PEPFAR clinic at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. They were assessed for oral lesions which were evaluated using EEC/WHO—Classification on the diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV. Data were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Oral examination was carried out and oral lesions detected were recorded. Presence or absence of oral lesions was evaluated following 3 months use of HAART. Results: 114 patients were enrolled into the study, 49(43.0% males and 65(57.0% females, with age range of 18-63 years. 42 (36.8% presented with oral lesions, 19 (45.2% of which had multiple lesions. Oral Candidiasis which accounted for 47.7% was the most common oral lesion observed followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (21.6% and oral hyperpigmentation (10.8%. Pseudomembraneous Candidiasis was the most common variant of oral Candidiasis seen. Prevalence of oral lesions was significantly associated with low CD4 count and high viral load. Eighty four percent (84% of oral lesions disappeared following 3 months of HAART treatment. Conclusion: Oral lesions are common features of HIV and a marker for progression of the disease to AIDS. There was significant reduction in oral lesions following 3 months treatment with HAART.

  17. Manifestaciones bucales de vih-sida en edad temprana

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VILMA, TOVAR; MARÍA ELENA, GUERRA; LUCILA, BLANCO.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La transmisión vertical del Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana de la madre al niño durante el embarazo, parto y a través de la leche materna representa un 91% de todos los casos de Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida reportados en la población infantil de los EE.UU. La mejor manera de evitar la i [...] nfección en los niños es prevenir la infección en las mujeres y fomentar una atención prenatal precoz que incluya orientación y pruebas de detección del VIH. Objetivo: Determinar las manifestaciones bucales más frecuentes en niños VIH-SIDA. Materiales y métodos: Se examinaron clínicamente a 59 niños de 0 a 4 años siguiendo el protocolo establecido en el CAPEI/UCV entre 2002-2004. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante el método de Clasificación Jerárquica de Ward, aplicado a todas las manifestaciones bucales estudiadas Resultados: Parotiditis: 20 (33,9%); Candidiasis 38 (54,4%); Queilitis 30 (50,8%); Gingivitis 25 (42,4%), GUN 1 (1,7%) Eritema lineal 19 (32,2); Epstein Barr 5 (8,5%); Virus del Herpes Simple 13 (22%). Conclusión: De acuerdo a la manifestación bucal observada se identifico a la candidiasis como la más relevante en los dos aspectos estudiados: Queilitis angular y Candidiasis pseudomembranosa. Abstract in english The vertical transmission their main mode of infection in children from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery and brest feeding about 91% of all cases. The better way to prevent the HIV infection is control and orientation to pregnant woman to make a test to detect HIV The objective of this stu [...] dy was to determine oral manifestations in children HIV/ADIS Materials and methods: Were examined 59 children to .evaluate oral lesions. aged 0 to 4 years follow CAPEI/UCV protocolo during 2002 - 2004. The statistical analyzed was jerarquica Ward classification. Results

  18. Point prevalence, microbiology and antifungal susceptibility patterns of oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting Mexican HIV/AIDS patients and healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio; Ortiz-López, Natalia Guadalupe; Villar, María; Moragues, María Dolores; Aguirre, José Manuel; Cashat-Cruz, Miguel; Lopez-Ribot, Jose Luis; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2005-06-01

    We have conducted a longitudinal study over a 3-year period to address the point prevalence, microbiological characteristics and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeast isolates colonizing or infecting the oral cavities of 111 HIV-infected (51 adults, 60 children) and 201 non HIV-infected (109 adults, 92 children) Mexican persons. Regarding the epidemiology of oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was the most frequent species isolated. Seventy-one out of 85 isolates from colonized persons were C. albicans (83.5%), 27 isolates of them were from HIV-infected children and 44 from non HIV-infected patients. Sixty-two isolates belonged to serotype A which was the most prevalent serotype of C. albicans. Non-albicans species (Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were isolated from 16.5% of colonized patients and from 38.5% patients with candidiasis or Candida-related lesions. There were nine episodes of infection or colonization by at least 2 different yeast species. In the case of HIV/AIDS patients, it was determined that yeast carriage was not associated with the number of CD4+ cells or the viral load, but HAART reduced the prevalence of oral candidiasis. Overall, most patients harbored strains in vitro susceptible to fluconazole, however 10.8% of the yeasts were resistant to one or more azole antifungal agents and 29% were intermediate susceptible to them. On the contrary, 5-fluorocytosine was very active against all isolates tested, and amphotericin B was active against 97.9% of them. PMID:16107165

  19. [Miconazole per os in tinea and deep mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H; Borelli, D

    1976-01-01

    For the last 6 years we have been using Miconazole cream in the treatment of tinea and vaginal candidiasis. We think that it is at least as good as the best drugs for this purpose, but consider it difficult to decide about its superiority. Therefore we refrain from describing this part of our experience in detail. We have employed Miconazole "per os" at the daily doses of 24-28 mg./kg. in treating 3 cases of tinea corporis or cruris by "Trichophyton rubrum". Symptoms ceased in 3 days; mycologic examination turned negative in 2 weeks; treatment ended in apparent cure in 3 weeks. We have employed Miconazole "per venam" and "per os" in the treatment of: mycetomata (2) by "Streptomyces somaliensis", without success; mycetoma by "Madurella grisea" (1), without success; chromomycosis by a 5-flucytosine resistant strain of "Cladosporium carrionii" (1), without success; paracoccidioidosis (5) with lesions in mouth and lungs, with good results; leishmaniasis by "Leishmania brasiliensis" (1), without success; mucocutaneous disseminated candidiasis (1), with very good results. Tolerance has been excellent: but pruritus appeared from the third week with 600 or more mg. "per venam", in several patients. Doses varied between 10 and 50 mg./kg./day. One patient, who suffered with candidiasis, is taking 50 to 30 mg./kg./day since more than a year ago and, being a child, he is feeling well and growing to be normal. We recommend employing Miconazole against systemic canidiasis, sulpharesistant paracoccidioidosis and assaying it further in tinea (at least, in griseofulvin-resistant cases). PMID:988459

  20. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans André Luis Souza dos Santos

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    André Luis Souza dos Santos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Candida albicans (C. albicans can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated mycoses of almost all inner organs, especially in immunocompromised patients. In this context, both the host immune status and the ability of C. albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance; in this last case, culminating in the establishment of successful infection known as candidiasis. C. albicans possesses a potent armamentarium consisting of several virulence molecules that help the fungal cells to escape of the host immune responses. There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases, designated as Saps, are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C. albicans cells, since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions. For these reasons, Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets. Corroborating this hypothesis, the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the aspartyl protease inhibitor-type (HIV PIs have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps. The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease, reducing opportunistic infections, especially candidiasis. The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status, but also as a result of direct inhibition of C. albicans Saps. In this article, we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C. albicans, focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity, growth behavior, morphological architecture, cellular differentiation, fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials, modulation of virulence factors, experimental candidiasis infection, and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents.

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity of two novel oral formulations of Amphotericin B (iCo-009 and iCo-010 against Candida albicans, human monocytic and kidney cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement John G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive fungal infections such as candidiasis constitute an increasingly important medical problem. Drugs currently used for the treatment of candidiasis include polyenes (such as Amphotericin B and azoles. Amphotericin B (AmpB presents several limitations such as its nephrotoxicity and limited solubility. We have developed two novel lipid-based AmpB formulations which in vivo show less nephrotoxicity and enhanced solubility compared to Fungizone™ a commercial AmpB formulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity of Fungizone™, Ambisome™ and two novel AmpB formulations (iCo-009 and iCo-010 against Candida albicans, human kidney (293T cells and monocytic (THP1 cells. Methods Cell cytotoxicity to the AmpB formulations was evaluated by MTS and LDH assays. In vitro anti-Candida albicans activity was assessed after a 48 h drug incubation. Results None of the AmpB formulations tested showed cytotoxicity against 293T cells. In the case of THP1 cells only Fungizone™ and Ambisome™ showed cytotoxicity at 500 ?g/L (n = 4-10, p The calculated EC50 to Candida albicans for the different formulations was as follows: 26.8 ± 2.9 for iCo-010, 74.6 ± 8.9 for iCo-009, 109 ± 31 for Ambisome™ and 87.1 ± 22 for Fungizone™ (?g of AmpB/L, n = 6-12, p Conclusions The AmpB formulations analyzed were not cytotoxic to 293T cells. Cytotoxicity in THP1 cells was observed for Fungizone™ and Ambisome™, but not with the novel AmpB formulations. iCo-010 had higher efficacy compared to other three AmpB formulations in the Candida albicans model. The absence of cytotoxicity as well as its higher efficacy for the Candida model compared to Fungizone™ and Ambisome™ suggest that iCo-010 has potential in treating candidiasis.

  2. Anti-Candida albicans activity and pharmacokinetics of pogostone isolated from Pogostemonis Herba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Cui; Liang, Hai-Chun; Chen, Hai-Ming; Tan, Li-Rong; Yi, Yu-Yang; Qin, Zhen; Zhang, Wei-Min; Wu, Dian-Wei; Li, Chu-Wen; Lin, Rong-Feng; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2012-12-15

    The present work was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-Candida activity of pogostone (PO), a natural product isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. PO showed potent in vitro activity against clinical Candida spp. isolates tested in this study. PO and the reference drug voriconazole (VRC) were equally effective against all the fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains, with MIC ranging from 3.1 ?g/ml to 50 ?g/ml. Besides, PO was fungicidal against all Candida isolates with MFC ranging from 50 ?g/ml to 400 ?g/ml. By contrast, VRC was fungistatic as it failed to elicit a fungicidal effect against the Candida spp. isolates at the highest tested concentration (400 ?g/ml). Furthermore, oral and topical PO administration effectively reduced the fungal load in vagina of vulvovaginal candidiasis mouse models. Topical PO administration (1.0-4.0 mg/kg) demonstrated higher activity against the vulvovaginal candidiasis than VRC (4.0 mg/kg). The pharmacokinetics and safety profile of PO were also investigated. The pharmacokinetics assay revealed that PO was easily absorbed after oral administration in mice, which might account for its in vivo anti-Candida effect. The acute toxicity test showed that the median lethal dose of PO in mice was 355 mg/kg, which was much higher than the daily dose used for the therapeutic experiments. This study demonstrated the potential of PO as a promising candidate for the treatment of Candida infections, particularly for vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:23159370

  3. Invasive fungal infections: the challenge continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are being increasingly recognized as a major threat in critically ill adult and paediatric patients. They can range widely in severity and can be life threatening in some patients. Candida and Aspergillus species are the most common causes of IFIs, but other yeasts and filamentous fungi are emerging pathogens. C. albicans, the most significant pathogenic species, is seen in almost all of the 17% of patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) who develop IFIs, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Non-albicans spp. are becoming more common, particularly in neutropenic patients and those on existing azole therapy. Early diagnosis is challenging due to delays in, and low sensitivity of, confirmatory blood cultures, and difficulty in discriminating colonization from invasive candidiasis. Once diagnosed, early initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for reducing morbidity and mortality. Amphotericin B deoxycholate and azoles, once standard therapy, have been largely superseded in the ICU by broad-spectrum azoles, liposomal amphotericin B and the newer echinocandin agents with improved efficacy/tolerability profiles. The echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin) exhibit fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and fungistatic activity against Aspergillus spp. Echinocandins have demonstrated clinical efficacy, broad spectrum of activity and favourable pharmacological properties, and are, therefore, likely to replace fluconazole as the initial antifungal agent of choice among critically ill patients. Current evidence supports echinocandin empirical therapy for candidaemia or invasive candidiasis in ICU patients with or without neutropenia, and as rescue therapy in patients with life-threatening IFIs caused by strains resistant to other antifungals. Anidulafungin represents a new advance in the treatment of IFIs and is approved for treatment of candidaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses, peritonitis and oesophageal candidiasis. PMID:19877737

  4. Enhancement of the Antifungal Activity of Antimicrobial Drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K.A.; Matias, Edinardo F.F.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Souza, Celestina E.S.; Braga, Maria F.B.M.; Guedes, Gláucia M.M.; Costa, José G.M.; Menezes, Irwin R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  5. Abscess resulting from Mycobacterium kansasii in the left thigh of AIDS patient

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Catarina Tenório de, Lima; Vera, Magalhães.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A case of abscess resulting from Mycobacterium kansasii, in the left thigh of a 53-year-old woman infected with the Human Immunodeficiency virus, is reported. Curiously, there was no pulmonary or systemic involvement as is usual with these Mycobacterium infections. The patient had CD4 T lymphocyte c [...] ount of 257 cells/µL and a viral load of 60,154 copies. Despite presenting a relatively preserved immunity, the patient also presented Criptococcic meningoencephalitis and Esophageal candidiasis. The patient responded satisfactorily to treatment for infections and after 51 days was discharged.

  6. The novel arylamidine T-2307 maintains in vitro and in vivo activity against echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Najvar, Laura K; Fothergill, Annette W; Bocanegra, Rosie; Olivo, Marcos; McCarthy, Dora I; Kirkpatrick, William R; Fukuda, Yoshiko; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Patterson, Thomas F

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activities of the investigational arylamidine T-2307 against echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans. T-2307 demonstrated potent in vitro activity, and daily subcutaneous doses between 0.75 and 6 mg/kg of body weight significantly improved survival and reduced fungal burden compared to placebo control and caspofungin (10 mg/kg/day) in mice with invasive candidiasis caused by an echinocandin-resistant strain. Thus, T-2307 may have potential use in the treatment of echinocandin-resistant C. albicans infections. PMID:25451054

  7. Manifestation of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in the formation of mycetoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is characterized by radiological signs allowing a correct diagnosis, including differentiation from pulmonary candidiasis, when they are associated with appropriate clinical symptoms (neutropenia and fever persisting despite broad-spectrum antibiotics). In particular the formation of a pulmonary mycetoma in a previously normal lung is one of these signs. Unlike a simple fungus ball (the saprophytic form of aspergillosis), the rounded density of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis consists of sequestrum of devitalized lung tissue owing to blood vessel invasion by Aspergillus hyphae. This morphologic phenomenon is demonstrated in the present case report and is discussed together with the other roentgenological signs of the invasive aspergillosis. (orig.)

  8. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikx Frans HM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence and types of HIV-related oral lesions between children and adult Tanzanian patients on HAART with those not on HAART and to relate the occurrence of the lesions with anti-HIV drug regimen, clinical stage of HIV disease and CD4+ cell count. Methods Participants were 532 HIV infected patients, 51 children and 481 adults, 165 males and 367 females. Children were aged 2–17 years and adults 18 and 67 years. Participants were recruited consecutively at the Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH HIV clinic from October 2004 to September 2005. Investigations included; interviews, physical examinations, HIV testing and enumeration of CD4+ T cells. Results A total of 237 HIV-associated oral lesions were observed in 210 (39.5% patients. Oral candidiasis was the commonest (23.5%, followed by mucosal hyperpigmentation (4.7%. There was a significant difference in the occurrence of oral candidiasis (?2 = 4.31; df = 1; p = 0.03 and parotid enlargement (?2 = 36.5; df = 1; p = 0.04 between children and adults. Adult patients who were on HAART had a significantly lower risk of; oral lesions (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.22 – 0.47; p = 0.005, oral candidiasis (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.18 – 0.44; p = 0.003 and oral hairy leukoplakia (OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.04 – 0.85; p = 0.03. There was no significant reduction in occurrence of oral lesions in children on HAART (OR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.11–1.14; p = 0.15. There was also a significant association between the presence of oral lesions and CD4+ cell count 3 (?2 = 52.4; df = 2; p = 0.006 and with WHO clinical stage (?2 = 121; df = 3; p = 0.008. Oral lesions were also associated with tobacco smoking (?2 = 8.17; df = 2; p = 0.04. Conclusion Adult patients receiving HAART had a significantly lower prevalence of oral lesions, particularly oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia. There was no significant change in occurrence of oral lesions in children receiving HAART. The occurrence of oral lesions, in both HAART and non-HAART patients, correlated with WHO clinical staging and CD4+ less than 200 cells/mm3.

  9. The solution structure of the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator in complex with non-modified histone H3 tail reveals the antagonistic role of H3R2 methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Chignola, Francesca; Gaetani, Massimiliano; Rebane, Ana; Org, To?nis; Mollica, Luca; Zucchelli, Chiara; Spitaleri, Andrea; Mannella, Valeria; Peterson, Pa?rt; Musco, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers are often present in chromatin-binding proteins and have been shown to bind histone H3 N-terminal tails. Mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein, which harbours two PHD fingers, cause a rare monogenic disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE activates the expression of tissue-specific antigens by directly binding through its first PHD finger (AIRE-PHD1) to histone H3 tails non-methylated at K4 (H3K4me0)...

  10. Cepas gigantes de candida albicans y su potencial de expresión/ fenotípica en niños portadores del sindrome de down

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Evandro L, Ribeiro; Maria Lúcia, Scroferneker; Mara S, Carvalhaes; Cerise de C, Campos; Wesley M, Ferreira; Cléver G, Cardoso; Gustavo M, Nagato; Niwmar A, de Sousa; Sueli Meira, da S. Dias.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los niños con el Sindrome de Down (SD), además de los factores que predisponen a la candidiasis bucal, presentan alteración cromosómica que afecta la estructura anatómica de la boca y compromete el sistema inmunológico. En este estudio se usaron 30 cepas de Candida albicans aisladas de la boca de lo [...] s niños, siendo 25 (83.3%) portadores del SD y cinco (16.7%) sin este. Este hecho convierte a los niños portadores de este sindrome como grandes “cargadores” de levaduras predisponiéndolos a candidiasis bucal. El estudio topográfico de las colonias gigantes de C. albicans, aisladas de la cavidad bucal de los niños con y sin el SD revelaron los mismos aspectos macroscópicos con predominio de colonias que tienen la periferia con franjas, lo que demuestra que este sindrome probablemente no interfiere con esta característica específica en las colonias de levaduras. Sin embargo, estas mismas peculiaridades condicionan una mayor capacidad de adherencia de estas cepas de Candida con la mucosa afectada y a las secuelas ocasionadas por el SD, favoreciendo por lo tanto a la infección bucal por Candida. Abstract in english Children with Down’s syndrome, besides the predispose factors to buccal candidiasis, present chromosomal alteration that affects the anatomic structure of the mouth and commits the immune system. In this study 30 strains of C. albicans isolated of the children's mouth were used, being 25 (83.3%) bea [...] rers of Down’s syndrome and five (16.7%) without it. This evidence turns the children with Down’s syndrome more carried of yeasts of Candida therefore predisposed the buccal candidiasis. The topographical study of the gigantic colonies of C. albicans, isolated of the children's buccal cavity with and without Down’s syndrome showed the same macroscopic aspects with prevalence of colonies with fringed periphery demonstrating that this syndrome presumably doesn't interfere in this characteristic of the fungal colonies however this outlying colonial aspect propitiates larger capacity of adherence of strains of Candida with the injured mucous membrane and the sequels propitiated by the Down’s syndrome inducing larger favoring the buccal infection to Candida.

  11. The Adaptor CARD9 Is Required for Adaptive but Not Innate Immunity to Oral Mucosal Candida albicans Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Bishu, Shrinivas; Herna?ndez-santos, Nydiaris; Simpson-abelson, Michelle R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Conti, Heather R.; Ghilardi, Nico; Mamo, Anna J.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC [thrush]) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. OPC is common in individuals with HIV/AIDS, infants, patients on chemotherapy, and individuals with congenital immune defects. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17R axis, as mice and humans with defects in IL-17R signaling (IL17F, ACT1, IL-17RA) or in genes that direct Th17 differentiation (STAT3, STAT1, CARD9) are prone to mucocutaneous ...

  12. Immunologic competence in adults following thymic irradiation in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of, or irradiation to, the thymus during the neonatal period in man has resulted in no reported adverse effects on cellular immunity, although thymectomy in neonatal experimental animals is known to produce profound immunological disturbances. Adverse effects in humans may not be recognized until several decades have passed. The immunological capabilities of 7 adults with histories of thymic irradiation as infants were evaluated; normal tests results indicated intact immune systems in all cases. The 3 women tested, however, had abnormal clinical histories, including 2 with multiple tumors and 1 with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

  13. Efficient Anaerobic Fermentation of Simple Sugars by Yeast Fuels Resistance Candida spp. Infections to Eradication by Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedosa I. Valentine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Human systemic Candida infections had proved difficult to eradicate by the medical health care system. Some practitioners and scholars see the problem as being due to drug resistance. For example an author wrote that ?secondary drug resistance is clearly being encountered in one setting, oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection usually following years or months of azole therapy. Approach: This research work understudied the nutritional strategies of yeast colonies to serve as a guide to understanding the survival strategies of Candida colonies in human Candidiasis. The aim of the research was to make some impute into more effective ways of eradicating human Candida infections. Ethanol was produced biologically by fermentation of sugar by micro-organisms. The yeast Saccaromyces cerevisiae metabolises complex carbohydrates like starch in the absence of oxygen to ethanol, carbon dioxide and water. This study compared the average ethanol yield of hydrolyzed and unhydrolyzed gelatinized cassava starch fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The starch was hydrolyzed by ? and ?-amylase enzymes. Fermentation of the starch was done with a 1% innoculums of a 12 h culture of saccharomyces cerevisiae incubated for 48 h under anaerobic conditions. Results: The results of the study showed that there was no starch hydrolysis in the absence of ? and ?-amylase enzymes. Starch hydrolysis in the presence of ? and ?-amylase enzyme took 1 h. There was no starch fermentation in the absence of saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield of starch which had been hydrolyzed by ? and ?-amylases prior to fermentation by saccharomyces cerevisae was 28 times higher than the ethanol yield of starch which had not been previously hydrolyzed by ? and ?-amylases. These results of the study suggest that yeast infections in human and animal tissues produce 28 times more ethanol yield from the glucose present in the host tissues (for tissue respiration than they would produce from the fermentation of unhydrolyzed starch outside the body tissues of the host (like from undigested starchy food trapped in the mouth and throat by oropharyngeal Candida infections. Conclusion: The findings of the study enables us to conclude that this innate ability of yeast species to easily produce large yields of ethanol from anaerobic fermentation of simple sugars like glucose creates a competitive advantage which enhances their continuous survival in systemic human body tissues where glucose available for host tissue respiration is ever present. The efficient eradication of such yeast infections in human victims (and animals should incorporate ways of diminishing the availability of excess hydrolyzed sugars in the host tissues (which the yeast colonies easily survive on. The escalating effect of stress (including oxidative stress on Candidiasis lnfection proliferation should also be communicated to systemic Candidiasis patients.

  14. Health professionals' advice for breastfeeding problems: Not good enough!

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    Amir Lisa H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Jane Scott and colleagues have recently published a paper in the International Breastfeeding Journal showing that health professionals are still giving harmful advice to women with mastitis. We see the management of mastitis as an illustration of health professionals' management of wider breastfeeding issues. If health professionals don't know how to manage this common problem, how can they be expected to manage less common conditions such as a breast abscess or nipple/breast candidiasis? There is an urgent need for more clinical research into breastfeeding problems and to improve the education of health professionals to enable them to promote breastfeeding and support breastfeeding women.

  15. Unusual lesions associated with avian poxvirus infection in rosy-faced lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Chang, T C; Yang, S F; Chi, Y C; Cher, R S; Chien, M S; Itakura, C

    1997-01-01

    An epornitic of avian pox occurred in rosy-faced lovebirds (Agapomis roseicollis). The infected birds showed a variety of lesions including cutaneous, diphtheritic, systemic and oncogenic entities. Proliferative changes with cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in the cornea, bursa of Fabricius, and cranial and nasal bones which were found in the present cases have not been described previously. Electron microscopic examination of the skin, cornea, and cranial and nasal bones revealed poxvirus virions in the inclusions. Secondary infection of candidiasis was very common in cutaneous pox lesions. PMID:18483891

  16. Drug delivery by lipid cochleates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarif, Leila

    2005-01-01

    Drug delivery technology has brought additional benefits to pharmaceuticals such as reduction in dosing frequency and side effects, as well as the extension of patient life. To address this need, cochleates, a precipitate obtained as a result of the interaction between phosphatidylserine and calcium, have been developed and proved to have potential in encapsulating and delivering small molecule drugs. This chapter discusses the molecules that can be encapsulated in a cochleate system and describes in detail the methodology that can be used to encapsulate and characterize hydrophobic drugs such as amphotericin B, a potent antifungal agent. Some efficacy data in animal models infected with candidiasis or aspergillosis are described as well. PMID:15721389

  17. A Vaccine and Monoclonal Antibodies That Enhance Mouse Resistance to Candida albicans Vaginal Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yongmoon; Morrison, Richard P.; Cutler, Jim E.

    1998-01-01

    We previously reported that a vaccine composed of liposome-mannan complexes of Candida albicans (L-mann) stimulates mice to produce protective antibodies against disseminated candidiasis. An immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (MAb), B6.1, specific for a ?-1,2-mannotriose in the complexes protects against the disease, whereas MAb B6 does not. In the present study, the vaccine and MAbs B6.1 and B6 were tested for the ability to protect against Candida vaginal infection, established by ...

  18. Candida tropicalis in a case of cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis at a tertiary care hospital in Manipal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Mamatha; Chakraborty, Rituparna; Bhandary, Siddhartha; Kumar, P Sampath

    2013-03-13

    Biliary candidiasis is increasing in the hospitalized immunosuppressed individuals. Placement of biliary stents in the cancer patients with obstructive jaundice has been found to be an important factor associated with infectious complications. Positive fungal cultures from bile should not be ignored as mere contamination but should be considered when prescribing treatment for the immunosuppressed with recurrent cholangitis or receiving long-term antibiotic therapy. Here,we report a case of cholangiocarcinoma with cholangitis where Candida tropicalis was the sole pathogen isolated from bile. This is probably the first case of its kind to be reported from Manipal, Karnataka, South India. PMID:24432227

  19. Hyper-Immunoglobulin E Syndrome

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    Gnanraj Pushpa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hyper-IgE syndrome in a 6 year old boy with bronchial asthma is reported here with the various manifestations of multiple tender abscesses of the scalp, recurrent dermatophyte infections of his face and right thigh, eczematous lesions of his neck, shoulders and antecubital fossae, candidiasis of the tongue, angular cheilitis and total dystrophy of his right bit toe nail. Laboratory investigations revealed staphylococcus aureus infection of the scalp, Trichophyton rubrum infection of the face and the thigh and candidal onychomycosis. Immunological survey revealed markedly elevated serum lgE level.

  20. Epidemiology, outcomes, and risk factors of invasive fungal infections in adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia after induction chemotherapy?,??,?,??

    OpenAIRE

    Neofytos, Dionissios; Lu, Kit; Hatfield-seung, Amy; Blackford, Amanda; Marr, Kieren A.; Treadway, Suzanne; Ostrander, Darin; Nussenblatt, Veronique; Karp, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This is a retrospective, single-center study of adult patients with newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), who received intensive induction timed sequential chemotherapy from 1/2005 to 6/2010. Among 254 consecutive AML patients, 123 (48.4%) developed an invasive fungal infection (IFI): 14 (5.5%) patients with invasive candidiasis (IC) and 108 (42.5%) patients with invasive mould infections (IMI). Among 108 IMI identified, 4 (3.7%) were proven, 1 (0.9%) probable, and 103 (95.4%) wer...

  1. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics

  2. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respectere statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of mycotic infections and to improve the radiotherapy schedule in head and neck cancer patients. (author)

  3. Frecuencia de lesiones en cavidad oral de pacientes con VIH/sida en el Hospital Universitario San Ignacio de Bogotá, Colombia (2005-2010 / Frequency of Mouth Diseases in HIV/Aids Patients from San Ignacio University Hospital, Bogota, Colombia (2005-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelsy Esther Medina Becerra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de las lesiones orales que se presentaron en los pacientes con VIH/sida que asistieron a la Unidad de Infectología del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio en Bogotá, Colombia, en el periodo 2005-2010. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo con una muestra de 180 de un total de 1600 historias clínicas. Los criterios de inclusión fueron historias clínicas de pacientes con VIH/sida mayores de 18 años de edad. Se excluyeron las historias clínicas de pacientes que no presentaban los resultados del conteo de linfocitos T CD4+. Los hallazgos se analizaron descriptivamente por medio de distribuciones de frecuencia y promedios. Resultados: la frecuencia general de lesiones orales fue del 47,8?%. La lesión oral más frecuente fue la candidiasis seudomembranosa (12,8?%, seguida por leucoplasia vellosa (5?% y herpes simple (4,4?%. En el análisis la presencia de lesiones orales se asoció un conteo promedio de linfocitos T CD4+ de 135 células/mm3. Conclusiones: las lesiones orales más frecuentes fueron candidiasis oral seudomembranosa, leucoplasia vellosa y herpes simple. La disminución de células T CD4+ se asocia con la aparición de lesiones orales. Objective: To determine the frequency of mouth diseases in HIV/aids patients attending the Infectious Disease Unit of the San Ignacio University Hospital in Bogota, Colombia, during 2005-2010. Methods: A descriptive study with a sample of 180 out of 1600 clinical records was carried out. Criterion for inclusion in the study was patients 18 years of age. Records without T-lymphocyte (CD4 count were excluded. Data were analyzed descriptively through frequency distribution and averages measures. Results: Mouth diseases were reported in 47.8?% of the records. The most common lesion was pseudomembranous candidiasis (12.8?%, followed by hairy leukoplakia (5?% and herpes simplex (4.4?%. Mouth diseases were associated with an average CD4 count of 135/mm3. Conclusion: Oral pseudomembranous candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and herpes simplex were the most frequent disease. A decrease in CD4 cell count is associated with mouth diseases.

  4. Development of a Luminex-Based Multiplex Assay for Detection of Mutations Conferring Resistance to Echinocandins in Candida glabrata

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Cau D.; Bolden, Carol B.; Kuykendall, Randall J.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Echinocandins are the recommended treatment for invasive candidiasis due to Candida glabrata. Resistance to echinocandins is known to be caused by nonsynonymous mutations in the hot spot-1 (HS1) regions of the FKS1 and FKS2 genes, which encode a subunit of the ?-1,3-glucan synthase, the target of echinocandins. Here, we describe the development of a microsphere-based assay using Luminex MagPix technology to identify mutations in the FKS1 HS1 and FKS2 HS1 domains, which confer in vitro echino...

  5. [Extensive inflammatory and childhood dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khebizi, S; Mansouri, R

    2014-09-01

    We report an observation of extensive and atypical dermatophytosis to Trichophyton rubrum coexisting with fingernails and tinea manuum candidiasis in a 13-year-old girl presenting inflammatory cutaneous lesions, involvement of scalp, as well as total dystrophic onychomycosis of feet associated with a perionyxis of hands. The results of the mycological examination of specimen showed fungal elements of septate hyphae and pilar parasitism. The fungal culture allowed the diagnosis of certainty of the dermatophytosis to T. rubrum. The therapeutic success of this infection was obtained thanks to the administration of antifungals by oral route. PMID:24746729

  6. Empiric/pre-emptive anti-Candida therapy in non-neutropenic ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, Jean-François; Chemam, Sarah; Bailly, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The potential of the systemic antifungal treatment of non-immunocompromised patients with sepsis, extra-digestive Candida colonization and multiple organ failure is unknown, although it represents three out of four antifungal treatments prescribed in intensive care units. It may allow an early treatment of invasive fungal infection at incubation phase, but exposes patients to unnecessary antifungal treatments with subsequent costs and antifungal selection pressure. As early diagnostic tests for invasive candidiasis are still considered insufficient, the potential of this strategy needs to be demonstrated by a randomized controlled trial. Such a trial is currently ongoing. PMID:25750739

  7. Clinical factors associated with a Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibody positive test in Intensive Care Unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Mazuelos Estrella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor outcomes of invasive candidiasis (IC are associated with the difficulty in establishing the microbiological diagnosis at an early stage. New scores and laboratory tests have been developed in order to make an early therapeutic intervention in an attempt to reduce the high mortality associated with invasive fungal infections. Candida albicans IFA IgG has been recently commercialized for germ tube antibody detection (CAGTA. This test provides a rapid and simple diagnosis of IC (84.4% sensitivity and 94.7% specificity. The aim of this study is to identify the patients who could be benefited by the use of CAGTA test in critical care setting. Methods A prospective, cohort, observational multicentre study was carried out in six medical/surgical Intensive care units (ICU of tertiary-care Spanish hospitals. Candida albicans Germ Tube Antibody test was performed twice a week if predetermined risk factors were present, and serologically demonstrated candidiasis was considered if the testing serum dilution was ? 1:160 in at least one sample and no other microbiological evidence of invasive candidiasis was found. Results Fifty-three critically ill non-neutropenic patients (37.7% post surgery were included. Twenty-two patients (41.5% had CAGTA-positive results, none of them with positive blood culture for Candida. Neither corrected colonization index nor antifungal treatment had influence on CAGTA results. This finding could corroborate that the CAGTA may be an important biomarker to distinguish between colonization and infection in these patients. The presence of acute renal failure at the beginning of the study was more frequent in CAGTA-negative patients. Previous surgery was statistically more frequent in CAGTA-positive patients. Conclusions This study identified previous surgery as the principal clinical factor associated with CAGTA-positive results and emphasises the utility of this promising technique, which was not influenced by high Candida colonization or antifungal treatment. Our results suggest that detection of CAGTA may be important for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in surgical patients admitted in ICU.

  8. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, M.; Aktas, E. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical School

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P=0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of mycotic infections and to improve the radiotherapy schedule in head and neck cancer patients. (author)

  9. Focal inflammatory diseases of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oto, Aytekin; Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa

    1999-10-01

    Inflammatory lesions constitute an important subgroup of focal liver lesions. They may mimic primary or metastatic neoplastic lesions and their differentiation from neoplasia is clinically very important since management of the patient significantly changes. Radiologists should have an important role in both the diagnosis and therapy of these lesions by performing percutaneous aspirations and drainages. In this review we discussed the radiological findings of pyogenic abscesses, amebic abscesses, candidiasis, tuberculosis, hydatic cysts, fascioliasis, ascariasis, schistosomiasis, and sarcoidosis with a special emphasis on US, CT and MR characteristics.

  10. Skin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Sujata

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for cutaneous disorders was undertaken in 1,175 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic. Skin disease or STD being encountered in 114 (9.7%. Pruritus was present in 7.1 percent and was mostly due to candidiadis. The physiological skin changes were frequently observed. Candidiasis was by far the commonest infection with a 2.9 percent incidence. Syphilis was the commonest STD followed by Donovanosis and condyloma acuminata. Specific pregnancy dermatoses were seen in 1.5 percent and included prurigo gestationis, pruritic urticarial papules and plaques (PUPPP and pruritus gravidarum.

  11. Poliendocrinopatía autoinmune tipo I, Presentación de caso y revisión de la literatura / Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy type I, case presentation and review of the literature

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena Esperanza, Barreto Espinoza; Ronald Antonio, Rojas Lárez; Jairo Alexander, Sánchez Mago; Pedro, Macuarisma Lezama.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de poliendocrinopatía autoinmune tipo I, también conocido como poliendocrinopatía autoinmune-candidiasis-distrofia ectodérmica por sus siglas en inglés (APECED), es una enfermedad autosómica recesiva causada por mutaciones en el gen regulador autoinmune. El diagnóstico clínico requiere l [...] a presencia de al menos dos de los tres componentes principales: candidiasis mucocutánea crónica, hipoparatiroidismo, y/o enfermedad de Addison, o sólo uno si un hermano ya ha sido diagnosticado. Caso clínico: Escolar femenina de 12,25 años consulta por contracturas musculares, mialgias, parestesias sin factor desencadenante aparente. Talla baja sin déficit de peso, distrofia ungueal e hipoplasia de esmalte dental, lo que motivó el estudio endocrino evidenciando hipocalcemia, hiperfosfatemia, niveles bajos de PTH y niveles elevados TSH con T4 normal; se aisló Cándida albicans en raspado de uñas y secreción vaginal. Se orientó el diagnóstico hacia APECED. Conclusión: En pacientes que presentan cualquiera de los criterios mayores se debe considerar el diagnóstico de APECED. A pesar de ser una enfermedad poco frecuente, es importante reconocer y tratar temprano para así evitar la morbilidad y mortalidad significativas. Abstract in english Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type I, also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene. Clinical diagnosis requires the presence of at least two of the three main comp [...] onents: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and/or Addison's disease, or only one if a sibling has already been diagnosed. Case report: We report the case of a 12 year old girl with muscle spasms, myalgia, paresthesia without apparent triggering conditions. Short stature with normal weight, nail dystrophy and dental enamel hypoplasia. Endocrinological evaluation showed hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, low PTH levels, and high TSH with normal T4. Candida albicans was isolated in nail scrapings and vaginal discharge. These findings lead to the diagnosis of APECED. Conclusion: In patients with any of the main criteria for APECED diagnosis should be considered. Despite being a rare disease, early diagnosis and treatment is important in order to avoid significant morbidity and mortality.

  12. Laryngeal tuberculosis: A case of a non-healing laryngeal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HK Chen and P Thornley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of laryngeal tuberculosis in a 47-year-old Korean man. Laryngeal tuberculosis is rare and currently accounts for less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis. Clinical features of laryngeal tuberculosis include hoarseness, odynophagia and dyspnoea. Macroscopically, laryngeal tuberculosis may mimic laryngeal carcinoma, chronic laryngitis or laryngeal candidiasis. The diagnosis is often delayed due to a low index of clinical suspicion and hence may pose a significant public health risk. Laryngeal tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with any form of laryngeal lesion.

  13. Enhancement of the antifungal activity of antimicrobial drugs by Eugenia uniflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Celestina E S; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo

    2013-07-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. Ethanol extract from Eugenia uniflora was assayed, for its antifungal activity, either alone or combined with four selected chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents, including anphotericin B, mebendazole, nistatin, and metronidazole against these strains. The obtained results indicated that the association of the extract of E. uniflora to metronidazole showed a potential antifungal activity against C. tropicalis. However, no synergistic activity against the other strains was observed, as observed when the extract was associated with the other, not enhancing their antifungal activity. PMID:23819641

  14. Recent pattern of Co-infection amongst HIV seropositive individuals in tertiary care hospital, kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Sekhar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunistic Infections (OIs and co-infections are the major cause of deaths amongst HIV infected individuals and this mostly depends upon the risk factors, type of exposure and geographic region. The commonest types of infections reported are tuberculosis, chronic diarrhoea, oral candidiasis, herpes simplex virus-2, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Due to the scarcity of OIs data available from this region, we had designed a study to determine the frequency of different OIs amongst HIV seropositive patients. Methods Analysis of the different spectrum of OIs/Co-infections were carried out with 204 HIV sero-positive patients (142 males and 62 females who visited the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic in a tertiary care hospital from March 2006 to March 2009. The CD4+ count was estimated using FACS Calibur, the routine smear test, serology, nested RT-PCR and DNA sequencing were carried out to determine the different OIs. Results In this study, HIV seropositive patients were mostly from middle age group (31-40 yrs with CD4+ counts in majority of symptomatic AIDS patients below 200 cells/mm3. The common co-infections/opportunistic infections were OC (53.43%, CD (47.05%, HSV-2 (36.76%, TB (35.29%, CMV (26.96%, HBV (15.19% and HCV (7.35%. Dual infections, like HSV-2 & CMV (15.38%, HSV-2 & TB (14.61%, HSV-2 & oral candidiasis (24.61% and CMV & oral candidiasis (14.61% were significant in follow-up patients. Triple infections were also common e.g., TB, CD, OC infection occurring frequently in about 14.21% of the study population. Multiple infections like OC, TB, CD amongst the viral co-infected patients with HSV-2, HCV, CMV and HBV are also reported in this study. The genotyping analysis of the HCV co-infected HIV individuals shows that two belonged to HCV genotype 1 and 8 belonged to genotype 3. Conclusions A wide spectrum of OIs were observed amongst HIV-infected patients in the HIV/AIDS Apex Clinic. Oral candidiasis, CD, CMV and HSV-2, were the common OIs in those patients. This study aims to provide a clearer picture regarding infections occurring amongst HIV seropositive individuals so that the scientific findings could be translated into sustainable prevention programmes and improved public health policies. Trial registration None

  15. Emergence of echinocandin-resistant Candida spp. in a hospital setting: a consequence of 10 years of increasing use of antifungal therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkar, A; Dannaoui, E; Meyer, I; Imbert, S; Brossas, J Y; Uzunov, M; Mellon, G; Nguyen, S; Guiller, E; Caumes, E; Leblond, V; Mazier, D; Fievet, M H; Datry, A

    2014-09-01

    Since their introduction in the 2000s, echinocandin drugs have become widely used for the treatment and prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections and, notably, invasive candidiasis. Although cases of breakthrough candidiasis in patients receiving echinocandins have been reported, clinical failure during echinocandin treatment due to the acquisition of resistance by a normally susceptible Candida spp. isolate is considered rare. To date, no publications have been published correlating the use of echinocandins and the emergence of echinocandin resistance among Candida species. So, our goal is to report an initial analysis of echinocandin use in relation to the emergence of resistant Candida isolates. We report here a single-centre experience of the emergence of eight resistant isolates belonging to normally susceptible Candida species in six patients receiving echinocandins. We describe the context and analyse the use of echinocandins over the previous decade. For seven of these isolates, we identified FKS gene mutations involved in decreased susceptibility. Seven isolates were obtained in 2011, on the heels of a ten-fold increase in caspofungin use over the preceding decade. In contrast, in 2012, the use of echinocandins decreased in our institution by 19.5 % and, in that year, only one Candida-resistant isolate was detected, despite the stable global epidemiology of invasive candidaemia. This work underlines the necessity of improving the prescription of antifungal drugs. Improvement in the monitoring of strain susceptibility should also be considered in order to better detect the emergence of resistant or non-susceptible yeast strains. PMID:24715154

  16. Transcriptional Response of Candida albicans to Nitric Oxide and the Role of the YHB1 Gene in Nitrosative Stress and VirulenceD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromatka, Bethann S.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2005-01-01

    Here, we investigate how Candida albicans, the most prevalent human fungal pathogen, protects itself from nitric oxide (.NO), an antimicrobial compound produced by the innate immune system. We show that exposure of C. albicans to .NO elicits a reproducible and specific transcriptional response as determined by genome-wide microarray analysis. Many genes are transiently induced or repressed by .NO, whereas a set of nine genes remain at elevated levels during .NO exposure. The most highly induced gene in this latter category is YHB1, a flavohemoglobin that detoxifies .NO in C. albicans and other microbes. We show that C. albicans strains deleted for YHB1 have two phenotypes in vitro; they are hypersensitive to .NO and they are hyperfilamentous. In a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, a YHB1 deleted C. albicans strain shows moderately attenuated virulence, but the virulence defect is not suppressed by deletion of the host NOS2 gene. These results suggest that .NO production is not a prime determinant of virulence in the mouse tail vein model of candidiasis and that the attenuated virulence of a yhb1?/yhb1? strain is attributable to a defect other than its reduced ability to detoxify .NO. PMID:16030247

  17. Diagnósticos diferenciales de la histiocitosis a células de Langerhans The differential diagnostics of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Chirino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La histiocitosis a células de Langerhans (HCL debe diferenciarse de las siguientes entidades: eritema tóxico neonatorum (ETN, dermatitis seborreica (DS, foliculitis pustulosa eosinofílica (FPE, incontinencia pigmenti (IP, mastocitosis/urticaria pigmentosa (M/UP, acrodermatitis enteropática (ADE, síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich (WAS, acropustulosis infantil (API. Además se deben considerar la enfermedad de Rosai- Dorfman (ERD, xantomas diseminados, melanosis pustulosa neonatal (MPN, candidiasis congénita, listeriosis neonatal, herpes simple perinatal y la varicela neonatal. Debido a que los métodos auxiliares de laboratorio no siempre están disponibles o los resultados laboratoriales algunas veces son extemporáneos, y puesto que el médico práctico a menudo necesita tomar decisiones precozmente, es que la epidemiología resulta útil, pues brinda el marco adecuado para ordenar y jerarquizar las sospechas diagnósticas frente a un caso concreto, con un paciente determinado, en un momento específico.The differential diagnostics of Langerhans cell histiocytosis should include the following disorders: erythema toxicum neonatorum, seborrheic dermatitis, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, incontinentia pigmenti, mastocytosis / urticaria pigmentosa, acrodermatitis enteropathica, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, infantile acropustulosis, Rosai- Dorfman disease, xanthoma disseminatum, neonatal pustular melanosis, congenital candidiasis, perinatal listeriosis, perinatal herpes simplex, neonatal varicella. Since the auxiliary methods of lab are not always available, or lab results are sometimes extemporaneous, the physicians often needs to make quick decisions. The epidemiology is useful because it offers the appropriate mark to prioritize the diagnostic in specific cases

  18. Infección sistémica por Candida en unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales / Systemic infection by Candida in neonatal intensive care units

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yalili, Pouymiró Brooks; Iarmila, Pouymiró Brooks; Pedro Omar, Pouymiró Pubillones.

    1141-11-01

    Full Text Available En las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales, los recién nacidos pretérmino pueden contraer infecciones micóticas invasivas, predominantemente por Candidas sp, causantes de una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad, así como también de frecuentes alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en los sobrevivientes. [...] La candidiasis neonatal es de difícil diagnóstico, dado el carácter transitorio de la candidemia y la dificultad para eliminarla por su rápida invasión de los órganos y sistemas anatómicos. La mejor opción para disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, es prevenirla. En este artículo se actualiza lo concerniente a los principales elementos relacionados no solo con el diagnóstico, sino con el tratamiento profiláctico y específico de estos pacientes, referidos hasta el 2010 por grupos de expertos internacionales en esta materia de salud. Abstract in english In neonatal intensive care units the preterm infants may develop invasive fungal infections, mainly by Candida sp, causative of increased morbidity and mortality, as well as of frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in survivors. Neonatal candidiasis is difficult to diagnose because of the transitory [...] nature of candidemia and the difficulty to eliminate its rapid invasion from organs and anatomical systems. The best option to reduce the incidence of the disease is to prevent it. In this article the main elements related not only to the diagnosis, but also to the specific and prophylactic treatment of these patients are updated, which were referred to 2010 by groups of international experts in this field of health.

  19. Reemplazo de válvula mitral consecutivo a endocarditis micótica / Mitral valve replacement due to mycotic endocarditis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yalili, Pouymiró Brooks; Iarmila, Pouymiró Brooks; Pedro Omar, Pouymiró Pubillones.

    1008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso clínico de un niño de 15 meses de edad, el cual experimentó varias infecciones en la etapa neonatal (entre ellas por Candida albicans) y otras complicaciones; sin embargo, no pudo recibir el esquema terapéutico completo contra la candidiasis sistémica por habérsele diagnosticado [...] un daño funcional hepático. Posteriormente, al detectársele una endocarditis micótica, se le reemplazó la válvula mitral. En su último ingreso padecía, además, broncoespasmo asociado a neumonía bacteriana, anemia carencial, deshidratación isotónica moderada, acidosis metabólica e inmunodeficiencia mixta, causantes de una insuficiencia multiorgánica que le produjo la muerte al día siguiente de su admisión hospitalaria. Abstract in english A case report of a child aged 15 months who underwent several infections (i.e. due to Candida albicans) and other complications during the neonatal stage is presented. However, he could not receive the complete treatment against systemic candidiasis because of an impairment of liver function. Subseq [...] uently, mitral valve was replaced when detecting mycotic endocarditis. In addition, while being hospitalized for the last time, he underwent bronchial spasm associated with bacterial pneumonia, deficiency anemia, mild isotonic dehydration, non-respiratory acidosis, and mixed immunodeficiency which caused multiple organ failure and death the day after his hospital admission.

  20. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

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    Shobhana A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

  1. DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil

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    Rodrigo Queiroz Aleixo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth index and the prevalence of candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, aphthous ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, as well as the association with TCD4 count, viral load (VL and antiretroviral therapy (ART in 140 HIV-infected adult individuals. A standardized examination to determine the DMFT index and the presence of oral lesions was conducted. Demographic data, TCD4 count and use of ART were obtained from medical records. A high number of decayed teeth detected among patients undergoing ART resulted in a mean DMFT of 16.9 teeth. It was observed that 24.2% of the individuals had at least one oral lesion. Candidiasis was the most frequent lesion and was associated with the TCD4 count. Oral hairy leukoplakia was associated with an increased VL. Regular use of ART was inversely associated with the occurrence of lesions. Overall, the studied population showed low prevalence of oral lesions and high DMFT index. The use of ART seems to reduce the occurrence of these lesions. Higher TCD4 count and a lower VL were associated with an improved oral health status in HIV + individuals

  2. DMFT index and oral mucosal lesions associated with HIV infection: cross-sectional study in Porto Velho, Amazonian region - Brazil

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    Rodrigo Queiroz, Aleixo; Alexandre Prado, Scherma; Gustav, Guimarães; José Roberto, Cortelli; Sheila Cavalca, Cortelli.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and the prevalence of candidiasis, linear gingival erythema, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex, aphthous ulcers, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma, as well as the association with TCD4 count, viral load (VL) and antiretroviral therapy [...] (ART) in 140 HIV-infected adult individuals. A standardized examination to determine the DMFT index and the presence of oral lesions was conducted. Demographic data, TCD4 count and use of ART were obtained from medical records. A high number of decayed teeth detected among patients undergoing ART resulted in a mean DMFT of 16.9 teeth. It was observed that 24.2% of the individuals had at least one oral lesion. Candidiasis was the most frequent lesion and was associated with the TCD4 count. Oral hairy leukoplakia was associated with an increased VL. Regular use of ART was inversely associated with the occurrence of lesions. Overall, the studied population showed low prevalence of oral lesions and high DMFT index. The use of ART seems to reduce the occurrence of these lesions. Higher TCD4 count and a lower VL were associated with an improved oral health status in HIV + individuals

  3. Synergistic effect of amphotericin B and tyrosol on biofilm formed by Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis from intrauterine device users.

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    Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Sornakumari, Haridevvenkatesan; Lency, Arumugam; Kavitha, Senthil; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

    2014-11-01

    The presence of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) provides a solid surface for attachment of microorganisms and an ideal niche for the biofilm to form and flourish. Vaginal candidiasis is often associated with the use of IUDs. Treatment of vaginal candidiasis that develops in connection with IUD use requires their immediate removal. Here, we present in vitro evidence to support the use of combination therapy to inhibit Candida biofilm. Twenty-three clinical Candida isolates (10 C. krusei and 13 C. tropicalis) recovered from endocervical swabs obtained from IUD and non-IUD users were assessed for biofilm-formation ability. The rate of isolation of Candida did not differ significantly among IUD and non-IUD users (P = 0.183), but the biofilm-formation ability of isolates differed significantly (P = 0.02). An in vitro biofilm model with the obtained isolates was subjected to treatment with amphotericin B, tyrosol, and a combination of amphotericin B and tyrosol. Inhibition of biofilm by amphotericin B or tyrosol was found to be concentration dependent, with 50% reduction (P < 0.05) at 4 mg/l and 80 ?M, respectively. Hence, a combination effect of tyrosol and amphotericin B was studied. Interestingly, approximately 90% reduction in biofilm was observed with use of 80 ?M tyrosol combined with 4 mg/l amphotericin B (P < 0.001). This represents a first step in establishing an appropriate antibiofilm therapy when yeasts are present. PMID:25202127

  4. Patología digestiva en niños infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH, en Santiago de Chile Gastrointestinal diseases in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

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    Renzo Tassara O

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemiology has changed, affecting an increasing number of children. As in adults, the disease predominantly affects the digestive and respiratory systems. Aim: To report the gastrointestinal problems in HIV infected pediatric patients. Patients and methods: Twenty four HIV infected children (nine male, aged 1 to 12 years old, followed for 1 to 170 months, are reported. This group has been under care by a multiprofessional team. Results: Oral candidiasis was present in 21 (88%, esophagic candidiasis in 3 (13%, oral ulcers in 4 (17%. Diarrhea was observed in 18 children (75% and in eight, it had a chronic evolution. Cryptosporidium parvum was the most frequent agent found in six cases (1 with acute and 5 with chronic diarrhea. Schlerosing cholangiopathy was observed in one case, with a fatal outcome, in association to microsporidiosis. Upper endoscopy was done in 11 patients, demonstrating microscopic inflammatory changes in esophagic, gastric and duodenal epithelia in all. Conclusions: Digestive problems are common in HIV infected pediatric patients. They must be always sought actively. Endoscopy is a valuable tool for the early diagnosis of these problems (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 19-24

  5. Posaconazole: when and how? The clinician's view.

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    Katragkou, Aspasia; Tsikopoulou, Fotini; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zaoutis, Theoklis E

    2012-03-01

    Posaconazole is the newest triazole antifungal agent available as an oral suspension with an extended spectrum of activity against Candida species, Aspergillus species, Cryptococcus neoformans, Zygomycetes and endemic fungi. Among posaconazole advantages are the relatively low potential of cross-resistance with other azoles, few drug interactions compared with other azoles and its activity against Zygomycetes. Randomised, double-blind trials have shown that posaconazole is effective for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections (IFI), especially aspergillosis, in high-risk patients. Results of Phase III clinical trials and case/series reports indicate that posaconazole is effective in treating oesophageal candidiasis, including azole-refractory disease, and other IFI refractory to standard antifungal therapies. To date, posaconazole has appeared to be well tolerated even in long-term courses; it has an excellent safety profile with gastrointestinal disturbances being the most common adverse events reported. The dose of posaconazole is 200 mg three times daily for prophylaxis, 800 mg daily in two or four divided doses for the treatment of IFI and 100 mg daily (200 mg loading dose) for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. On the basis of early clinical experience, it appears that posaconazole will be a valuable aid in the management of life-threatening fungal infections. PMID:21762211

  6. Caracterización clinicoepidemiológica de adolescentes con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en aldeas de Guinea Ecuatorial / Clinical and epidemiological characterization of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in small villages in Equatorial Guinea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dagmaris, Arias Acosta; Mariela, Sosa Zamora; Carmen María, Berenguer Gouarnaluses; Migdia, Pérez Pérez; Dulce María, Mojena Orúe.

    2010-08-28

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 480 adolescentes con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, pertenecientes a 2 aldeas de Guinea Ecuatorial, atendidos en un puesto de salud desde julio de 2005 hasta enero de 2007, a fin de caracterizarles según variables clínicas [...] y epidemiológicas. Entre los principales resultados sobresalieron: las edades de 15 a 17 años, el sexo femenino y los adolescentes en estadios III y IV de la infección. La candidiasis bucal, las neumonías bacterianas y la neumonía por Pneumocystis carinii constituyeron las afecciones asociadas más frecuentes, las 2 últimas de las cuales, además de la neumonía tuberculosa, devinieron las principales causas de muerte. Abstract in english A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 480 adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, belonging to two small villages in Equatorial Guinea, attended in a health post from July 2005 to January 2007, in order to characterize them according to clinical and epidem [...] iological variables. Among the main results were ages between 15 and 17 years, female sex and adolescents in III and IV stages of infection. Oral candidiasis, bacterial pneumonias and pneumonia by Pneumocystis carinii were the most frequent associated conditions, the two latter, besides tuberculous pneumonia, were the main causes of death.

  7. Caracterización clinicoepidemiológica de adolescentes con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida en aldeas de Guinea Ecuatorial Clinical and epidemiological characterization of adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in small villages in Equatorial Guinea

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    Dagmaris Arias Acosta

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, longitudinal y prospectivo de 480 adolescentes con el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida, pertenecientes a 2 aldeas de Guinea Ecuatorial, atendidos en un puesto de salud desde julio de 2005 hasta enero de 2007, a fin de caracterizarles según variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. Entre los principales resultados sobresalieron: las edades de 15 a 17 años, el sexo femenino y los adolescentes en estadios III y IV de la infección. La candidiasis bucal, las neumonías bacterianas y la neumonía por Pneumocystis carinii constituyeron las afecciones asociadas más frecuentes, las 2 últimas de las cuales, además de la neumonía tuberculosa, devinieron las principales causas de muerte.A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in 480 adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, belonging to two small villages in Equatorial Guinea, attended in a health post from July 2005 to January 2007, in order to characterize them according to clinical and epidemiological variables. Among the main results were ages between 15 and 17 years, female sex and adolescents in III and IV stages of infection. Oral candidiasis, bacterial pneumonias and pneumonia by Pneumocystis carinii were the most frequent associated conditions, the two latter, besides tuberculous pneumonia, were the main causes of death.

  8. Determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do Clotrimazol e da Terbinafina sobre isolados de Candida albicans oriundas da mucosa bucal de pacientes HIV positivos e HIV negativos

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    André Luis Ribeiro CLAUDINO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a fungi infection caused by yeasts from Candida genus, that live in the mucosas and justcauses illness when there are favoring conditions to its growth, like immune compromised HIV infected patients.Resistance reports verified in Candida albicans isolates, especially in those immune compromised, and fast andefficient treatment need cause there to be a great interest in studies capable of using in vitro susceptibility tests toadequate therapy choose. The objective of this study was to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC ofantifungal agents clotrimazole and terbinafine on 19 isolates of Candida albicans isolated from HIV positive patients and HIV-negative with oral erythematous candidiasis to detect possible resistance. Using agar antifungal dilutionthecnic and sample at demarcated regions on Petri dish. It was verified that MIC to terbinafine varied from 32 to 128?g/mL while to clotrimazole, MIC varied from 16 to 128 ?g/mL. This study allowed concluding that almost samplesshowed elevated MIC values among HIV positive or negative patients.

  9. Point prevalence, microbiology and fluconazole susceptibility patterns of yeast isolates colonizing the oral cavities of HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

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    Barchiesi, Francesco; Maracci, Monia; Radi, Brunella; Arzeni, Daniela; Baldassarri, Isabella; Giacometti, Andrea; Scalise, Giorgio

    2002-12-01

    We conducted a prospective study to address the prevalence and microbiological characteristics of yeast isolates colonizing the oral cavities of HIV-infected patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. Sixty-eight patients (67%) from a total of 102 were found to be colonized with yeasts. Sixty-five patients carried a single species (60 Candida albicans, three Candida glabrata and two Candida krusei) and three patients had mixed colonization of C. albicans and C. krusei. The status of yeast carrier was not associated with the number of CD4 cells or the viral load. Similarly, the type of antiretroviral regimen was not associated with the carriage of Candida spp. The only predictor of Candida colonization was a previous history of oropharyngeal candidiasis (P = 0.009). Although many patients in this series had already been treated with repeated courses of fluconazole therapy for previous episodes of oropharyngeal candidiasis, fluconazole susceptibility patterns showed that 93% of yeasts were susceptible to this triazole in vitro (MIC < or = 8.0 mg/L). PMID:12461023

  10. Anidulafungin: an echinocandin antifungal.

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    Pfaller, Michael A

    2004-09-01

    Anidulafungin (LY-303366, V-echinocandin trade mark, Vicuron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) is a new echinocandin antifungal agent with broad spectrum activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp. Anidulafungin exhibits low toxicity, concentration-dependent fungicidal activity for Candida, and a prolonged post antifungal effect (> 12h). In vitro activity demonstrates excellent potency and spectrum versus azole-susceptible and -resistant Candida spp. and a low minimum effective concentration for Aspergillus spp. In vivo anidulafungin is fungicidal against Candida in neutropenic animal models of disseminated candidiasis. Against Candida anidulafungin exhibits concentration-dependent killing and clearance of residual fungal burden in target organs (liver, lung, spleen, kidney) and plasma/tissue concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations of the infecting organism throughout the dosing interval. Although the activity of anidulafungin in animal models of pulmonary or disseminated aspergillosis shows increased survival and improvement in the pulmonary infarct score, the effect on residual fungal burden and Aspergillus antigenemia determination does not indicate in vivo fungicidal activity. It seems that the major effect of anidulafungin and other echinocandins in vivo against Aspergillus spp. is the decrease in the angioinvasive potential of the organisms. Clinically, anidulafungin has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of oesophageal candidiasis and candidemia. Further clinical application of this new antifungal agent is warranted. PMID:15330749

  11. SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF MICONAZOLE NITRATE FOR FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE GEL

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    Kishan Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present investigation is formulation and evaluation of a mucoadhesive gel for buccal delivery after solubility enhancement of very slightly water-soluble drug Miconazole Nitrate. Miconazole Nitrate is imidazole derivative useful in treatment of oropharyngeal Candidiasis, the most common infection in AIDS patients. The method namely solvent deposition with inclusion complex, solid dispersion with inclusion complex and solvent deposition with solid dispersion are used for solubility enhancement. Various polymers such as Lactose, ?-CD and PEG-6000 are those polymers which were used for individual methods like SolD, IC and SD respectively all the batches are evaluated for their water solubility and In-vitro release. Enhancement of dissolution rates with increasing quantity of ?-CD, Lactose and PEG in the complexes is observed. Water solubility of Miconazole Nitrate is enhanced up to 321.9 times by using combination of methods (solvent deposition with inclusion complex and mucoadhesive antifungal gel of Miconazole Nitrate is prepared with improved drug release in to the buccal cavity which ensures effective treatment of local fungal infection-Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

  12. Diagnósticos diferenciales de la histiocitosis a células de Langerhans / The differential diagnostics of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

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    C. N., Chirino; R. J., Scwartz; O. L., Musitani.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La histiocitosis a células de Langerhans (HCL) debe diferenciarse de las siguientes entidades: eritema tóxico neonatorum (ETN), dermatitis seborreica (DS), foliculitis pustulosa eosinofílica (FPE), incontinencia pigmenti (IP), mastocitosis/urticaria pigmentosa (M/UP), acrodermatitis enteropática (AD [...] E), síndrome de Wiskott-Aldrich (WAS), acropustulosis infantil (API). Además se deben considerar la enfermedad de Rosai- Dorfman (ERD), xantomas diseminados, melanosis pustulosa neonatal (MPN), candidiasis congénita, listeriosis neonatal, herpes simple perinatal y la varicela neonatal. Debido a que los métodos auxiliares de laboratorio no siempre están disponibles o los resultados laboratoriales algunas veces son extemporáneos, y puesto que el médico práctico a menudo necesita tomar decisiones precozmente, es que la epidemiología resulta útil, pues brinda el marco adecuado para ordenar y jerarquizar las sospechas diagnósticas frente a un caso concreto, con un paciente determinado, en un momento específico. Abstract in english The differential diagnostics of Langerhans cell histiocytosis should include the following disorders: erythema toxicum neonatorum, seborrheic dermatitis, eosinophilic pustular folliculitis, incontinentia pigmenti, mastocytosis / urticaria pigmentosa, acrodermatitis enteropathica, Wiskott-Aldrich syn [...] drome, infantile acropustulosis, Rosai- Dorfman disease, xanthoma disseminatum, neonatal pustular melanosis, congenital candidiasis, perinatal listeriosis, perinatal herpes simplex, neonatal varicella. Since the auxiliary methods of lab are not always available, or lab results are sometimes extemporaneous, the physicians often needs to make quick decisions. The epidemiology is useful because it offers the appropriate mark to prioritize the diagnostic in specific cases

  13. Characteristics of Oral Abnormalities in Liver Transplant Candidates

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    J Guggenheimer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several oral mucosal abnormalities have been reported to occur more frequently in patients with liver disease. It has, however, not been determined if these conditions are related to the disease or are manifestationsof extraneous factors not associated with the liver pathology.Objective: To identify and quantify oral abnormalities in candidates for liver transplantation, and to determinewhether these conditions were correlated with the type of liver disease or were the result of other patient variables.Methods: Oral examinations were performed on 300 candidates for liver transplantation to assess their oral health and to record the presence and types of oral mucosal pathologies. Abnormalities most frequently encountered were analyzed for significant associations with classification of liver disease, hyposalivation, diuretic therapy, edentulism, or smoking.Results: Among these subjects, 175 (58% had one or more abnormalities. The anomalies most frequentlyfound were fissured tongue (37%, atrophy of the papillae of the tongue (18%, angular cheilitis (4% and manifestations of clinical candidiasis (2%. Clinical hyposalivation was found in 28.7% of all patients and 70% of those who were on diuretic therapy. Fissured tongue and atrophy of the tongue papillae were significantly associated with hyposalivation (p<0.001; hyposalivation was correlated to diuretic therapy (p=0.028. Pathologies suggestive of candidiasis were significantly associated with hyposalivation and total edentulism.Conclusion: Several oral mucosal abnormalities that have previously been linked with liver diseases were found to be primarily associated with diuretic-induced hyposalivation, smoking, and total edentulism.

  14. Effects of Caspofungin against Candida guilliermondii and Candida parapsilosis

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    Barchiesi, Francesco; Spreghini, Elisabetta; Tomassetti, Serena; Della Vittoria, Agnese; Arzeni, Daniela; Manso, Esther; Scalise, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro activity of caspofungin (CAS) was investigated against 28 yeast isolates belonging to Candida albicans (n = 5), Candida guilliermondii (n = 10), and Candida parapsilosis (n = 13). CAS MICs obtained by broth dilution and Etest methods clearly showed a rank order of susceptibility to the echinocandin compound with C. albicans > C. parapsilosis > C. guilliermondii. Similarly, time-kill assays performed on selected isolates showed that CAS was fungistatic against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, while it did not exert any activity against C. guilliermondii. In a murine model of systemic candidiasis, CAS given at doses as low as 1 mg/kg of body weight/day was effective at reducing the kidney burden of mice infected with either C. albicans or C. guilliermondii isolates. Depending on the isolate tested, mice infected with C. parapsilosis responded to CAS given at 1 and/or 5 mg/kg/day. However, the overall CFU reduction for C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis was approximately 100-fold less than that for C. albicans. Our study shows that CAS was active in experimental systemic candidiasis due to C. guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis, but this activity required relatively high drug dosages. PMID:16870764

  15. ETHYL CELLULOSE BASED MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ANTI-FUNGAL VAGINAL GELS OF TIOCONAZOLE

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    ramesh shankarrao kalkotwar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Valvovaginal Candidiasis is a fungal infection of the vagina and causes are itching, burning, soreness, dysparunia and phenohypical signs such as vaginal and vulvar erythema and edema caused by various species of the genus Candida. Tioconazole is an antifungal medication of the Imidazole class used to treat infections caused by a fungus or yeast. Negative aspects associated with oral systemic antifungal therapy for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis include its limited success rate, toxicity, contraindications, drug interactions, high cost of medication and increased microbial resistance. Orally administered tioconazole is extensively metabolized, major metabolites are glucuronide conjugates. Topical therapy does not lead to systemic side effects or drug interactions. The aim of the study was to produce Ethyl Cellulose microsponge loaded with Tioconazole gel which was able to control the release of Tioconazole to the vaginal tissue. Drug content, Encapsulation efficiency and Percentage yield as such 73.97±0.01, 92.15±0.02 and 81.57±2.87 were determined in the prepared microsponges. The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM of microsponges showed that they were spherical in shape and contained pores. Tioconazole microsponges were then incorporated into gel for release studies. It was found that the 12 hrs in-vitro drug release study of microsponge was best studied by Korsmeyer Peppas model.

  16. Patología oral asociada a la sequedad bucal / Oral pathology associated with dry mouth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Blanco Carrión; E., Otero Rey.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El síndrome de boca seca es un importante problema de salud ya que ocasiona intensas alteraciones funcionales y lesiones orales de carácter orgánico. Las alteraciones funcionales son las primeras en aparecer. Existe una dificultad en la masticación, deglución, fonación y alteración en la captación d [...] el gusto. Estos problemas pueden desencadenar cambios en la alimentación e incluso comprometer el estado nutricional. Las lesiones orales de carácter orgánico provocan una alteración de la mucosa oral, aparece brillante, seca, eritematosa, sensible, friable y, en ocasiones, dolorida, facilita la aparición de caries, de evolución rápida y de localización preferentemente cervical; enfermedad periodontal; malestar con el uso de prótesis; predisposición a las infecciones, sobre todo candidiasis; halitosis e incluso manifestaciones extraorales. Abstract in english Dry mouth syndrome is a major health problem that causes intense functional abnormalities and oral lesions of organic nature. Functional alterations are the first to appear. There is a difficulty in chewing, swallowing, speech and impaired uptake of taste. These problem scan trigger changes in diet [...] and even compromise nutritional status. Organic oral lesions cause analtered oral mucosa appears bright, dry, erythematous, tender, sore and sometimes friable, facilitates the development of caries, rapidly evolving and preferably cervical location, periodontal disease, discomfort with the prosthetic use, predisposition to infections, especially candidiasis, halitosis and even extraoral manifestations.

  17. Economic considerations in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis: a review of voriconazole pharmacoeconomic studies

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    Kem P Krueger

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kem P Krueger, A Christie NelsonSchool of Pharmacy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USAAbstract: Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection predominately affecting immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of inpatient-treated aspergillosis cases in the US is estimated to be between 3.02 and 3.80 per 10,000 hospitalized patients. The estimated difference in hospital costs of patients with an aspergillosis infection is US$36,867 to US$59,356 higher than those of patients without the infection. Voriconazole is a synthetic, broad spectrum triazole antifungal agent, with FDA-approved indications for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, esophageal candidiasis, candidemia in nonneutropenic patients, invasive candidiasis, and infections due to Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium species in patients refractory to or intolerant of other therapy. Eight cost-effectiveness analyses, one cost-minimization analysis, and one cost analysis were identified from a Medline search. The 10 pharmacoeconomic analyses were conducted in six different countries comparing voriconazole to conventional amphotericin B, liposomal amphotericin B, itraconazole, and caspofungin. All the cost-effectiveness and cost-minimization analyses identified voriconazole as the most cost-effective therapy. The cost analysis demonstrated voriconazole cost-savings. While the acquisition costs of voriconazole are higher than those of conventional amphotericin B, the toxicity profile and rate of treatment success associated with voriconazole result in lower total treatment costs per successfully treated patient.Keywords: voriconazole, antifungal agents, invasive aspergillosis, pharmacoeconomics 

  18. Candida glabrata Esophagitis: Are We Seeing the Emergence of a New Azole-Resistant Pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aze; Delport, Johan; Ponich, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Background. Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) has become a recognized pathogen in fungal esophagitis. A proportion of these isolates are azole-resistant which may have treatment implications. Variability in the prevalence of this organism exists in the limited data available. Objective. To determine the incidence of C. glabrata esophagitis in a North American hospital setting and to highlight factors that may predispose patients to this condition. Methods. Patient charts were collected from January 1, 2009 to July 30, 2011. Any charts of patients identified as having esophagitis with a positive fungal culture were reviewed for the species of Candida and the presence of factors that would predispose them to esophageal candidiasis. Results. The prevalence of Candida esophagitis based on culture was 2.2% (37 subjects). C. glabrata was the 2nd most prevalent pathogen identified (24.3% or 9 subjects). Of the C. glabrata cohort, all patients had at least one factor predisposing them to candidiasis. Conclusion. C. glabrata esophagitis makes up a large portion of the candidal esophagitis seen in hospital. C. glabrata infections were associated with at least one risk factor for candidal infection. Given its resistance to azole-based therapy, this may have treatment implications for how candidal esophagitis is approached by the clinician. PMID:25544843

  19. Ibuprofen-Mediated Reversal of Fluconazole Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Candida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monika; Kotwal, Aarti; Thakuria, Bhaskar; Kakati, Barnali; Chauhan, Bhupendra Singh; Patras, Abhishek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the increasing prevalence of invasive Candidiasis in today’s health-care scenario and the emergence of fluconazole resistance among clinical isolates of Candida, we sought to determine if Ibuprofen could elicit a reversal of fluconazole resistance and thereby offer a potential therapeutic breakthrough in fluconazole-resistant Candidiasis. Materials and Methods: We selected 69 clinical isolates of Candida, which demonstrated an MIC of >32 ?g/ml for fluconazole, and subjected them to broth microdilution in presence and absence of Ibuprofen. Results: Forty two of the 69 isolates (60.9%) demonstrated reversal of Fluconazole resistance with concomitant use of Ibuprofen. This was characterized by significant species-wise variation (p=0.00008), with all the C. albicans isolates and none of the C. glabrata isolates demonstrating such reversal. Only 22.2% and 37.7% of C. krusei and C. tropicalis isolates respectively showed Ibuprofen-mediated reversal of Fluconazole resistance. Conclusion: Since Ibuprofen is a known efflux pump inhibitor, our findings hint at the possible mechanism of Fluconazole resistance in most of our Candida isolates and suggest a potential therapeutic alternative that could be useful in the majority of Fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida. PMID:25737988

  20. Disseminated protothecosis associated with diskospondylitis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manino, Paul M; Oliveira, Fabiano; Ficken, Martin; Swinford, Amy; Burney, Derek

    2014-01-01

    A 6 yr old female Labrador retriever was evaluated for an acute onset of difficulty walking and a head tilt. Initial physical examination revealed bilateral retinal detachment, a left-sided head tilt, positional rotary nystagmus, and lumbar hyperpathia. Pertinent preliminary diagnostic findings included systemic hypertension, bony lysis and adjacent sclerosis of the vertebral endplates of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, and positive urine and blood cultures for a yeast identified as Candida spp. Concerned about disseminated candidiasis after subsequent subretinal aspirates confirmed the presence of a yeast-like organism, therapy with voriconazole was initiated. Because of progressive clinical deterioration and the poor prognosis for recovery, the dog was eventually euthanized. Postmortem histological examination of tissues, including the affected vertebral endplates, revealed numerous intralesional algae compatible with Prototheca spp. To the authors' knowledge, this report is the first to document a case of protothecal diskospondylitis with possible concurrent candidiasis in a dog. Although typically associated with signs referable to the gastrointestinal tract, this report underscores the importance of not excluding protothecosis as a differential diagnosis when such signs are absent. Lastly, the use of voriconazole appears ineffective for reversing the clinical course of late-stage disseminated protothecosis. PMID:25251425

  1. The role and importance of fungal infections in intensive care units, ICU

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    Tati? Milanka R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The incidence of fungal infections is constantly increasing, especially in Intensive Care Units (ICU. On the one hand ICU are places for treatment of most difficult, often immunodeficient patients, and on the other hand their treatment often requires invasive procedures, support of vital organs and adequate monitoring. Epidemiology In approximately 78% of patients the cause of infection are Candida species with mortality rate of 57%. Less common causative agents are Aspergillus species, but with very high mortality rate of up to 100%. Pathogenesis Candida albicans is a normal inhabitant of the oropharingeal and digestive systems. Hospitalization, trauma, loss of immunity and use of strong antibiotics facilitate fungal colonization. Inadequate nutrition, poor perfusion, ischemia and corticosteroids therapy lead to damage of intestinal mucosa. Combined with improper production of IG A, it predisposes to translocation of fungi through mucosa and invasion of the blood stream. Clinical manifestations Most common forms are urinary tract infections, intraabdominal candidiasis, disseminated candidiasis and candidemia. Diagnosis Diagnosis of fungal infections is very difficult. It is based on clinical picture, microbiological, histological, radiological, serologic and molecular examinations. Treatment Treatment is usually based on systemic antimycotic agents (Amphotericin B, Azoles: Fluconazole, Flucytosine. Prophylactic treatment is still a matter of debate. It is not routinely recommended in ICU, but is commonly used in transplant patients.

  2. Infección sistémica por Candida en unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales Systemic infection by Candida in neonatal intensive care units

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    Yalili Pouymiró Brooks

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales, los recién nacidos pretérmino pueden contraer infecciones micóticas invasivas, predominantemente por Candidas sp, causantes de una mayor morbilidad y mortalidad, así como también de frecuentes alteraciones del neurodesarrollo en los sobrevivientes. La candidiasis neonatal es de difícil diagnóstico, dado el carácter transitorio de la candidemia y la dificultad para eliminarla por su rápida invasión de los órganos y sistemas anatómicos. La mejor opción para disminuir la incidencia de la enfermedad, es prevenirla. En este artículo se actualiza lo concerniente a los principales elementos relacionados no solo con el diagnóstico, sino con el tratamiento profiláctico y específico de estos pacientes, referidos hasta el 2010 por grupos de expertos internacionales en esta materia de salud.In neonatal intensive care units the preterm infants may develop invasive fungal infections, mainly by Candida sp, causative of increased morbidity and mortality, as well as of frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in survivors. Neonatal candidiasis is difficult to diagnose because of the transitory nature of candidemia and the difficulty to eliminate its rapid invasion from organs and anatomical systems. The best option to reduce the incidence of the disease is to prevent it. In this article the main elements related not only to the diagnosis, but also to the specific and prophylactic treatment of these patients are updated, which were referred to 2010 by groups of international experts in this field of health.

  3. Plant polyphenols and oral health: old phytochemicals for new fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varoni, E M; Lodi, G; Sardella, A; Carrassi, A; Iriti, M

    2012-01-01

    Despite the protective role of diets rich in fruit plant polyphenols against some cancers and chronic degenerative and inflammatory diseases, insufficient emphasis has been placed on oral health. Numerous studies have aimed to ascertain the role of polyphenols in the prevention and treatment of oral diseases; however, even when in vitro evidence appears convincing, the same is not true for in vivo studies, and thus there is a general paucity of solid evidence based on animal and clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, only two reviews of polyphenols and oral health have been published; however, neither considered the potential role of whole plant extracts, which contain mixtures of many polyphenols that are often not completely identified. In the present study, our main aim was to review the current state of knowledge (search period: January 1965 to March 2011) on the effects of plant extracts/polyphenols on oral health. We found data on grapes, berries, tea, cocoa, coffee, myrtle, chamomile, honey/propolis, aloe extracts and the three main groups of polyphenols (stilbenes, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins). Their effects on caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease, candidiasis, oral aphtae, oral mucositis, oral lichen planus, leukoplakia and oral cancer were investigated. The data suggest that there is a lack of strong evidence, in particular regarding randomized clinical trials. However, a fascinating starting point has been provided by pre-clinical studies that have shown interesting activities of polyphenols against the most common oral diseases (caries, periodontitis and candidiasis), as well as in oral cancer prevention. PMID:22376030

  4. Review of the pharmacology and clinical studies of micafungin

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    Alison M Bormann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alison M Bormann1, Vicki A Morrison21Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Division of Hematology/Oncology and Infectious Disease, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Micafungin, like other members of the echinocandin class, has a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the synthesis of 1,3-?-D glucans in the fungal cell wall. It has been approved for treatment of esophageal candidiasis, invasive candidiasis including candidemia, and for prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although efficacy and safety have also been demonstrated in pediatric populations, micafungin is approved for this indication in Europe and Japan, but not in the United States. It has demonstrated activity against Candida spp. including those that are azole-resistant as well as Aspergillus and a few other clinically important molds. It is administered intravenously as a once daily infusion and does not require dose adjustments for renal or moderate hepatic dysfunction. Its safety record, favorable tolerability profile, and few drug interactions make it an important agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.Keywords: micafungin, antifungal therapy, echinocandins, fungal infections, Candida, Aspergillus

  5. Hypereosinophilic syndrome: Clinical, laboratory, and imaging manifestations in patients with hepatic involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) commonly involves liver and spleen but only a few literature has reported the imaging features. In this article, we present the imaging features of the liver and spleen in HES patients together with clinical and laboratory features. This study included 5 HES patients with hepatic involvement. Extensive laboratory tests including multiple hematologic, serologic, parasitological, and immunologic examinations were performed. Imaging studies included CT, ultrasound (US)of upper abdomen and hepatosplenic scintigraphy. All patients were periodically examined by laboratory and imaging studies for 4 to 24 months. The common clinical presentations were weakness, mild fever, and dry cough. All patients revealed leukocytosis with eosinophilia of 40 to 80% and benign eosinophilic hyperplasia of the bone marrow. The percutaneous biopsy of the hepatic focal lesions performed in 2 patients showed numerous benigin eosinophilic infiltrates and one of them revealed combined calibration necrosis of hepatocytes. All cases revealed hepatomegaly with multiple focal lesions on at least on of CT, US, or scintigraphy. These findings completely disappeared in 2 to 6 months following medication of corticosteroid or antihistamines. The HES involved the liver and CT, US, or scintigraphic studies showed hepatic multifocal lesions with hepatomegaly. Differential diagnosis of these findings should include metastatic disease, lymphoma, leukemia, candidiasis or othse, lymphoma, leukemia, candidiasis or other opportunistic infections

  6. Determination of Candida species nestled in denture fissures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Chiharu; Koga, Chihiro; Cho, Tamaki; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2013-07-01

    With the growing number of elderly individuals, Candida is occasionally recognised as a fungal cause of aspiration pneumonia. In addition, there are numerous investigational reports on oral candidiasis. However, there are currently no reports on Candida contamination of denture base materials. This study was conducted to investigate Candida species in the oral cavity, denture parts and oral lesions of older/elderly subjects with oral candidiasis. The Candida strains were isolated and the species identified. Candida was also cultured in a medium with sample of denture resin and observed under an electron microscope. The results demonstrated the presence of several Candida species in the lesions of the oral mucosa and the surface and inner portions of the dentures. The following species of Candida were detected: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis. Using electron microscopy, the invasion of Candida was observed in the incomplete polymerized resin base material and/or through microcracks (fissures) that have a tendency to form in used dentures. It was concluded that Candida may be present on the surface as well as the deeper portions of dentures. In addition, it appeared necessary to consider denture and oral cavity cleaning and the risks of remaking old dentures. PMID:24648980

  7. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of coconut oil-core cationic nanocapsules intended for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara S; Lorenzoni, Alessandra; Pegoraro, Natháli S; Denardi, Laura B; Alves, Sydney H; Schaffazick, Scheila R; Cruz, Letícia

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this work was to propose coconut oil-core nanocapsules prepared from Eudragit(®) RS100, a cationic polymer, and to evaluate their potential for vaginal delivery of clotrimazole in candidiasis. Nanocapsule suspensions loaded with clotrimazole at 1.0 and 3.0mg/mL were prepared by interfacial deposition of Eudragit(®) RS100. The physicochemical characterization showed average diameter lower than 200 nm, low polydispersity index, positive zeta potential (+10.94 to +14.57 mV), acid pH values (5.4-5.7) and encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. After 60 days of storage at room temperature and protected from light, the nanocapsules were reasonably stable. Photodegradation studies showed that nanoencapsulation improved clotrimazole stability against UV radiation. The in vitro drug release at pH 4.5 was characterized by a prolonged release with no burst effect. The nanocapsules were more active than free clotrimazole against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata strains susceptible and resistant to fluconazole. Hence, clotrimazole-loaded coconut oil-core nanocapsules represent promising alternatives to the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:24503350

  8. Dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane for the treatment of severe skin and tissue loss in an preterm infant: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus, M; Greenberg, M; Potenza, B

    2014-10-01

    Extreme prematurity complicated with severe congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC) is rare and clinically challenging. We present the case of a 615g dizygotic twin delivered at 24 weeks gestation with congenital candidiasis, who developed severe skin and tissue loss, successfully treated with dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM). The infant had a complicated medical course, including treatment for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). In the operating room after debridement, dHACM was placed over all abdominal and back areas of skin loss and covered with a non-occlusive, non-adherent silver dressing. This dressing regimen was chosen in an effort to provide not only topical antimicrobial coverage, but also to maintain a non-shear, moist wound healing environment, which was so important in the dry incubator environment of the neonatal intensive care centre. Over the next four weeks, the baby was medically managed, and the wounds healed on their own with only weekly bedside dressing changes. This case report provides the first example of successful complex management of extensive life-threatening wounds in a premature infant using dHACM. PMID:25296350

  9. Epidemiological and oral manifestations of HIV-positive patients in a specialized service in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erick Nelo, Pedreira; Camila Lopes, Cardoso; Éder do Carmo, Barroso; Jorge André de Souza, Santos; Felipe Paiva, Fonseca; Luís Antônio de Assis, Taveira.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients attending the Specialized Service for Infectious-contagious Diseases and Parasitoses of the Health Secretariat of the State of Pará (URE-DIPE/SESPA), in the city of Belém, PA, Brazil. A total of 79 HIV- [...] positive patients (53 males and 26 females) were examined. Clinical and epidemiological evaluations were done by correlating the lesions with gender, race, chronological age, risk behavior and prevailing immune status (CD4+ cells count). Lesion location and the presence of associated factors, such as alcohol use, smoking and denture wearing, were quantified individually for each type of lesion using a diagnostic pattern based on the clinical aspects. Approximately 47% of the patients (n=37) presented some type of oral lesion. Candidiasis (28%) and periodontal disease (28%) were the most common, followed by cervical-facial lymphadenopathy (17.5%). Other lesions observed were hairy leukoplakia, melanin hyperpigmentation, ulcerative stomatitis (aphthous), herpes simplex, frictional keratosis and pyogenic granuloma. This analysis presented some relevance as to the statistical data. Concerning CD4+ cells, most lesions manifested with the reduction of the CD count. There were a larger number of HIV-positive female heterosexual patients. Alcohol and/or smoking were strongly associated with the occurrence of hairy leukoplakia in these patients. Candidiasis and periodontal disease were the most common oro-regional clinical manifestations in the patients.

  10. Epidemiological and oral manifestations of HIV-positive patients in a specialized service in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Nelo Pedreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients attending the Specialized Service for Infectious-contagious Diseases and Parasitoses of the Health Secretariat of the State of Pará (URE-DIPE/SESPA, in the city of Belém, PA, Brazil. A total of 79 HIV-positive patients (53 males and 26 females were examined. Clinical and epidemiological evaluations were done by correlating the lesions with gender, race, chronological age, risk behavior and prevailing immune status (CD4+ cells count. Lesion location and the presence of associated factors, such as alcohol use, smoking and denture wearing, were quantified individually for each type of lesion using a diagnostic pattern based on the clinical aspects. Approximately 47% of the patients (n=37 presented some type of oral lesion. Candidiasis (28% and periodontal disease (28% were the most common, followed by cervical-facial lymphadenopathy (17.5%. Other lesions observed were hairy leukoplakia, melanin hyperpigmentation, ulcerative stomatitis (aphthous, herpes simplex, frictional keratosis and pyogenic granuloma. This analysis presented some relevance as to the statistical data. Concerning CD4+ cells, most lesions manifested with the reduction of the CD count. There were a larger number of HIV-positive female heterosexual patients. Alcohol and/or smoking were strongly associated with the occurrence of hairy leukoplakia in these patients. Candidiasis and periodontal disease were the most common oro-regional clinical manifestations in the patients.

  11. Comparative analysis of Gram’s method and PAS for the identification of Candida spp. samples from the oral mucosa / Análise comparativa entre o método de Gram e PAS para a identificação de Candida spp. em amostras da mucosa oral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cátia Martins Leite, Padilha; Bruna Lavinas Sayed, Picciani; Bruna Michalski dos, Santos; Arley, Silva Júnior; Eliane Pedra, Dias.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Espécies de Candida fazem parte da microbiota normal de indivíduos sadios, residindo como comensais. Entretanto, podem tornar-se patogênicas caso ocorram alterações nos mecanismos de defesa do hospedeiro ou comprometimento das barreiras anatômicas. A candidíase é a infecção fúngica mais [...] frequente na mucosa oral, causada principalmente pela Candida albicans. O diagnóstico baseia-se nos aspectos clínicos e nos sintomas, em conjunto com os métodos laboratoriais. Objetivos: Avaliar a sensibilidade e a especificidade do método de Gram na identificação da Candida spp. em raspados de mucosa oral e avaliar o grau de concordância entre os métodos clínico e citopatológico no diagnóstico de candidíase oral. Material e métodos: Teste cego de 171 esfregaços, provenientes dos pacientes atendidos no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da Universidade Federal Fluminense (HUAP/UFF), corados pelas colorações de Gram (n = 57), ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS) (n = 57) e Papanicolaou (n = 57). Resultados: A análise comparativa entre os métodos revelou que no PAS há maior prevalência de Candida spp. (12%) em relação ao Gram; todavia, não há diferença significativa entre os resultados. Dos casos com diagnóstico clínico de candidíase, 93% foram confirmados pela citopatologia. Conclusão: A coloração pelo Gram mostrou-se adequada, sendo necessário intensificar o treinamento do profissional para a identificação das estruturas morfológicas do fungo. Apesar de o Papanicolaou representar o método mais utilizado na rotina citopatológica para diagnóstico da candidíase, também se indica a utilização do PAS concomitantemente. Desse modo, sugere-se que o diagnóstico de candidíase seja realizado por meio de avaliação clínica associada à análise citopatológica, com base na presença de hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas. Abstract in english Introduction: Candida species are part of the normal microbiota of healthy subjects, living as commensals. However, they can become pathogenic when changes in the mechanisms of host defense or disruption of anatomic barriers occur. Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in the oral cavity, [...] mainly caused by Candida albicans. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and clinical aspects, in association with laboratory methods. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Gram’s method for Candida spp. identification in scrapes from the buccal mucosa and evaluate the degree of concordance between clinical and cytological methods in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis. Material and methods: A blind study was performed in 170 smears from patients of Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro of Universidade Federal Fluminense (HUAP/UFF), stained by Gram (n = 57), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) (n = 57) and Papanicolaou (Pap) (n = 57) methods. Results: The comparative analysis of the methods demonstrated a higher prevalence of Candida spp. (12%) in PAS than in Gram staining, without statistic significance. The cytology method was positive in 93% of the clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. Conclusion: Gram was an adequate method; however more intensive professional training would be necessary to identify the fungus morphological structures. Although Pap test is the most common method of routine cytopathologic examination, for candidiasis diagnosis PAS staining is also recommended. Thus, it is suggested that candidiasis diagnosis should be accomplished by clinical evaluation in association with cytopathological analysis based on the identification of hyphae and/or pseudohyphae.

  12. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con VIH asociadas al estadio clínico en el Hospital de Alta Especialidad "Dr. Gustavo Adolfo Rovirosa Pérez"

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    Roberto M\\u00E9ndez-Mena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las manifestaciones bucales tales como la candidiasis pseudomembranosa y el eritema gingival lineal son el primer signo clínico de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH, se han hecho presente desde el primer contacto reportado con la enfermedad; su identificación puede ser el primer dato clínico que sugiera la infección y pueden estar relacionadas al tiempo de seropositividad y estadio clínico en que se encuentre la población infectada. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de las manifestaciones bucales en la infección por el VIH asociada al tiempo de seropositividad y estadio clínico en pacientes bajo sospecha y confirmación de la infección por el VIH que asisten al servicio de Infectología del Hospital de Alta Especialidad Dr. Gustavo A, Rovirosa Pérez" en la ciudad de Villahermosa Tabasco. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, descriptivo y observacional en 101 pacientes que acudían a consulta al servicio de Infectología referidos de los Centros de Atención Primaria de la Salud para la valoración e inicio del protocolo de atención en pacientes con VIH. Se determinó el conteo de células CD4+ mediante citometría de flujo, así como la carga viral mediante la técnica TR-RCP (Transcriptasa Reversa- Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa. Resultados. De los 101 pacientes estudiados el 72% correspondía al género masculino y el 28% al género femenino. El grupo de edad más afectado correspondía al rango de 25 a 44 años. La vía de trasmisión fue sexual con un 98% de todos los casos. El tiempo de exposición con la infección en la población infectada fue a un 89% promedio menor o igual a cinco años y estos demostraron tener menor prevalencia a presentar alguna manifestación bucal con solo el 26% de los casos, distinto a los que tenían mayor tiempo de exposición los cuales presentaron en un 64% manifestaciones bucales. El estadio clínico mayormente encontraron en los pacientes fue en fases asintomática estadio A (79% y solo el 14% en fase sintomática categoría C SIDA. La manifestación bucal más frecuente fue la candidiasis pseudomembranosa con el 24% de los casos encontrados y la menos frecuente fue la Periodontitis Ulcerativa Necrotizante solo el 1%. Los pacientes que presentaron una carga viral de 50,000 copias/ mm3 presentaron manifestaciones bucales relacionadas con el VIH independientemente del conteo de células CD4+, aunque los pacientes con niveles de CD4+ menores a 200 cel/mm3 fueron más susceptibles a desarrollar estas manifestaciones. Conclusión. La candidiasis bucal, la xerostomía y la periodontitis ulcerativa necrotizante fueron las más frecuentes y una alta carga viral estuvo asociada a la presencia de estas con un conteo bajo de células CD4.

  13. MRI of CNS fungal infections: review of aspergillosis to histoplasmosis and everything in between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, J; Moritani, T; Kirby, P

    2014-09-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a wide spectrum of diseases with some common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. Risk factors include immunocompromise of any cause and living in endemic areas. CNS infection occurs through hematogenous spread, cerebrospinal fluid seeding, or direct extension. MRI features include heterogeneous or ring reduced diffusion and weak ring enhancement. Angioinvasive aspergillosis is characterized by multifocal hemorrhagic lesions with reduced diffusion. Cryptococcosis results in gelatinous pseudocyst formation in the basal ganglia. Mucormycosis is characterized by frontal lobe lesions with markedly reduced diffusion. Candidiasis is usually manifest by numerous microabscesses of less than 3 mm occurring at the corticomedullary junction, basal ganglia, or cerebellum. Coccidioidomycosis often results in meningitis with contrast enhancement of the basal cisterns. Blastomycosis and histoplasmosis are rare infections with parenchymal abscesses or meningitis. Recognizing the imaging features of CNS infections allows for early, aggressive treatment of these otherwise rapidly fatal infections. PMID:24870817

  14. Novel, broad-specrum antimycotic agents: the role of echinocandins today

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Manfredi.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in english The echinocandins show comparable efficacy in the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Caspofungin and micafungin appear to be similarly efficacious in salvage therapy in aspergillosis; anidulafungin has excellent in vitro activity against Aspergillus species but as yet there are no suf [...] ficient clinical data for anidulafungin in this disease state. Each drug has minor advantages and disadvantages compared to the others of the same classe; however, there are large differences in the approved indications for the different drugs. The formulary selection process should consider the direct and indirect costs of the single agents; the characteristics of the patient population at risk for invasive mycosis, such as frequent use of interacting drugs and the burden of monitoring plasma drug levels of drugs; and the implications of using products for indications which have not been still approved (off-label indications).

  15. Isavuconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole for the treatment of systemic fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Verweij, Paul E; Mouton, Johan W

    2015-01-01

    The prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate (BAL8557) is an extended-spectrum water-soluble triazole, developed for the treatment of severe invasive and life-threatening fungal diseases. Its active moiety, BAL4815, is a potent inhibitor of ergosterol biosynthesis, resulting in the disruption of fungal membrane structure and function. The active compound shows broad-spectrum of activity and potency against all major opportunistic fungi, such as Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Mucorales, Black yeasts and their filamentous relatives and the true pathogenic fungi, including Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis. It is currently in Phase III clinical development for treatment of aspergillosis, candidiasis and mucormycosis, as well as other rare fungi infections. We reviewed the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of isavuconazole, and its microbiological and clinical investigation progress in advanced stages of development. PMID:25488140

  16. Radiological appearances in the near-drowned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three patients who were unconscious when rescued from drowning had radiographic studies of their lungs carried out after several hours, or on the following day. The findings had to be interpreted as pulmonary oedema. The most seriously affected patient showed the picture of massive acute interstitial oedema on the second day. After initial regression, coarse shadows developed, indicating the alveolar form of pulmonary oedema. The sputum contained candida, but there was no evidence of pulmonary candidiasis. In two patients there were transient signs of limited atelectases. Two patients were re-examined after five years. There were no features which could be interpreted as a consequence of the drowning episode. The radiographic appearances showed minor changes which could be due to mild pulmonary fibrosis. (orig.)

  17. Quorum-Sensing Dysbiotic Shifts in the HIV-Infected Oral Metabiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert E.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    We implemented a Systems Biology approach using Correlation Difference Probability Network (CDPN) analysis to provide insights into the statistically significant functional differences between HIV-infected patients and uninfected individuals. The analysis correlates bacterial microbiome (“bacteriome”), fungal microbiome (“mycobiome”), and metabolome data to model the underlying biological processes comprising the Human Oral Metabiome. CDPN highlights the taxa-metabolite-taxa differences between the cohorts that frequently capture quorum-sensing modifications that reflect communication disruptions in the dysbiotic HIV cohort. The results also highlight the significant role of cyclic mono and dipeptides as quorum-sensing (QS) mediators between oral bacteria and fungal genus. The developed CDPN approach allowed us to model the interactions of taxa and key metabolites, and hypothesize their possible contribution to the etiology of Oral Candidiasis (OC). PMID:25886290

  18. Prevalence of dermatoses in the neonates in Pondichery

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    Baruah M

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This study records the preliminary observation on neonatal dermatoses in relation to sex, birth weight and gestational age in 500 newborns delivered between August 1986 and September 1987 at JIPMER Hospital, Pondichery, Physiological dermatoses seen in 100% of the newborns, in the order of frequency were : linea nigra, Epstein?s pearls, physiological scaling, milia and erythema toxicum. Salmon patches were the commonest vascular birthmarks (34.6% Twenty-three per cent had transient neonatal angioma, an entity not described earlier. Infectious dermatoses observed were pyoderma (3%, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, congenital syphilis, congenital candidiasis and a case of tinea corporis, probably the youngest described in literature. The commonest congenital malformation of the skin was absence of the outer fold of the helix (3.5%. An unusual case of aplasia cutis involving the scalp and both flanks associated with bilateral corneal opacities was observed.

  19. Role of PHD fingers and COOH-terminal 30 amino acids in AIRE transactivation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Alessandra; Incani, Federica; Corda, Denise; Cao, Antonio; Rosatelli, Maria Cristina

    2008-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomic autoimmune disease resulting from the defective function of a gene codifying for a transcription factor named autoimmune regulation (AIRE). The AIRE protein contains several domains among which two PHD fingers involved in the transcriptional activation. We investigated the function of the two PHD finger domains and the COOH terminal portion of AIRE by using several mutated constructs transfected in mammalian cells and a luciferase reporter assay. The results predict that the second PHD as well as the COOH terminal regions have marked transactivational properties. The COOH terminal region contains the fourth LXXLL and the PXXPXP motifs which play a critical role in mediating the transactivation capacity of the AIRE protein. Our study provides a definition of the role of the PHD fingers in transactivation and identifies a new transactivation domain of the AIRE protein localized in the COOH terminal region. PMID:17675238

  20. Denture plaque and denture cleansers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, D C

    1981-04-01

    Literature concerning the relationship between denture plaque, oral pathology, and the nature and effectiveness of the products commercially available for cleaning dentures has been reviewed. The literature reports indicate that (1) plaque on the tissue surface side of the denture is unquestionably a major etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of denture stomatitis, inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, and chronic candidiasis and (2) there are shortcomings in the popular products used by the public to clean their dentures. The protocol and results of a study to test the plaque removal effectiveness of a new denture cleansing product are described. In this study, the plaque removal effectiveness of the ultrasonic device tested, when used with water alone, was found to be substantially greater than that of two popular alkaline-peroxide soak-type denture cleansers, Efferdent and Polident. PMID:6939844

  1. Prevalencia de lesiones bucales en pacientes VIH +, relación con contaje de células CD4+ y carga viral en una población Venezolana / Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Inés María, Bravo; María, Correnti; Laura, Escalona; Marianella, Perrone; Aubert, Brito; Vilma, Tovar; Helen, Rivera.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones bucales en un grupo de pacientes VIH+, su relación con el contaje de linfocitos CD4 y la carga viral, en una muestra de la población venezolana Materiales y métodos: En el presente estudio se evaluaron 75 pacientes adultos VIH+, provenientes del Ce [...] ntro para la Atención de Pacientes con Enfermedades Infectocontagiosas de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Cada uno de ellos fue examinado clínicamente para la detección de las lesiones presentes en la mucosa bucal. Igualmente se les determinó el contaje de células CD4+ mediante citometría de flujo, así como la carga viral mediante la técnica TR-RCP (Transcriptasa Reversa-Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa) (Amplicor HIV-1-RNA, TM test 1.5, Roche). Resultados: 85% (64/75) de los pacientes VIH/SIDA presentaron lesiones asociadas a la infección por VIH. Entre ellas, la Candidiasis constituyó la forma más frecuente representando un 61% (39/64), seguida por la Leucoplasia Vellosa con 53% (34/64), Leucoplasia Bucal 34% (22/64), Hiperpigmentación Melánica 38% (18/64). Papiloma 13% (6/64), Eritema Gingival Lineal 8% (5/64), Estomatitis Aftosa Recidivante 5% (4/64), Sarcoma de Kaposi 5% (3/64). Se presentó un solo caso (2%) de cada una de las lesiones que se enumeran a continuación: Linfoma No Hodgkin, Hiperplasia Epitelial Multifocal, Herpes Labial, Histoplasmosis y Molusco Contagioso. Los pacientes con una carga viral de 30.000 copias/mm3, presentaron lesiones bucales relacionadas con VIH independientemente del contaje de células CD4+, aunque los pacientes con niveles de CD4+ menores a 200 cel//mm3, fueron mas susceptibles a desarrollar estas lesiones. Conclusiones: La lesión oral mas frecuente fue la Candidiasis bucal, seguida por la Leucoplasia vellosa, Leucoplasia bucal, e Hiperpigmentación melánica. Una alta carga viral estuvo fuertemente asociada a la presencia de lesiones, independientemente del contaje de células CD4+. Abstract in english Aim: To determine the prevalence of oral lesions in a HIV + group of patients, related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population. Materials and methods: In the present study, we evaluated 75 HIV+adult patients, attended at the Center of Infectious Diseases, at the Faculty of Dentis [...] try, Central University of Venezuela. Each patient was clinically examined for detection of oral mucosal lesions. In addition, CD4 cell count was determined by flow cytometry, as well as viral load by RT-PCR (Amplicor HIV-RNA, TM test 1.5, Roche) Results: 85% (64/75) of HIV/AIDS patients showed associated HIV lesions. Oral Candidiasis constituted the most common lesion representing a 61% (39/64), followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia 53% (34/64); Oral Leukoplakia 34% (22/64), Melanic Hiperpigmentation 38% (18/64); Papilloma 13 (6/64), Lineal Gingival Erithema 8% (5/64); Aphtous Recurrent Stomatitis 5% (4/64) and Kaposi’s Sarcoma 5% (3/64). Only one case of the following lesions were represented by Non Hodgkin Lymphoma, Multifocal Epithelial Hyperplasia, Recurrent Herpes, Histoplasmosis and Molluscum Contagiosum. The patients with a viral load of 30.000 copies/mm3 exhibited oral lesions related with HIV, independent of CD4 cell count, although patients with CD4+ levels of 200 cel/mm3 were more susceptible to develop these lesions. Conclusions: The most common oral lesion was Oral Candidiasis followed by Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Oral Leukoplakia and Melanic Hyperpigmentation. A high viral load was strongly associated to the oral lesions occurrence independently of CD4+ cell count.

  2. [The use of Topisolone in dermatoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, W; Grimmer, H

    1975-01-01

    Topisolon (Desoximetasone) has been used under clinical conditions on 42 patients with acute and chronic dermatoses. This was a comparative trial on symetric areas. Topisolon with the test name A 41 304 has been compared to an 0,1% triamcinolon-acetonide ointment. Topisolon showed a quick onset of action. After 14 days of treatment a good result has been seen in 88% of the cases and in only 5% the effect has been moderate. The drug has been used in psoriasis vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, and lichen ruber. No side effects or irritations have been seen except one case of candidiasis. On five diabetics treated no influence on blood sugar level could be seen. PMID:1229218

  3. Deteccion de candida en cavidad bucal en un grupo de niños eutroficos y desnutridos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Ramos; M, Mendoza; C, Pérez; E, Díaz.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Candida albicans es una levadura, frecuente comensal en la microflora bucal, sin embargo, la predisposición del hospedero interviene como cofactor en la génesis de la candidiasis bucal, aunado a las deficiencias nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la presencia de C. albicans y [...] otras especies de Candida en un grupo de niños desnutridos y compararla con un grupo de niños nutridos o eutróficos. En esta investigación se estudiaron sesenta y tres niños de 3 a 6 años de edad que acudieron al Centro Atención Nutricional Infantil de Antímano (CANIA), 34 eran desnutridos y 29 eutróficos; ninguno de los niños evaluados presentó signos clínicos de candidiasis bucal. Del total de casos, 28 (44.44%) dieron positivos para levaduras, de estos 19 (67,87%) correspondieron a niños desnutridos y 9 (32,14%) a niños eutróficos. De los 35 casos de cultivos negativos para levaduras, el mayor porcentaje (57,14%) se encontró en los niños eutróficos. El análisis de test estadístico de diferencias de dos proporciones, demostró que C. albicans fue la especie mas frecuente (35,71%) en los niños desnutridos, en comparación a los eutróficos (14,28%). Otras especies de Candida también fueron encontradas. En cuanto a sexo y edad, no hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La evaluación de la respuesta inmune celular en 40 niños de este estudio con el antígeno de Candidina, evidenció solo un 38% de positividad en los niños desnutridos, ante un 63% en niños eutróficos, esto nos señala la baja respuesta o defensa inmunológica que presenta el grupo de niños desnutridos frente a esta levadura, lo cual nos hace sugerir, que esto puede ser un factor predisponente en este grupo para el desarrollo de la enfermedad Abstract in english Candida albicans is a yeast, frequent diner in the oral microflora, however, the predisposition of the host acts as a cofactor in the genesis of oral candidiasis, coupled with nutritional deficiencies. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of C. albicans and other Candida species in a [...] group of malnourished children and compare it with a group of children nourished or eutrophic. This study examined sixty-three children from 3 to 6 years of age who came to the Center for Child Care Nutrition Antímano (Cania), 34 were malnourished and 29 eutrophic; none of the children tested showed signs of clinical oral candidiasis. Of the total cases, 28 (44.44%) were positive for yeast, these 19 (67.87%) children were malnourished and 9 (32.14%) children eutrophic. Of the 35 cases negative for yeast cultivation, the highest percentage (57.14%) were found in children eutrophic. An analysis of statistical test of differences of two proportions, showed that C. albicans species was the most frequent (35.71%) in malnourished children, compared to eutrophic (14.28%). Other Candida species were also found. As for sex and age, there was no statistical difference. The evaluation of the cellular immune response in 40 children in this study with the antigen Candidina, showed only 38% of positivity in malnourished children, with 63% in eutrophic children, we noted that the low immune response or defense that presents the group of malnourished children in front of this yeast, which makes us suggest that this may be a predisposing factor in this group for developing the disease

  4. Fluconazole-induced Stevens-Jonson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashanker P. Keshri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old girl self-administered tab fluconazole for vulvovaginal candidiasis and developed fever, myalgia and erythematous papular eruptions with itching at both upper and lower lip, mucous membrane of the mouth, vaginal region, which subsequently changed into blister and multiple ulcers. She also had difficulty in swallowing due to painful erosions of the mouth and oropharynx and severe burning pain at vulval and vaginal region. There was bilateral conjunctival hemorrhage. Investigation report revealed leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein, which was suggesting the diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. She was treated mainly by corticosteroids, antihistamines and antimicrobials and improved. Time taken for resolution of the lesion was 14 days. Rechallenge with the offending drug was not done in the interest of the patient and due to ethical constraints. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 566-568

  5. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  6. Anti-Candida activity of Mentha arvensis and Turnera ulmifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Souza, Celestina E S; Tintino, Saulo R; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Glaucia M M; Nogueira, Lavouisier F B; Morais, Edson C; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-03-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi, frequently caused by Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. Mentha arvensis L. is a herbaceous plant that occurs throughout South America and is used as a tea and in the folk medicine. Turnera ulmifolia L. is already known to be of medicinal value. Ethanol extracts from M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia were assayed for antifungal activity against strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. No clinically relevant antifungal activity was demonstrated by the extracts; however, a potentiation effect was observed when the extracts were applied with metronidazole against C. tropicalis. M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia could represent a source of natural products with modifying antifungal activity. PMID:22082100

  7. Prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal anormal en el Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza / Prevalence of vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis in patient with abnormal vaginal discharge, at the Hospital Arzobispo Loayza, Lima-Peru

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ruth, Medina; Adolfo, Rechkemmer; Marco, Garcia-Hjarles.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de vaginitis y vaginosis bacteriana en pacientes con flujo vaginal y su asociación con características clínicas y de laboratorio. Material y métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal. Se estudiaron 370 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta ginecológica del H [...] ospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza de enero a marzo de 1998. A todas las pacientes se les tomó muestras de flujo vaginal para la medición del pH, del test de amina y la identificación microscópica de "células clave", Trichomonas vaginalis, levaduras e hifas. Resultados: La prevalencia de infección vaginal fue de 42.2%; siendo vaginosis bacteriana la infección más frecuente (23.24%), seguido de candidiasis vaginal (16.2%) y tricomoniasis vaginal (7.8%). Vaginosis bacteriana estuvo asociada a mal olor postcoital, ausencia de signos inflamatorios en vagina, flujo vaginal blanquecino, lechoso, homogéneo y fétido. La candidiasis vaginal estuvo asociada a prurito, ardor vulvovaginal, eritema vulvar y vaginal, flujo vaginal amarillento, grumoso sin olor, test de amina negativo; así como ausencia de relaciones sexuales, ningún compañero sexual en el último año, ninguna gestación, una vida sexual menor de dos años y paridad de ninguno a un hijo. La tricomoniasis vaginal estuvo asociada a eritema vaginal, flujo vaginal amarillo verdoso, espumoso, homogéneo y fétido y test de amina positivo. Conclusión: Un diagnóstico correcto y oportuno de las infecciones vaginales no debe basarse sólo en las características clínicas sino en la confirmación con métodos sencillos de laboratorio. ( Rev Med Hered 1999; 10:144-150 ). Abstract in english Objective: To determine the prevalence of vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis in women with vaginal discharge and the relationship between clinical manifestations and laboratory. Material and methods: This was a cross-sectional study; a group of 370 women were enrolled between January and March, 1998. [...] The patients were attended at the Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza in Lima; they answered a specifically designed questionnaire and a vaginal secretion sampling was taken. Cotton swaps containing such secretions were employed to measure pH, estimate amina production (fishy odor) and perform direct microscopic with 10% potassium hydroxide and normal saline solution, which allowed the recognition of "clue cells", Thichomonas vaginalis and yeasts. Results: The prevalence of vaginal infections was 42.2%, most frequent was bacterial vaginosis with a prevalence of 23.24%, vaginal candidiasis and vaginal trichomoniasis were present in 16.2% and 7.8% of the population, respectively. Clinical and laboratory features associated to bacterial vaginosis were: postcoital offensive odor, lack of vaginal inflammation, white homogeneous "fishy smelling" vaginal discharge. Clinical and laboratory features associated to vaginal candidiasis were: vulvar itching, burning, vulvar and vaginal erythema, negative amine test and thick, crude yellow discharge, as well as non prior pregnancy and sexual life less than two years. Clinical and laboratory features associated to vaginal trichomoniasis were: vaginal erythema, fetid yellow-green frothy homogeneous vaginal discharge and positive amine test. Conclusion: It is important the correct clinical diagnostic of vaginal infections with laboratory confirmation. ( Rev Med Hered 1999; 10:144-150 ).

  8. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and topical steroid therapy: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decani, Sem; Federighi, Veronica; Baruzzi, Elisa; Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Topical corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases; among them, clobetasol propionate is one of the most widely used in oral medicine. Under physiological conditions, the transmucosal application is characterized by a significantly greater absorption than the skin application. Contrary to many publications about the side effects of topical corticosteroids in dermatology, few studies have investigated the systemic effects due to local application of these drugs on oral mucosa. Although topical steroid therapy for the management of oral diseases is generally associated with local adverse effects (candidiasis, stomatopyrosis, and hypogeusia), these drugs can also lead to systemic side effects, such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome. This review reports five cases of systemic adverse effects caused by clobetasol propionate topical treatment. PMID:23210698

  9. Triazole antifungal agents: practice guidelines of therapeutic drug monitoring and perspectives in treatment optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scodavolpe, Simon; Quaranta, Sylvie; Lacarelle, Bruno; Solas, Caroline

    2014-08-01

    Antifungal triazole agents (fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole) are widely used for the management of invasive fungal infections (IFI). These drugs are indicated both for the prophylaxis and treatment of IFI, particularly in candidiasis and aspergillosis, major cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. Due to a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability leading to sub-therapeutic or toxic concentrations and to concentration-efficacy and/or -toxicity relationships, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal triazole is fully justified. This review provides an overview of literature based data that confirm the usefulness of such TDM and its level of evidence as well as the practical guidelines for its implementation. In addition, we discuss the interest of new tools to improve the clinical management of IFI, such as genotyping tests optimizing initial voriconazole dosing regimen or the development of a new solid oral tablet of posaconazole improving its bioavailability and limiting absorption disorders. PMID:25119797

  10. Achalasia Previously Diagnosed as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease by Relying on Esophageal Impedance-pH Monitoring: Use of High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Jung Eun; Choi, Da Min; Lee, Jung Hwa; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) is the most common esophageal disorder in children. Achalasia occurs less commonly but has similar symptoms to GERD. A nine-year old boy presented with vomiting, heartburn, and nocturnal cough. The esophageal impedance-pH monitor revealed nonacidic GERD (all-refluxate clearance percent time of 20.9%). His symptoms persisted despite medical treatment for GERD, and he was lost to follow up. Four years later, he presented with heartburn, solid-food dysphagia, daily post-prandial vomiting, and failure to thrive. Endoscopy showed a severely dilated esophagus with candidiasis. High-resolution manometry was performed, and he was diagnosed with classic achalasia (also known as type I). His symptoms resolved after two pneumatic dilatation procedures, and his weight and height began to catch up to his peers. Clinicians might consider using high-resolution manometry in children with atypical GERD even after evaluation with an impedance-pH monitor. PMID:25866734

  11. Atividade antimicrobiana, antiaderente e antifúngica in vitro de plantas medicinais brasileiras sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e cepas do gênero Candida / In vitro antimicrobial, antiadherent and antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants on oral biofilm microorganisms and strains of the genus Candida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pollianna Muniz, Alves; Lélia Maria Guedes, Queiroz; Jozinete Vieira, Pereira; Maria do Socorro Vieira, Pereira.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana, antifúngica e antiaderente da aroeira-do-sertão, malva e goiabeira sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e candidose oral. Os extratos mostraram-se eficazes, inibindo o crescimento das bactérias do biofilme dental e fungos da candidose oral, sugerind [...] o a utilização dessas plantas como meio alternativo na terapêutica odontológica. Abstract in english The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiadherent activity of aroeira-do-sertão, mallow and guava tree on oral biofilm microorganisms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro. The extracts were shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria of the oral biofilm and fungi of oral candidias [...] is, thus suggesting that these extracts can be used as alternative means of dental therapy.

  12. Clinical and diagnostic pathways in pediatric fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Castagnola

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, in pediatrics the patients mostly affected by fungal infections are hematological patients, followed by those with solid tumors, and transplant recipients. Candida infections generally occur just after birth, whereas Aspergillus infections are age-related, and increase their incidence with age. However, among infections, the incidence of bacteremias are still greater than that of mycoses. In pediatrics, in Italy the immunocompromised patients – thus particularly susceptible to fungal infections – are mainly those with severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and chronic granulomatous disease. Particular Aspergillus or Scedosporium infections should be considered in peculiar kinds of patients, such as those affected by cystic fibrosis. Finally, different kinds of fungi should be considered in those who come from or spend a lot time in specific areas, such as South America (e.g. coccidioidomycoses, for which differential diagnosis is with tuberculosis.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.859

  13. A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sadhan Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4129 patients attended the STD clinic from 1996 to 1999. Of those 25.75% were STD cases. Male and female cases comprised 86% and 14% respectively. Majority were in the age group between 18 to 38 years. Choncroid was the commonest STD (37. 7%. Other STDs in order were syphilis (30. 66%, NGU (15.71%, gonorrhoea (7%, venereal wart (3.57%, candidiasis (2.53%, trichomonal vaginitis (1.6%, herpes genitalis (0.65% and LGV (0.47%. No case of Donovanosis or HIV was detected. 13.7% of STD cases were reactive for VDRL test and 8% of the antenatal attendents were strongly VDRL test reactive. The urethral discharge on gram staining was positive for gonococcus, in 29%. 68% of the clinic attendents were given safer sex education and served condom.

  14. Activity of spray-dried microparticles containing pomegranate peel extract against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Eliana Harue; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2012-01-01

    Pomegranate has attracted interest from researchers because of its chemical composition and biological properties. It possesses strong antioxidant activity, with potential health benefits, and also antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to produce microparticles containing pomegranate extract by the spray-drying technique, utilizing alginate or chitosan as encapsulating agents. Characterization and antifungal assays were carried out. Production yields were about 40% for alginate microparticles and 41% for chitosan. Mean diameters were 2.45 µm and 2.80 µm, and encapsulation efficiencies were 81.9% and 74.7% for alginate and chitosan microparticles, respectively. The spray-drying process preserved the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These results could be useful for developing dosage forms for treating candidiasis, and should be further investigated in in vivo models. PMID:22922280

  15. Activity of Spray-dried Microparticles Containing Pomegranate Peel Extract against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate has attracted interest from researchers because of its chemical composition and biological properties. It possesses strong antioxidant activity, with potential health benefits, and also antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to produce microparticles containing pomegranate extract by the spray-drying technique, utilizing alginate or chitosan as encapsulating agents. Characterization and antifungal assays were carried out. Production yields were about 40% for alginate microparticles and 41% for chitosan. Mean diameters were 2.45 µm and 2.80 µm, and encapsulation efficiencies were 81.9% and 74.7% for alginate and chitosan microparticles, respectively. The spray-drying process preserved the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These results could be useful for developing dosage forms for treating candidiasis, and should be further investigated in in vivo models.

  16. Mucormycoses caused by Lichtheimia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartze, Volker U; Jacobsen, Ilse D

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycoses are life-threatening infections with fungi from the order Mucorales (Mucoromycotina). Although mucormycoses are uncommon compared to other fungal infections, e.g. aspergillosis and candidiasis, the number of cases is increasing especially in immunocompromised patients. Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia) species represent the second to third most common cause of mucormycoses in Europe. This mini review presents current knowledge about taxonomy and clinical relevance of Lichtheimia species. In addition, clinical presentation and risk factors will be discussed. Proper animal infection models are essential for the understanding of the pathogenesis and the identification of virulence factors of fungal pathogens. To date, several animal models have been used to study Lichtheimia infection. A brief overview of the different models and the main conclusions from the infection experiments is summarised in this review. PMID:25186921

  17. Use of Amorolfine in Candida- associated Denture Stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis (DS is an inflammatory lesion, in which there is redness of theoral mucosa underneath a removable denture. Although Candida albicans is a component ofnormal microbial flora, local and systemic factors can cause opportunistic infections. Poorlyfitting or unhygienic dentures leads to the presence of yeasts attached to it., and causeinflammation. Treatment procedures include correction of ill-fitting dentures, plaquecontrol, and topical and systemic antifungal therapy. Nystatin and Amphoteresin B are usedtopically as suspension. Since candidiasis is highly resistant to antifungal agents, systemicusage of ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole are necessary. But the systemic use ofthese drugs can cause side effects like liver toxicity, drug interactions etc. Lucio; Lorengoetal had conducted a study of the efficacy of amorolfine antifungal varnish, by localapplication, and found that it suppresses the nystatin resistant Candida associated denturestomatitis.

  18. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded.

  19. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  20. Artemisinins, new miconazole potentiators resulting in increased activity against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, Kaat; Lanckacker, Ellen; Cools, Tanne L; Bax, Marijke; De Brucker, Katrijn; Cos, Paul; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal biofilm-related fungal infections are very common, and the incidence of recurrent oral and vulvovaginal candidiasis is significant. As resistance to azoles (the preferred treatment) is occurring, we aimed at identifying compounds that increase the activity of miconazole against Candida albicans biofilms. We screened 1,600 compounds of a drug-repositioning library in combination with a subinhibitory concentration of miconazole. Synergy between the best identified potentiators and miconazole was characterized by checkerboard analyses and fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Hexachlorophene, pyrvinium pamoate, and artesunate act synergistically with miconazole in affecting C. albicans biofilms. Synergy was most pronounced for artesunate and structural homologues thereof. No synergistic effect could be observed between artesunate and fluconazole, caspofungin, or amphotericin B. Our data reveal enhancement of the antibiofilm activity of miconazole by artesunate, pointing to potential combination therapy consisting of miconazole and artesunate to treat C. albicans biofilm-related infections. PMID:25367916