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Sample records for candidiasis

  1. Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photomicrograph of the fungus Candida albicans Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts ... in humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans . Candida yeasts normally live on the skin and ...

  2. Candidiasis (Thrush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take supplements of gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) and Biotin. They both seem to slow the spread of ... GLA is found in several cold-pressed oils. Biotin is a B vitamin. THE BOTTOM LINE Candidiasis ...

  3. Candidiasis (vulvovaginal)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Tapia P

    2010-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterised by vulval itching and abnormal "cheese-like" or watery vaginal discharge. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is estimated to be the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis. Candida albicans accounts for 85% to 90% of cases.Risk factors include pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, and systemic antibiotics. Incidence increases with the onset of sexual activity, but associations with different types of contraceptives are unclear.Recurrent sympt...

  4. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview Candidiasis, commonly known as a yeast infection, is an infection with the common yeast ( ...

  5. Gastro-oesophageal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, B. B.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-01-01

    A prospective search for gastro-oesophageal candidiasis was made by histological examination of all the biopsies taken from 465 patients endoscoped consecutively during a 12 month period. The criterion for diagnosis was the demonstration of infiltration of tissue or ulcer slough by yeasts and hyphae. Nineteen cases of candidiasis were found giving an overall incidence of 4%. There were 12 cases with oesophageal candidiasis, two with both oesophageal and gastric candidiasis, and five with gast...

  6. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common condition in cancer patients treated by irradiation, during and after their treatment. For example, almost 70% of patients treated with chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer are colonized, and 40% of symptomatic patients have an oropharyngeal candidiasis. Furthermore, we noticed an increase in non-albicans Candida strains, which are present in almost 50% of samples. Cancer treatments, especially radiation therapy, and co-morbidities are risk factors of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oropharyngeal candidiasis has substantial effects on quality of life, and may limit treatment. Epidemiologic data, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis criteria, consequences and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis will be discussed in this article. (authors)

  7. Animal Models for Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Huppler, Anna R; Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Multiple forms of candidiasis are clinically important in humans. Established murine models of disseminated, oropharyngeal, vaginal, and cutaneous candidiasis caused by Candida albicans are described in this unit. Detailed materials and methods for C. albicans growth and detection are also described.

  8. Recurrent vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K Y; Sivalingam, N

    2003-12-01

    Recurrent vaginal candidiasis is one of the most common reasons for patients visiting their primary care doctors. Majority of the cases are caused by Candida albicans. Controlling of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, used of broad spectrum antibiotics, contraceptive pills and steroid therapy helps in managing recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Initial 14-day course of oral azoles and followed by 6 months maintenance are effective in treating majority of the cases. Failure to treat recurrent vaginal candidiasis can lead to various bio-psycho-social complications. PMID:15190674

  9. Treatment and Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Candidiasis Share Compartir Treatment & Outcomes of Oral Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth and throat must ... diseases Cryptococcal meningitis Histoplasmosis Resources Antifungal Resistance Other Candidiasis Topics Vaginal Yeast Infections Invasive Candidiasis Related Links « ...

  10. Immunology of oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; Karthikeyan, M.; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.; Kesavan, G.

    2014-01-01

    A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity). Understanding these complex pathways of immune evasion can potentially contribute to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against oral candidiasis. PMID:25210393

  11. Immunology of oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sivakumar, Muniapillai; M.Karthikeyan; Udayakumar, P.; Shanmugam, K T; G.Kesavan

    2014-01-01

    A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity...

  12. Neonatal systemic candidiasis treated miconazole.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, S

    1980-01-01

    Two premature newborn infants with systemic candidiasis are reported; both were treated with miconazole. One died and the other made a complete recovery. Miconazole may be a useful addition to the drugs available for the treatment of systemic candidiasis in the neonate, but all of them have serious limitations.

  13. Oesophageal candidiasis after omeprazole therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Larner, A.J.; Lendrum, R

    1992-01-01

    Oesophageal candidiasis was diagnosed incidentally at endoscopy in two patients receiving omeprazole therapy. There were no other predisposing factors for the development of candidiasis. The infection was resolved rapidly by anti-candidal therapy and by stopping omeprazole. These findings suggest that gastric acid secretion and physiological reflux of acid into the oesophagus may play a protective role in preventing candida infection.

  14. KEGG DISEASE / Candidiasis [KEGG DISEASE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DISEASE: H00363 Entry H00363Disease Name Candidiasis Description Candidiasis is a fungal infecti ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Journal Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) Reference PM ...

  15. Oral candidiasis: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Verma, Renuka; Murari, Aditi; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2014-09-01

    Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Thrush. This is a fungal infection (Mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. When this happens, it can create a widespread havoc to our overall health and well-being of our body. PMID:25364186

  16. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of significant morbidity in women in all strata of society affecting millions of women worldwide. Previously, RVVC occurrence was limited by onset of menopause but the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy has extended the at-risk period. Candida albicans remains the dominant species responsible for RVVC, however optimal management of RVVC requires species determination and effective treatment measures are best if species-specific. Considerable progress has been made in understanding risk factors that determine susceptibility to RVVC, particularly genetic factors, as well as new insights into normal vaginal defense immune mechanisms and their aberrations in RVVC. While effective control of RVVC is achievable with the use of fluconazole maintenance suppressive therapy, cure of RVVC remains elusive especially in this era of fluconazole drug resistance. Vaccine development remains a critical challenge and need. PMID:26164695

  17. Oral candidiasis: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Thrush. This is a fungal infection (Mycosis of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. When this happens, it can create a widespread havoc to our overall health and well-being of our body.

  18. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  19. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis and Testing of Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A culture may also be performed; however, because Candida organisms are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, ... Global fungal diseases Cryptococcal meningitis Histoplasmosis Resources Antifungal Resistance Other Candidiasis Topics Vaginal Yeast Infections Invasive Candidiasis ...

  1. Oral Candidiasis and Oral Hyperplastic Candidiasis: Clinical Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the oral cavity. It is common and underdiagnosed among the elderly, particularly in those who wear dentures and in many cases is avoidable with a good mouth care regimen. It can also be a mark of systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and is a common problem among the immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is caused by an overgrowth or infection of the oral cavity by a yeast-like fungus, candida.The important ones are C albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata , C pseudotropicalis, C guillierimondii, C krusei, C lusitaniae, C parapsilosis and C stellatoidea. C albicans, C glabrata and C tropicalis represent more than 80% of isolates from clinical infection. Oral candidiasis is the most common human fungal infection especially in early and later life. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing`s syndrome, malignancies and immunosuppressive conditions. The aim of the research is to describe the clinical manifestations of the disease.

  2. Disseminated candidiasis 18 years after renal transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Bismay, K.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R; Kurian, G; Unni, V. N.; Kavita, R. D.; Sreehari, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although mucocutaneous candidiasis is a common infection in renal transplant recipients, disseminated candidiasis is rare. Candida pnemonia causing miliary mottling on X-ray chest with the central nervous system involvement is still rarer. We report an unusual case with disseminated candidiasis that presented 18 years after renal transplantation and improved on conventional antifungal therapy; the relevant literature is reviewed.

  3. Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sonal, Choudhary; Michael, McLeod; Daniele, Torchia; Paolo, Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy is a rare autoimmune disorder. The clinical spectrum of symptoms is diverse; the diagnosis relying on the presence of at least two out of the three main conditions defining the syndrome: chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease.

  4. Systemic candidiasis: diagnosis from cutaneous manifestations.

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, D N; Wylde, P; Harrington, C. I.; WORTH, R

    1982-01-01

    Three patients are described who developed systemic candidiasis. Each had either leukaemia or lymphoma, and developed a similar erythematous maculopapular rash which, in places, was purpuric. In the first patient the nature of the rash was not appreciated during life, but postmortem histology revealed candida within the lesions. In the other two patients, a diagnosis of systemic candidiasis was successfully established by skin biopsy. This paper emphasizes that a maculopapular rash can be rel...

  5. Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovi? Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is relatively frequent condition, and may have serious health consequences, like chronic vulvovaginal pain syndrome. The aim of our study was to determine possible risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant females within the reproductive age. Methods. The design of our study was of a case-control type. Case and control patients were selected from the gynecological patients at six primary care facilities in Serbia and in Montenegro. The data on the patients' health condition, concomitant therapy and diseases were taken from their records, and the data on habits were obtained by unstructured interview. For potential risk factors crude odds ratios were calculated, and then adjusted by logistic regression. Results. A total of fifty-one patients had four or more episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis during the last year (cases, and 132 patients with one to three episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled as controls, matched by age. The only two significant associations were found between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and continual wearing of panty liners during the last year (Odds ratio - ORadjusted: 3.97; confidence interval - CI: 1.57-10.02; p = 0.004, and between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and predominant use of vaginal tampons during menstruation in the last year (ORadjusted: 4.25; CI: 1.11-16.27; p = 0.035. The synergistic effect was observed for the concurrent continual wearing of panty liners during the last year and selfmedication with antimycotics. Conclusions. Local factors, like wearing of panty liners or use of tampons during menstruation, may promote recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, especially in patients who practice selfmedication with antimycotics.

  6. Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda / Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Larregina; B., Bartoletti; H., Romano; L., Paniccia; N. N., Polini.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) M2, internado en el [...] Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC) y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento. Abstract in english Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia af [...] ter induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  7. La candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro de Jesús Nápoles González

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Cuando la candidiasis se asocia con la prótesis removible puede inducir a la formación de estomatitis subprótesis, esencialmente en aparatos desajustados y con muchos años de uso. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente de La Vigía desde enero a marzo de 2008 en 30 pacientes mayores de 20 años y de ambos sexos con estomatitis subprótesis (10 en cada grado clínico de la lesión, portadores de prótesis removibles. Resultados: El comportamiento microbiológico de los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis afloró que no todos los pacientes afectados presentaron candidiasis, solo se evidenció la presencia de la misma en 21 para un 70 % de la muestra. Según el grado de la lesión esta afección se presentó en cuatro pacientes de grado I para un 19,04 %, 7 del grado II para un 33,33 % y en el 100 % del grado III con diferencia significativa entre la proporción de pacientes con cándida de los grados I y II con respecto al grado III (p<005. En el estudio predominaron los pacientes con afecciones de grado III. Conclusiones: No todos los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis presentaron cándida albicans. Se incrementó la candidiasis en los grados avanzados de la estomatitis subprótesis. La totalidad de las prótesis en pacientes con lesiones grado II y III presentaron cándida albicans.

  8. Candidiasis esofágica: análisis clínico y micológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alejandro Olmos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis esofágica es una infección epitelial querequiere un defecto adicional inmunitario. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, aunque pueden encontrarse otras. Un problema emergente es la resistencia al fluconazol, droga de elección para tratarla. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis esofágica en pacientes sometidos a endoscopía, analizar los factores predisponentes, identificar las especies causantes, y estudiar la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol. Durante 12 meses se realizaron 1.321 endoscopías donde se detectaron 34 pacientes con candidiasis esofágica. Se hicieron 1.230 endoscopías en pacientes HIV negativos y 91 en HIV positivos. Se diagnosticó candidiasis esofágica en 11 (0.9% y 23 (25.3%, respectivamente. En HIV negativos, fueron causas predisponentes: antibioticoterapia prolongada, prótesis dentarias sin higiene, uso prolongado de inhibidores de la bomba de protones, secreción ácida, corticoides inhalatorios, malignidad y vasculitis bajo corticoterapia. La histopatología fue positiva en 48.6%. El cultivo se desarrolló en el 91.2%. C. albicans fue la especie más frecuente (93.5% y en 5 pacientes (16.1% se la encontró asociada a C. glabrata (3 C. tropicalis (1 y C. parapsilosis (1. En un caso solo se cultivó C. glabrata y en otro C. tropicalis. De las 31 cepas, 25 fueron sensibles al fluconazol, 4 dosis dependientes (1 C. albicans, 3 C. glabrata, y 2 resistentes (1 C. albicans, 1 C. glabrata. En nuestro hospital, la frecuencia de candidiasis esofágica fue baja, excepto en HIV positivos. El principal agente etiológico fue C. albicans, aunque también se cultivaron otras especies. C. albicans y C. glabrata mostraron dosis dependencia y resistencia al fluconazol.

  9. Candidiasis cutánea generalizada en recién nacido a término / Generalized cutaneous candidiasis in newborn at term

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Husein Husein, El Ahmed; , Cañadas-De la Fuente; Rafael, Fernández-Castillo; Emilio, González-Jiménez; Jesús, Cantero-Hinojosa; Marita, Lardón-Fernández.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La candidiasis cutánea es una enfermedad que afecta tanto a población infantil como adulta. Las forma de presentación puede ser localizada o sistémica y el agente etiológico múltiple, siendo las especies infecciosas de Candida albicans más prevalentes en niños. Objetivo. Presentar un c [...] aso de candidiasis cutánea congénita cuya causa aparente fue la transmisión vertical durante el parto. Material y metodología. Se describe el caso de un recién nacido a término expuesto a una candidiasis vaginal subclínica, que desarrolló una candidiasis cutánea congénita por C. albicans asociada a sepsis y dificultad respiratoria en las primeras 24 horas de vida. Se practicaron hemocultivos, biopsia cutánea de las lesiones pápulopústulo-vesiculosas, análisis de sangre y punción lumbar. Resultados. En la bioquímica y el hemograma se encontró una proteína C reactiva de 5,7 mg/dl, leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda y anemia leve. A las 24 horas, en el control se encontró una proteína C reactiva (7,82 mg/dl) que fue en aumento progresivo durante tres días, por lo que se practicó punción lumbar. El hemocultivo fue positivo para Staphylococcus aureus. La biopsia cutánea dio como resultado histológico la candidiasis cutánea. Conclusiones. El diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir complicaciones derivadas del cuadro producido por C. albicans en neonatos. Abstract in english Introduction. Cutaneous candidiasis is a disease that affects children as well as adults. The presentation may be localized or systemic, and with multiple etiological agents. The most prevalent infecting species in children differs from that of the adult. Objective. A case is presented where a conge [...] nital cutaneous candidiasis was transmitted to the child during birth. Materials and methods. A full term newborn was exposed to a subclinical vaginal candidiasis infection, and 24 hr after birth, developed congenital cutaneous candidiasis. The etiological agent was Candida albicans, and was associated with sepsis and respiratory distress. Blood cultures, cutaneous biopsy of vesicular lesions, blood tests and lumbar puncture were performed. Results. Biochemistry and blood count showed a CRP of 5.7 mg/dl, leukocytosis with left shift and mild anemia. After 24 hr, the blood analyses showed an increase in a CRP (7.8 mg/dl) and increased progressively for three days; consequently, a lumbar puncture was performed. Blood culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous biopsy confirmed the cutaneous candidiasis. Conclusions. The early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications derived by the Candida albicans in newborns.

  10. Micosis superficiales: Candidiasis y pitiriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén José Larrondo Muguercia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las características clínicas de las lesiones cutáneas en las candidiasis y la pitiriasis versicolor. Se hace hincapié en las medidas de educación, prevención y control de estas afecciones a nivel primario de atención médica. Se exponen además las diferentes maniobras terapéuticas, tanto tópicas como sistémicas, con las que se cuenta para su tratamiento, y se hace referencia a las medidas terapéuticas alternativas que brinda la medicina natural y tradicional para estas afecciones.The clinical characteristics of the skin lesions in candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor are dealth with. Emphasis is made on the measures of education, prevention and control of these affections at the primary health care level. The different topic and systematic therapeutic maneuvers to be used in the treatment are explained. Reference is made to the alternative therapeutic measures offered by traditional and natural medicine for these affections.

  11. Disparate Requirement for T Cells in Resistance to Mucosal and Acute Systemic Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Carson, Jessica; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Warner, Thomas; Balish, Edward

    2000-01-01

    Although highly susceptible to orogastric candidiasis, T-cell receptor ?- and ?-chain knockout mice, deficient in ?? and ?? T cells, respectively, were found to be resistant to disseminated candidiasis of endogenous origin and to acute systemic candidiasis (resulting from intravenous injection).

  12. VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS – GYNECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Živadinovi?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common reasons for consultations with a gynecologist, with an increasing trend in occurrence in female patients. It is estimated that 75% of all women experience an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime, 50% of them experience at least a second episode, and 5% have recurrent candidiasis. Cervical and vaginal secretions act as the last line of defense from ascendant infection pathway spreading. Factors that may disturb vaginal ecosystem are: endogenous factors, way of life, infectious factors and iatrogenic factors. The most common cause of VC in 85-90% of cases is C. albicans, but other Candida species tend to be more likely to cause VVC (Candida tropicalis , Candida glabrata , C particulary, C crusei and so on. These non-albicans species have been found to be fluconazole and antimycotics resistant in more than 70% of cases. This is especially true for C. glabrata. There are several predisposing factors that have been associated with VC recurrence and resistance, such as Candida genotypes, resistance and virulence, immunodeficiency, unregulated hyperglycemia, use of oral contraceptives, long-term use of antibiotics. Therapy approach should be individual, including local and oral antimycotics until the symptoms disappear. The maintenance dose can be continuous or intermittent. Due to hormone concentration increase, increase in local glycogen, alternations of vaginal flora, VC incidence in pregnancy is two times higher in comparison to other female population. The problem of vaginal candidiasis requires individual approach, taking into account all the risk factors and accompanying physiological conditions or diseases in female patients.

  13. Treatment and Prophylaxis of Invasive Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Nidhi; WATT, KEVIN; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Even if successfully treated, IC can cause significant neurodevelopmental impairment. Preterm infants are at increased risk for hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis owing to increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier, so antifungal treatment should have adequate central nervous system penetration. Amphotericin B deoxycholate, lipid preparations of amphotericin B, fluconazole, and micafungin ...

  14. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Cuesta, Carla; Sarrion-Pérez, Maria-Gracia; Bagán, Jose V.

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidi...

  15. Psychological factors associated with recurrent vaginal candidiasis: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Irving, G; Miller, D; Robinson, A.; Reynolds, S; COPAS, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify psychological factors associated with chronic recurrent vaginal candidiasis. DESIGN: A cross sectional exploratory study of women with chronic, recurrent vaginal candidiasis. PATIENTS: 28 women found culture positive and treated for vaginal candidiasis by a clinic physician at least twice within the past 6 months. All women reported that they had experienced vaginal thrush six or more times within 1 year. A comparison group comprised 16 women with no history of re...

  16. DISENTAGLING IMMUNITY AND TOLERANCE IN CANDIDIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to tolerate Candida albicans, a component of human microbiota, implicates that host defense mechanisms of resistance and tolerance cooperate to limit fungal burden and inflammation at the different body sites. We have disentangled resistance and tolerance components of murine and human C. albicans mucosal infection and have introduced the challenging notion of a disease due to a defective tolerance mechanism. While some degree of inflammation is required for protection at mucosal tissues during the transitional response occurring between the rapid innate and slower adaptive responses, progressive inflammation worsens disease and ultimately prevents pathogen Resistance and tolerance mechanisms were both activated in murine intestinal and vaginal candidiasis through the contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses, involving distinct modules of immunity, IL-22 and Th1/Th17 cells for resistance and IL-10-producing regulatory T cells for tolerance., with a major contribution by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1. IDO1 was responsible for the production of tolerogenic kynurenines, such that replacement therapy with kynurenines restored immunoprotection to murine vaginal candidiasis. In humans, two functional genetic variants in IL22 and IDO1 genes were found to be associated with heightened resistance to recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, a disease of unknown origin, and they correlated with increased local expression of IL-22, IDO1 and kynurenines. Thus, IL-22 and IDO1 are crucial in balancing resistance with tolerance to Candida, their deficiencies are risk factors for mucosal infection resulting from transition from symbiont to pathobiont.

  17. Congenital candidiasis presenting as septic shock without rash

    OpenAIRE

    Carmo, Kathryn Browning; Evans, Nick; Isaacs, David

    2007-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis is rare and often benign. This report describes the case of twins born at 32 weeks of gestation with different manifestations of congenital candidiasis. One twin was born well though neutropenic, and died from overwhelming sepsis with septic shock at 22 h. The other twin presented with a delayed onset of rash at 2 days, remained well and survived.

  18. Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erden, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey); Hafta Sokak, Ankara (Turkey); Fitoz, S.; Karaguelle, T.; Tuekel, S.; Akyar, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

  19. Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

  20. A child with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis and ectodermal dysplasia treated with immunosuppression: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S; Rayzel M. Shulman; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Pope, Elena; Marcon, Margaret; Grasemann, Hartmut; Schneider, Rayfel; Upton, Julia; Sochett, Etienne B; Kolfin, Dror; Cohen, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Common features of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia include candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and hypoadrenalism. The initial manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia may be autoimmune hepatitis, keratoconjunctivitis, frequent fever with or without a rash, chronic diarrhea, or different combinations of these with or without oral candidiasis. Case presentation: We discuss a profoundly affected 2.9-y...

  1. La candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis / Candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isidro de Jesús, Nápoles González; Silvia María, Díaz Gómez; Elizabeth, Puig Capote; Nelia, Espeso Nápoles.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Cuando la candidiasis se asocia con la prótesis removible puede inducir a la formación de estomatitis subprótesis, esencialmente en aparatos desajustados y con muchos años de uso. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis. Método: Se r [...] ealizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en la Clínica Estomatológica Docente de La Vigía desde enero a marzo de 2008 en 30 pacientes mayores de 20 años y de ambos sexos con estomatitis subprótesis (10 en cada grado clínico de la lesión), portadores de prótesis removibles. Resultados: El comportamiento microbiológico de los pacientes con estomatitis subprótesis afloró que no todos los pacientes afectados presentaron candidiasis, solo se evidenció la presencia de la misma en 21 para un 70 % de la muestra. Según el grado de la lesión esta afección se presentó en cuatro pacientes de grado I para un 19,04 %, 7 del grado II para un 33,33 % y en el 100 % del grado III con diferencia significativa entre la proporción de pacientes con cándida de los grados I y II con respecto al grado III (p Abstract in english Background: When candidiasis is associated with removable prosthesis may induced to the formation of stomatitis sub-prothesis, essentially in non-adjusted appliance and with many years of use. Objective: To determine the prevalence of candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis. Method: A [...] n observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study at " La Vigía" Teaching Odontology Clinic from January to March 2008 was conducted in 30 patients older than 20 years and from both sexes with stomatitis sub-prosthesis (10 in each clinical degree of the lesion), carriers of removable prosthesis. Results: The microbiological behavior of patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis showed that not all the affected patients presented candidiasis, only showed its presence in 21 for a 70% of the sample. According to the degree of the lesion this affection was presented in four patients of I degree for a 19.04%, 7 of II degree for a 33.33% and in the 100% of III degree with significant difference among the proportion of patients with Candida of I and II degrees regarding to III degree (p

  2. Candidiasis mucocutánea crónica: Informe de un caso / Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rolando Elías, Julián-González; Manuel Augusto, Valdebrán-Canales; Héctor Eduardo, Guidos-Morales.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis mucocutánea crónica (CMC) es una inmunodeficiencia primaria que se caracteriza por infecciones candidiásicas persistentes o recurrentes en piel, uñas o membranas mucosas. La CMC puede asociarse con endocrinopatías, como hipoparatiroidismo, enfermedad de Addison, hipotiroidismo, diabet [...] es mellitus de tipo 1 o hipogonadismo; otras patologías asociadas son enfermedades autoinmunitarias, como gastritis autoinmunitarias y hepatitis autoinmunitaria. Se presenta una paciente con CMC con déficit específico de linfocitos T y células NK, sin otra enfermedad asociada. Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails and/or mucosal tissues. CMC can be associated with endocrinopathies such as hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus [...] or hypogonadism. Other associated conditions include autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune hepatitis. We report a patient with CMC and decreased T cell, natural killer cells without other associated condition.

  3. Mucocutaneous candidiasis in a mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, M; Silinski, S; Ludwig, C; Weig, M; Mätz-Rensing, K; Kaup, F-J

    2012-01-01

    An adult male mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) suffered from chronic ulceration of the facial and gluteal skin and the oral and nasal mucosa. The ulcers were resistant to therapy and led to deterioration in the general condition of the animal. Microscopical examination revealed a severe, chronic, multifocal, granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis and panniculitis. There was also stomatitis and rhinitis with numerous intralesional fungal elements. These organisms were identified by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction and fungal culture as Candida albicans. Species identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A specific predisposing immunosuppressive factor for the deep chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis was not identified; however, social stress and/or a primary defect in cell-mediated immunity could not be excluded as possible causes for a predisposing immunodeficiency in the animal. PMID:22300706

  4. Immunological and histopathological characterization of cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campois, Tacito Graminha; Zucoloto, Amanda Zaparoli; de Almeida Araujo, Eduardo José; Svidizinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; da Silva Quirino, Gustavo Fernando; Harano, Raquel Mitie; Conchon-Costa, Ivete; Felipe, Ionice

    2015-08-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis constitutes a heterogeneous group of syndromes, characterized by non-invasive infection of the skin, nails and mucosal membranes by the fungus Candida spp. Although symptoms are heterogeneous, in all cases there is a reduction in protective cytokines, favouring the development of disease. The normal role of cytokines in skin lesions is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the progression of disease, understand specific cellular and molecular components involved in immunity to Candida albicans and determine the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines over the course of cutaneous infection in immunocompetent mice. BALB/c mice (five per group) were inoculated with 5?×?10(6)C. albicans pseudohyphae in the deep dermis of the paw and analysed over 1-14? days post-infection. The contralateral paws were used for negative controls. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of skin sections during C. albicans infection was performed to analyse structural modifications to the epidermis such as hyperplasia, and infiltration of neutrophils and fibroblasts in the dermis. The cytokine populations were determined by capture ELISA using popliteal lymph node tissue. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?, IL-12, IFN-? and IL-17) were detected at significant levels during the initial phase of cutaneous infection and correlated with the rapid elimination of C. albicans. Anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-?) were detected on day 4 post-infection, and prevented exacerbation of inflammation and participated in healing of lesions. Thus, a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was fundamental for the resolution of infection. Importantly, these findings broaden our understanding of the immune mechanisms involved in chronic cutaneous candidiasis. PMID:26271575

  5. Congenital cutaneous candidiasis: A rare and unpredictable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit A Jagtap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC is an extremely rare disorder that presents within the first 6 days of life. The manifestations ranges from diffuse skin eruption without any systemic symptoms to respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, sepsis, and death. We report a neonate who presented with generalized skin eruptions at birth, characterized by erythematous macules and papules. The eruption involved head, face, neck, trunk, and extremities. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests as thrush or diaper dermatitis. The infection is acquired from the maternal genital tract in an ascending fashion. Clinical features, direct smear examination of specimen, and appropriate cultures are useful in differentiating the lesions from other more common dermatoses of the neonatal period. Topical antifungal therapy is sufficient unless systemic candidiasis is present. Prognosis for congenital cutaneous candidiasis is good.

  6. Symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Arslankoylu Ali Ertug; Kuyucu Necdet; Yilmaz Berna; Erdogan Semra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This study aimed to examine the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to determine the risk factors associated with symptomatic candidiasis. Methods This retrospective study included 67 patients from a 7-bed PICU in a tertiary care hospital that had Candida-positive cultures between April 2007 and July 2009. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, ...

  7. Mannose in body fluids as an indicator of invasive candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Monson, T P; Wilkinson, K P

    1981-01-01

    Using gas-liquid chromatography, we measured five mannose in the serum of six nondiabetic patients with autopsy-proven invasive candidiasis. In all patients serum mannose concentrations were higher than mannose levels found in serum from normal adults and children or from patients with catheter-associated candidemia, mucosal candidiasis, and other mycoses. Spinal fluid from two patients with Candida meningitis showed increased free mannose as compared to seven non-inflammatory spinal fluid sa...

  8. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cortés M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

  9. Poly(I.C)-induced interferons enhance susceptibility of SCID mice to systemic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, J.; Vazquez-Torres, A; Balish, E

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of any demonstrable T- or B-cell responses, gnotobiotic CB-17 SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice not only show innate resistance to acute systemic (intravenous challenge) candidiasis but also manifest innate resistance to systemic candidiasis of endogenous (gastrointestinal tract) origin. Poly(I. C), a potent inducer of interferons (IFNs) in vivo, enhanced the susceptibility of CB-17 SCID mice to acute systemic candidiasis and to systemic candidiasis of endogenous orig...

  10. Host responses to Candida albicans: Th17 cells and mucosal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans causes mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, which represent serious problems for the rapidly expanding immunocompromised population. Until recently, Th1-mediated immunity was thought to confer the primary protection, particularly for oral candidiasis. However, emerging data indicate that the newly-defined Th17 compartment appears to play the predominant role in mucosal candidiasis.

  11. Two-phase treatment of inflamatory candidiasis of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Drljevi?

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective study was to examine successfulnes of applaying two-phase treatment of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis. At the initial phase antimycotic izokonazol 1% nitrate in combination with corticosteriod diflucorton valerate (Travocort, Schering AG, Germany was localy applied, and then pure antimycotic izoconasol nitrate (Travogen, Schering AG, Germany. Parametars that have been analyzed in the first phase of treatment were regression of inflamatory changes of vulva, and in the second phase healing of fungal disease. Two-phase treatment of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis showed full therapy benefit at cured patients. The initial short-term local application of combination corticosteroid and antimycotic showed almost a hundred percent regression of inflamatory changes and simptoms of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis, without any side-effects noted.

  12. Candidiasis invasoras en el paciente crítico adulto Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tobar A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp, representan una patología relevante en los pacientes críticos. Para su oportuno diagnóstico es necesaria una elevada sospecha clinica, tomando en consideración el cuadro clinico y la presencia de factores de riesgo. Pese a la incorporación de nuevos fármacos al arsenal terapéutico durante la última década, mantiene una elevada mortalidad. Las claves para mejorar los desenlaces clínicos en estos pacientes son el empleo de una terapia precoz, eficaz y que permita la cobertura de distintas especies de Candida: C albicans y no albicans. Recientes guías internacionales sugieren la terapia empírica con equinocandinas ante la sospecha de candidiasis invasora en esta población de pacientes. Este grupo de fármacos ha documentado adecuada eficacia clínica y seguridad en estos pacientes. Se espera que la incorporación de nuevas equinocandinas al mercado aminore sus costos y mejore el acceso a este grupo de fármacos.Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albicans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

  13. Fluconazol versus Nistatina en niños con Candidiasis Orofaríngea

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B, Del Nogal; M, Carrabs; JA, Suárez; N, SandovaI; L, Escalona; O, Febres; A, González; A, Martin; Y, Izaguirre; G, Espinoza.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis orofaríngea constituye una patología frecuente en la población pediátrica. Con la finalidad de ofrecer una alternativa terapéutica segura y eficaz, se realizó un estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo, comparativo, simple ciego y de asignación aleatoria, donde se incluyeron 181 pacientes [...] con diagnóstico clínico y micológico de candidiasis orofaríngea; fueron asignados al azar para recibir Fluconazol suspensión a 5 mgrs/Kg dosis única diaria o Nistatina suspensión 50.000 unidades/Kg cada 6 horas. Se obtuvo una respuesta clínica satisfactoria al final del tratamiento con una diferencia estadística altamente significativa (p Abstract in english The Oropharyngeal Candidiasis constitute a frecuent pathology in the pediatric population. In order to offer a safe and efficient therapeutic alternative, an multicentric, prospective, single blind and randomized study was performed 181 patients which included clinic and micologic diagnostic of Orof [...] aringeal Candidiasis; they were asigned in a randomized way to received fluconazole suspensión containing 5 mgrs/Kg once daily or Nystatin suspensión 50.000 units/Kg every six hours. Satisfactory clinic response was obtained at the end of the treatment with a very significant statistic difference (p

  14. Diagnostic Methods for Detection of Blood-Borne Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2016-01-01

    ?-D-glucan (Fungitell) and polymerase chain reaction-based (T2Candida) assays of blood samples are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing candidemia and other types of invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. In this chapter, we describe laboratory protocols for performing Fungitell and T2Candida assays. We then discuss step-by-step methods for interpreting test results at the bedside using a Bayesian framework, and for incorporating assays into rational patient management strategies. Prior to interpreting results, clinicians must recognize that test performance varies based on the type of invasive candidiasis being diagnosed. In general, the type of invasive candidiasis that is most likely in a given patient can be identified, and the pretest likelihood of disease estimated. From there, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) for an assay can be calculated. At a population level, tests can be incorporated into screening strategies for antifungal treatment. NPV and PPV thresholds can be defined for discontinuing antifungal prophylaxis or initiating preemptive treatment, respectively. Using the thresholds, it is possible to assign windows of pretest likelihood for invasive candidiasis (and corresponding patient populations) in which tests are most likely to valuable. At the individual patient level, tests may be useful outside of the windows proposed for screening populations. The interpretive and clinical decision-making processes we discuss will be applicable to other diagnostic assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data emerge from various populations. PMID:26519076

  15. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  16. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared

  17. Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

  18. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs

  19. La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elena, Morán López; Adis, Ferreiro Marín.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África). Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del [...] mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH). Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA. Abstract in english Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa). It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to bec [...] ome a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

  20. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis; Ecografia en el diagnostico de la candidiasis renal neonatal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Torres, D.; Berbel, O.; Andres, V. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

  1. Atypical presentations of congenital cutaneous candidiasis- presenting a cohort of 8 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Regina Divya*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is an extremely rare disorder that usually presents within the first 6 days of life. We report 8 neonates who presented with generalized skin eruptions within first 6 days of life, characterized by erythematous macules, papules, vesicles, bullae and pustules. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, fungal culture and skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests as thrush or diaper dermatitis.Although congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a rare diagnosis and the predisposing factors like prematurity,candidial infection in the mother are not obvious, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose the neonates with this condition and it is very evident that congenital cutaneous candidiasis has got a good prognosis. This article apart from revealing the atypical presentations of cutaneous congenital candidiasis, also emphasizes the need to screen all pregnant women for vaginal candidiasis .

  2. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Brati? Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  3. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; de Carvalho Moraes, Julianna Joanna; Höfling, José Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis. PMID:24031562

  4. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Anibal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

  5. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Cristina, Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi, Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves, Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho, Moraes; José Francisco, Höfling.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stom [...] atitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

  6. Opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis and geotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María; Hundeiker, Max; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-05-01

    Opportunistic yeast infections are diseases caused by fungi which normally are saprophytic and do not cause disease in humans or animals. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing due to immunosuppressive, corticosteroid, and long-term antibiotic treatment following organ transplantation or after serious metabolic, hematological, or immunological diseases. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the four "big" opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, and geotrichosis. PMID:23621330

  7. Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Conjugate Vaccine against Disseminated Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Hong; Cartmell, Jonathan; Bailey, Justin J.; Dziadek, Sebastian; David R. Bundle; Cutler, Jim E.

    2012-01-01

    Our research on pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis led to the discovery that antibodies specific for Candida albicans cell surface ?-1, 2–mannotriose [?-(Man)3] protect mice. A 14 mer peptide Fba, which derived from the N-terminal portion of the C. albicans cytosolic/cell surface protein fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, was used as the glycan carrier and resulted in a novel synthetic glycopeptide vaccine ?-(Man)3-Fba. By a dendritic cell-based immunization approach, this conjugate induce...

  8. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; SILVA, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors t...

  9. Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Takakura, Natsuko; Wakabayashi,Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Teraguchi, Susumu; Tamura, Yoshitaka; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO; Abe, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candidiasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral administration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on the tongue on day 7 after the inoculation. The symptomatic effect of LF was confirmed by macroscopic and microsc...

  10. Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5% patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8% patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8% patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0% patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0% of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0% of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  11. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    George R. Thompson; Payal K. Patel; KIRKPATRICK, WILLIAM R.; Steven D. Westbrook; Berg, Deborah; Erlandsen, Josh; Redding, Spencer W.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common problem in the HIV-infected population despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although Candida albicans is the most frequently implicated pathogen, other Candida spp. may also cause infection. The emergence of antifungal resistance within these causative yeasts, especially in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal infection or with long-term use of antifungal therapies, requires a working knowledge of alternative antifungal ag...

  12. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho Moraes; José Francisco Höfling

    2010-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnou...

  13. Management of invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic ICU patients

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Emmanuel; Timsit, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among nonneutropenic ICU patients and these life-threatening nosocomial infections require early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However, none of the predictive tools are sufficiently accurate to identify high-risk patients and the potential interest of IC prophylactic, empirical and preemptive treatment in the nonneutropenic ICU population has not yet been demonstrated. In the case of nosocomial severe sepsis after necro...

  14. CONGENITAL CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS: A RARE AND UNPREDICTABLE DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap Sujit; Saple Pallavi; Dhaliat Saleha

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC) is an extremely rare disorder that presents within the first 6 days of life. The manifestations ranges from diffuse skin eruption without any systemic symptoms to respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, sepsis, and death. We report a neonate who presented with generalized skin eruptions at birth, characterized by erythematous macules and papules. The eruption involved head, face, neck, trunk, and extremities. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct...

  15. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljevi? Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  16. New Approaches in the Development of a Vaccine for Mucosal Candidiasis: Progress and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    AnnaVecchiarelli

    2012-01-01

    The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes orapharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy child-bearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine ag...

  17. Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and esophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravera, M. (Mauro); Reggiori, A.; Agliata, A. M.; Rocco, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized cross-over clinical and endoscopic evaluation of 85 Ugandan patients showed that esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with oral candidiasis could be managed without endoscopy and biopsies. Oral lesions, especially when accompanied by esophageal symptoms, were sufficient for diagnosis. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin in treating esophageal candidiasis and could be a valid alternative to more expensive azolic drugs in developing countries.

  18. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of ?-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  19. Zinc Level of Serum in Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc status has been shown to influence various cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. These cell-mediated mechanisms are important in preventing mucocutaneous infections caused by Candida albicans. This study evaluated the relationship between zinc status and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis by comparing plasma zinc in 51 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 50 control healthy age-matched women. The results indicated that zinc concentration in plasma in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control group showed no significant difference between case and control group (p = 0.605, 4(8% women of control group and 5(11/1% women of patients group had zinc concentration lower than normal. Also, no significant difference between the mean plasma zinc concentration (case group 48-189 ?g dL-1 and control group 57-120 ?g dL -1 in the patient and control group (87 ?g dL-1, std 23.5, 74.9 ?g dL-1, std 13 ?g dL-1 (p = 0.031 .

  20. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. PMID:26385381

  1. Candidiasis invasoras en recién nacidos: diagnóstico, tratamiento y prevención / Invasive candidiasis in newborns: diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giannina, Izquierdo; María Elena, Santolaya.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones fúngicas invasoras se han convertido en un problema cada vez más frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. La candidiasis invasora (CI) es una infección que se asocia a una significativa morbi-mortalidad, en especial en los recién nacidos (RN) prematuros. El objeti [...] vo de este documento es sugerir acciones de vigilancia, prevención farmacológica, diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de las CI en el RN. Abstract in english Invasive fungal infections have become an increasingly common problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates, especially in pre-term infants. The aim of this review is to suggest actions in monitoring, preventio [...] n, treatment and follow up of IC in the newborn infant.

  2. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A Vazquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.Keywords: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, HAART, antifungal agents, HIV, AIDS

  3. New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaVecchiarelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes orapharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy child-bearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis.

  4. Occurrences of candidiasis in a Fisher's lovebird and a budgerigar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Aoyagi, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, J

    2001-08-01

    Two cage birds, a two-month-old Fisher's lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) and a one-year-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), manifested clinical symptoms with general weakness, loss of appetite and ruffled feathers, then died. Pathological findings revealed a large quantity of yellowish-white pseudomembrane on the mucosal membrane of the esophagus and crop in these two birds. Histopathologically, blastospores (5.5 microm long x 3.4 microm wide) and pseudohyphae were detected in the lesions of conspicuous parakeratosis and moderate acanthosis in the stratified squamous epithelium. These two birds were diagnosed as having had candidiasis. PMID:11558556

  5. [Management of obstructive renal candidiasis. Report of a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Kindelán, J; Alameda Aragonéses, V; Regueiro López, J C; Prieto Castro, R; Carmona Campos, E; Anglada Curado, F; Requena Tapia, M J

    1997-03-01

    Neonatal renal candidiasis is a rare complication but serious, associated with prematurity, immunodeficiency, parenteral nutrition and other risk factors, with a mortality rate until 50%. We describe a neonate premature of 28 weeks who developed septicaemia by Candida, complicated with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis and intrapelvic fungus ball. The patient was managed by bilateral nephrostomy drainage and amphotericin B local irrigation, anyway with systemic amphotericin B together with oral fluconazol, needing subsequently bilateral open surgery and external drainage. The infection was eradicated, reaching the patient a gradual healing. PMID:9324899

  6. PRIMARY LARYNGEAL CANDIDIASIS WITH TUBERCULOSIS MIM ICKING LARYNGEAL NEOPLASM

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    Aditya Prakash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A 50 -year-old man presented with hoarseness of voic e, cough with expectoration for one month and severe dyspnoea from 15 days. C T Scan of the neck revealed soft tissue lesion circumferentially involving supra-glottic reg ion with effacement of bilateral pyriform fossa predominantly on left side. Extralaryngeal spre ad to adjacent paralaryngeal space was also seen on left side. Marked airway luminal compro mise was seen at the level of false vocal cord . Primary diagnosis of laryngeal malignancy w as considered on findings revealed by CT scan neck. Direct laryngoscopy revealed erythema and ulcer with white pus discharge on left false vocal cord. A swab was taken from ulcer on left false vocal cord and sent for microbiological examination. The microbiological fi ndings confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Candida albicans.. CONCLUSION: Primary candidiasis with tuberculosis in the laryngeal mucosa is a rare entity. The clinical and pathological presentations of laryng eal candidiasis and tuberculosis might be confused with those for malignant lesions if extr alaryngeal spread is seen. Potential pitfalls in diagnosis and the importance of microbiological exam ination in rare case of dual superimposed primary laryngeal infections has been outlined

  7. Fluconazole for ketoconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1 infected patients.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of fluconazole in doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/day in controlling oropharyngeal candidiasis was retrospectively evaluated in 16 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients. 13 patients received fluconazole due to failure of treatment with ketoconazole, and among these 11 (84%) initially showed complete or partial remission of oropharyngeal candidiasis. 3 (27%) of these subsequently developed failure of treatment within a median observation period of 38 days. No major toxicities were observed. Fluconazole appears promising in the therapy of ketoconazole-resistant candidiasis.

  8. Prevalence and clinico-mycological profile of vulvovaginal candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal Samal

    2015-08-01

    Results: Among 125 cases studies, 62 positive cases for Candidiasis were reported with an approximate incidence of 50%. Further speciation identification showed C. albicans positivity in 45 cases and 17 cases for non albicans species. Women of second and third decade were predominantly affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis with abdominal pain and pruritis being a common clinical presentation. Conclusions: The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis is on higher margin especially among reproductive age group. Clinical profile must be further correlated with laboratory data for speciation, thereby guiding in prompt and appropriate treatment modalities on best patient care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1142-1147

  9. A radioimmunoassay method for the rapid detection of Candida antibodies is experimental systematic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbits were employed as experimental models to evaluate a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for the diagnosis of systematic candidiasis. Ten rabbits were incubated subcutaneously to mimic superficial candidiasis and were found to produce no antibodies to Candida as determined by both immunodiffusion and RIA procedures. However, 94 per cent of 18 rabbits systematically infected by intravenous injection of Candida cells were observed to produce antibody as assessed by the RIA technique. These data encourage further tests with human sera and the continued development of this RIA procedure as a useful tool in the early serodiagnosis of systematic candidiasis. (Auth.)

  10. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  11. Candidiasis congénita en un recién nacido de muy bajo peso Congenital candidiasis in a very low birth weight premature infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bustos B.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Las infeccciones por hongos, particularmente candida, han emergido como una causa importante de infecciones nosocomiales en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. Las infecciones a candida pueden ser diseminadas, por colonización de un acceso venoso central o congénitas. La candidiasis congénita es una condición inhabitual producida por la infección a candida adquirida in utero. Reportamos el curso clínico de un recién nacido prematuro de muy bajo peso (peso 630 g, edad gestacional 24 semanas con una candidiasis congénita. Por otro lado, se revisan los factores de riesgo, presentación clínica, hallazgos de laboratorio, tratamiento y pronóstico de esta patología, basado en una revisión de los casos reportados en la literaturaSystemic candidiasis has become an important cause of nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants (VLBW. In this vulnerable population candidal infection may be disseminated, be congenital or related to intravenous lines. Congenital candidiasis is a rare disorder acquired in utero. In this report we describe a VLBW infant (24 weeks of gestational age and birth weight of 630gm with congenital candidiasis, and discuss the risk factors, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and the outcome of this condition based on a review of reported cases in the literature

  12. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Palliative Care Patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels; Steptoe, Phillip; Ishøy, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is a significant cause of morbidity, especially among patients with advanced cancer. The incidence and significance of yeast carriage and OPC in the palliative care setting in Denmark is unknown. The best diagnostic strategy and treatment regimen has to...... be defined. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical and microbiological incidence of yeast carriage/OPC and assessed available diagnostic procedures-culture and microscopy. The distribution of Candida species and fluconazole susceptibility was determined. METHODS: Terminal care patients admitted...... from patients recently treated with azoles. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 52% of culture-positive patients harbored at least one isolate with innately or acquired decreased fluconazole susceptibility. Therefore, susceptibility testing appears recommendable for patients with clinical signs of OPC....

  13. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  14. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  15. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  16. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  17. Experimental cutaneous candidiasis in BALB/c diabetic mice

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    Tacito Graminha Campois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a group of syndromes characterized by non-invasive infection in the skin, nails and mucosa membranes, and in all clinical conditions, there is a reduction of protective cytokines that favor the development of disease. Diabetes mellitus reaches all socioeconomic groups, age and its incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by the yeast Candida albicans. However, the factors that lead these individuals to develop candidiasis are not understood properly. Frequently, the diabetic patients have the epidermal barrier compromised, including impaired wound healing, which facilitates the invasion and dissemination of pathogens associated to high level of glycogen and deficiencies in defense. This study aimed to establish an experimental model of cutaneous candidiasis in BALB/c mice. We followed the C. albicans infection course in diabetic and non-diabetic immunocompetent mice to investigate the cellular and molecular components involved in specific immunity. The experiments were performed in Balb/c mice (five per group inoculating 5x10^6 C. albicans pseudohypha in the deep dermis of hind paw and used contralateral paw as control. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days postinfection, the mice were killed and the injured paw and popliteal lymph nodes were collected for histological and immunological analysis. Diabetes in BALB/c mice was induced by intravenous administration of alloxan and after 24 h the glucose levels increased from 92.8 ± 7.4 to 272.8 ± 19.3. Histopathological sections stained by hematoxilin and eosin was analyzed to evidence the structural changes of the skin and to quantify neutrophils and fibroblasts in the site of infection on different days. It was measured the basal spinosum and granulosum strata thickness in the epidermis, evidencing hyperplasia which certainly constituted a physic barrier of defense preventing dissemination of C. albicans. Higher fungal load in infected diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic infected mice was observed by counting of colony-forming units (CFU and in histological sections from the skin stained by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS. C. albicans was cleared in 7 days postinfection whereas in diabetic mice the fungal burden was maintained up to 14 days postinfection. Cytokines were determined by capture ELISA using popliteal lymph node tissue. The pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?, IL-12 and IFN-?, IL-17 in non-diabetic animals were detected at significant levels during the initial stages of skin infection and it was correlated with the rapid elimination of C. albicans. The anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-? were detected since one day postinfection prevented exacerbated inflammation and participated in wound healing. Thus, a balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory were fundamental to the resolution of the disease. It was observed lower levels of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-17 in diabetic mice compared to control mice, suggesting that hyperglycemia or antigen processing may interfere with the immune defense. Due to deficiencies in these cytokines there was slow migration of neutrophils to the site of infection. However, the elimination of C. albicans was completed in 21 days postinfection in diabetic mice. This knowledge can be useful in understanding of the mechanisms involved in the chronic cutaneous candidiasis.

  18. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination

  19. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  20. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

    1988-01-01

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

  1. Determinants of Incident Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women

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    Debra Matityahu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mucosal infections including vulvovaginal candidiasis are a common problem for women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Our objective was to determine which factors predict the development of symptomatic disease among HIV-infected women.

  2. Effect of chromic ?-irradiation with small doses on candidiasis development in white rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats continuously exposed to 2 rads/day during eight months (cumulative dose of 400 rads) and nonirradiated rats were infected with a candida cells administered intravenously. All the irradiated animals died ten days after infection while only ten per cent of the control animals died for the same period of time. A morphological study has revealed candidiasis in the irradiated rats; changes, mainly in the kidneys, and formation of candidiasis granulomas have been detected in the control animals

  3. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants

  4. Atypical presentations of congenital cutaneous candidiasis- presenting a cohort of 8 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Regina Divya*; Dr. Sumathi John; Dr. (Col.) C.G.Wilson; Dr. (Col.) Uma Ramachandran

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is an extremely rare disorder that usually presents within the first 6 days of life. We report 8 neonates who presented with generalized skin eruptions within first 6 days of life, characterized by erythematous macules, papules, vesicles, bullae and pustules. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, fungal culture and skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests a...

  5. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Juliana C. Junqueira; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because t...

  6. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Jose A Vazquez

    2010-01-01

    Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voricona...

  7. US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

  8. Protection against murine disseminated candidiasis mediated by a Candida albicans-specific T-cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieck, T G; Moors, M A; Buckley, H R; Blank, K J

    1993-01-01

    The role of T lymphocytes in disseminated candidiasis in a mouse model of irradiation-induced immunosuppression was investigated. A continuously cultured Candida albicans-specific T-cell line mediated protection of sublethally irradiated mice from disseminated candidiasis as measured by both the fungal load in the kidneys and mortality. These results are the first to demonstrate directly a role for antigen-specific T cells in the protective immune response against murine disseminated candidia...

  9. Human Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapy in the Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Paroni Sterbini; Maurizio Sanguinetti; Cecilia Martini; Francesca Bugli; Riccardo Torelli; Brunella Posteraro; Margherita Cacaci

    2013-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) represents the leading fungal infection of humans causing life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed and neutropenic individuals including also the intensive care unit patients. Despite progress in recent years in drugs development for the treatment of IC, morbidity and mortality rates still remain very high. Historically, cell-mediated immunity and innate immunity are considered to be the most important lines of defense against candidiasis. Nevertheless recent evi...

  10. ?-D-Glucan Assay in Diagnosis and Monitoring the Systemic Candidiasis in a Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Khodadadi; Hossein Mirhendi; Koichi Makimura; Kazuo Satoh; Ladan Karimi; Shahrokh Izadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Determination of ?-D-Glucan (BDG) in the serum aids to diagnose the invasive fungal infections. The current study evaluated the diagnostic potential value of BDG assay in monitoring the disease in experimental systemic candidiasis in a rat model. The results can provide a useful preliminary data to improve this approach in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate ?-D-Glucan assay in diagnosis and monitoring the systemic candidiasis in a rat model. ...

  11. Determinants of Incident Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Debra Matityahu; Emma Shifrin; Howard Minkoff; Joseph Feldman

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mucosal infections including vulvovaginal candidiasis are a common problem for women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Our objective was to determine which factors predict the development of symptomatic disease among HIV-infected women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study from 1991 to 1995, 205 HIV-positive women were evaluated every 6 months for occurrences of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Included in the study were all initially asymptomatic women, whether ...

  12. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  13. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay and gas-liquid chromatography for the rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    de Repentigny, L; Marr, L D; Keller, J W; Carter, A. W.; Kuykendall, R J; Kaufman, L.; Reiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three proposed quantitative markers for candidiasis, arabinitol, mannose, and mannan in serum, are compared in 50 normal blood donors and 38 high-risk patients, 23 with and 15 without invasive candidiasis. Arabinitol concentrations in serum, the arabinitol/creatinine ratio, and mannose concentrations in serum were significantly greater in the 15 patients without candidiasis than in the normal blood donors (P less than 0.05). The sensitivities and specificities were 26 and 87% for arabinitol, ...

  14. Histopathological Characteristics of Experimental Candida tropicalis Induced Acute Systemic Candidiasis in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shiran Mohd Sidik; Seow Heng Fong; Rozita Rosli; Yong Voon Chen; Chong Pei Pei

    2012-01-01

    Systemic candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis is potentially fatal in human but studies relating the histological characteristics with C. tropicalis induced acute systemic candidiasis are few in number. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish and to characterize the distinctive histopathological features of acute systemic candidiasis by varying the inoculum size of C. tropicalis injected in mice. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and were injected with either 1x105 o...

  15. Determination of Vaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to Shahid

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    Nasrollahi omran A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Genital tract infections are among the mostcommon causes of patients referred to therapeutic centers. Nearly 75% ofwomen suffer from genital Candida infection, at least once in their lifetime.The aim of present study was detection of Candida species causing vaginitisand the evaluation of antimycotic effects of ketoconazol, clotrimazole andfluconazole against Candida species.Material and Methods: In this study, 210 vaginal samples were obtainedfrom the patients suspected of Vaginal Candidiasis. Direct examination andculture were carried out for all specimens to detect the yeast. The isolatedyeast species were then identified, using various different tests such as cultureon corn meal agar, tween-80, germ tube test, and assimilation test by API 20Ckit by using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and microdilution broth, MIC90 andMIC50 of drug were measured and determined their drug resistance.Results: In the present study, 100 yeast colonies were isolated from patients;%80 are C. albicans and the rest are C. parapsilosis(2%, C. tropicalis(6%, C.glabrata(4%, C. krusei(2%, C. guilliermondii (3%, C.stellatoidea(3%. Interms of drug resistance test MIC50 and MIC90 of fluconazole for candidaalbicans are 5.33 and 35.27μg/ ml, respectively, and for non-albicans candidaare 3 and 21.4μg/ml, respectively. Clotrimazole MIC for Candida albicans(MIC50, MIC90 0.97 and 4.9μg/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 0.63and 3.4/ml, respectively. Kectoconazole MIC for Candida albicans 2.43 and16.45μg/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 1.12 and 6.6μg/ml,respectively.Conclusion: Clotrimazole has been better than the two other drugs forCandida species on the whole, non albicans species are more sensitive thanalbicans species in the presence of the drugs used in this study.Key words: Candida, vaginal candidiasis, Resistance drug , Tonekabon.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Highly Susceptible Candida africana from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Fakhim, Hamed; Shokohi, Tahereh; Haghani, Iman; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gholami, Haniyeh; Ahmadi, Imaneh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic studies highlight Candida africana as an atypical variant within Candida albicans species complex which is dominantly recovered from vaginal specimens. This study aimed to characterize C. africana isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) by molecular methods and in vitro susceptibilities. One hundred and fifty-six (48.44 %) Candida strains were collected from 322 patients diagnosed with VVC. Of these, 114 (73.07 %) were germ tube positive and presented green color on the chromogenic medium, thus classified as C. albicans species complex. One hundred and nine (95.61 %) out of 114 isolates were identified as C. albicans, while five (4.38 %) isolates were identical with C. africana based on hwp1 PCR. C. africana appeared to be highly susceptible to the tested antifungals. For all strains of C. africana, fluconazole MIC was 2-log2-dilution steps less active than amphotericin B, which in turn was 2-log2-dilution steps and 3-log2-dilution steps less active than other azoles and echinocandin agents, respectively. In conclusion, among the C. albicans species complex, C. albicans predominantly and C. africana rarely occur in vaginal mucosa. Due to limited information on molecular epidemiology of this novel yeast, more studies using molecular methods are needed to elucidate the inter- and intraspecific genomic variations of C. africana isolates. PMID:26183965

  17. Management of invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emmanuel; Timsit, Jean-François

    2014-10-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among nonneutropenic ICU patients and these life-threatening nosocomial infections require early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However, none of the predictive tools are sufficiently accurate to identify high-risk patients and the potential interest of IC prophylactic, empirical and preemptive treatment in the nonneutropenic ICU population has not yet been demonstrated. In the case of nosocomial severe sepsis after necrotizing pancreatitis or upper digestive anastomotic leakage, early probabilistic antifungals are probably indicated. In the remaining ICU surgical and medical patients, prophylactic and empirical strategies are highly debated because they may promote antifungal selective pressure through an overuse of these molecules. In this context, non-culture-based methods such as mannan or ?-D glucan or polymerase chain reaction tests are promising. However, none of these tests used alone in ICU patients is sufficiently accurate to avoid overuse of empirical/preemptive treatment. The interest of strategies associating predictive clinical scores and non-culture-based methods still needs to be demonstrated by well-conducted randomized, controlled trials. While awaiting these studies, we consider that probabilist treatment should be stopped earlier if IC is not proven. PMID:25745560

  18. Candidiasis in HIV and AIDS Patients Attending the Nylon Health District Hospital in Douala, Cameroon

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    Anna Longdoh Njunda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Candidiasis is the leading opportunistic mycosis in HIV and AIDS patients. METHOD: In order to determine its prevalence in patients with different CD4+ T cell categories in the Nylon Health District in Douala, a cross-sectional study was carried out whereby 304 HIV positive individuals were recruited between March and August, 2007. They were divided into two groups; those on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and those not on HAART. Three samples constituting mouth, vaginal/urethral swabs and urine were collected from each subject. RESULTS: A total of 204 (67.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.618-0.724] of these patients had more than one predisposing condition to candidiasis, with those on antibiotic therapy having the highest prevalence (63.7% followed by pregnant patients (7.3% (P < 0.05. Candidiasis was more common in patients with low CD4+ T cell count (<200 [66%] than patients with higher CD4+ T cell count (17.9% (P<0.05. One hundred and sixty one (53% of the patients had candidiasis whereby those not on HAART were more frequently infected (69.6% than those on HAART (30.1% (P< 0.05. CONCLUSION: We conclude that candidiasis is a major opportunistic infection in HIV patients and should be checked especially in patients not yet on antiretroviral therapy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 701-706

  19. Hepatosplenic and renal candidiasis in leukemic patients: CT spectrum before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdominal CT performed in 14 leukemic patients with systemic candidiasis and involvement of the liver, spleen, or kidneys revealed numerous low-density lesions in ten livers (71%), eight spleens (57%), and in the kidneys of three patients (21%). Biopsy of all livers and of three kidneys proved hepatic candidiasis in all (100%) and renal candidiasis in three patients (21%). After treatment with amphotericin B and splenectomy (one patient), CT disclosed abnormal livers in eleven (80%) patients, abnormal spleens in seven (53%), and abnormal kidneys in three patients (21%). Rebiopsy disclosed Candida infection in all livers and all abnormal kidneys, so the patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Although the patients became asymptomatic, CT continued to show abnormal livers in five (35%) and abnormal spleens in two (16%) (the previously abnormal kidneys became normal). Rebiopsy of the abnormal livers showed focal fibrosis and necrosis. These findings emphasize the importance of clinical and pathologic correlation of CT appearance

  20. Frequency and Etiology of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to a Gynecological Center in Babol, lran

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    Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common fungal disease in sexually activewomen of which Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the etiologic agentsof vulvovaginal candidiasis amongst 2000 women who presented to the Gynecological Center ofBabol Shahid Yahyanejad Educational Hospital from 2006-2007 with symptoms of vulvovaginalcandidiasis.Results: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms in patients (80%. There were42 out of 97 (43.3% specimens which were positive for yeast. Of these, 80.95% belonged toCandida albicans and 14.29% were Candida krusei.Conclusion: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis.In our study, C. albicans was the most common species isolated from the specimens.

  1. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin - review of the literature

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    Glöckner A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Working by a distinct cell wall-specific mechanism of action, the echinocandin class of antifungals has substantially expanded the range of available treatments for invasive Candida infections. Anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were investigated versus drugs from earlier antifungal classes in large clinical trials that demonstrated their excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis. Therefore, and supported by a number of favourable pharmacological characteristics, the echinocandins rapidly became established in guidelines and clinical practice as primary treatment options for moderately to severely ill patients with invasive candidiasis. This article reviews the relevant clinical evidence that forms the basis for the use of echinocandins in the management of invasive candidiasis, and discusses their current role in the context of recent guideline recommendations and treatment optimization strategies.

  2. Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Application of enzyme-immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of aspergillosis, candidiasis, and zygomycosis in three lovebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; de las Mulas, J M; Jensen, H E

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillosis, candidiasis, and zygomycosis were diagnosed in tissues from three lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) using indirect enzyme-immunohistochemical techniques. In these techniques, the first antibody was raised against fungal antigen. A second antibody, which was raised in another animal species, was added to link the first antibody to enzyme-immunocomplexes. The reactivity of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was visualized by immunoreactivity of alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocomplexes. All three birds examined had dermal candidiasis. In addition, one of the birds was diagnosed with concomitant acute ocular aspergillosis, and another bird was diagnosed with chronic zygomycotic myocarditis. PMID:8257396

  4. Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected individuals in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Katiraee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to appraise prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and to determine factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization among Iranian HIV patients."n"nMethods: The patients were composed 150 Iranian HIV positive individuals referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV & Aids (IRCHA, Imam Khomeini Hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on mycological media. TCD4 lymphocyte count/percentage was measured and patients were categorized. Patients evaluated for some risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral candida colonization."n"nResults: Fifty nine percent of patients were presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and the carriage rate of yeasts was 116 (77.2%. The most frequent isolated candida species were Candida albicans (102 50.2% and Candida glabrata (45 22%. Thrush in 57(38%, perleche in 30(20% and erythematous lesions in 7(4.7% of patients were observed. Significant differences in TCD4 count (p=0.01, gender (p=0.02, antifungal therapy (p=0.001, smoking (p=0.02, and intravenous drug use (p=0.03, between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were observed."n"nConclusion: Oral candidiasis is a frequent complication among Iranian HIV individuals. C. albicans and C. glabrata are most important etiologic agents of oral candidiasis. In Iranian HIV individuals; TCD4 count, antifungal therapy, gender, smoking and intravenous drug use are important risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis. Denture wearing and age are predisposing factors for oral colonization.

  5. Clinical and immunological data of nine patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Laura; Scomodon, Omar; Padoan, Rita; Timpano, Silviana; Plebani, Alessandro; Soresina, Annarosa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Concolino, Daniela; Nicoletti, Angela; Giardino, Giuliana; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Pignata, Claudio; Tamassia, Nicola; Facchetti, Fabio; Vairo, Donatella; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the heterogeneous clinical phenotype of a cohort of nine patients diagnosed with heterozygous mutations in STAT1. We report data of extended immunophenotyping over time and we show lung damage in four patients. The increased phosphorylation of STAT1 in response to IFNγ and IFNα stimulation proves the gain-of-function nature of the defects. The data are supplemental to our original article concurrently published “Clinical heterogeneity of dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease: presenting as treatment-resistant candidiasis and chronic lung disease” [1], where additional results and interpretation of our research can be found.

  6. Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears

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    P Tavakkol

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were cultured in Sabourauds medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol then cultures were tested with common mycological lab tests. In 80% of patients oral candidiasis have been diagnosed. In the investigation a direct relation between the oral candidiasis and removal of denture at night, denture cleanliness, presence of any suction and symptoms of denture stomatitis was shown. No relation between the oral candidiasis and sex, smoking habit, succeptible disease, angular cheilitis; the recent condition of denture and the retention of denture were found. The findings of our investigation indicates that candida albicans is the causative agent of denture stomatitis while other factors such as denture cleanliness, removal of denture at night and presence of any suction may be considered as well.

  7. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  8. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author)

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoss, A.E.; Ponhold, W.; Pollak, A.; Schlemmer, M.; Weninger, M.

    1985-09-01

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries.

  10. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing with Etest for Candida Species Isolated from Patients with Oral Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, You Bum; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    Background The necessity of performing antifungal susceptibility tests is recently increasing because of frequent cases of oral candidiasis caused by antifungal-resistant Candida species. The Etest (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) is a rapid and easy-to-perform in vitro antifungal susceptibility test. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents by using the Etest for Candida species isolated from patients with oral candidiasis. Methods Forty-seven clinical isolates of Candida species (39 isolates of Candida albicans, 5 isolates of C. glabrata, and 3 isolates of C. tropicalis) were tested along with a reference strain (C. albicans ATCC 90028). The MIC end points of the Etest for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B susceptibility were read after the 24-hour incubation of each isolate on RPMI 1640 agar. Results All Candida isolates were found susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. However, all five isolates of C. glabrata were resistant to itraconazole, among which two isolates were also resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion This study revealed that the Etest represented a simple and efficacious method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis patients. Therefore, voriconazole and amphotericin B should be recommended as effective alternatives for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:26719641

  11. New US and CT patterns of hepatic and spienic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine immunocompromised cancer patients with tissue-proved candidiasis underwent a total of eight serial abdominal US studies and 53 CT examinations. Four US patterns of hepatic and splenic candidiasis were recognized. Type 1 was a ''wheel within a wheel'', or a central hypoechoic nidus surrounded by a dense band, in turn surronded by a rim of hypoechoic tissue. Type 2 was the classic ''bull's eye'' lesion. Type 3, the most common, was a uniformly hypoechoic lesion, 1-4 cm in diameter. Type 4 was a small, dense, echogenic focus with no surrounding lucency and varying amounts of posterior shadowing. Types 1,2 and 3 were seen early in infection; types 3 and 4 were present later. Lesion types 2,3 and 4 were also identified on CT scans. In addition, periportal linear areas of increased attenuation, possibly calcified, were identified on follow-up, non-contrast-enhanced CT. Some abscesses were better seen on non-contrast-enhanced CT scans, while others became visible only after iodinated contrast medium was administered intravenously. Although lesions not seen on US were often seen on CT, the opposite was also true. In two cases pathologic proof of candidiasis was established even when all imaging studies were negative. Patients should be studied by US and by CT before and after contrast agent administration for maximum sensitivity. Even when both US and CT are negative, if there is a strong clinical suspicion of candidiasis, open biopsy is recommended

  12. Histopathological Characteristics of Experimental Candida tropicalis Induced Acute Systemic Candidiasis in BALB/c Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiran Mohd Sidik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis is potentially fatal in human but studies relating the histological characteristics with C. tropicalis induced acute systemic candidiasis are few in number. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish and to characterize the distinctive histopathological features of acute systemic candidiasis by varying the inoculum size of C. tropicalis injected in mice. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and were injected with either 1x105 or 1x107 C. tropicalis cells. On observation, the histopathological findings and the fungal burden load following intravenous injection were similar to the previously reported mouse model for Candida albicans. Viable yeast cells in the kidneys reached approximately 22.5 log10 cfu g-1 at day 7 post-infection. Compared with the control group, the infected mice group developed acute pyelonephritis characterized by infiltration of large masses of neutrophils within the infected nephrons. Similarly, foci of acute renal inflammation within the kidney were more pronounced when the C. tropicalis inoculum was increased. Interestingly, we also observed infection of mice with a higher inoculum of C. tropicalis resulted in more severe invasiveness. In conclusion, these results suggest that the BALB/c mouse is highly susceptible to C. tropicalis dissemination and represents a significant model system of acute systemic candidiasis.

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries. (orig.)

  14. Anti-fungal resistance in candida isolated from oral and diaper rash candidiasis in neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadi, Jasem; Motaghi, Mahsa; panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Delpisheh, Ali; Azizian, Mitra; Pakzad, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis infections in children. The children referring to private and public clinics in Ilam, Iran were exmined for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. In this study, 248 oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis samples were collected and cultured.Candida species were identified by using standard methods. Resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, nystatin, ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, clotrimazole, and posaconazole were determined using the CLSI M44-A standard disk diffusion method. From the 248 studied samples, 149 were positive for Candida, among which the Candida albicans was the most prevalent (64.4%). The resistance of different Candida species to nystatin, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole were 4, 43, 34.2, 34.9, 21.5, 6, and 6.7%, respectively. No resistance to amphotericin B was observed. Considering rather low resistance to nystatin, this drug is the best choice for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. PMID:25512681

  15. La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África. Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH. Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa. It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to become a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

  16. Oral Candidiasis in children and adolescents with cancer: Identification of Candida spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Haylen, González Gravina; Evelyn, González de Morán; Olga, Zambrano; María, Lozano Chourio; Sofía, Rodríguez de Valero; Sandra, Robertis; Luz, Mesa.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis represents a serious problem for children with cancer. The mortality rate of this infection has increased due to fungal septicemia, associated with a primary buccal infection. Objective: Identify the Candida spp. in buccal lesions of patients with cancer, establish the predominant s [...] pecies and correlate them to age and sex of the patient, clinical presentation, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic therapy received. Study design: 62 patients, between 0-16 years, were investigated in a cross sectional study. Sample inclusion criteria: Patients with malignant neoplasic disease that were receiving cytostatic treatment and had suspicious lesions of oral candidiasis. Patients with antifungal therapy, active caries, calculus or intraoral appliances were excluded. A clinical evaluation was carried out. The lesion sample was taken and studied by direct exam and culture in CHROMagar-Candida and Sabouraud-Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol. The identification of the isolated yeast was done by the filamentation test, carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. Results: Most of the cases (69.35%) were positive to oral candidiasis, C. albicans was the most frequent species found, followed by C. parapsilosis (14.89%), C. tropicalis (12.77%), C. krusei (4.26%), C. glabrata (2.13%) and C. lusitaniae (2.13 %). In some cases more than one specie were isolated (9.30%). The most frequent location of the lesion was in the tongue (72.70%). The pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most frequent clinical presentation found (78.71%). There were not significant statistically differences with regard to sex and age of the patient, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic agent received. Conclusion: The results suggest that oral candidiasis is a frequent complication in the pediatric oncological population, being C. albicans the main etiological agent, however, there is an important participation of other Candida species.

  17. Caspofungin Use in Patients with Invasive Candidiasis Caused by Common Non-albicans Candida Species: Review of the Caspofungin Database ?

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Arnaldo L; Ngai, Angela L.; Bourque, Michael; Bradshaw, Susan K.; Strohmaier, Kim M; Taylor, Arlene F.; Lupinacci, Robert J.; Kartsonis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing rates of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida species have been reported worldwide. Particular concerns have been raised for C. parapsilosis because of reduced in vitro susceptibility to echinocandins. We identified 212 patients with invasive candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (?5 cases per species) in 5 clinical trials of caspofungin monotherapy from the pharmaceutical sponsor's (Merck and Co., Inc.) database: 71 cases were caused by C. parapsilosis, 65...

  18. CHANGING TRENDS OF CANDIDA ISOLATES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS CASES OF TRIPURA, NORTH EAST INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Jhinuk Basu; Tapan; De, Jayanta; Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: Candida species are a part of the complex endogenous vaginal microflora, which under pathological condition cause vulvovaginal candidiasis. Worldwide it is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis and in India it accounts for 18-20% of clinical visits. AIM: To determine the spectrum of Candida species among the subjects of suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis with an objective to isolate and identify all the Candida species and determine ...

  19. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mu...

  20. Efficacy and Tolerability of Micafungin Monotherapy for Candidemia and Deep-Seated Candidiasis in Adults with Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    The response rate among 58 patients with cancer and candidemia or deep-seated candidiasis treated with micafungin monotherapy was 81%. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay, concomitant nonfungal infections, and acute kidney injury were significantly associated with the 30-day crude mortality rate. Severe neutropenia was an independent predictor of micafungin failure. The efficacy and safety of micafungin in cancer patients with invasive candidiasis were comparable to those reported for patients wit...

  1. Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina de Bedout

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local.Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

  2. Finding the "missing 50%" of invasive candidiasis: how nonculture diagnostics will improve understanding of disease spectrum and transform patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J; Nguyen, M Hong

    2013-05-01

    Blood cultures are limited for diagnosing invasive candidiasis by poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time. New diagnostics are needed to complement cultures, in particular to identify the "missing 50%" of patients who are blood culture-negative. Mannan/anti-mannan immunoglobulin G, ?-D-glucan (BDG) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays can diagnose candidemia before blood cultures and show promising sensitivity/specificity, but they are not widely investigated in blood culture-negative, deep-seated candidiasis. In a recent study, BDG and PCR were superior to blood cultures in deep-seated candidiasis, suggesting they may identify currently undiagnosed patients and expand our understanding of disease spectrum. Positive predictive values of nonculture tests are limited by the low prevalence of invasive candidiasis, which mandates that results be interpreted judiciously. When used as biomarkers that assess a patient's risk of having invasive candidiasis, tests will facilitate preemptive antifungal strategies. Because negative predictive values are excellent, tests will also be useful for ruling out invasive candidiasis and discontinuing unnecessary antifungal therapy. PMID:23315320

  3. Oral candidiasis as a clinical marker of highly active antiretroviral treatment failure in HIV-infected patients / La candidiasis bucal como marcador clínico de falla a la terapia antirretroviral altamente efectiva en pacientes infectados con VIH/sida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Lopez-Verdin; Amalia, Torrecilla-Ramirez; Ana Cristina, Horta-Sandoval; Jaime Federico, Andrade-Villanueva; Ronell, Bologna-Molina.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La candidiasis bucal es una infección oportunista fácilmente detectable en la clínica, por lo que se ha utilizado para valorar tanto el estado inmunológico de los pacientes con VIH como la efectividad de la terapia antirretroviral, altamente efectiva debido a que se encuentra sujeta a [...] diversos factores para lograr el éxito terapéutico. Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis bucal entre indicadores asociados al éxito de la terapia antirretroviral. Material y método: Estudio transversal, analítico en donde inicialmente se realizaron grupos de acuerdo al uso o no de la terapia antirretroviral para proseguir con un interrogatorio que incluía preguntas sobre otros factores relacionados con la infección por cándida, así como la medición del flujo salival y la evaluación clínica de la cavidad bucal para determinar la frecuencia de la candidiasis. Resultados: La diferencia en la frecuencia de la candidiasis bucal entre los grupos con y sin terapia antirretroviral fue significativa, además de obtener una OR = 2,6 (1,58-4,48) y la asociación con la disminución en el conteo de linfocitos de CD4. Discusión: La resistencia a la terapia antirretroviral constituye uno de los problemas fundamentales en el éxito del tratamiento, en los pacientes infectados con virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, al igual que las toxicidades y los problemas de adherencia. Los sensores clínicos como la candidiasis bucal son parámetros de fácil acceso para la detección temprana de falla en la terapia. Abstract in english Introduction: Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection that is readily detectable in the clinic. It has been used to assess the immune status of HIV patients as well as the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To determine the frequency of oral candidiasis infectio [...] n among various indicators associated with antiretroviral therapy effectiveness. Material and methods: Cross-sectional and analytical study, in which groups were initially created based on the use or not of antiretroviral therapy. Participants were subjected to questions on factors related to Candida infection, salivary flow measurements and a clinical examination of the oral cavity to determine the frequency of candidiasis Results: The difference in the frequency of oral candidiasis between groups with and without antiretroviral therapy was significant (OR 2.6 IC95% 1.5-4.4). There were also a significant association with decreased number of CD4 lymphocytes.. Discussion: Resistance to anti-retroviral therapy constitutes one of the fundamental barriers to a successful treatment in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, as do toxicities and adherence problems. Clinical markers such oral candidiasis is an easily and accesible parameter for the early detection of treatment failure.

  4. Invasive candidiasis in non neutropenic critically ill - need for region-specific management guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of antifungal agents has increased over past few decades. A number of risk factors such as immunosuppression, broad spectrum antibiotics, dialysis, pancreatitis, surgery, etc., have been linked with the increased risk of invasive candidiasis. Though there are various guidelines available for the use of antifungal therapy, local/regional epidemiology plays an important role in determining the appropriate choice of agent in situations where the offending organism is not known (i.e. empirical, prophylactic or preemptive therapy. Developing countries like India need to generate their own epidemiological data to facilitate appropriate use of antifungal therapy. In this article, the authors have highlighted the need for region-specific policies/guidelines for treatment of invasive candidiasis. Currently available Indian literature on candidemia epidemiology has also been summarized here.

  5. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antônio, Chambô Filho; João Basilio de, Souza Filho; Christine Chambô, Pignaton; Ingrid, Zon; Alan Santos, Fernandes; Lia Quintaes, Cardoso.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidaz [...] ole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membranes of onset in adolescence besides cutaneous horns in nipples. The clinical picture, family history, culture and anatomopathological studies were consistent with chronic infection by candida. Treatment with systemic antifungals obtained partial response of lesions characterizing a clinical picture of Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis.

  6. Photodynamic therapy as a new approach in vulvovaginal candidiasis in murine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Maria E.; Lopes, Rubia G.; Prates, Renato A.; Sousa, Aline; Ferreira, Luis R.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common cause of vaginal infections. This study investigates the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against yeast cells in mice. Methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), and a special designed protoporphirin (PpNetNI) were used as photosensitizers. Female BALB-c mice were infected with Candida albicans ATCC 90028. PDT was applied with two different light sources, intravaginal and transabdominal. Vaginal washes were performed and cultivated for microbial quantification. Antimicrobial PDT was able to decrease microbial content with MB and PpNetNI (p<0.05), it was not effective, however, with MG photosensitizer. The results of this study demonstrate that aPDT may be a viable alternative treatment for vaginal candidiasis.

  7. Mural Folliculitis and Alopecia with Cutaneous Candidiasis in a Beagle Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Choe, Ohmok; Kim, Okjin

    2011-01-01

    A one-year-old male Beagle dog showed dermatitis, alopecia and scales. Examination of the affected dog revealed generalized alopecia, patchy erythema, and superficial erosions with histological evidence of mural folliculitis. External tests for parasites in scraped skin samples were negative. However, fungal culture tests and polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of Candida in the lesion. These results suggest that cutaneous candidiasis may induce mural folliculitis and alopecia in...

  8. Synthetic glycopeptide vaccines combining ?-mannan and peptide epitopes induce protection against candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Hong; Dziadek, Sebastian; David R. Bundle; Cutler, Jim E.

    2008-01-01

    The first fully synthetic glycopeptide vaccines against a fungal disease have been used to combat disseminated candidiasis in mice. Six T cell peptides found in Candida albicans cell wall proteins were selected by algorithm peptide epitope searches; each was synthesized and conjugated to the fungal cell wall ?-mannan trisaccharide [?-(Man)3] by novel saccharide-peptide linker chemistry to create glycopeptide conjugates. The six proteins were selected because of expression during human candidi...

  9. Invasive candidiasis in intensive care unit; consensus statement from an Iranian panel of experts, July 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Arezoo AHMADI; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Kouchek, Mehran; Majidpour, Ali; Mokhtari, Majid; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Najafi, Atabak; Nejat, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Amirsavadkouhi, Ali; Shirazian, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Timely diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a challenge; on the other hand, the criteria for initiating empirical antifungal therapy in critically ill patients are not well defined in different patient population and ICU settings. Alongside the international guidelines, reaching regional and local consensus on diagnosis and management of IC in ICU setting is essential. This repo...

  10. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Arezoo AHMADI; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in...

  11. Renal candidiasis in newborn: the ultrasonography as diagnostic and therapeutic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of systemic candidiasis in a low-weight newborn. Renal involvement presented as unilateral hydronephrosis secondary to the fungal construction. Ultrasound served not only as a diagnostic tool, but as a guide for the performance of performance of percutaneous nephrostomy which was included in the therapeutic approach to decompress the excretory pathway and allow local installation of anti fungal agents. (Author) 16 refs

  12. Inflammatory Monocytes Mediate Early and Organ-Specific Innate Defense During Systemic Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Lisa Y.; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K.; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)– and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR...

  13. Galectin-3 Plays an Important Role in Protection against Disseminated Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Jennifer R.; De Paepe, Monique E.; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S.; Bliss, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies have implicated galectin-3 as an important receptor in host recognition and response to specific Candida species; however its role in protection against disseminated candidiasis in vivo has not been evaluated. This study investigated the importance of galectin-3 in host defense against systemic infection with the highly virulent species Candida albicans (C. albicans), and the less virulent species, Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis). Mice deficient in galectin-3 (g...

  14. Evaluation of the Oricult-N Dipslide for Laboratory Diagnosis of Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Petteri; Richardson, Malcolm; Paavonen, Jorma

    2000-01-01

    The Oricult-N semiquantitative dipslide (Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) was evaluated for the laboratory diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis. It was compared with broth culture (Vagicult; Orion Diagnostica). Oricult-N was positive for 14.5% of 124 symptomatic patients and 12% of 50 asymptomatic controls. The results for broth cultures were 17 and 22%, respectively. Thus, the test group and the control group did not differ significantly by either method. High vaginal yeast counts (?105 CFU/ml...

  15. ?-D-Glucan Assay in Diagnosis and Monitoring the Systemic Candidiasis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khodadadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of ?-D-Glucan (BDG in the serum aids to diagnose the invasive fungal infections. The current study evaluated the diagnostic potential value of BDG assay in monitoring the disease in experimental systemic candidiasis in a rat model. The results can provide a useful preliminary data to improve this approach in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate ?-D-Glucan assay in diagnosis and monitoring the systemic candidiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty one rats were infected with 106 Candida albicans blastospore per rat. Twelve rats were considered as the negative controls (six immunocompromised rats without infection and six intact rats. During a week, every 24 hours the BDG sera level was determined by both Fungitell and Wako kits. To confirm the systemic infection in each rat, the suspensions of their internal organs were cultivated on agar plates and the number of colony forming units (CFU of C. albicans was counted. Results: All the infected rats were positive with BDG tests. An increasing level of BDG was observed during early days after injection. The cutoff value for discrimination of BDG positive sera was obtained from the negative sera by the Fungitell kit. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values assessed for the Fungitell kit were 95%, 66.6%, 90.47% and 80%, respectively. These criteria for those of Wako were 90%, 83.3%, 94.7% and 71.4%, respectively. Conclusions: While BDG assay seems to be a sensitive and specific adjunctive tool to diagnose and monitor the experimental systemic candidiasis, it seems that measuring the positive cutoff value in different laboratory conditions is necessary for favorable establishment of these tests. Keywords: Beta-D-glucan; Systemic candidiasis; Diagnosis

  16. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors to Candidiasis Infection in Women Supported by Health Centers of Tabriz, 2004.

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    J Babapour

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginits is probably the most common infection in women during their reproductive years, resulting in 5-10 million health-care visits a year, worldwide. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (vvc is the second-most common form of vaginitis in the United States, which is associated with use of oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen and hormonal therapies. Midwives play an important role not only in the assessment and management of vaginal infections, but also in educating women about vaginal health. Recognizing risk factors associated with infections are the key to vaginal health.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Candidal vaginitis in women referring to Tabriz health centers. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out on 1000 women aged 15-49 years who were selected by multiple random method. A sample of vaginal discharge was taken from the posterior fornix of the cervix and from the vaginal wall using sterile cotton swabs. The mycelium was observed by microscopic examination of a wet mount of the secretions. Another sample was taken for culturing in Agar sabura and transported to the laboratory. In addition, questionnaires with personal and reproductive information were completed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 15 and chi-square and, t student statistical tests were used for analysis. Results : This investigation indicated that prevalence of candidiasis was 25.2%. There was no meaningful statistical relationship between age, marriage age, occupation, education status, body mass index, day of menstruation cycle and abortion history with candidal vaginitis (p>.05,but a statistically significant relationship was observed between number of deliveries, vaginal Ph with candidiasis. Also, there was a reverse statistical relationship between OCP, DMPA methods and candidiasis. Conclusion: Midwives and other health professionals have an important role to play by giving more information to women about infections and associated risk factors, thus improving their quality of life.

  17. Salivary Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor and Oral Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, Amit; Gray, Laurie R.; Patton, Lauren L.; Caplan, Daniel J.; Slade, Gary D; Tien, Hsaio-Chuan; Shugars, Diane C.

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis, typically caused by Candida albicans, is the most common oral disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a 12-kDa antiprotease, suppresses the growth of C. albicans in vitro. To determine whether the mucosal protein plays a role in protecting oral tissues against fungal infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the oral and systemic health and salivary SLPI levels ...

  18. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Isha Khatri; Ganapathi Moger; N. Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated wa...

  19. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches. PMID:24959937

  20. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PATUSSI, Cleverson; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; MUNHOZ, Eduardo Ciliao; ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; SCHUSSEL, Juliana Lucena.

    2014-09-26

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient’s recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, [...] particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  1. Single or 2-Dose Micafungin Regimen for Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis: Therapia Sterilisans Magna!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, Tawanda

    2015-12-01

    The time the earth takes to rotate its axis (the day) has dictated how often pharmaceutical compounds are dosed. The scientific link between the 2 events is materia medica arcana. As an example, in the treatment of invasive candidiasis, antifungal therapy with intravenous micafungin is dosed daily. A literature review revealed population pharmacokinetic analyses, in vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies, and maximum-tolerated-dose studies of micafungin that examined optimal micafungin dosing strategies. The half-life of micafungin in patient blood was 14 hours in several studies, but was even longer in different organs, so that the concentration will persist above minimum inhibitory concentrations of Candida species for several days. Studies in mice and rabbits with persistent neutropenia and disseminated candidiasis, otherwise fatal, demonstrated that a single large dose of micafungin could clear disseminated candidiasis, even though the micafungin half-life in such animals is shorter than in humans. Human pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies confirmed this link between micafungin efficacy and the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve, and the optimal exposures initially identified in neutropenic animals. Maximum tolerated dose studies have demonstrated safety of 900 mg administered daily for several weeks, whereas case reports demonstrate efficacy and safety of single 1400-mg doses. Thus, a single dose of micafungin, or 2 such doses within a few days of each other, is not only logical, but might even lead to faster clearance of Candida. PMID:26567282

  2. Lipase Gene Expression of Resistant and Sensitive Candida Albicans to Fluconazole Isolated from Patients Suffering from Oral Candidiasis and Vaginal Candidiasis

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    NasrollahiOmran, A. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With the development of drug resistance in strains of fungi, there is a considerable resistance of Candida albicans strains to fluconazole. Molecular studies are developing to determine the relationship of such a drug resistance with the increased gene expression of enzymes produced in drug-resistant Candida isolates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between extracellular lipase gene (LIP8 expression of Candida albicans isolated from candidiasis and sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility of Candida albicans was performed in oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine the proportion of strains sensitive or resistant to fluconazole using NCCLS method. To evaluate and compare the expression of these genes in the susceptible and resistant strains, RT real-time PCR reaction was used. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans, 20 were susceptible, 12 were semi-susceptible and 14 were resistant to fluconazole. By using PCR reaction, the results showed that the expression of this gene in fluconazole-susceptible isolates was moderate, while it was high in the isolates resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: The results of lipase gene (LIP8 expression showed that the additional expression of some genes of the enzymes responsible for virulence of Candida may also play a role in resistance to fluconazole.

  3. Candidiasis sistémica: experiencia en el Hospital San Juan de Dios 1996-1998

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ernesto, Caballero; Ricardo, Boza; Kenneth, González.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available La sobrevida de los pacientes con enfermedades crónicas así como de aquellos expuestos a terapias médicas y quirúrgicas agresivas ha aumentado. entre otras cosas, gracias al empleo de antibiáticos de amplio espectro, al uso de nutrición parenteral, a la aplicación de medicamentos inmunomoduladores, [...] al transpiante de órganos y al desarrollo de las unidades de cuidado intensivo. No obstante, esto ha conllevado a la aparición de complicaciones como son las infecciones por hongos. Dentro de éstas, en los últimos años se ha demostrado que las diversas especies de cándida tienen un papel importante. La candidiasis sistémica puede ser una complicación severa en estos pacientes, con una alta morbimortalidad. En nuestro medio, desconocemos estudios donde se analice esta patología, razón por la cual se llevó a cabo este trabajo. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los pacientes con candidiasis sistémica diagnosticados en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, hospital nacional de aproximadamente 700 camas, entre los meses de enero de 1996 a diciembre de 1998. Se analizaron 48 episodios de candidiasis sistémica en 47 pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 53 años, 60% fueron hombres. La mortalidad fue de 36%. En 77% de los pacientes se logró identificar alguna patología de base (enfermedad hematooncológica, diabetes mellitus, cirugía abdominal, enfermedad por VIH, quemaduras extensas). Los principales factores de riesgo demostrados fueron el uso previo de antibióticos de amplio espectro (87%), presencia de catéter venoso central (72%), candidiasis en otros sitios (64%), cirugía abdominal previa (25%),empleo de nutrición parenteral (23%) y uso de corticoesteroides (23%). En todos los pacientes se logró identificar al menos un factor de riesgo. Las principales especies de cándida aisladas fueron C albicans (47%), C tropicalis (19%), C parapsilosis (11%), C krusei (4%) y C glabrata (2%). Se analizó la relación entre la especie aislada y los factores de riesgo. Se encontró que C krusei y C parapsílosís se relacionaron con el uso previo de antimicóticos azoles. La mortalidad fue mayor en aquellos pacientes no tratados con antimicóticos. Se discuten estos hallazgos y se correlacionan con lo publicado en la literatura médica, llamándose la atención sobre el aumento en la incidencia de candidiasis sistémicas por candidas no aibicans. Abstract in english The mortality of patients with chronic diseases and those with agressive medical and surgical therapies has decreased in recent years, specially due to the use of broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, immunosupressives therapies, organ transpiantation and management of those patients in [...] intensive care units. However, new infectious diseases have emerged in this population, for example candidal infections. We do not have reports in Costa Rica about this problem. The objective of this study was to analized, retrospectiviy, demographic characteristics, risk factors, microbiologic findings, mortaiity and treatment of patients with candidal bloodstream infections between January 1996 and December 1998, in the Hospital San Juan de Dios, a costarrican reference hospital. Forty seven patients with 48 systemic candidiasis episodes met the criteria to be included in our study. Sixty percent were men and the mean age was 53 years oid. The mortality rate was 36%. All the patients presentes at least, one risk factor.The most common were the use of broad spectrum antibiotics (87%), the presence of central venous catheter(72%), candidiasis in other anatomic site (64%), previous abdominal surgery (25%),use of parenteral nutrition (23%) and neutropenia (17%). The species isolated were: C albicans (47%), C tropicalis (19%), C parapsilosis (11%), C krusei (4%) and C glabrata (2%). The last two species were related to the previous use of antimycotic azoles. The use of an early specific antimycotic treatment was related with low mortaiity rate. We discussed our data and we found similar results in previous reports in the medical literature.

  4. Topical miconazole nitrate ointment in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraker, Mary K; Gisoldi, Elvira M; Siegfried, Elaine C; Fling, John A; de Espinosa, Zila D; Quiring, John N; Zangrilli, Stephanie G

    2006-02-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) complicated by candidiasis is a common problem in diaper-wearing infants and children. We report a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group study evaluating the efficacy and safety of a low concentration of miconazole nitrate in a zinc oxide/petrolatum ointment for the treatment of DD complicated by candidiasis. Patients (N=330) who had DD with a severity score of 3 or higher were enrolled. Those patients with a baseline potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation and a baseline culture specimen that both tested positive for Candida were retained for efficacy analysis (n=236). Miconazole nitrate 0.25% ointment or a zinc oxide/petrolatum vehicle control were applied to all clinically affected areas of patients with DD for 7 days at each diaper change and after bathing. A follow-up test-of-cure visit was conducted at day 14. Among the patients completing the study, the overall rate of cure (clinical cure plus microbiologic cure) was 23% for the miconazole nitrate group and 10% for the vehicle control group (P=.005); the rate of clinical cure (complete rash clearance, DD severity score=0 at day 14) was 38% for the miconazole nitrate group and 11% for the vehicle control group (Pmiconazole nitrate group and 23% for the vehicle control group. The vehicle control resulted in mild improvement at day 3 but little or no subsequent improvement. The discontinuation rate due to clinical failure was substantially lower for the miconazole nitrate group (4%) than the vehicle control group (47%). The mean DD severity index score for the miconazole nitrate group was significantly lower from day 3 through day 14 compared with that of the vehicle control group (Pmiconazole nitrate 0.25% ointment was well tolerated and significantly more effective than the zinc oxide/petrolatum vehicle control for treatment of DD complicated by candidiasis. PMID:16570675

  5. EFFICACY OF SINGLE ORAL DOSE 150 mg FLUCONAZOLE IN TREATMENT OF VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

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    Shabana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIMS : This study aimed to find out the efficacy of single oral dose 150mg of fluconazole in treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis, to e valuate its safety assessment and the clinical and mycological efficacy assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his study is carried out in department of obstetrics and gynaecology Gandhi medical college sultania hospital Bhopal and with the help of microbiolo gy department Gandhi medical college Bhopal over a period of one year. It is a hospital based clinical prospective study. RESULTS : Maximum age incidence was found between 21 - 30years. Mostly patients belonged to low socioeconomic status and were uneducated. Maximum patients were married (98% and multiparous (92%, nulliparous formed the smallest group (8%. In factors predisposing to candidiasis, contraceptive methods were found to be important in which maximum incidence was found in patients using oral con traception about 32% and 12% of IUCD users were affected. Other factors were antibiotic treatment (5% and diabetes (2%. Vaginal discharge and pruritis were the two commonest symptoms found. Among the signs vaginal discharge and white plaques was the comm onest sign. On follow up visits 88 cases had complete clinical cure and only 6 cases showed failure and 9 recurrence s . In mycological assessment maximum 135 cases showed complete cure, 6 were failure and 9 recurrence. In overall results, excellent results were found in 88cases, good in 38 cases, fair in 9 cases and recurrence in 9 cases. Recurrences were mainly due to rectal carriers. CONCLUSION: In co n clusion fluconazole was found effective as a systemic single oral dose therapy for acute vulvovaginal cand idiasis. It is proved safe in terms of tolerance and preferred by patients. So in view of its favourable patients acceptability and compliance profile, it is considered as a first line therapeutic choice for treatment of women with vaginal candidiasis.

  6. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  7. TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION MIGHT INCREASE THE RISK OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT

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    Xiao-Hua CHEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Candida infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients. A rare case of a multiple deep organ infection with Candida albicans and spinal tuberculosis was reported in a healthy young man. The 19-year-old man complained of month-long fever and lower back pain. He also had a history of scalded mouth syndrome. Coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans was diagnosed using the culture of aspirates from different regions. Symptoms improved considerably after antifungal and antituberculous therapy. This case illustrates that infection with tuberculosis might impair the host's immune system and increase the risk of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient.

  8. Ketoconazole hepatotoxicity in a patient treated for environmental illness and systemic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusko, C.S.; Marten, J.T. (Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Environmental illness, a hypothesized disease caused by exposure to substances such as combustion products, pesticides, food additives, and Candida albicans, is discussed. The case of a patient with environmental illness and systemic candidiasis for six weeks with ketoconazole, liver enzyme concentrations increased. One month after discontinuation of ketoconazole, the liver enzyme concentrations decreased; however, over the next five months, liver enzymes and bilirubin increased. The patient developed encephalopathy and eventually was transferred to a medical center for possible liver transplant. A review of the literature pertaining to ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is also presented.16 references.

  9. Exogenous Farnesol Interferes with the Normal Progression of Cytokine Expression during Candidiasis in a Mouse Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Gerald E. Duhamel; Jerrels, Thomas R.; Petro, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans, a dimorphic fungus composed of yeast and mycelial forms, is the most common human fungal pathogen. Th1 cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), which are induced by macrophage IL-12, are critical to resistance against systemic candidiasis, while Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5 are less critical. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule produced by C. albicans that controls the formation of mycelia but is also...

  10. Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex in children with hepatosplenic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, T.J.; Whitcomb, P; Piscitelli, S.; Figg, W. D.; Hill, S.; Chanock, S. J.; Jarosinski, P; R. Gupta(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India); Pizzo, P A

    1997-01-01

    The safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC) were studied in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients. Six children with hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) received 2.5 mg of ABLC/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks for a total dosage of 105 mg/kg. Mean serum creatinine (0.85 +/- 0.12 mg/dl at baseline) was stable at the end of therapy at 0.85 +/- 0.18 mg/dl and at 1-month follow-up at 0.72 +/- 0.12 mg/dl. There was no increase in hepatic transaminases. Mean plas...

  11. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

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    Rickard Kristen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment. The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64% participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6% had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609001052224

  12. Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis

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    Al-Sadeq Ameera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

  13. Innovative formulation of nystatin particulate systems in toothpaste for candidiasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Catarina Pinto; Roque, Luís Vasques; Baptista, Marina; Rijo, Patrícia

    2016-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is a mycosis on the mucous membranes of the mouth but not limited to the mouth. Nystatin is one of the most frequently employed antifungal agents to treat infections and may be safely given orally as well as applied topically but its absorption through mucocutaneous membranes such as the gut and the skin is minimal. The purpose of this study is to enhance the effectiveness of nystatin using particulate system such as beads, micro- and nanoparticles of alginate incorporated into toothpaste. Those particulate systems of nystatin were prepared by extrusion/external gelation for beads and emulsification/internal gelation for micro- and nanoparticles and characterized. Small, anionic charged and monodispersed particles were successfully produced. The type of particulate system influenced all previous parameters, being microparticles the most suitable particulate system of nystatin showing the slowest release, the highest inhibitory effect of Candida albicans over a period of one year. Those results allowed the conclusion that alginate exhibits properties that enable the in vitro functionality of encapsulated nystatin and thus may provide the basis for new successful approaches for the treatment of oral antifungal infections such as oral candidiasis. PMID:25567611

  14. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

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    N. Chami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  15. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 ?g/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 ?g/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 ?g/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. PMID:26627336

  16. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Flora; Pavelka, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the body's first-line defenses against fungal infections. Moreover, classical chemotherapeutic agents also have a detrimental effect on components of the adaptive immune system, which further play important roles in the antifungal response. In this review, we discuss the current paradigm regarding the mechanisms behind the increased risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. We also highlight some recent findings, which suggest that chemotherapy may have more extensive effects beyond the human host, in particular towards C. albicans itself and the bacterial microbiota. The extent to which these additional effects contribute towards the development of candidiasis in chemotherapy-treated patients remains to be investigated. PMID:26784236

  17. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a ?sap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the ?sap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and ?sap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis. PMID:25870228

  18. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions

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    Flora Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the body’s first-line defenses against fungal infections. Moreover, classical chemotherapeutic agents also have a detrimental effect on components of the adaptive immune system, which further play important roles in the antifungal response. In this review, we discuss the current paradigm regarding the mechanisms behind the increased risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. We also highlight some recent findings, which suggest that chemotherapy may have more extensive effects beyond the human host, in particular towards C. albicans itself and the bacterial microbiota. The extent to which these additional effects contribute towards the development of candidiasis in chemotherapy-treated patients remains to be investigated.

  19. Systemic candidiasis in farm-reared red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa caused by Leucosporidium spp

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    Lanteri Giovanni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the results of radiological, histological and molecular examination of three farm-reared red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa affected by candidiasis. Case presentation Three juvenile farm-reared red-legged partridges in a batch of 100 of the same species were sent for clinical and pathological investigations. The owner referred of a sudden isolation of the sick animals, with apathy, diarrhea, ruffled plumage and respiratory rattles. Post mortem total body lateral projection radiograph showed an increased perihilar interstitial pattern and air bronchogram signs due to lung edema. At necropsy, carcasses showed cachexia; the pericloacal region was soiled by diarrheic fecal material. From the mouth to the intestine, a mucous yellowish fluid was present on a slightly reddish mucosa. Histopathology showed slight edema and congestion with different free fungal elements, referable to blastospores, hyphae and pseudohyphae. Biomolecular exam identified the most similar sequences as belonging to Leucosporidium scottii. Conclusion To our knowledge, this case report describes for the first time this fungal species as a causative agent of candidiasis in birds.

  20. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Gihan S; Aldawsari, Hibah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Methods Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. Results All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. Conclusion The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being. PMID:26170621

  1. Perfil epidemiológico de la candidiasis invasora en unidades de pacientes críticos en un hospital universitario Epidemiologial profile of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units at a university hospital

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    M. Cristina Ajenjo H

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología de candidiasis invasora (CI ha cambiado, lo cual no ha sido suficientemente estudiado en Chile. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico de CI en pacientes críticos. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo entre octubre 2001 y agosto 2003, en pacientes críticos adultos con sospecha o confimnación de CI. Resultados: 53 pacientes cumplieron criterios de CI. De ellos, 18 (33,9% tuvieron candidemia, 22(41,5% CI diseminada y 13(24,5% CI local. Entre las candidemias, hubo 8 C. albicans (44,4% y 10 Candida no albicans (55,6%, predominando C. tropicalis (27,7%. Un 88,8% de las candidemias fueron susceptibles a fluconazol. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 24,5%, significativamente menor en pacientes con candidemias vs CI diseminada (16,6 vs 31,8%, p = 0,02. Conclusiones: Se observó una mayor proporción de Candida no albicans en candidemias de pacientes críticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de estas cepas fue susceptible a fluconazol. La mortalidad global fue menor en candidemias.Invasive candidiasis (IC epidemiology has changed in critically ill patients and limited data are available in Chile. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological profile of IC in critically ill patients. Methods: Observational prospective study conducted from October 2001 to August 2003 in critically ill adults with suspected or confirmed IC. Results: 53 patients met criteria for IC, finding 18 (33.9% candidemias, 22 (41.5% disseminated IC, and 13 (24.5% local IC. We identified 8 (44.4% C. albicans and 10 (55.6% non-albicans Candida in candidemias. C. tropicalis was the predominant non-albicans species (27.7%. An 88.8 % of Candidas sp recovered in candidemias were fluconazole susceptible. Overall hospital mortality was 24.5%. Mortality in candidemia was significantly lower than in disseminated IC (16.6 vs 31.8%, p = 0.02. Conclusions: A higher proportion of non-albicans Candida was observed in candidemias from critically ill patients. However, most of these strains were fluconazole susceptible. A lower overall mortality was observed in candidemias.

  2. Perfil epidemiológico de la candidiasis invasora en unidades de pacientes críticos en un hospital universitario / Epidemiologial profile of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units at a university hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Cristina, Ajenjo H; Andrés, Aquevedo S; Ana María, Guzmán D; Helena, Poggi M; Mario, Calvo A; Claudia, Castillo V; Eugenia, León C; Max, Andresen H; Jaime, Labarca L.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La epidemiología de candidiasis invasora (CI) ha cambiado, lo cual no ha sido suficientemente estudiado en Chile. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico de CI en pacientes críticos. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo entre octubre 2001 y agosto 2003, en pacientes críti [...] cos adultos con sospecha o confimnación de CI. Resultados: 53 pacientes cumplieron criterios de CI. De ellos, 18 (33,9%) tuvieron candidemia, 22(41,5%) CI diseminada y 13(24,5%) CI local. Entre las candidemias, hubo 8 C. albicans (44,4%) y 10 Candida no albicans (55,6%), predominando C. tropicalis (27,7%). Un 88,8% de las candidemias fueron susceptibles a fluconazol. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 24,5%, significativamente menor en pacientes con candidemias vs CI diseminada (16,6 vs 31,8%, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: Se observó una mayor proporción de Candida no albicans en candidemias de pacientes críticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de estas cepas fue susceptible a fluconazol. La mortalidad global fue menor en candidemias. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis (IC) epidemiology has changed in critically ill patients and limited data are available in Chile. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological profile of IC in critically ill patients. Methods: Observational prospective study conducted from October 2001 to Augu [...] st 2003 in critically ill adults with suspected or confirmed IC. Results: 53 patients met criteria for IC, finding 18 (33.9%) candidemias, 22 (41.5%) disseminated IC, and 13 (24.5%) local IC. We identified 8 (44.4%) C. albicans and 10 (55.6%) non-albicans Candida in candidemias. C. tropicalis was the predominant non-albicans species (27.7%). An 88.8 % of Candidas sp recovered in candidemias were fluconazole susceptible. Overall hospital mortality was 24.5%. Mortality in candidemia was significantly lower than in disseminated IC (16.6 vs 31.8%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: A higher proportion of non-albicans Candida was observed in candidemias from critically ill patients. However, most of these strains were fluconazole susceptible. A lower overall mortality was observed in candidemias.

  3. First experience of Candida non-albicans isolates with high antibiotic resistance pattern caused oropharyngeal candidiasis among cancer patients

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    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, oropharyngeal Candidiasis is a serious infection among cancer patients. The isolated Candida spp. were resistant to common antifungal agents, which may lead to longer hospital stay, more expensive/toxic drugs and higher mortality. Therefore, interval surveillance is necessary in developing institutional guidelines.

  4. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  5. Common invasive fungal diseases: an overview of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedel, Yvonne; Zimmerli, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and Pneumocystis infect an estimated two million individuals worldwide. Most are immunocompromised or critically ill. Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of the critically ill and of recipients of transplanted abdominal organs. In high-risk haemato-oncological patients, in contrast, the introduction of antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole and later with mould-active posaconazole has led to a remarkable reduction of invasive candidiasis and is likely to have a similar effect on invasive aspergillosis. Invasive aspergillosis remains the dominant invasive fungal disease (IFD) of haemato-oncological patients and solid-organ transplant recipients and is increasingly found in individuals with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on corticosteroids. In the developed world, owing to antiretroviral therapy Pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcosis have become rare in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are mainly found in solid-organ transplant recipients or immunocompromised patients. In the developing world, cryptococcosis remains a common and highly lethal disease of HIV positive individuals. With invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis, timely diagnosis is the principal challenge. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and current diagnostic tests lack sensitivity and specificity. The combination of several tests improves sensitivity, but not specificity. Standardised polymerase chain-reaction-based assays may be promising tools for more rapid and specific diagnosis of candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Nevertheless, initiation of treatment is often based solely on clinical suspicion. Empirical therapy, however, may lead to over-treatment of patients without IFD or it may miss its target in the case of resistance. Despite the success of antifungal prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of IFDs in haemato-oncological patients, there are a considerable number of breakthrough infections demonstrating not only fungal resistance but also the emergence of rare and often lethal fungal pathogens. Knowledge of the local epidemiology and antifungal resistance is therefore pivotal. Current trial-based guidelines leave major gaps in identifying those most at risk, who may benefit from prophylaxis. Ongoing searches for disease-associated genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the establishment of individual risk profiles and targeted prophylaxis. PMID:26901377

  6. Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral

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    GERARDO MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %, Candida tropicalis (8,1 % y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %. Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 % que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %. De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS, el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos.A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %, Candida tropicalis (8.1 %, and Torulopsis glabrata (8.1 %. It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 % than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %. Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA, the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

  7. Invasive Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. ... Gets Fungal Infections HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications ...

  8. Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  9. [The antifungal and immunomodulating lymphotropic therapy of candidiasis of the oral mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumski?, A V; Pozharitskaia, M M; Iurchenko, E V

    1996-01-01

    Lymphotropic and endolymphatic therapy was carried out in 52 patients with candidiasis of the buccal mucosa. After preliminary injection of lidase, levorin was injected subcutaneously in the middle third of the shin to patients in a standing posture, after which a cuff with 45-50 mm Hg pressure was placed on the femur for 2-2.5 hours. Immunocorrector thymogen was injected in the submaxillary and chin lymph nodes. A course consisted of 5-6 sessions. The status of the buccal mucosa normalized after treatment. Contamination of the mucosa with yeast cells appreciably decreased, the content of substances with medium-molecular mass in the saliva reduced, and cellular and humoral immunity parameters normalized. PMID:8992656

  10. CANDIDÍASE CUTÂNEA EM CEBUS APELLA (MACACO PREGO CUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN A CEBUS APELLA (CAPUCHINS MONKEYS

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    Anelise Oliveira Fonseca

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido freqüentemente isoladas de animais domésticos e silvestres, entretanto, candidíase não tem sido reportada em primatas. Encaminhou-se à Faculdade de Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Animal, um macaco-prego (Cebus apella para necropsia, que vinha apresentando emagrecimento profundo e lesões ulcerativas de pele e mucosas. Fragmentos de pele e órgãos foram processados para histologia e corados com H.E. e Groccot. Para micologia, coletaram-se fragmentos de órgãos, exsudato e crostas da pele, sendo realizado exame direto e cultivo a 37oC. Macroscopicamente, o animal apresentava alopecia, caquexia e ulcerações cutâneas de 1-4 cm. Histologicamente, nas ulcerações, a derme continha infiltrado de mononucleares e proliferação fibroblástica. Mediante utilização de Groccot, encontraram-se hifas e/ou pseudo-hifas e blastoconídeos intralesionais. Em cultivos de crostas e exsudato, observaram-se colônias brilhantes, com superfície lisa e coloração branca a creme. A microscopia das colônias revelou células leveduriformes ovaladas ou alongadas, com brotamento unipolar, gram-positivas. No microcultivo em fubá, observaram-se blastoconídeos globosos terminais, com parede espessa e pseudomicélio abundante e ramificado, com formação de tubo germinativo em albumina de ovo, sendo a levedura classificada como Candida albicans. O estudo aborda o risco da infecção por micoses oportunistas como a candidíase em animais silvestres em cativeiro.

     

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, pele, Cebus apella.

    Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals, however, Candidiasis has not been reported in primates. One Cebus apella, with progressive thinning and ulcerative skin lesions and mucous, was necropsied. Fragments of tissue were collected and processed for histology. Coloration of H.E. and Groccot was made. For mycology was collected tissue, exsudate, and skin crusts. Direct exam was made, and samples cultivated at 37oC in agar Sabouraud with cloranfenicol and agar corn. Macroscopically the animal presented; itself extremely thin with ulcerative lesions on the skin, ranging from 1 to 4 cm. Histologically, on dermis ulcerations, there was mononuclear infiltrate and fibroblastic proliferation. With Groccot, it was observed intralesionally hyphae and blastoconidia. The direct exam showed round and/or ovalate gram positive cells, compatible with yeast. The cultives showed shining colonies with a smooth surface, some of them with edges fringed and white-yellowish coloration. The colonies showed yeast cells with ovalate or alongate forms and sprouting unipolar on microscopy. With microcultive, it was found globosous blastoconidia, with wall thick and pseudohyfaes abundant and ramified. There was the formation of a germinative tube, confirming the C. albicans species. This study shows the risk of candidiasis in wildlife primates living on captivity.

     

    KEY WORDS: Candidiasis, Candida albicans, Cebus apella, skin.

  11. [A trial of the use of diflucan (fluconazole) in patients with vaginal candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, N V; Sokolova, E N; Makhova, E E; Petukhova, I N

    1993-12-01

    Fifty females with vaginitis due to Candida albicans were treated with fluconazol (diflucan) in a single dose of 150 mg administered per os. A complete elimination of the clinical signs in 42 out of 50 patients (84 per cent) and a significant improvement of the clinical picture in 4 out of 50 patients (8 per cent) were recorded. The cultures of the smears produced no fungal growth with respect to 31 out of 36 patients (86.1 per cent), while microscopically the presence of the fungus with the signs of pathomorphosis was detected. Such cells could be a source of the fungal reinfection. Therefore, diflucan proved to be a highly efficient drug in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis and might be considered as an additional agent for the therapy of the disease. PMID:8085908

  12. Transcriptomic Analysis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Identifies a Role for the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amol C.; Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L.; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused most frequently by Candida albicans, represents a significant unmet clinical need. C. albicans, as both a commensal and a pathogenic organism, has a complex and poorly understood interaction with the vaginal environment. Understanding the complex nature of this relationship is necessary for the development of desperately needed therapies to treat symptomatic infection. Using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we characterized the early murine vaginal and fungal transcriptomes of the organism during VVC. Network analysis of host genes that were differentially expressed between infected and naive mice predicted the activation or repression of several signaling pathways that have not been previously associated with VVC, including NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Intravaginal challenge of Nlrp3?/? mice with C. albicans demonstrated severely reduced levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), alarmins, and inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1? (IL-1?) (the hallmarks of VVC immunopathogenesis) in vaginal lavage fluid. Intravaginal administration of wild-type (WT) mice with glyburide, a potent inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome, reduced PMN infiltration and IL-1? to levels comparable to those observed in Nlrp3?/? mice. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of C. albicans genes indicated robust expression of hypha-associated secreted aspartyl proteinases 4, 5, and 6 (SAP4–6), which are known inflammasome activators. Despite colonization similar to that of the WT strain, ?SAP4–6 triple and ?SAP5 single mutants induced significantly less PMN influx and IL-1? during intravaginal challenge. Our findings demonstrate a novel role for the inflammasome in the immunopathogenesis of VVC and implicate the hypha-associated SAPs as major C. albicans virulence determinants during vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:25900651

  13. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labib GS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gihan S Labib,1,2 Hibah Aldawsari1 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Purpose: Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many predisposing factors. Several aspects have spurred the search for new strategies in the treatment of oral candidiasis, among which are the limited numbers of new antifungal drugs developed in recent years. Previous studies have shown that thyme and clove oils have antimycotic activities and have suggested their incorporation into pharmaceutical preparations. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of the incorporation and characterization of essential oils or their extracted active ingredients in Orabase formulations. Methods: Orabase loaded with clove oil, thyme oil, eugenol, and thymol were prepared and evaluated for their antifungal activities, pH, viscosity, erosion and water uptake characteristics, mechanical properties, in vitro release behavior, and ex vivo mucoadhesion properties. Results: All prepared bases showed considerable antifungal activity and acceptable physical characteristics. The release pattern from loaded bases was considerably slow for all oils and active ingredients. All bases showed appreciable adhesion in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. Conclusion: The incorporation of essential oils in Orabase could help in future drug delivery design, with promising outcomes on patients’ well-being. Keywords: antifungal activity, clove oil, eugenol, mucoadhesion, oral gel, thyme oil, thymol

  14. A curcumin-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmazi, Rafael; Calixto, Giovana; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2015-01-01

    Women often develop vaginal infections that are caused primarily by organisms of the genus Candida. The current treatments of vaginal candidiasis usually involve azole-based antifungals, though fungal resistance to these compounds has become prevalent. Therefore, much attention has been given to molecules with antifungal properties from natural sources, such as curcumin (CUR). However, CUR has poor solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. This study attempted to overcome this problem by developing, characterizing, and evaluating the in vitro antifungal action of a CUR-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system (LCPM) for vaginal administration. A low-viscosity LCPM (F) consisting of 40% wt/wt polyoxpropylene-(5)-polyoxyethylene-(20)-cetyl alcohol, 50% wt/wt oleic acid, and 10% wt/wt chitosan dispersion at 0.5% with the addition of 16% poloxamer 407 was developed to take advantage of the lyotropic phase behavior of this formulation. Notably, F could transform into liquid crystal systems when diluted with artificial vaginal mucus at ratios of 1:3 and 1:1 (wt/wt), resulting in the formation of F30 and F100, respectively. Polarized light microscopy and rheological studies revealed that F behaved like an isotropic formulation, whereas F30 and F100 behaved like an anisotropic liquid crystalline system (LCS). Moreover, F30 and F100 presented higher mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal mucosa than F. The analysis of the in vitro activity against Candida albicans revealed that CUR-loaded F was more potent against standard and clinical strains compared with a CUR solution. Therefore, the vaginal administration of CUR-loaded LCPMs represents a promising platform for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. PMID:26257519

  15. Assessing the potential of four cathelicidins for the management of mouse candidiasis and Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Liu, Xuelian; Wang, Chen; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Sijin; Wang, Hui; Feng, Lan; Wang, Yipeng

    2016-02-01

    As the most common fungal pathogen of humans, severe drug resistance has emerged in the clinically isolated Candida albicans, which lead to the urgency to develop novel antifungal agents. Here, four our previously characterized cathelicidins (cathelicidin-BF, Pc-CATH1, Cc-CATH2, Cc-CATH3) were selected and their antifungal activities against C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using amphotericin B and LL-37 as control. Results showed that all four cathelicidins could eradicate standard and clinically isolated C. albicans strains with most MIC values ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml, in less than 0.5 h revealed by time-kill kinetic assay. Four peptides only exhibited slight hemolytic activity with most HC50 > 200 μg/ml, and retained potent anti-C. albicans activity at salt concentrations below and beyond physiological level. In animal experiment, 50 mg/kg administration of the four cathelicidins could significantly reduce the fungal counts in a murine oral candidiasis model induced by clinically isolated C. albicans. The antibiofilm activity of cathelicidin-BF, the most potent among the five peptides was evaluated, and result showed that cathelicidin-BF strongly inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 20 μg/ml. Furthermore, cathelicidin-BF also exhibited potent anti-C. albicans activity in established biofilms as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Structure-function analyses suggest that they mainly adopt an α-helical conformations, which enable them to act as a membrane-active molecule. Altogether, the four cathelicidins display great potential for antifungal agent development against candidiasis. PMID:26656137

  16. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rad DMD, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization and infection and resistance to antifungal drugs in these patients.METHODS: Thirty patients receiving a 6-week course of radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer at theOncology Unit in Shafa Hospital, in 2008, were enrolled in the study. Specimens from patients were cultured weeklyfor Candida. All isolates were plated on CHROM agar and RPMI-based medium. They were subcultured and submittedfor antifungal susceptibility testing (nystatin, fluconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole and molecular typing.RESULTS: Infection (clinical and microbiological evidence occurred in 50% of the patients and Candida colonization(only microbiological evidence occurred in 70% of subjects in the first week. Candida albicans alone was isolated in94.9% of patient visits with positive cultures. Candida tropicalis was isolated from 5.1% of patient visits with positivecultures. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin, but did not respond to the other antifungal drugsCONCLUSIONS: The irradiation-induced changes of the intraoral environment such as xerostomia lead to increasedintraoral colonization by Candida species. All yeast isolates were susceptible to nystatin. Thus prophylactic therapywith nystatin should be considered for these patients.

  17. Evolución favorable de trillizos prematuros con candidiasis sistémica neonatal tratados con caspofungina / Successfully evolution of premature triplets with systemic neonatal candidiasis treated with caspofungin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana E., Granados-Perales; J. Horacio, Ugalde-Fernández.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Las infecciones por especies de Candida son un problema que se ha incrementado de manera importante en pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) y son una causa común de morbi-mortalidad en dicha población. La anfotericina B ha sido considerada como el principa [...] l agente terapéutico antifúngico; sin embargo, se ha asociado con efectos adversos como la fungemia persistente debido al aumento en la resistencia a Candida, particularmente especies no albicans, a menudo resistentes también a otros antifúngicos, como el fluconazol. Casos clínicos: Se trata de recién nacidos trillizos de 29 semanas de gestación, quienes recibieron soporte avanzado en la UCIN, incluyendo ventilación mecánica (VM), inserción de catéteres venosos centrales, nutrición parenteral total (NPT) y varios esquemas de antibióticos de amplio espectro, desarrollando sepsis por Candida parapsillosis en los tres casos; la terapia antifúngica fue iniciada con fluconazol, posteriormente con anfotericina B convencional y anfotericina B liposomal, sin mejoría clínica y con hemocultivos positivos. El deterioro fue revertido después del inicio de caspofungina (2 mg/kg/día) añadida a la anfotericina B liposomal. Los tres pacientes se recuperaron totalmente, sin ningún efecto adverso y con adecuada tolerancia. Conclusiones: La caspofungina resultó ser efectiva y bien tolerada en los pacientes tratados a dosis de 2 mg/kg/ día, por lo que se puede considerar una alternativa de tratamiento de la candidiasis invasiva en neonatos prematuros, aunque la dosis óptima no se ha determinado. Abstract in english Background: Infections caused by Candida sp. have been significantly increasing in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and are the most common causes of morbi-mortality in this population group. Amphotericin B has been considered to be the standard antifungal therapy. However, it has be [...] en associated with adverse effects such as persistent fungemia due to the increase of Candida resistance, in particular the non-albicans species, similar to the resistance shown by other antifungals such as fluconazol. Clinical cases: Triplets of gestational age of 29 weeks received advanced life support in the NICU, including mechanical ventilation (MV), insertion of venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and multiple regimes of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The three patients developed C. parapsilosis sepsis. Antifungal therapy was initiated with fluconazol prior to the use of conventional amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B. There was no clinical improvement and blood cultures remained positive. Clinical improvement was noted after the initiation of caspofungin (2 mg/kg/day) in addition to the use of liposomal amphotericin B. The triplets recovered completely with adequate tolerance to the medication and without adverse effects. Conclusion: Use of caspofungin proved to be an effective and well-tolerated therapy in these patients (2 mg/ kg/day). It can be considered an alternative treatment for invasive candidiasis in premature neonates, although optimal dosage remains undetermined.

  18. Eosinofilia no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidiase vaginal recorrente / Eosinophilia in peripheral blood of women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Queiroz Filho; Ana Katherine, Gonçalves; Geraldo Barroso, Cavalcante Júnior; Daliana Caldas, Pessoa; José, Eleutério Júnior; Paulo César, Giraldo; Valéria Soraya de Farias, Sales.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar o número de células de defesa e os níveis de imunoglobulina E (IgE) no sangue periférico em amostra de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal com 60 mulheres, 40 com candidíase vulvovaginal e 20 do grupo controle (sem doença). As célula [...] s de defesa foram identificadas utilizando um sistema de impedância combinada com a citometria de fluxo, os níveis de IgE total e específica foram medidos por meio de técnicas de quimiluminescência, o teste de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para variáveis nominais e do teste de Spearman para correlações das concentrações de IgE e de eosinófilos no sangue periférico. RESULTADOS: O número de eosinófilos no sangue periférico de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal, 302,60 (±253,07), foi significativamente maior do que o grupo controle, 175,75 (±109,24) (p=0,037). Os níveis séricos de IgE total e específica foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos de mulheres com e sem candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (p=0,361). Entretanto, observou-se uma correlação positiva moderada entre eosinofilia e níveis de IgE total no sangue periférico de mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente (r=0,25). CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres com candidíase vaginal recorrente parecem ter maior concentração de eosinófilos no sangue periférico que as assintomáticas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To quantify the number of defense cells and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in peripheral blood sampled from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 60 women, 40 with vulvovaginal candidiasis and 20 controls. The defense cells were iden [...] tified using an impedance system combined with flow cytometry and total and specific IgE was measured by chemiluminescence. The Mann-Whitney test was used for nominal variables and the Spearman test was used to determine the correlation of IgE concentration and eosinophils in peripheral blood. RESULTS: The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, 302.60 (±253.07), was significantly higher compared to control, 175.75 (±109.24) (p=0.037). Serum levels of total and specific IgE were similar in the groups of women with and without recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (p=0.361). However, there was a moderate positive correlation between eosinophils and total serum IgE in the candidiasis group (r=0.25). CONCLUSION: Women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis are more likely to have eosinophils in peripheral blood.

  19. Beneficial effect of Mentha suaveolens essential oil in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis assessed by real-time monitoring of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Bistoni Francesco; Ragno Rino; Mondello Francesca; Rachini Anna; Vavala Elisabetta; Angiolella Letizia; Pietrella Donatella; Vecchiarelli Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaginal candidiasis is a frequent and common distressing disease affecting up to 75% of the women of fertile age; most of these women have recurrent episodes. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been shown to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-fungal activity of essential oil from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS) in an experimental infection of vaginal candidiasis. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity of EOMS was asse...

  20. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  1. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rickard Kristen; Roberts Christine L; Kotsiou George; Morris Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of prete...

  2. Simple and Rapid Detection of Candida albicans DNA in Serum by PCR for Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; Freisleben, Hans-Joachim; Sonntag, Hans-Günther; Schnitzler, Paul

    2000-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive PCR assay for the detection of Candida albicans DNA in serum was established. DNA from human serum samples was purified using the QIAamp blood kit, which proved to be a fast and simple method for isolating minute amounts of Candida DNA from clinical specimens for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Universal primer sequences used in the PCR assay are derived from the internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene of fungi, whereas the biotinylated hybridization probe used in a DNA...

  3. Phase 2, Randomized, Dose-Ranging Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Anidulafungin in Invasive Candidiasis and Candidemia

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, David S.; Reinhardt, John; Jose A Vazquez; Reboli, Annette; Goldstein, Beth P.; Wible, Michele; Henkel, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of anidulafungin, a novel echinocandin, in patients with invasive candidiasis, including candidemia. A total of 123 eligible patients were randomized to one of three intravenous regimens, 50, 75, or 100 mg once daily. Treatment continued for 2 weeks beyond resolution or improvement of signs and symptoms. The primary efficacy criterion was a successful global response rate (i.e., clinical and microbiological success) in the evaluable population at t...

  4. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  5. Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by Multiplex PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a fungal disease with itching, and vaginal thick white discharge. Most of non-albicans species have less sensitivity to azoles. So, definition of candida species which lead to vulvovaginal candidiasis is very important to perfect usage of drugs. In the present study 191 Candida isolates from 175 patients who admitted in Gynecology department of Mahdieh Hospital during the period 1385-1387 were identified by multiplex PCR."n"nMethods: One hundred seventy five vaginal swab specimens from patients were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region of Candida albicans were amplified and the multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel (200 mA, 140V, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed."n"nResults: One hundred ninety one Candida isolates were identified in vaginal swab specimens from 175 patients. In 89.7% of cases, single candida species and in 10.3% cases, multiple candida species were isolated. C. albicans (65.1%, C. glabrata (13.1%, C. tropicalis (6.2%, C. krusei (4%, C. guilliermondii (0.6%, C. parapsilosis (0.6%, C. glabrata and C. albicans (5.7%, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (1.1%, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. krusei and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. albicans and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6%, C. glabrata and C. krusei (0.6%, and C. glabrata and C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6% were the cause of disease."n"nConclusion: Our findings suggest that, the common cause of both recurrent and non-recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was C. albicans, and then C. glabrata. Also the most common mixtures of Candida species were combination of them

  6. Study of risk factors and prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowta Mukta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The frequency of invasive mycoses has increased dramatically during the past two decades owing to medical advances such as intensive cancer chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, invasive medical devices, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease epidemic and an expanding aging population. There were few Indian studies regarding the incidence and risk factors for candidemia. Hence the aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital and also to assess the risk factors and predictors of mortality Materials and Methods: Nonsystematic review of patients with candidemia/invasive candidiasis was done during the period 1999 to 2004. All in-patients who had shown signs and symptoms of nosocomial blood stream infection were screened for candidial infection. Among these, 29 patients had candidemia/invasive candidiasis. Demographic and clinical data of these patients were recorded on a standardized form, which included age, sex, site of isolation, infectious diagnosis, underlying conditions, predisposing factors, catheter status and clinical outcome. The data were collected during the years of 1999 to 2004, which is divided into two time periods (1999-2001 and 2002-2004. Data collected during these different time spans are compared with each other. Results: A total of 255 patients were screened during the study period. Among these, 100 patients were screened during the period 1999-2001 and 155 patients were screened during the year 2002-2004. Out of these patients, 29 showed positive cultures in blood or other sterile site (ascitic fluid, bronchial aspirate and urine from suprapubic puncture. Out of these, 24 were males and five were females. The most common risk factor was use of intravenous canulae (62.1%, followed by prolonged use of antibiotics (34.5% and HIV infection (24.1%. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk factors during the two different study periods. Candida was mainly isolated from blood (75.9%. Other sources included ascitic fluid (10.4%, bronchial aspirate (3.4%, sputum (3.4% and urine (6.9%. Distributions of sources were comparable during the two study periods. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis caused 89.7%, 3.4%, 6.9% of the candidemia episodes respectively. The overall mortality was 51.7%. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the importance of candidemia among hospitalized patients. Continued surveillance of candidemia will be important to track trends of this serious infection and to document changes in its epidemiological features. More active screening in high-risk groups should be done to avoid diagnostic delay. Risk factors like prolonged use of multiple antibiotics, central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation and prolonged hospital stay should be restricted whenever possible. Timely use of antiretroviral drugs and other measures to improve the immunity of HIV patients may help to decrease the incidence of candidemia in this patient population.

  7. A curcumin-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmazi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Salmazi, Giovana Calixto, Jéssica Bernegossi, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos, Taís Maria Bauab, Marlus Chorilli School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP – Sao Paulo State University, Campus Araraquara, Department of Drugs and Medicines, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Women often develop vaginal infections that are caused primarily by organisms of the genus Candida. The current treatments of vaginal candidiasis usually involve azole-based antifungals, though fungal resistance to these compounds has become prevalent. Therefore, much attention has been given to molecules with antifungal properties from natural sources, such as curcumin (CUR. However, CUR has poor solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. This study attempted to overcome this problem by developing, characterizing, and evaluating the in vitro antifungal action of a CUR-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system (LCPM for vaginal administration. A low-viscosity LCPM (F consisting of 40% wt/wt polyoxpropylene-(5-polyoxyethylene-(20-cetyl alcohol, 50% wt/wt oleic acid, and 10% wt/wt chitosan dispersion at 0.5% with the addition of 16% poloxamer 407 was developed to take advantage of the lyotropic phase behavior of this formulation. Notably, F could transform into liquid crystal systems when diluted with artificial vaginal mucus at ratios of 1:3 and 1:1 (wt/wt, resulting in the formation of F30 and F100, respectively. Polarized light microscopy and rheological studies revealed that F behaved like an isotropic formulation, whereas F30 and F100 behaved like an anisotropic liquid crystalline system (LCS. Moreover, F30 and F100 presented higher mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal mucosa than F. The analysis of the in vitro activity against Candida albicans revealed that CUR-loaded F was more potent against standard and clinical strains compared with a CUR solution. Therefore, the vaginal administration of CUR-loaded LCPMs represents a promising platform for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Keywords: nanostructured drug delivery systems, liquid crystalline systems, mucoadhesive polymers, vaginal administration, Candida albicans 

  8. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:26256338

  9. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from “Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum”, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients’ clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts’ opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

  10. A biallelic ACT1 mutation selectively abolishes interleukin-17 responses in humans with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Bertrand; Wang, Chenhui; Pedergnana, Vincent; Wu, Ling; Cypowyj, Sophie; Rybojad, Michel; Belkadi, Aziz; Picard, Capucine; Abel, Laurent; Fieschi, Claire; Puel, Anne; Li, Xiaoxia; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Patients with inborn errors of IL-17F or IL-17RA display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We report a biallelic missense mutation (T536I) in the adaptor molecule ACT1 in two siblings with CMC. The mutation, located in the SEFIR domain, abolished the homotypic interaction of ACT1 with IL-17 receptors, with no effect on homodimerization. The patients’ fibroblasts failed to respond to IL-17A and IL-17F, and their T cells to IL-17E. By contrast, healthy individuals homozygous for the common variant D10N, located in the ACT1 TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting domain and previously associated with psoriasis, had impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17 cytokines. SEFIR-independent interactions of ACT1 with other proteins, such as CD40, heat shock protein (HSP)70 and HSP90, were not affected by the T536I mutation. Overall, human IL-17A and IL-17F depend on ACT1 to mediate protective mucocutaneous immunity. Moreover, other ACT1-dependent IL-17 cytokines seem to be largely redundant in host defense. PMID:24120361

  11. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinícius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  12. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  13. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79?%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4?%), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3?%), Candida tropicalis (3.2?%) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1?%). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (P<0.01). The resistance rates to C. albicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7?% for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  14. Clonal Strain Persistence of Candida albicans Isolates from Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Alexander J; Rennison, Claire; Raza, Muhammad; Lilic, Desa; Gow, Neil A R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterised by susceptibility to chronic Candida and fungal dermatophyte infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. Molecular epidemiology studies of CMC infection are limited in number and scope and it is not clear whether single or multiple strains inducing CMC persist stably or are exchanged and replaced. We subjected 42 C. albicans individual single colony isolates from 6 unrelated CMC patients to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Multiple colonies were typed from swabs taken from multiple body sites across multiple time points over a 17-month period. Among isolates from each individual patient, our data show clonal and persistent diploid sequence types (DSTs) that were stable over time, identical between multiple infection sites and exhibit azole resistant phenotypes. No shared origin or common source of infection was identified among isolates from these patients. Additionally, we performed C. albicans MLST SNP genotype frequency analysis to identify signatures of past loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events among persistent and azole resistant isolates retrieved from patients with autoimmune disorders including CMC. PMID:26849050

  15. Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dota, Kelen Fátima Dalben; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE) and propolis microparticles (PMs) obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n = 89), obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B) were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes. PMID:21607012

  16. Symptomatic vaginal candidiasis after pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menday, A P

    2002-10-01

    The comparative incidence of symptomatic vaginal candidiasis associated with pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI was determined in two randomised, double-blind, clinical trials. Adverse events reported following general enquiry were reviewed. Presence of Candida vaginitis was based upon the specification as such by investigators, the presence of specific symptoms such as genital pruritus and/or the prescription of specific anti Candida therapy. The incidences of Candida vaginitis were as follows; Study 1 pivmecillinam 200 mg tid for 7 days 13 (4.6%), pivmecillinam 200 mg bid for 7 days 7 (2.4%), pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 6 (2.1%) and placebo 6 (2.1%), P=0.19. Study 2 pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 7 (1.5%), norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days 20 (4.3%), P=0.016. The incidence of Candida vaginitis in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI given 3 days treatment with pivmecillinam 400 mg bid is similar to that seen with placebo and is significantly less than the incidence with norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days. PMID:12385688

  17. Assessment of in vitro biofilm formation by Candida species isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Luciene C F; Vidigal, Pedrina G; Donatti, Lucélia; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2012-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a very common cause of fungal infection that remains a significant problem worldwide, especially concerning its complex pathogenicity. Biofilm dynamics from vaginal isolates requires further investigation. Different assays, such as cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), biofilm production, fungal metabolism by 2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) were used in order to determine the ability of five Candida species isolates from VVC patients to form in vitro biofilms and their ultrastructural characteristics. All yeasts demonstrated the ability to produce biofilm and showed viability up to 48 h after the completion of assay, confirmed by SEM and CSLM, but differences were observed between them. SEM and CSLM also revealed that all VVC isolates adhered only in blastoconidia form, except for Candida parapsilosis. Even though, only one isolate from each Candida species has been used, the results of high biofilm formation, metabolic activity and CSH showed by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, as well as by the ultrastructural characteristics, suggest that these species exhibit greater ability of adherence in relation to the others. Ours results support the theory that virulence potential is multifactorial and that other factors not evaluated in this study could be involved in the CVV physiopathogeny. PMID:22001373

  18. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Maruyama, Naho; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of tea tree oil (TTO), Melaleuca alternifolia, and its main component, terpinen-4-ol, were evaluated in a murine oral candidiasis model. Prednisolone -pretreated mice were orally infected with a fluconazole-susceptible (TIMM 2640) or a resistant (TIMM 3163) strain of Candida albicans to induce oral candidiasis. TTO or terpinen-4-ol was administrated with a cotton swab 3 h and 24 h after candida infection. These treatments clearly showed a decrease in the symptom score of tongues and in the viable candida cell number in the oral cavity at 2 d after azole-susceptible C. albicans infection, although the degree of the efficacy was less than that of fluconazole. Even against oral candidiasis caused by azole-resistant C. albicans, TTO and terpinen-4-ol were similarly effective, while fluconazole appeared ineffective. These results suggest that TTO and terpinen-4-ol may have the potential of therapeutic ability for mucosal candidiasis which may also be applicable to C. albicans oral candidiasis induced by the azole-resistant strain. PMID:22687476

  19. Asociación de LT-CD4 y carga viral con candidiasis bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA en Talca, Chile / Association between LT-CD4 and the viral load with oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Talca, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pedro, Brevis Azocar; Evelyn, Pérez Marín; Paulina, Abaca C; Cesar, Coronado Gallardo; Mario, Cantín López.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis bucal aparece con frecuencia en las personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y puede causar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones. En los pacientes VIH la carga viral es considerada uno de los principales predictores en la progresión de la enf [...] ermedad. Se realizó un estudio en 29 pacientes adultos VIH-positivos para evaluar los niveles de linfocitos T-CD4 y carga viral; se estableció una relación con las manifestaciones de la candidiasis bucal. El análisis estadístico mostró que hubo relación entre la manifestación de la candidiasis bucal y la carga viral, pues en pacientes con cargas virales superiores a 10 000 copias/mL, las lesiones fueron más frecuentes. Abstract in english Oral candidiasis is frequently appearing in persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and may to cause many clinical and complications manifestations. In HIV patients the viral load is considered one of the main predictors in disease progression. A study was conducted in 29 HIV-positive [...] adult patients to assess the T-CD4 lymphocyte levels and the viral load establishing a relationship with oral candidiasis manifestations. The statistical analysis showed that there was a relationship between the oral candidiasis manifestation and the viral load since in patients with viral load higher than 10 000 copies/mL, lesions were more frequent.

  20. Prevalence of Candidiasis in the Women with Leucorrhoea Attended to Health Centers in Hamadan , 1996

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    Mohammad Fallah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Genital tract infections are one of the most common causes of referring to obstetrics clinics. The most common agents of genitalia infection are yeast (Candida and parasite (Trichomonas. Establishment of fungal and parasitic infections needs many factors such as social, cultural and hormonal factors.

    Methods: In order to determine candidial infection in the patients with leucorrhoea, this study carried out in Hamadan in the private clinics and public health centers in 1996. A total of 248 patients with abnormal vaginal discharge, genitalia pruritus, disuria and disparonia examined by vaginal cotton soab sampling and examination of specimens by direct wet smear for Candida and Trichomanos , and culture was done in Saburoud dextrose agar for yeast. The smears stained by Gram staining for identification of organism and grown samples examined by germ tube formation test for identification of Candida albicans. Data about some individual variables of subjects were collected using a questionnaire.

    Results: This study indicated, 76(30.6% of patients had candidial infection by wet smear method, however, 116 (46.8% were positive by culture in Saburoud medium. With germ tube formation test, 33(13.4% had C. albicans. Anyone had not trichomonal infection by direct wet smear. This study suggested that, candidial infection is very high in this region, and this is the most common cause of attending patients with leucorrhoea in the obstetrics clinics. Also, there was not any relationship between candidial infection and pregnancy status, main compliance and other compliances.

    Conclusion: We suggested, culture method is more sensitive than direct wet smear in the diagnosis of vulvo-vaginal infections, particularly in candidiasis. Regarding to role of personal hygiene measures in preventing of candidiasis, health education for women in the reproductive age is recommended.

  1. Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care

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    Hernández Susana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression.. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient.

  2. Invasive candidiasis in intensive care unit; consensus statement from an Iranian panel of experts, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Arezoo; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Kouchek, Mehran; Majidpour, Ali; Mokhtari, Majid; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Najafi, Atabak; Nejat, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Amirsavadkouhi, Ali; Shirazian, Farzad; Tabarsi, Payam; Taher, Mahshid Talebi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Timely diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a challenge; on the other hand, the criteria for initiating empirical antifungal therapy in critically ill patients are not well defined in different patient population and ICU settings. Alongside the international guidelines, reaching regional and local consensus on diagnosis and management of IC in ICU setting is essential. This report summarizes our present status of IC management in ICU, considered by a group of Iranian experts in the fields of intensive care and infectious diseases. A round table of 17 experts was held to review the available data and discuss the optimal treatment strategies for IC in critical care setting. Comparative published data on the management of IC were analytically reviewed and the commonly asked questions about the management of IC in ICU were isolated. These questions were interactively discussed by the panel and audience responses were taken to consolidate point-to-point agreement with the panel arriving at consensus in many instances. The responses indicated that patients’ risk stratification, clinical discretion, fungal diagnostic techniques and the empirical therapy for IC are likely to save more patients. Treatment options were recommended to be based on the disease severity, prior azole exposure, and the presence of suspected azole-resistant Candida species. This report was reviewed, edited and discussed by all participants to include further evidence-based insights. The panel expects such endorsed recommendations to be soon formulated for implementation across the country. PMID:25057376

  3. Development and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Histatin-5 Bioadhesive Hydrogel Formulation against Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric F; Tsui, Christina; Boyce, Heather; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Hoag, Stephen W; Karlsson, Amy J; Meiller, Timothy F; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC), caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV(+) individuals and other immunocompromised populations. The dramatic increase in resistance to common antifungals has emphasized the importance of identifying unconventional therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as promising candidates for therapeutic intervention due to their broad antimicrobial properties and lack of toxicity. Histatin-5 (Hst-5) specifically has exhibited potent anticandidal activity indicating its potential as an antifungal agent. To that end, the goal of this study was to design a biocompatible hydrogel delivery system for Hst-5 application. The bioadhesive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) hydrogel formulation was developed for topical oral application against OC. The new formulation was evaluated in vitro for gel viscosity, Hst-5 release rate from the gel, and killing potency and, more importantly, was tested in vivo in our mouse model of OC. The findings demonstrated a controlled sustained release of Hst-5 from the polymer and rapid killing ability. Based on viable C. albicans counts recovered from tongues of treated and untreated mice, three daily applications of the formulation beginning 1 day postinfection with C. albicans were effective in protection against development of OC. Interestingly, in some cases, Hst-5 was able to clear existing lesions as well as associated tissue inflammation. These findings were confirmed by histopathology analysis of tongue tissue. Coupled with the lack of toxicity as well as anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of Hst-5, the findings from this study support the progression and commercial feasibility of using this compound as a novel therapeutic agent. PMID:26596951

  4. Preparation and characterisation of fluconazole vaginal films for the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis

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    L Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption.

  5. Phospholipase and Aspartyl Proteinase Activities of Candida Species Causing Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassyouni, Rasha H; Wegdan, Ahmed Ashraf; Abdelmoneim, Abdelsamie; Said, Wessam; AboElnaga, Fatma

    2015-10-28

    Few research had investigated the secretion of phospholipase and aspartyl proteinase from Candida spp. causing infection in females with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in diabetic versus non-diabetic women and compare the ability of identified Candida isolates to secrete phospholipases and aspartyl proteinases with characterization of their genetic profile. The study included 80 females with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 100 non-diabetic females within the child-bearing period. Candida strains were isolated and identified by conventional microbiological methods and by API Candida. The isolates were screened for their extracellular phospholipase and proteinase activities by culturing them on egg yolk and bovine serum albumin media, respectively. Detection of aspartyl proteinase genes (SAP1 to SAP8) and phospholipase genes (PLB1, PLB2) were performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that vaginal candidiasis was significantly higher among the diabetic group versus nondiabetic group (50% versus 20%, respectively) (p = 0.004). C. albicans was the most prevalent species followed by C. glabrata in both groups. No significant association between diabetes mellitus and phospholipase activities was detected (p = 0.262), whereas high significant proteinase activities exhibited by Candida isolated from diabetic females were found (82.5%) (p = 0.000). Non-significant associations between any of the tested proteinase or phospholipase genes and diabetes mellitus were detected (p > 0.05). In conclusion, it is noticed that the incidence of C. glabrata causing VVC is increased. The higher prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among diabetics could be related to the increased aspartyl proteinase production in this group of patients. PMID:26032358

  6. Vaccination with Recombinant Non-transmembrane Domain of Protein Mannosyltransferase 4 Improves Survival during Murine Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yan, Lan; Li, Xing Xing; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. The C. albicans cell wall proteins play an important role in crucial host-fungus interactions and might be ideal vaccine targets to induce protective immune response in host. Meanwhile, protein that is specific to C. albicans is also an ideal target of vaccine. In this study, 11 proteins involving cell wall biosynthesis, yeast-to-hypha formation, or specific to C. albicans were chosen and were successfully cloned, purified and verified. The immune protection of vaccination with each recombinant protein respectively in preventing systemic candidiasis in BALB/c mice was assessed. The injection of rPmt4p vaccination significantly increased survival rate, decreased fungal burdens in the heart, liver, brain, and kidneys, and increased serum levels of both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against rPmt4p in the immunized mice. Histopathological assessment demonstrated that rPmt4p vaccination protected the tissue structure, and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Passive transfer of the rPmt4p immunized serum increased survival rate against murine systemic candidiasis and significantly reduced organ fungal burden. The immune serum enhanced mouse neutrophil killing activity by directly neutralizing rPmt4p effects in vitro. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in serum were higher in the immunized mice compared to those in the adjuvant control group. In conclusion, our results suggested that rPmt4p vaccination may be considered as a potential vaccine candidate against systemic candidiasis. PMID:26268065

  7. Candidíase invasiva e alterações bucais em recém-nascidos prematuros / Invasive candidiasis and oral manifestations in premature newborns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Endrigo, Tinoco-Araujo; Diana Ferreira Gadelha, Araújo; Patrícia Gomes, Barbosa; Paulo Sérgio da Silva, Santos; Ana Myriam Costa de, Medeiros.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de candidíase invasiva em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal e avaliar alterações bucais e colonização bucal por Candida spp. em recém-nascidos prematuros com baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Estudo epidemiológico descritivo em duas etapas. Na primeira, analisou-se prevalên [...] cia de candidíase invasiva em base de dados de 295 prematuros com tempo de internação superior a 10 dias e peso ao nascer inferior a 2.000g. Na segunda etapa, avaliaram-se alterações bucais e colonização por Candida spp. em 65 pacientes com peso inferior a 2.000g, com até 4 semanas de idade, internados há mais de 10 dias e apresentando alterações bucais compatíveis com lesões fúngicas. Coletaram-se amostras com swab bucal e identificou-se a colonização fúngica. RESULTADOS: Na análise da base de dados, constatou-se que a prevalência de candidíase foi de 5,4%. Houve correlação com o tempo prolongado de internação (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and to evaluate oral diseases and Candida spp. colonization in low birth weight preterm newborns. METHODS: A descriptive epidemiological study performed in two stages. First, prevalence of candidiasis was [...] analyzed in a database of 295 preterm patients admitted to hospital for over 10 days and birth weight less than 2,000g. In the second stage, oral changes and Candida spp. colonization were assessed in 65 patients weighing less than 2,000g, up to 4 week-old, hospitalized for over 10 days and presenting oral abnormalities compatible with fungal lesions. Swab samples were collected in the mouth to identify fungi. RESULTS: Prevalence of candidiasis was 5.4% in the database analyzed. It correlated with prolonged hospital length of stay (p

  8. Therapeutic use of a cationic antimicrobial peptide from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana in the control of experimental candidiasis

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    Rossi Diego C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial peptides are present in animals, plants and microorganisms and play a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Gomesin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide purified from haemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. It has a broad-spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and tumour cells. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast that is part of the human microbiota. However, in immunocompromised patients, this fungus may cause skin, mucosal or systemic infections. The typical treatment for this mycosis comprises three major categories of antifungal drugs: polyenes, azoles and echinocandins; however cases of resistance to these drugs are frequently reported. With the emergence of microorganisms that are resistant to conventional antibiotics, the development of alternative treatments for candidiasis is important. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of gomesin treatment on disseminated and vaginal candidiasis as well as its toxicity and biodistribution. Results Treatment with gomesin effectively reduced Candida albicans in the kidneys, spleen, liver and vagina of infected mice. The biodistribution of gomesin labelled with technetium-99 m showed that the peptide is captured in the kidneys, spleen and liver. Enhanced production of TNF-?, IFN-? and IL-6 was detected in infected mice treated with gomesin, suggesting an immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, immunosuppressed and C. albicans-infected mice showed an increase in survival after treatment with gomesin and fluconazole. Systemic administration of gomesin was also not toxic to the mic Conclusions Gomesin proved to be effective against experimental Candida albicans infection. It can be used as an alternative therapy for candidiasis, either alone or in combination with fluconazole. Gomesin's mechanism is not fully understood, but we hypothesise that the peptide acts through the permeabilisation of the yeast membrane leading to death and/or releasing the yeast antigens that trigger the host immune response against infection. Therefore, data presented in this study reinforces the potential of gomesin as a therapeutic antifungal agent in both humans and animals.

  9. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

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    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in pregnancy significantly reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth. If it can be demonstrated that treating asymptomatic candidiasis reduces preterm births this will change current practice and would directly impact the management of every pregnant woman. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000607077

  10. Comparison between Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression Patterns in Human Clinical Specimens and Models of Vaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG, GEORGINA; Wozniak, Karen; Wallig, Matthew A.; Fidel, Paul L.; Trupin, Suzanne R.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the eight genes in the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family was studied by reverse transcription-PCR of RNA isolated from clinical vaginal fluid specimens and vaginal candidiasis model systems. Although expression of all ALS genes was detected across the set of clinical specimens, ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, and ALS9 transcripts were detected most frequently, and expression of ALS4 and ALS5 was detected least frequently. Laboratory strain 3153A and two C. albicans strain...

  11. A 70-Kilodalton Recombinant Heat Shock Protein of Candida albicans Is Highly Immunogenic and Enhances Systemic Murine Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Bromuro, Carla; La Valle, Roberto; Sandini, Silvia; Urbani, Francesca; Ausiello, Clara M; Morelli, Luisella; Fé d’ostiani, Cristiana; Romani, Luigina; Cassone, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The 70-kDa recombinant Candida albicans heat shock protein (CaHsp70) and its 21-kDa C-terminal and 28-kDa N-terminal fragments (CaHsp70-Cter and CaHsp70-Nter, respectively) were studied for their immunogenicity, including proinflammatory cytokine induction in vitro and in vivo, and protection in a murine model of hematogenous candidiasis. The whole protein and its two fragments were strong inducers of both antibody (Ab; immunoglobulin G1 [IgG1] and IgG2b were the prevalent isotypes) and cell-...

  12. Protection against Candidiasis by an Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the Same Mannotriose as an IgM Protective Antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yongmoon; Riesselman, Marcia H.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that a liposome-mannan vaccine (L-mann) of Candida albicans induces production of mouse antibodies that protect against disseminated candidiasis and vaginal infection. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.1, specific for a C. albicans cell surface ?-1,2-mannotriose, protects mice against both infections. Another IgM MAb, termed B6, which is specific for a different cell surface mannan epitope, does not protect against disseminated candidiasis. The B6.1 ep...

  13. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. PMID:26298420

  14. Susceptibilidad antifúngica de Candida albicans recuperadas de pacientes con SIDA y candidiasis orofaríngea y esofágica: Experiencia con Etest® Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis: Experience with Etest®

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    Cecilia Tapia P

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC and esophageal candidiasis (EPC are frequent complications in AIDS patients. The use of Fluconazole, an effective and a low toxicity drug, has been associated to the emergency of secondary resistant strains. For this reason, in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests are necessary to predict a therapeutic failure. Etest® is an easy to perform alternative test, that has showed a good agreement with the broth microdilution reference method (NCCLS, document M27-A. Aim: To measure the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients complicated with OPC and EPC to Amphotericin B (AmB and Fluconazole (Flu using Etest®. Material and methods: Twenty strains from 20 AIDS patients were studied. AmB was tested in RPMI 1640 agar and Flu in Casitone agar. Results: All studied strains showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs 256 mg/mL was isolated from a patient previously treated with Flu. Conclusions: In AIDS patients with OPC and EPC, the susceptibility to Flu of the isolates should be screened, to detect resistant strains. Etest®; is a reliable alternative in these cases, for laboratories that cannot use the reference method (Rev Méd Chile 2003; 131: 515-19.

  15. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, Oluranti J; Olowe, Olugbenga A; Taiwo, Samuel S

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31-45 and 16-30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  16. A STAT1-gain-of-function mutation causing Th17 deficiency with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, psoriasiform hyperkeratosis and dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jakob; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Spaun, Eva; Larsen, Carsten S; Christiansen, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2015-01-01

    During recent years, inborn errors of human IL-17 immunity have been demonstrated to underlie primary immunodeficiencies with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Various defects in receptors responsible for sensing of Candida albicans or downstream signalling to IL-17 may lead to susceptibility to Candida infection. While CMC is common in patients with profound T cell immunodeficiencies, CMC is also recognised as part of other immunodeficiencies in syndromic CMC, or as relatively isolated CMC disease. We describe a 40-year-old woman with a clinical picture involving cutaneous bacterial abscesses, chronic oral candidiasis and extensive dermatophytic infection of the feet. By whole exome sequencing, we identified a STAT1-gain-of-function mutation. Moreover, the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells displayed severely impaired Th17 responses. The patient was treated with antifungals and prophylactic antibiotics, which led to resolution of the infection. We discuss the current knowledge within the field of Th17 deficiency and the pathogenesis and treatment of CMC. PMID:26494717

  17. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

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    SH Mirhendi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  18. Evaluation of a Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Detect Immunoglobulin G Antibody to Enolase for Serodiagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis?

    OpenAIRE

    Laín, Ana; Moragues, María D.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos García; Mendoza, Joaquín; Camacho,Ana; del Palacio, Amalia; Pontón, José

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a new test to detect antibodies to Candida albicans recombinant enolase was investigated in 47 immunocompromised and 51 immunocompetent patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the test for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis were 81.0, 83.9, 79.1, and 85.5%, respectively.

  19. Beneficial effect of Mentha suaveolens essential oil in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis assessed by real-time monitoring of infection

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    Bistoni Francesco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal candidiasis is a frequent and common distressing disease affecting up to 75% of the women of fertile age; most of these women have recurrent episodes. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been shown to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-fungal activity of essential oil from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS in an experimental infection of vaginal candidiasis. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity of EOMS was assessed. The in vitro activity was evaluated under standard CLSI methods, and the in vivo analysis was carried out by exploiting a novel, non-invasive model of vaginal candidiasis in mice based on an in vivo imaging technique. Differences between essential oil treated and saline treated mice were evaluated by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Viable count data from a time kill assay and yeast and hyphae survival test were compared using the Student's t-test (two-tailed. Results Our main findings were: i EOMS shows potent candidastatic and candidacidal activity in an in vitro experimental system; ii EOMS gives a degree of protection against vaginal candidiasis in an in vivo experimental system. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that the essential oil of a Moroccan plant Mentha suaveolens is candidastatic and candidacidal in vitro, and has a degree of anticandidal activity in a model of vaginal infection, as demonstrated in an in vivo monitoring imaging system. We conclude that our findings lay the ground for further, more extensive investigations to identify the active EOMS component(s, promising in the therapeutically problematic setting of chronic vaginal candidiasis in humans.

  20. Low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination versus fluconazole in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

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    Jan Susilo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common fungal diseases. Candida albicans is the most common causative fungus and has been isolated from more than 80% of specimens obtained from women with VC. Ketoconazole is the first orally active antifungal, the dosage for VC is 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. Fluconazole is the newer oral antifungal, its dosage for VC is a single oral dose of 150 mg. Since fluconazole 150 mg is considerably expensive, a single dose of 100 mg ketoconazole and 40 mg fluconazole in combination has been tested for the treatment of VC. The results showed that from 11 women with confirmed VC, 1-2 weeks after drug administration, the mycological culture was negative in 8 women, positive in 1 woman, and 2 woman lost to follow-up. This promising result led to the present study with the objective to confirm the efficacy and safety of the above combination in a formal clinical trial.Methods: A total of 165 female patients, aged 18 years or older, with the diagnosis of VC from clinical symptoms (pruritus or burning or excessive discharge and positive microscopic smear (pseudohyphae and/or yeast cells were randomized to receive a single dose of either keto-fluco combination (n = 85 or fluconazole (n = 80, and returnedfor follow-up visit on day 8.Results: Among these patients, 39 patients had negative baseline culture, leaving 126 patients eligible for efficacy evaluation. The mycological eradication in the keto-fluco group was 74.5% (41 patients from a total of 55 patients with available mycological culture, while that in the fluconazole group was 70.2% (40 patients from 57 patients with available culture and this difference was not significant. The clinical favorable response (clinical cure and clinical improvement in the keto-fluco arm (n = 60 was 98.3%, while that in the fluconazole group (n = 66 was 100%. Adverse events were found in 5 patients, 3 patients in the keto-fluco group (3/85 = 3.5% and 2 patients in the fluconazole group (2/80 = 2.5%.Conclusion: The present study showed that the efficacy and safety of ketoconazole 100 mg and fluconazole 40 mg combination was not inferior compared to fluconazole 150 mg in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:205-11Keywords: fluconazole, low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination, single dose, vaginal candidiasis

  1. Large granular lymphocyte leukemia with pure red cell aplasia associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy: an unfortuitous association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervier, B; Rimbert, M; Maisonneuve, H; Hamidou, M A

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a recessively inherited monogenic disease caused by a mutation in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. AIRE plays a major role in central (thymic) immune tolerance. In the absence of AIRE, autoimmunity develops that is especially targeted at endocrine tissues. T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia is a monoclonal lymphoproliferative disease characterized by persistent and indolent lymphocytosis. Autoimmune manifestations, such as rheumatoid arthritis or autoimmune cytopenia, are also common. We report the case of a patient with APECED, who presented with pure red cell aplasia associated with T-LGL leukemia. The association of T-LGL leukemia and APECED is very rare and may not be fortuitous. The immunological mechanisms of this association are discussed. PMID:20943067

  2. The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica

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    Ana Botler Wilheim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in its pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5% had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5% were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5% were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5% were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e sua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5% apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5% tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5% era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5% eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 <200. Espécies de Candida não-albicans foram detectadas em 22,7% dos pacientes HIV positivos e em 45% dos pacientes não infectados. A resistência ao fluconazol foi observada em seis amostras (14,28% e a sensibilidade dose-dependente em duas (4,76%. CONCLUSÃO:A prevalência de candidíase esofágica foi baixa, embora dentro de variação esperada. Pacientes homens e que estavam internados foram os mais acometidos. Houve variação nas espécies encontradas, de acordo com as características dos grupos estudados. Tanto a resistência ao fluconazol como a sensibilidade dose-dependente foram consideradas altas.

  3. Fabrication of a novel scaffold of clotrimazole-microemulsion-containing nanofibers using an electrospinning process for oral candidiasis applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-02-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded microemulsion-containing nanofiber mats were developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis applications. The microemulsion was composed of oleic acid (O), Tween 80 (T80), and a co-surfactant such as benzyl alcohol (BzOH), ethyl alcohol (EtOH) or isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The nanofiber mats were obtained by electrospinning a blended solution of a CZ-loaded microemulsion and a mixed polymer solution of 2% (w/v) chitosan (CS) and 10% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a weight ratio of 30:70. The nanofiber mats were characterized using various analytical techniques. The entrapment efficiency, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The average diameter of the nanofiber mats was in the range of 105.91-125.56 nm. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) results revealed the amorphous state of the CZ-loaded microemulsions incorporated into the nanofiber mats. The entrapment efficiency of CZ in the mats was approximately 72.58-98.10%, depended on the microemulsion formulation. The release experiment demonstrated different CZ release characteristics from nanofiber mats prepared using different CZ-loaded microemulsions. The extent of drug release from the fiber mats at 4h was approximately 64.81-74.15%. The release kinetics appeared to follow Higuchi's model. In comparison with CZ lozenges (10mg), the nanofiber mats exhibited more rapid killing activity. Moreover, the nanofiber mats demonstrated desirable mucoadhesive properties and were safe for 2h. Therefore, the nanofiber mats have the potential to be promising candidates for oral candidiasis applications. PMID:25543979

  4. Candida species in cutaneous candidiasis patients in the Guilan province in Iran; identified by PCR-RFLP method.

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    Ali Akbar Fallahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the epidemiological alteration in distribution of Candida species as well as significant increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired in resistance of some of these fungi, the precise identification of Candida species is necessary for effective antifungal therapy and also for prevention of nosocomial infections. PCR-RFLP method is indicated to be a reliable, rapid and simple technique which is able to differentiate the Candida species. In the present study, we applied this method to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in patients affected with cutaneous candidiasis in the Guilan province. 896 clinical cutaneous samples were collected from different parts of skin and nail of suspected patients referred to clinical centers all over the Guilan province during 24 months. Samples were examined directly with 15% KOH and cultured on fungal specific media. Genomic DNA was extracted and the restriction enzyme Msp1 was applied for polymorphism analysis. Totally, 47 yeast strains were successfully isolated from different clinical samples and identified by conventional as well as PCR-RFLP methods. The results indicated that Candida albicans (36.17% was the most frequent species followed by C. parapsilosis (25.53%, C. tropicalis (19.14%, C. guilliermondii (14.89%, C. famata (2.12% and C. krusei (2.12%. Female finger nails were the most common location to be affected by Candida species. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP method was successfully used for recognition of clinical Candida species within the Guilan province and obtained results revealed C. albicans as the predominant causative agent of cutaneous candidiasis. However, distribution of other Candida species did not completely consist with the reported distribution of Candida species in other parts of Iran with different climate to the Guilan province.

  5. Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects

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    Luz Marina Prieto Santa Anna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol, entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adultos infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 % como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %. Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejor??a o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes.A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34,97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92% and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%. Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

  6. Use of Green Fluorescent Protein and Reverse Transcription-PCR To Monitor Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression in a Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Clayton B.; Zhao, Xiaomin; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans PALS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strains were inoculated into mice in a disseminated candidiasis model, and GFP production was monitored by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). GFP production from the ALS1 and ALS3 promoters was detected immunohistochemically. ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, ALS4, and ALS9 transcription was detected by RT-PCR, further identifying ALS genes expressed in this model.

  7. Isolation and characterization of antifungal compounds from Clerodendron glabrum var glabrum (Verbenaceae) used traditionally to treat candidiasis in Venda, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Masevhe, Ndivhaleni Anox

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize antifungal compounds from the most active medicinal plant species that could be used to address secondary infection problems in immunocompromised patients. An ethnobotanical study was conducted and 45 medicinal plant species used traditionally to treat candidiasis and related infections in HIV/AIDS patients were identified and documented. The most popular plant species used included Acacia caffra, Clerodendrum glabrum, Croton gratissimu...

  8. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns, In Vitro Production of Virulence Factors, and Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities for the Speciation of Pathogenic Candida from Blood Stream Infections and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitanya Tellapragada; Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara; Ruqaiyah Johar; Tushar Shaw; Nidhi Malik; Bhat, Parvati V.; Asha Kamath; Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens in both invasive and mucosal infections. Varied virulence factors and growing resistance to antifungal agents have contributed to their pathogenicity. We studied diagnostic accuracy of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar and Vitek 2 Compact system for identification of Candida spp. in comparison with species-specific PCR on 110 clinical isolates of Candida from blood stream infections (54, 49%) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (56, 51%). C. albicans...

  9. A Novel Murine Candidiasis Model with Severe Colonization in the Stomach Induced by N-acetylglucosamine-treatment and Its Scoring System Based on Local Characteristic Stomach Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishijima, Sanae A; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel murine candidiasis model of the gastrointestinal tract using N-acetylglucosamine ( GlcNAc ) as a tool to aggravate symptoms. Forty-eight hours after intragastrically inoculating Candida albicans cells to immunosuppressed and GlcNAc-treated mice, vigorously accumulating patchy whitish plaques were observed on their inner stomach surface. Candida cells colonizing the plaques consisted of both yeast and mycelia, and were directly stained with Calcofluor White M2R. Aggravation of the candidiasis symptoms was dependent on GlcNAc concentration in drinking water, wherein administration of 50 mM GlcNAc not only severely worsened stomach symptoms, but also significantly increased Candida cell number in the stomach and small intestine. The aggravation effect of GlcNAc was enhanced by addition of sedative chemical chlorpromazine chloride after inoculation. In order to semi-quantitatively assess colonization by Candida in the stomach, we devised a new symptom scoring system that represents the extent of the patchy whitish plaques on the mucosal epithelium of the stomach. Histochemical analysis of Candida-infected tissues revealed not only a large amount of thick Candida mycelia invading mucosal epithelial stomach tissues but also infiltrating inflammatory cells. These results suggest that this murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model could serve as a useful tool for evaluating the protective activity of antifungal agents, probiotics, or functional foods against gastrointestinal candidiasis. Furthermore, from another point of view, this novel murine model could also be used to analyze the pathological mechanisms behind the translocation of C. albicans across intestinal barriers, which results in systemic Candida dissemination and infection. PMID:26617106

  10. Community case study of long-term survival with oesophageal candidiasis: a primary healthcare nursing study of support for a patient receiving home self-administered intravenous amphotericin

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Kevin; Parker, Norman; Livingston, Justin

    1993-01-01

    HIV infection predisposes a person to fungal infections because of failure in the host's cell-mediated immunity, which may result in a variety of fungal infections (1,2). Candidiasis is commonly caused by Candida albicans which can become a multi-system problem affecting the patient's nails, mouth, oesophagus, lower gastrointestinal tract, genitalia and rectum. Candida oesophagitis is a condition diagnostic of AIDS and characterised by erythematous lesions, pseudomembranous areas and/or ulcer...

  11. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

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    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  12. [A 95-year-old female with autopsy-proven cerebral necrosis due to candidiasis who developed stroke-like manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideyama, Takuto; Aono, Go; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masanari; Nasu, Michiyo

    2005-03-01

    A 95-year-old woman complained of sudden onset of disturbance of consciousness and right hemiparesis on April 20, 2003 and was admitted on the next day. She was drowsy and showed moderate right motor and sensory hemiparesis. The blood laboratory tests showed slight inflammatory reaction. A low density area was found in the left basal ganglia by brain CT, which was also coincided with the high signal region in T2, FLAIR and diffusion-MR images. The MRA of the intracerebral arteries presented no remarkable abnormality. The hemiparesis and impaired consciousness improved partially in the following week. However, she did not fully recover, since aspiration pneumonia and mild generalized inflammation continued. Percutaneous gastrostomy and intravenous hyperalimentation were started to improve her nutrition. The moderate inflammatory state persisted for several weeks. Her blood pressure suddenly fell and she died on June 12. Autopsy showed a mildly brownish and necrotic lesion from the left caudate to the putamen through the internal capsule. There was no liquefaction. On the microscopic examination, the necrosis surrounded by small vessels was consisted of numerous neutrophils and macrophages with pseudohypha and blastospore of candida. Small fragments of fungus were phagocytosed by macrophages. Small abscesses and necrotic foci due to candidiasis were observed in the bladder, kidneys, lungs, myocardium and thyroid gland. In this case, cerebral candidiasis probably occurred via hematogenous dissemination from a primary focus in the urinary tract. The intracerebral arteries revealed rather mild atherosclerotic changes and there was no occlusion by thromboembolism. Intracerebral lesion was diagnosed as candidiasis and there was no cerebral infarction by thromboembolism. If the infection occurred after cerebral infarction, there should not be any inflammatory reaction in the center of necrotic area. There have been few reports of cerebral candidal infection in patients without diabetes mellitus or immunosuppressive conditions. None of them had been diagnosed before death. Caution should be exercised for the presence of systemic candidiasis in elderly patients who are bedridden and with continuous low grade inflammatory reactions. PMID:15835294

  13. The Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 and Sap2 Cause Tissue Damage in an In Vitro Model of Vaginal Candidiasis Based on Reconstituted Human Vaginal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Schaller, Martin; Bein, Matthias; Korting, Hans C; Baur, Stefan; Hamm, Gerald; Monod, Michel; Beinhauer, Sabine; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) contribute to the ability of Candida albicans to cause mucosal and disseminated infections. A model of vaginal candidiasis based on reconstituted human vaginal epithelium (RHVE) was used to study the expression and role of these C. albicans proteinases during infection and tissue damage of vaginal epithelium. Colonization of the RHVE by C. albicans SC5314 did not cause any visible epithelial damage 6 h after inoculation, although expression of SAP2, SAP9, ...

  14. Limited Role of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 to Sap6 in Candida albicans Virulence and Host Immune Response in Murine Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis?

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Alexandra; Lermann, Ulrich; Teixeira, Luzia; Cerca, Filipe; Botelho, Sofia; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Sampaio, Paula; Gärtner, Fátima; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Vilanova, Manuel; Pais, Célia

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) are considered virulence-associated factors. Several members of the Sap family were claimed to play a significant role in the progression of candidiasis established by the hematogenous route. This assumption was based on the observed attenuated virulence of sap-null mutant strains. However, the exclusive contribution of SAP genes to their attenuated phenotype was not unequivocally confirmed, as the Ura status of these mutant strains could ...

  15. Artemisia princeps Pamp. Essential oil and its constituents eucalyptol and ?-terpineol ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis in mice by inhibiting bacterial growth and NF-?B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Hien-Trung; Lee, In-Ah; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of Artemisia princeps Pamp. (family Asteraceae) essential oil (APEO) and its main constituents against bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis, their antimicrobial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vitro and their anti-inflammatory effects against G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis were examined in mice. APEO and its constituents eucalyptol and ?-terpineol were found to inhibit microbe growths. ?-Terpineol most potently inhibited the growths of G. vaginalis and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125?% (v/v), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ?-terpineol was found to be comparable to that of clotrimazole. Intravaginal treatment with APEO, eucalyptol, or ?-terpineol significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis and C. albicans numbers in the vaginal cavity and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues compared with controls. These agents also inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 ?, IL-6, TNF- ?), COX-2, iNOS, and the activation of NF- ?B and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, they inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF- ?B in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and ?-terpineol most potently inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and NF- ?B activation. Based on these findings, APEO and its constituents, particularly ?-terpineol, ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the growths of vaginal pathogens and the activation of NF- ?B. PMID:21830186

  16. Prevalencia de resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis en una Empresa Social del Estado de Medellín (Colombia, 2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis vaginal, y su distribución según edad, método de planificación y sector de residencia. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal en especímenes citológicos obtenidos de mujeres atendidas entre los años 2010-2012 en Metrosalud, red de instituciones de la que hacen parte cincuenta centros de salud y unidades hospitalarias de primer nivel en Medellín (Colombia. Se incluyó toda la población de mujeres del régimen subsidiado atendida en la institución, se excluyeron las citologías con muestras insatisfactorias por ausencia de células, exceso de eritrocitos o leucocitos, y extendido defectuoso. Se usó fuente de información secundaria. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en SPSS 21®, con medidas de resumen y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se incluyeron 206.035 registros. La prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana fue 18 %, candidiasis 4,7 % y tricomoniasis 0,8 %. Los subgrupos con mayor prevalencia de infecciones fueron los adolescentes, con 22,8 % de vaginosis bacteriana, 9,2 % de candidiasis y 1,0 % para tricomoniasis; y quienes usan el dispositivo intrauterino (DIU con 25,6, 5,1 y 1,2 % respectivamente. Conclusión: se halló una elevada prevalencia de las infecciones estudiadas, principalmente en adolescentes y usuarias del DIU; esta información resulta útil para los tomadores de decisiones en salud y para evaluar la pertinencia de estructurar programas de tamización de infecciones del tracto genital aunados a la tamización del cáncer cérvico-uterino.

  17. Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ali, Mikaeili; Isaac, Karimi; Tayebeh, Shamspur; Babak, Gholamine; Masoud, Modaresi; Ali, Khanlari.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av). The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major compo [...] nents of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g) skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40%) prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

  18. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mohammad Aamir, Mirza; Mohammad Akhlaquer, Rahman; Sushama, Talegaonkar; Zeenat, Iqbal.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em á [...] gua e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA), ácido fúlvico (FA), ?-ciclodextrina (?-CD), 2-hidroxipropil-?-ciclodextrina (HP-?-CD) e cafeína (Caff). O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC), difração de raios-X (XRD), ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN) e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Abstract in english A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually [...] its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) and caffeine (Caff). The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.

  19. Examination of the pathogenic potential of Candida albicans filamentous cells in an animal model of haematogenously disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Ian A; Reinhard, Sara M; Lazzell, Anna L; Monteagudo, Carlos; Thomas, Derek P; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Saville, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is an increasingly common threat to human health. Candida albicans grows in several morphologies and mutant strains locked in yeast or filamentous forms have attenuated virulence in the murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Thus, the ability to change shape is important for virulence. The transcriptional repressors Nrg1p and Tup1p are required for normal regulation of C. albicans morphology. Strains lacking either NRG1 or TUP1 are constitutively pseudohyphal under yeast growth conditions, and display attenuated virulence in the disseminated model. To dissect the relative importance of hyphae and pseudohyphae during an infection, we used strains in which the morphological transition could be externally manipulated through controlled expression of NRG1 or TUP1. Remarkably, hyphal form inocula retain the capacity to cause disease. Whilst induction of a pseudohyphal morphology through depletion of TUP1 did result in attenuated virulence, this was not due to a defect in the ability to escape the bloodstream. Instead, we observed that pseudohyphal cells are cleared from tissues much more efficiently than either hyphal (virulent) or yeast form (avirulent) cells, indicating that different C. albicans morphologies have distinct interactions with host cells during an infection. PMID:26851404

  20. Formulation and evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system to treat intestinal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuparnaDugal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The limited solubility, and therefore bioavailability, of the antimycotic drug,itraconazole, used for the treatment of intestinal Candidiasis in immunocompromisedindividuals, has been well documented. Therapeutic regimen in these patients mayinclude daily administration of multiple doses of various drugs. Hence, improving theresidence time of therapeutic agents, would ensure a high continuous concentration inthe body and help decrease the dosing frequency. In our current study, we haveinvestigated a novel method of drug delivery, developed by utilizing the concept ofmucoadhesiveness, for the sustained release of the drug, itraconazole. Mucoadhesivebeads were prepared using two natural polymers, isabghula husk and alginate. Theminimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole for Candida was found to be1.5milligram per millilitre. Accordingly, beads were prepared by ionic gelation methodusing calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. Marked improvement in solubility of thedrug was noted after entrapment. Prepared beads were subjected to various evaluationsincluding particle size, swelling behaviour and mucoadhesivity. At pH 7.4, goodmucoadhesive property was exhibited up to 7 hours. Maximum swelling of beads wasobserved at 4hours in phosphate buffer after which the beads showed slight erosion.Fresh cock intestinal mucosa was used to assess the sustained release of itraconazolefrom the drug loaded beads and the reduction in candidal cells adhering to the mucosawas verified by the viable count technique. The results of our present study indicate thatmucoadhesive intestinal retentive isabghula- alginate beads could represent a promisingvehicle for drug delivery and help improve therapeutic efficacy and patient compliancein the future.

  1. Association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis and HIV RNA levels in plasma and genital secretions among women on HAART

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    T, Apalata; W H, Carr; B, Longo-Mbenza; W A, Sturm; P, Moodley.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital tract (GT) inflammation plays a major role in HIV transmission. We aimed to determine the association between symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and HIV RNA levels in plasma and GTs of HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHOD: Women with [...] VVC on HAART were recruited from a primary healthcare clinic in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, between June 2011 and December 2011. VVC was diagnosed clinically, supported by Gram staining and culture of genital secretions. HIV RNA load was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CD4+ counts were obtained from patients' medical records. RESULTS: Plasma HIV RNA was detected in 42 of 60 (70%) patients on HAART. The mean duration (± standard deviation) on HAART for these patients was 4.2 (±1.6) months v. 10.7 (±1.4) months for the remaining 18 patients (p10 000 copies/ml (p=0.032) and genital absolute counts of neutrophils >10 cells/5 high microscopic fields (p=0.007). CONCLUSION: Given that the majority of women had recently initiated HAART (allowing a high rate of detectable plasma HIV RNA), there was insufficient evidence to conclude that VVC was predictive of high plasma HIV RNA levels. It is more likely that this cohort of immunosuppressed women were prone to develop VVC. Plasma HIV loads and local genital inflammation were predictors of genital HIV detectability.

  2. Candidíase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45ºC e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (pPURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology and results of anal culture, to identify the frequency of species of Candida albicans and non-C. albicans, and to correlate anal and vaginal colonization. METHODS: a total of 99 patients were included with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis, from Natal, Brazil, between May 2003 and May 2005, totalling 294 collections. The clinical material, obtained by vaginal and anal swabs, was seeded on CHROMagar Candida®. The yeasts were identified using the classic method, in addition to the growth test at 42º and 45ºC and the Hypertonic Saboraud broth test. Symptomatology, risk factors and anal colonization were assessed according to positive or negative culture for Candida spp. The cultures positive for C. albicans at the two sites were compared with other results encountered. Yates’ chi2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: the most frequent was C. albicans in 69% of the cases. Wearing tight and/or synthetic underclothing, the presence of allergic diseases, the occurrence of itching, leukorrhea and hyperemia showed a significant association with positive culture for Candida spp in the vagina. The chance of a patient with positive anal colonization to present with concomitant positive vaginal colonization was 2.8 and 4.9 times greater for Candida spp and C. albicans, respectively. The risk of a patient with anal culture positive for C. albicans to present with positive vaginal colonization was 3.7 times greater when compared to non-C. albicans species. CONCLUSIONS: the most common species was C. albicans, and a relevant association between vaginal cultures positive for Candida spp and the use of tight and/or synthetic underclothing, allergic diseases, the occurrence of pruritus, leukorrhea and erythema was observed (p<0.05. Positive anal colonization concomitant with vaginal colonization was significant, suggesting possible vaginal contamination from the anus.

  3. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aamir Mirza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD and caffeine (Caff. The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em água e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA, ácido fúlvico (FA, β-ciclodextrina (β-CD, 2-hidroxipropil-β-ciclodextrina (HP-β-CD e cafeína (Caff. O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC, difração de raios-X (XRD, ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal.

  4. Gain-of-function STAT1 mutations impair STAT3 activity in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Crossland, Katherine L; Smeekens, Sanne P; Chan, Chun M; Al Shehri, Tariq; Abinun, Mario; Gennery, Andrew R; Mann, Jelena; Lendrem, Dennis W; Netea, Mihai G; Rowan, Andrew D; Lilic, Desa

    2015-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) triggered production of Th-17 cytokines mediates protective immunity against fungi. Mutations affecting the STAT3/interleukin 17 (IL-17) pathway cause selective susceptibility to fungal (Candida) infections, a hallmark of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In patients with autosomal dominant CMC, we and others previously reported defective Th17 responses and underlying gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, but how this affects STAT3 function leading to decreased IL-17 is unclear. We also assessed how GOF-STAT1 mutations affect STAT3 activation, DNA binding, gene expression, cytokine production, and epigenetic modifications. We excluded impaired STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and sequestration of STAT3 into STAT1/STAT3 heterodimers and confirm significantly reduced transcription of STAT3-inducible genes (RORC/IL-17/IL-22/IL-10/c-Fos/SOCS3/c-Myc) as likely underlying mechanism. STAT binding to the high affinity sis-inducible element was intact but binding to an endogenous STAT3 DNA target was impaired. Reduced STAT3-dependent gene transcription was reversed by inhibiting STAT1 activation with fludarabine or enhancing histone, but not STAT1 or STAT3 acetylation with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A or ITF2357. Silencing HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 indicated a role for HDAC1 and 2. Reduced STAT3-dependent gene transcription underlies low Th-17 responses in GOF-STAT1 CMC, which can be reversed by inhibiting acetylation, offering novel targets for future therapies. PMID:26255980

  5. ERG2 and ERG24 Are Required for Normal Vacuolar Physiology as Well as Candida albicans Pathogenicity in a Murine Model of Disseminated but Not Vaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Tapia, Arturo; Peters, Brian M; Eberle, Karen E; Kerns, Morgan E; Foster, Timothy P; Marrero, Luis; Noverr, Mairi C; Fidel, Paul L; Palmer, Glen E

    2015-10-01

    Several important classes of antifungal agents, including the azoles, act by blocking ergosterol biosynthesis. It was recently reported that the azoles cause massive disruption of the fungal vacuole in the prevalent human pathogen Candida albicans. This is significant because normal vacuolar function is required to support C. albicans pathogenicity. This study examined the impact of the morpholine antifungals, which inhibit later steps of ergosterol biosynthesis, on C. albicans vacuolar integrity. It was found that overexpression of either the ERG2 or ERG24 gene, encoding C-8 sterol isomerase or C-14 sterol reductase, respectively, suppressed C. albicans sensitivity to the morpholines. In addition, both erg2?/? and erg24?/? mutants were hypersensitive to the morpholines. These data are consistent with the antifungal activity of the morpholines depending upon the simultaneous inhibition of both Erg2p and Erg24p. The vacuoles within both erg2?/? and erg24?/? C. albicans strains exhibited an aberrant morphology and accumulated large quantities of the weak base quinacrine, indicating enhanced vacuolar acidification compared with that of control strains. Both erg mutants exhibited significant defects in polarized hyphal growth and were avirulent in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Surprisingly, in a mouse model of vaginal candidiasis, both mutants colonized mice at high levels and induced a pathogenic response similar to that with the controls. Thus, while targeting Erg2p or Erg24p alone could provide a potentially efficacious therapy for disseminated candidiasis, it may not be an effective strategy to treat vaginal infections. The potential value of drugs targeting these enzymes as adjunctive therapies is discussed. PMID:26231054

  6. Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, S; Pozo, JC; Romá, E; Salavert, M; Barrueta, JA; Peral, C; Rodriguez, I; Rubio-Rodríguez, D; Rubio-Terrés, C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin) and generic fluconazole in the treatment of nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Materials and methods A decision-tree model was applied. The success and safety (hepatic and renal adverse effects) of first-line treatments were obtained from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials. In the case of failure, a second-line treatment (liposomal amphotericin B after the echinocandins, or one of the echinocandins after fluconazole) was administered. The duration of the treatments (14 days total) was established by a panel of clinical experts using the Delphi method and according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The cost of the medications and renal toxicity were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Results The total cost of the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and fluconazole was €5,483, €5,968, €6,231, and €2,088, respectively. Anidulafungin was the dominant treatment (more effective, less expensive) compared to micafungin and caspofungin. The cost of achieving one more patient successfully treated with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin compared to fluconazole was €17,199, €23,962, and €27,339, respectively. The result remained stable, despite modification of the duration of the first-line and second-line treatments, as well as most of the dosing regimens. The probabilistic analysis also remained stable. Conclusion In accordance with this economic study, anidulafungin would produce savings and would be the dominant treatment compared with micafungin and caspofungin in nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. PMID:26508881

  7. RT-PCR analysis of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in a hyposalivatory rat model of oral candidiasis and in HIV-positive human patients

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Clayton B.; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; CHENG, GEORGINA; Faddoul, Fady F.; EHRHART, E. J.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2006-01-01

    ALS gene expression was studied in the hyposalivatory rat model of oral candidiasis and in clinical specimens collected from HIV-positive patients to assess similarities in expression patterns between the model system and clinical isolates. Two C. albicans strains, SC5314 and OY-2-76, were used in the rat model system and infection progressed for 3 or 5 days. The strains produced similar oral lesions at 3 days. At 5 days, strain OY-2-76 produced more superficial lesions containing relatively ...

  8. Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available S Grau,1 JC Pozo,2 E Romá,2 M Salavert,3 JA Barrueta,4 C Peral,4 I Rodriguez,5 D Rubio-Rodríguez,6 C Rubio-Terrés6 1Hospital del Mar (IMIM, Barcelona, 2Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Córdoba, 3Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, 4Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, 5Trial Form Support, Madrid, 6Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin and generic fluconazole in the treatment of nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Materials and methods: A decision-tree model was applied. The success and safety (hepatic and renal adverse effects of first-line treatments were obtained from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials. In the case of failure, a second-line treatment (liposomal amphotericin B after the echinocandins, or one of the echinocandins after fluconazole was administered. The duration of the treatments (14 days total was established by a panel of clinical experts using the Delphi method and according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The cost of the medications and renal toxicity were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Results: The total cost of the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and fluconazole was €5,483, €5,968, €6,231, and €2,088, respectively. Anidulafungin was the dominant treatment (more effective, less expensive compared to micafungin and caspofungin. The cost of achieving one more patient successfully treated with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin compared to fluconazole was €17,199, €23,962, and €27,339, respectively. The result remained stable, despite modification of the duration of the first-line and second-line treatments, as well as most of the dosing regimens. The probabilistic analysis also remained stable. Conclusion: In accordance with this economic study, anidulafungin would produce savings and would be the dominant treatment compared with micafungin and caspofungin in nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Keywords: invasive candidiasis, candidemia, anidulafungin, micafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, cost-effectiveness analysis

  9. Correlation of the MIC and Dose/MIC Ratio of Fluconazole to the Therapeutic Response of Patients with Mucosal Candidiasis and Candidemia?

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.; Almirante, Benito; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Laguna, Fernando; Donnelly, J. Peter; Mouton, Johan W.; Pahissa, Albert; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    We report on the correlation of the outcomes for two cohorts of patients who had been treated for candidemia (126 episodes) or oropharyngeal candidiasis (110 episodes) with various doses of fluconazole and the MIC of fluconazole obtained by using the EUCAST standard for fermentative yeasts. Of 145 episodes caused by an isolate with a fluconazole MIC ?2 mg/liter, 93.7% (136 of 145) responded to fluconazole treatment. The response for those infected with a strain with a MIC of 4 mg/liter was 66...

  10. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil / Factores asociados al tiempo libre y la candidiasis oral en niños que viven con VIH/SIDA, São Paulo, Brasil / Fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral em crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira, Konstantyner; Aline Medeiros da, Silva; Luana Fiengo, Tanaka; Heloísa Helena de Sousa, Marques; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A recorrência da candidíase oral em crianças vivendo com HIV/AIDS é um acontecimento muito comum na prática clínica. O objetivo foi verificar os fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral, utilizando técnica de análise de sobrevida para eventos recorrentes. Estudo de coorte retrospectivo c [...] om 287 crianças, atendidas entre 1985 e 2009, em um serviço de saúde de São Paulo, Brasil. Foi utilizado o modelo marginal para eventos recorrentes de Prentice, Williams e Peterson para investigação dos fatores associados ao tempo livre de candidíase oral. Imunodepressão moderada (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) ou grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in spanish La repetición de candidiasis oral en los niños que viven con VIH/SIDA es muy común en la práctica clínica. El objetivo fue verificar los factores asociados al tiempo libre y la candidiasis oral, usando la técnica de análisis de supervivencia para eventos recurrentes. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte [...] retrospectiva con 287 niños que visitaron entre 1985 y 2009 un servicio de salud de São Paulo, Brasil. Se usó el modelo marginal para eventos recurrentes de Prentice, Williams y Peterson, con el fin de investigar los factores asociados. Moderada inmunodepresión (HR = 2,5; p = 0,005) o grave (HR = 3,5; p Abstract in english In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children t [...] reated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p

  11. In Vitro Activity of Miltefosine against Candida albicans under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions and In Vivo Efficacy in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa Vieira Machado; Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Rozental, Sonia; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2015-12-01

    The generation of a new antifungal against Candida albicans biofilms has become a major priority, since biofilm formation by this opportunistic pathogenic fungus is usually associated with an increased resistance to azole antifungal drugs and treatment failures. Miltefosine is an alkyl phospholipid with promising antifungal activity. Here, we report that, when tested under planktonic conditions, miltefosine displays potent in vitro activity against multiple fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, including isolates overexpressing efflux pumps and/or with well-characterized Erg11 mutations. Moreover, miltefosine inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation and displays activity against preformed biofilms. Serial passage experiments confirmed that miltefosine has a reduced potential to elicit resistance, and screening of a library of C. albicans transcription factor mutants provided additional insight into the activity of miltefosine against C. albicans growing under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of topical treatment with miltefosine in the murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Overall, our results confirm the potential of miltefosine as a promising antifungal drug candidate, in particular for the treatment of azole-resistant and biofilm-associated superficial candidiasis. PMID:26416861

  12. Fluconazole therapy for treatment of invasive candidiasis in Intensive Care patients. Is it still valid from a pharmacological point of view?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Musu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole – antimycotic belonging to the first generation azoles – is widely used as treatment for invasive candidiasis and candidemia in numerous clinical settings as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU, as well as oncology, onco-hematology and solid organ transplantation. More recently use of antimycotics has spread to medical divisions, where fungal infections represent an emerging problem due to population’s ageing, malnourishment and important comorbidities. Fluconazole is effective against numerous Candida species, particularly against albicans, tropicalis and parapsilosis strains. On the other hand, C. krusei is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and C. glabrata can be sensitive or resistant in a dose dependent fashion. Epidemiological variability is noteworthy and depends on the geographical location of the institution, the clinical setting, and the frequency and intensity of fluconazole employment for invasive candidiasis. In many ICUs fluconazole sensitive C. albicans is cultured in 50% of positive samples, while the remaining 50% show growth of variably sensitive fungal species, often resistant to fluconazole. Due to increasingly frequent emergence of resistant strains of Candida spp., American guidelines (IDSA in 2009, and European ones (ESCMID in 2012, recommended substitution of fluconazole with echinocandines as first line therapy in patients with severe disease, as defined by an APACHE II score greater than 15. Thus fluconazole must be limited to low risk cases, treatment of sensitive strains and de-escalation from echinocandin therapy, after microbiological diagnosis and drug resistance profile characterization.

  13. Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangeli Basso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR, a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30% casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% y Candida spp. (11,1%. En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR, a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasil. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30% dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% e Candida spp. (11,1%. Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais.The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycological examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30% cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  14. Etiología de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atención Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil / Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil / Etiologia da candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente na Atenção Primária à Saúde em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rangeli, Basso; Nelci, Lopes da Silva; Karina, Braccini Pereira; Adelina, Mezzari; Alexandre, Meneghello Fuentefria.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as características epidemiológicas que possam subsidiar a Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) em mulheres portadoras de candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR), a partir de estudos realizados em três municípios do sul do Brasi [...] l. Através do exame micológico da secreção vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clínica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espécies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30%) dos casos, resultando as espécies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) e Candida spp. (11,1%). Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espécie mais encontrada, com uma prevalência superior à observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espécie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importância do diagnóstico em nível de espécie, devido à resistência intrínseca ao fluconazol. As informações epidemiológicas deste estudo são úteis para que os gestores da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) e os profissionais da Saúde Pública possam ter subsídios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidíases vulvovaginais. Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las características epidemiológicas que puedan subsidiar la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV) y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR), a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur [...] de Brasil. A través del examen micológico de la secreción vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clínica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionándose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30%) casos, resultando las especies más frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%), C. krusei (16,7%), C. tropicalis (6,7%), C. glabrata (4,4%) y Candida spp. (11,1%). En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie más encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareció como la segunda especie más prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnóstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrínseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiológicas del estudio son útiles para que los gestores de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales. Abstract in english The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycologic [...] al examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30%) cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  15. Prevalencia de resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis en una Empresa Social del Estado de Medellín (Colombia), 2010-2012 / Prevalence of positive cytology results for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and trichomoniasis in a Social State Institution in Medellín, Colombia, 2010-2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias; Daniela, Herrera-Posada; Marleny, Valencia-Arredondo.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del resultado positivo de la citología para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis vaginal, y su distribución según edad, método de planificación y sector de residencia. Materiales y métodos: estudio de corte transversal en especímenes citológicos obten [...] idos de mujeres atendidas entre los años 2010-2012 en Metrosalud, red de instituciones de la que hacen parte cincuenta centros de salud y unidades hospitalarias de primer nivel en Medellín (Colombia). Se incluyó toda la población de mujeres del régimen subsidiado atendida en la institución, se excluyeron las citologías con muestras insatisfactorias por ausencia de células, exceso de eritrocitos o leucocitos, y extendido defectuoso. Se usó fuente de información secundaria. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en SPSS 21®, con medidas de resumen y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se incluyeron 206.035 registros. La prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana fue 18 %, candidiasis 4,7 % y tricomoniasis 0,8 %. Los subgrupos con mayor prevalencia de infecciones fueron los adolescentes, con 22,8 % de vaginosis bacteriana, 9,2 % de candidiasis y 1,0 % para tricomoniasis; y quienes usan el dispositivo intrauterino (DIU) con 25,6, 5,1 y 1,2 % respectivamente. Conclusión: se halló una elevada prevalencia de las infecciones estudiadas, principalmente en adolescentes y usuarias del DIU; esta información resulta útil para los tomadores de decisiones en salud y para evaluar la pertinencia de estructurar programas de tamización de infecciones del tracto genital aunados a la tamización del cáncer cérvico-uterino. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the prevalence of positive cytology results for bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis and vaginal trichomoniasis, and distribution by age, birth control method and place of residence. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study of cytology samples from women seen between 2010 and [...] 2012 at Metrosalud, a network of institutions comprising 50 healthcare centres and level I hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. All the female population under the subsidized insurance regime was included, and inadequate samples due to absence of cells, excess red or white blood cells, and defective smear were excluded. A secondary source of information was used. Data were stored and analysed using the SPSS 21®, with summary measurements and absolute and relative frequencies. Results: Overall, 206,035 records were included. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 18 %, and the prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis was 4.7 % and 0.8 %, respectively. The subgroups with the highest prevalence of infections were adolescents with 22.8 % bacterial vaginosis, 9.2 % candidiasis and 1.0 % trichomoniasis. Among women using the intrauterine device (IUD), the prevalence was 25.6 %, 5.1 % and 1.2 %, respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the infections studied was found, mainly among adolescents and IUD users. This information is useful for healthcare decision-making and for evaluating the relevance of structuring screening programs for genitourinary tract infections together with screening for cervical and uterine cancer.

  16. Candidíase sistêmica com localização encefálica: estudo anátomo-clínico de cinco casos Septicaemia candidiasis with cerebral involvement: a report of five cases

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    Luciano de Souza Queiroz

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas septicemias por Candida, a localização encefálica é rara, e apenas quatro casos isolados foram publicados no Brasil. Os AA. apresentam cinco observações anátomo-clínicas de candidíase do sistema nervoso central, diagnosticadas somente pela autópsia. Quatro dos pacientes eram adultos e apenas uma criança foi estudada. Todos eram portadores de uma ou mais doenças de base e foram submetidos à terapêutica antibiótica múltipla e prolongada. Os sintomas neurológicos eventualmente atribuíveis à infecção fúngica limitaram-se a convulsões em um caso e rigidez de nuca em outro. Em nenhum as lesões assumiram gravidade suficiente para serem responsabilizadas como causa imediata da morte. Revelaram-se múltiplas e microscópicas em três pacientes, com caráter exsudativo e granulomatoso; macroscópicas em um caso, com aspecto necro-hemorrágico. Na criança, dois granulomas apenas foram observados. O agente etiológico foi identificado como Candida, nos cortes histológicos, pela técnica de impregnação argêntica de Grocott. Os autores discutem a patogênese e a anatomia patológica da candidíase sistêmica, bem como seu diagnóstico clínico-laboratorial e a terapêutica. Os achados clínicos e an átomo-patológicos dos presentes casos são analisados à luz da literatura, enfatizando que a incidência de monilíase sistêmica no Brasil deve ser muito superior ao sugerido pela escassa casuística nacional.Central nervous system involvement in Candida septicaemia is rare and not more than four cases have been published in Brazil. Five new cases of systemic candidiasis with cerebral lesions are reported. All patients (four adults and a child had serious underlying diseases and were submitted to heavy long-term antibiotic therapy with multiple drugs. Seizures in one case and neck stiffness in another were the only neurologic signs that could be attributed to candidiasis. In no case were the lesions severe enough to be considered an immediate cause of death. In three patients, no macroscopic changes were evident in the brain, but microabscesses and granulomata were observed on microscopical examination; another patient had two gross areas with necrotic and haemorrhagic appearance in the cerebral hemispheres; the child had only two microscopic granulomata. The aetiological agent was demonstrated by Grocott's methenamine silver technique in all cases. Involvement of organs other than the central nervous system could be demonstrated in three autopsies. Discussion is confined mainly to such aspects as the contributory factors in the pathogenesis of systemic candidiasis as well as the marked rise in the incidence of this condition in the past few decades. It is suggested that the frequence of monilial septicaemia in Brazil may be far more serious than apparent from the scarcity of reported cases.

  17. Diaper Dermatitis (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are often found in the diaper region. Overview Candida albicans is a type of fungus normally found in the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract. If your baby is wearing a moist or ... dermatitis, and candida infection in the mouth (oral thrush) may also ...

  18. First characterization of Candida albicans by random amplified polymorphic DNA method in Nicaragua and comparison of the diagnosis methods for vaginal candidiasis in Nicaraguan women

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha Darce, Bello; Alcides, Gonzalez; Christian, Barnabé; Georges, Larrouy.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 106 women with vaginitis in Nicaragua were studied. The positive rate for the identification of Candida species was 41% (44 positive cultures out of 106 women with vaginitis). The sensitivity of microscopic examination of wet mount with the potassium hydroxide (KOH) was 61% and 70% with G [...] ram's stain when using the culture of vaginal fluid as gold standard for diagnosis of candidiasis. Among the 44 positives cultures, isolated species of yeast from vaginal swabs were C. albicans (59%), C. tropicalis (23%), C. glabrata (14%) and C. krusei (4%). This study reports the first characterization of 26 C. albicans stocks from Nicaragua by the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. The genetic analysis in this small C. albicans population showed the existence of linkage disequilibrium, which is consistent with the hypothesis that C. albicans undergoes a clonal propagation.

  19. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kentaro; Hayama, Kazumi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Maruyama, Naho; Irie, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Junichi; Abe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The onset of oral candidiasis is accompanied by inflammatory symptoms such as pain in the tongue, edema or tissue damage and lowers the quality of life (QOL) of the patient. In a murine oral candidiasis model, the effects were studied of terpinen-4-ol (T-4-ol), one of the main constituents of tea tree oil, Melaleuca alternifolia, on inflammatory reactions. When immunosuppressed mice were orally infected with Candida albicans, their tongues showed inflammatory symptoms within 24 h after the infection, which was monitored by an increase of myeloperoxidase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in their tongue homogenates. Oral treatment with 50 µL of 40 mg/mL terpinen-4-ol 3h after the Candida infection clearly suppressed the increase of these inflammatory parameters. In vitro analysis of the effects of terpinen-4-ol on cytokine secretion of macrophages indicated that 800 µg/mL of this substance significantly inhibited the cytokine production of the macrophages cultured in the presence of heat-killed C. albicans cells. Based on these findings, the role of the anti-inflammatory action of T-4-ol in its therapeutic activity against oral candidiasis was discussed. PMID:23649340

  20. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato) sobre candidose oral / Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) gel on oral candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida, Paiva; Rodrigo Alves, Ribeiro; Jozinete Vieira, Pereira; Neuza Maria Cavalcante, Oliveira.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas [...] tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel), composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel) utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis. Abstract in english In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant [...] of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel), with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel) used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  1. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilke MH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin is not more expensive than using other established therapies. Micafungin has proven to be cost-effective in prophylaxis if the local fungal epidemiology indicates a high level of resistance to fluconazole. Switch strategies involving early initiation of broadly active therapy with switch to cheaper alternatives according to microbiology results and clinical status and early initiation of an appropriate therapy have been proven to be cost-efficient independent of the antifungal agent.

  2. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  3. Etiologia dos casos de candidíase cutânea atendidos no serviço de micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil / Etiology of cutaneous candidiasis cases seen at the mycology service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil / Etiología de casos de candidiasis cutánea atendidos en el servicio de micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Silva Barbedo; Simone Cristina, Pereira Brito; Fabíola Cristina, de Oliveira Kegele; Jânio, Alves Cordeiro; Jeferson, Carvalhaes de Oliveira; Diana Bridon, da Graça Sgarbi.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudadas 64 amostras oriundas de 56 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidíase cutânea, coletadas de novembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009, no serviço de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano e Veterinário do Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Instituto Biomédico da Universid [...] ade Federal Fluminense. Foram isoladas espécies de Candida em 58 amostras de 51 pacientes, trinta e oito mulheres e treze homens, com a seguinte distribuição: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica e 3 C . tropicalis. As onicomicoses representaram mais de 75% das manifestações clínicas. Nos casos em que não foi Candida isolada como o agente etiológico, foram identificados dois Cryptococcus laurentii, um Trichosporon mucoides e um Trichosporon asahii. Este trabalho é uma contribuição para o entendimento da etiologia de candidíase cutânea no serviço de Micologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense. Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudiaron 64 muestras procedentes de 56 pacientes con sospecha clínica de candidiasis cutánea, recolectadas entre noviembre de 2008 a agosto de 2009 en el servicio de Diagnóstico Micológico Humano y Veterinario del Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Instituto Biomédic [...] o de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Se aislaron especies del género Candida en 58 muestras de 51 pacientes, treinta y ocho mujeres y trece hombres, con la siguiente distribución: 15 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. famata, 9 C. albicans, 7 C. haemulonii, 5 C. ciferrii, 4 C. guilliermondii, 4 C. lipolytica y 3 C . tropicalis. Las onicomicosis representaron más del 75% de las manifestaciones clínicas. En los casos donde no se aisló Candida como agente etiológico se identificaron dos Cryptococcus laurentii, un Trichosporon mucoides y un Trichosporon asahii. Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento de la etiología de la candidiasis cutánea en el Servicio de Micología de la Universidad Federal Fluminense. Abstract in english This work corresponds to the study of 64 samples from 56 patients with clinical suspicion of cutaneous candidiasis, collected between November 2008 and August 2009 at the Human and Veterinarian Diagnostic Service of the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology of the Instituto Biomédico of the Un [...] iversidad Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Candida genus species were isolated in 58 samples from 51 patients (38 women and 13 men), with the following distribution: C. parapsilosis 15, C. famata 11, C. albicans 9, C. haemulonii 7, C. guilliermondii 4, C. ciferrii 5, C. lipolytica 4, and C. tropicalis 3. Onicomycoses represented over 75% of the clinical manifestations. In cases where Candida was not isolated as etiologic agent, two Cryptococcus laurentii, one Trichosporum mucoides, and one Trichosporum asahii were identified. This work is a contribution to the knowledge of the etiology of cutaneous candidiasis at the Mycology Service of the Universidade Federal Fluminense.

  4. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV Infection: Analysis of Impaired Mucosal Immune Response to Candida albicans in Mice Expressing the HIV-1 Transgene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis de Repentigny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IL-17-producing Th17 cells are of critical importance in host defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC. Speculation about defective Th17 responses to oral C. albicans infection in the context of HIV infection prompted an investigation of innate and adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans in transgenic mice expressing the genome of HIV-1 in immune cells and displaying an AIDS-like disease. Defective IL-17 and IL-22-dependent mucosal responses to C. albicans were found to determine susceptibility to OPC in these transgenic mice. Innate phagocytes were quantitatively and functionally intact, and individually dispensable for control of OPC and to prevent systemic dissemination of Candida to deep organs. CD8+ T-cells recruited to the oral mucosa of the transgenic mice limited the proliferation of C. albicans in these conditions of CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Therefore, the immunopathogenesis of OPC in the context of HIV infection involves defective T-cell-mediated immunity, failure of crosstalk with innate mucosal immune effector mechanisms, and compensatory cell responses, which limit Candida infection to the oral mucosa and prevent systemic dissemination.

  5. Candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer interned in a university hospital Candidíases em pacientes pediátricos com câncer internados em um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Rabelo De Carvalho Parahym

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates, C. parapsilosis (nine isolates, C. guilliermondii (two isolates and C. tropicalis (two isolates. We found that candidemia was most frequent in patients with malignant hematology and that C. parapsilosis infections caused the highest mortality.Os fungos são causas comuns de infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos e espécies de Candida são freqüentemente envolvidas nesses casos. A fim de investigar infecção fúngica em pacientes pediátricos com câncer, amostras clínicas foram coletadas de cento e vinte dois pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz em Recife, Brasil. Leveduras foram isoladas de trinta e quatro amostras clínicas. As leveduras isoladas foram: Candida albicans (catorze isolados, C. parapsilosis (nove isolados, C. guilliermondii (dois isolados e C. tropicalis (dois isolados. Descobrimos que candidemia foi mais freqüente em doentes com hematologias malignas e que C. parapsilosis apresentou maior mortalidade.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of serum 1,3-?-D-glucan for pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, invasive candidiasis, and invasive aspergillosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Akira; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kogata, Yoshinori; Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Kawano, Seiji; Morinobu, Akio; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Serum 1,3-?-d-glucan (BG) assay may be helpful as a marker for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) and invasive fungal infection (IFI). We conducted a systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of this assay. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Collaboration databases, Ichushi-Web, reference lists of retrieved studies, and review articles. Our search included studies of serum BG assay that used (i) positive cytological or direct microscopic examination of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for PJP and (ii) European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer or similar criteria for IFI as a reference standard and provided data to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Only major fungal infections such as invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis were included in the IFI group. Twelve studies for PJP and 31 studies for IFI were included from January 1966 to November 2010. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-SROC) for PJP were 96% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 92% to 98%), 84% (95% CI, 83% to 86%), 102.3 (95% CI, 59.2 to 176.6) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99), respectively. No heterogeneity was found. For IFI, the values were 80% (95% CI, 77% to 82%), 82% (95% CI, 81% to 83%), 25.7 (95% CI, 15.0 to 44.1), and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.82 to 0.93). Heterogeneity was significant. The diagnostic accuracy of the BG assay is high for PJP and moderate for IFI. Because the sensitivity for PJP is particularly high, the BG assay can be used as a screening tool for PJP. PMID:22075593

  7. Prevention of lethal murine candidiasis using HP (2-20), an antimicrobial peptide derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Damasceno; Medina-Acosta, Enrique

    2003-11-01

    Peptide HP (2-20), A(2)KKVFKRLEKLFSKIQNDK(20), is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the N-terminus of Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein 1, HpRpL1. Native peptide HP (2-20) and its synthetic derivatives have been shown in vitro to exhibit potent killing activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and yeast cells, thus, making them promising candidates for treatment of polymicrobial infections. However, the therapeutic potential of peptide HP (2-20) or its synthetic derivatives in any animal model of either bacterial or fungal diseases has not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that synthetic peptide amide HP (2-20), administered in six doses (300microg each; one intraperitoneal dose at the time of the infection, followed by five intravenous doses at 12h intervals) to CBA/J male mice experimentally infected with a lethal inoculum ( [Formula: see text] CFU) of Candida albicans, delayed the onset of disease, suppressed disease progression, and greatly increased survival rate and time (16.6% by day 14), as compared with the untreated infected control mice (100% mortality by day 5). Further, using isotonic buffer systems differing in ionic strength, peptide HP (2-20) was shown in vitro to exhibit an ionic strength-dependent hemolytic activity, previously not detected. Repeated intravenous administration of uninfected control CBA/J male mice with peptide HP (2-20), however, caused neither morbidity nor mortality. These findings strongly evidence the therapeutic efficacy and safety values of peptide HP (2-20) as a lead drug for the treatment of acquired candidiasis. PMID:15019213

  8. Frequência de leveduras em fluido vaginal de mulheres com e sem suspeita clínica de candidíase vulvovaginal Frequency of yeasts in vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luciano Andrioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a candidíase vulvovaginal em mulheres com e sem suspeita clínica a partir de fluido vaginal, identificando frequência de Candida spp. e associando a fatores de risco intrínsecos e extrínsecos. MÉTODOS: foram coletadas 286 amostras de pacientes atendidas em clínicas e postos de saúde entre Agosto de 2005 e Agosto de 2007. Foram 121 mulheres com suspeita e 165 sem suspeita clínica. Com zaragatoas estéreis, as amostras foram coletadas, transportadas ao laboratório em solução fisiológica 0,85%, semeadas em CHROMagar Candida e em meio ágar Sabouraud 4% com cloranfenicol. Foram realizados os procedimentos clássicos para identificação: macro e micromorfologia, zimograma e auxanograma. Os dados obtidos foram analisados através de testes de frequência e tabelas de contingência (?2. RESULTADOS: Um total de 47,9% das mulheres com suspeita clínica obteve confirmação de candidíase pelos exames laboratoriais. Das pacientes sem suspeita clínica (Grupo Controle, 78,2% foram negativas para candidíase vulvovaginal pelos testes laboratoriais. Candida albicans foi a espécie prevalente com 74,5% dos casos. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas para os casos positivos, de acordo com as pacientes das duas cidades avaliadas (pPURPOSE: to study vulvovaginal candidiasis from the vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion, identifying the frequency of Candida spp., and associating it with intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. METHODS: a total of 286 samples from patients attended in private practices and public health units from August 2005 to August 2007 were collected, being 121 women under clinical suspicion and 165, without. The samples were collected with sterile swabs, taken to the laboratory in 0.85% physiological solution, and then seeded in CHROMagar Candida and in 4% agar Sabourad with chloramphenicol. Classical identification procedures were carried out: macro and micromorphology, zymogram and auxanogram. Data obtained were analyzed by frequency tests and contingency tables (?2. RESULTS: a total of 47.9% of the women under clinical suspicion got confirmation of candidiasis by the laboratorial tests. Among the patients without clinical suspicion (Control Group, 78.2% were vulvovaginal candidiasis negative according to the laboratorial tests. Candida albicans was the prevalent strain in 74.5% of the cases. There were significant differences among the positive cases, according to the patients from the two cities evaluated (p<0.05. Clothing was one differential aspect found among the two populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: the presence of predisposing factors does not necessarily define vulvovaginal candidiasis. Geographical localization has shown to be a relevant factor in the distribution of events. The type of clothing may be one of the reasons for it. Culture of samples from the vaginal contents, followed by microorganisms' identification, can be important.

  9. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Aparecida Álvares

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de quatro ou mais episódios de CVV no período de 12 meses, bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influências do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulência dos agentes causais da infecção, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importância nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistêmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invasão por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicação no canal vaginal é favorecida por uma série de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta revisão. Também tem sido postulado que existem diferenças na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., não sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vários fatores de virulência têm sido propostos e são descritos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Este artigo de revisão bibliográfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da área da saúde em relação a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência dos agentes causais, que são pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualização e o conhecimento de conceitos básicos e clínicos relacionados com essa patologia são muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da área.INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae. C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of women’s health.

  10. Mild heating of amphotericin B-desoxycholate: effects on ultrastructure, in vitro activity and toxicity, and therapeutic efficacy in severe candidiasis in leukopenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Etten, E W; van Vianen, W; Roovers, P; Frederik, P

    2000-06-01

    Heated (20 min at 70 degrees C) amphotericin B-desoxycholate (hAMB-DOC) was further characterized, as was another formulation obtained after centrifugation (60 min, 3000 x g), hcAMB-DOC. Conventional AMB-DOC consisted of individual micelles (approximately 4 nm in diameter) and threadlike aggregated micelles, as revealed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. For both hAMB-DOC and hcAMB-DOC, pleiomorphic cobweb structures were observed with a mean particle size of approximately 300 nm as determined by laser diffraction. The potent antifungal activity of AMB-DOC against Candida albicans is not reduced by heating. Effective killing of C. albicans (>99.9% within 6 h) was obtained at 0.1 mg/liter with each of the AMB formulations. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, cation release ((86)Rb(+)) from C. albicans of > or =50% was observed at 0.8, 0.4, and 0.4 mg/liter, respectively. After heating of AMB-DOC, toxicity was reduced 16-fold as determined by red blood cell (RBC) lysis. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, hemolysis of > or =50% was observed at 6.4, 102.4, and 102.4 mg/liter, respectively. In contrast, AMB-DOC and its derivates showed similar toxicities in terms of cation release from RBC. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, cation release ((86)Rb(+)) of > or =50% was observed at 1.6, 0.8, and 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. In persistently leukopenic mice with severe invasive candidiasis, higher dosages of both hAMB-DOC and hcAMB-DOC were tolerated than those of conventional AMB-DOC (3 versus 0.8 mg/kg of body weight, respectively), resulting in significantly improved therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this new approach of heating AMB-DOC may be of great value for further optimizing the treatment of severe fungal infections. PMID:10817715

  11. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras / Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cassiana Aparecida, Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os co [...] nhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de quatro ou mais episódios de CVV no período de 12 meses), bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influências do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulência dos agentes causais da infecção, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importância nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistêmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invasão por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicação no canal vaginal é favorecida por uma série de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta revisão. Também tem sido postulado que existem diferenças na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., não sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vários fatores de virulência têm sido propostos e são descritos. DISCUSSÃO E CONCLUSÕES: Este artigo de revisão bibliográfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da área da saúde em relação a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência dos agentes causais, que são pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualização e o conhecimento de conceitos básicos e clínicos relacionados com essa patologia são muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da área. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called [...] non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae). C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of women’s health.

  12. An unusual case: Renal candidiasis; Der besondere Fall: Renale Candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pautz, Doerthe [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2009-03-15

    A 39-year old female patient suffering from congenital spastic tetraparesis, bilateral hip dysplasia and diabetes was hospitalized as an emergency because of violent pains in the right flank which emanated paravertebrally and into the pelvis. There was no fever or ague. The anamnesis included urolithiasis on the right side 5 years ago and an ileum conduit operation after a neurogenic disturbance of micturition 22 years ago. The sonographic pictures indicated no congestion of the kidneys. To exclude urolithiasis, a low-dose CT was carried out, followed by CT after application of a contrast medium. (orig.)

  13. Aphthoid ulcerations in ileocolic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    A case of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma complicated by Candida tropicalis ileocolic infection is reported. Candida tropicalis is a saprophytic organism, less abundant in man than the more commonly known Candida albicans. These organisms may be the source of infection in debilitated or immune-deficient patients. A 55-year-old man presented to Emory Hospital 7 months before admission with weight loss. At that time the diagnosis of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma was made by bone-marrow biopsy.

  14. An unusual case: Renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 39-year old female patient suffering from congenital spastic tetraparesis, bilateral hip dysplasia and diabetes was hospitalized as an emergency because of violent pains in the right flank which emanated paravertebrally and into the pelvis. There was no fever or ague. The anamnesis included urolithiasis on the right side 5 years ago and an ileum conduit operation after a neurogenic disturbance of micturition 22 years ago. The sonographic pictures indicated no congestion of the kidneys. To exclude urolithiasis, a low-dose CT was carried out, followed by CT after application of a contrast medium. (orig.)

  15. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  16. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  17. Aphthoid ulcerations in ileocolic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma complicated by Candida tropicalis ileocolic infection is reported. Candida tropicalis is a saprophytic organism, less abundant in man than the more commonly known Candida albicans. These organisms may be the source of infection in debilitated or immune-deficient patients. A 55-year-old man presented to Emory Hospital 7 months before admission with weight loss. At that time the diagnosis of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma was made by bone-marrow biopsy

  18. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... en Riesgo y Prevención Fuentes Diagnóstico y Exámenes Tratamiento y Resultados Profesionales de la Salud Estadísticas C. ... Gets Fungal Infections HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications ...

  19. Pulmonary candidiasis presenting as mycetoma

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    Bachh Arshad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophytic yeast that is frequently recovered from the respiratory tract. Most mycetoma lesions are due to Aspergillus species growing inside an existing cavity. The saprophytic nature of the Candida species in the human respiratory tract obscures diagnosis of Candida pulmonary infections. Only a few cases of mycetoma due to Can-dida have been reported. We report a case of mycetoma caused by Candida albicans in a diabetic immunocompromised tuberculous patient. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and certain points strongly favoured the diagnosis. The patient was immunocompromised due to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Candida albicans was grown from bronchial and repeatedly from sputum samples and Candida antigen was positive from blood in high titre. There was a good clinical as well as radiological response to antifungal therapy and Candida antigen became negative. We emphasize that in the immunosuppressed host, a mycetoma-like lesion may be caused by Candida pulmonary infection.

  20. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women / Prevalência de Candida albicans e não albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal: avaliação comparativa entre colonização, candidíase vaginal e candidíase vaginal recorrente em mulheres diabéticas e não diabéticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciene Setsuko Akimoto, Gunther; Helen Priscila Rodrigues, Martins; Fabrícia, Gimenes; André Luelsdorf Pimenta de, Abreu; Marcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) é causada pelo crescimento anormal de fungos do tipo leveduras na mucosa do trato genital feminino. Pacientes com diabetes mellitus (DM) são mais susceptíveis a infecções fúngicas, incluindo por espécies de Candida. O presente estudo investigou a f [...] requência de isolamento total de Candida spp. vaginal, e diferentes quadros clínicos (CVV e CVV recorrente- CVVR) em mulheres com DM tipo 2 comparadas às não diabéticas. A razão de cura do tratamento com fluconazol também foi avaliada. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo transversal realizado no sistema público de saúde de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. MÉTODO: O estudo envolveu 717 mulheres de 17-74 anos de idade e, destas, 48 (6,7%) tinham DM 2 (média de 53,7 anos), independentemente de sinais e sintomas de CVV. As leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por métodos fenotípicos clássicos. RESULTADOS: No grupo de não diabéticas (controle), leveduras vaginais totais foram isoladas em 79 (11,8%) mulheres, e no grupo de diabéticas, em 9 (18,8%) (P = 0,000). O grupo de diabéticas mostrou mais mulheres sintomáticas (CVV + CVVR = 66,66%) do que colonizadas (33.33%), e significativamente mais colonização, CVV e CVVR, que as controle. A razão média de cura com fluconazol foi de 75.0% no grupo diabéticas e 86.7% no controle (P = 0.51). CONCLUSÃO: Nós encontramos que DM 2 em mulheres brasileiras associou-se com colonização vaginal por leveduras, CVV e CVVR, razão similar de isolamento de C. albicans e espécies não albicans. Boa taxa de cura foi obtida com fluconazol em ambos os grupos. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated th [...] e frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  1. Glossite rombóide mediana associada a candidíase esofagiana: uma possível relação etiológica com a Candida albicans Median rhomboid glossitis associated with esophagic candidiasis: a possible etiologic relation with Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Marcelo Souza Leite

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A glossite rombóide mediana é doença inflamatória que ocorre na superfície da língua. Apresenta-se como placa avermelhada ou vermelho-esbranquiçada no dorso da língua, na localização mediana. A etiologia é desconhecida. Acredita-se que possa haver relação com a má formação dos arcos branquiais durante a embriogênese. Fatores infecciosos relacionados à Candida albicans também são aventados. Os autores apresentam o caso clínico de uma paciente de 60 anos, com glossite rombóide mediana associada a esofagite candidiásica, ambas responsivas ao tratamento com itraconazol e fluconazol oral. Discute-se se a cândida não seria um dos fatores implicados na etiologia da doença lingual.Median rhomboid glossitis is an inflammatory disease involving the surface of the tongue. It develops clinically as an erythematous or white-erythematous area on the dorsal median surface of the tongue. Etiologic factors are unknown. One of the possible etiologic theories suggests a relation between median rhomboid glossitis and malformation of bronchial arches during embriogenesis. Candida albicans as an infectious etiologic factor has also been suggested. The study presents the case of a 60-year-old patient with median rhomboid glossitis associated with esophagic candidiasis. Both pathologies responded well to therapy with oral itraconazole and fluconazole. The authors argue in favor of the possibility of an etiologic relation between Candida albicans and median rhomboid glossitis .

  2. Vaginal Epithelial Cell-Derived S100 Alarmins Induced by Candida albicans via Pattern Recognition Receptor Interactions Are Sufficient but Not Necessary for the Acute Neutrophil Response during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Palmer, Glen E.; Eberle, Karen E.; Peters, Brian M.; Vogl, Thomas; McKenzie, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9?/? mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways. PMID:24478092

  3. A prospective two-year assessment of miconazole resistance in Candida spp. With repeated treatment with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment in neonates and infants with moderate to severe diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Daisy; van Rossem, Koen

    2013-01-01

    A petrolatum and zinc oxide-based ointment containing 0.25% miconazole nitrate is reported to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis (DDCC). This prospective, multicenter, open-label, long-term, phase IV study investigated the potential resistance of Candida spp. to repeated topical use of 0.25% miconazole nitrate in infants age 15 months and younger with moderate to severe DDCC. For initial and recurring episodes of DDCC over the 2-year study period, subjects were treated with a 7-day course of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment (active components: miconazole nitrate 0.25%, zinc oxide 15%, and white petrolatum 81.35%) with a 7-day follow-up. Clinical and mycologic evaluations were conducted before treatment (day 0) and 7 days after treatment (day 14). Potential resistance to miconazole was defined using an arbitrary breakpoint of minimum inhibitory concentration of 2 ?g/mL. There was no evidence of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. after single or repeated treatment courses of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment. For the initial episode of DDCC, 83 of 168 subjects (49.4%) achieved a clinical cure, 77 (45.8%) achieved a mycologic cure, and 49 (29.2%) achieved an overall cure (clinical and mycologic). The overall cure rate for recurrent episodes of DDCC was similar to or numerically greater than rates observed for the initial episode. Treatment of DDCC with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment was effective and generally well tolerated. No evidence of the development of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. was observed. PMID:23675632

  4. Chronic candidiasis - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Laslo Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast named Candida normally colonizes the gut and vagina without causing any sign of its presence. It is a commensal and opportune fungus but in certain conditions it turns to be pathogenic, causing chronic disturbances in any part of the body. The pathogenesis is complex, signs and symptoms are non-specific. The colonisation is difficult to distinguish from invasive disease. The current diagnostic methods do not always allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Treatment is complex, individual and no protocol can be created. The author tries to give an overview of the Candida related problem.

  5. Chronic candidiasis - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Klajn-Laslo Marija

    2009-01-01

    The yeast named Candida normally colonizes the gut and vagina without causing any sign of its presence. It is a commensal and opportune fungus but in certain conditions it turns to be pathogenic, causing chronic disturbances in any part of the body. The pathogenesis is complex, signs and symptoms are non-specific. The colonisation is difficult to distinguish from invasive disease. The current diagnostic methods do not always allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Treatment is complex, indiv...

  6. Associação entre cultura de secreção vaginal, características sociodemográficas e manifestações clínicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de candidíase vulvovaginal / Association between vaginal secretion culture, socio-demographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Tavares, Rodrigues; Ana Carolina, Gonçalves; Mariana Carolina Tocantins, Alvim; Didier Silveira, Castellano Filho; Juliana Barroso, Zimmermmann; Vânia Lúcia da, Silva; Cláudio Galuppo, Diniz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV) e possíveis fatores predisponentes. MÉTODOS: Secreção vaginal das pacientes foi semeada em ágar Sabouraud e amostras de leveduras foram isoladas e identificadas por Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR [...] ). Dados demográficos, clínicos e fatores predisponentes foram obtidos por meio de questionário. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes t de Student, Fischer e do ?², com auxílio do software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 69 pacientes, com idade entre 15 e 52 anos, predominando mulheres brancas (79,7%), com escolaridade de nível superior completo (58%), casadas (56,5%) e com vida sexual ativa (97,1%). Dentre elas, 34,8% eram gestantes, 7,2% diabéticas, 1,4% soropositivas para AIDS e 36,2% usavam anticoncepcional oral. Antibioticoterapia recente foi citada por 13% das pacientes, uso de antifúngico por 5,8% e de antitricomonas por 1,4%. Uso de corticosteroides foi relatado por 2,9% das participantes e de antineoplásicos, por 1,4%. Fluxo vaginal e prurido foram as principais queixas apresentadas, respectivamente, por 97,1 e 73,9% das pacientes, seguido de ardência (63,8%) e hiperemia (63,8%). Quando presente, o fluxo foi majoritariamente branco (88,1%) ou grumoso (86,6%). O diagnóstico foi confirmado pela cultura em 55 (79,7%) pacientes, sendo 4 casos de infecção mista. A espécie prevalente foi C. albicans, seguida por um caso de C. glabrata, que foi encontrada em mais duas pacientes em associação com C. albicans. Nas outras duas infecções polimicrobianas, C. lusitaniae foi isolada com C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: Embora a positividade da cultura tenha sido alta e os dados clínicos de CVV sejam característicos, a sintomatologia não é patognomônica. C. albicans é a espécie prevalente, mas deve-se atentar para a ocorrência de outras espécies na etiologia de CVV, como a emergência de C. lusitaniae. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate the etiology and the epidemiological profile of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and predisposing factors. METHODS: Vaginal secretions were streaked in Sabouraud agar and yeast samples were isolated and identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Demographic an [...] d clinical data were obtained with a questionnaire. For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test, the ?² and Fischer tests were applied as needed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients aged from 15 to 52 years were evaluated. They were predominantly white (79.7%), with higher education (58%), married (56.5%) and sexually active (97.1%). Among them, 34.8% were pregnant, 7.2% diabetic, 1.4% seropositive for AIDS, and 36.2% were using oral contraceptives. Recent antibiotic therapy was mentioned by 13% of the patients, and antifungal or anti-trichomonas therapy was mentioned by 5.8 and 1.4% of the patients, respectively. Corticosteroid use was reported by 2.9% and antineoplastic by 1.4%. Vaginal discharge and itching were the main complaints (97.1 and 73.9%), followed by burning (63.8%) and erythema (63.8%). When present, the vaginal flow was predominantly white (88.1%) or lumpy (86.6%). The diagnosis was confirmed by culture in 55 (79.7%) patients, with mixed infections in 4 patients. The most prevalent species was C. albicans, followed by C. glabrata (one monoinfection and two mixed infections with C. albicans). C. lusitaniae and C. albicans were also identified in mixed infections (two patients). CONCLUSION: Despite the high culture positivity and clinical data characteristic of VVC, the symptoms were not pathognomonic. C. albicans is the most prevalent species, but other species are also involved in VVC etiology, such as the emergence of C. lusitaniae.

  7. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fabio Boatto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% e C. guilliermondii (2,5% foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal.PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids, diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% and C. guilliermondii (2,5% were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  8. Evaluation of the supply of antifungal medication for the treatment of vaginal thrush in the community pharmacy setting: a randomized controlled trial / Evaluación del suministro de medicación antifúngica para el tratamiento de la candidiasis vaginal en la farmacia comunitaria: ensayo controlado aleatorizado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carl R., Schneider; Lyndal, Emery; Raisa, Brostek; Rhonda M., Clifford.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La Sociedad Farmacéutica de Australia ha desarrollado una "guía" para el suministro de varios medicamentos sin prescripción al público general. Se ha publicado poca investigación evaluando el efecto de estas guías sobre la provisión de medicación en la práctica de la farmacia. Objetivo [...] s: Evaluar el suministro apropiado de antifúngicos sin receta para el tratamiento de candidiasis vaginal en farmacias comunitarias, con y sin guía. Un objetivo secundario fue describir la evaluación y el consejo proporcionado a los pacientes cuando solicitaban esta medicación. Métodos: Se realizó un ensayo controlado aleatorizado donde dos pacientes simulados condujeron visitas a 100 farmacias comunitarias aleatoriamente seleccionadas en una región metropolitana. Se comparó una solicitud de un producto con fluconazol (antifúngico oral que tiene guía) con una solicitud de un producto con clotrimazol (un antifúngico tópico sin guía). Los mismos datos de los pacientes fueron usados en ambas solicitudes. Las medidas de resultados en las visitas fueron la adecuación del suministro y la remisión al médico. Resultados: Un total de un 16% (n=16) de las visitas produjeron resultados apropiados; 10% (n=5) de fluconazol comparadas con el 22% (n=11) de clotrimazol (chi-square= 2,68, p=0,10). Hubo una diferencia significativa en el tipo de evaluación realizada por el personal de la farmacia entre las visitas del fluconazol y del clotrimazol. La solicitud de clotrimazol produjo un aumento significativo en la frecuencia de la evaluación de la causa de la solicitud (chi-square = 8,57, p=0,003), localización de los síntomas (chi-square= 8,27, p=0,004), e historia previa (chi-square = 5,09, p=0,02). Conclusiones: En general la práctica fue pobre, con la mayoría de las farmacias suministrando inadecuadamente la medicación antifúngica. Se requieren nuevas estrategias para mejorar la práctica actual de las farmacias comunitarias en el suministro de antifúngicos sin receta para la candidiasis vaginal. Abstract in english Background: The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia have developed "guidance" for the supply of several medicines available without prescription to the general public. Limited research has been published assessing the effect of these guidelines on the provision of medication within the practice of p [...] harmacy. Objectives: To assess appropriate supply of non-prescription antifungal medications for the treatment of vaginal thrush in community pharmacies, with and without a guideline. A secondary aim was to describe the assessment and counseling provided to patients when requesting this medication. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was undertaken whereby two simulated patients conducted visits to 100 randomly selected community pharmacies in a metropolitan region. A product-based request for fluconazole (an oral antifungal that has a guideline was compared to a product-based request for clotrimazole (a topical antifungal without a guideline). The same patient details were used for both requests. Outcome measures of the visits were the appropriateness of supply and referral to a medical practitioner. Results: Overall 16% (n=16) of visits resulted in an appropriate outcome; 10% (n=5) of fluconozaole requests compared with 22% (n=11) of clotrimazole requests (chi-square=2.68, p=0.10). There was a difference in the type of assessment performed by pharmacy staff between visits for fluconazole and clotrimazole. A request for clotrimazole resulted in a significant increase in frequency in regards to assessment of the reason for the request (chi-square=8.57, p=0.003), symptom location (chi-square=8.27, p=0.004), and prior history (chi-square=5.09, p=0.02). Conclusions: Overall practice was poor, with the majority of pharmacies inappropriately supplying antifungal medication. New strategies are required to improve current practice of community pharmacies for provision of non-prescription antifungals in the treatment of vaginal thrush.

  9. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal / IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo José Victal de, Carvalho; Cristiane Martins, Cunha; Deise Aparecida de Oliveira, Silva; Mônica Camargo, Sopelete; Jane Eire, Urzedo; Tomaz Aquino, Moreira; Paula de Souza Abreu, Moraes; Ernesto Akio, Taketomi.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar níveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) específicos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidíase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sint [...] omas clínicos de candidíase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreção vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida não-albicans) e 12 mulheres controles assintomáticas (nove com cultura negativa). Amostras de soro e lavado vaginal foram obtidas para a detecção de anticorpos anti-C. albicans por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Pacientes sintomáticas com cultura positiva apresentaram níveis de IgA específicas significativamente maiores no lavado vaginal e menores no soro do que aquelas com cultura negativa. Níveis séricos de IgE específica foram extremamente baixos em relação ao lavado vaginal. Altos níveis de IgG total específica foram encontrados no soro e lavado vaginal em ambos os grupos, independente da presença do fungo. Níveis de IgG1 e IgG4 específicas foram significativamente maiores somente no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas e cultura positiva, com relação IgG1/IgG4 ligeiramente maior, indicando que a resposta de anticorpos IgG1 possa estar predominantemente envolvida na resolução da infecção fúngica. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicam resposta acentuada de IgA, IgG1 e IgG4 anti-C. albicans no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas com cultura positiva, sugerindo importante papel destes anticorpos na resposta imune local estimulada pela presença do fungo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) antibodies specific to C. albicans in serum and vaginal washes from women with or without vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to evaluate the role of these antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Thirty [...] women with clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (15 positive vaginal culture to C. albicans, 11 negative culture and 4 positive culture to non-C. albicans) and 12 asymptomatic control women were selected. Serum and vaginal wash samples were obtained for the detection of anti-C. albicans antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Symptomatic patients with positive culture showed significantly higher levels of specific IgA in vaginal washes and lower in serum than those with negative culture. Specific serum IgE levels were very low compared to vaginal IgE. High levels of total specific IgG were found in serum and vaginal washes in both groups, regardless the fungal presence or absence. Specific IgG1 e IgG4 levels were significantly higher only in vaginal washes from symptomatic patients with positive culture, with a slightly higher IgG1/IgG4 ratio, indicating that the IgG1 antibody response may be predominantly involved in the fungal clearance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a pronounced antibody response of IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 to C. albicans in vaginal washes in symptomatic patients with positive culture, suggesting a important role of these antibodies in the local immune response triggered by the presence of the fungus.

  10. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil / Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto Fabio, Boatto; Maria Sayonara de, Moraes; Alexandre Paulo, Machado; Manoel João Batista Castelo, Girão; Olga, Fischman.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulh [...] eres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%), C. glabrata (20%), C. tropicalis (7,5%) e C. guilliermondii (2,5%) foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 [...] to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids), diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD) or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%), C. glabrata (20%), C. tropicalis (7,5%) and C. guilliermondii (2,5%) were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  11. EVALUATION OF CERTAIN SIDDHA DRUGS IN THE TREATMENT OF CANDIDIASIS

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, B.; Kalyanaraman, V.R.; Dhanashekaran, S.; Dhanraj, S.A.; Dube, Rajeev

    1994-01-01

    Search for naturally occurring compounds with antifungal activity has become quite intense due to the side effects of synthetic fungicides and the development of pathogens against such fungicides. Hence screening of various Siddha drugs for their antifungal activity against various strains of Candida albicans was considered worthwhile. Seven such Siddha drugs were screened for their antifungal activity against fourteen strains of Candida albicans . The results indicate that the drugs Nandhi m...

  12. Indicación de nuevos antimicóticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Morejón García

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micóticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminación en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresión propia del paciente en estado crítico, unido a la aplicación de determinados procedimientos traumáticos -- catéteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilación, intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales, nutrición parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infección. Al respecto, se está empleando una gama de nuevos antimicóticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creación de protocolos terapéuticos puede disminuir el índice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones

  13. Urinoma and arterial hypertension complicating neonatal renal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirinelli, D.; Schmit, P.; Biriotti, V.; Bensman, A.; Lupold, M.

    1987-02-01

    During antibiotic treatment for E.coli urinary tract infection and meningitis, a male new born developed a Candida albicans urinary tract infection with a mycotic kidney abcess and pelvicalyceal fungus balls diagnosed by US investigations and confirmed by radiology. Three weeks later a perirenal urinoma with arterial hypertension developed. After surgical treatment of the urinoma the arterial pressure returned to normal.

  14. Hyperplastic candidiasis - right-oral cavity, tonsil hypopharynx and larynx

    OpenAIRE

    Chourdia, Vijay

    2001-01-01

    A twenty five year old female, presented with burning in throat, Odynophagia and characteristic history of falling of granules, He had a verrucous type granular lesion right retromolar area., tonsil & its fossa, Lingual Surface Epiglottis & Hypoharyngeal wall, Right Aryepiglottic fold & ventricular fold Oedmatous and Scattered granules on both vocal folds & right Posterolateral border of tongue. Candida was detected in 10% Potassium Hydroxide, gram stained smear, prepared from tissue scrappin...

  15. Urinoma and arterial hypertension complicating neonatal renal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During antibiotic treatment for E.coli urinary tract infection and meningitis, a male new born developed a Candida albicans urinary tract infection with a mycotic kidney abcess and pelvicalyceal fungus balls diagnosed by US investigations and confirmed by radiology. Three weeks later a perirenal urinoma with arterial hypertension developed. After surgical treatment of the urinoma the arterial pressure returned to normal. (orig.)

  16. [Hepato-splenic candidiasis in patients treated for leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troussard, X; Reman, O; Galateau, F; Duhamel, C; Leporrier, M

    1989-10-21

    In patients with acute leukaemia, Candida infection may affect exclusively the liver and the spleen. Two such cases were revealed by persistent fever despite correction of bone marrow aplasia, abdominal pain, anicteric cholestasis and hypodense areas at computerized tomography suggesting hepatosplenic abscesses. Surgical liver biopsy confirmed the fungal infection and showed images of granuloma, mycelial filaments and yeasts; cultures were usually negative. The severity of these infections requires an early treatment, but amphotericin B is not very effective. Our two patients were cured after treatment with fluoconazole completed, in one of them by splenectomy. PMID:2534856

  17. Indicación de nuevos antimicóticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva / Prescription of new antifungal drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moisés, Morejón García.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micóticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminación en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresión propia del paciente en estado crítico, unido a la [...] aplicación de determinados procedimientos traumáticos -- catéteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilación, intervenciones quirúrgicas abdominales, nutrición parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infección. Al respecto, se está empleando una gama de nuevos antimicóticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas) en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creación de protocolos terapéuticos puede disminuir el índice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones Abstract in english The invasive fungal infections have reached such an important dissemination in the intensive care units that today they constitute the fourth cause of acquired infections in this service, with a mortality of up to 50%. The immunodepression characteristic of the patient in critical state, together to [...] the application of certain traumatic procedures -- catheters, probes, endoscopies, ventilation, abdominal surgical interventions, parenteral nutrition, among other --, predispose to the infection. In this respect, a range of new antifungal drugs are being used (triazoles and equiniocandines) in the treatment of patients with invasive mycosis, on the base that the creation of therapeutic protocols can decrease the mortality index caused by these disorders

  18. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara María Duque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres embarazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%. Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes.During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivity to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%. All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  19. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín / Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara María, Duque; Olga Lucía, Uribe; Andrés Felipe, Soto; Juan, Alarcón.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres emb [...] arazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%). Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes. Abstract in english During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivit [...] y to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%). All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  20. Simple diagnosis of STAT1 gain-of-function alleles in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Yoko; Tsumura, Miyuki; Okada, Satoshi; Hirata, Osamu; Minegishi, Shizuko; Imai, Kohsuke; Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Kojima, Seiji; Ozaki, Yusuke; Imai, Takehide; Takeda, Sachiyo; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Bryant, Vanessa L; Kong, Xiao-Fei; Cypowyj, Sophie; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Morio, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Masao

    2014-04-01

    CMCD is a rare congenital disorder characterized by persistent or recurrent skin, nail, and mucosal membrane infections caused by Candida albicans. Heterozygous GOF STAT1 mutations have been shown to confer AD CMCD as a result of impaired dephosphorylation of STAT1. We aimed to identify and characterize STAT1 mutations in CMCD patients and to develop a simple diagnostic assay of CMCD. Genetic analysis of STAT1 was performed in patients and their relatives. The mutations identified were characterized by immunoblot and reporter assay using transient gene expression experiments. Patients' leukocytes are investigated by flow cytometry and immunoblot. Six GOF mutations were identified, three of which are reported for the first time, that affect the CCD and DBD of STAT1 in two sporadic and four multiplex cases in 10 CMCD patients from Japan. Two of the 10 patients presented with clinical symptoms atypical to CMCD, including other fungal and viral infections, and three patients developed bronchiectasis. Immunoblot analyses of patients' leukocytes showed abnormally high levels of pSTAT1 following IFN-? stimulation. Based on this finding, we performed a flow cytometry-based functional analysis of STAT1 GOF alleles using IFN-? stimulation and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, staurosporine. The higher levels of pSTAT1 observed in primary CD14(+) cells from patients compared with control cells persisted and were amplified by the presence of staurosporine. We developed a flow cytometry-based STAT1 functional screening method that would greatly facilitate the diagnosis of CMCD patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. PMID:24343863

  1. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Flora Teoh; Norman Pavelka

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the body’s first-...

  2. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Murillo, Neufeld; Marcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; Marcos Dornelas, Ribeiro; Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira, Amorim; Manuela da, Silva; Marcia dos Santos, Lazéra.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species ( [...] 45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites

  4. Immunodiagnosis of opportunistic mycoses: detection of fungal antigenemia by radioimmunoassays in systemic candidiasis and aspergillosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed radioimmunoassays to the Candida carbohydrate, mannan, and to an Aspergillus cell wall carbohydrate. They evaluate these radioimmunoassays with sera from rabbit models of disseminated mycoses, and further evaluate the radioimmunoassays for their diagnostic usefulness in a panel of patient sera. (Auth.)

  5. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  6. A Case of Stenotic Change from Gastric Candidiasis Managed with Temporary Stent Insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Invasive gastric Candida infection in patient with co-morbidity can cause stenotic change if it is developed at anatomically narrowing portion, such as distal antrum, pylorus, or duodenal bulb. However, proper management of benign stenosis by diffuse gastric Candidasis is still under controversy and palliative bypass surgery has several shortcomings because high risk operative group may be included in this case. Palliative placement of self-expandable metallic stent has been settled as a stan...

  7. A 16-year-old boy with emphysematous gastritis and oesophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef, Daniel; Waran, Ariane; Vamvakiti, Ekaterini

    2014-01-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare and frequently fatal condition caused by invasion of gas-forming bacteria into the gastric wall. There have only been a handful of reported cases in the paediatric population, and none of these have evidence of candidal infection or mucormycosis. Patients typically present with abdominal pain, vomiting, malaena and haematemesis. Risk factors for emphysematous gastritis are those that interfere with the natural barriers to infection in the stomach. Diagnosis is made on the basis of typical appearances on abdominal CT. Treatment is generally conservative with surgery reserved for failed medical management or later complications. Antimicrobial cover should be broad with a low threshold for antifungals. It is important to look for predisposing factors for this condition, perhaps including an assessment of the patient's immunocompetency. We present a 16-year-old boy with global developmental delay who presented with this condition associated with candidal infection. PMID:25213783

  8. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intraarterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: Yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-Candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect within the pulmonary artery showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic Candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive. (orig.)

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of in situ Gels Containing Clotrimazole for Oral Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Harish, N. M.; Prabhu, P.; Charyulu, R. N.; Gulzar, M. A.; Subrahmanyam, E. V. S.

    2009-01-01

    Gel dosage forms are successfully used as drug delivery systems to control drug release and protect the medicaments from a hostile environment. The main objective is to formulate and evaluate in situ oral topical gels of clotrimazole based on the concept of pH triggered and ion activated systems. The system utilizes polymers that exhibit sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters. A pH triggered system consisting of carbopol 934P (0.2-1.4% w/v) and ion t...

  10. Live Imaging of Disseminated Candidiasis in Zebrafish Reveals Role of Phagocyte Oxidase in Limiting Filamentous Growth ? † ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Newman, Zachary R.; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human commensal and a clinically important fungal pathogen that grows in both yeast and hyphal forms during human infection. Although Candida can cause cutaneous and mucosal disease, systemic infections cause the greatest mortality in hospitals. Candidemia occurs primarily in immunocompromised patients, for whom the innate immune system plays a paramount role in immunity. We have developed a novel transparent vertebrate model of candidemia to probe the molecular nature o...

  11. Combined effect of fluconazole and recombinant human interleukin-1 on systemic candidiasis in neutropenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kullberg, B. J.; van't Wout, J W; Poell, R J; Furth, R., van

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of treatment with a combination of fluconazole and human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) in normal or neutropenic mice with systemic Candida albicans infection. Six hours after intravenous injection of 5 x 10(4) CFU of C. albicans organisms, oral treatment twice daily with 2.5 or 10 mg of fluconazole per kg of body weight, a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 ng of IL-1, or a combination of the two was started. IL-1...

  12. Invasive Candidiasis Stimulates Hepatocyte and Monocyte Production of Active Transforming Growth Factor ?

    OpenAIRE

    Letterio, John J; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pollack, Greg; Thomas J. Walsh; Chanock, Stephen J

    2001-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with compromised immune function. The cytokine response to tissue invasion by C. albicans can influence the differentiation and function of lymphocytes and other mononuclear cells that are critical components of the host response. While the production of transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) has been documented in mice infected with C. albicans and is known to suppress phagocyte functi...

  13. Gene Polymorphisms in Pattern Recognition Receptors and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MartinJaeger

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion. Genetic variation in TLR2 may significantly enhance susceptibility to RVVC by modulating host defense mechanisms against Candida. Additional studies are warranted to assess systematically the role of host genetic variation for susceptibility to RVVC.

  14. Gastrointestinal candidiasis in a murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, R.; Joyce, W A; Greenfield, R A

    1991-01-01

    A murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (scid mice) affords an opportunity to study the interaction of Candida albicans with a host lacking functional B- and T-cell mechanisms. We have previously reported no significant difference in yeast recovery after intravenous challenge of BALB/c mice and scid mice with C. albicans (S. Mahanty, R.A. Greenfield, W.A. Joyce, and P.W. Kincade, Infect. Immun. 56:3162-3166, 1988). In this study, we evaluate the course of gastrointestinal ...

  15. Diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis by measurement of urine D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, L; Anttila, V J; Ruutu, T; Salonen, J; Nikoskelainen, J; Eerola, E; Ruutu, P

    1996-01-01

    Relative amounts of D-arabinitol (fungal origin) and L-arabinitol (part of normal human metabolism) in urine were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry from 61 hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies. Seventeen neutropenic patients with acute leukemia (with 53 samples) had disseminated yeast infections and received empiric antifungal therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. Control groups consisted of 22 hematologic patients (76 samples) with either mucosal (n = 10) or urinary (n = 12) Candida colonization and 22 neutropenic patients (34 samples) with no clinical or laboratory signs of invasive yeast infection. Reference values were also obtained from 50 healthy adults (50 samples). The mean urine D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratio +/- standard deviation (range) was 16.91 +/- 41.79 (1.41 to 254.75) in patients with disseminated infection, 2.73 +/- 2.48 (1.11 to 19.00) in colonized hematologic patients, 2.12 +/- 0.84 (1.16 to 5.84) in neutropenic controls, and 1.95 +/- 0.34 (0.97 to 3.44) in healthy adults (P < 0.001 between patients with disseminated infection and all control groups). The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting disseminated yeast infection were, respectively, 88 and 91% per patient (upper limit of normal, 4.00). Seventy-one percent of patients already expressed elevated values at the onset of empiric antifungal therapy. The diagnosis of disseminated infection was confirmed on average 21.7 days after the first elevation of the D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratio. The method contributes to diagnosis of disseminated yeast infection and helps in monitoring patients at risk, to support the initiation of antifungal therapy at an early stage of the disease. PMID:8862580

  16. Invasive candidiasis in liver transplant patients: Incidence and risk factors in a pediatric cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, M; Green, M; Symmonds, J; Klieger, S B; Soltys, K; Fisher, B T

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged OR, re-transplantation, and high-volume intraoperative transfusion have been associated with increased risk for IC in adult LT recipients. Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for adult patients with these risk factors. There are limited data on the incidence of and risk factors for IC in pediatric LT recipients. A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric LT patients at the CHOP between 2000 and 2012 and the CHP between 2004 and 2012 was performed to define the incidence of IC within 30 days of LT. A 3:1 matched case-control study with incidence density sampling was performed. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors associated with IC. Among 397 recipients, the incidence of IC was 2.5%. Bivariate analyses showed that ICU admission prior to transplant, OR > 10 h, intraoperative volume infusion of >300 mL/kg, and broad-spectrum antibiotics were significantly associated with IC. In a multivariate model, only ICU admission remained significantly associated with IC. Antifungal prophylaxis was not significantly protective against IC. The low incidence of IC and lack of an identified protective effect from antifungal prophylaxis suggest that prophylaxis in pediatric LT recipients should not be routinely recommended to prevent IC events in the first 30 days post-transplant. PMID:26748472

  17. Bioadhesive tablets containing cyclodextrin complex of itraconazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevher, Erdal; Açma, Ay?e; Sinani, Genada; Aksu, Buket; Zloh, Mire; Mülaz?mo?lu, Lütfiye

    2014-08-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is commonly used in the treatment of Candida infections. It has a nephrotoxic effect and low bioavailability in patients who suffer from renal insufficiency, and its poor solubility in water makes ITR largely unavailable. Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are used to form inclusion complexes with drugs to improve their aqueous solubility and to reduce their side effects. In this study, ITR was complexed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CyD), methyl-?-cyclodextrin (Met-?-CyD) and sulphobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE7-?-CyD) to increase its water solubility and to reduce the side effects of the drug without decreasing antifungal activity. Complex formation between ITR and CyDs was evaluated using SEM, (1)H NMR and XRD studies. The antifungal activity of the complexes was analyzed on Candida albicans strains, and the susceptibility of the strains was found to be higher for the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD complex than for the complexes that were prepared with other CyDs. Vaginal bioadhesive sustained release tablet formulations were developed using the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD inclusion complex to increase the residence time of ITR in the vagina, thereby boosting the efficacy of the treatment. The swelling, matrix erosion and bioadhesion properties of formulations and the drug release rate of these tablets were analyzed, and the most therapeutically effective vaginal formulation was determined. PMID:24857873

  18. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

  19. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Paulo Murillo; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Ribeiro, Marcos Dornelas; Amorim, Efigênia de Lourdes Teixeira; da Silva, Manuela; Lazéra, Marcia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:26273262

  20. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Basili, Dias; Márcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; José, Meirelles Filho; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 16 [...] 0 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed.

  1. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia correlate with HIV infection in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, M; Bakilana, P B; Hiza, J F; Shao, J F; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Mbaga, I; Vestergaard, B F; Nielsen, C M; Lauritzen, E; Lerche, B

    1990-01-01

    nonsuspected patients, 53 dental outpatients, and 50 patients with sexually transmitted diseases. The male:female ratio was 2.1:1 on average. Oral examination was done without knowledge of the HIV status of the patients. Among 39 suspected AIDS patients 97% had WHO AIDS criteria and 90% were seropositive for...

  2. In Vivo Analysis of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Expression in Human Oral Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Naglik, Julian R.; Newport, George; White, Theodore C.; Fernandes-Naglik, Lynette L.; Greenspan, John S.; Greenspan, Deborah; Sweet, Simon P.; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Agabian, Nina

    1999-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases are putative virulence factors in Candida infections. Candida albicans possesses at least nine members of a SAP gene family, all of which have been sequenced. Although the expression of the SAP genes has been extensively characterized under laboratory growth conditions, no studies have analyzed in detail the in vivo expression of these proteinases in human oral colonization and infection. We have developed a reliable and sensitive procedure to detect C. albicans ...

  3. Prevalencia de candidiasis vaginal en embarazadas: Identificación de levaduras y sensibilidad a los antifúngicos Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women: Identification of yeasts and susceptibility to antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García Heredia

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available La mujer embarazada es más susceptible tanto a la colonización como a la infección vaginal por levaduras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de levaduras aisladas de exudados vaginales de mujeres embarazadas y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos de uso frecuente. Se estudiaron 493 pacientes en el período comprendido desde diciembre de 1998 hasta febrero de 2000. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue 28% (Candida albicans 90,4%, Candida glabrata 6,3%, Candida parapsilosis 1,1%, Candida kefyr 1,1%, especies no identificadas 1,1%. Se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol, ketoconazol, itraconazol y nistatina por el método de difusión en agar Shadomy. Todos los aislamientos de C. albicans, C. kefyr y C. parapsilosis fueron sensibles in vitro a los antifúngicos probados, mientras que 1 de 6 aislamientos de C. glabrata presentó resistencia extendida a todos los azoles, pero sensibilidad a nistatina. En mujeres embarazadas C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de exudados vaginales y continúa siendo ampliamente sensible a los antifúngicos; sólo en C. glabrata se observó resistencia a los azoles. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie particularmente en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes o crónicas.Pregnant women are more susceptible to both vaginal colonization and infection by yeast. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence in pregnant women of yeasts isolated from vaginal exudates and their susceptibility to current antifungal drugs. A total of 493 patients was studied between December 1998 and February 2000. The prevalence of Candida spp. was 28% (Candida albicans 90.4%; Candida glabrata 6.3%; Candida parapsilosis 1.1%, Candida kefyr 1.1%; unidentified species 1.1%. The diffusion test in Shadomy agar was employed to determine the susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and nistatine. All C. albicans, C. kefyr and C. parapsilosis isolates were susceptible in vitro to the antifungal agents tested, while 1 in 6 C. glabrata isolates showed resistance to azole drugs; all strains were susceptible to nistatine. In pregnant women, C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal exudates; it continues to be highly susceptible to antifungal drugs. Azole resistance was detected only among C. glabrata isolates. Identification to the species level is recommended, specially in cases of treatment failure and recurrent or chronic infection.

  4. Spectrum and the In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Yeast Isolates in Ethiopian HIV Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Birhan; Bitew, Adane; Shewaamare, Aster

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, little is known regarding the distribution and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of yeasts. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the spectrum and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of yeasts isolated from HIV infected patients with OPC. Method. Oral pharyngeal swabs taken from oral lesions of study subjects were inoculated onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Yeasts were identified by employing conventional test procedures and the susceptibility of yeasts to antifungal agents was evaluated by disk diffusion assay method. Result. One hundred and fifty-five yeast isolates were recovered of which 91 isolates were from patients that were not under HAART and 64 were from patients that were under HAART. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species followed by C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. kefyr, Cryptococcus laurentii, and Rhodotorula species. Irrespective of yeasts isolated and identified, 5.8%, 5.8%, 12.3%, 8.4%, 0.6%, and 1.3% of the isolates were resistant to amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and nystatin, respectively. Conclusion. Yeast colonization rate of 69.2% and 31% resistance to six antifungal agents was documented. These highlight the need for nationwide study on the epidemiology of OPC and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:26880925

  5. Comparison of ketoconazole, Bay N7133, and Bay L9139 in the treatment of experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sobel, J. D.; Muller, G.

    1983-01-01

    The efficacies of ketoconazole and two new imidazole preparations, Bay N7133 and Bay L9139, were compared in a rat model of experimental candida vaginitis. With a dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg by gavage for 5 days, the cure rate for ketoconazole was 96% as compared with rates of 23 and 29% for Bay N7133 and Bay L9139, respectively (P less than 0.001). Follow-up vaginal cultures at 30 days revealed a relapse in only 1 of 27 rats treated with ketoconazole. Our subsequent experiment in which ketoco...

  6. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the interest of the PET with 18F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with 18F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  7. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intra-arterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reither, M.; Schumacher, R.; Hagel, K.J.; Hering, F.

    1983-10-01

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect, within the pulmonary artery, showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive.

  8. The Sensitivity and Resistance of Yeasts Isolated from Women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis to Common Antifungal drugs Using Disc Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Moallaie, Hossein; Verissimo, Cristina; Brando, João; Rosado, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Due to the ever-increasing use of antifungal drugs especially those of azole group, the prevalence of recurrent forms of vaginal infections and the number of drug-resistant yeasts are on the rise. Therefore, the rpesent study is conducted to investigate the sensitivity and resistance of yeasts isolated from vaginal infections to antifungal drugs. Methods and Materials: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was conducted on 118 yeasts isolated from 436 s...

  9. Synergism of Voriconazole and Terbinafine against Candida albicans Isolates from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Weig, Michael; Müller, Frank-Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The synergism of voriconazole (VRC) and terbinafine was studied by using 39 genotypically defined clinical Candida albicans isolates that were cross-resistant to fluconazole and VRC and serial isolates that gradually developed azole resistance. Synergy was noticed in 100% (eight of eight) of the strains that were resistant to VRC. Antagonism was not observed.

  10. Formulation, toxicity, and antifungal activity in vitro of liposome-encapsulated nystatin as therapeutic agent for systemic candidiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, R T; Hopfer, R L; Gunner, L A; Juliano, R.L.; Lopez-Berestein, G

    1987-01-01

    Multilamellar vesicles containing nystatin (NYS) were compared with vesicles containing the free drug for toxicity to erythrocytes and for antifungal activity in vitro. Liposomal nystatin was as active as free NYS was against a wide variety of yeasts and fungi. The antifungal activity against Candida albicans was maintained with different liposome compositions and without sterols. Liposome encapsulation also protected the erythrocytes from the toxicity of free NYS.

  11. Comparison of immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine A in a murine model of systemic candidiasis and of localized thrushlike lesions.

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, M W; Schaffner, A

    1989-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen preferentially causing invasive and disseminated infection in patients with defective phagocytic defenses and serious mucocutaneous infection in patients with deficient T-cell function. Phagocytes appear to protect the host from fungal invasion even in the absence of adaptive immune mechanisms, while as-yet-undefined T-cell-dependent factors seem necessary for control of C. albicans on body surfaces. To study host defense mechanisms on body ...

  12. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurley Susan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo.

  13. Development, optimization and evaluation of polymeric electrospun nanofiber: A tool for local delivery of fluconazole for management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-03-01

    The present study is designed to explore the localized delivery of fluconazole using mucoadhesive polymeric nanofibers. Drug-loaded polymeric nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the polymeric constituent. The prepared nanofibers were found to be uniform, non-beaded and non-woven, with the diameter of the fibers ranging from 150 to 180 nm. Further drug release studies indicate a sustained release of fluconazole over a period of 6 h. The results of studies on anti-microbial activity indicated that drug-loaded polymeric nanofibers exhibit superior anti-microbial activity against Candida albicans, when compared to the plain drug. PMID:25315503

  14. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley Susan; Grover Sonia; Chondros Patty; Gunn Jane; Pirotta Marie; Garland Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovagini...

  15. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella

    OpenAIRE

    Vilela, Simone FG; Júnia O. Barbosa; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia CA; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio OC; Junqueira, Juliana C

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of ...

  16. Antifungal susceptibility of 205 Candida spp. isolated primarily during invasive Candidiasis and comparison of the Vitek 2 system with the CLSI broth microdilution and Etest methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, N; Dehandschoewercker, L; Bertout, S; Bousquet, P-J; Rispail, P; Lachaud, L

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Candida spp. are frequent, particularly in immunocompromised and intensive care unit patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests are now required to optimize antifungal treatment given the emergence of acquired antifungal resistance in some Candida species. An antifungal susceptibility automated method, the Vitek 2 system (VK2), was evaluated. VK2 was compared to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method and the Etest procedure. For this purpose, 205 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 11 different species, were tested for fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B susceptibility. For azoles, essential agreement ranged from 25% to 100%, depending on the method used and the Candida species tested. Categorical agreements for all of the species averaged 92.2% and ranged from 14.3 to 100%, depending on the 24-h or 48-h MIC reading by the Etest and CLSI methods and on the Candida species. Results obtained for Candida albicans showed excellent categorical and essential agreements with the two comparative methods. For Candida glabrata, the essential agreement was high with the CLSI method but low with the Etest method, and several very major errors in interpretation were observed between VK2 and the Etest method for both azoles. Low MICs of fluconazole were obtained for all of the Candida krusei isolates, but the VK2 expert software corrected all of the results obtained to resistant. Amphotericin B results showed MICs of CLSI), and 202 (Etest) isolates. The AST-YS01 Vitek 2 card system (bioMérieux) is a reliable and practical standardized automated antifungal susceptibility test. Nevertheless, more assays are needed to better evaluate C. glabrata fluconazole sensitivity. PMID:19889902

  17. Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum 1,3-?-d-Glucan for Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia, Invasive Candidiasis, and Invasive Aspergillosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    ONISHI, Akira; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kogata, Yoshinori; Saegusa, Jun; Sugimoto, Takeshi; Kawano,Seiji; Morinobu, Akio; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kumagai, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    Serum 1,3-?-d-glucan (BG) assay may be helpful as a marker for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) and invasive fungal infection (IFI). We conducted a systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of this assay. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Collaboration databases, Ichushi-Web, reference lists of retrieved studies, and review articles. Our search included studies of serum BG assay that used (i) positive cytological or direct microscopic examination of...

  18. Pharmacodynamic Target Evaluation of a Novel Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor, SCY-078 (MK-3118), Using an In Vivo Murine Invasive Candidiasis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lepak, Alexander J.; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Echinocandins inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-d-glucan in Candida and are the first-line therapy in numerous clinical settings. Their use is limited by poor oral bioavailability, and they are available only as intravenous therapies. Derivatives of enfumafungin are novel orally bioavailable glucan synthase inhibitors. We performed an in vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) evaluation with a novel enfumafungin derivative, SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118), in a well-established neutropenic murine model of invasiv...

  19. Candidíase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulência das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiana Aparecida Álvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Márcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas freqüentemente isolados das superfícies mucosas de indivíduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infecções denominadas candidíases, que variam desde lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidíase vulvovaginal (CVV: infecção de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidíase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrência de q...

  20. Atividade antifúngica de produtos naturais indicados por raizeiros para tratamento de candidíase oral / Antifungal activity of natural products indicated by herb sellers (raizeiros) for the treatment of oral candidiasis / Actividad antifúngica de productos naturales indicados por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) para el tratamiento de la candidiasis oral

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Maria, Freire Abílio; Bruno, da Silva Mesquita; Evelyn, Darly da Silva; Fabíola, Vilar de Queiroz Carvalho; Luciana Lucena, Aranha de Macêdo; Ricardo, Dias de Castro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente resistência das leveduras pertencentes ao gênero Candida frente aos antifúngicos sintéticos, atualmente disponíveis no comércio, impulsiona a busca por novos compostos antifúngicos de origem vegetal. Assim, o propósito do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antifúngica dos d [...] ecoctos de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) e Punica granatum Linn (romã), vendidos por raizeiros em três feiras livres distintas (A, B e C), frente a três espécies de microorganismos do gênero Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis e C. krusei). O ensaio para determinação da atividade antifúngica dos produtos naturais foi realizado pelo método da difusão em meio sólido, em triplicata, onde discos de papel de filtro estéreis embebidos em 50 µL dos extratos foram colocados sobre o meio de cultura. Os resultados foram avaliados a partir da mensuração dos diâmetros dos halos de inibição de crescimento fúngico em milímetros (mm), sendo considerada a moda dos valores obtidos. Foi observada atividade antifúngica de S. terebenthifolius Raddi e de C. zeylanicum Breym sobre C. krusei. No entanto, diferenças foram identificadas entre os produtos obtidos nos diferentes locais. O decocto de Punica granatum Linn apresentou atividade antifúngica sobre as três cepas fúngicas utilizadas no estudo. Também foram verificadas diferenças entres os produtos obtidos nas feiras livres, sendo que apenas as amostras de Punica granatum Linn provenientes da feira A foram capazes de inibir o crescimento fúngico de todas as cepas analisadas. Desta forma, conclui-se que todos os produtos avaliados apresentam atividade antifúngica, havendo diferenças relacionadas aos locais de sua obtenção e sensibilidade das cepas ensaiadas. Abstract in spanish La resistencia cada vez mayor de levaduras del género candida a los antifúngicos sintéticos disponibles en la actualidad ha llevado a la búsqueda de nuevos compuestos antifúngicos de origen vegetal. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antifúngica in vitro de decocciones de Schinus [...] terebenthifolius Raddi (pimentero brasileño),Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) y Punica granatum Linn (granada) sobre tres especies del género Candida (C. albicans, C . tropicalis y C. krusei). Este material vegetal fue vendido por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) en tres ferias callejeras distintas (A, B y C). El ensayo para determinar la actividad antifúngica de los productos se realizó por triplicado. Se empleó el método de difusión en medio sólido, en el que discos de papel de filtro estériles fueron empapados en 50 µL de los extractos y colocados en medio de cultivo. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante la medición de los diámetros de los halos de inhibición del crecimiento fúngico, en milímetros, y se consideró la moda de los valores encontrados. Se observó actividad antifúngica de S. terebinthifolius Raddi y C. zeylanicum Breym contra C. krusei, pero fueron identificadas diferencias entre los productos obtenidos en diferentes lugares. La decocción de Punica granatum Linn presentó actividad antifúngica sobre las tres levaduras en estudio. Además, se encontraron diferencias entre los productos adquiridos en las ferias callejeras, pero sólo las muestras de Punica granatum Linn de la feria A fueron capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de hongos de todas las levaduras analizadas. Todos los productos evaluados mostraron actividad antifúngica, pero hubo diferencias en función de la localidad donde los productos fueron obtenidos y de la sensibilidad a las cepas ensayadas. Abstract in english An increasing resistance of Candida yeasts to the synthetic antifungals currently available has driven the search for new plant-derived antifungal compounds. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of decoctions from Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Brazi [...] lian pepper tree), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (cinnamon) and Punica granatum Linn (pom

  1. Disease: H01109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H01109 Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC); Familial candidiasis (CANDF) Chronic mucocutaneo ... lanche S, Al-Muhsen S, Reichenbach J, Kobayashi M, Rosales ... FE, Lozano CT, Kilic SS, Oleastro M, Etzioni A, Tr ...

  2. Glossite rombóide mediana associada a candidíase esofagiana: uma possível relação etiológica com a Candida albicans Median rhomboid glossitis associated with esophagic candidiasis: a possible etiologic relation with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Rubens Marcelo Souza Leite; Adriana Aragão Craveiro Leite; Horácio Friedman; Isabel Friedman

    2002-01-01

    A glossite rombóide mediana é doença inflamatória que ocorre na superfície da língua. Apresenta-se como placa avermelhada ou vermelho-esbranquiçada no dorso da língua, na localização mediana. A etiologia é desconhecida. Acredita-se que possa haver relação com a má formação dos arcos branquiais durante a embriogênese. Fatores infecciosos relacionados à Candida albicans também são aventados. Os autores apresentam o caso clínico de uma paciente de 60 anos, com glossite rombóide mediana associada...

  3. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Lopes Colombo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidence of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

  4. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis; Interets de la TEP au 18-FDG en pathologie infectieuse: a propos d'un cas de candidose systemique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avet, J.; Granjon, D.; Prevot, N.; Isnardi, V.; Dubois, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Stephan, J.L.; Berger, C. [service de pediatrie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France)

    2009-05-15

    We report the interest of the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  5. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arnaldo Lopes, Colombo; Thaís, Guimarães; Luis Fernando Aranha, Camargo; Rosana, Richtmann; Flavio de, Queiroz-Telles; Mauro José Costa, Salles; Clóvis Arns da, Cunha; Maria Aparecida Shikanai, Yasuda; Maria Luiza, Moretti; Marcio, Nucci.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidenc [...] e of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

  6. Esophageal strictures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal stricture is a rare complication of paediatric cancer treatment that usually occurs after esophageal exposure to radiotherapy. We describe 4 cases of esophageal stricture during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients presented with refractory vomiting and were diagnosed with radiologic contrast studies. None of the patients had received radiotherapy. Esophageal candidiasis was seen in 2 patients but the remaining 2 patients had earlier systemic candidiasis. High-dose dexamethasone may predispose these children to both esophageal candidiasis and peptic esophagitis. The etiology of esophageal strictures during treatment for acute leukemia is likely to be multifactorial but systemic candidiasis may play a significant role.

  7. Disease: H00363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00363 Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection with Candida species, predominantly with Ca ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) PMID:21350122 (gene) ...

  8. Cancer drugs inhibit morphogenesis in the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhushree M Routh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections are very common in cancer patients and it is a common practice to prescribe antifungal antibiotics along with anticancer drugs. Yeast to hyphal form switching is considered to be important in invasive candidiasis. Targeting morphogenetic switching may be useful against invasive candidiasis. In this study, we report the antimorphogenetic properties of thirty cancer drugs.

  9. Unigene BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-41-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-41-0061 gnl|UG|Cfa#S22747120 PREDICTED: Canis familiaris similar to Autoimmune regulat ... or (Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ... ectodermal dystrophy protein) (APECED protein) (LO ...

  10. Locus: 8201 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Mm.35300 M. musculus + S: gi|28503644|ref|NT_039506.1|Mm10_39546_32 NT_039506 Mus musculus autoimmune ... mmune regulator (autoimmune ... polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystroph ...

  11. Locus: 5346 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Hs.129829 H. sapiens + S: gi|29824592|ref|NC_000021.3|NC_000021 NC_000021 Homo sapiens autoimmune ... e regulator (autoimmune ... polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystroph ...

  12. Locus: 8336 [ASTRA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Mm.35300 M. musculus - S: gi|38090639|ref|NT_039496.2|Mm10_39536_32 NT_039496 Mus musculus autoimmune ... mmune regulator (autoimmune ... polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystroph ...

  13. Comparison Between Virulence Factors of Candida albicans and Non-Albicans Species of Candida Isolated from Genitourinary Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Udayalaxmi,; Jacob, Shani; D’Souza, Diney

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida spp. is frequently isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and catheter associated UTI. C.albicans is the most frequently isolated species but non-albicans species of candida are gaining clinical significance.

  14. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Micrograph showing Candida albicans from a patient with vaginal candidiasis, also known ... caused by an overgrowth of a fungus called Candida albicans in the vagina. Candida is yeast, which is ...

  15. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are bacterial infections. Viral infections include cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C. Fungi cause thrush (candidiasis), cryptococcal meningitis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and histoplasmosis, and parasites ...

  16. Cerebral candiasis: CT studies in a case of brain abscess and granuloma due to candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thron, A.; Wiethoelter, H.

    1982-08-01

    The CT features of a young female patient suffering from systemic candidiasis with intracerebral manifestation are reported. The definite diagnosis was made by spinal fluid cultures. The diffuse granulomatous lesions as well as an abscess formation remitted after specific therapy with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B for now more than 1 year. In contrast to reports of other cases with mycosis of the central nervous system this case of candidiasis shows lesions of primarily increased attenuation coefficients.

  17. Renal Failure Associated with APECED and Terminal 4q Deletion: Evidence of Autoimmune Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Anwar Iqbal; Hamad Al-Mojalli; Anne Puel; Jean-Laurent Casanova; Albandary Al-Bakheet; Hindi Al-Hindi; Shelley Kennedy; Namik Kaya; Hadeel Al-Manea; Hamad Al-Zaidan; Ibrahim Bin Hussain; Saleh Al-Muhsen; Mohammed Al-Owain

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In a...

  18. Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans Requires the Five Isoforms of Protein Mannosyltransferases

    OpenAIRE

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Schaller, Martin; Corbucci, Cristina; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Prill, Stephan K.-H.; Giasson, Luc; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2005-01-01

    The PMT gene family in Candida albicans encodes five isoforms of protein mannosyltransferases (Pmt proteins Pmt1p, Pmt2p, Pmt4p, Pmt5p, and Pmt6p) that initiate O mannosylation of secretory proteins. We compared virulence characteristics of pmt mutants in two complex, three-dimensional models of localized candidiasis, using reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM); in addition, mutants were tested in a mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis ...

  19. Sensitivity of Vaginal Isolates of Candida to Eight Antifungal Drugs Isolated From Ahvaz, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Salehei; Zahra Seifi; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds: Candida vaginitis is a common fungal infection among adult women and it has been estimated that 75% of all adult women experience at least one period of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime. Several predisposing factors, such as diabetes mellitus,using contraceptive, pregnancy, and broad-spectrum antibiotics are reported as main risk factors for the infection. While, the main etiologic agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis is Candida albicans, more antifungal resistance has bee...

  20. Cerebral candiasis: CT studies in a case of brain abscess and granuloma due to candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT features of a young female patient suffering from systemic candidiasis with intracerebral manifestation are reported. The definite diagnosis was made by spinal fluid cultures. The diffuse granulomatous lesions as well as an abscess formation remitted after specific therapy with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B for now more than 1 year. In contrast to reports of other cases with mycosis of the central nervous system this case of candidiasis shows lesions of primarily increased attenuation coefficients. (orig.)

  1. Determination of Candida species nestled in denture fissures

    OpenAIRE

    KOBA, CHIHARU; Koga, Chihiro; CHO, TAMAKI; KUSUKAWA, JINGO

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of elderly individuals, Candida is occasionally recognised as a fungal cause of aspiration pneumonia. In addition, there are numerous investigational reports on oral candidiasis. However, there are currently no reports on Candida contamination of denture base materials. This study was conducted to investigate Candida species in the oral cavity, denture parts and oral lesions of older/elderly subjects with oral candidiasis. The Candida strains were isolated and the spec...

  2. Echinocandins: A ray of hope in antifungal drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Neeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Amphotericin B and azole antifungals have been the mainstay of antifungal therapy so far. The high incidence of infusion related toxicity and nephrotoxicity with amphotericin B and the emergence of fluconazole resistant strains of Candida glabrata egged on the search for alternatives. Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of ? (1, 3-D- glucan synthase, a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Caspofungin was the first drug in this class to be approved. It is indicated for esophageal candidiasis, candidemia, invasive candidiasis, empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia and invasive aspergillosis. Response rates are comparable to those of amphotericin B and fluconazole. Micafungin is presently approved for esophageal candidiasis, for prophylaxis of candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT and in disseminated candidiasis and candidemia. The currently approved indications for anidulafungin are esophageal candidiasis, candidemia and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of infusion related adverse effects and nephrotoxicity is much lower than with amphotericin B. The main adverse effect is hepatotoxicity and derangement of serum transaminases. Liver function may need to be monitored. They are, however, safer in renal impairment. Even though a better pharmacoeconomical choice than amphotericin B, the higher cost of these drugs in comparison to azole antifungals is likely to limit their use to azole resistant cases of candidial infections and as salvage therapy in invasive aspergillosis rather than as first line drugs.

  3. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-? immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  4. Anidulafungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Sabol

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Sabol, Tawanda GumboUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: More antifungal agents have reached clinical use in the past two decades than at any other time. The echinocandins have been a welcome addition to this group, with the latest being anidulafungin. There are several lines of evidence to support anidulafungin’s role as primary therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic patients, and as alternative therapy to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis with azole intolerance or triazole-resistant Candida. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic studies in animals have demonstrated superior efficacy, defined as maximal microbial kill, when compared to fluconazole, regardless of the fluconazole susceptibility of the Candida species. These studies, as well as dose-effect studies in patients, also support the currently recommended dose of anidulafungin. A well designed randomized controlled trial has demonstrated anidulafungin’s efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis. In this paper, we argue that anidulafungin may be preferable to fluconazole for the treatment of candidemia. However, as of yet, the difference between anidulafungin and the other two licensed echinocandins as first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis is unclear. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence as of yet to support first-line use of anidulafungin in patients with neutropenia or aspergillosis.Keywords: anidulafungin, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, efficacy, candidiasis

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin and its metabolites M1 and M5 in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, William W; Kaibara, Atsunori; Roy, Michael; Arrieta, Antonio; Azie, Nkechi; Kovanda, Laura L; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this analysis was to identify therapeutic micafungin regimens for children that produce the same micafungin exposures known to be effective for the prevention and treatment of Candida infections in adults. Pediatric pharmacokinetic data from 229 patients between the ages of 4 months and micafungin within the 10th to 90th percentile range observed in a population of adults receiving a dose of micafungin with established efficacy for invasive candidiasis (100 mg/day), i.e., 75 to 139 ?g·h/ml. Simulated pediatric dosages of 0.5 to 5 mg/kg of body weight/day were explored. A two-compartment model was used that incorporated body weight as a predefined covariate for allometric scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters. During construction of the model, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin were also identified as covariates that had a significant effect on micafungin clearance. A dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the highest proportion of children within the predefined micafungin AUC24 target range for invasive candidiasis. Cutoffs of 40 or 50 kg for weight-based dosing resulted in heavier children being appropriately dosed. Thus, dose regimens of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg/day micafungin are appropriate for the prevention of invasive candidiasis, the treatment of invasive candidiasis, and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, respectively, in children aged 4 months to <17 years. PMID:25421470

  6. Impairment of immunity to Candida and Mycobacterium in humans with bi-allelic RORC mutations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Ma, Cindy S.; Wong, Natalie; Soudais, Claire; Henderson, Lauren A.; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Shamma, Jamal; Gonzalez, Marcela; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubén; Okada, Chizuru; Avery, Danielle T.; Latorre, Daniela; Deswarte, Caroline; Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne; Torrado, Egidio; Fountain, Jeffrey; Belkadi, Aziz; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Migaud, Mélanie; Arlehamn, Cecilia S. Lindestam; Sette, Alessandro; Breton, Sylvain; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Moshous, Despina; Hambleton, Sophie; Latour, Sylvain; Arkwright, Peter D.; Picard, Capucine; Lantz, Olivier; Engelhard, Dan; Kobayashi, Masao; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-17A/F underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon (IFN)-? immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional ROR? and ROR?T isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from ROR?- and ROR?T-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-? response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-? production by circulating ?? T cells and CD4+CCR6+ CXCR3+ ?? T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require ROR?, or ROR?T, or both. PMID:26160376

  7. Diagnosis of superficial mycoses by direct microscopy - A statistical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A mycological study was undertaken in 250 cases of superficial mycotic infections, which included 210 cases of dermatophytosis, 18 cases of cutaneous candidiasis and 22 cases of tinea versicolor. The scrapings from all the cases were subjected to direct microscopic examination in 10% KOH solution and culture was done in case of candidiasis and dermatophytosis. Out of 250 cases direct microscopy was positive (KOH +ve in 88 cases of dermatophytosis, 11 cases of candidiasis and all cases of tinea versicolor. Culture for dermatophytes and candida species in SDA medium were positive in 76 and 9 cases respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the overall efficiency of the direct microscopy in the diagnosis of superficial mycotic infections were calculated to be 89.41%, 83.90%, 76.76%, 93.02% and 85.96% respectively.

  8. Clinico-Mycological Study Of Superficial Fungal Infection In Children In An Urban Clinic In Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbhuiya Joyashree Nath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy children up to the age of 12 years who were suffering from dermatophytosis, candidiasis or pityriasis versicolor were studied clinically and mycologically. Dermatophytosis was the major group, which constituted 52.86% of children. It was followed by candidiasis that constituted 40% of children and pityriasis versicolor was the least, being 7.14% of children. Amongst the clinical types of dermatophytosis, tinea capitis was the commonest (32.43% followed by tinea corporis (27.03%. Candidial intertrigo was the commonest (42.86% from of candidiasis, followed by diaper dermatitis (32.14%. Most susceptible age group was school going children. Peak incidence of infection was during the months of June to September. T rubrum was the commonest dermatophyte isolated in culture. C. albicans was the most common species of candida isolated in culture.

  9. IMMUNODEFICIENCIES. Impairment of immunity to Candida and Mycobacterium in humans with bi-allelic RORC mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Satoshi; Markle, Janet G; Deenick, Elissa K; Mele, Federico; Averbuch, Dina; Lagos, Macarena; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Ma, Cindy S; Wong, Natalie; Soudais, Claire; Henderson, Lauren A; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Shamma, Jamal; Gonzalez, Marcela; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubén; Okada, Chizuru; Avery, Danielle T; Latorre, Daniela; Deswarte, Caroline; Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne; Torrado, Egidio; Fountain, Jeffrey; Belkadi, Aziz; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Migaud, Mélanie; Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam; Sette, Alessandro; Breton, Sylvain; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Moshous, Despina; Hambleton, Sophie; Latour, Sylvain; Arkwright, Peter D; Picard, Capucine; Lantz, Olivier; Engelhard, Dan; Kobayashi, Masao; Abel, Laurent; Cooper, Andrea M; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Puel, Anne; Sallusto, Federica; Bustamante, Jacinta; Tangye, Stuart G; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F (IL-17A/F) underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon-? (IFN-?) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional ROR? and ROR?T isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from ROR?- and ROR?T-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-? response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-? production by circulating ?? T cells and CD4(+)CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) ?? T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require ROR?, ROR?T, or both. PMID:26160376

  10. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2607 494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69 331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406 082. PMID:26449508

  11. Fungal infections today: size of the problem and focus on the initial cost of therapy with echinocandin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Venditti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three candins had been approved for the treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC: caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Different drugs are associated with different needs for dose adjustment which might affect the total cost. A Spanish economic analysis estimated the budget impact of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin in the treatment of 100 patients with invasive candidiasis from the perspective of the Spanish hospital pharmacy setting. It has demonstrated that patients treated with anidulafungin did not required dose adjustment unlike caspofungin and micafungin, and the use of anidulafungin in the treatment of adult non-neutropenic patients with invasive candidiasis is a cost saving treatment option, from the pharmacy department perspective in Spain. The aim of this study was to estimate the initial costs of therapy with caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin in the perspective of the Italian hospital setting.

  12. SPECIES DISTRIBUTION AND IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORAL CANDIDA ISOLATES IN HIV PATIENTS AND CORRELATION WITH CD4 COUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Devi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral Candidiasi s, often the first sign of HIV infection, is the most prevalent fungal opportunistic infection in HIV infected individuals. The intrinsic resistance to antifungal therapy observed in some Candida species, along with the development of resistance during tre atment in others, is becoming a major problem in the management of these diseases. Considering the above facts, the study was conducted to speciate the Candida isolates from HIV patients with Oral Candidiasis and to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern and to correlate it with the CD4 count of the patients.

  13. Differential Expression of Secretory Aspartyl Proteinase Genes (SAP1-10) in Oral Candida albicans Isolates with Distinct Karyotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tavanti, Arianna; Pardini, Giacomo; Campa, Daniele; Davini, Paola; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    Two karyotypes of oral Candida albicans isolates, named b and c, constituted >80% of a collection from healthy carriers (22 b and 16 c isolates) and oral candidiasis patients who were either infected (31 b and 16 c isolates) or uninfected (13 b and 38 c isolates) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence of the b and c karyotypes within HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively, who were suffering from oral candidiasis (P ? 0.0001) suggested that these two types posse...

  14. Chronic invasive aspergillosis of paranasal sinuses: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash P Tamgadge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis of the nasal and paranasal sinuses is recognized as being second to candidiasis, among opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. However, invasive variant in normal and mildly immunocompromised hosts is a very rare occurrence. We report one such case of aspergillosis involving paranasal sinuses in mildly immunocompromised patient.

  15. ETUDE PHENOTYPIQUE E T MOLECULAIRE DES CA NDIDOSES VULVO - VAGINALES CHEZ DES P ATIENTES AU MAROC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BOURA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In vulvovaginal pathology, vaginal candidiasis is the most common etiologies. Candida albicans is involved in more than 75% in this pathology. Our study included 151 vaginal swabs from women atMedical center of the Institute Pasteur in Morocco. Each vaginal swab was exanimated by direct test and culture on specific media.Out 151 samples 18 were positive (11.9% by direct examination. However, culture results showed that 29/151(19.2%positive cases. The identification of positivecultures showed that Candida albicans is present in 21 cases 72%(21/29 of vaginal candidiasis followed byCandida glabrata with a frequency of 24% (7/29, andCandida tropicalis with a frequency of 3.4 % (1/29 .The clinical symptoms were essentially theleucorrhea, itching and sensation of burning.The most age range affected by vaginalcandidiasis is between 22 and 37 years.Our result showed that the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 19% in Moroccan patient with a predominance ofCandida albicans and a sharp increase invaginal candidiasis due to non albicans species.These results will have an impact on thediagnosis and treatement of vaginal candidisis in Morocco.

  16. Enhanced activity of antifungal drugs using natural phenolics against yeast strains of Candida and Cryptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidiasis and cryptococcosis are diseases of widening global incidence as a result of increasing immunosuppressive disorders, such as AIDS. An enduring problem for treatment of these mycoses is recurrent development of resistance to introduced antifungal drugs. We examined the potential for enhan...

  17. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.

    1986-08-01

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.

  18. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundback, J.H.; Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F. (Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis.

  19. Secreted aspartic proteinases of Candida parapsilosis: Regulation of transcription of SAPP1 and SAPP2 genes and activation of respective proteinase precursors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Ji?í; Merkerová, M.; Hradilek, Martin; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    Denver : American Society for Microbiology, 2006. s. 35. [ASM Conferences. Candida and Candidiasis /8./. 13.03.2006-17.03.2006, Denver] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/05/0038; GA MŠk LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida parapsilosis * aspartic protease Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. The Candida albicans CNH1 gene encodes an antiporter important for potassium and pH homeostasis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    Washington, DC : ASM, 2006. s. 50-50. ISBN 1-55581-382-8. [8th ASM Conference on Candida and Candidiasis . 13.03.2006-17.03.2006, Denver] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Keywords : Candida albicans * Na+,K+/H+ antiporter * potassium homeostasis * intracellular pH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. Gallium-67 imaging in candidal esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ga-67 scanning has been used to evaluate esophageal carcinoma. It has demonstrated candidal infection in other body sites and, in one previous case, in the esophagus. The authors present a case of diffuse esophageal uptake of Ga-67 in esophageal candidiasis

  2. Oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus: Unusual radiological appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm. (orig.)

  3. Psoriasis in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I: A possible complication or a non-endocrine minor component?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital Amin Poojary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I is an autosomal recessive systemic autoimmune disorder, affecting primarily endocrine glands, in which chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an early and prominent manifestation. We describe the rare occurrence of unstable psoriasis (with onset of pustular lesions in a case of APS I without mucocutaneous candidiasis. A patient presenting with unstable psoriasis (with onset of pustular lesions was detected to have persistent hypocalcemia which led to the diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism. Subsequently he was found to have hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, primary adrenal insufficiency (compensated, and coeliac disease, thus confirming the diagnosis of APS I. Psoriasis is very rarely reported in APS I, possibly due to the protective effect of antibodies to Th17 cytokines, which are responsible for the occurrence of candidiasis in this syndrome. However, psoriasis could occur in APS I patients without mucocutaneous candidiasis, who lack these antibodies. In our patient, possible factors aggravating psoriasis include hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism as well as coeliac disease via anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. However, defining psoriasis as a possible minor component of APS I would require further studies of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene functions.

  4. Role of CgCnh1 antiporter in tolerance of Candida glabrata to alkali metal cations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Sychrová, Hana

    New Jersey : American Society of Microbiology, 2008. s. 46-47. [Candida and Candidiasis /9./. 24.03.2008-28.03.2008, Jersey City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * Candida glabrata * salt tolerance * antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Plasma membrane Na/H antiporters contribute to the salt tolerance of pathogenic Candida species.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krauke, Yannick; Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    New Jersey : American Society of Microbiology, 2008. s. 44-45. [Candida and Candidiasis /9./. 24.03.2008-28.03.2008, Jersey City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : spo2 * Candida glabrata * salt tolerance * antiporter Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  6. Purification of actin from Candida albicans and comparison with the Candida 48,000-Mr protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiss, E; Buckley, H R

    1987-01-01

    Actin was purified from Candida albicans cells by affinity chromatography by DNase-Sepharose and was recognized by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody directed against chick muscle actin. The C. albicans 48-kilodalton protein recognized by sera from patients with invasive candidiasis was shown by DEAE chromatography and immunoblotting not to be identical with the purified C. albicans actin.

  7. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana?

    OpenAIRE

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples.

  9. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  10. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia De Bernardis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs and antibody (Abs-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7 was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2 (PEV7, has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  11. CXCR1-mediated neutrophil degranulation and fungal killing promote Candida clearance and host survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Gao, Ji-Liang; Break, Timothy J; Johnson, Melissa D; Jaeger, Martin; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Lim, Jean K; Green, Nathaniel M; Collar, Amanda L; Fischer, Brett G; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G; Murphy, Philip M; Lionakis, Michail S

    2016-01-20

    Systemic Candida albicans infection causes high morbidity and mortality and is now the leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the United States. Neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome in infected patients; however, the molecular factors that mediate neutrophil trafficking and effector function during infection are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, we found that the neutrophil-selective CXC chemokine receptor Cxcr1 and its ligand, Cxcl5, are highly induced in the Candida-infected kidney, the target organ in the model. To investigate the role of Cxcr1 in antifungal host defense in vivo, we generated Cxcr1(-/-) mice and analyzed their immune response to Candida. Mice lacking Cxcr1 exhibited decreased survival with enhanced Candida growth in the kidney and renal failure. Increased susceptibility of Cxcr1(-/-) mice to systemic candidiasis was not due to impaired neutrophil trafficking from the blood into the infected kidney but was the result of defective killing of the fungus by neutrophils that exhibited a cell-intrinsic decrease in degranulation. In humans, the mutant CXCR1 allele CXCR1-T276 results in impaired neutrophil degranulation and fungal killing and was associated with increased risk of disseminated candidiasis in infected patients. Together, our data demonstrate a biological function for mouse Cxcr1 in vivo and indicate that CXCR1-dependent neutrophil effector function is a critical innate protective mechanism of fungal clearance and host survival in systemic candidiasis. PMID:26791948

  12. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  13. Cancer drugs inhibit morphogenesis in the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Madhushree M, Routh; Nitin M, Chauhan; S Mohan, Karuppayil.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections are very common in cancer patients and it is a common practice to prescribe antifungal antibiotics along with anticancer drugs. Yeast to hyphal form switching is considered to be important in invasive candidiasis. Targeting morphogenetic switching may be useful against invasive ca [...] ndidiasis. In this study, we report the antimorphogenetic properties of thirty cancer drugs.

  14. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ?4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. PMID:26449509

  15. AIDS, the female patient, and the family physician.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, I D

    1993-01-01

    Women constitute the most rapidly growing population with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Canada. Problems unique to women and related to HIV include gynecological disorders such as recurrent candidiasis, cervical dysplasia, and neoplasia. Women also face unique psychosocial issues related to their socioeconomic status, pregnancy, and sex. This article addresses these issues.

  16. Sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections in female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shethwala Nimisha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in 300 female sex workers (FSWs from Surat city in 2005-2006. Vaginal swabs, endocervical swabs and serum samples were collected from each of these FSWs. Vaginal samples were screened for bacterial vaginosis (BV, candidiasis and Trichomonas vaginalis . Endocervical swabs were screened for gonococcal infection. Serological tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis were performed. From a total of 300 FSWs, BV was detected in 40 (13.33%, trichomoniasis in six (2%, candidiasis in 31 (10.33%, HIV seropositivity in 35 (11.66%, HBsAg reactivity in 10 (3.33% and rapid plasma regain (RPR reactivity in 20 (6.66% cases. RPR-positive serum samples were confirmed by the treponema pallidum hemaglutination test. Gonococcal infection was not found in any of the FSWs. Of the total of 35 HIV-positive patients, 20 patients had associated coinfection. Of the 35 HIV-seropositive FSWs, BV was detected in six (17.14%, candidiasis in six (17.14%, syphilis in five (14.28% and HBsAg in two (5.71%. One (2.85% HIV-positive FSW was positive for both candidiasis and syphilis.

  17. ‘Occam's Scissors’: opportunistic infections in advanced HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nirav; Owen, Leah; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the case of a new diagnosis of advanced HIV-1 infection with a blood CD4 cell count of 0.003×109/L (2%), presenting with weight loss, night sweats, diarrhoea and anorexia. Symptoms were due to disseminated histoplasmosis (confirmed pulmonary and colonic disease), Pneumocystis pneumonia and oral candidiasis highlighting the limitations of ‘Occam's razor’ with advanced HIV infection.

  18. Identification of a novel STAT3 mutation in a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Trine; Jakobsen, Marianne A

    2013-01-01

    Here we describe a patient with hyper-IgE syndrome presenting with recurrent staphylococcal abscesses, pneumonia, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and report the identification of a novel STAT3 mutation at amino acid position 621, which has not previously been described. In addition, we review the immunological, infectious, and genetic features of hyper-IgE syndrome.

  19. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES, es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crónica multisistémica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, discoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnóstico de LES y establecer si existe relación entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunológicos, el compromiso sistémico y el tratamiento farmacológico. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES; se les realizó un examen estomatológico y se recolectó información demográfica, clínica y de tratamiento por medio de revisión de historias clínicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realizó análisis citológico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algún tipo de lesión en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; úlceras, en 17 y queilitis actínica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoció con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociación entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces más que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontró asociación con ningún compromiso sistémico y la presencia de lesiones orales.Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relationship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  20. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico / Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathaly, Ángel; Natalia, Echeverry; Paulina, Restrepo; Leonor, González; Libia, Rodríguez; Gloria, Vásquez.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico (LES), es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crónica multisistémica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, d [...] iscoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnóstico de LES y establecer si existe relación entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnóstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunológicos, el compromiso sistémico y el tratamiento farmacológico. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnóstico de LES; se les realizó un examen estomatológico y se recolectó información demográfica, clínica y de tratamiento por medio de revisión de historias clínicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realizó análisis citológico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algún tipo de lesión en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; úlceras, en 17 y queilitis actínica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoció con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociación entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces más que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontró asociación con ningún compromiso sistémico y la presencia de lesiones orales. Abstract in english Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relati [...] onship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  1. Prevalencia de Lesiones de la Mucosa Oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Raposo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes mayores de 20 años, examinados en el mismo hospital (intervalo de confianza del 95%. La prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral fue de 66%. Las lesiones más prevalentes fueron; gránulos de Fordyce (30%, candidiasis atrófica (14,33%, mácula melanótica (13,67%, várices orales (7,33%, pigmentación fisiológica (6%, nevos (4%, efélides (3,33%, úlceras traumáticas (4%, leucoplasia (3% y queilitis angular (2,68%. Se encontró una relación directa entre el aumento de la edad y la presencia de candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices, siendo esta asociación estadísticamente significativa. Podemos concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población adulta de la muestra y que la cantidad de estas lesiones se incrementan con la edad (candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices orales, por lo que es necesario intensificar el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de ellas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the Hernan Henríquez Aravena Hospital in the city of Temuco Chile. Method: The sample consisted of 300 patients aged over 20 years, examined in the same hospital (confidence interval 95%. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 66%. The most prevalent lesions were; Fordyce granules (30%, atrophic candidiasis (14.33%, oral melanotic macule (13.67%, oral mucosal varicosities (7.33%, physiological pigmentation (6%, nevus (4%, ephelis (3.33%, traumatic ulcers (4%, leukoplakia (3% and angular cheilitis (2.68%. A direct ratio was found between increased age and the presence of atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and oral mucoral varicosities, this association being statistically significant. It may be concluded that there is a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the adult population of the sample and that the quantity of lesions increases with age (atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and mucosal varicosities, making it necessary to intensify their early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  2. Vulvovaginitis: correlación con factores predisponentes, aspectos clínicos y estudios microbiológicos Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fosch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vaginitis (V y vaginosis bacterianas (VB constituyen uno de los principales motivos de consultas ginecológicas. El objeto de este trabajo fue analizar muestras de flujos vaginales para identificar la etiología infecciosa y su relación con factores predisponentes asociados (dispositivos intrauterinos, anticonceptivos orales, preservativos y antibióticos previos, y con signos y síntomas. Entre el 1/11/01 y el 30/10/03 se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con 400 mujeres en edad reproductiva y no embarazadas, en un rango de edad de 15 a 55 años. En el laboratorio se analizó el contenido vaginal mediante examen en fresco, coloraciones (Gram y Giemsa y cultivo. Interpretación: 1 normales (sin alteraciones manifiestas y sin detección de los agentes infecciosos estudiados, 2 infecciosos (con alteraciones manifiestas: vaginosis bacteriana (VB, candidiasis vaginal (CV y tricomoniasis (TC, 3 desequilibrio de la ecología vaginal (con alteraciones intermedias (D. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 1 normales, 209 (52,2%; 2 infecciosos, 115 (28,8%, los que incluyeron: VB, 13,5%; CV, 12,5%; TC, 2,8%; y 3 desequilibrio de la ecología vaginal, 76 (19%. La vaginosis bacteriana y los desequilibrios de la flora se asociaron con la utilización de dispositivos intrauterinos, y la candidiasis con el uso de anticonceptivos orales y tratamiento antibiótico previo. Las pacientes con candidiasis vaginal y tricomoniasis presentaron mayor porcentaje de síntomas.Vaginitis (V and bacterial vaginosis (BV are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics, symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1 normal - no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2 infected - changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV and trichomoniasis (TC and (3 imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D. Results obtained: (1 normal: 209 (52.2%; infected: 115 (28.8% including 13.5%VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3 76 (19% with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  3. Vulvovaginitis: correlación con factores predisponentes, aspectos clínicos y estudios microbiológicos / Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Fosch; N., Fogolín; E., Azzaroni; N., Pairetti; L., D´Ana; H., Minacori; I., Tita; M., Redona; G., Gribaudo.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vaginitis (V) y vaginosis bacterianas (VB) constituyen uno de los principales motivos de consultas ginecológicas. El objeto de este trabajo fue analizar muestras de flujos vaginales para identificar la etiología infecciosa y su relación con factores predisponentes asociados (dispositivos intraut [...] erinos, anticonceptivos orales, preservativos y antibióticos previos), y con signos y síntomas. Entre el 1/11/01 y el 30/10/03 se realizó un estudio de corte transversal con 400 mujeres en edad reproductiva y no embarazadas, en un rango de edad de 15 a 55 años. En el laboratorio se analizó el contenido vaginal mediante examen en fresco, coloraciones (Gram y Giemsa) y cultivo. Interpretación: 1) normales (sin alteraciones manifiestas y sin detección de los agentes infecciosos estudiados), 2) infecciosos (con alteraciones manifiestas): vaginosis bacteriana (VB), candidiasis vaginal (CV) y tricomoniasis (TC), 3) desequilibrio de la ecología vaginal (con alteraciones intermedias) (D). Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 1) normales, 209 (52,2%); 2) infecciosos, 115 (28,8%), los que incluyeron: VB, 13,5%; CV, 12,5%; TC, 2,8%; y 3) desequilibrio de la ecología vaginal, 76 (19%). La vaginosis bacteriana y los desequilibrios de la flora se asociaron con la utilización de dispositivos intrauterinos, y la candidiasis con el uso de anticonceptivos orales y tratamiento antibiótico previo. Las pacientes con candidiasis vaginal y tricomoniasis presentaron mayor porcentaje de síntomas. Abstract in english Vaginitis (V) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, cont [...] raceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics), symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1) normal - no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2) infected - changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV) and trichomoniasis (TC) and (3) imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D). Results obtained: (1) normal: 209 (52.2%); infected: 115 (28.8%) including 13.5%VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3) 76 (19%) with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  4. Uso de anfotericina B en mezcla lipídica: ¿previene la toxicidad de la droga en pacientes críticos? / Use of amphotericin B as lipid emulsions to decrease its toxicity in critical patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glenn, Hernández P; Fernando, Altermatt C; Francisca, Bernucci P; Darwin, Acuña C; Felipe, Apablaza E; Felipe, Valenzuela P; Alvaro, Lefio C; Carlos, Pérez C; Guillermo, Bugedo T; Luis, Castillo F.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Amphotericin B is efficacious for the treatment of systemic candidiasis, however it has potentially serious toxic effects. Administration as lipid emulsions has been advocated to decrease its toxicity. Aim: To compare the safety and tolerance of amphotericin B administered as lipid emuls [...] ion or dissolved in dextrose in water. Patients and methods: Forty five patients with confirmed or highly suspected systemic candidiasis were studied. Between January 1996 and June 1997 amphotericin B was administered in dextrose in water to 17 patients (group 1). Between July 1997 and December 1998, the drug was delivered in lipid emulsions (Intralipid, group 2). Clinical and laboratory parameters (serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and potassium), were assessed daily. Results: Both treatment groups were clinically comparable and had the same survival. Accumulative amphotericin B dose administered was 343.2 ± 197 and 414.6 ± 518 mg respectively. Hypokalemia was more frequent in group 2 (52 and 25 % respectively, p

  5. Old and new pathogenic Nakaseomyces species: epidemiology, biology, identification, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoulvant, A; Guitard, J; Hennequin, C

    2016-03-01

    During the previous decades, as the number of immunocompromised patients, the average age of Western populations and the widespread use of indwelling medical devices have increased concomitantly, so has the incidence of infections caused by Candida species. Candida albicans remains the most frequently isolated agent of candidiasis. However, C. glabrata now accounts for a substantial part of clinical isolates, ranking number two among the etiologic agents of either superficial or invasive candidiasis in North America and Europe. Along with C. glabrata and belonging to the Nakaseomyces clade, two new species, C. nivariensis and C bracarensis have recently been described as emerging pathogens. This review provides information on the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, biology, identification, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance of C. glabrata, C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis. PMID:26691882

  6. Effect of cannabis use on oral candidal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, M R; Arendorf, T M; Coldrey, N A

    1990-08-01

    The effects of cigarette smoking on oral candidal carriage and candidosis have been well documented but few similar studies on cannabis smoking have appeared, therefore it was felt that such a study needed to be undertaken. In this investigation, the effect of cannabis smoking combined with methaqualone and tobacco on candidal prevalence, density and candidosis was examined in 55 users. Age and sex matched tobacco-smoking (n = 58) and non-smoking controls (n = 50) were examined similarly. The imprint culture technique was used for harvesting Candida. Results showed an increased prevalence and density of C. albicans in cannabis users while there was no apparent difference in the prevalence of candidiasis. However, two subjects presented with oral multifocal candidiasis. PMID:2231436

  7. Fixed drug eruption resulting from fluconazole use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavallaee Mahkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with a possible side effect of fixed drug eruption. However, this adverse drug effect is absent from the reported list of possible side effects of fluconazole. We are presenting a rare case in our report. Case presentation A 25-year-old Iranian woman developed fixed drug eruptions on different sites of her body after taking five doses of fluconazole to treat vaginal candidiasis. A positive patch test, positive oral challenge test and skin biopsy were all found to be consistent with fixed drug eruption. Conclusion Fluconazole is a widely prescribed drug, used mainly to treat candidiasis. Fixed drug eruption as a possible side effect of Fluconazole is not well known and thus, the lesions may be misdiagnosed and mistreated. Based on our findings, which are consistent with a number of other practitioners, we recommend adding fixed drug eruption to the list of possible side effects of fluconazole.

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana, antiaderente e antifúngica in vitro de plantas medicinais brasileiras sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e cepas do gênero Candida In vitro antimicrobial, antiadherent and antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants on oral biofilm microorganisms and strains of the genus Candida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollianna Muniz Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana, antifúngica e antiaderente da aroeira-do-sertão, malva e goiabeira sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e candidose oral. Os extratos mostraram-se eficazes, inibindo o crescimento das bactérias do biofilme dental e fungos da candidose oral, sugerindo a utilização dessas plantas como meio alternativo na terapêutica odontológica.The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiadherent activity of aroeira-do-sertão, mallow and guava tree on oral biofilm microorganisms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro. The extracts were shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria of the oral biofilm and fungi of oral candidiasis, thus suggesting that these extracts can be used as alternative means of dental therapy.

  9. Effect of pepstatin A on the virulence factors of Candida albicans strains isolated from vaginal environment of patients in three different clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, M E L; Gasparetto, A; Svidzinski, T I E; Peralta, R M

    2006-08-01

    The aspartate proteinase inhibitor pepstatin A was used to study a possible correlation among proteinase activity and other virulence factors of Candida albicans strains isolated from the vaginal environment of patients in three different clinical conditions: asympthomatic, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). The addition of 1.0 muM pepstatin A did not have any significant effect on hyphae formation, biofilm production and in the cell surface hydrofobicity of isolates in the three different clinical conditions. However, pepstatin A reduced the adherence of C. albicans to vaginal mucosa epithelial cells (53.1, 48.7 and 59.9%, respectively to isolates from asymptomatic, VVC and RVVC patients). This result suggests that the secreted aspartate proteinases (Saps) of this fungal pathogen may have auxiliary roles in cellular adhesion. PMID:16897584

  10. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Roy, Sukhdev; Srivastava, J. N.

    2013-05-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He-Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment.

  11. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

  12. Risk of malformations and other outcomes in children exposed to fluconazole in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Olesen, Charlotte; Larsen, Helle; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    Aim?Fluconazole is an active drug systematically used in the oral treatment of vaginal candidiasis and other fungal diseases. We examined the risk of malformations and other birth outcomes following pregnancy related exposures. Method?From 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1996 we identified 165 wome...... congenital malformations, low birth weight or preterm birth in offspring to women who had used single dose fluconazole before conception or during pregnancy.......Aim?Fluconazole is an active drug systematically used in the oral treatment of vaginal candidiasis and other fungal diseases. We examined the risk of malformations and other birth outcomes following pregnancy related exposures. Method?From 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1996 we identified 165 women...... who had taken fluconazole just before or during pregnancy in the Pregnancy Outcome Section of the North Jutland Pharmacoepidemiological Prescription Database, Denmark, which is linked to the Danish Medical Birth Registry. We compared their birth outcomes (malformation, low birth weight and preterm...

  13. Mortality due to systemic mycoses as a primary cause of death or in association with AIDS in Brazil: a review from 1996 to 2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marli, Prado; Marcelo Barbosa da, Silva; Ruy, Laurenti; Luiz R, Travassos; Carlos P, Taborda.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Deaths caused by systemic mycoses such as paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, candidiasis, aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis and zygomycosis amounted to 3,583 between 1996-2006 in Brazil. When analysed as the underlying cause of death, paracoccidioidomycosis represented the most [...] important cause of deaths among systemic mycoses (~ 51.2%). When considering AIDS as the underlying cause of death and the systemic mycoses as associated conditions, cryptococcosis (50.9%) appeared at the top of the list, followed by candidiasis (30.2%), histoplasmosis (10.1%) and others. This mortality analysis is useful in understanding the real situation of systemic mycoses in Brazil, since there is no mandatory notification of patients diagnosed with systemic mycoses in the official health system.

  14. Echinocandins for candidemia: a rational choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Menichetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin represent a rational choice for the first-line therapy of candidemia/invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Among other properties characterizing echinocandins, it’s important to emphasize the broad spectrum of activity, the fungicidal activity against the majority of Candida spp., and the activity against the biofilm. Furthermore, echinocandins show greater efficacy than conventional amphotericin B and fluconazole, and similar efficacy to liposomal amphotericin B (but they are less toxic. Finally, echinocandins are recommended at the highest level of evidence (AI for the treatment of invasive candidiasis by IDSA and ESCMID guidelines.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.872

  15. [Candida infections in infancy and early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, R; Seebacher, C; Blaschke-Hellmessen, R

    1998-04-01

    Candida infections in infancy can manifest themselves as skin, mucosal or systemic candidiasis. Eighty to nintey percent of all candida infections in this age group are caused by Candida albicans. Whereas in neonates, infections mostly occur sub partu, in older children predisposing underlying diseases get an increasing etiological importance. The diagnosis is based on microscopic and cultural detection of yeast as well as on the course of the titers of Candida antigen and antibodies. For topical antifungal treatment of skin and mucosa infections, different preparations of the polyenes nystatin and amphotericin B have been proven to be most effective. In systemic candidiasis the combination of amphotericin B and 5-flucytosin is the treatment of choice. In view of the potential severe side effects of this combination therapy, fluconazol as a sole treatment represents an effective alternative. Prophylaxis against Candida infections comprises sticking to hygienic regimes, mycological surveillance of risk groups and oral application of antimycotics. PMID:9606882

  16. Molecular Characterization of Candida africana in Genital Specimens in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Yu, Aihua; Chen, Xiangming; Wang, Guojiang; Feng, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Candida africana, an emerging yeast pathogen, is closely related to Candida albicans and most commonly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). However, its prevalence in candidal balanoposthitis is still unclear. In this study, the prevalence of C. africana in both candidal balanoposthitis and VVC in a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Shanghai, China, was analyzed, and the molecular characterization and susceptible profiles of C. africana isolates were investigated. As results, C. africana was only isolated in 5 out of 79 (6.3%) cases of candidal balanoposthitis rather than cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among them, 4 out of 5 isolates share the same genotype of DST 782 with an isolate from vaginal swab in Japan published previously. All C. africana isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:26665002

  17. The crystal structure of protease Sapp1p from Candida parapsilosis in complex with the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Ji?í; Brynda, Ji?í; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pachl, Petr; Pichová, Iva; ?ezá?ová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 27, ?. 1 (2012), s. 160-165. ISSN 1475-6366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ?R GA310/09/1945; GA ?R GA203/09/0820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : secreted aspartic protease * virulence factor * X-ray structure * candidiasis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2012

  18. Fungal Disease in Britain and the United States 1850–2000 : Mycoses and Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Homei, Aya; WORBOYS, MICHAEL

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we discuss the changing medical and public profile of fungal infections in the period 1850–2000. We consider four sets of diseases: ringworm and athlete’s foot (dermatophytosis); thrush or candidiasis (infection with Candida albicans); endemic, geographically specific infections in North America (coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and histoplasmosis) and mycotoxins; and aspergillosis (infection with Aspergillus fumigatus). We discuss each disease in relation to developing medical...

  19. Oral Candida Isolates Colonizing or Infecting Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Healthy Persons in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio; Ortiz-López, Natalia Guadalupe; Villar, María; Moragues, María Dolores; Aguirre, José Manuel; Cashat-Cruz, Miguel; Lopez-Ribot, Jose Luis; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Oral yeast carriage was studied in 312 Mexican subjects. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, but other Candida spp. were isolated from 16.5 to 38.5% of patients. Colonization did not correlate with CD4+ number or viral load, but highly active antiretroviral therapy reduced the frequency of candidiasis. Most isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, but 10.8% were resistant to one or more azoles.

  20. Fungal urinary tract infection in an infant with posterior urethral valves

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ahmadzadeh; Morteza Hydari; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Ahmad Shamsizadeh; Ehsan Valavi; Arash Ahmadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Children with urinary tract abnormalities are susceptible to bacterial urinary infection (UTI); fungal infection, although rare, is reported to be increasing. Here, we describe a seven month-old male infant with posterior urethral valves who had developed both bacterial and fungal (Candidal) urinary tract infections. Direct and culture examinations of urine sample confirmed urinary tract candidiasis. Urine culture yielded more than 3×104 Candida albicans. Fluconazole started in the dose of 4m...

  1. Study on types of vaginitis and association between bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infection in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Pramila Lamichhane; Dev Raj Joshi; Yagya Prasad Subedi; Rekha Thapa; Ganesh Prasad Acharya; Apsana Lamsal; Sweety Upadhaya; Sandip Pokhrel

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIntroduction:  Infectious vaginitis which includes bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis are common disorder in women.  Both vaginitis and Urinary Tract Infection during pregnancy have risk to lives of both the mother and fetus. Present study was done to assess type of vaginitis and to evaluate the risk of urinary tract infections in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis.Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study of 230 pregnant women was done from 1st Jul...

  2. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Chitosan on the Oral Pathogen Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Costa; Sara Silva; Freni Tavaria; Manuela Pintado

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is particularly evident, not only in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but also in elderly people with xerostomy. In general, Candida is an opportunistic pathogen, causing infections in immunocompromised people and, in some cases, when the natural microbiota is altered. Chitosan, a natural derivative of chitin, is a polysaccharide that has been proven to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that encompasses action against fungi, yeast and ba...

  3. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine

    OpenAIRE

    Nripendra Nath Mishra; Shakir Ali; Praveen K. Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipid...

  4. Biochemical characterization of Candida albicans epitopes that can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y; Kanbe, T.; Cherniak, R; Cutler, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    We previously reported that the immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.1 protects mice against disseminated candidiasis, whereas the IgM MAb B6 does not. Both MAbs are specific for an adhesin fraction isolated from the cell surface of Candida albicans, but their epitope specificities differ. In the present study, we examined the surface locations of both epitopes and obtained structural information regarding the B6.1 epitope. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopic analysis of C....

  5. Bacterial vaginosis in female facility workers in north-western Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Baisley, Kathy; Changalucha, John; Weiss, Helen; Mugeye, Kokugonza; Everett, Dean; Hambleton, Ian; Hay, Phillip; Ross, David; Tanton, Clare; Chirwa, Tobias; Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To determine prevalence of, and risk factors for, bacterial vaginosis (BV) among HSV-2 seropositive Tanzanian women at enrolment into a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy. Methods: 1305 HSV-2 seropositive women aged 16-35 years working in bars, guesthouses and similar facilities were interviewed, examined and tested for HIV, syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, BV, candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Factor...

  6. DNA-PK contributes to the phosphorylation of AIRE: Importance in transcriptional activity

    OpenAIRE

    Liiv, Ingrid; Rebane, Ana; Org, Tõnis; Saare, Mario; Maslovskaja, Julia; Kisand, Kai; Juronen, Erkki; Valmu, Leena; Bottomley, Matthew James; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Peterson, Pärt

    2008-01-01

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein is a key mediator of the central tolerance for tissue specific antigens and is involved in transcriptional control of many antigens in thymic medullary epithelial cells (mTEC). Mutations in the AIRE gene cause a rare disease named autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Here we report using GST pull-down assay, mass-spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation that a heterotrimeric complex of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase (DNA...

  7. In vitro anidulafungin activity against yeasts – system and disseminated mycosis pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Kulko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed susceptibility to anidulafungin of yeasts clinical strains of Candida (14 species, Cryptococcus (1 species, Geotrichum (1 species, Rhodotorula (1 species and Saccharomyces (1 species. We revealed high anidulafungin activity against Candida spp., both common species and rare pathogens of candidiasis. It was found that over 99 % of Candida strains do not have an acquired resistance mechanisms to anidulafungin (microbiological criteria. The anidulafungin is not active against strains of Cryptococcus neoformans and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

  8. Candida glabrata biofilms response to amphotericin B

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Silva, Sónia Carina; Salgado, José Manuel; Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candida species are responsible for recurrent human infections, mostly in immunocompromised patients, due to their high vulnerability. Candida glabrata has been showing to have a major role in these infections being the second most prevalent species involved in human fungemia. Amphotericin B (AmB), a common antifungal drug, is a hospital-environment exclusive polyene, normally being efficient when used to fight candidiasis. Objectives: The main goal of this work was to infer a...

  9. Genome-Wide Expression Profile Analysis Reveals Coordinately Regulated Genes Associated with Stepwise Acquisition of Azole Resistance in Candida albicans Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, P. David; Katherine S. Barker

    2003-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and a causative agent of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), the most frequent opportunistic infection among patients with AIDS. Fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents have proven effective in the management of OPC; however, with increased use of these agents treatment failures have occurred. Such failures have been associated with the emergence of azole-resistant strains of C. albicans. In the present study we examined changes in...

  10. Comparison of Adherence of Candida Albicans on Amalgam, Light Cure Composite and Glass Ionomer: an In vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi A; Falahati M.; Heshmat H.; Entezari N.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in the human oral cavity. 85% of this infection is caused by Candida albicans. Although there is considerable information about the adhesion of Candida albicans to the epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there are very few studies in regard to the adhesion of Candida albicans to various restorative dental materials.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to three restorative materials, a...

  11. Candida albicans internalization by host cells is mediated by a clathrin-dependent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Ruiz, Emilia; Galán-Díez, Marta; Zhu, Weidong; Fernández-Ruiz, Elena; d’Enfert, Christophe; Filler, Scott G.; Cossart, Pascale; Veiga, Esteban

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of oropharyngeal, vulvovaginal and hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Endocytosis of C. albicans hyphae by host cells is a prerequisite for tissue invasion. This internalization involves interactions between the fungal invasin Als3 and host E- or N-cadherin. Als3 shares some structural similarity with InlA, a major invasion protein of the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. InlA mediates entry of L. monocytogenes into host cells through binding to E-cadhe...

  12. Manifestaciones bucales en embarazadas recien diagnosticadas con infecccion por vih/sida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M E, Guerra; V, Tovar; E, Garrido; Lucila, Blanco; A, Ferreira; A, Carvajal; JR, León.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de determinar las manifestaciones bucales más frecuentes en las embarazadas VIH/SIDA. que acudieron al CAPEI/UCV en el 2006. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Previo consentimiento informado se les realizó la Historia Clínica 30 embarazadas que incluyó examen clínico para [...] diagnosticar las manifestaciones bucales. El análisis estadístico fue descriptivo utilizando la Clasificación Jerárquica de Ward. RESULTADOS: la manifestación bucal observada con mayor frecuencia en las embarazadas fue la gingivitis 16 (53;3%), seguida de candidiasis pseudomembranosa y queilitis angular ambas con 9 (30%), aftas recurrentes 6 (20%), eritema marginal lineal 5 (16,67%), xerostomia y candidiasis eritematosas 3 (6,67%) y parotiditis con 1 (3,3%) .CONCLUSIÓN: Las manifestaciones bucales observadas en las embarazadas VIH/SIDA resaltan la importancia del odontólogo en el diagnóstico y manejo de las mismas en nuestra consulta. Abstract in english This study was made with the objective to determine the more frequent oral manifestations in the pregnant VIH/SIDA. that they went to the CAPEI/UCV in 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previous informed consent was made the Clinical History to them 30 pregnant ones that included clinical examination to d [...] iagnose the oral manifestations. Tests concerning proportions were descriptive using jerarquica ward classification. RESULTS: observed oral manifestation most frequently in the pregnant women was gingivitis 16 (53; 3%),, candidiasis pseudomembranosa 9 (30%), queilitis angular 9 (30%), la aftas recurrentes con 6 (20%), lineal erithema con 5 (16,67%), la xerostomia y candidiasis eritematosas 3 (6,67%); parotiditis 1 (3,3%) CONCLUSION: The presence of oral manifestations that we saw in pregnant HIV women gives relevance to the dentistry in the diagnosis and handling of the infection.

  13. Antifungal activity of the extracts and saponins from Sapindus saponaria L.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuzuki, Joyce K; Svidzinski, Terezinha I. E.; Cristiane S. Shinobu; Luiz F.A. Silva; Edson Rodrigues-Filho; Cortez, Diógenes A. G.; Ferreira, Izabel C. P.

    2007-01-01

    Extracts from the dried pericarp of Sapindus saponaria L. (Sapindaceae) fruits were investigated for their antifungal activity against clinical isolates of yeasts Candida albicans and C. non-albicans from vaginal secretions of women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single clinical isolated of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans ATCC 90028 were used. The hydroalcoholic extract was bioactivity-dire...

  14. Lack of association between genotypes and virulence factors in C. albicans strains isolated from vaginal secretion Ausência de associação entre genótipos e fatores de virulência em C. albicans isoladas de secreção vaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Suemi Shinobu; Sueli Fumie Yamada Ogatta; Fenando Bizerra; Luciana Furlaneto; Rosane Marina Peralta; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Marcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    The physiopathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is still not completely elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a relationship between the different genotypes of Candida albicans, their main agent and the virulence of this yeast in vaginal isolates, and to check if there are laboratorial markers that can predict the ability of each isolate to develop VVC independently of symptoms. The production of exoenzymes protease, phospholipase and haemolysin, resista...

  15. Vaginal Discharge: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, William J.; DeMarchi, Gregory

    1987-01-01

    Vaginal discharge is a frequent presenting complaint in an office practice. The authors of this article review the most common causes of this condition, namely Candidiasis, Trichimoniasis, and Bacterial Vaginosis (Gardnerella), as well as the more serious causes, namely gonorrhea, chlamydia, and Herpes simplex. Symptoms and physical signs are generally insufficient to distinguish specific etiologic agents and, as treatment for each is different, diagnostic examination of smears in the office ...

  16. Detection of Als Proteins on the Cell Wall of Candida albicans in Murine Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, L L; Clevenger, J.; Hecht, J E; E. J. Ehrhart; Poulet, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    A murine model of disseminated candidiasis was utilized to determine whether Candida albicans Als proteins are produced in vivo. The kidneys, spleen, heart, liver, and lungs were collected from mice inoculated with one of three C. albicans strains (SC5314, B311, or WO-1). Immunohistochemical analysis of murine tissues by using a rabbit polyclonal anti-Als serum indicated that Als proteins were produced by each C. albicans cell in the tissues examined. Patterns of staining with the anti-Als se...

  17. Rutinemæssig oftalmologisk opfølgning anbefales ved candidæmi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Jesper; Leemreize, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of candidaemia is increasing on a global scale. Secondary intraocular involvement is a rare but serious complication, which can cause considerable visual damage. Hence, current national and international guidelines recommend ophthalmological examination of all patients with verified candidaemia in order to ensure adequate therapy and reduce the risk of visual impairment. We present a case illustrating that initial symptoms and findings of ocular candidiasis may often be subtle which emphasizes the importance of consistent adherence to these guidelines.

  18. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  19. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effect of lasioglossins on the Candida albicans.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašperová, A.; Turánek, J.; ?e?ovský, Václav; Raška, M.

    Praha : Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v. v. i, 2011 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 54-57 ISBN 978-80-86241-44-9. - (Collection Symposium Series. 13). [Biologically Active Peptides /12./. Praha (CZ), 27.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Candida viability * flow cytometry analysis * antimicrobial activity * vaginal candidiasis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  20. Enhancement of antifungal activity by integrin-targeting of branched histidine rich peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Scaria, Puthupparampil V; Liu, Yijia; Leng, Qixin; Chou, Szu-Ting; Mixson, A James; Woodle, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of invasive candidiasis associated with growing numbers of immunocompromised patients remains a major challenge complicated by increasing drug resistance. A novel class of branched histidine-lysine (bHK) peptides has promising antifungal activity, and exhibits a mechanism similar to natural histatins, and thus may avoid drug resistance. The present studies evaluate ligand targeting of bHK peptides to fungal surface integrins by determining whether a cyclic RGD ...

  1. Oral Health in Children with Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Dhillon, Jatinder Kaur; Kalra, Gauri

    2012-01-01

    Leukemia is one of the most common malignancies affecting children in India. These children usually suffer from various oral complications, which may be due to the leukemia or due to the chemotherapeutic agents and/or radiotherapy. The complications may include some of the opportunistic infections like candidiasis, herpes simplex; hemorrhage, mucositis, taste alterations and increased incidence of dental caries etc. These complications can cause significant morbidity and mortality in the pati...

  2. Candida Colonization in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noori Sanami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Candida colonization is a major risk factor for invasive candidiasis in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the rate, risk factors, and sources of colonization in low birth weight (LBW and very low birth weight (VLBW infants in an NICU. Patients and Methods All cases were classified in to 1 of 2 groups: LBW and VLBW. A questionnaire that collected demographic data was completed for each case. Swabs were obtained from the ear, umbilicus, and rectum, as well as catheters, tracheal tubes, and nasogastric tubes. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 102 cases were examined in this study. The mean weight of the infants was 1720 ± 474 gr (range 850 - 2500 gr. Positive Candida cultures were isolated in 19 (31.7% cases in the LBW group and 20 (47.6% cases in the VLBW group. In addition, 36 (35.3% cases showed signs of sepsis. The mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 1. The umbilicus and rectum were the most common sites for Candida colonization in both groups. The analysis also indicated that the duration of hospitalization, prolonged use of corticosteroids, central venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation were associated with candidiasis infection in VLBW infants while prolonged use of corticosteroids and central venous catheters were major risk factors associated with candidiasis infection in LBW infants. Conclusions These results show that maturity and birth weight are related to a decrease in the risk of developing a candidiasis infection.

  3. Oral hairy leukoplakia of the lips with CMV retinitis in a woman with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A female prostitute, seropositive for HIV by ELISA and Western blot, presenting with mucous lesions of tongue and lower lip and also with unilateral loss of vision of the right eye is discussed. The tongue and lip lesions were confirmed by histopathological examination to be hairy leukoplakia, and the loss of vision was found to be due to retinitis-probably due to cytomegalovirus infection. The patient also had candidiasis, both oral and genital and lymphopaenia.

  4. Review of the literature for a case with candidal esophagitis at HIV negative young adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Özgür Tanr?verdi

    2008-01-01

    Candidal esophagitis, frequently seen in HIV seropositive patients, may develop in HIV seronegative patients due to various etiologic reasons. In this case, investigation of esophagitis diagnosis and the etiologic factors were aimed to be presented by using literature data. The potential contribution of severe emotional stress and depression to the etiology of esophageal candidiasis in a HIV seronegative case via the negative impact on the immunologic system was discussed.

  5. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin. killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates

    OpenAIRE

    de Aquino Lemos, Janine; Costa, Carolina Rodrigues; de Araújo, Crystiane Rodrigues; Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e Souza; Silva, Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing pattern...

  6. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Cassone Antonio; Girolamo Antonietta; De Bernardis Flavia; Mondello Francesca; Salvatore Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent investigations on the antifungal properties of essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel (Tea Tree Oil, TTO) have been performed with reference to the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. However, there is a lack of in vivo data supporting in vitro results, especially regarding the antifungal properties of TTO constituents. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the in vitro and the in vivo anti-Candida activity of two critical bioactive constituents of TTO,...

  7. Variability analyses of functional domains within glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase of mycosescausing fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Utkarsh; Banerjee, Kamalika; Gabrani, Reema; Gupta, Sanjay; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Jain, Chakresh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The immunosuppressive individuals are highly prone to get afflicted with invasive opportunistic fungal infections such as Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, Histoplasmosis, Coccidioidomycosis, Blastomycosis, Penicilliosis, Cryptococcosis and Zygomycosis which are becoming a cause of concern to the mankind due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. The existing antifungal agents are not completely effective due to their severe side-effects and recurrent drug resistance in fungi. Hence,...

  8. Inactivation of the Antifungal and Immunomodulatory Properties of Human Cathelicidin LL-37 by Aspartic Proteases Produced by the Pathogenic Yeast Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Rapala-Kozik, Maria; Bochenska, Oliwia; Zawrotniak, Marcin; Wolak, Natalia; Trebacz, Grzegorz; Gogol, Mariusz; Ostrowska, Dominika; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kozik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Constant cross talk between Candida albicans yeast cells and their human host determines the outcome of fungal colonization and, eventually, the progress of infectious disease (candidiasis). An effective weapon used by C. albicans to cope with the host defense system is the release of 10 distinct secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs). Here, we validate a hypothesis that neutrophils and epithelial cells use the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 to inactivate C. albicans at sites of candidal infection a...

  9. Positions and Numbers of FKS Mutations in Candida albicans Selectively Influence In Vitro and In Vivo Susceptibilities to Echinocandin Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lackner; Tscherner, M.; Schaller, M.; Kuchler, K.; Mair, C.; B. Sartori; Istel, F.; Arendrup, M.C.; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-01-01

    Candidemia is the fourth most common kind of microbial bloodstream infection, with Candida albicans being the most common causative species. Echinocandins are employed as the first-line treatment for invasive candidiasis until the fungal species is determined and confirmed by clinical diagnosis. Echinocandins block the FKS glucan synthases responsible for embedding β-(1,3)-d-glucan in the cell wall. The increasing use of these drugs has led to the emergence of antifungal resistance, and eleva...

  10. Detection and antifungal susceptibility testing of oral Candida dubliniensis from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chunchanur Sneha; Nadgir Shobha; Halesh L; Patil B; Kausar Yasmeen; Chandrasekhar M

    2009-01-01

    Context: Candida dubliniensis, an opportunistic yeast that has been implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) may be under-reported due to its similarity with Candida albicans. Resistance to Fluconazole is often seen in C. dubliniensis isolates from clinical specimens. Aims: To know the prevalence of C. dubliniensis in OPC in patients infected with HIV and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Settings and Design: One hu...

  11. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional ...

  12. The buccale puzzle: The symbiotic nature of endogenous infections of the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ruby, John; Barbeau, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The indigenous, 'normal', microflora causes the majority of localized infectious diseases of the oral cavity (eg, dental caries, alveolar abscesses, periodontal diseases and candidiasis). The same microflora also protects the host from exogenous pathogens by stimulating a vigorous immune response and provides colonization resistance. How can a microflora that supports health also cause endogenous oral disease? This paradoxical host-symbiont relationship will be discussed within the dynamic of...

  13. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF STILBENES AGAINST CANDIDA ALBICANS BY TIME KILL ASSAY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nishanth Kumar*, J. V. Siji, Bala Nambisan and C. Mohandas

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most important fungi associated with oral candidiasis and the treatment of this fungi is a serious problem today because of the resistance of these fungi against conventionally used drugs. So, there is an urgent need of alternative antifungal substances especially from the natural sources. The study was conducted to examine the MFC and time kill activity of two stilbenes [3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene (1) and 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene (2)] purified from a ...

  14. Evaluation of propolis and its subproduct as an inhibitor of growth and biofilm formation in vaginal yeast from pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, L. B.; Salci, T. P.; Bonfim-Mendonça, P. S.; Tobaldini, F. K.; Toledo, L. A. S.; Negri, M.; M.L. Bruschi; Svidzinski, T. I. E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is still unsatisfactory, especially in pregnant women, being promising to the utilization of alternative therapies. Propolis extract solution (PES) has demonstrated antifungal efficacy and low toxicity. In addition, the subproduct of propolis extract solution (SPES) is produced during the process of preparing PES and is usually discarded, but can still sub- mit substances responsible for biological effects, such as the polyphenols, re...

  15. Candida Infections and Their Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M Anaul; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increased dramatically worldwide due to the increase in immunocompromised patients. For the prevention and cure of candidiasis, several strategies have been adopted at clinical level. Candida infected patients are commonly treated with a variety of antifungal drugs such as fluconazole, amphotericin B, nystatin, and flucytosine. Moreover, early detection and speciation of the fungal agents will play a crucial role for administering appropriate dru...

  16. A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Sadhan Kumar

    2002-01-01

    A total of 4129 patients attended the STD clinic from 1996 to 1999. Of those 25.75% were STD cases. Male and female cases comprised 86% and 14% respectively. Majority were in the age group between 18 to 38 years. Choncroid was the commonest STD (37. 7%). Other STDs in order were syphilis (30. 66%), NGU (15.71%), gonorrhoea (7%), venereal wart (3.57%), candidiasis (2.53%), trichomonal vaginitis (1.6%), herpes genitalis (0.65...

  17. Acquired Flucytosine Resistance during Combination Therapy with Caspofungin and Flucytosine for Candida glabrata Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Caroline; El Sissy, Carine; Bachelier-Bassi, Sophie; Scemla, Anne; Quesne, Gilles; Sitterlé, Emilie; Legendre, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Candida glabrata cystitis remains a therapeutic challenge, and an antifungal combination using flucytosine is one option. We describe two patients with refractory C. glabrata cystitis who failed flucytosine combined with caspofungin with early-acquired high-level resistance to flucytosine due to nonsense mutations in the FUR1 gene. Rapidly acquired flucytosine resistance with microbiological failure should discourage combination of caspofungin and flucytosine during urinary candidiasis. PMID:26525799

  18. Comparison of Different Methods of Isolation of DNA of Commonly Encountered Candida Species and Its Quantitation by Using a Real-Time PCR-Based Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Maaroufi, Younes; Ahariz, Naïma; Husson, Mireille; Crokaert, Françoise

    2004-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis based on genomic amplification methods such as real-time PCR assay has been reported as an alternative to conventional culture for early detection of invasive candidiasis. However, a major limitation of the molecular method is the difficulty associated with breaking fungal cell walls since the DNA extraction step still requires more than half of a working day. It has been suggested that PCR detection of free template DNA in serum is preferred over the use of whole blood fo...

  19. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Deorukhkar, Sachin C.; Santosh Saini; Stephen Mathew

    2014-01-01

    The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species d...

  20. Farnesol : beyond morphogenesis control in non-candida albicans candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M.; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade the incidence of candidiasis increased dramatically. Although Candida albicans remains the most frequent cause of infections, non-Candida albicans candida (NCAC) species are emerging as new pathogens. Candida infections are often associated with biofilms that can develop on natural surfaces and medical devices. In a similar manner to other microorganisms, signalling pathways may control the diversity and distribution of Candida species within biofilms. E,...

  1. Biofilm formation ability by non-candida albicans candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sónia Carina; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2007-01-01

    The number of infections caused by Candida species has greatly increased in the past ten years. This has been attributed with an increase in the number of AIDS patients, the elderly population and immunocompromised patients. Moreover, the increased use of indwelling medical devices has also been implicated with the rise of candidal infections. Most candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, however, recently, new non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species have been ...

  2. SPECIES IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA ISOLATES OBTAINED FROM ORAL LESIONS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar, V. P.; Kumar, S.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 60 patients suspected to have AIDS with oral lesions suggestive of oral candidiasis were studied. Candida species were isolated from 50 patients. Candida albicans was the commonest isolate (70 %) followed Candida parapsilosis(15%), Candida glabrata (7.5%) and Candida tropicalis (5%) respectively. Candida dubliniensis was isolated from a single case only. Though the reports from developed countries show more prevalence of the novel species Candida dubliniensis, in our study it was i...

  3. Posaconazole Activity against Candida glabrata after Exposure to Caspofungin or Amphotericin B?

    OpenAIRE

    Spreghini, Elisabetta; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Milici, Maria Eleonora; Scalise, Giorgio; Barchiesi, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sequential therapy with caspofungin (CAS) or amphotericin B (AMB) followed by posaconazole (POS) against Candida glabrata. The susceptibilities to POS of yeast cells pre-exposed to CAS or AMB were identical to those of untreated cells as shown by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth dilution, cell viability, and disk diffusion methods. We then investigated the activity of sequential regimens in an experimental model of disseminated candidiasis...

  4. Investigating Biofilm Production, Coagulase and Hemolytic Activity in Candida Species Isolated From Denture Stomatitis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nimet Yigit; Esin Aktas; Saadettin Dagistan; Ahmet Ayyildiz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Oral candidiasis, in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, represents a common disease in a large percentage of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated species. In this study, we aimed to evaluate biofilm production, coagulase and hemolytic activity of Candida species isolated from denture stomatitis patients. Materials and Methods: This study included 70 patients (31 female, 39 male). Forty-eight of the patients were found to have a po...

  5. Inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis

    OpenAIRE

    E Zibafar; Hashemi SJ; F Zaini; H. Zeraati; S. Rezaie; Kordbacheh, P.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Candidiasis associated with indwelling medical devices is especially problematic since they can act as substrates for biofilm growth which are highly resistant to antifungal drugs. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation and biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Since in recent years Candida tropicalis have been reported as an important and common non-albicans Candida species with high drug resistance pattern, the inhibitory effect of farnesol o...

  6. Development and Validation of an In Vivo Candida albicans Biofilm Denture Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Nett, Jeniel E; Marchillo, Karen; Spiegel, Carol A.; David R. Andes

    2010-01-01

    The most common form of oral candidiasis, denture-associated stomatitis, involves biofilm growth on an oral prosthetic surface. Cells in this unique environment are equipped to withstand host defenses and survive antifungal therapy. Studies of the biofilm process on dentures have primarily been limited to in vitro models. We developed a rodent acrylic denture model and characterized the Candida albicans and mixed oral bacterial flora biofilm formation, architecture, and drug resistance in viv...

  7. Biofilm formation among Candida albicans isolated from vagina

    OpenAIRE

    D C Thamke; H A Tayade; Surekha Tayade; Bankar, N. J.; Rathod, N. G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital with a purpose to demonstrate the biofilm forming abilities of C. albicans isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and asymptomatic carriers.Material and Methods: C. albicans was isolated and identified by standard laboratory techniques. Biofilm formation in vitro was tested using the 96 well microtitre plate method with crystal violet staining.Results: Overall rate of Candida isolation in study subjects was 40%. Candida i...

  8. Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis : comparison of biofilm formation in terms of biomass and activity

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis are two species responsible for oral candidiasis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Microbial infection is preceded by adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm formation represents the most common form of C. albicans in the oral cavity and is considered to be one of the most important virulence factors. In this study, the biofilm formation ability of C. dubliniensis was compared with that of C. albicans in terms of biomass (...

  9. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  10. Successful Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Basilar Artery Aneurysm in a Child with Leukemia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Shihori; Maehara, Taketoshi; MUKAWA, Maki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Yoshino, Yoshikazu; Nemoto, Shigeru; Ono, Toshiaki; OHNO, Kikuo

    2013-01-01

    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population compared to adults. This has incited considerable discussion on how to treat children with this condition. Here, we report a child with a ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization. A 12-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and accompanying abdominal candidiasis after chemotherapy suddenly complained of a severe headache and suffered consciousness disturbance mome...

  11. Propolis Is an Efficient Fungicide and Inhibitor of Biofilm Production by Vaginal Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; BONFIM-MENDONÇA, Patrícia de Souza; Arita, Glaucia Sayuri; Pereira, Raphaela Regina de Araújo; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano; Negri, Melyssa; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common genital infections in women. The therapeutic arsenal remains restricted, and some alternatives to VVC treatment are being studied. The present study evaluated the influence of a propolis extractive solution (PES) on biofilm production by Candida albicans isolated from patients with VVC. Susceptibility testing was used to verify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PES, with fluconazole and nystatin as controls. The biofilm form...

  12. Uso de los propóleos en las piodermitis y micosis superficiales

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Castro, Myra M.

    1996-01-01

    Se estudian 600 pacientes con piodermitis y micosis superficiales:candidiasis y dermatofitosis, entre los años 1987 a 1991. Comparamos los tratamientos con medicamentos elaborados en nuestro laboratorio, a partir de propóleos pardos, con los de uso tradicional. Demostramos sensibilidad a los propóleos pardos de cítricos(recolectados en el municipio de Jagüey Grande de la provincia de Matanzas)en las cepas bacterianas Gram positiva y Gram negativa, aislada de nuestros casos, al igual que las c...

  13. How Does It Kill?: Understanding the Candidacidal Mechanism of Salivary Histatin 5

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Sumant; Edgerton, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Histatins are salivary cationic peptides that provide the first line of defense against oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. This minireview presents a critical evaluation of our knowledge of the candidacidal mechanism of histatin 5 (Hst 5). Hst 5 is the most potent among all histatin family members with regard to its antifungal activity. The mode of action of Hst 5 has been a subject of intense debate. Unlike other classical host innate immune proteins, pore formation or membrane lys...

  14. The Use of Swiss Albino Mice and Egyptian Toads (Bufo regularis as Reliable Biological Test Animals for Screening Chemicals and Drugs Which Induce Leukaemia in Man. I: The Effect of Nizoral (Ketoconazole on Leucocytes of Toads and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. El-Mofty

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nizoral (Ketoconazole is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of systemic mycosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Administration of Nizoral into toads and mice induced pronounced alterations in leucocytes. Electron microscopical examination revealed that these alterations are leukaemic alterations and they are more or less similar to the criteria reported in human Leukaemia. The changes were all comparable to those observed after the administration of the carcinogenic chemical 7,12 dimethylbenz (a anthracene.

  15. The Use of Swiss Albino Mice and Egyptian Toads (Bufo regularis) as Reliable Biological Test Animals for Screening Chemicals and Drugs Which Induce Leukaemia in Man. I: The Effect of Nizoral (Ketoconazole) on Leucocytes of Toads and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. El-Mofty; A.E. Essawy; M.H. Shwairebv; H.M. Abdel-Karim

    2000-01-01

    Nizoral (Ketoconazole) is an antifungal drug used for the treatment of systemic mycosis and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Administration of Nizoral into toads and mice induced pronounced alterations in leucocytes. Electron microscopical examination revealed that these alterations are leukaemic alterations and they are more or less similar to the criteria reported in human Leukaemia. The changes were all comparable to those observed after the administration of the carcinogenic chemical 7,12 dimet...

  16. New insights in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, OMIM 240300) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene located on chromosome 21 (21q22.3). AIRE deficiency causes a loss in central immune tolerance, leading to the failure to eliminate autoreactive T cells in the thymus and allowing their escape to the periphery. Because of a founder effect, APECED is particularly prevalent in Finland (1/25,000) but is observed wor...

  17. Assessment of the types of catheter infectivity caused by Candida species and their biofilm formation. First study in an intensive care unit in Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Seddiki SML; Boucherit-Otmani Z; Boucherit K; Badsi-Amir S; Taleb M; Kunkel D

    2013-01-01

    Sidi Mohammed Lahbib Seddiki,1 Zahia Boucherit-Otmani,1 Kebir Boucherit,1 Souad Badsi-Amir,2 Mourad Taleb,3 Dennis Kunkel41Laboratory: Antifungal Antibiotic, Physico-Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activity, University of Tlemcen, Algeria; 2Department of Anesthesiology, 3Department of Epidemiology, University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria; 4Dennis Kunkel Microscopy Inc, Kailua, HI, USAAbstract: Nosocomial candidiasis remains a potential risk in intensive care units (ICUs), wherein Can...

  18. Vulvar Myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. L. Passos; Carvalho, A. V. V.; Dutra, A L; R. A. Goulart Filho; N. A. Barreto; Salles, R S; Santos, C. C. C.; Tibúrcio, A S; Monteiro, A. C. S.; Tavares, R R

    1998-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. This infestation is, however, rarely seen in the vulvar area. We present a short review of the disease and the case of a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also positive for human immunodeficiency virus.

  19. Vulvar myiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Passos, M R; Carvalho, A V; Dutra, A L; R. A. Goulart Filho; N. A. Barreto; Salles, R S; Santos, C. C.; Tibúrcio, A S; Monteiro, A C; Tavares, R R

    1998-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. This infestation is, however, rarely seen in the vulvar area. We present a short review of the disease and the case of a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also positive for human immunodeficiency virus.

  20. Vulvar myiasis during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício H. L. Morelhi; Bravo, Renato S; Pinheiro, Vandira M. S.; Cláudio C. C. Santos; Barreto, Nero A; Rogério R. Tavares; Varella, Renata Q; Passos, Mauro R L

    2002-01-01

    Myiasis is a parasitic infestation caused by the larvae of several fly species. Diagnosis and treatment are simple. The location of this infestation at the vulvar area is, however, an extremely rare occurrence. The authors present two cases of vulvar myiasis affecting pregnant women. The first case is a 19-year-old pregnant girl with vulvar myiasis and concomitant syphilis, vaginal trichomoniasis and genital candidiasis. The patient was also HIV-positive. The second case is a 17-year-old preg...