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Sample records for candidiasis

  1. Candidiasis

    ... humans, the most common of which is Candida albicans . Candida yeasts normally live on the skin and mucous membranes without causing infection; however, overgrowth of these organisms can cause symptoms to develop. Symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on ...

  2. Invasive Candidiasis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  3. Oral candidiasis

    Akpan, A; Morgan, R

    2002-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndro...

  4. Candidiasis (Thrush)

    ... Take supplements of gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) and Biotin. They both seem to slow the spread of ... GLA is found in several cold-pressed oils. Biotin is a B vitamin. THE BOTTOM LINE Candidiasis ...

  5. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and radiotherapy

    The oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common condition in cancer patients treated by irradiation, during and after their treatment. For example, almost 70% of patients treated with chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer are colonized, and 40% of symptomatic patients have an oropharyngeal candidiasis. Furthermore, we noticed an increase in non-albicans Candida strains, which are present in almost 50% of samples. Cancer treatments, especially radiation therapy, and co-morbidities are risk factors of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oropharyngeal candidiasis has substantial effects on quality of life, and may limit treatment. Epidemiologic data, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis criteria, consequences and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis will be discussed in this article. (authors)

  6. Diaper Dermatitis (Candidiasis)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Diaper Dermatitis (Candidiasis) A parent's guide for infants and babies A ... candidal diaper dermatitis, and candida infection in the mouth (oral thrush) may also occur. Who's At Risk ...

  7. Oral candidiasis: An overview

    Arun Singh; Renuka Verma; Aditi Murari; Ashutosh Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Th...

  8. Immunology of oral candidiasis

    Janardhanam Dineshshankar; Muniapillai Sivakumar; M. Karthikeyan; Udayakumar, P.; K. T. Shanmugam; Kesavan, G

    2014-01-01

    A successful pathogen is one that is able to effectively survive and evade detection by the host immune defense. Oral candidiasis has adopted strategies, which evade host defense and eventually cause disease in at-risk patients. Host defense against infections with Candida spp. depends on rapid activation of an acute inflammatory response by innate immunity, followed by an incremental stimulation of specific immune responses mediated by T-cells (cellular immunity) or B-cells (humoral immunity...

  9. KEGG DISEASE / Candidiasis [KEGG DISEASE

    Full Text Available DISEASE: H00363 Entry H00363Disease Name Candidiasis Description Candidiasis is a fungal infecti ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Journal Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) Reference PM ...

  10. Oesophageal candidiasis after omeprazole therapy.

    A. J. Larner; Lendrum, R

    1992-01-01

    Oesophageal candidiasis was diagnosed incidentally at endoscopy in two patients receiving omeprazole therapy. There were no other predisposing factors for the development of candidiasis. The infection was resolved rapidly by anti-candidal therapy and by stopping omeprazole. These findings suggest that gastric acid secretion and physiological reflux of acid into the oesophagus may play a protective role in preventing candida infection.

  11. Oropharyngeal/Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush")

    ... and this is called Candida esophagitis, or esophageal candidiasis. Symptoms Candida infections of the mouth and throat can ... your doctor if you have any of these symptoms. Risk & Prevention Who Gets Oral Candidiasis? Candida infections of the mouth and throat are ...

  12. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Sobel, Jack D

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a common cause of significant morbidity in women in all strata of society affecting millions of women worldwide. Previously, RVVC occurrence was limited by onset of menopause but the widespread use of hormone replacement therapy has extended the at-risk period. Candida albicans remains the dominant species responsible for RVVC, however optimal management of RVVC requires species determination and effective treatment measures are best if species-specific. Considerable progress has been made in understanding risk factors that determine susceptibility to RVVC, particularly genetic factors, as well as new insights into normal vaginal defense immune mechanisms and their aberrations in RVVC. While effective control of RVVC is achievable with the use of fluconazole maintenance suppressive therapy, cure of RVVC remains elusive especially in this era of fluconazole drug resistance. Vaccine development remains a critical challenge and need. PMID:26164695

  13. Oral candidiasis: An overview

    Arun Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Thrush. This is a fungal infection (Mycosis of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. When this happens, it can create a widespread havoc to our overall health and well-being of our body.

  14. Oral candidiasis: An overview.

    Singh, Arun; Verma, Renuka; Murari, Aditi; Agrawal, Ashutosh

    2014-09-01

    Candida is the shortened name used to describe a class of fungi that includes more than 150 species of yeast. In healthy individuals, Candida exists harmlessly in mucus membranes such as your ears, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, mouth, nose, reproductive organs, sinuses, skin, stool and vagina, etc. It is known as your "beneficial flora" and has a useful purpose in the body. When an imbalance in the normal flora occurs, it causes an overgrowth of Candida albicans. The term is Candidiasis or Thrush. This is a fungal infection (Mycosis) of any of the Candida species, of which Candida albicans is the most common. When this happens, it can create a widespread havoc to our overall health and well-being of our body. PMID:25364186

  15. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  17. Mouse Model of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Solis, Norma V.; Filler, Scott G

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with defects in cell-mediated immunity or saliva production. Animal models of this infection are important for studying disease pathogenesis and evaluating vaccines and antifungal therapies. Here we describe a simple murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Mice are rendered susceptible to oral infection by injection with cortisone acetate and then inoculated by placing a swab saturated with Candida albicans sublingually...

  18. Diagnosis and Testing of Oral Candidiasis

    ... A culture may also be performed; however, because Candida organisms are normal inhabitants of the human mouth, ... Global fungal diseases Cryptococcal meningitis Histoplasmosis Resources Antifungal Resistance Other Candidiasis Topics Vaginal Yeast Infections Invasive Candidiasis ...

  19. Oral Candidiasis and Oral Hyperplastic Candidiasis: Clinical Presentation

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the oral cavity. It is common and underdiagnosed among the elderly, particularly in those who wear dentures and in many cases is avoidable with a good mouth care regimen. It can also be a mark of systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and is a common problem among the immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is caused by an overgrowth or infection of the oral cavity by a yeast-like fungus, candida.The important ones are C albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata , C pseudotropicalis, C guillierimondii, C krusei, C lusitaniae, C parapsilosis and C stellatoidea. C albicans, C glabrata and C tropicalis represent more than 80% of isolates from clinical infection. Oral candidiasis is the most common human fungal infection especially in early and later life. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing`s syndrome, malignancies and immunosuppressive conditions. The aim of the research is to describe the clinical manifestations of the disease.

  20. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    ... of Contents: Overview Who's At Risk Signs and Symptoms Self-Care Guidelines When to Seek Medical Care Treatments Your Provider May Prescribe References/Trusted Links Related diseases: Hairy Tongue Lichen Planus Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum Skinmatters ...

  1. Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Fidel, P. L.; Sobel, J D

    1996-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a prevalent opportunistic mucosal infection, caused predominantly by Candida albicans, which affects a significant number of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. Since there are no known exogenous predisposing factors to explain the incidence of symptomatic vaginitis in most women with idiopathic RVVC, it has been postulated that these particular women suffer from an immunological abnormality that prediposes them to RVVC. Because of the inc...

  2. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    Oyefara, B I; Kim, H.C.; Danziger, R N; Carroll, M.; Greene, J.M.; Douglas, S D

    1994-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by T-cell dysregulation and chronic superficial candidal infections. We report on three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis who developed autoantibodies to erythrocytes. Our first patient, a 19-year-old female, developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that required multiple courses of treatment, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and danazol. During the last exacerbation of AIHA,...

  3. Risk prediction for invasive candidiasis

    Armin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over past few years, treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC has evolved from targeted therapy to prophylaxis, pre-emptive and empirical therapy. Numerous predisposing factors for IC have been grouped together in various combinations to design risk prediction models. These models in general have shown good negative predictive value, but poor positive predictive value. They are useful in selecting the population which is less likely to benefit from empirical antifungal therapy and thus prevent overuse of antifungal agents. Current article deals with various risk prediction models for IC and their external validation studies.

  4. Immunopathogenesis of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Fidel, P L; Sobel, J D

    1996-07-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a prevalent opportunistic mucosal infection, caused predominantly by Candida albicans, which affects a significant number of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. Since there are no known exogenous predisposing factors to explain the incidence of symptomatic vaginitis in most women with idiopathic RVVC, it has been postulated that these particular women suffer from an immunological abnormality that prediposes them to RVVC. Because of the increased incidence of mucosal candidiasis in individuals with depressed cell-mediated immunity (CMI), defects in CMI are viewed as a possible explanation for RVVC. In this review, we attempt to place into perspective the accumulated information regarding the immunopathogenesis of RVVC, as well as to provide new immunological perspectives and hypotheses regarding potential immunological deficiencies that may predispose to RVVC and potentially other mucosal infections by the same organism. The results of both clinical studies and studies in an animal model of experimental vaginitis suggest that systemic CMI may not be the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans vaginal infections. Rather, locally acquired mucosal immunity, distinct from that in the peripheral circulation, is now under consideration as an important host defense at the vaginal mucosa, as well as the notion that changes in local CMI mechanism(s) may predispose to RVVC. PMID:8809464

  5. AMPHOTERICIN B AND NEONATAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS

    G. Khotaei

    1999-01-01

    Systemic candidiasis i" a major problem in high risk neonates. Mortality is high but may be reduced by prompt antifungal therapy."nY> c administered amphotericin li to 22 infants lift preterm with imtin birti' weigh: < ISOOg; mean gestational age .t2 i 2 weeks} tun! 4 full term newborn (mean birth weith, MIX- z. 200g. mean gestational age, .M ± .i weeks) infant;. with systeoiii candidiasis. During the IO year period. 22 infants wiln systemic Candida! in...

  6. Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models

    Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Lakshman P. Samaranayake

    2001-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, rat, and mouse are the choice models for investigating oral candidiasis, but comparisons between the same or different models appear difficult, because of variables such as the study design, the num...

  7. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    Coronado Castellote, Laura; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathog...

  8. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet for oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Rajesh V. Lalla; Bensadoun, René-Jean

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a commonly encountered problem in daily clinical practice. Topical therapies for oropharyngeal candidiasis are considered preferable to systemic therapies in most patient populations. However, traditional topical therapies have limitations including short contact time with the oral mucosa and the need for multiple doses each day. Miconazole mucoadhesive tablet has recently been approved in Europe (Loramyc®) and the USA (Oravig™) for the treatment of oropharyngeal ...

  9. Rethinking T cell immunity in oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Pirofski, Liise-anne; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The disproportionate increase in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) compared with systemic and vaginal candidiasis in female patients with AIDS has been a paradox for almost three decades. New data now show that severe OPC develops in Th17-deficient mice, but not Th1-deficient mice, implicating Th17-induced effector molecules in resistance to oral disease. These findings clarify and extend our current thinking about how CD4 T cell deficiency influences susceptibility to OPC.

  10. Candidiasis hepatoesplnica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda / Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia

    A., Larregina; B., Bartoletti; H., Romano; L., Paniccia; N. N., Polini.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crnica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplnica, es una de las formas clnicas ms caractersticas de infeccin invasora por Candida en pacientes hematolgicos. Se presenta el caso clnico de un varn de 31 aos, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) M2, internado en el [...] Servicio de Clnica Mdica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterpico de induccin y consolidacin present neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplnica fue diagnosticada por tomografa axial computada (TAC) y biopsia heptica. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le di el alta en espera de transplante de mdula sea. En este paciente se demostr que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplnica ayud en la eleccin de un mtodo de diagnstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento. Abstract in english Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia af [...] ter induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

  11. New Model of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Mice

    Kamai, Yasuki; Kubota, Mikie; Kamai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Tsunemichi; Fukuoka, Takashi; Filler, Scott G.

    2001-01-01

    We established a straightforward murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Mice were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate, anesthetized, and then inoculated by placing cotton wool balls saturated with Candida albicans sublingually for 2 h. A prolonged, reproducible infection was induced. This model may be useful for antifungal screening or pathogenesis studies.

  12. VULVO VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS : IMPORTANCE OF SPECIES IDENTIFICATION

    Swarajya Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis is a common nagging problem faced by 75% of women in reproductive age group. Present study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Candida in patients suffering from vaginitis , to assess predisposing factors and correlate the symptoms with gram stain for presumptive diagnosis of Candidiasis. METHODS : A prospective study of the laboratory diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC was carried out in 100 women presenting with symptoms suggestive of vaginosis in the reproductive age group. Investigation s included microscopy and culture for yeast. Candida is identified, based on growth on SDA, corn meal agar and Saba raud’s Triphenyl tetrazolium agar, and assimilation and fermentation of sugars. RESULTS : Candida was isolated in 33% of women. Clue cells on gram stain suggestive of bacterial vaginosis was seen in equal number of women, whereas mixed infection was found in 9%. Candida albicans accounted for 15% and nonalbicans species for 85% . O f the non albicans species, Candida glabrata was the commonest (4 2%. Pruritus with or without vaginal discharge and vaginal erythema were the most common symptoms and signs in women with positive Candida culture. CONCLUSION : On comparing the significance of gram stain and culture for presumptive diagnosis of candidiasi s, culture was more significant than gram stain alone. In present study, the rate of culture positivity was 33% and C. glabrata was the predominant species. VVC cannot be diagnosed by clinical criteria alone and requires confirmation by culture including i dentification of species.

  13. [Oesophageal candidiasis: clinical and mycological analysis].

    Olmos, Martín Alejandro; Araya, Valentina; Concetti, Hugo; Ramallo, Jennifer; Piskorz, Eduardo; Pérez, Héctor; Cahn, Pedro; Kaufman, Sara; Guelfand, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    Oesophageal candidiasis is an epithelial infection which requires an immune deficiency. C. albicans is commonly the cause, although other species may also be responsible. Resistance to fluconazole, drug of choice for treatment, is an emerging problem. The objectives of the current paper were: to determine the frequency of oesophageal candidiasis in patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, analyze risk factors, identify Candida species and determine in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole. During 12 months, 34 patients with oesophageal candidiasis were detected. Out of 1.230 HIV negative and 91 HIV positive patients submitted to upper endoscopy, 11 (0.9%) and 23 (25.3%), respectively, had candidiasis. Risk factors for HIV negative patients were systemic antibiotic therapy in 2, deficient dental cleaning in 2 aged patients, use of proton pump inhibitors in 3, inhaled steroids in 2, malignancy in 1 and oral steroids in 1. The histopathologic diagnosis was confirmed in 48.6% of cases. Cultures were positive in 91.2% C. albicans was prevalent (93.5%), and was associated to other species in 5 cases (16.1%), (3 C. glabrata, 1 C. tropicalis and 1 C. parapsilosis). One case cultured only C. glabrata and 1, only C tropicalis. Out of 31 cultures, 25 were susceptible to fluconazole, 4 dose dependent (1 C. albicans, 3 C. glabrata), and 2 resistant (1 C. albicans, 1 C. glabrata). Frequency of oesophageal candidiasis was low, except for HIV positive patients. The most common etiologic agent was C. albicans, though other Candida species were also found. C. albicans and C. glabrata showed dose dependency and resistance to fluconazole. PMID:16496852

  14. AMPHOTERICIN B AND NEONATAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS

    G. Khotaei

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic candidiasis i" a major problem in high risk neonates. Mortality is high but may be reduced by prompt antifungal therapy."nY> c administered amphotericin li to 22 infants lift preterm with imtin birti' weigh: < ISOOg; mean gestational age .t2 i 2 weeks} tun! 4 full term newborn (mean birth weith, MIX- z. 200g. mean gestational age, .M ± .i weeks infant;. with systeoiii candidiasis. During the IO year period. 22 infants wiln systemic Candida! infection were identified. Ill males and 12 female Within 5 days of starting therapy. 3 infants died I nun overwhelming and severe multisystem involvement, including centra; nervous system Candida infection. Altnoiu-h amphotericin B' may have contributed to the death of -> infants, ovens-helming disseminated Candida infection was the more likely cause. Our experience supports the opinion that infants taurnic amphotericin H well.

  15. Esophageal candidiasis among a dyspeptic population

    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective study of 59 patients endoscoped over a period of six years at a private clinic and were found to have esophageal candidiasis. The median age was 46.38 years. Thirty (51 % patients had no precipitating factors. Only 18 (30% patients had typical symptoms. The distal part of the esophagus was more often involved. The thrush was scattered in 57 (97% patients. The endoscopic finding was confirmed by cytology in all patients included. Symptoms improved on oral nystatin treatment and simultaneous treatment of associated conditions in all 46 patients followed up. In conclusion, esophageal candidiasis appear to be not uncommon among dyspeptic population. It presents more frequently with atypical symptoms and responds well to oral nystatin treatment.

  16. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. PMID:26826375

  17. Micosis superficiales: Candidiasis y pitiriasis versicolor

    Rubn Jos Larrondo Muguercia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las caractersticas clnicas de las lesiones cutneas en las candidiasis y la pitiriasis versicolor. Se hace hincapi en las medidas de educacin, prevencin y control de estas afecciones a nivel primario de atencin mdica. Se exponen adems las diferentes maniobras teraputicas, tanto tpicas como sistmicas, con las que se cuenta para su tratamiento, y se hace referencia a las medidas teraputicas alternativas que brinda la medicina natural y tradicional para estas afecciones.The clinical characteristics of the skin lesions in candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor are dealth with. Emphasis is made on the measures of education, prevention and control of these affections at the primary health care level. The different topic and systematic therapeutic maneuvers to be used in the treatment are explained. Reference is made to the alternative therapeutic measures offered by traditional and natural medicine for these affections.

  18. Current treatment of oral candidiasis: A literature review

    Garcia Cuesta, Carla; Sarrión Pérez, María Gracia; Bagán Sebastián, José Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis or oral candidosis is one of the most common human opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. This pathology has a wide variety of treatment which has been studied until these days. The present study offers a literature review on the treatment of oral candidiasis, with the purpose of establish which treatment is the most suitable in each case. Searching the 24 latest articles about treatment of candidiasis it concluded that the incidence depends on the type of the candidi...

  19. A clinico-pathological and cytological study of oral candidiasis

    Kayo Kuyama; Yan Sun; Chieko Taguchi; Hiroyasu Endo; Masanobu Wakami; Masahiko Fukumoto; Takanori Ito; Hirotsugu Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Candidiasis of the oral mucosa arises chiefly as a re- sult of infection with Candida albicans. Many clinico- pathological analyses of macroscopic findings have been described, although the clinical findings of oral candidiasis vary considerably and the conditions are complex. The present study analyzes the distribution, clinical, cytological and histological diagnoses of oral candidiasis, associated complex diseases and the di-agnostic value of cytology. The ratio of Candida in-fection was 2...

  20. Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control.

    Hill, L V; Tan, M.H.; Pereira, L.H.; Embil, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence of yeast was analysed in the 51 diabetic patients. Glycosylated haemoglobin above 12% was strongly associated with oral yeast infection (odds ratio = 13.00) (p less than 0.001), while fasting blood ...

  1. Bioadhesive films containing fluconazole for mucocutaneous candidiasis

    Patel, S.K.; Shah, D. R.; Tiwari, S.

    2015-01-01

    Fluconazole is a broad spectrum antifungal agent that has been extensively applied for the management of oral, pharyngeal and cutaneous candidiasis. Fluconazole has a high volume of distribution (0.55–0.65 l/kg) and has systemic toxicity due to high drug-drug interaction. The present study focuses on the formulation of bioadhesive film as a controlled release carrier for fluconazole. The formulation was intended to provide localized delivery of fluconazole exclusively at the site of infection...

  2. DISENTAGLING IMMUNITY AND TOLERANCE IN CANDIDIASIS

    Antonella De Luca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to tolerate Candida albicans, a component of human microbiota, implicates that host defense mechanisms of resistance and tolerance cooperate to limit fungal burden and inflammation at the different body sites. We have disentangled resistance and tolerance components of murine and human C. albicans mucosal infection and have introduced the challenging notion of a disease due to a defective tolerance mechanism. While some degree of inflammation is required for protection at mucosal tissues during the transitional response occurring between the rapid innate and slower adaptive responses, progressive inflammation worsens disease and ultimately prevents pathogen Resistance and tolerance mechanisms were both activated in murine intestinal and vaginal candidiasis through the contribution of innate and adaptive immune responses, involving distinct modules of immunity, IL-22 and Th1/Th17 cells for resistance and IL-10-producing regulatory T cells for tolerance., with a major contribution by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1. IDO1 was responsible for the production of tolerogenic kynurenines, such that replacement therapy with kynurenines restored immunoprotection to murine vaginal candidiasis. In humans, two functional genetic variants in IL22 and IDO1 genes were found to be associated with heightened resistance to recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, a disease of unknown origin, and they correlated with increased local expression of IL-22, IDO1 and kynurenines. Thus, IL-22 and IDO1 are crucial in balancing resistance with tolerance to Candida, their deficiencies are risk factors for mucosal infection resulting from transition from symbiont to pathobiont.

  3. Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis

    Erden, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey); Hafta Sokak, Ankara (Turkey); Fitoz, S.; Karaguelle, T.; Tuekel, S.; Akyar, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey)

    2000-12-01

    The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

  4. Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis

    The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

  5. CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS: A CASE REPORT

    Subhashini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC is a rare group of overlapping syndromes that have in common a clinical pattern of persistent and diffuse cutaneous or mucosal candidal infections. It is usually associated with multiple endocrine dysf unctions and autoimmune disorders therefore patient needs a complete systemic evaluation. Patients of CMC are also susceptible to other fungal and viral infections due to impaired cell mediated immunity. We report a case of CMC wherein the cutaneous and mu cosal lesions were not associated with any systemic disorder. The patient responded to topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole.

  6. Oral candidiasis in patients with renal transplants

    López Pintor, R.M.; Hernández, Gonzalo; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Andrés Belmonte, Amado

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Oral candidiasis (OC) is a frequent oral lesion in renal transplant patients (RTPs). Despite the increased prevalence of OC in RTPs, no study has examined related risk factors. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for OC in RTPs compared with age- and gender-matched healthy control group (HC) as well as determine the incidence of OC after transplantation. Study Design: We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors of OC in a group of 500 RTPs (30...

  7. A child with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis and ectodermal dysplasia treated with immunosuppression: a case report

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S; Rayzel M. Shulman; Lara-Corrales, Irene; Pope, Elena; Marcon, Margaret; Grasemann, Hartmut; Schneider, Rayfel; Upton, Julia; Sochett, Etienne B; Kolfin, Dror; Cohen, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Common features of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia include candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and hypoadrenalism. The initial manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia may be autoimmune hepatitis, keratoconjunctivitis, frequent fever with or without a rash, chronic diarrhea, or different combinations of these with or without oral candidiasis. Case presentation: We discuss a profoundly affected 2.9-y...

  8. La candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprtesis / Candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis

    Isidro de Jess, Npoles Gonzlez; Silvia Mara, Daz Gmez; Elizabeth, Puig Capote; Nelia, Espeso Npoles.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Cuando la candidiasis se asocia con la prtesis removible puede inducir a la formacin de estomatitis subprtesis, esencialmente en aparatos desajustados y con muchos aos de uso. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de la candidiasis en pacientes con estomatitis subprtesis. Mtodo: Se r [...] ealiz un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en la Clnica Estomatolgica Docente de La Viga desde enero a marzo de 2008 en 30 pacientes mayores de 20 aos y de ambos sexos con estomatitis subprtesis (10 en cada grado clnico de la lesin), portadores de prtesis removibles. Resultados: El comportamiento microbiolgico de los pacientes con estomatitis subprtesis aflor que no todos los pacientes afectados presentaron candidiasis, solo se evidenci la presencia de la misma en 21 para un 70 % de la muestra. Segn el grado de la lesin esta afeccin se present en cuatro pacientes de grado I para un 19,04 %, 7 del grado II para un 33,33 % y en el 100 % del grado III con diferencia significativa entre la proporcin de pacientes con cndida de los grados I y II con respecto al grado III (p Abstract in english Background: When candidiasis is associated with removable prosthesis may induced to the formation of stomatitis sub-prothesis, essentially in non-adjusted appliance and with many years of use. Objective: To determine the prevalence of candidiasis in patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis. Method: A [...] n observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study at " La Viga" Teaching Odontology Clinic from January to March 2008 was conducted in 30 patients older than 20 years and from both sexes with stomatitis sub-prosthesis (10 in each clinical degree of the lesion), carriers of removable prosthesis. Results: The microbiological behavior of patients with stomatitis sub-prosthesis showed that not all the affected patients presented candidiasis, only showed its presence in 21 for a 70% of the sample. According to the degree of the lesion this affection was presented in four patients of I degree for a 19.04%, 7 of II degree for a 33.33% and in the 100% of III degree with significant difference among the proportion of patients with Candida of I and II degrees regarding to III degree (p

  9. Candidiasis mucocutnea crnica: Informe de un caso / Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Case report

    Rolando Elas, Julin-Gonzlez; Manuel Augusto, Valdebrn-Canales; Hctor Eduardo, Guidos-Morales.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis mucocutnea crnica (CMC) es una inmunodeficiencia primaria que se caracteriza por infecciones candidisicas persistentes o recurrentes en piel, uas o membranas mucosas. La CMC puede asociarse con endocrinopatas, como hipoparatiroidismo, enfermedad de Addison, hipotiroidismo, diabet [...] es mellitus de tipo 1 o hipogonadismo; otras patologas asociadas son enfermedades autoinmunitarias, como gastritis autoinmunitarias y hepatitis autoinmunitaria. Se presenta una paciente con CMC con dficit especfico de linfocitos T y clulas NK, sin otra enfermedad asociada. Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails and/or mucosal tissues. CMC can be associated with endocrinopathies such as hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus [...] or hypogonadism. Other associated conditions include autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune hepatitis. We report a patient with CMC and decreased T cell, natural killer cells without other associated condition.

  10. Mucocutaneous candidiasis in a mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx).

    Zller, M; Silinski, S; Ludwig, C; Weig, M; Mtz-Rensing, K; Kaup, F-J

    2012-01-01

    An adult male mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) suffered from chronic ulceration of the facial and gluteal skin and the oral and nasal mucosa. The ulcers were resistant to therapy and led to deterioration in the general condition of the animal. Microscopical examination revealed a severe, chronic, multifocal, granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis and panniculitis. There was also stomatitis and rhinitis with numerous intralesional fungal elements. These organisms were identified by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction and fungal culture as Candida albicans. Species identification was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A specific predisposing immunosuppressive factor for the deep chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis was not identified; however, social stress and/or a primary defect in cell-mediated immunity could not be excluded as possible causes for a predisposing immunodeficiency in the animal. PMID:22300706

  11. Congenital cutaneous candidiasis: A rare and unpredictable disease

    Sujit A Jagtap

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC is an extremely rare disorder that presents within the first 6 days of life. The manifestations ranges from diffuse skin eruption without any systemic symptoms to respiratory distress, hepatosplenomegaly, sepsis, and death. We report a neonate who presented with generalized skin eruptions at birth, characterized by erythematous macules and papules. The eruption involved head, face, neck, trunk, and extremities. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests as thrush or diaper dermatitis. The infection is acquired from the maternal genital tract in an ascending fashion. Clinical features, direct smear examination of specimen, and appropriate cultures are useful in differentiating the lesions from other more common dermatoses of the neonatal period. Topical antifungal therapy is sufficient unless systemic candidiasis is present. Prognosis for congenital cutaneous candidiasis is good.

  12. Successful Management of an Extremely Premature Infant with Congenital Candidiasis

    Sota Iwatani; Yuko Murakami; Masami Mizobuchi; Kazumichi Fujioka; Keiko Wada; Hitomi Sakai; Seiji Yoshimoto; Hideto Nakao

    2013-01-01

    Congenital candidiasis, which presents with a variety of clinical symptoms, is very rare in both term and preterm infants, and less than 100 neonatal cases have been reported in the medical literature. We describe the case of an extremely premature infant with congenital candidiasis, who was successfully treated and survived without major sequelae. A male infant was born at 25 weeks' gestation (weight, 834 g). He exhibited diffuse erythematous papules. Samples of his skin, pharyngeal mucus, g...

  13. Lamisil versus clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Eskandar Moghimipour; Mahin Najafyan; Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Maryam Alwanian; Zahra Seifi

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vul...

  14. Poly(I.C)-induced interferons enhance susceptibility of SCID mice to systemic candidiasis.

    Jensen, J.; Vazquez-Torres, A; Balish, E

    1992-01-01

    In the absence of any demonstrable T- or B-cell responses, gnotobiotic CB-17 SCID (severe combined immunodeficient) mice not only show innate resistance to acute systemic (intravenous challenge) candidiasis but also manifest innate resistance to systemic candidiasis of endogenous (gastrointestinal tract) origin. Poly(I. C), a potent inducer of interferons (IFNs) in vivo, enhanced the susceptibility of CB-17 SCID mice to acute systemic candidiasis and to systemic candidiasis of endogenous orig...

  15. Host responses to Candida albicans: Th17 cells and mucosal candidiasis

    Conti, Heather R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans causes mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, which represent serious problems for the rapidly expanding immunocompromised population. Until recently, Th1-mediated immunity was thought to confer the primary protection, particularly for oral candidiasis. However, emerging data indicate that the newly-defined Th17 compartment appears to play the predominant role in mucosal candidiasis.

  16. Bioadhesive films containing fluconazole for mucocutaneous candidiasis

    S K Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole is a broad spectrum antifungal agent that has been extensively applied for the management of oral, pharyngeal and cutaneous candidiasis. Fluconazole has a high volume of distribution (0.55-0.65 l/kg and has systemic toxicity due to high drug-drug interaction. The present study focuses on the formulation of bioadhesive film as a controlled release carrier for fluconazole. The formulation was intended to provide localized delivery of fluconazole exclusively at the site of infection, thereby reducing its total dose and hence, dose-related toxicities. Bioadhesive films were prepared by solvent casting method using sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol alone as well as in various combinations. Prepared films were evaluated for physical characteristics like, weight and content uniformity, film thickness, swelling index, microenvironment pH and folding endurance. In vitro drug release, in vitro and ex vivo residence time, bioadhesive strength and skin irritation were also studied. Accelerated stability study was conducted on the optimized formulation as per ICH guidelines. Weight of all the films were not more than 20 mg. Thickness of the films ranged between 0.09 to 0.15 mm whereas swelling indices showed a high extent of variation. Films composed of polyvinyl alcohol alone provided a swelling index of 6%. Bioadhesive strength was found to be more than 18 g. Microenvironment pH was near to 7.0 for most of the formulations. Ex vivo residence time of optimized batch was more than 5 h and it provided controlled drug release up to 8 h. As revealed in FT-IR and DSC studies, drug was found to be compatible with the excipients used in this study.

  17. Bioadhesive films containing fluconazole for mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    Patel, S K; Shah, D R; Tiwari, S

    2015-01-01

    Fluconazole is a broad spectrum antifungal agent that has been extensively applied for the management of oral, pharyngeal and cutaneous candidiasis. Fluconazole has a high volume of distribution (0.55-0.65 l/kg) and has systemic toxicity due to high drug-drug interaction. The present study focuses on the formulation of bioadhesive film as a controlled release carrier for fluconazole. The formulation was intended to provide localized delivery of fluconazole exclusively at the site of infection, thereby reducing its total dose and hence, dose-related toxicities. Bioadhesive films were prepared by solvent casting method using sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol alone as well as in various combinations. Prepared films were evaluated for physical characteristics like, weight and content uniformity, film thickness, swelling index, microenvironment pH and folding endurance. In vitro drug release, in vitro and ex vivo residence time, bioadhesive strength and skin irritation were also studied. Accelerated stability study was conducted on the optimized formulation as per ICH guidelines. Weight of all the films were not more than 20 mg. Thickness of the films ranged between 0.09 to 0.15 mm whereas swelling indices showed a high extent of variation. Films composed of polyvinyl alcohol alone provided a swelling index of 6%. Bioadhesive strength was found to be more than 18 g. Microenvironment pH was near to 7.0 for most of the formulations. Ex vivo residence time of optimized batch was more than 5 h and it provided controlled drug release up to 8 h. As revealed in FT-IR and DSC studies, drug was found to be compatible with the excipients used in this study. PMID:25767319

  18. Candidiasis invasoras en el paciente crtico adulto Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient

    Eduardo Tobar A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp, representan una patologa relevante en los pacientes crticos. Para su oportuno diagnstico es necesaria una elevada sospecha clinica, tomando en consideracin el cuadro clinico y la presencia de factores de riesgo. Pese a la incorporacin de nuevos frmacos al arsenal teraputico durante la ltima dcada, mantiene una elevada mortalidad. Las claves para mejorar los desenlaces clnicos en estos pacientes son el empleo de una terapia precoz, eficaz y que permita la cobertura de distintas especies de Candida: C albicans y no albicans. Recientes guas internacionales sugieren la terapia emprica con equinocandinas ante la sospecha de candidiasis invasora en esta poblacin de pacientes. Este grupo de frmacos ha documentado adecuada eficacia clnica y seguridad en estos pacientes. Se espera que la incorporacin de nuevas equinocandinas al mercado aminore sus costos y mejore el acceso a este grupo de frmacos.Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albicans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

  19. Immunopathogenesis of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    de Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases remain significant causes of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, despite the dramatic ability of antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immunity. Notable advances have been achieved in understanding, at the molecular level, the relationships between the progression of HIV infection, the acquisition, maintenance, and clonality of oral candidal populations, and the emergence of antifungal resistance. However, the critical immunological defects which are responsible for the onset and maintenance of mucosal candidiasis in patients with HIV infection have not been elucidated. The devastating impact of HIV infection on mucosal Langerhans' cell and CD4(+) cell populations is most probably central to the pathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. However, these defects may be partly compensated by preserved host defense mechanisms (calprotectin, keratinocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and phagocytes) which, individually or together, may limit Candida albicans proliferation to the superficial mucosa. The availability of CD4C/HIV transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 in immune cells has provided the opportunity to devise a novel model of mucosal candidiasis that closely mimics the clinical and pathological features of candidal infection in human HIV infection. These transgenic mice allow, for the first time, a precise cause-and-effect analysis of the immunopathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV infection under controlled conditions in a small laboratory animal. PMID:15489345

  20. Oral Verrucous Carcinoma Mimicking a Chronic Candidiasis: A Case Report

    Natália Galvão Garcia; Denise Tostes Oliveira; João Adolfo Costa Hanemann; Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma has a special propensity to mimic benign lesions of the oral cavity. A case of the oral verrucous carcinoma in maxillary alveolar ridge, extending to buccal vestibule, cheek, and labial mucosa, which was diagnosed and initially treated as chronic candidiasis, is presented. Clinical, histopathological, and therapeutic considerations related to diagnosis of the verrucous carcinoma in the oral cavity are discussed.

  1. Fluconazol versus Nistatina en nios con Candidiasis Orofarngea

    B, Del Nogal; M, Carrabs; JA, Surez; N, SandovaI; L, Escalona; O, Febres; A, Gonzlez; A, Martin; Y, Izaguirre; G, Espinoza.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis orofarngea constituye una patologa frecuente en la poblacin peditrica. Con la finalidad de ofrecer una alternativa teraputica segura y eficaz, se realiz un estudio multicntrico, prospectivo, comparativo, simple ciego y de asignacin aleatoria, donde se incluyeron 181 pacientes [...] con diagnstico clnico y micolgico de candidiasis orofarngea; fueron asignados al azar para recibir Fluconazol suspensin a 5 mgrs/Kg dosis nica diaria o Nistatina suspensin 50.000 unidades/Kg cada 6 horas. Se obtuvo una respuesta clnica satisfactoria al final del tratamiento con una diferencia estadstica altamente significativa (p Abstract in english The Oropharyngeal Candidiasis constitute a frecuent pathology in the pediatric population. In order to offer a safe and efficient therapeutic alternative, an multicentric, prospective, single blind and randomized study was performed 181 patients which included clinic and micologic diagnostic of Orof [...] aringeal Candidiasis; they were asigned in a randomized way to received fluconazole suspensin containing 5 mgrs/Kg once daily or Nystatin suspensin 50.000 units/Kg every six hours. Satisfactory clinic response was obtained at the end of the treatment with a very significant statistic difference (p

  2. Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis; Ecografia en el diagnostico de la candidiasis renal neonatal

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Torres, D.; Berbel, O.; Andres, V. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. Atypical presentations of congenital cutaneous candidiasis- presenting a cohort of 8 cases

    Dr. Regina Divya*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is an extremely rare disorder that usually presents within the first 6 days of life. We report 8 neonates who presented with generalized skin eruptions within first 6 days of life, characterized by erythematous macules, papules, vesicles, bullae and pustules. Candida albicans was demonstrated on direct KOH smear, fungal culture and skin biopsy. The disease implies a congenital intrauterine infection and is different from neonatal candidiasis, which manifests as thrush or diaper dermatitis.Although congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a rare diagnosis and the predisposing factors like prematurity,candidial infection in the mother are not obvious, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose the neonates with this condition and it is very evident that congenital cutaneous candidiasis has got a good prognosis. This article apart from revealing the atypical presentations of cutaneous congenital candidiasis, also emphasizes the need to screen all pregnant women for vaginal candidiasis .

  4. Various patterns of oral mucosa candidiasis treatment in HIV patients.

    Macura, Anna B; Bort, Artur; Postawa-Kłosińska, Barbara; Mach, Tomasz

    2002-01-01

    Oral cavity is the site of numerous HIV infection manifestations. Oral mucosa candidiasis is the most common one. It may be the earliest sign of the underlying disease. Long lasting observations give evidence that antiretroviral therapy is beneficial also in the cases of this opportunistic infection because it reduces both the number and severity of relapses, however, the prolongation of the patients' survival time creates the need of antifungal therapy prolongation, and thorough observation of its effectiveness and methods. We decided to analyze the influence of antiretroviral therapy with at least three drugs on the development of oral mucosa candidiasis in the out- and inpatients of the Jagiellonian University Medical College Clinic of Infectious Diseases (or Outpatient Clinic) in Cracow. The study was carried out in 75 patients with confirmed HIV infection. We have shown a decrease in the number of fungi present in the oral cavity in patients under antiretroviral treatment as well as higher susceptibility to fluconazole. PMID:12815800

  5. Successful Management of an Extremely Premature Infant with Congenital Candidiasis

    Sota Iwatani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital candidiasis, which presents with a variety of clinical symptoms, is very rare in both term and preterm infants, and less than 100 neonatal cases have been reported in the medical literature. We describe the case of an extremely premature infant with congenital candidiasis, who was successfully treated and survived without major sequelae. A male infant was born at 25 weeks' gestation (weight, 834 g. He exhibited diffuse erythematous papules. Samples of his skin, pharyngeal mucus, gastric fluid, and tracheal aspirate were found to be Candida albicans—positive while blood cultures were negative. Further histopathological examinations revealed that Candida albicans mycelia had invaded the umbilical cord. After prompt antifungal therapy, the patient's skin lesions improved markedly, and he was discharged from hospital without any major complications. This report highlights the importance of characteristic skin lesions for the early diagnosis of Candida infections, especially in extremely premature infants.

  6. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis.

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; de Cssia Orlandi Sardi, Janaina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; de Carvalho Moraes, Julianna Joanna; Hfling, Jos Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis. PMID:24031562

  7. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Paula Cristina Anibal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

  8. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  9. Evaluating diagnosis and treatment of oral and esophageal candidiasis in Ugandan AIDS patients.

    Ravera, M.; Reggiori, A.; Agliata, A. M.; Rocco, R. P.

    1999-01-01

    A randomized cross-over clinical and endoscopic evaluation of 85 Ugandan patients showed that esophageal candidiasis in AIDS patients with oral candidiasis could be managed without endoscopy and biopsies. Oral lesions, especially when accompanied by esophageal symptoms, were sufficient for diagnosis. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin in treating esophageal candidiasis and could be a valid alternative to more expensive azolic drugs in developing countries.

  10. Anti-fungal resistance in candida isolated from oral and diaper rash candidiasis in neonates

    Mohamadi, Jasem; Motaghi, Mahsa; Panahi, Jafar; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Ali DELPISHEH; Azizian, Mitra; PAKZAD, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis infections in children. The children referring to private and public clinics in Ilam, Iran were exmined for oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis. In this study, 248 oral candidiasis and diaper dermatitis samples were collected and cultured.Candida species were identified by using standard methods. Resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, nystatin, keto...

  11. Comparison between Fluconazole with Oral Protexin Combination and Fluconazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Nouraei, S; Amir Ali Akbari, S.; Jorjani, M.; Alavi Majd, H.; Afrakhteh, M.; Ghafoorian, A.; Tafazzoli Harandi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to the limited studies reporting new treatments for vulvovaginal candidiasis, this study was designed to compare the combination of fluconazole and oral protexin with fluconazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods. A double-blind clinical trial was conducted, involving 90 women who were referred to the gynecology clinic. Vulvovaginal candidiasis was diagnosed with itching, cheesy vaginal discharge, and any one of the following: dysuria, pH < 4.5, dyspa...

  12. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is conside...

  13. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    George R. Thompson; Payal K. Patel; KIRKPATRICK, WILLIAM R.; Steven D. Westbrook; Berg, Deborah; Erlandsen, Josh; Redding, Spencer W.; Patterson, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common problem in the HIV-infected population despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although Candida albicans is the most frequently implicated pathogen, other Candida spp. may also cause infection. The emergence of antifungal resistance within these causative yeasts, especially in patients with recurrent oropharyngeal infection or with long-term use of antifungal therapies, requires a working knowledge of alternative antifungal ag...

  14. Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Živaljević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95% or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  15. Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice

    Takakura, Natsuko; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Teraguchi, Susumu; Tamura, Yoshitaka; YAMAGUCHI, HIDEYO; Abe, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candidiasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral administration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly reduced the number of Candida albicans in the oral cavity and the score of lesions on the tongue on day 7 after the inoculation. The symptomatic effect of LF was confirmed by macroscopic and microsc...

  16. Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis

    Paula Cristina Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho Moraes; José Francisco Höfling

    2010-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnou...

  17. VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS – GYNECOLOGICAL ASPECT OF THE PROBLEM

    Radomir Živadinović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common reasons for consultations with a gynecologist, with an increasing trend in occurrence in female patients. It is estimated that 75% of all women experience an episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis in their lifetime, 50% of them experience at least a second episode, and 5% have recurrent candidiasis. Cervical and vaginal secretions act as the last line of defense from ascendant infection pathway spreading. Factors that may disturb vaginal ecosystem are: endogenous factors, way of life, infectious factors and iatrogenic factors. The most common cause of VC in 85-90% of cases is C. albicans, but other Candida species tend to be more likely to cause VVC (Candida tropicalis , Candida glabrata , C particulary, C crusei and so on. These non-albicans species have been found to be fluconazole and antimycotics resistant in more than 70% of cases. This is especially true for C. glabrata. There are several predisposing factors that have been associated with VC recurrence and resistance, such as Candida genotypes, resistance and virulence, immunodeficiency, unregulated hyperglycemia, use of oral contraceptives, long-term use of antibiotics. Therapy approach should be individual, including local and oral antimycotics until the symptoms disappear. The maintenance dose can be continuous or intermittent. Due to hormone concentration increase, increase in local glycogen, alternations of vaginal flora, VC incidence in pregnancy is two times higher in comparison to other female population. The problem of vaginal candidiasis requires individual approach, taking into account all the risk factors and accompanying physiological conditions or diseases in female patients.

  18. Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Eskandar Moghimipour

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5% patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8% patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8% patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0% patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0% of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0% of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  19. A CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN IRAN

    M. Moghaddami

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to Candida albicans in a 13 yr-old boy is reported. Evaluation of cell mediated immunity revealed cutaneous anergy to PPD and low level of T-Lymphocytes B-Cell count and immunoglobulin G (IgG were increased and there was a low level of serum iron. The patient was put under treatment with oral administration of Ketoconazole and ferrus sulfate, which resulted in some clinical improvement

  20. Management of invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic ICU patients

    Weiss, Emmanuel; Timsit, Jean-Franois

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among nonneutropenic ICU patients and these life-threatening nosocomial infections require early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However, none of the predictive tools are sufficiently accurate to identify high-risk patients and the potential interest of IC prophylactic, empirical and preemptive treatment in the nonneutropenic ICU population has not yet been demonstrated. In the case of nosocomial severe sepsis after necro...

  1. Effects of amphetamine on development of oral candidiasis in rats

    Freire-Garabal, M.; Núñez, M.J.; Balboa, J; Rodríguez-Cobo, A.; López-Paz, J.M.; Rey-Méndez, M; Suárez Quintanilla, J.A.; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Mayán Santos, José Manuel

    1999-01-01

    [Abstract] Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of amphetamine (0.4 mg/kg of body weight/day) on the development of oral candidiasis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were submitted to surgical hyposalivation in order to facilitate the establishment and persistence of Candida albicans infection. Treatment with drugs (placebo or amphetamine) was initiated 7 days before C. albicans inoculation and lasted until the end of the experiments, day 15 postinoculation. Establishment of ...

  2. Zinc Level of Serum in Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc status has been shown to influence various cell-mediated immunologic mechanisms. These cell-mediated mechanisms are important in preventing mucocutaneous infections caused by Candida albicans. This study evaluated the relationship between zinc status and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis by comparing plasma zinc in 51 patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and 50 control healthy age-matched women. The results indicated that zinc concentration in plasma in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and control group showed no significant difference between case and control group (p = 0.605, 4(8% women of control group and 5(11/1% women of patients group had zinc concentration lower than normal. Also, no significant difference between the mean plasma zinc concentration (case group 48-189 μg dL-1 and control group 57-120 μg dL -1 in the patient and control group (87 μg dL-1, std 23.5, 74.9 μg dL-1, std 13 μg dL-1 (p = 0.031 .

  3. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. PMID:26385381

  4. Micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis

    Nathan P Wiederhold

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nathan P Wiederhold1, Jason M Cota2, Christopher R Frei11University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Austin, Texas, USA; 2University of the Incarnate Word Feik School of Pharmacy, San Antonio, Texas, USAAbstract: Micafungin is an echinocandin antifungal agent available for clinical use in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Through inhibition of β-1,3-glucan production, an essential component of the fungal cell wall, micafungin exhibits potent antifungal activity against key pathogenic fungi, including Candida and Aspergillus species, while contributing minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This activity is maintained against polyene and azole-resistant isolates. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have demonstrated linear kinetics both in adults and children with concentration-dependent activity observed both in vitro and in vivo. Dosage escalation studies have also demonstrated that doses much higher than those currently recommended may be administered without serious adverse effects. Clinically, micafungin has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the clinical effectiveness of micafungin against these infections occurs without the drug interactions that occur with the azoles and the nephrotoxicity observed with amphotericin B formulations. This review will focus on the pharmacology, clinical microbiology, mechanisms of resistance, safety, and clinical efficacy of micafungin in the treatment of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.Keywords: micafungin, echinocandin, Candida, Aspergillus, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis

  5. Th17 cells and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for mucosal host defense against oral candidiasis

    Conti, Heather R.; Shen, Fang; Nayyar, Namrata; Stocum, Eileen; Sun, Jianing N; Lindemann, Matthew J.; Ho, Allen W.; Hai, Justine Hoda; Yu, Jeffrey J.; Jung, Ji Won; Filler, Scott G; Masso-Welch, Patricia; Edgerton, Mira; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) in settings of immunodeficiency. Although disseminated, vaginal, and oral candidiasis are all caused by C. albicans species, host defense against C. albicans varies by anatomical location. T helper 1 (Th1) cells have long been implicated in defense against candidiasis, whereas the role of Th17 cells remains controversial. IL-17 mediates inflammatory pathology in a gastric model of mucosal candidiasis, but is ...

  6. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    Jose A Vazquez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.Keywords: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, HAART, antifungal agents, HIV, AIDS

  7. Candida-specific antibodies during experimental vaginal candidiasis in mice.

    Wozniak, Karen L; Wormley, Floyd L; Fidel, Paul L

    2002-10-01

    Protective host defense mechanisms against vaginal Candida albicans infections are poorly understood. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the predominant host defense mechanism against most mucosal Candida infections, the role of CMI against vaginal candidiasis is uncertain, both in humans and in an experimental mouse model. The role of humoral immunity is equally unclear. While clinical observations suggest a minimal role for antibodies against vaginal candidiasis, an experimental rat model has provided evidence for a protective role for Candida-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. Additionally, Candida vaccination-induced IgM and IgG3 antibodies are protective in a mouse model of vaginitis. In the present study, the role of infection-induced humoral immunity in protection against experimental vaginal candidiasis was evaluated through the quantification of Candida-specific IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies in serum and vaginal lavage fluids of mice with primary and secondary (partially protected) infection. In naïve mice, total, but not Candida-specific, antibodies were detected in serum and lavage fluids, consistent with lack of yeast colonization in mice. In infected mice, Candida-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were induced in serum with anamnestic responses to secondary infection. In lavage fluid, while Candida-specific antibodies were detectable, concentrations were extremely low with no anamnestic responses in mice with secondary infection. The incorporation of alternative protocols-including infections in a different strain of mice, prolongation of primary infection prior to secondary challenge, use of different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay capture antigens, and concentration of lavage fluid-did not enhance local Candida-specific antibody production or detection. Additionally, antibodies were not removed from lavage fluids by being bound to Candida during infection. Together, these data suggest that antibodies are not readily present in vaginal secretions of infected mice and thus have a limited natural protective role against infection. PMID:12228309

  8. New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.

    AnnaVecchiarelli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes orapharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy child-bearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis.

  9. Occurrences of candidiasis in a Fisher's lovebird and a budgerigar.

    Sato, Y; Aoyagi, T; Kobayashi, T; Inoue, J

    2001-08-01

    Two cage birds, a two-month-old Fisher's lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) and a one-year-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), manifested clinical symptoms with general weakness, loss of appetite and ruffled feathers, then died. Pathological findings revealed a large quantity of yellowish-white pseudomembrane on the mucosal membrane of the esophagus and crop in these two birds. Histopathologically, blastospores (5.5 microm long x 3.4 microm wide) and pseudohyphae were detected in the lesions of conspicuous parakeratosis and moderate acanthosis in the stratified squamous epithelium. These two birds were diagnosed as having had candidiasis. PMID:11558556

  10. Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors

    Andréa Lusvarghi Witzel; Fernando Ricardo Xavier da Silveira; Maria de Fátima Costa Pires; Mônica Andrade Lotufo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the prevalence of oral cand...

  11. Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy in hepatosplenic candidiasis-related IRIS

    Cengiz Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC is a form of invasive fungal infection that occurs most commonly in patients with acute leukemia treated with chemotherapy and requires protracted antifungal therapy. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS is best characterized as a dysregulated inflammatory responses triggered by rapid resolution of immunosuppression.

    We present a child diagnosed with standard-risk precursor B cell-acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed HSC and Candida-related IRIS during recovery of neutropenia associated with induction chemotherapy. Addition of corticosteroid therapy to antifungal treatment is associated with the resolution of the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings

  12. Prevalence and clinico-mycological profile of vulvovaginal candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital

    Rupal Samal

    2015-08-01

    Results: Among 125 cases studies, 62 positive cases for Candidiasis were reported with an approximate incidence of 50%. Further speciation identification showed C. albicans positivity in 45 cases and 17 cases for non albicans species. Women of second and third decade were predominantly affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis with abdominal pain and pruritis being a common clinical presentation. Conclusions: The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis is on higher margin especially among reproductive age group. Clinical profile must be further correlated with laboratory data for speciation, thereby guiding in prompt and appropriate treatment modalities on best patient care. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1142-1147

  13. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  14. A radioimmunoassay method for the rapid detection of Candida antibodies is experimental systematic candidiasis

    Rabbits were employed as experimental models to evaluate a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for the diagnosis of systematic candidiasis. Ten rabbits were incubated subcutaneously to mimic superficial candidiasis and were found to produce no antibodies to Candida as determined by both immunodiffusion and RIA procedures. However, 94 per cent of 18 rabbits systematically infected by intravenous injection of Candida cells were observed to produce antibody as assessed by the RIA technique. These data encourage further tests with human sera and the continued development of this RIA procedure as a useful tool in the early serodiagnosis of systematic candidiasis. (Auth.)

  15. Candidiasis congénita en un recién nacido de muy bajo peso Congenital candidiasis in a very low birth weight premature infant

    Raúl Bustos B.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Las infeccciones por hongos, particularmente candida, han emergido como una causa importante de infecciones nosocomiales en recién nacidos de muy bajo peso. Las infecciones a candida pueden ser diseminadas, por colonización de un acceso venoso central o congénitas. La candidiasis congénita es una condición inhabitual producida por la infección a candida adquirida in utero. Reportamos el curso clínico de un recién nacido prematuro de muy bajo peso (peso 630 g, edad gestacional 24 semanas con una candidiasis congénita. Por otro lado, se revisan los factores de riesgo, presentación clínica, hallazgos de laboratorio, tratamiento y pronóstico de esta patología, basado en una revisión de los casos reportados en la literaturaSystemic candidiasis has become an important cause of nosocomial infections in very low birth weight infants (VLBW. In this vulnerable population candidal infection may be disseminated, be congenital or related to intravenous lines. Congenital candidiasis is a rare disorder acquired in utero. In this report we describe a VLBW infant (24 weeks of gestational age and birth weight of 630gm with congenital candidiasis, and discuss the risk factors, clinical and laboratory findings, treatment and the outcome of this condition based on a review of reported cases in the literature

  16. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Palliative Care Patients in Denmark

    Astvad, Karen; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Høiby, Niels; Steptoe, Phillip; Ishøy, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is a significant cause of morbidity, especially among patients with advanced cancer. The incidence and significance of yeast carriage and OPC in the palliative care setting in Denmark is unknown. The best diagnostic strategy and treatment regimen has to...... be defined. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the clinical and microbiological incidence of yeast carriage/OPC and assessed available diagnostic procedures-culture and microscopy. The distribution of Candida species and fluconazole susceptibility was determined. METHODS: Terminal care patients admitted...... from patients recently treated with azoles. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 52% of culture-positive patients harbored at least one isolate with innately or acquired decreased fluconazole susceptibility. Therefore, susceptibility testing appears recommendable for patients with clinical signs of OPC....

  17. Experimental cutaneous candidiasis in BALB/c diabetic mice

    Tacito Graminha Campois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a group of syndromes characterized by non-invasive infection in the skin, nails and mucosa membranes, and in all clinical conditions, there is a reduction of protective cytokines that favor the development of disease. Diabetes mellitus reaches all socioeconomic groups, age and its incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by the yeast Candida albicans. However, the factors that lead these individuals to develop candidiasis are not understood properly. Frequently, the diabetic patients have the epidermal barrier compromised, including impaired wound healing, which facilitates the invasion and dissemination of pathogens associated to high level of glycogen and deficiencies in defense. This study aimed to establish an experimental model of cutaneous candidiasis in BALB/c mice. We followed the C. albicans infection course in diabetic and non-diabetic immunocompetent mice to investigate the cellular and molecular components involved in specific immunity. The experiments were performed in Balb/c mice (five per group inoculating 5x10^6 C. albicans pseudohypha in the deep dermis of hind paw and used contralateral paw as control. After 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days postinfection, the mice were killed and the injured paw and popliteal lymph nodes were collected for histological and immunological analysis. Diabetes in BALB/c mice was induced by intravenous administration of alloxan and after 24 h the glucose levels increased from 92.8 7.4 to 272.8 19.3. Histopathological sections stained by hematoxilin and eosin was analyzed to evidence the structural changes of the skin and to quantify neutrophils and fibroblasts in the site of infection on different days. It was measured the basal spinosum and granulosum strata thickness in the epidermis, evidencing hyperplasia which certainly constituted a physic barrier of defense preventing dissemination of C. albicans. Higher fungal load in infected diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic infected mice was observed by counting of colony-forming units (CFU and in histological sections from the skin stained by Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS. C. albicans was cleared in 7 days postinfection whereas in diabetic mice the fungal burden was maintained up to 14 days postinfection. Cytokines were determined by capture ELISA using popliteal lymph node tissue. The pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-?, IL-12 and IFN-?, IL-17 in non-diabetic animals were detected at significant levels during the initial stages of skin infection and it was correlated with the rapid elimination of C. albicans. The anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-10, TGF-? were detected since one day postinfection prevented exacerbated inflammation and participated in wound healing. Thus, a balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory were fundamental to the resolution of the disease. It was observed lower levels of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-6 and IL-17 in diabetic mice compared to control mice, suggesting that hyperglycemia or antigen processing may interfere with the immune defense. Due to deficiencies in these cytokines there was slow migration of neutrophils to the site of infection. However, the elimination of C. albicans was completed in 21 days postinfection in diabetic mice. This knowledge can be useful in understanding of the mechanisms involved in the chronic cutaneous candidiasis.

  18. Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia

    Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author)

  19. Oral Candidiasis: Aiding in the Diagnosis of HIV—A Case Report

    Charantimath, Shivyogi M.; Ishita Gupta; Arvind Shetti

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections account for a significant amount of morbidity associated with HIV disease. Candidiasis is the most common oral opportunistic infection affecting people with HIV infection or AIDS. It is considered as an important marker of immune suppression and may be the initial manifestation of the disease in about 10% of HIV-infected adults. We report a case of an apparently healthy 45-year-old male with oral candidiasis which proved to be the first indicator of HIV infection.

  20. Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection

    Jose A. Vazquez(Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg 510, Upton, NY 11973, USA)

    2010-01-01

    Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voricona...

  1. Primary Role for CD4+ T Lymphocytes in Recovery from Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Farah, C. S.; Elahi, S.; Drysdale, K.; Pang, G.; Gotjamanos, T.; Seymour, G.J.; Clancy, R. L.; Ashman, R B

    2002-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity and is commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals and AIDS patients. A model for oral candidiasis in T-cell-deficient BALB/c and CBA/CaH nu/nu mice was established. After inoculation with 108 Candida albicans yeasts, these mice displayed increased levels of oral colonization compared to euthymic control mice and developed a chronic oropharyngeal infection. Histopathological examination of nu...

  2. Molecular Analysis of Fungal Populations in Patients with Oral Candidiasis Using Internal Transcribed Spacer Region

    Ieda, Shinsuke; MORIYAMA, MASAFUMI; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; NAKAMURA, SEIJI

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using ...

  3. Nipple candidiasis among breastfeeding mothers. Case-control study of predisposing factors.

    Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAI...

  4. Effect of prolonged HAART on oral colonization with Candida and candidiasis

    Hung Chien-Ching; Lo Hsiu-Jung; Yang Yun-Liang; Li Yichun

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Progressive cell-mediated immunodeficiency with decrease of CD4+ lymphocyte count to less than or equal to 200 cells/mm3 is a major risk factor for colonization with Candida species and development of candidiasis. Oropharyngeal candidiasis may occur in up to 90% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients during the course of the disease. This study is to determine the effect of prolonged highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on oropharyngeal colonizatio...

  5. Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis

    Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

    2013-01-01

    The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because t...

  6. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients

    PATUSSI Cleverson; Laurindo Moacir SASSI; MUNHOZ Eduardo Ciliao; ZANICOTTI Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; Schussel, Juliana Lucena

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patient’s recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the ...

  7. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic

    To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

  8. FACTORS RELATED TO ORAL CANDIDIASIS IN ELDERLY USERS AND NON-USERS OF REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESES.

    Bianchi, Cyra Maria Pires de Carvalho; Bianchi, Hélcio Aparecido; Tadano, Tomoko; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues de; Hoffmann-Santos, Hugo Dias; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between oral candidiasis in elderly users and nonusers of prosthesis and its predisposing factors. To this end, we performed a cross-sectional study where saliva samples from 48 patients were collected they used prosthesis and 43 patients (control group) who did not use. Among the 91 patients, Candida spp were isolated in 40 (83.3%) who used prosthesis and in 23 (53.5%) in the control group. A statistically significant association was determined between the two groups, the isolation of yeasts and dental prosthesis (p oral candidiasis (n = 24), 83.3% (n = 20) belonged to the group that wore dentures, while only 16.7% (n = 4) belonged to the control group. Elderly patients with diabetes had 4.4 times higher estimated risk of developing oral candidiasis when compared with individuals without this condition. There was no statistically significant association between being user prostheses and have diabetes with the onset of candidiasis. No statistically significant association was determined between xerostomia, use of prosthesis and oral candidiasis. The use of prosthetics and poor oral hygiene in elderly patients predisposes to the development of oral candidiasis. PMID:27007560

  9. Candida albicans biotypes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with oral candidiasis before and after antifungal therapy.

    Bruatto, M; Vidotto, V; Marinuzzi, G; Raiteri, R.; Sinicco, A

    1991-01-01

    A prospective 19-month study of 26 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with episodes of erythematous or pseudomembranous oral candidiasis was done to evaluate the significance of Candida albicans biotypes in patients treated with antifungal therapy. Changes in the biotype of C. albicans were frequently noted in recurrent oral candidiasis. However, no correlation was found between the various biotypes and the clinical features of oral candidiasis, the clinical stage of human ...

  10. Determination of Vaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to Shahid

    Nasrollahi omran A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Genital tract infections are among the mostcommon causes of patients referred to therapeutic centers. Nearly 75% ofwomen suffer from genital Candida infection, at least once in their lifetime.The aim of present study was detection of Candida species causing vaginitisand the evaluation of antimycotic effects of ketoconazol, clotrimazole andfluconazole against Candida species.Material and Methods: In this study, 210 vaginal samples were obtainedfrom the patients suspected of Vaginal Candidiasis. Direct examination andculture were carried out for all specimens to detect the yeast. The isolatedyeast species were then identified, using various different tests such as cultureon corn meal agar, tween-80, germ tube test, and assimilation test by API 20Ckit by using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and microdilution broth, MIC90 andMIC50 of drug were measured and determined their drug resistance.Results: In the present study, 100 yeast colonies were isolated from patients;%80 are C. albicans and the rest are C. parapsilosis(2%, C. tropicalis(6%, C.glabrata(4%, C. krusei(2%, C. guilliermondii (3%, C.stellatoidea(3%. Interms of drug resistance test MIC50 and MIC90 of fluconazole for candidaalbicans are 5.33 and 35.27μg/ ml, respectively, and for non-albicans candidaare 3 and 21.4μg/ml, respectively. Clotrimazole MIC for Candida albicans(MIC50, MIC90 0.97 and 4.9μg/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 0.63and 3.4/ml, respectively. Kectoconazole MIC for Candida albicans 2.43 and16.45μg/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 1.12 and 6.6μg/ml,respectively.Conclusion: Clotrimazole has been better than the two other drugs forCandida species on the whole, non albicans species are more sensitive thanalbicans species in the presence of the drugs used in this study.Key words: Candida, vaginal candidiasis, Resistance drug , Tonekabon.

  11. Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies

    Cornelius J. Clancy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based (T2Candida assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40% or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%. Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2% and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%. In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Highly Susceptible Candida africana from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Yazdanparast, Seyed Amir; Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Fakhim, Hamed; Shokohi, Tahereh; Haghani, Iman; Nabili, Mojtaba; Gholami, Haniyeh; Ahmadi, Imaneh; Badali, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    Phylogenetic studies highlight Candida africana as an atypical variant within Candida albicans species complex which is dominantly recovered from vaginal specimens. This study aimed to characterize C. africana isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) by molecular methods and in vitro susceptibilities. One hundred and fifty-six (48.44%) Candida strains were collected from 322 patients diagnosed with VVC. Of these, 114 (73.07%) were germ tube positive and presented green color on the chromogenic medium, thus classified as C. albicans species complex. One hundred and nine (95.61%) out of 114 isolates were identified as C. albicans, while five (4.38%) isolates were identical with C. africana based on hwp1 PCR. C. africana appeared to be highly susceptible to the tested antifungals. For all strains of C. africana, fluconazole MIC was 2-log2-dilution steps less active than amphotericin B, which in turn was 2-log2-dilution steps and 3-log2-dilution steps less active than other azoles and echinocandin agents, respectively. In conclusion, among the C. albicans species complex, C. albicans predominantly and C. africana rarely occur in vaginal mucosa. Due to limited information on molecular epidemiology of this novel yeast, more studies using molecular methods are needed to elucidate the inter- and intraspecific genomic variations of C. africana isolates. PMID:26183965

  13. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of vaginal candidiasis in the UAE.

    Hamad, Mawieh; Kazandji, Norair; Awadallah, Samir; Allam, Hilda

    2014-03-01

    Vaginal candidiasis (VC) continues to be a health problem to women worldwide. Although the majority of VC cases are caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), non-albicans Candida spp. like C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are emerging as important and potentially resistant opportunistic agents of VC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of VC in the UAE through retrospective analysis of pertinent data compiled by the microbiology and infection control unit at Latifa Hospital, Dubai between 2005 and 2011. The incidence of VC significantly increased from 10.76% in 2005 to 17.61% in 2011; average prevalence was 13.88%. C. albicans occurred at a frequency of 83.02%, C. glabrata at 16.5% and C. tropicalis at 1.2%. A single C. dubliniensis isolate was identified in the sample population. The percentage of C. albicans significantly decreased from 83.02% in the sample population as a whole to 60.8% in subjects over 45 years of age (P < 0.01) and that of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei significantly increased from 13.88%, 0.9% and 0.03% to 29.7%, 6.7% and 1.4% (P < 0.05) respectively. The incidence of VC in the UAE is on the rise and the frequency of non-albicans Candida spp. is noticeably increasing especially in postmenopausal women. PMID:24102778

  14. Management of invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic ICU patients.

    Weiss, Emmanuel; Timsit, Jean-Franois

    2014-10-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among nonneutropenic ICU patients and these life-threatening nosocomial infections require early diagnosis and prompt treatment. However, none of the predictive tools are sufficiently accurate to identify high-risk patients and the potential interest of IC prophylactic, empirical and preemptive treatment in the nonneutropenic ICU population has not yet been demonstrated. In the case of nosocomial severe sepsis after necrotizing pancreatitis or upper digestive anastomotic leakage, early probabilistic antifungals are probably indicated. In the remaining ICU surgical and medical patients, prophylactic and empirical strategies are highly debated because they may promote antifungal selective pressure through an overuse of these molecules. In this context, non-culture-based methods such as mannan or ?-D glucan or polymerase chain reaction tests are promising. However, none of these tests used alone in ICU patients is sufficiently accurate to avoid overuse of empirical/preemptive treatment. The interest of strategies associating predictive clinical scores and non-culture-based methods still needs to be demonstrated by well-conducted randomized, controlled trials. While awaiting these studies, we consider that probabilist treatment should be stopped earlier if IC is not proven. PMID:25745560

  15. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin - review of the literature

    Glckner A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Working by a distinct cell wall-specific mechanism of action, the echinocandin class of antifungals has substantially expanded the range of available treatments for invasive Candida infections. Anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin were investigated versus drugs from earlier antifungal classes in large clinical trials that demonstrated their excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis. Therefore, and supported by a number of favourable pharmacological characteristics, the echinocandins rapidly became established in guidelines and clinical practice as primary treatment options for moderately to severely ill patients with invasive candidiasis. This article reviews the relevant clinical evidence that forms the basis for the use of echinocandins in the management of invasive candidiasis, and discusses their current role in the context of recent guideline recommendations and treatment optimization strategies.

  16. Frequency and Etiology of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to a Gynecological Center in Babol, lran

    Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common fungal disease in sexually activewomen of which Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the etiologic agentsof vulvovaginal candidiasis amongst 2000 women who presented to the Gynecological Center ofBabol Shahid Yahyanejad Educational Hospital from 2006-2007 with symptoms of vulvovaginalcandidiasis.Results: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms in patients (80%. There were42 out of 97 (43.3% specimens which were positive for yeast. Of these, 80.95% belonged toCandida albicans and 14.29% were Candida krusei.Conclusion: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis.In our study, C. albicans was the most common species isolated from the specimens.

  17. FACTORS RELATED TO ORAL CANDIDIASIS IN ELDERLY USERS AND NON-USERS OF REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESES

    BIANCHI, Cyra Maria Pires de Carvalho; BIANCHI, Hélcio Aparecido; TADANO, Tomoko; de PAULA, Claudete Rodrigues; HOFFMANN-SANTOS, Hugo Dias; LEITE, Diniz Pereira; HAHN, Rosane Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between oral candidiasis in elderly users and nonusers of prosthesis and its predisposing factors. To this end, we performed a cross-sectional study where saliva samples from 48 patients were collected they used prosthesis and 43 patients (control group) who did not use. Among the 91 patients, Candida spp were isolated in 40 (83.3%) who used prosthesis and in 23 (53.5%) in the control group. A statistically significant association was determined between the two groups, the isolation of yeasts and dental prosthesis (p prosthesis and oral candidiasis. The use of prosthetics and poor oral hygiene in elderly patients predisposes to the development of oral candidiasis. PMID:27007560

  18. Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney

    Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Application of enzyme-immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of aspergillosis, candidiasis, and zygomycosis in three lovebirds.

    Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; de las Mulas, J M; Jensen, H E

    1993-01-01

    Aspergillosis, candidiasis, and zygomycosis were diagnosed in tissues from three lovebirds (Agapornis roseicollis) using indirect enzyme-immunohistochemical techniques. In these techniques, the first antibody was raised against fungal antigen. A second antibody, which was raised in another animal species, was added to link the first antibody to enzyme-immunocomplexes. The reactivity of specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies was visualized by immunoreactivity of alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase anti-peroxidase immunocomplexes. All three birds examined had dermal candidiasis. In addition, one of the birds was diagnosed with concomitant acute ocular aspergillosis, and another bird was diagnosed with chronic zygomycotic myocarditis. PMID:8257396

  20. Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infected individuals in Iran

    Farzad Katiraee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to appraise prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and to determine factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization among Iranian HIV patients."n"nMethods: The patients were composed 150 Iranian HIV positive individuals referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV & Aids (IRCHA, Imam Khomeini Hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on mycological media. TCD4 lymphocyte count/percentage was measured and patients were categorized. Patients evaluated for some risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral candida colonization."n"nResults: Fifty nine percent of patients were presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and the carriage rate of yeasts was 116 (77.2%. The most frequent isolated candida species were Candida albicans (102 50.2% and Candida glabrata (45 22%. Thrush in 57(38%, perleche in 30(20% and erythematous lesions in 7(4.7% of patients were observed. Significant differences in TCD4 count (p=0.01, gender (p=0.02, antifungal therapy (p=0.001, smoking (p=0.02, and intravenous drug use (p=0.03, between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were observed."n"nConclusion: Oral candidiasis is a frequent complication among Iranian HIV individuals. C. albicans and C. glabrata are most important etiologic agents of oral candidiasis. In Iranian HIV individuals; TCD4 count, antifungal therapy, gender, smoking and intravenous drug use are important risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis. Denture wearing and age are predisposing factors for oral colonization.

  1. Systemic Candidiasis with Multiple Abscesses After Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Gland

    Patris Emmanouil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. The rare case is presented of a patient who developed multiple abscesses from Candida albicans after transurethral resection of the prostate gland for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The abscesses developed in the urogenital system, the anorectal region and the lungs, and also subcutaneously. They were treated both surgically and with medication. Solitary abscess as a manifestation of candidiasis is well documented, but to the best of the authors’ knowledge this is the first report of multiple, synchronous abscesses in different systems in a patient with systemic candidiasis. Pneumon 2009, 22(4:331-336.

  2. Clinical and immunological data of nine patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease

    Dotta, Laura; Scomodon, Omar; Padoan, Rita; Timpano, Silviana; Plebani, Alessandro; Soresina, Annarosa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Concolino, Daniela; Nicoletti, Angela; Giardino, Giuliana; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Pignata, Claudio; Tamassia, Nicola; Facchetti, Fabio; Vairo, Donatella; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the heterogeneous clinical phenotype of a cohort of nine patients diagnosed with heterozygous mutations in STAT1. We report data of extended immunophenotyping over time and we show lung damage in four patients. The increased phosphorylation of STAT1 in response to IFNγ and IFNα stimulation proves the gain-of-function nature of the defects. The data are supplemental to our original article concurrently published “Clinical heterogeneity of dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease: presenting as treatment-resistant candidiasis and chronic lung disease” [1], where additional results and interpretation of our research can be found.

  3. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing with Etest for Candida Species Isolated from Patients with Oral Candidiasis

    Song, You Bum; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    Background The necessity of performing antifungal susceptibility tests is recently increasing because of frequent cases of oral candidiasis caused by antifungal-resistant Candida species. The Etest (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) is a rapid and easy-to-perform in vitro antifungal susceptibility test. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents by using the Etest for Candida species isolated from patients with oral candidiasis. Methods Forty-seven clinical isolates of Candida species (39 isolates of Candida albicans, 5 isolates of C. glabrata, and 3 isolates of C. tropicalis) were tested along with a reference strain (C. albicans ATCC 90028). The MIC end points of the Etest for fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B susceptibility were read after the 24-hour incubation of each isolate on RPMI 1640 agar. Results All Candida isolates were found susceptible to voriconazole and amphotericin B. However, all five isolates of C. glabrata were resistant to itraconazole, among which two isolates were also resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion This study revealed that the Etest represented a simple and efficacious method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from oral candidiasis patients. Therefore, voriconazole and amphotericin B should be recommended as effective alternatives for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:26719641

  4. Contribution of Candida albicans ALS1 to the Pathogenesis of Experimental Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Kamai, Yasuki; Kubota, Mikie; Kamai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Tsunemichi; Fukuoka, Takashi; Filler, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the contribution of Candida albicans ALS1, which encodes a candidal adhesin, to the pathogenesis of experimental murine oropharyngeal candidiasis. Our results indicate that the ALS1 gene product is important for the adherence of the organism to the oral mucosa during the early stage of the infection.

  5. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography

    When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries. (orig.)

  6. New US and CT patterns of hepatic and spienic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients

    Nine immunocompromised cancer patients with tissue-proved candidiasis underwent a total of eight serial abdominal US studies and 53 CT examinations. Four US patterns of hepatic and splenic candidiasis were recognized. Type 1 was a ''wheel within a wheel'', or a central hypoechoic nidus surrounded by a dense band, in turn surronded by a rim of hypoechoic tissue. Type 2 was the classic ''bull's eye'' lesion. Type 3, the most common, was a uniformly hypoechoic lesion, 1-4 cm in diameter. Type 4 was a small, dense, echogenic focus with no surrounding lucency and varying amounts of posterior shadowing. Types 1,2 and 3 were seen early in infection; types 3 and 4 were present later. Lesion types 2,3 and 4 were also identified on CT scans. In addition, periportal linear areas of increased attenuation, possibly calcified, were identified on follow-up, non-contrast-enhanced CT. Some abscesses were better seen on non-contrast-enhanced CT scans, while others became visible only after iodinated contrast medium was administered intravenously. Although lesions not seen on US were often seen on CT, the opposite was also true. In two cases pathologic proof of candidiasis was established even when all imaging studies were negative. Patients should be studied by US and by CT before and after contrast agent administration for maximum sensitivity. Even when both US and CT are negative, if there is a strong clinical suspicion of candidiasis, open biopsy is recommended

  7. Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears

    P Tavakkol

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were cultured in Sabourauds medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol then cultures were tested with common mycological lab tests. In 80% of patients oral candidiasis have been diagnosed. In the investigation a direct relation between the oral candidiasis and removal of denture at night, denture cleanliness, presence of any suction and symptoms of denture stomatitis was shown. No relation between the oral candidiasis and sex, smoking habit, succeptible disease, angular cheilitis; the recent condition of denture and the retention of denture were found. The findings of our investigation indicates that candida albicans is the causative agent of denture stomatitis while other factors such as denture cleanliness, removal of denture at night and presence of any suction may be considered as well.

  8. CD8 T-cells and E-cadherin in host responses against oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Quimby, K.; Lilly, E.A.; Zacharek, M.; McNulty, K.; Leigh, J.E.; Vazquez, J.E.; Fidel, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most common oral infection in HIV+ persons. Previous studies suggest a role for CD8+ T-cells against OPC when CD4+ T-cells are lost, but enhanced susceptibility to infection occurs when CD8+ T-cell migration is inhibited by reduced tissue E-cadherin.

  9. Clinical Implications of Oral Candidiasis: Host Tissue Damage and Disseminated Bacterial Disease

    Kong, Eric F.; Kucharíková, Sona; Van Dijck, Patrick; Brian M. Peters; Shirtliff, Mark E; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significance of polymicrobial interactions, particularly those between commensal species with high pathogenic potential, remains largely understudied. Although the dimorphic fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are common cocolonizers of humans, they are considered leading opportunistic pathogens. Oral candidiasis specifically, characterized by hyphal invasion of oral mucosal tissue, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV+ and immunoc...

  10. La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA

    Elena Morán López

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África. Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH. Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa. It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to become a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

  11. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes con sida. Estudio clínico y microbiológico

    Zenia Flores de Apodaca Verdura; Gerardo Martínez Machín; Aroldo Ruiz Pérez; Carlos M Fernández Andreu; Mayra Muné Jiménez; Mayda Perurena Lancha

    1998-01-01

    Se estudiaron 18 pacientes con sida, que presentaban síntomas gastrointestinales altos o lesiones en la cavidad oral sugestivos de candidiasis. Se obtuvieron datos clínicos, muestras de la cavidad oral, biopsias y cepillado esofágico, así como suero de todos los pacientes. El síntoma que principalmente se observó en la candidiasis esofágica fue la disfagia; la candidiasis oral se comportó de forma asintomática. Candida albicans fue la especie que más se aisló con predominio del serotipo A. Se...

  12. Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence▿†

    McManus, Brenda A.; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M.; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Derek J. Sullivan; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one ...

  13. CHANGING TRENDS OF CANDIDA ISOLATES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS CASES OF TRIPURA, NORTH EAST INDIA

    Jhinuk Basu; Tapan; De, Jayanta; Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    : BACKGROUND: Candida species are a part of the complex endogenous vaginal microflora, which under pathological condition cause vulvovaginal candidiasis. Worldwide it is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis and in India it accounts for 18-20% of clinical visits. AIM: To determine the spectrum of Candida species among the subjects of suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis with an objective to isolate and identify all the Candida species and determine ...

  14. Genetic dissimilarity of two fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains causing meningitis and oral candidiasis in the same AIDS patient.

    J. Berenguer; Diaz-Guerra, T M; Ruiz-Diez, B; Bernaldo de Quiros, J C; Rodriguez-Tudela, J.L.; Martinez-Suarez, J V

    1996-01-01

    We describe a patient with AIDS who simultaneously developed Candida meningitis with three positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures and oral candidiasis. This patient also had a history or recurrent episodes of oral candidiasis treated with fluconazole. The patient did not respond to this therapy but was cured with amphotericin B and flucytosine. In vitro susceptibility tests revealed that each infection was caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates. Strain delineation by karyoty...

  15. Immunohistochemical study of in vivo and in vitro IgA coating of candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Böhler, K; Klade, H; Poitschek, C; Reinthaller, A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate whether quantitative or qualitative IgA deficiencies in cervicovaginal secretions can be identified in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective and controlled study. SETTING--Department of Dermatology, University of Vienna. SUBJECTS--30 patients with symptomatic and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis at the time of their presentation. 30 healthy women as a control group. INTERVENTION--Blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum IgA lev...

  16. Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnstico temprano Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis

    Catalina de Bedout

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones vara de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalizacin y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiologa de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicticos segn su localizacin geogrfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnstico temprano que lleve a la identificacin correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimictico. El diagnstico de la candidiasis invasora contina siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes mtodos diagnsticos, los microbiolgicos, los inmunolgicos y los nuevos moleculares, an en desarrollo y validacin, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisin se describen los mtodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que estn en etapa de desarrollo y validacin. En la ltima dcada se cuenta con mtodos de referencia para la medicin de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local.Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

  17. Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Sobel JD

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jack D SobelDivision of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an extremely common cause of vaginal symptoms in women. Multiple antifungal products are available by either the oral or vaginal route, although no new drugs have become available for two decades. Given the therapeutic equivalence of the antimycotic agents and their routes of administration, the specific drug and formulation selected is entirely arbitrary in relation to final treatment outcome. Nevertheless, multiple factors affecting preference, both practitioner-dependent and patient-dependent, impact on selection of a specific drug and route of administration.Keywords: antifungal drugs, antimycotics, Candida vaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis

  18. Invasive candidiasis in non neutropenic critically ill - need for region-specific management guidelines

    Armin Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of antifungal agents has increased over past few decades. A number of risk factors such as immunosuppression, broad spectrum antibiotics, dialysis, pancreatitis, surgery, etc., have been linked with the increased risk of invasive candidiasis. Though there are various guidelines available for the use of antifungal therapy, local/regional epidemiology plays an important role in determining the appropriate choice of agent in situations where the offending organism is not known (i.e. empirical, prophylactic or preemptive therapy. Developing countries like India need to generate their own epidemiological data to facilitate appropriate use of antifungal therapy. In this article, the authors have highlighted the need for region-specific policies/guidelines for treatment of invasive candidiasis. Currently available Indian literature on candidemia epidemiology has also been summarized here.

  19. Photodynamic therapy as a new approach in vulvovaginal candidiasis in murine model

    Santi, Maria E.; Lopes, Rubia G.; Prates, Renato A.; Sousa, Aline; Ferreira, Luis R.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Bussadori, Sandra K.; Deana, Alessandro M.

    2015-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common cause of vaginal infections. This study investigates the efficiency of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against yeast cells in mice. Methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), and a special designed protoporphirin (PpNetNI) were used as photosensitizers. Female BALB-c mice were infected with Candida albicans ATCC 90028. PDT was applied with two different light sources, intravaginal and transabdominal. Vaginal washes were performed and cultivated for microbial quantification. Antimicrobial PDT was able to decrease microbial content with MB and PpNetNI (p<0.05), it was not effective, however, with MG photosensitizer. The results of this study demonstrate that aPDT may be a viable alternative treatment for vaginal candidiasis.

  20. Effect of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the In Vitro Growth of Candida albicans and Its Protective Effect in an Oral Candidiasis Model

    Ishijima, Sanae A.; Hayama, Kazumi; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor; Okada, Masashi; Matsushita, Yuji; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is often accompanied by severe inflammation, resulting in a decline in the quality of life of immunosuppressed individuals and elderly people. To develop a new oral therapeutic option for candidiasis, a nonpathogenic commensal oral probiotic microorganism, Streptococcus salivarius K12, was evaluated for its ability to modulate Candida albicans growth in vitro, and its therapeutic activity in an experimental oral candidiasis model was tested. In vitro inhibition of mycelial gr...

  1. Innovation of natural essential oil-loaded Orabase for local treatment of oral candidiasis

    Labib GS; Aldawsari H

    2015-01-01

    Gihan S Labib,1,2 Hibah Aldawsari1 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Purpose: Oral candidiasis may be manifested in the oral cavity as either mild or severe oral fungal infection. This infection results from the overgrowth of Candida species normally existing in the oral cavity in minute amounts based on many pr...

  2. Transcriptomic Analysis of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Identifies a Role for the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Bruno, Vincent M.; Shetty, Amol C.; Yano, Junko; Fidel, Paul L.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Peters, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused most frequently by Candida albicans, represents a significant unmet clinical need. C. albicans, as both a commensal and a pathogenic organism, has a complex and poorly understood interaction with the vaginal environment. Understanding the complex nature of this relationship is necessary for the development of desperately needed therapies to treat symptomatic infection. Using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we characterized the e...

  3. Mural Folliculitis and Alopecia with Cutaneous Candidiasis in a Beagle Dog

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Choe, Ohmok; Kim, Okjin

    2011-01-01

    A one-year-old male Beagle dog showed dermatitis, alopecia and scales. Examination of the affected dog revealed generalized alopecia, patchy erythema, and superficial erosions with histological evidence of mural folliculitis. External tests for parasites in scraped skin samples were negative. However, fungal culture tests and polymerase chain reaction revealed the existence of Candida in the lesion. These results suggest that cutaneous candidiasis may induce mural folliculitis and alopecia in...

  4. The cell wall structure: developments in diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis

    Marcilla Diaz, Antonio; Valentín Gómez, Eulogio; Sentandreu Ramon, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    Candidiasis are among the fungal infections the most difficult to diagnose and treat. Research focused on specific fungal components which are absent in the host, such as the cell wall has lead to a better understanding of Candida albicans pathogenicity and clinical impact. The cell wall is responsible for antigenic expression and primary interaction with the host. It is composed mainly of b-glucans, chitin and mannoproteins, which account for the rigidity of the wall and for t...

  5. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors to Candidiasis Infection in Women Supported by Health Centers of Tabriz, 2004.

    J Babapour

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginits is probably the most common infection in women during their reproductive years, resulting in 5-10 million health-care visits a year, worldwide. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (vvc is the second-most common form of vaginitis in the United States, which is associated with use of oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen and hormonal therapies. Midwives play an important role not only in the assessment and management of vaginal infections, but also in educating women about vaginal health. Recognizing risk factors associated with infections are the key to vaginal health.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Candidal vaginitis in women referring to Tabriz health centers. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out on 1000 women aged 15-49 years who were selected by multiple random method. A sample of vaginal discharge was taken from the posterior fornix of the cervix and from the vaginal wall using sterile cotton swabs. The mycelium was observed by microscopic examination of a wet mount of the secretions. Another sample was taken for culturing in Agar sabura and transported to the laboratory. In addition, questionnaires with personal and reproductive information were completed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 15 and chi-square and, t student statistical tests were used for analysis. Results : This investigation indicated that prevalence of candidiasis was 25.2%. There was no meaningful statistical relationship between age, marriage age, occupation, education status, body mass index, day of menstruation cycle and abortion history with candidal vaginitis (p>.05,but a statistically significant relationship was observed between number of deliveries, vaginal Ph with candidiasis. Also, there was a reverse statistical relationship between OCP, DMPA methods and candidiasis. Conclusion: Midwives and other health professionals have an important role to play by giving more information to women about infections and associated risk factors, thus improving their quality of life.

  6. Localized Candidiasis in Kidney Presented as a Mass Mimicking Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Zhanyong Bing; Stephanie Dean; Zhao Song; Nicholas Papanicolaou

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is a ubiquitous fungus and infection of urinary tract by C. albicans can be originated from blood or retrograde infection. We reported a case of localized candidiasis in the kidney presenting as a mass. The patient was a 61-year-old male with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma status post radical cystoprostatectomy with a neobladder three years ago. Pathology at that time also showed a prostatic adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 3 + 4 )...

  7. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

    N. Chami; Chami, F.; S. Bennis; Trouillas, J; A. Remmal

    2004-01-01

    Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p

  8. Invasive candidiasis in intensive care unit; consensus statement from an Iranian panel of experts, July 2013

    Arezoo AHMADI; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Kouchek, Mehran; Majidpour, Ali; Mokhtari, Majid; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Najafi, Atabak; Nejat, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Amirsavadkouhi, Ali; Shirazian, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Timely diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a challenge; on the other hand, the criteria for initiating empirical antifungal therapy in critically ill patients are not well defined in different patient population and ICU settings. Alongside the international guidelines, reaching regional and local consensus on diagnosis and management of IC in ICU setting is essential. This repo...

  9. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum, Iran

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Arezoo AHMADI; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in...

  10. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case with exuberant cutaneous horns in nipples *

    Chambô, Antônio; de Souza, João Basilio; Pignaton, Christine Chambô; Zon, Ingrid; Fernandes, Alan Santos; Cardoso, Lia Quintaes

    2014-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent infections by Candida due to changes in cellular immunity and may be associated with autoimmune endocrine disorders. It is refractory to the usual antifungal treatments, which merely control it with imidazole derivatives. This reports the case of a 50-year-old female patient who referred vaginal discharge associated with vulvar ulcerated lesions and whitish plaques on oral and genital mucous membran...

  11. Salivary Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor and Oral Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Persons

    Chattopadhyay, Amit; Gray, Laurie R; Patton, Lauren L; Caplan, Daniel J; Slade, Gary D.; Tien, Hsaio-Chuan; Shugars, Diane C.

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis, typically caused by Candida albicans, is the most common oral disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a 12-kDa antiprotease, suppresses the growth of C. albicans in vitro. To determine whether the mucosal protein plays a role in protecting oral tissues against fungal infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study investigating the oral and systemic health and salivary SLPI levels ...

  12. Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis with localized oral miconazole therapy: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    Cookinham S; Collins CD; Smith J

    2011-01-01

    Curtis D Collins1, Sarah Cookinham2, Jeannina Smith21Department of Pharmacy Services, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a very common localized infection of the mucus membranes of the oropharynx that is most commonly caused by the patient's own commensal Candida albicans. It is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with the human immunodeficiency v...

  13. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing with Etest for Candida Species Isolated from Patients with Oral Candidiasis

    Song, You Bum; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    Background The necessity of performing antifungal susceptibility tests is recently increasing because of frequent cases of oral candidiasis caused by antifungal-resistant Candida species. The Etest (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) is a rapid and easy-to-perform in vitro antifungal susceptibility test. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents by using the Etest for Candida species isolated from patients with oral...

  14. Importance of beta2-microglobulin in murine resistance to mucosal and systemic candidiasis.

    Balish, E.; Vazquez-Torres, F A; Jones-Carson, J; Wagner, R D; WARNER, T

    1996-01-01

    beta2-Microglobulin knockout (beta2m-/-) mice, which lack major histocompatibility complex class I expression and are deficient in CD8alpha/beta T-cell receptor alpha/beta (TcRalpha/beta) T cells, were as resistant to systemic (intravenous) challenge with Candida albicans as immunocompetent controls. Conversely, the beta2m-/- mutant mice were susceptible to systemic candidiasis of endogenous origin despite the induction of C. albicans-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune responses after...

  15. Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Sobel JD

    2013-01-01

    Jack D SobelDivision of Infectious Diseases, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common cause of vaginal symptoms in women. Multiple antifungal products are available by either the oral or vaginal route, although no new drugs have become available for two decades. Given the therapeutic equivalence of the antimycotic agents and their routes of administration, the specific drug and formulation selected is entirely a...

  16. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Isha Khatri; Ganapathi Moger; N. Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated wa...

  17. ?-D-Glucan Assay in Diagnosis and Monitoring the Systemic Candidiasis in a Rat Model

    Hossein Khodadadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of ?-D-Glucan (BDG in the serum aids to diagnose the invasive fungal infections. The current study evaluated the diagnostic potential value of BDG assay in monitoring the disease in experimental systemic candidiasis in a rat model. The results can provide a useful preliminary data to improve this approach in developing countries. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate ?-D-Glucan assay in diagnosis and monitoring the systemic candidiasis in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty one rats were infected with 106 Candida albicans blastospore per rat. Twelve rats were considered as the negative controls (six immunocompromised rats without infection and six intact rats. During a week, every 24 hours the BDG sera level was determined by both Fungitell and Wako kits. To confirm the systemic infection in each rat, the suspensions of their internal organs were cultivated on agar plates and the number of colony forming units (CFU of C. albicans was counted. Results: All the infected rats were positive with BDG tests. An increasing level of BDG was observed during early days after injection. The cutoff value for discrimination of BDG positive sera was obtained from the negative sera by the Fungitell kit. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values assessed for the Fungitell kit were 95%, 66.6%, 90.47% and 80%, respectively. These criteria for those of Wako were 90%, 83.3%, 94.7% and 71.4%, respectively. Conclusions: While BDG assay seems to be a sensitive and specific adjunctive tool to diagnose and monitor the experimental systemic candidiasis, it seems that measuring the positive cutoff value in different laboratory conditions is necessary for favorable establishment of these tests. Keywords: Beta-D-glucan; Systemic candidiasis; Diagnosis

  18. A Case of Gingival Candidiasis with Bone Destruction on Gastric Cancer Patient Receiving Cytotoxic Chemotherapy

    Seungtaek Lim; Tae-jun Kil; Hye Ryun Kim; Seonhui Han; Sun Young Rha

    2014-01-01

    We herein report a case of gingival candidiasis in an advanced gastric cancer patient while receiving palliative cytotoxic chemotherapy. A 46-year-old male patient admitted to our hospital for known advanced gastric cancer with newly developed multiple liver metastases. While receiving 2nd line cytotoxic chemotherapy with 5FU, leucovorin, and paclitxel, he complained of gingival swelling accompanied by pain and whitish plaque. Due to lack of response to the conservative oral care, incisional ...

  19. Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis in a surgical intensive care unit: an observational study

    Aguilar Aguilar, Gerardo; Delgado, Carlos; Corrales, Isabel; Izquierdo, Ana; Gracia, Estefanía; Moreno, Tania; Romero, Esther; Ferrando, Carlos; Carbonell, José A; Borrás Salvador, Rafael; Navarro, David; Belda Nacher, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a frequent and life-threatening infection in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of IC and the antifungal susceptibility of etiological agents in patients admitted to our surgical intensive care unit (SICU) in Spain. Methods: We designed a prospective, observational, single center, population-based study in a SICU. We included all consecutive adult patients (≥18 years old) who had documented IC, either on adm...

  20. Invasive candidiasis due to Candida norvegensis in a liver transplant patient: case report and literature review

    Maria Musso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida norvegensis is an emerging fluconazole-resistant pathogen isolated in most cases from skin and mucous membranes of immunocompromized patients. Documented invasive candidiasis (IC due to C. norvegensis has been rarely reported, thus the clinical features of patients at risk for this pathogen are poorly defined. We report a liver transplant patient who developed IC due to C. norvegensis and review other cases of C. norvegensis IC published in the literature.

  1. Single or 2-Dose Micafungin Regimen for Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis: Therapia Sterilisans Magna!

    Gumbo, Tawanda

    2015-12-01

    The time the earth takes to rotate its axis (the day) has dictated how often pharmaceutical compounds are dosed. The scientific link between the 2 events is materia medica arcana. As an example, in the treatment of invasive candidiasis, antifungal therapy with intravenous micafungin is dosed daily. A literature review revealed population pharmacokinetic analyses, in vivo pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies, and maximum-tolerated-dose studies of micafungin that examined optimal micafungin dosing strategies. The half-life of micafungin in patient blood was 14 hours in several studies, but was even longer in different organs, so that the concentration will persist above minimum inhibitory concentrations of Candida species for several days. Studies in mice and rabbits with persistent neutropenia and disseminated candidiasis, otherwise fatal, demonstrated that a single large dose of micafungin could clear disseminated candidiasis, even though the micafungin half-life in such animals is shorter than in humans. Human pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies confirmed this link between micafungin efficacy and the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve, and the optimal exposures initially identified in neutropenic animals. Maximum tolerated dose studies have demonstrated safety of 900 mg administered daily for several weeks, whereas case reports demonstrate efficacy and safety of single 1400-mg doses. Thus, a single dose of micafungin, or 2 such doses within a few days of each other, is not only logical, but might even lead to faster clearance of Candida. PMID:26567282

  2. Clinical assessment of oral mucositis and candidiasis compare to chemotherapic nadir in transplanted patients

    PATUSSI, Cleverson; SASSI, Laurindo Moacir; MUNHOZ, Eduardo Ciliao; ZANICOTTI, Roberta Targa Stramandinoli; SCHUSSEL, Juliana Lucena.

    2014-09-26

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is a chief complication in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It is considered a toxic inflammatory reaction that interferes with the patients recuperation and quality of life. Oral candidiasis is a common fungal infection observed in dental practice, [...] particularly in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of oral mucositis and oral candidiasis in patients who underwent HSCT and their correlation with the chemotherapeutic nadir (lowest possible outcome). We evaluated patients with different diagnoses who underwent HSCT at the Hospital Erasto Gaertner. No chemotherapeutic nadir curves could be associated with mucositis, and patients had different presentations of mucositis. No patient developed oral candidiasis during hospitalization. Together with cell counts, we collected demographic data including age, oral hygiene, habits harmful to health, and the use of oral prostheses. It was observed that patients who smoked cigarettes before hospitalization showed less mucositis, resulting in no feeding problems or other comorbid conditions due to the effect of mucositis. However, the nadir of the chemotherapy curve, in isolation, is not a predictive tool for the appearance (or no appearance) of oral mucositis.

  3. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches. PMID:24959937

  4. Efficacy and safety of miconazole for oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Zhang, L-W; Fu, J-Y; Hua, H; Yan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of miconazole for treating oral candidiasis. Twelve electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for oral candidiasis and complemented by hand searching. The clinical and mycological outcomes, as well as adverse effects, were set as the primary outcome criteria. Seventeen trials were included in this review. Most studies were considered to have a high or moderate level of bias. Miconazole was more effective than nystatin for thrush. For HIV-infected patients, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between miconazole and other antifungals. For denture wearers, microwave therapy was significantly better than miconazole. No significant difference was found in the safety evaluation between miconazole and other treatments. The relapse rate of miconazole oral gel may be lower than that of other formulations. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that miconazole may be an optional choice for thrush. Microwave therapy could be an effective adjunct treatment for denture stomatitis. Miconazole oral gel may be more effective than other formulations with regard to long-term results. However, future studies that are adequately powered, large-scale, and well-designed are needed to provide higher-quality evidence for the management of oral candidiasis. PMID:26456226

  5. Lipase Gene Expression of Resistant and Sensitive Candida Albicans to Fluconazole Isolated from Patients Suffering from Oral Candidiasis and Vaginal Candidiasis

    NasrollahiOmran, A. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With the development of drug resistance in strains of fungi, there is a considerable resistance of Candida albicans strains to fluconazole. Molecular studies are developing to determine the relationship of such a drug resistance with the increased gene expression of enzymes produced in drug-resistant Candida isolates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between extracellular lipase gene (LIP8 expression of Candida albicans isolated from candidiasis and sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility of Candida albicans was performed in oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine the proportion of strains sensitive or resistant to fluconazole using NCCLS method. To evaluate and compare the expression of these genes in the susceptible and resistant strains, RT real-time PCR reaction was used. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans, 20 were susceptible, 12 were semi-susceptible and 14 were resistant to fluconazole. By using PCR reaction, the results showed that the expression of this gene in fluconazole-susceptible isolates was moderate, while it was high in the isolates resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: The results of lipase gene (LIP8 expression showed that the additional expression of some genes of the enzymes responsible for virulence of Candida may also play a role in resistance to fluconazole.

  6. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes con sida. Estudio clínico y microbiológico

    Zenia Flores de Apodaca Verdura

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 18 pacientes con sida, que presentaban síntomas gastrointestinales altos o lesiones en la cavidad oral sugestivos de candidiasis. Se obtuvieron datos clínicos, muestras de la cavidad oral, biopsias y cepillado esofágico, así como suero de todos los pacientes. El síntoma que principalmente se observó en la candidiasis esofágica fue la disfagia; la candidiasis oral se comportó de forma asintomática. Candida albicans fue la especie que más se aisló con predominio del serotipo A. Se analizaron por la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida los perfiles proteicos de las 12 cepas pertenecientes a esta especie, se observó identidad de sus patrones de peso molecular, lo que sugiere que sea la misma cepa la que se halla en la cavidad oral y en el esófago. Se evaluó la respuesta de anticuerpos anti-C. albicans, no resultó útil la inmunodifusión doble para el diagnóstico de candidiasis esofágica.18 AIDS patients who presented high gastrointestinal symptoms or lesions in the oral cavity suggestive of candidiasis were studied. Clinical data, specimen of the oral cavity, biopsies and esophageal brushing, as well as serum from all patients were obtained. Dysphagia was the main symptom observed in the esophageal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most isolated species with a predominance of serotype A. The protein profiles of 12 strains belonging to this species were analyzed by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and it was found that their molecular weight patterns were identical, which indicates that the same strain is in the oral cavity and in the esophagus. The response of the anti-C. albicans antibodies was evaluated. The double immunodiffussion was not useful for the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis.

  7. Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico

    Claudia Cortés M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

  8. Topical miconazole nitrate ointment in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by candidiasis.

    Spraker, Mary K; Gisoldi, Elvira M; Siegfried, Elaine C; Fling, John A; de Espinosa, Zila D; Quiring, John N; Zangrilli, Stephanie G

    2006-02-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) complicated by candidiasis is a common problem in diaper-wearing infants and children. We report a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel-group study evaluating the efficacy and safety of a low concentration of miconazole nitrate in a zinc oxide/petrolatum ointment for the treatment of DD complicated by candidiasis. Patients (N=330) who had DD with a severity score of 3 or higher were enrolled. Those patients with a baseline potassium hydroxide (KOH) preparation and a baseline culture specimen that both tested positive for Candida were retained for efficacy analysis (n=236). Miconazole nitrate 0.25% ointment or a zinc oxide/petrolatum vehicle control were applied to all clinically affected areas of patients with DD for 7 days at each diaper change and after bathing. A follow-up test-of-cure visit was conducted at day 14. Among the patients completing the study, the overall rate of cure (clinical cure plus microbiologic cure) was 23% for the miconazole nitrate group and 10% for the vehicle control group (P=.005); the rate of clinical cure (complete rash clearance, DD severity score=0 at day 14) was 38% for the miconazole nitrate group and 11% for the vehicle control group (Pmiconazole nitrate group and 23% for the vehicle control group. The vehicle control resulted in mild improvement at day 3 but little or no subsequent improvement. The discontinuation rate due to clinical failure was substantially lower for the miconazole nitrate group (4%) than the vehicle control group (47%). The mean DD severity index score for the miconazole nitrate group was significantly lower from day 3 through day 14 compared with that of the vehicle control group (Pmiconazole nitrate 0.25% ointment was well tolerated and significantly more effective than the zinc oxide/petrolatum vehicle control for treatment of DD complicated by candidiasis. PMID:16570675

  9. EFFICACY OF SINGLE ORAL DOSE 150 mg FLUCONAZOLE IN TREATMENT OF VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

    Shabana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIMS : This study aimed to find out the efficacy of single oral dose 150mg of fluconazole in treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis, to e valuate its safety assessment and the clinical and mycological efficacy assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his study is carried out in department of obstetrics and gynaecology Gandhi medical college sultania hospital Bhopal and with the help of microbiolo gy department Gandhi medical college Bhopal over a period of one year. It is a hospital based clinical prospective study. RESULTS : Maximum age incidence was found between 21 - 30years. Mostly patients belonged to low socioeconomic status and were uneducated. Maximum patients were married (98% and multiparous (92%, nulliparous formed the smallest group (8%. In factors predisposing to candidiasis, contraceptive methods were found to be important in which maximum incidence was found in patients using oral con traception about 32% and 12% of IUCD users were affected. Other factors were antibiotic treatment (5% and diabetes (2%. Vaginal discharge and pruritis were the two commonest symptoms found. Among the signs vaginal discharge and white plaques was the comm onest sign. On follow up visits 88 cases had complete clinical cure and only 6 cases showed failure and 9 recurrence s . In mycological assessment maximum 135 cases showed complete cure, 6 were failure and 9 recurrence. In overall results, excellent results were found in 88cases, good in 38 cases, fair in 9 cases and recurrence in 9 cases. Recurrences were mainly due to rectal carriers. CONCLUSION: In co n clusion fluconazole was found effective as a systemic single oral dose therapy for acute vulvovaginal cand idiasis. It is proved safe in terms of tolerance and preferred by patients. So in view of its favourable patients acceptability and compliance profile, it is considered as a first line therapeutic choice for treatment of women with vaginal candidiasis.

  10. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  11. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Findings of Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis in Women Supported by Selected Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran

    Sehhatie-Shafaie Fahimeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vulvovaginitis candidiasis and trichomoniasis constitute at least 50% of infectious vaginitis cases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical findings of candidiasis and trichomoniasis in women supported by selected health centers of Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which 1000 women who had the study criteria were selected by random sampling. In addition, 12 health centers of Tabriz were selected for this study. A questionnaire was used to obtain their personal and reproductive information, checklist for clinical observations, and culture methods (sabouraud dextrose agar and diamond for diagnose vaginal infections. Results: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis were 25.2 and 9.2%, respectively. Findings showed that candidiasis infection, history of diseases, vaginal pH, number of coitus, number of delivery, and number of vaginal delivery, breast feeding status, method of last delivery, and contraceptive methods are risk factors for candidacies. Moreover, age at marriage, personal health, sexual hygiene, and vaginal pH are risk factors for trichomoniasis. A statistically significant relationship was observed between candidiasis and clinical findings, such as pruritus, pruritus during coitus, burning sensation with coitus, dysuria in woman and her husband, dyspareunia, low abdominal pain, urinal symptoms, vaginal status, amount of discharge, consistency appearance, and color of discharges. Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between trichomoniasis and dysuria, and appearance and color of vaginal discharge. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis infections, and infected women as asymptomatic carriers, it seems necessary to pay more attention to these infections and make efforts for their prevention.

  12. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    Rickard Kristen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment. The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64% participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6% had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12609001052224

  13. TUBERCULOSIS INFECTION MIGHT INCREASE THE RISK OF INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN AN IMMUNOCOMPETENT PATIENT

    Xiao-Hua CHEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep Candida infections commonly occur in immunosuppressed patients. A rare case of a multiple deep organ infection with Candida albicans and spinal tuberculosis was reported in a healthy young man. The 19-year-old man complained of month-long fever and lower back pain. He also had a history of scalded mouth syndrome. Coinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans was diagnosed using the culture of aspirates from different regions. Symptoms improved considerably after antifungal and antituberculous therapy. This case illustrates that infection with tuberculosis might impair the host's immune system and increase the risk of invasive candidiasis in an immunocompetent patient.

  14. Ketoconazole hepatotoxicity in a patient treated for environmental illness and systemic candidiasis

    Brusko, C.S.; Marten, J.T. (Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-12-01

    Environmental illness, a hypothesized disease caused by exposure to substances such as combustion products, pesticides, food additives, and Candida albicans, is discussed. The case of a patient with environmental illness and systemic candidiasis for six weeks with ketoconazole, liver enzyme concentrations increased. One month after discontinuation of ketoconazole, the liver enzyme concentrations decreased; however, over the next five months, liver enzymes and bilirubin increased. The patient developed encephalopathy and eventually was transferred to a medical center for possible liver transplant. A review of the literature pertaining to ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is also presented.16 references.

  15. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among nonpregnant women attending a tertiary health care facility in Abuja, Nigeria

    Emeribe AU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthony Uchenna Emeribe,1 Idris Abdullahi Nasir,2 Justus Onyia,2 Alinwachukwu Loveth Ifunanya31Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria; 3Department of Medical Laboratory, School of Health Technology, Tsafe, Zamfara State, NigeriaBackground: Candida spp. are normal flora of the vagina that eventually become pathogenic under some prevailing conditions, and thus present as a common etiology of vulvovaginitis. When prompt recognition and laboratory confirmation is not achieved, this could lead to devastating genital discomfort and a major reason for frequent hospital visits.Aims: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that aimed to determine the prevalence and some associated risk factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC among nonpregnant women attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada.Subjects and methods: A pair of high vaginal swab and endocervical swab samples was collected from each of 200 individual participating subjects. They were separately inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and incubated aerobically at 33°C for 48 hours. Ten percent KOH wet mount and Gram staining was done on swabs and colonies, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data.Results: Of the 200 participating subjects, the prevalence of Candida albicans was 6.5% and that of non-albicans candidiasis 7.5%. Candidiasis was observed mostly among the 20- to 30-year age-group. All subjects with Candida-positive culture had been on antibacterial therapy prior to participating in this study – 28 (100%. There was a statistical relationship between the prevalence of VVC with previous antibacterial therapy (P<0.05, but not with age or other prevailing health conditions studied (P>0.05.Conclusion: The outcome of this study indicated involvement of Candida spp. in vulvovaginitis among nonpregnant women, especially those on empirical antibacterial therapy. Moreover, it is worthwhile to consider culture-test results as adjunctive in combination with clinical symptoms in the definitive diagnosis of VVC. Due to the importance of our findings, sex-education workshops should be conducted to educate women on the clinical significance of Candida in vulvovaginitis.Keywords: vulvovaginal candidiasis, antibacterial therapy, nonpregnant, Abuja

  16. Efficacy of nystatin for the treatment of oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Lyu X

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Xin Lyu, Chen Zhao, Zhi-min Yan, Hong HuaDepartment of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: To systematically review and assess the efficacy, different treatment protocols (formulation, dosage, and duration, and safety of nystatin for treating oral candidiasis.Methods: Four electronic databases were searched for trials published in English till July 1, 2015. Randomized controlled trials comparing nystatin with other antifungal therapies or a placebo were included. Clinical and/or mycological cure was the outcome evaluation. A meta-analysis or descriptive study on the efficacy, treatment protocols, and safety of nystatin was conducted.Results: The meta-analysis showed that nystatin pastille was significantly superior to placebo in treating denture stomatitis. Nystatin suspension was not superior to fluconazole in treating oral candidiasis in infants, children, or HIV/AIDS patients. The descriptive investigations showed that administration of nystatin suspension and pastilles in combination for 2 weeks might achieve a higher clinical and mycological cure rate, and using the nystatin pastilles alone might have a higher mycological cure rate, when compared with using nystatin suspensions alone. Nystatin pastilles at a dose of 400,000 IU resulted in a significantly higher mycological cure rate than that administrated at a dose of 200,000 IU. Furthermore, treatment with nystatin pastilles for 4 weeks seemed to have better clinical efficacy than treatment for 2 weeks. Descriptive safety assessment showed that poor taste and gastrointestinal adverse reaction are the most common adverse effects of nystatin.Conclusion: Nystatin pastille was significantly superior to placebo in treating denture stomatitis, while nystatin suspension was not superior to fluconazole in treating oral candidiasis in infants, children, or HIV/AIDS patients. Indirect evidence from a descriptive study demonstrated that administration of nystatin pastille alone or pastille and suspension in combination is more effective than that of suspension alone; prolonged treatment duration for up to 4 weeks can increase the efficacy of nystatin. More well designed and high quality randomized control studies are needed to confirm these findings.Keywords: nystatin, oral candidiasis, systematic review, meta-analysis, safety, dosage forms, treatment duration

  17. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Oral Fluconazole and Intravaginal Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vaginal Candidiasis

    Mikamo, Hiroshige; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    1995-01-01

    Objective: A study was carried out to compare 3 treatment regimens for vaginal candidiasis. Methods: A total of 150 women with clinical and mycological evidence of vaginal candidiasis were randomized to receive 50 mg of oral fluconazole daily for 6 days (50 women), a single oral 150 mg dose of fluconazole (50 women), or 100 mg of intravaginal clotrimazole daily for 6 days (50 women). They were assessed at 5–15 days (short-term assessment) and again at 30–60 days (long-term assessment) after t...

  18. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Oral Fluconazole and Intravaginal Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vaginal Candidiasis

    Mikamo, Hiroshige; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Tamaya, Teruhiko

    1995-01-01

    Objective: A study was carried out to compare 3 treatment regimens for vaginal candidiasis.Methods: A total of 150 women with clinical and mycological evidence of vaginal candidiasis were randomized to receive 50 mg of oral fluconazole daily for 6 days (50 women), a single oral 150 mg dose of fluconazole (50 women), or 100 mg of intravaginal clotrimazole daily for 6 days (50 women). They were assessed at 5–15 days (short-term assessment) and again at 30–60 days (long-term assessment) after th...

  19. Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats

    N. Chami

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05 reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

  20. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions

    Flora Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the bodys first-line defenses against fungal infections. Moreover, classical chemotherapeutic agents also have a detrimental effect on components of the adaptive immune system, which further play important roles in the antifungal response. In this review, we discuss the current paradigm regarding the mechanisms behind the increased risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. We also highlight some recent findings, which suggest that chemotherapy may have more extensive effects beyond the human host, in particular towards C. albicans itself and the bacterial microbiota. The extent to which these additional effects contribute towards the development of candidiasis in chemotherapy-treated patients remains to be investigated.

  1. Esophageal Stricture Secondary to Candidiasis in a Child with Glycogen Storage Disease 1b.

    Lee, Kyung Jae; Choi, Shin Jie; Kim, Woo Sun; Park, Sung-Sup; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal candidiasis is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients; however, candida esophagitis induced stricture is a very rare complication. We report the first case of esophageal stricture secondary to candidiasis in a glycogen storage disease (GSD) 1b child. The patient was diagnosed with GSD type 1b by liver biopsy. No mutation was found in the G6PC gene, but SLC37A4 gene sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation (p.R28H and p.W107X, which was a novel mutation). The patient's absolute neutrophil count was continuously under 1,000/µL when he was over 6 years of age. He was admitted frequently for recurrent fever and infection, and frequently received intravenous antibiotics, antifungal agents. He complained of persistent dysphagia beginning at age 7 years. Esophageal stricture and multiple whitish patches were observed by endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy revealed numerous fungal hyphae consistent with candida esophagitis. He received esophageal balloon dilatation four times, and his symptoms improved. PMID:27066451

  2. Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis

    Al-Sadeq Ameera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

  3. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G.; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata. PMID:27029023

  4. Long Term Vaginal Azoles Versus Prophylactic Oral Fluconazole in Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC is a fungal infection of the vagina and vulva that occur usually = 4 episodes in a year. Our object was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose of fluconazole (150 mg weekly with clotrimazole vaginal cream 150 mg twice weekly for 6 months as treatment of recurrent VVC. We conducted a clinical trial study among 124 women with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC among patients presenting to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2002-2004. There was no significant difference in the therapeutic response as the recurrence rate during 12 months between the two groups. The drug side effects in the fluconazole group were significantly more than clotrimazole group. The satisfactory from the drug in the fluconazole group was significantly less than clotrimazole group. Due to the fewer side effects and more satisfactory of local treatment, we recommend profilactic use of Azole vaginal creams for treatment of RVVC especially in women who are pregnant or have systemic problems.

  5. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The invitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C.albicans and C.glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1?g/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1?g/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C.glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C.glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is>64?g/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C.albicans and C.glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C.glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. PMID:26627336

  6. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions.

    Teoh, Flora; Pavelka, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the body's first-line defenses against fungal infections. Moreover, classical chemotherapeutic agents also have a detrimental effect on components of the adaptive immune system, which further play important roles in the antifungal response. In this review, we discuss the current paradigm regarding the mechanisms behind the increased risk of systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. We also highlight some recent findings, which suggest that chemotherapy may have more extensive effects beyond the human host, in particular towards C. albicans itself and the bacterial microbiota. The extent to which these additional effects contribute towards the development of candidiasis in chemotherapy-treated patients remains to be investigated. PMID:26784236

  7. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a ?sap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the ?sap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and ?sap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis. PMID:25870228

  8. Systemic candidiasis in farm-reared red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa caused by Leucosporidium spp

    Lanteri Giovanni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes the results of radiological, histological and molecular examination of three farm-reared red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa affected by candidiasis. Case presentation Three juvenile farm-reared red-legged partridges in a batch of 100 of the same species were sent for clinical and pathological investigations. The owner referred of a sudden isolation of the sick animals, with apathy, diarrhea, ruffled plumage and respiratory rattles. Post mortem total body lateral projection radiograph showed an increased perihilar interstitial pattern and air bronchogram signs due to lung edema. At necropsy, carcasses showed cachexia; the pericloacal region was soiled by diarrheic fecal material. From the mouth to the intestine, a mucous yellowish fluid was present on a slightly reddish mucosa. Histopathology showed slight edema and congestion with different free fungal elements, referable to blastospores, hyphae and pseudohyphae. Biomolecular exam identified the most similar sequences as belonging to Leucosporidium scottii. Conclusion To our knowledge, this case report describes for the first time this fungal species as a causative agent of candidiasis in birds.

  9. Innovative formulation of nystatin particulate systems in toothpaste for candidiasis treatment.

    Reis, Catarina Pinto; Roque, Luís Vasques; Baptista, Marina; Rijo, Patrícia

    2016-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is a mycosis on the mucous membranes of the mouth but not limited to the mouth. Nystatin is one of the most frequently employed antifungal agents to treat infections and may be safely given orally as well as applied topically but its absorption through mucocutaneous membranes such as the gut and the skin is minimal. The purpose of this study is to enhance the effectiveness of nystatin using particulate system such as beads, micro- and nanoparticles of alginate incorporated into toothpaste. Those particulate systems of nystatin were prepared by extrusion/external gelation for beads and emulsification/internal gelation for micro- and nanoparticles and characterized. Small, anionic charged and monodispersed particles were successfully produced. The type of particulate system influenced all previous parameters, being microparticles the most suitable particulate system of nystatin showing the slowest release, the highest inhibitory effect of Candida albicans over a period of one year. Those results allowed the conclusion that alginate exhibits properties that enable the in vitro functionality of encapsulated nystatin and thus may provide the basis for new successful approaches for the treatment of oral antifungal infections such as oral candidiasis. PMID:25567611

  10. In Vitro Activity of Anidulafungin and Other Agents against Esophageal Candidiasis-Associated Isolates from a Phase 3 Clinical Trial▿

    Pfaller, M A; Hollis, R; Goldstein, B. P.; Messer, S; Diekema, D; Henkel, T

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of anidulafungin, an echinocandin antifungal agent with potent anti-Candida activity, in treating esophageal candidiasis was tested in a double-blind study versus oral fluconazole. Isolates were identified and tested for susceptibility. Candida albicans represented >90% of baseline isolates. The MIC90 of anidulafungin for all strains was 0.06 mg/liter.

  11. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  12. First experience of Candida non-albicans isolates with high antibiotic resistance pattern caused oropharyngeal candidiasis among cancer patients

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, oropharyngeal Candidiasis is a serious infection among cancer patients. The isolated Candida spp. were resistant to common antifungal agents, which may lead to longer hospital stay, more expensive/toxic drugs and higher mortality. Therefore, interval surveillance is necessary in developing institutional guidelines.

  13. Common invasive fungal diseases: an overview of invasive candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    Schmiedel, Yvonne; Zimmerli, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Every year, Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus and Pneumocystis infect an estimated two million individuals worldwide. Most are immunocompromised or critically ill. Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of the critically ill and of recipients of transplanted abdominal organs. In high-risk haemato-oncological patients, in contrast, the introduction of antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole and later with mould-active posaconazole has led to a remarkable reduction of invasive candidiasis and is likely to have a similar effect on invasive aspergillosis. Invasive aspergillosis remains the dominant invasive fungal disease (IFD) of haemato-oncological patients and solid-organ transplant recipients and is increasingly found in individuals with exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on corticosteroids. In the developed world, owing to antiretroviral therapy Pneumocystis pneumonia and cryptococcosis have become rare in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are mainly found in solid-organ transplant recipients or immunocompromised patients. In the developing world, cryptococcosis remains a common and highly lethal disease of HIV positive individuals. With invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis, timely diagnosis is the principal challenge. The clinical presentation is nonspecific and current diagnostic tests lack sensitivity and specificity. The combination of several tests improves sensitivity, but not specificity. Standardised polymerase chain-reaction-based assays may be promising tools for more rapid and specific diagnosis of candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis. Nevertheless, initiation of treatment is often based solely on clinical suspicion. Empirical therapy, however, may lead to over-treatment of patients without IFD or it may miss its target in the case of resistance. Despite the success of antifungal prophylaxis in reducing the incidence of IFDs in haemato-oncological patients, there are a considerable number of breakthrough infections demonstrating not only fungal resistance but also the emergence of rare and often lethal fungal pathogens. Knowledge of the local epidemiology and antifungal resistance is therefore pivotal. Current trial-based guidelines leave major gaps in identifying those most at risk, who may benefit from prophylaxis. Ongoing searches for disease-associated genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the establishment of individual risk profiles and targeted prophylaxis. PMID:26901377

  14. Renal candidiasis

    Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Development of a novel synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal candidiasis: an in vitro, in vivo evaluation.

    Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Ahmad, Sayeed; Mallick, Md Nasar; Manzoor, Nikhat; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat

    2013-03-01

    The singular aim of the proposed work is the development of a synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal application in subjects prone to recurrent vaginal candidiasis and other microbial infections. The dual loading of Itraconazole and tea tree oil in a single formulation seems promising as it would elaborate the microbial coverage. Despite being low solubility of Itraconazole in tea tree oil, a homogeneous, transparent and stable solution of both was created by co-solvency using chloroform. Complete removal of chloroform was authenticated by GC-MS and the oil solution was used in the development of nanoemulsion which was further translated into a gel bearing thermosensitive properties. In vitro analyses (MTT assay, viscosity measurement, mucoadhesion, ex vivo permeation, etc.) and in vivo studies (bioadhesion, irritation potential and fungal clearance kinetics in rat model) of final formulation were carried out to establish its potential for further clinical evaluation. PMID:23201748

  16. Candidiasis in Pediatrics; Identification and In vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of the Clinical Isolates

    Mohammadi, R; Ataei, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Candida species are normal microflora of oral cavity, vagina, and gastrointestinal tract. They are the third most prevalent cause of pediatric health care–associated bloodstream fungal infection. This study aimed to provide an epidemiological feature of candidiasis and also presents an antifungal susceptibility profile of clinical Candida isolates among children. Materials and Methods During July 2013 to February 2015, 105 patients from different hospitals of Isfahan, Iran, were examined for candidiasis by phenotypic tests. Samples were obtained from nail clippings, blood, thrush, BAL, urine, oropharynx, skin, and eye discharge. The age range of patients was between 18 days to 16 years. Genomic DNA of isolates was extracted and ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region was amplified by ITS1 and ITS2 primers. The PCR products were digested using the restriction enzyme MspI. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) was determined using microdilution broth method according to the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Results Forty-three patients (40.9%) had Candida infection.The most clinical strains were isolated from nail infections (39.5%), and candidemia (13.9%). Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (46.5%). MICs ranges for amphotericin B, fluconazole, and itraconazole were (0.025-0.75 µg/ml), (0.125-16 µg/ml), and (0.094-2 µg/ml), respectively. Conclusion Due to high incidence of Candida infections among children, increasing of fatal infection like candidemia, and emersion of antifungal resistance Candida isolates, early and precise identification of the Candida species and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates may lead to better management of the infection. PMID:27222702

  17. Favorable outcome of hepatosplenic candidiasis in a patient with acute leukemia

    Čolović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute leukemias treatment requires strong chemotherapy. Patients that develop bone marrow aplasia become immunocompromised, thus becoming liable to bacterial and fungal infections. Fungal infections caused by Candida are frequent. Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC is a frequent consequence of invasive candidiasis which is clinically presented with prolonged febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Case Outline. A 53-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia was submitted to standard chemotherapy “3+7” regimen (daunoblastine 80 mg i.v. on days 1 to 3, cytarabine 2Ч170 mg i.v. during 7 days and achieved complete remission. However, during remission he developed febrility unresponsive to antibiotics. Computerised tomography (CT of the abdomen showed multiple hypodense lesions within the liver and spleen. Haemocultures on fungi were negative. However, seroconversion of biomarkers for invasive fungal infection (IFI (Candida and Aspergillus antigen/Ag and antibody/Ab indicated possible HSC. Only high positivity of anti-Candida IgG antibodies, positivity of mannan and CT finding we regarded sufficient for the diagnosis and antimycotic therapy. Three months of treatment with different antimycotics were necessary for complete disappearance of both clinical symptoms and CT findings. Conclusion. In patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia IFI has to be strongly suspected. If imaging techniques show multiple hypodense lesions within liver and spleen, HSC has to be taken seriously into consideration. We believe that, along with CT finding, positive laboratory Candida biomarkers (mannan and IgG antibodies should be considered sufficient for “probable HSC” and commencement of antifungal therapy, which must be long enough, i.e. until complete disappearance of clinical symptoms and CT findings are achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175034

  18. Assessing the potential of four cathelicidins for the management of mouse candidiasis and Candida albicans biofilms.

    Yu, Haining; Liu, Xuelian; Wang, Chen; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Sijin; Wang, Hui; Feng, Lan; Wang, Yipeng

    2016-02-01

    As the most common fungal pathogen of humans, severe drug resistance has emerged in the clinically isolated Candida albicans, which lead to the urgency to develop novel antifungal agents. Here, four our previously characterized cathelicidins (cathelicidin-BF, Pc-CATH1, Cc-CATH2, Cc-CATH3) were selected and their antifungal activities against C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using amphotericin B and LL-37 as control. Results showed that all four cathelicidins could eradicate standard and clinically isolated C. albicans strains with most MIC values ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml, in less than 0.5 h revealed by time-kill kinetic assay. Four peptides only exhibited slight hemolytic activity with most HC50 > 200 μg/ml, and retained potent anti-C. albicans activity at salt concentrations below and beyond physiological level. In animal experiment, 50 mg/kg administration of the four cathelicidins could significantly reduce the fungal counts in a murine oral candidiasis model induced by clinically isolated C. albicans. The antibiofilm activity of cathelicidin-BF, the most potent among the five peptides was evaluated, and result showed that cathelicidin-BF strongly inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 20 μg/ml. Furthermore, cathelicidin-BF also exhibited potent anti-C. albicans activity in established biofilms as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Structure-function analyses suggest that they mainly adopt an α-helical conformations, which enable them to act as a membrane-active molecule. Altogether, the four cathelicidins display great potential for antifungal agent development against candidiasis. PMID:26656137

  19. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    Maryam Rad DMD, MSc

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization and infection and resistance to antifungal drugs in these patients.METHODS: Thirty patients receiving a 6-week course of radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer at theOncology Unit in Shafa Hospital, in 2008, were enrolled in the study. Specimens from patients were cultured weeklyfor Candida. All isolates were plated on CHROM agar and RPMI-based medium. They were subcultured and submittedfor antifungal susceptibility testing (nystatin, fluconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole and molecular typing.RESULTS: Infection (clinical and microbiological evidence occurred in 50% of the patients and Candida colonization(only microbiological evidence occurred in 70% of subjects in the first week. Candida albicans alone was isolated in94.9% of patient visits with positive cultures. Candida tropicalis was isolated from 5.1% of patient visits with positivecultures. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin, but did not respond to the other antifungal drugsCONCLUSIONS: The irradiation-induced changes of the intraoral environment such as xerostomia lead to increasedintraoral colonization by Candida species. All yeast isolates were susceptible to nystatin. Thus prophylactic therapywith nystatin should be considered for these patients.

  20. INCIDENCE OF VAGINAL CANDIDIASIS IN LEUCORRHOEA PATIENTS IN K. G. H.

    Jhansi Lakshmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhoea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the incidence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. OBJECTIVE To study the incidence of Candidiasis in patients with leucorrhoea and identification of different species of Candida found in leucorrhoea patients. To know the candidal infection in relation to age of the woman, pregnancy, usage of antibiotics and steroids, economical status of the patients who attended the OPD of STD and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 100 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. Discharge was examined by direct wet preparation by KOH mount, Gram staining, and Culture on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar. Species differentiation was done by Germ Tube Formation, Sugar Assimilation and Sugar Fermentation test. RESULTS Candida infection with highest incidence (46.7% seen in women of age (21-30 years. Incidence of candidiasis was higher in pregnant (57.5% compared to non-pregnant (16.6%. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida Krusei was the least common in our study. CONCLUSION Highest incidence was found between 21-30 years age group. In pregnant and women from low economic status was found highest incidence. Among Candida species, C. albicans was commonest followed by C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei

  1. Beneficial effect of Mentha suaveolens essential oil in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis assessed by real-time monitoring of infection

    Bistoni Francesco; Ragno Rino; Mondello Francesca; Rachini Anna; Vavala Elisabetta; Angiolella Letizia; Pietrella Donatella; Vecchiarelli Anna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vaginal candidiasis is a frequent and common distressing disease affecting up to 75% of the women of fertile age; most of these women have recurrent episodes. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been shown to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-fungal activity of essential oil from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS) in an experimental infection of vaginal candidiasis. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity of EOMS was asse...

  2. Levamisole Aids in Treatment of Refractory Oral Candidiasis in Two Patients with Thymoma Associated with Myasthenia Gravis: Report of Two Cases

    Wei-Hao Lai; Shin-Yu Lu; Hock-Liew Eng

    2002-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity and is commonamong patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy, or corticosteroid or antibiotic therapy,and those patients seropositive for AIDS and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). Thispaper demonstrates the important role of cell-mediated immunity in oral candidiasis in 2cases of thymoma associated with myasthenia gravis. Both suffered from recurrent oral candidiasisafter a thymectomy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Th...

  3. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

  4. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution ofCandidaspecies in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype ofCandida albicansin vaginal swab. A total of 115Candida albicansstrains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115Candida albicansstrains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicanswas the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance amongCandida albicansisolated from VVC patients. PMID:26468549

  6. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Candidiasis, Genital Herpes, Chlamydiasis, and Actinomycosis among Urban and Rural Women of Haryana, India

    Brij Bala Arora; Megha Maheshwari; Naiya Devgan; Arora, D R

    2014-01-01

    Despite being curable reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including sexually transmitted infections continue to be a major health problem in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, and actinomycosis in rural and urban women of Haryana by using wet mount, PAP smear, and fluorescent microscopic examination. Patients suspected of suffering from bacterial vaginosis were given treatment and...

  7. Physiologic Expression of the Candida albicans Pescadillo Homolog Is Required for Virulence in a Murine Model of Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis

    Uppuluri, Priya; Chaturvedi, Ashok K.; Jani, Niketa; Pukkila-Worley, Read; Monteagudo Castro, Carlos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Köhler, Julia R.; Lopez Ribot, Jose L.

    2012-01-01

    Morphogenetic conversions contribute to the pathogenesis of Candida albicans invasive infections. Many studies to date have convincingly demonstrated a link between filamentation and virulence; however, relatively little is known regarding the role of the filament-to-yeast transition during the pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis. We previously identified the C. albicans pescadillo homolog (PES1) as essential during yeast growth and growth of lateral yeast on hyphae but not during hyphal gro...

  8. Comparison of oral fluconazole and clotrimazole troches as treatment for oral candidiasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Koletar, S. L.; Russell, J.A.; Fass, R J; Plouffe, J F

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-nine adult patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and oral candidiasis were randomly assigned to receive either one fluconazole capsule (100 mg) or five clotrimazole troches (10 mg each) daily for 14 days. Among 36 evaluable patients, clinical resolution rates were 100 and 65%, respectively (P = 0.018). Mycological eradication rates were 75 and 20%, respectively (P = 0.004). Fluconazole-treated patients were more likely to remain disease free during follow-up than those t...

  9. Efficacy of ER-30346, a novel oral triazole antifungal agent, in experimental models of aspergillosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis.

    Hata, K; Kimura, J.; Miki, H; Toyosawa, T; Moriyama, M.; Katsu, K.

    1996-01-01

    ER-30346 is a novel oral triazole with a broad spectrum of potent activity against a wide range of fungi. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of oral ER-30346 on experimental local infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, and Cryptococcus neoformans and compared them with those of itraconazole and fluconazole. In experimental murine models of pulmonary aspergillosis, candidiasis, and cryptococcosis, ER-30346 reduced the numbers of CFU in the lung...

  10. Dosage-Dependent Antifungal Efficacy of V-Echinocandin (LY303366) against Experimental Fluconazole-Resistant Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Candidiasis

    Petraitis, Vidmantas; PetraItiene, Ruta; GROLL, ANDREAS H.; Sein, Tin; Schaufele, Robert L.; Lyman, Caron A.; Francesconi, Andrea; Bacher, John; Piscitelli, Stephen C; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    V-echinocandin (VER-002; LY303366) is a semisynthetic derivative of echinocandin B and a potent inhibitor of fungal (1, 3)-β-d-glucan synthase. We studied the antifungal efficacy, the concentrations in saliva and tissue, and the safety of VER-002 at escalating dosages against experimental oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans in immunocompromised rabbits. Study groups consisted of untreated controls, animals treated with VER-002 at 1, 2.5, a...

  11. Sequences type analysis of Candida albicans isolates from Iranian human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with oral candidiasis.

    Farzad Katiraee; Vahid Khalaj; Ali Reza Khosravi; Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of immunocompromised individuals has increased the incidence of infections caused by Candida species during the recent decades. Typing of C. albicans on the basis of DNA sequences at multiple loci has greatly advanced our knowledge about the epidemiology and phylogeny of candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity, and genetic relationships among C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV patients in Iran. using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method. We ...

  12. Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial

    Rickard Kristen; Roberts Christine L; Kotsiou George; Morris Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of prete...

  13. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by Multiplex PCR method

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a fungal disease with itching, and vaginal thick white discharge. Most of non-albicans species have less sensitivity to azoles. So, definition of candida species which lead to vulvovaginal candidiasis is very important to perfect usage of drugs. In the present study 191 Candida isolates from 175 patients who admitted in Gynecology department of Mahdieh Hospital during the period 1385-1387 were identified by multiplex PCR."n"nMethods: One hundred seventy five vaginal swab specimens from patients were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region of Candida albicans were amplified and the multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel (200 mA, 140V, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed."n"nResults: One hundred ninety one Candida isolates were identified in vaginal swab specimens from 175 patients. In 89.7% of cases, single candida species and in 10.3% cases, multiple candida species were isolated. C. albicans (65.1%, C. glabrata (13.1%, C. tropicalis (6.2%, C. krusei (4%, C. guilliermondii (0.6%, C. parapsilosis (0.6%, C. glabrata and C. albicans (5.7%, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (1.1%, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. krusei and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. albicans and C. tropicalis (0.6%, C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6%, C. glabrata and C. krusei (0.6%, and C. glabrata and C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6% were the cause of disease."n"nConclusion: Our findings suggest that, the common cause of both recurrent and non-recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was C. albicans, and then C. glabrata. Also the most common mixtures of Candida species were combination of them

  15. Study of risk factors and prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital

    Chowta Mukta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The frequency of invasive mycoses has increased dramatically during the past two decades owing to medical advances such as intensive cancer chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, invasive medical devices, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease epidemic and an expanding aging population. There were few Indian studies regarding the incidence and risk factors for candidemia. Hence the aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital and also to assess the risk factors and predictors of mortality Materials and Methods: Nonsystematic review of patients with candidemia/invasive candidiasis was done during the period 1999 to 2004. All in-patients who had shown signs and symptoms of nosocomial blood stream infection were screened for candidial infection. Among these, 29 patients had candidemia/invasive candidiasis. Demographic and clinical data of these patients were recorded on a standardized form, which included age, sex, site of isolation, infectious diagnosis, underlying conditions, predisposing factors, catheter status and clinical outcome. The data were collected during the years of 1999 to 2004, which is divided into two time periods (1999-2001 and 2002-2004. Data collected during these different time spans are compared with each other. Results: A total of 255 patients were screened during the study period. Among these, 100 patients were screened during the period 1999-2001 and 155 patients were screened during the year 2002-2004. Out of these patients, 29 showed positive cultures in blood or other sterile site (ascitic fluid, bronchial aspirate and urine from suprapubic puncture. Out of these, 24 were males and five were females. The most common risk factor was use of intravenous canulae (62.1%, followed by prolonged use of antibiotics (34.5% and HIV infection (24.1%. There were no statistically significant differences in the risk factors during the two different study periods. Candida was mainly isolated from blood (75.9%. Other sources included ascitic fluid (10.4%, bronchial aspirate (3.4%, sputum (3.4% and urine (6.9%. Distributions of sources were comparable during the two study periods. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis caused 89.7%, 3.4%, 6.9% of the candidemia episodes respectively. The overall mortality was 51.7%. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the importance of candidemia among hospitalized patients. Continued surveillance of candidemia will be important to track trends of this serious infection and to document changes in its epidemiological features. More active screening in high-risk groups should be done to avoid diagnostic delay. Risk factors like prolonged use of multiple antibiotics, central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation and prolonged hospital stay should be restricted whenever possible. Timely use of antiretroviral drugs and other measures to improve the immunity of HIV patients may help to decrease the incidence of candidemia in this patient population.

  16. A curcumin-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Salmazi R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Salmazi, Giovana Calixto, Jéssica Bernegossi, Matheus Aparecido dos Santos Ramos, Taís Maria Bauab, Marlus Chorilli School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP – Sao Paulo State University, Campus Araraquara, Department of Drugs and Medicines, Araraquara, Sao Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Women often develop vaginal infections that are caused primarily by organisms of the genus Candida. The current treatments of vaginal candidiasis usually involve azole-based antifungals, though fungal resistance to these compounds has become prevalent. Therefore, much attention has been given to molecules with antifungal properties from natural sources, such as curcumin (CUR. However, CUR has poor solubility in aqueous solvents and poor oral bioavailability. This study attempted to overcome this problem by developing, characterizing, and evaluating the in vitro antifungal action of a CUR-loaded liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system (LCPM for vaginal administration. A low-viscosity LCPM (F consisting of 40% wt/wt polyoxpropylene-(5-polyoxyethylene-(20-cetyl alcohol, 50% wt/wt oleic acid, and 10% wt/wt chitosan dispersion at 0.5% with the addition of 16% poloxamer 407 was developed to take advantage of the lyotropic phase behavior of this formulation. Notably, F could transform into liquid crystal systems when diluted with artificial vaginal mucus at ratios of 1:3 and 1:1 (wt/wt, resulting in the formation of F30 and F100, respectively. Polarized light microscopy and rheological studies revealed that F behaved like an isotropic formulation, whereas F30 and F100 behaved like an anisotropic liquid crystalline system (LCS. Moreover, F30 and F100 presented higher mucoadhesion to porcine vaginal mucosa than F. The analysis of the in vitro activity against Candida albicans revealed that CUR-loaded F was more potent against standard and clinical strains compared with a CUR solution. Therefore, the vaginal administration of CUR-loaded LCPMs represents a promising platform for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Keywords: nanostructured drug delivery systems, liquid crystalline systems, mucoadhesive polymers, vaginal administration, Candida albicans 

  17. Candidiasis esofágica: análisis clínico y micológico

    Martín Alejandro Olmos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis esofágica es una infección epitelial querequiere un defecto adicional inmunitario. Candida albicans es la especie más frecuente, aunque pueden encontrarse otras. Un problema emergente es la resistencia al fluconazol, droga de elección para tratarla. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la frecuencia de candidiasis esofágica en pacientes sometidos a endoscopía, analizar los factores predisponentes, identificar las especies causantes, y estudiar la sensibilidad in vitro al fluconazol. Durante 12 meses se realizaron 1.321 endoscopías donde se detectaron 34 pacientes con candidiasis esofágica. Se hicieron 1.230 endoscopías en pacientes HIV negativos y 91 en HIV positivos. Se diagnosticó candidiasis esofágica en 11 (0.9% y 23 (25.3%, respectivamente. En HIV negativos, fueron causas predisponentes: antibioticoterapia prolongada, prótesis dentarias sin higiene, uso prolongado de inhibidores de la bomba de protones, secreción ácida, corticoides inhalatorios, malignidad y vasculitis bajo corticoterapia. La histopatología fue positiva en 48.6%. El cultivo se desarrolló en el 91.2%. C. albicans fue la especie más frecuente (93.5% y en 5 pacientes (16.1% se la encontró asociada a C. glabrata (3 C. tropicalis (1 y C. parapsilosis (1. En un caso solo se cultivó C. glabrata y en otro C. tropicalis. De las 31 cepas, 25 fueron sensibles al fluconazol, 4 dosis dependientes (1 C. albicans, 3 C. glabrata, y 2 resistentes (1 C. albicans, 1 C. glabrata. En nuestro hospital, la frecuencia de candidiasis esofágica fue baja, excepto en HIV positivos. El principal agente etiológico fue C. albicans, aunque también se cultivaron otras especies. C. albicans y C. glabrata mostraron dosis dependencia y resistencia al fluconazol.

  18. A pseudo-randomised clinical trial of in situ gels of fluconazole for the treatment of oropharngeal candidiasis

    Shetty Veena A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oropharyngeal candidasis is a common opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum antifungal activity including a wide variety of candida species. Aim of the present investigation was to formulate and find out the relative efficacy of in situ gels of fluconazole. Method The in situ gels were prepared using polymers which exhibited sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters, such as ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.5% w/v along with sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (0.35%w/v. The study design was bicenter, 'pseudo-randomised, single blind trial conducted in Mangalore., India, which includes 15 HIV positive patients, 15 patients with partial or completes dentures, and 15 patients who were treated with (active control fluconazole tablets 100 mg/day for 14 days. Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at clinical evaluations on day 3, 7, 14, 18, 21, 35, and 42. Semiquantitative microbiological cultures of oral swabs were also obtained on same days. Results All patients had mycological documented oropharyngeal candidiasis and were treated with fluconazole (0.5%w/v in situ gels for 14 days Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at different predetermined time intervals along with semi quantitative culture of oral swabs. The clinical response rate showed 97% cure after 14 days in the treated with in situ gel. In comparison, the control group treated with fluconazole tablets showed 85% improvement in symptoms of oral candidiasis. The patients suffering from HIV infection showed relapse in oral candidiasis at the end of 21 days. The patients having oral candidiasis due to partial or complete dentures showed complete recovery and were free from signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis. Conclusions The in situ gel formulation of fluconazole was well tolerated with no severe adverse reaction and offers a better alternative to tablet formulation in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidasis. Trial registration Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN90634047

  19. Symptomatic vaginal candidiasis after pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection.

    Menday, A P

    2002-10-01

    The comparative incidence of symptomatic vaginal candidiasis associated with pivmecillinam and norfloxacin treatment in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI was determined in two randomised, double-blind, clinical trials. Adverse events reported following general enquiry were reviewed. Presence of Candida vaginitis was based upon the specification as such by investigators, the presence of specific symptoms such as genital pruritus and/or the prescription of specific anti Candida therapy. The incidences of Candida vaginitis were as follows; Study 1 pivmecillinam 200 mg tid for 7 days 13 (4.6%), pivmecillinam 200 mg bid for 7 days 7 (2.4%), pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 6 (2.1%) and placebo 6 (2.1%), P=0.19. Study 2 pivmecillinam 400 mg bid for 3 days 7 (1.5%), norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days 20 (4.3%), P=0.016. The incidence of Candida vaginitis in women with acute symptomatic uncomplicated UTI given 3 days treatment with pivmecillinam 400 mg bid is similar to that seen with placebo and is significantly less than the incidence with norfloxacin 400 mg bid for 3 days. PMID:12385688

  20. Assessment of in vitro biofilm formation by Candida species isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis and ultrastructural characteristics.

    Paiva, Luciene C F; Vidigal, Pedrina G; Donatti, Luclia; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2012-02-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a very common cause of fungal infection that remains a significant problem worldwide, especially concerning its complex pathogenicity. Biofilm dynamics from vaginal isolates requires further investigation. Different assays, such as cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH), biofilm production, fungal metabolism by 2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) were used in order to determine the ability of five Candida species isolates from VVC patients to form in vitro biofilms and their ultrastructural characteristics. All yeasts demonstrated the ability to produce biofilm and showed viability up to 48 h after the completion of assay, confirmed by SEM and CSLM, but differences were observed between them. SEM and CSLM also revealed that all VVC isolates adhered only in blastoconidia form, except for Candida parapsilosis. Even though, only one isolate from each Candida species has been used, the results of high biofilm formation, metabolic activity and CSH showed by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, as well as by the ultrastructural characteristics, suggest that these species exhibit greater ability of adherence in relation to the others. Ours results support the theory that virulence potential is multifactorial and that other factors not evaluated in this study could be involved in the CVV physiopathogeny. PMID:22001373

  1. Invasive candidiasis in critical care setting, updated recommendations from Invasive Fungal Infections-Clinical Forum, Iran

    Elhoufi, Ashraf; Ahmadi, Arezoo; Asnaashari, Amir Mohammad Hashem; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali; Bidgoli, Behrooz Farzanegan; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Abbasi, Saeed; El-Sobky, Malak; Ghaziani, Ali; Jarrahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Shahrami, Reza; Shirazian, Farzad; Soltani, Farhad; Yazdinejad, Homeira; Zand, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) bears a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units (ICU). With the current advances in critical care and the use of wide-spectrum antibiotics, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) and IC in particular, have turned into a growing concern in the ICU. Further to blood cultures, some auxiliary laboratory tests and biomarkers are developed to enable an earlier detection of infection, however these test are neither consistently available nor validated in our setting. On the other hand, patients clinical status and local epidemiology data may justify the empiric antifungal approach using the proper antifungal option. The clinical approach to the management of IC in febrile, non-neutropenic critically ill patients has been defined in available international guidelines; nevertheless such recommendations need to be customized when applied to our local practice. Over the past three years, Iranian experts from intensive care and infectious diseases disciplines have tried to draw a consensus on the management of IFI with a particular focus on IC in the ICU. The established IFI-clinical forum (IFI-CF), comprising the scientific leaders in the field, has recently come up with and updated recommendation on the same (June 2014). The purpose of this review is to put together literature insights and Iranian experts opinion at the IFI-CF, to propose an updated practical overview on recommended approaches for the management of IC in the ICU. PMID:25374806

  2. A biallelic ACT1 mutation selectively abolishes interleukin-17 responses in humans with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis

    Boisson, Bertrand; Wang, Chenhui; Pedergnana, Vincent; Wu, Ling; Cypowyj, Sophie; Rybojad, Michel; Belkadi, Aziz; Picard, Capucine; Abel, Laurent; Fieschi, Claire; Puel, Anne; Li, Xiaoxia; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Patients with inborn errors of IL-17F or IL-17RA display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We report a biallelic missense mutation (T536I) in the adaptor molecule ACT1 in two siblings with CMC. The mutation, located in the SEFIR domain, abolished the homotypic interaction of ACT1 with IL-17 receptors, with no effect on homodimerization. The patients fibroblasts failed to respond to IL-17A and IL-17F, and their T cells to IL-17E. By contrast, healthy individuals homozygous for the common variant D10N, located in the ACT1 TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting domain and previously associated with psoriasis, had impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17 cytokines. SEFIR-independent interactions of ACT1 with other proteins, such as CD40, heat shock protein (HSP)70 and HSP90, were not affected by the T536I mutation. Overall, human IL-17A and IL-17F depend on ACT1 to mediate protective mucocutaneous immunity. Moreover, other ACT1-dependent IL-17 cytokines seem to be largely redundant in host defense. PMID:24120361

  3. Fabrication of mucoadhesive chitosan coated polyvinylpyrrolidone/cyclodextrin/clotrimazole sandwich patches for oral candidiasis.

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Panomsuk, Suwanee; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to fabricate clotrimazole (CZ)-composite sandwich nanofibers using electrospinning. The CZ-loaded polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) fiber was coated with chitosan-cysteine (CS-SH)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to increase the mucoadhesive properties and to achieve a sustained release of the drug from the nanofibers. The nanofibers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The nanofibers mechanical and mucoadhesive properties, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were also assessed. The fibers were in the nanoscale with good mucoadhesive properties. The XRPD revealed a molecular dispersion of amorphous CZ in the nanofibers. The initial fast release of CZ from the nanofibers was achieved. Moreover, the sandwich nanofibers coated for longer times resulted in slower release rates compared with the shorter coating times. The CZ-loaded nanofibers killed the Candida significantly faster than the commercial CZ lozenges at 5, 15 and 30 min and were safe for a 2-h incubation. Therefore, these nanofibers may be promising candidates for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:26256338

  4. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  5. Biochemical analysis and application of molecular display technology on Candida albicans for diagnosing and preventing candidiasis.

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Medical facilities and advances in therapeutics have improved world over in recent times. Concomitant with this, the human population has been growing steadily. However, emerging infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and AIDS, as well as re-emerging infectious diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever, have been spreading in recent times. Three major infectious diseases, namely AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, are killing around 8 million people in the world annually. Although drugs effective against these infectious diseases are available at present, drastic therapeutics have not been developed yet. In addition, vaccines against these diseases often cannot prevent infections, because pathogenic viruses or bacteria evade the immune system of the host. Many diseases and emerging infections of pathogenic bacteria cannot be controlled by conventional pharmaceutics. These pathogens secrete regulatory factors. When the produced regulatory factor attains a certain level, an active factor is then produced by the pathogen to destroy the host. Considering these phenomena, we thought investigating characteristic regulatory or active factors will pave the way for developing novel vaccines or diagnostic drugs. Therefore, candidiasis was selected as a model, and application of the secretory protease of Candida albicans was examined for the development of novel drugs. Screening of novel candidates of antigens of C. albicans and vaccine development are also underway. In this paper, our strategy of platform technology against various infectious diseases are introduced. PMID:24189555

  6. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79?%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4?%), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3?%), Candida tropicalis (3.2?%) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1?%). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (P<0.01). The resistance rates to C. albicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7?% for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  7. Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection

    de Castro, Patrcia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vincius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vincius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 68 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed. PMID:23997797

  8. Clonal Strain Persistence of Candida albicans Isolates from Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Patients.

    Moorhouse, Alexander J; Rennison, Claire; Raza, Muhammad; Lilic, Desa; Gow, Neil A R

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterised by susceptibility to chronic Candida and fungal dermatophyte infections of the skin, nails and mucous membranes. Molecular epidemiology studies of CMC infection are limited in number and scope and it is not clear whether single or multiple strains inducing CMC persist stably or are exchanged and replaced. We subjected 42 C. albicans individual single colony isolates from 6 unrelated CMC patients to multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Multiple colonies were typed from swabs taken from multiple body sites across multiple time points over a 17-month period. Among isolates from each individual patient, our data show clonal and persistent diploid sequence types (DSTs) that were stable over time, identical between multiple infection sites and exhibit azole resistant phenotypes. No shared origin or common source of infection was identified among isolates from these patients. Additionally, we performed C. albicans MLST SNP genotype frequency analysis to identify signatures of past loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events among persistent and azole resistant isolates retrieved from patients with autoimmune disorders including CMC. PMID:26849050

  9. Species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral yeast isolates from Tanzanian HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Rijs Antonius JMM

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tanzania, little is known on the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of yeast isolates from HIV-infected patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis. Methods A total of 296 clinical oral yeasts were isolated from 292 HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis at the Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Identification of the yeasts was performed using standard phenotypic methods. Antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed using a broth microdilution format according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI; M27-A2. Results Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species from 250 (84.5% patients followed by C. glabrata from 20 (6.8% patients, and C. krusei from 10 (3.4% patients. There was no observed significant difference in species distribution between patients with primary and recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis, but isolates cultured from patients previously treated were significantly less susceptible to the azole compounds compared to those cultured from antifungal naïve patients. Conclusion C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species from patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oral yeast isolates from Tanzania had high level susceptibility to the antifungal agents tested. Recurrent oropharyngeal candidiasis and previous antifungal therapy significantly correlated with reduced susceptibility to azoles antifungal agents.

  10. Prevalence of Candidiasis in the Women with Leucorrhoea Attended to Health Centers in Hamadan , 1996

    Mohammad Fallah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Genital tract infections are one of the most common causes of referring to obstetrics clinics. The most common agents of genitalia infection are yeast (Candida and parasite (Trichomonas. Establishment of fungal and parasitic infections needs many factors such as social, cultural and hormonal factors.

    Methods: In order to determine candidial infection in the patients with leucorrhoea, this study carried out in Hamadan in the private clinics and public health centers in 1996. A total of 248 patients with abnormal vaginal discharge, genitalia pruritus, disuria and disparonia examined by vaginal cotton soab sampling and examination of specimens by direct wet smear for Candida and Trichomanos , and culture was done in Saburoud dextrose agar for yeast. The smears stained by Gram staining for identification of organism and grown samples examined by germ tube formation test for identification of Candida albicans. Data about some individual variables of subjects were collected using a questionnaire.

    Results: This study indicated, 76(30.6% of patients had candidial infection by wet smear method, however, 116 (46.8% were positive by culture in Saburoud medium. With germ tube formation test, 33(13.4% had C. albicans. Anyone had not trichomonal infection by direct wet smear. This study suggested that, candidial infection is very high in this region, and this is the most common cause of attending patients with leucorrhoea in the obstetrics clinics. Also, there was not any relationship between candidial infection and pregnancy status, main compliance and other compliances.

    Conclusion: We suggested, culture method is more sensitive than direct wet smear in the diagnosis of vulvo-vaginal infections, particularly in candidiasis. Regarding to role of personal hygiene measures in preventing of candidiasis, health education for women in the reproductive age is recommended.

  11. Therapeutic use of a cationic antimicrobial peptide from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana in the control of experimental candidiasis

    Rossi Diego C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial peptides are present in animals, plants and microorganisms and play a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Gomesin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide purified from haemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. It has a broad-spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and tumour cells. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast that is part of the human microbiota. However, in immunocompromised patients, this fungus may cause skin, mucosal or systemic infections. The typical treatment for this mycosis comprises three major categories of antifungal drugs: polyenes, azoles and echinocandins; however cases of resistance to these drugs are frequently reported. With the emergence of microorganisms that are resistant to conventional antibiotics, the development of alternative treatments for candidiasis is important. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of gomesin treatment on disseminated and vaginal candidiasis as well as its toxicity and biodistribution. Results Treatment with gomesin effectively reduced Candida albicans in the kidneys, spleen, liver and vagina of infected mice. The biodistribution of gomesin labelled with technetium-99 m showed that the peptide is captured in the kidneys, spleen and liver. Enhanced production of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 was detected in infected mice treated with gomesin, suggesting an immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, immunosuppressed and C. albicans-infected mice showed an increase in survival after treatment with gomesin and fluconazole. Systemic administration of gomesin was also not toxic to the mic Conclusions Gomesin proved to be effective against experimental Candida albicans infection. It can be used as an alternative therapy for candidiasis, either alone or in combination with fluconazole. Gomesin's mechanism is not fully understood, but we hypothesise that the peptide acts through the permeabilisation of the yeast membrane leading to death and/or releasing the yeast antigens that trigger the host immune response against infection. Therefore, data presented in this study reinforces the potential of gomesin as a therapeutic antifungal agent in both humans and animals.

  12. Vaccination with Recombinant Non-transmembrane Domain of Protein Mannosyltransferase 4 Improves Survival during Murine Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Wang, Li; Yan, Lan; Li, Xing Xing; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. The C. albicans cell wall proteins play an important role in crucial host-fungus interactions and might be ideal vaccine targets to induce protective immune response in host. Meanwhile, protein that is specific to C. albicans is also an ideal target of vaccine. In this study, 11 proteins involving cell wall biosynthesis, yeast-to-hypha formation, or specific to C. albicans were chosen and were successfully cloned, purified and verified. The immune protection of vaccination with each recombinant protein respectively in preventing systemic candidiasis in BALB/c mice was assessed. The injection of rPmt4p vaccination significantly increased survival rate, decreased fungal burdens in the heart, liver, brain, and kidneys, and increased serum levels of both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM against rPmt4p in the immunized mice. Histopathological assessment demonstrated that rPmt4p vaccination protected the tissue structure, and decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Passive transfer of the rPmt4p immunized serum increased survival rate against murine systemic candidiasis and significantly reduced organ fungal burden. The immune serum enhanced mouse neutrophil killing activity by directly neutralizing rPmt4p effects in vitro. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in serum were higher in the immunized mice compared to those in the adjuvant control group. In conclusion, our results suggested that rPmt4p vaccination may be considered as a potential vaccine candidate against systemic candidiasis. PMID:26268065

  13. Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-κB activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish.

    Gratacap, Remi L; Rawls, John F; Wheeler, Robert T

    2013-09-01

    The epithelium performs a balancing act at the interface between an animal and its environment to enable both pathogen killing and tolerance of commensal microorganisms. Candida albicans is a clinically important human commensal that colonizes all human mucosal surfaces, yet is largely prevented from causing mucosal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Despite the importance of understanding host-pathogen interactions at the epithelium, no immunocompetent vertebrate model has been used to visualize these dynamics non-invasively. Here we demonstrate important similarities between swimbladder candidiasis in the transparent zebrafish and mucosal infection at the mammalian epithelium. Specifically, in the zebrafish swimmbladder infection model, we show dimorphic fungal growth, both localized and tissue-wide epithelial NF-κB activation, induction of NF-κB -dependent proinflammatory genes, and strong neutrophilia. Consistent with density-dependence models of host response based primarily on tissue culture experiments, we show that only high-level infection provokes widespread activation of NF-κB in epithelial cells and induction of proinflammatory genes. Similar to what has been found using in vitro mammalian models, we find that epithelial NF-κB activation can occur at a distance from the immediate site of contact with epithelial cells. Taking advantage of the ability to non-invasively image infection and host signaling at high resolution, we also report that epithelial NF-κB activation is diminished when phagocytes control the infection. This is the first system to model host response to mucosal infection in the juvenile zebrafish, and offers unique opportunities to investigate the tripartite interactions of C. albicans, epithelium and immune cells in an intact host. PMID:23720235

  14. Patient preferences and treatment safety for uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis in primary health care

    Hernández Susana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginitis is a common complaint in primary care. In uncomplicated candidal vaginitis, there are no differences in effectiveness between oral or vaginal treatment. Some studies describe that the preferred treatment is the oral one, but a Cochrane's review points out inconsistencies associated with the report of the preferred way that limit the use of such data. Risk factors associated with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis still remain controversial. Methods/Design This work describes a protocol of a multicentric prospective observational study with one year follow up, to describe the women's reasons and preferences to choose the way of administration (oral vs topical in the treatment of not complicated candidal vaginitis. The number of women required is 765, they are chosen by consecutive sampling. All of whom are aged 16 and over with vaginal discharge and/or vaginal pruritus, diagnosed with not complicated vulvovaginitis in Primary Care in Madrid. The main outcome variable is the preferences of the patients in treatment choice; secondary outcome variables are time to symptoms relief and adverse reactions and the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginitis and the risk factors. In the statistical analysis, for the main objective will be descriptive for each of the variables, bivariant analysis and multivariate analysis (logistic regression.. The dependent variable being the type of treatment chosen (oral or topical and the independent, the variables that after bivariant analysis, have been associated to the treatment preference. Discussion Clinical decisions, recommendations, and practice guidelines must not only attend to the best available evidence, but also to the values and preferences of the informed patient.

  15. Development and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Histatin-5 Bioadhesive Hydrogel Formulation against Oral Candidiasis.

    Kong, Eric F; Tsui, Christina; Boyce, Heather; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Hoag, Stephen W; Karlsson, Amy J; Meiller, Timothy F; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC), caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV(+) individuals and other immunocompromised populations. The dramatic increase in resistance to common antifungals has emphasized the importance of identifying unconventional therapeutic options. Antimicrobial peptides have emerged as promising candidates for therapeutic intervention due to their broad antimicrobial properties and lack of toxicity. Histatin-5 (Hst-5) specifically has exhibited potent anticandidal activity indicating its potential as an antifungal agent. To that end, the goal of this study was to design a biocompatible hydrogel delivery system for Hst-5 application. The bioadhesive hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) hydrogel formulation was developed for topical oral application against OC. The new formulation was evaluated in vitro for gel viscosity, Hst-5 release rate from the gel, and killing potency and, more importantly, was tested in vivo in our mouse model of OC. The findings demonstrated a controlled sustained release of Hst-5 from the polymer and rapid killing ability. Based on viable C. albicans counts recovered from tongues of treated and untreated mice, three daily applications of the formulation beginning 1 day postinfection with C. albicans were effective in protection against development of OC. Interestingly, in some cases, Hst-5 was able to clear existing lesions as well as associated tissue inflammation. These findings were confirmed by histopathology analysis of tongue tissue. Coupled with the lack of toxicity as well as anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties of Hst-5, the findings from this study support the progression and commercial feasibility of using this compound as a novel therapeutic agent. PMID:26596951

  16. Invasive candidiasis in intensive care unit; consensus statement from an Iranian panel of experts, July 2013

    Ahmadi, Arezoo; Ardehali, Seyed Hossein; Beigmohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Kouchek, Mehran; Majidpour, Ali; Mokhtari, Majid; Moghaddam, Omid Moradi; Najafi, Atabak; Nejat, Reza; Niakan, Mohammad; Lotfi, Amir Hossein; Amirsavadkouhi, Ali; Shirazian, Farzad; Tabarsi, Payam; Taher, Mahshid Talebi; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is associated with high mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Timely diagnosis of this potentially fatal condition remains a challenge; on the other hand, the criteria for initiating empirical antifungal therapy in critically ill patients are not well defined in different patient population and ICU settings. Alongside the international guidelines, reaching regional and local consensus on diagnosis and management of IC in ICU setting is essential. This report summarizes our present status of IC management in ICU, considered by a group of Iranian experts in the fields of intensive care and infectious diseases. A round table of 17 experts was held to review the available data and discuss the optimal treatment strategies for IC in critical care setting. Comparative published data on the management of IC were analytically reviewed and the commonly asked questions about the management of IC in ICU were isolated. These questions were interactively discussed by the panel and audience responses were taken to consolidate point-to-point agreement with the panel arriving at consensus in many instances. The responses indicated that patients risk stratification, clinical discretion, fungal diagnostic techniques and the empirical therapy for IC are likely to save more patients. Treatment options were recommended to be based on the disease severity, prior azole exposure, and the presence of suspected azole-resistant Candida species. This report was reviewed, edited and discussed by all participants to include further evidence-based insights. The panel expects such endorsed recommendations to be soon formulated for implementation across the country. PMID:25057376

  17. Preparation and characterisation of fluconazole vaginal films for the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis

    L Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate vaginal films with essential in vitro studies. Films were developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as a polymer and formulations were coded. The developed films were evaluated with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, drug content, viscosity, surface pH, thickness, mechanical characterisation and in vitro drug release study. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results confirmed that there is no chemical interaction between drug and stabilisers/excipients. The batch variation was not more than 5% for average thickness and weight of the films. The drug content for the prepared formulation was in the range of 72.32±0.18% to 94.48±0.54%. Viscosity of the formulations increased with the increase in concentration of polymer. Mechanical characterisation revealed that tensile strength and percentage elongation of the films improved as there is increase in degree of substitution of the polymer, but the values of modulus decreased which confirmed that all the prepared films are soft in nature. The in vitro study indicated that 1 and 2% concentrations of polymer are the least concentrations to control the release of drug whereas the 4% concentration of polymer is a good and more effective concentration to control the release. Only one prepared formulation released the drug by following anomalous transport whereas other film formulations released the fluconazole by following Fickian diffusion mechanism. Prepared vaginal films may be an important alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, because these prepared films suggest the benefits of controlled release of fluconazole at the site of absorption.

  18. Mucosal candidiasis elicits NF-κB activation, proinflammatory gene expression and localized neutrophilia in zebrafish

    Gratacap, Remi L.; Rawls, John F.; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The epithelium performs a balancing act at the interface between an animal and its environment to enable both pathogen killing and tolerance of commensal microorganisms. Candida albicans is a clinically important human commensal that colonizes all human mucosal surfaces, yet is largely prevented from causing mucosal infections in immunocompetent individuals. Despite the importance of understanding host-pathogen interactions at the epithelium, no immunocompetent vertebrate model has been used to visualize these dynamics non-invasively. Here we demonstrate important similarities between swimbladder candidiasis in the transparent zebrafish and mucosal infection at the mammalian epithelium. Specifically, in the zebrafish swimmbladder infection model, we show dimorphic fungal growth, both localized and tissue-wide epithelial NF-κB activation, induction of NF-κB -dependent proinflammatory genes, and strong neutrophilia. Consistent with density-dependence models of host response based primarily on tissue culture experiments, we show that only high-level infection provokes widespread activation of NF-κB in epithelial cells and induction of proinflammatory genes. Similar to what has been found using in vitro mammalian models, we find that epithelial NF-κB activation can occur at a distance from the immediate site of contact with epithelial cells. Taking advantage of the ability to non-invasively image infection and host signaling at high resolution, we also report that epithelial NF-κB activation is diminished when phagocytes control the infection. This is the first system to model host response to mucosal infection in the juvenile zebrafish, and offers unique opportunities to investigate the tripartite interactions of C. albicans, epithelium and immune cells in an intact host. PMID:23720235

  19. Gastrointestinal candidiasis in a murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Narayanan, R; Joyce, W A; Greenfield, R A

    1991-06-01

    A murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (scid mice) affords an opportunity to study the interaction of Candida albicans with a host lacking functional B- and T-cell mechanisms. We have previously reported no significant difference in yeast recovery after intravenous challenge of BALB/c mice and scid mice with C. albicans (S. Mahanty, R.A. Greenfield, W.A. Joyce, and P.W. Kincade, Infect. Immun. 56:3162-3166, 1988). In this study, we evaluate the course of gastrointestinal candidiasis after a single oral challenge with C. albicans. BALB/c and scid mice received H2O containing 10(6) C. albicans per ml for 16 h. Half the mice of each strain continuously received H2O containing 1 mg of tetracycline per ml. Stool samples were cultured for yeast twice weekly until they were negative three consecutive times or positive for 8 weeks. Mice were then sacrificed for quantitative cultures of liver, spleen, and kidneys. At eight weeks postinoculation, 2 of 13 BALB/c mice, 0 of 14 BALB/c mice receiving tetracycline, 6 of 12 scid mice, and 8 of 13 scid mice receiving tetracycline had positive stool cultures (P less than 0.05, likelihood ratio chi-square). Quantitative recovery of yeasts from stools was also higher in the scid mice. Cultures of liver, spleen, and kidneys wer negative in all BALB/c mice and essentially all negative in scid mice; a single colony was isolated from the kidney of one scid mouse and the liver of another scid mouse. We conclude that B cells and/or T cells and their products are important in gastrointestinal colonization with C. albicans but that even in their absence, dissemination of infection from the gastrointestinal tract does not consistently occur. Thus, other aspects of host defense must be critical in containing gastrointestinal Candida colonization. PMID:2037373

  20. Comparison between Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression Patterns in Human Clinical Specimens and Models of Vaginal Candidiasis

    CHENG, GEORGINA; Wozniak, Karen; Wallig, Matthew A.; Fidel, Paul L.; Trupin, Suzanne R.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the eight genes in the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family was studied by reverse transcription-PCR of RNA isolated from clinical vaginal fluid specimens and vaginal candidiasis model systems. Although expression of all ALS genes was detected across the set of clinical specimens, ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, and ALS9 transcripts were detected most frequently, and expression of ALS4 and ALS5 was detected least frequently. Laboratory strain 3153A and two C. albicans strain...

  1. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    Rickard Kristen R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE study design, we aim to evaluate whether treating women with asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis early in pregnancy is effective in preventing spontaneous preterm birth. Pregnant women presenting for antenatal care The study protocol draws on the usual antenatal care schedule, has been pilot-tested and the intervention involves only a minor modification of current practice. Women who agree to participate will self-collect a vaginal swab and those who are culture positive for Candida will be randomised (central, telephone to open-label treatment or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment, routine antenatal care. Outcomes will be obtained from population databases. A sample size of 3,208 women with Candida colonisation (1,604 per arm is required to detect a 40% reduction in the spontaneous preterm birth rate among women with asymptomatic candidiasis from 5.0% in the control group to 3.0% in women treated with clotrimazole (significance 0.05, power 0.8. Analyses will be by intention to treat. Discussion For our hypothesis, a placebo-controlled trial had major disadvantages: a placebo arm would not represent current clinical practice; knowledge of vaginal colonisation with Candida may change participants' behaviour; and a placebo with an alcohol preservative may have an independent affect on vaginal flora. These disadvantages can be overcome by the PROBE study design. This trial will provide definitive evidence on whether screening for and treating asymptomatic candidiasis in pregnancy significantly reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth. If it can be demonstrated that treating asymptomatic candidiasis reduces preterm births this will change current practice and would directly impact the management of every pregnant woman. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000607077

  2. INCIDENCE AND ANATOMIC LOCALIZATION OF ORAL CANDIDIASIS IN PATIENTS WITH AIDS HOSPITALIZED IN A PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN BELO HORIZONTE, MG, BRAZIL

    Ilanna G. Gableri; Barbosa, Anne C.; Raquel R. Velela; Sandra Lyon; Carlos A Rosa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, anatomic localization and yeast species isolated from each clinical type of oral candidiasis. The clinical samples were obtained from 67 patients with AIDS with CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm³ and hospitalized in a public hospital (Eduardo de Menezes Hospital) in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated using Chromagar® Candida. The results show that 50.7% of these patients had oral candidiasis. The pseudomembr...

  3. Computed tomography and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in adrenal candidiasis and histoplasmosis: two cases.

    Altinmakas, Emre; Guo, Ming; Kundu, Uma R; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Ng, Chaan

    2015-01-01

    We report the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in adrenal histoplasmosis and candidiasis. Both demonstrated bilateral hypermetabolic heterogeneous adrenal masses with limited wash-out on delayed CT. Adrenal candidiasis has not been previously reported, nor have the CT wash-out findings in either infection. The adrenal imaging findings are indistinguishable from malignancy, which is more common; but in this setting, physicians should be alert to the differential diagnosis of fungal infections, since it can be equally deadly. PMID:26298420

  4. Protection against Candidiasis by an Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) Monoclonal Antibody Specific for the Same Mannotriose as an IgM Protective Antibody

    Han, Yongmoon; Riesselman, Marcia H.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2000-01-01

    We previously reported that a liposome-mannan vaccine (L-mann) of Candida albicans induces production of mouse antibodies that protect against disseminated candidiasis and vaginal infection. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal antibody (MAb) B6.1, specific for a C. albicans cell surface ?-1,2-mannotriose, protects mice against both infections. Another IgM MAb, termed B6, which is specific for a different cell surface mannan epitope, does not protect against disseminated candidiasis. The B6.1 ep...

  5. Susceptibilidad antifngica de Candida albicans recuperadas de pacientes con SIDA y candidiasis orofarngea y esofgica: Experiencia con Etest Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis: Experience with Etest

    Cecilia Tapia P

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC and esophageal candidiasis (EPC are frequent complications in AIDS patients. The use of Fluconazole, an effective and a low toxicity drug, has been associated to the emergency of secondary resistant strains. For this reason, in vitro antifungal susceptibility tests are necessary to predict a therapeutic failure. Etest is an easy to perform alternative test, that has showed a good agreement with the broth microdilution reference method (NCCLS, document M27-A. Aim: To measure the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients complicated with OPC and EPC to Amphotericin B (AmB and Fluconazole (Flu using Etest. Material and methods: Twenty strains from 20 AIDS patients were studied. AmB was tested in RPMI 1640 agar and Flu in Casitone agar. Results: All studied strains showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs 256 mg/mL was isolated from a patient previously treated with Flu. Conclusions: In AIDS patients with OPC and EPC, the susceptibility to Flu of the isolates should be screened, to detect resistant strains. Etest; is a reliable alternative in these cases, for laboratories that cannot use the reference method (Rev Md Chile 2003; 131: 515-19.

  6. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

    SH Mirhendi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  7. Prevalence of Trichomoniasis, Vaginal Candidiasis, Genital Herpes, Chlamydiasis, and Actinomycosis among Urban and Rural Women of Haryana, India.

    Arora, Brij Bala; Maheshwari, Megha; Devgan, Naiya; Arora, D R

    2014-01-01

    Despite being curable reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including sexually transmitted infections continue to be a major health problem in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of trichomoniasis, vaginal candidiasis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, and actinomycosis in rural and urban women of Haryana by using wet mount, PAP smear, and fluorescent microscopic examination. Patients suspected of suffering from bacterial vaginosis were given treatment and were not included in the study. RTIs were seen in 16.6% of urban and 28.7% of rural women. The highest prevalence seen was that of trichomoniasis in both rural (24.2%) and urban (15.7%) women, followed by candidiasis (4.2% in rural and 0.6% in urban women), genital herpes (0.3% in rural and 0.2% in urban women), and chlamydiasis (0.02% in rural and 0.05% in urban women). Pelvic actinomycosis was seen in 1.4% of rural and 0.06% of urban women using intrauterine contraceptive devices. Mixed infection of Trichomonas vaginalis with Candida spp. was seen in 6.3% of rural women only. It is desirable to have a baseline profile of the prevalence of various agents causing RTIs in a particular geographic area and population which will help in better syndromic management of the patients. PMID:26316979

  8. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients

    Queiroz-Telles Flávio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was a non-comparative multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of itraconazole oral solution 200 mg/day (100 mg twice a day in the fasting state for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. We included 50 patients who were treated and followed for up to 3 weeks after ending therapy in the analysis. Mycological cures at the end of therapy occurred in 20/50 patients (40%, but colonization by Candida sp. was recorded in 42/50 (84% by the end of follow-up. A high rate of clinical response was observed in 46/50 (92%, and the response was sustained for up to 21 days after stopping therapy in 24/46 patients (52%. Clinical relapses were documented among 22 patients, but all causative fungal organisms associated with a relapse were susceptible to itraconazole. There were many patients with persistence or recurrence of Candida, but without mucositis. Relapse of Candida mucositis was significantly related to low levels of CD4 lymphocytes exhibited by symptomatic patients. The drug was well tolerated by all but 1 patient. We conclude that itraconazole oral solution (100 mg bid for 7-14 days is a well tolerated and effective treatment for suppressing the symptoms of oropharyngeal candidiasis in AIDS patients. Patients with severe immunosuppression may relapse and require frequent cycles of treatment or longterm suppressive therapy.

  9. Epigastric Distress Caused by Esophageal Candidiasis in 2 Patients Who Received Sorafenib Plus Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Report.

    Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Weng, Meng-Tzu; Chou, Yueh-Hung; Lu, Yueh-Feng; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-03-01

    Sorafenib followed by fractionated radiotherapy (RT) has been shown to decrease the phagocytic and candidacidal activities of antifungal agents due to radiosensitization. Moreover, sorafenib has been shown to suppress the immune system, thereby increasing the risk for candida colonization and infection. In this study, we present the 2 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients suffered from epigastric distress caused by esophageal candidiasis who received sorafenib plus RT.Two patients who had received sorafenib and RT for HCC with bone metastasis presented with hiccups, gastric ulcer, epigastric distress, anorexia, heart burn, and fatigue. Empiric antiemetic agents, antacids, and pain killers were ineffective at relieving symptoms. Panendoscopy revealed diffuse white lesions in the esophagus. Candida esophagitis was suspected. Results of periodic acid-Schiff staining were diagnostic of candidiasis. Oral fluconazole (150 mg) twice daily and proton-pump inhibitors were prescribed. At 2-weak follow-up, esophagitis had resolved and both patients were free of gastrointestinal symptoms.Physicians should be aware that sorafenib combined with RT may induce an immunosuppressive state in patients with HCC, thereby increasing their risk of developing esophagitis due to candida species. PMID:26986168

  10. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions. PMID:26404163

  11. A STAT1-gain-of-function mutation causing Th17 deficiency with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, psoriasiform hyperkeratosis and dermatophytosis.

    Nielsen, Jakob; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Spaun, Eva; Larsen, Carsten S; Christiansen, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2015-01-01

    During recent years, inborn errors of human IL-17 immunity have been demonstrated to underlie primary immunodeficiencies with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Various defects in receptors responsible for sensing of Candida albicans or downstream signalling to IL-17 may lead to susceptibility to Candida infection. While CMC is common in patients with profound T cell immunodeficiencies, CMC is also recognised as part of other immunodeficiencies in syndromic CMC, or as relatively isolated CMC disease. We describe a 40-year-old woman with a clinical picture involving cutaneous bacterial abscesses, chronic oral candidiasis and extensive dermatophytic infection of the feet. By whole exome sequencing, we identified a STAT1-gain-of-function mutation. Moreover, the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells displayed severely impaired Th17 responses. The patient was treated with antifungals and prophylactic antibiotics, which led to resolution of the infection. We discuss the current knowledge within the field of Th17 deficiency and the pathogenesis and treatment of CMC. PMID:26494717

  12. In-Vitro Cytokine Induction and Neutrophil Respiratory Burst Activity by Candida Isolates from HIV Seropositive Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Mayuri Rani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of host defense against candidiasis and role of cell mediated immunity in host defense has been the subject of many studies. Increased expression of virulence factors in candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC has also been reported. We conducted an experiment to study the difference in T helper type 2 (Th2 and T helper type 1 (Th1 responses and neutrophil respiratory burst responses, of naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC’s and neutrophils respectively, by using Candida isolates from study and control groups as stimulus. Thirty HIV seropositive patients with clinical evidence of OPC and thirty healthy volunteers were studied. IL-10 release was uniformly low at all concentrations of Candida albicans antigen isolated from healthy controls as compared to when C. albicans isolated from HIV seropositive patients was used as antigenic stimulus. Mean IFN-ᵧ concentration was highest when C.albicans, isolated from healthy carriers was used as antigenic stimulus for PBMCs. The observations highlight a significant IL-10 dominance, which may be an indicator of the fine tuning of host immune system towards a chronic progressive disease condition,indicating the pathogenic potential of select Candida strains.

  13. Erythematous candidiasis leading to systemic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with secondary syphilis: A diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma.

    Suvirya, Swastika; Gandhi, Rahul; Agarwal, Jyotsana; Patil, Ranjitkumar

    2015-01-01

    The intensification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and rising frequency of immunocompromised individuals have resulted in a resurgence of opportunistic infections. The most common opportunistic oral fungal infection in HIV-positive individuals is oral candidiasis. The classical presentation is as white scrapable form called as thrush, which is easily diagnosed and treated. The clinician is presented with a diagnostic and management dilemma when these lesions appear in new facades such as erythematous candidiasis, the latter's prevalence with HIV and AIDS being well established. In this case report, we present a case of Erythematous Candidiasis, which was associated with type 1 HIV co-infected with syphilis. We highlight the diagnostic importance of a naive looking manifestation of the tongue which was followed by a series of challenging presentations of secondary syphilis. Since the patient had a negative Veneral Disease Research Laboratory and left us with a management dilemma, the article also features the importance of prozone phenomenon (seen in 2% cases of secondary syphilis), and it's higher association with HIV co-infected individuals. With confusing clinical oral manifestations associated with these diseases, the dentist might be the first person to encounter such lesions, who should be able to recognize erythematous candidiasis and correlate them with the underlying pathology. PMID:26430379

  14. Evaluation of a Novel Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Detect Immunoglobulin G Antibody to Enolase for Serodiagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis?

    Lan, Ana; Moragues, Mara D.; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Garca; Mendoza, Joaqun; Camacho,Ana; del Palacio, Amalia; Pontn, Jos

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a new test to detect antibodies to Candida albicans recombinant enolase was investigated in 47 immunocompromised and 51 immunocompetent patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the test for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis were 81.0, 83.9, 79.1, and 85.5%, respectively.

  15. Beneficial effect of Mentha suaveolens essential oil in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis assessed by real-time monitoring of infection

    Bistoni Francesco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal candidiasis is a frequent and common distressing disease affecting up to 75% of the women of fertile age; most of these women have recurrent episodes. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been shown to have antimicrobial and antifungal activities. This study was aimed at assessing the anti-fungal activity of essential oil from Mentha suaveolens (EOMS in an experimental infection of vaginal candidiasis. Methods The in vitro and in vivo activity of EOMS was assessed. The in vitro activity was evaluated under standard CLSI methods, and the in vivo analysis was carried out by exploiting a novel, non-invasive model of vaginal candidiasis in mice based on an in vivo imaging technique. Differences between essential oil treated and saline treated mice were evaluated by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Viable count data from a time kill assay and yeast and hyphae survival test were compared using the Student's t-test (two-tailed. Results Our main findings were: i EOMS shows potent candidastatic and candidacidal activity in an in vitro experimental system; ii EOMS gives a degree of protection against vaginal candidiasis in an in vivo experimental system. Conclusions This study shows for the first time that the essential oil of a Moroccan plant Mentha suaveolens is candidastatic and candidacidal in vitro, and has a degree of anticandidal activity in a model of vaginal infection, as demonstrated in an in vivo monitoring imaging system. We conclude that our findings lay the ground for further, more extensive investigations to identify the active EOMS component(s, promising in the therapeutically problematic setting of chronic vaginal candidiasis in humans.

  16. Low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination versus fluconazole in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Jan Susilo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal candidiasis (VC is one of the most common fungal diseases. Candida albicans is the most common causative fungus and has been isolated from more than 80% of specimens obtained from women with VC. Ketoconazole is the first orally active antifungal, the dosage for VC is 200 mg twice daily for 5 days. Fluconazole is the newer oral antifungal, its dosage for VC is a single oral dose of 150 mg. Since fluconazole 150 mg is considerably expensive, a single dose of 100 mg ketoconazole and 40 mg fluconazole in combination has been tested for the treatment of VC. The results showed that from 11 women with confirmed VC, 1-2 weeks after drug administration, the mycological culture was negative in 8 women, positive in 1 woman, and 2 woman lost to follow-up. This promising result led to the present study with the objective to confirm the efficacy and safety of the above combination in a formal clinical trial.Methods: A total of 165 female patients, aged 18 years or older, with the diagnosis of VC from clinical symptoms (pruritus or burning or excessive discharge and positive microscopic smear (pseudohyphae and/or yeast cells were randomized to receive a single dose of either keto-fluco combination (n = 85 or fluconazole (n = 80, and returnedfor follow-up visit on day 8.Results: Among these patients, 39 patients had negative baseline culture, leaving 126 patients eligible for efficacy evaluation. The mycological eradication in the keto-fluco group was 74.5% (41 patients from a total of 55 patients with available mycological culture, while that in the fluconazole group was 70.2% (40 patients from 57 patients with available culture and this difference was not significant. The clinical favorable response (clinical cure and clinical improvement in the keto-fluco arm (n = 60 was 98.3%, while that in the fluconazole group (n = 66 was 100%. Adverse events were found in 5 patients, 3 patients in the keto-fluco group (3/85 = 3.5% and 2 patients in the fluconazole group (2/80 = 2.5%.Conclusion: The present study showed that the efficacy and safety of ketoconazole 100 mg and fluconazole 40 mg combination was not inferior compared to fluconazole 150 mg in single doses for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:205-11Keywords: fluconazole, low-dose ketoconazole-fluconazole combination, single dose, vaginal candidiasis

  17. Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral

    GERARDO MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %, Candida tropicalis (8,1 % y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %. Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 % que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %. De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS, el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos.A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %, Candida tropicalis (8.1 %, and Torulopsis glabrata (8.1 %. It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 % than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %. Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA, the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

  18. Asociación de LT-CD4 y carga viral con candidiasis bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA en Talca, Chile Association between LT-CD4 and the viral load with oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Talca, Chile

    Pedro Brevis Azocar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis bucal aparece con frecuencia en las personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y puede causar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones. En los pacientes VIH la carga viral es considerada uno de los principales predictores en la progresión de la enfermedad. Se realizó un estudio en 29 pacientes adultos VIH-positivos para evaluar los niveles de linfocitos T-CD4 y carga viral; se estableció una relación con las manifestaciones de la candidiasis bucal. El análisis estadístico mostró que hubo relación entre la manifestación de la candidiasis bucal y la carga viral, pues en pacientes con cargas virales superiores a 10 000 copias/mL, las lesiones fueron más frecuentes.Oral candidiasis is frequently appearing in persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and may to cause many clinical and complications manifestations. In HIV patients the viral load is considered one of the main predictors in disease progression. A study was conducted in 29 HIV-positive adult patients to assess the T-CD4 lymphocyte levels and the viral load establishing a relationship with oral candidiasis manifestations. The statistical analysis showed that there was a relationship between the oral candidiasis manifestation and the viral load since in patients with viral load higher than 10 000 copies/mL, lesions were more frequent.

  19. Candida species in cutaneous candidiasis patients in the Guilan province in Iran; identified by PCR-RFLP method.

    Ali Akbar Fallahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the epidemiological alteration in distribution of Candida species as well as significant increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired in resistance of some of these fungi, the precise identification of Candida species is necessary for effective antifungal therapy and also for prevention of nosocomial infections. PCR-RFLP method is indicated to be a reliable, rapid and simple technique which is able to differentiate the Candida species. In the present study, we applied this method to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in patients affected with cutaneous candidiasis in the Guilan province. 896 clinical cutaneous samples were collected from different parts of skin and nail of suspected patients referred to clinical centers all over the Guilan province during 24 months. Samples were examined directly with 15% KOH and cultured on fungal specific media. Genomic DNA was extracted and the restriction enzyme Msp1 was applied for polymorphism analysis. Totally, 47 yeast strains were successfully isolated from different clinical samples and identified by conventional as well as PCR-RFLP methods. The results indicated that Candida albicans (36.17% was the most frequent species followed by C. parapsilosis (25.53%, C. tropicalis (19.14%, C. guilliermondii (14.89%, C. famata (2.12% and C. krusei (2.12%. Female finger nails were the most common location to be affected by Candida species. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP method was successfully used for recognition of clinical Candida species within the Guilan province and obtained results revealed C. albicans as the predominant causative agent of cutaneous candidiasis. However, distribution of other Candida species did not completely consist with the reported distribution of Candida species in other parts of Iran with different climate to the Guilan province.

  20. Fabrication of a novel scaffold of clotrimazole-microemulsion-containing nanofibers using an electrospinning process for oral candidiasis applications.

    Tonglairoum, Prasopchai; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Opanasopit, Praneet

    2015-02-01

    Clotrimazole (CZ)-loaded microemulsion-containing nanofiber mats were developed as an alternative for oral candidiasis applications. The microemulsion was composed of oleic acid (O), Tween 80 (T80), and a co-surfactant such as benzyl alcohol (BzOH), ethyl alcohol (EtOH) or isopropyl alcohol (IPA). The nanofiber mats were obtained by electrospinning a blended solution of a CZ-loaded microemulsion and a mixed polymer solution of 2% (w/v) chitosan (CS) and 10% (w/v) polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a weight ratio of 30:70. The nanofiber mats were characterized using various analytical techniques. The entrapment efficiency, drug release, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The average diameter of the nanofiber mats was in the range of 105.91-125.56 nm. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) results revealed the amorphous state of the CZ-loaded microemulsions incorporated into the nanofiber mats. The entrapment efficiency of CZ in the mats was approximately 72.58-98.10%, depended on the microemulsion formulation. The release experiment demonstrated different CZ release characteristics from nanofiber mats prepared using different CZ-loaded microemulsions. The extent of drug release from the fiber mats at 4h was approximately 64.81-74.15%. The release kinetics appeared to follow Higuchi's model. In comparison with CZ lozenges (10mg), the nanofiber mats exhibited more rapid killing activity. Moreover, the nanofiber mats demonstrated desirable mucoadhesive properties and were safe for 2h. Therefore, the nanofiber mats have the potential to be promising candidates for oral candidiasis applications. PMID:25543979

  1. Community case study of long-term survival with oesophageal candidiasis: a primary healthcare nursing study of support for a patient receiving home self-administered intravenous amphotericin

    Corbett, Kevin; Parker, Norman; Livingston, Justin

    1993-01-01

    HIV infection predisposes a person to fungal infections because of failure in the host's cell-mediated immunity, which may result in a variety of fungal infections (1,2). Candidiasis is commonly caused by Candida albicans which can become a multi-system problem affecting the patient's nails, mouth, oesophagus, lower gastrointestinal tract, genitalia and rectum. Candida oesophagitis is a condition diagnostic of AIDS and characterised by erythematous lesions, pseudomembranous areas and/or ulcer...

  2. Erythematous candidiasis leading to systemic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus co-infection with secondary syphilis: A diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma

    Suvirya, Swastika; GANDHI, RAHUL; Agarwal, Jyotsana; Patil, Ranjitkumar

    2015-01-01

    The intensification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and rising frequency of immunocompromised individuals have resulted in a resurgence of opportunistic infections. The most common opportunistic oral fungal infection in HIV-positive individuals is oral candidiasis. The classical presentation is as white scrapable form called as thrush, which is easily diagnosed and treated. The clinician is presented with a diagnostic and management dilemma when these lesions appear in new facades such ...

  3. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV Infection: Analysis of Impaired Mucosal Immune Response to Candida albicans in Mice Expressing the HIV-1 Transgene

    Louis de Repentigny; Mathieu Goupil; Paul Jolicoeur

    2015-01-01

    IL-17-producing Th17 cells are of critical importance in host defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Speculation about defective Th17 responses to oral C. albicans infection in the context of HIV infection prompted an investigation of innate and adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans in transgenic mice expressing the genome of HIV-1 in immune cells and displaying an AIDS-like disease. Defective IL-17 and IL-22-dependent mucosal responses to C. albicans were found to determin...

  4. Use of Green Fluorescent Protein and Reverse Transcription-PCR To Monitor Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression in a Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Green, Clayton B.; Zhao, Xiaomin; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans PALS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter strains were inoculated into mice in a disseminated candidiasis model, and GFP production was monitored by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). GFP production from the ALS1 and ALS3 promoters was detected immunohistochemically. ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, ALS4, and ALS9 transcription was detected by RT-PCR, further identifying ALS genes expressed in this model.

  5. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns, In Vitro Production of Virulence Factors, and Evaluation of Diagnostic Modalities for the Speciation of Pathogenic Candida from Blood Stream Infections and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Chaitanya Tellapragada; Vandana Kalwaje Eshwara; Ruqaiyah Johar; Tushar Shaw; Nidhi Malik; Bhat, Parvati V.; Asha Kamath; Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens in both invasive and mucosal infections. Varied virulence factors and growing resistance to antifungal agents have contributed to their pathogenicity. We studied diagnostic accuracy of HiCrome Candida Differential Agar and Vitek 2 Compact system for identification of Candida spp. in comparison with species-specific PCR on 110 clinical isolates of Candida from blood stream infections (54, 49%) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (56, 51%). C. albicans...

  6. Antifungal Activities of Two New Azasordarins, GW471552 and GW471558, in Experimental Models of Oral and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Immunosuppressed Rats

    Martinez, Antonio; Ferrer, Santiago; Santos, Inmaculada; Jimenez, Elena; Sparrowe, John; Regadera, Javier; De Las Heras, Federico Gomez; Gargallo-Viola, Domingo

    2001-01-01

    Sordarins constitute a new class of antifungal agents with a novel mechanism of action involving the selective inhibition of fungal protein synthesis. A further evolution of this class of antifungals has led to a new family of sordarin derivatives called azasordarins. The therapeutic efficacies of two new azasordarins, GW471552 and GW471558, were studied in experimental models of oral and vulvovaginal candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats. In all cases rats were immunosuppressed with dexametha...

  7. Efficacy of Oral E1210, a New Broad-Spectrum Antifungal with a Novel Mechanism of Action, in Murine Models of Candidiasis, Aspergillosis, and Fusariosis▿

    Hata, Katsura; Horii, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Mamiko; Watanabe, Nao-aki; Okubo, Miyuki; Sonoda, Jiro; Nakamoto, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Keigo; Shirotori, Syuji; Murai, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi; Matsukura, Masayuki; Abe, Shinya; Yoshimatsu, Kentaro; Asada, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    E1210 is a first-in-class, broad-spectrum antifungal with a novel mechanism of action—inhibition of fungal glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. In this study, the efficacies of E1210 and reference antifungals were evaluated in murine models of oropharyngeal and disseminated candidiasis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and disseminated fusariosis. Oral E1210 demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in infections caused by Candida species, Aspergillus spp., and Fusarium solani. In the treatment of o...

  8. BCG Lymphadenitis and Recurrent Oral Candidiasis in an Infant with a New Mutation Leading to Interleukin-12 Receptor Beta-1 Deficiency

    Aytekin, Caner; Dogu, Figen; TUYGUN, Nilden; Tanir, Gonul; Guloglu, Deniz; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

    2011-01-01

    Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare syndrome characterized by the predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Salmonellosis has been reported in almost half of affected patients. Patients are also vulnerable to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Various other infectious diseases occurred, albeit each rarely, but mucocutaneous candidiasis have been reported in more p...

  9. The Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 and Sap2 Cause Tissue Damage in an In Vitro Model of Vaginal Candidiasis Based on Reconstituted Human Vaginal Epithelium

    Schaller, Martin; Bein, Matthias; Korting, Hans C; Baur, Stefan; Hamm, Gerald; Monod, Michel; Beinhauer, Sabine; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) contribute to the ability of Candida albicans to cause mucosal and disseminated infections. A model of vaginal candidiasis based on reconstituted human vaginal epithelium (RHVE) was used to study the expression and role of these C. albicans proteinases during infection and tissue damage of vaginal epithelium. Colonization of the RHVE by C. albicans SC5314 did not cause any visible epithelial damage 6 h after inoculation, although expression of SAP2, SAP9, ...

  10. [A 95-year-old female with autopsy-proven cerebral necrosis due to candidiasis who developed stroke-like manifestations].

    Hideyama, Takuto; Aono, Go; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masanari; Nasu, Michiyo

    2005-03-01

    A 95-year-old woman complained of sudden onset of disturbance of consciousness and right hemiparesis on April 20, 2003 and was admitted on the next day. She was drowsy and showed moderate right motor and sensory hemiparesis. The blood laboratory tests showed slight inflammatory reaction. A low density area was found in the left basal ganglia by brain CT, which was also coincided with the high signal region in T2, FLAIR and diffusion-MR images. The MRA of the intracerebral arteries presented no remarkable abnormality. The hemiparesis and impaired consciousness improved partially in the following week. However, she did not fully recover, since aspiration pneumonia and mild generalized inflammation continued. Percutaneous gastrostomy and intravenous hyperalimentation were started to improve her nutrition. The moderate inflammatory state persisted for several weeks. Her blood pressure suddenly fell and she died on June 12. Autopsy showed a mildly brownish and necrotic lesion from the left caudate to the putamen through the internal capsule. There was no liquefaction. On the microscopic examination, the necrosis surrounded by small vessels was consisted of numerous neutrophils and macrophages with pseudohypha and blastospore of candida. Small fragments of fungus were phagocytosed by macrophages. Small abscesses and necrotic foci due to candidiasis were observed in the bladder, kidneys, lungs, myocardium and thyroid gland. In this case, cerebral candidiasis probably occurred via hematogenous dissemination from a primary focus in the urinary tract. The intracerebral arteries revealed rather mild atherosclerotic changes and there was no occlusion by thromboembolism. Intracerebral lesion was diagnosed as candidiasis and there was no cerebral infarction by thromboembolism. If the infection occurred after cerebral infarction, there should not be any inflammatory reaction in the center of necrotic area. There have been few reports of cerebral candidal infection in patients without diabetes mellitus or immunosuppressive conditions. None of them had been diagnosed before death. Caution should be exercised for the presence of systemic candidiasis in elderly patients who are bedridden and with continuous low grade inflammatory reactions. PMID:15835294

  11. Sexually transmitted infections, bacterial vaginosis, and candidiasis in women of reproductive age in rural Northeast Brazil: a population-based study

    Fabíola Araújo Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Population-based data on sexually transmitted infections (STI, bacterial vaginosis (BV, and candidiasis reflect the epidemiological situation more accurately than studies performed in specific populations, but such data are scarce. To determine the prevalence of STI, BV, and candidiasis among women of reproductive age from a resource-poor community in Northeast Brazil, a population-based cross sectional study was undertaken. All women from seven hamlets and the centre of Pacoti municipality in the state of Ceará, aged 12 to 49 years, were invited to participate. The women were asked about socio-demographic characteristics and genital symptoms, and thereafter examined gynaecologically. Laboratory testing included polymerase chain reaction (PCR for human papillomavirus (HPV, ligase chain reaction (LCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL and fluorescent treponema antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS for syphilis, and analysis of wet mounts, gram stains and Pap smears for trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and BV. Only women who had initiated sexual life were included in the analysis (n = 592. The prevalences of STI were: HPV 11.7% (95% confidence interval: 9.3-14.7, chlamydia 4.5% (3.0-6.6, trichomoniasis 4.1% (2.7-6.1, gonorrhoea 1.2% (0.5-2.6, syphilis 0.2% (0.0-1.1, and HIV 0%. The prevalence of BV and candidiasis was 20% (16.9-23.6 and 12.5% (10.0-15.5, respectively. The most common gynaecological complaint was lower abdominal pain. STI are common in women in rural Brazil and represent an important health threat in view of the HIV pandemic.

  12. Prevalencia de resultado positivo de la citologa para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis en una Empresa Social del Estado de Medelln (Colombia, 2010-2012

    Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia del resultado positivo de la citologa para vaginosis bacteriana, candidiasis y tricomoniasis vaginal, y su distribucin segn edad, mtodo de planificacin y sector de residencia. Materiales y mtodos: estudio de corte transversal en especmenes citolgicos obtenidos de mujeres atendidas entre los aos 2010-2012 en Metrosalud, red de instituciones de la que hacen parte cincuenta centros de salud y unidades hospitalarias de primer nivel en Medelln (Colombia. Se incluy toda la poblacin de mujeres del rgimen subsidiado atendida en la institucin, se excluyeron las citologas con muestras insatisfactorias por ausencia de clulas, exceso de eritrocitos o leucocitos, y extendido defectuoso. Se us fuente de informacin secundaria. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en SPSS 21, con medidas de resumen y frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se incluyeron 206.035 registros. La prevalencia de vaginosis bacteriana fue 18 %, candidiasis 4,7 % y tricomoniasis 0,8 %. Los subgrupos con mayor prevalencia de infecciones fueron los adolescentes, con 22,8 % de vaginosis bacteriana, 9,2 % de candidiasis y 1,0 % para tricomoniasis; y quienes usan el dispositivo intrauterino (DIU con 25,6, 5,1 y 1,2 % respectivamente. Conclusin: se hall una elevada prevalencia de las infecciones estudiadas, principalmente en adolescentes y usuarias del DIU; esta informacin resulta til para los tomadores de decisiones en salud y para evaluar la pertinencia de estructurar programas de tamizacin de infecciones del tracto genital aunados a la tamizacin del cncer crvico-uterino.

  13. Artemisia princeps Pamp. Essential oil and its constituents eucalyptol and ?-terpineol ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis in mice by inhibiting bacterial growth and NF-?B activation.

    Trinh, Hien-Trung; Lee, In-Ah; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of Artemisia princeps Pamp. (family Asteraceae) essential oil (APEO) and its main constituents against bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis, their antimicrobial activities against Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vitro and their anti-inflammatory effects against G. vaginalis-induced vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis were examined in mice. APEO and its constituents eucalyptol and ?-terpineol were found to inhibit microbe growths. ?-Terpineol most potently inhibited the growths of G. vaginalis and C. albicans with MIC values of 0.06 and 0.125?% (v/v), respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ?-terpineol was found to be comparable to that of clotrimazole. Intravaginal treatment with APEO, eucalyptol, or ?-terpineol significantly decreased viable G. vaginalis and C. albicans numbers in the vaginal cavity and myeloperoxidase activity in mouse vaginal tissues compared with controls. These agents also inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 ?, IL-6, TNF- ?), COX-2, iNOS, and the activation of NF- ?B and increased expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In addition, they inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of NF- ?B in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and ?-terpineol most potently inhibited the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and NF- ?B activation. Based on these findings, APEO and its constituents, particularly ?-terpineol, ameliorate bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis by inhibiting the growths of vaginal pathogens and the activation of NF- ?B. PMID:21830186

  14. Anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus in the in vitro and in vivo guinea pig models of cutaneous and systemic candidiasis

    Ali, Mikaeili; Isaac, Karimi; Tayebeh, Shamspur; Babak, Gholamine; Masoud, Modaresi; Ali, Khanlari.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was design to evaluate the anti-candidal activity of Astragalus verus Olivier, Fabaceae (Av). The GC/MS analysis of essential oils of Av showed that aqueous extract contains thymol while hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester and phytol were found as major compo [...] nents of methanol and acetone extracts. The aqueous extract showed anti-candidal activity in the concentration 320 mg/mL using disc diffusion method and its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 160 mg/mL. To induce cutaneous candidiasis, the dorsum of immunocompromised guinea pigs was infected with Candida albicans and animals were divided into five groups (n=5 for each): NC, received a vehicle; PC, received topical ketoconazole 2% and three other groups which received topical 10, 20 and 40% aqueous extract of Av. On ninth day postinfection, skins were cultured and colony forming unite per gram (CFU/g) skin was recorded. Systemic candidiasis was obtained by intravenous inoculation of C. albicans, 4000 CFU/g body weight. Here, animals have been divided into five groups like cutaneous candidiasis but their medications have been delivered in drinking water for ten days before induction of infection. On second day postinfection, all internal tissues were taken for determining CFU/g tissue. The aqueous extract (40%) prevented heavy burden of C. albicans in tissues and skin in oral and topical application, respectively. The results indicate that Av represents a potential source of anti-candidal drug.

  15. Candidiasis and other oral mucosal lesions during and after interferon therapy for HCV-related chronic liver diseases

    Nagao Yumiko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral lichen planus (OLP is seen frequently in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of oral candidiasis, other mucosal lesions, and xerostomia during interferon (IFN therapy for HCV infection. Methods Of 124 patients with HCV-infected liver diseases treated with IFN therapy in our hospital, 14 (mean age 56.00 ± 12.94 years who attended to receive administration of IFN once a week were identified and examined for Candida infection and other oral lesions and for the measurement of salivary flow. Serological assays also were carried out. Results Cultures of Candida from the tongue surfaces were positive in 7 (50.0% of the 14 patients with HCV infection at least once during IFN therapy. C. albicans was the most common species isolated. The incidence of Candida during treatment with IFN did not increase above that before treatment. Additional oral mucosal lesions were observed in 50.0% (7/14 of patients: OLP in three (21.4%, angular cheilitis in three (21.4% and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in one (7.1%. OLP occurred in one patient before treatment with IFN, in one during treatment and in one at the end of treatment. 85.7% of the oral lesions were treated with topical steroids. We compared the characteristics of the 7 patients in whom Candida was detected at least once during IFN therapy (group 1 and the 7 patients in whom Candida was not detected during IFN therapy (group 2. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (P=0.0075 and incidence of external use of steroids (P=0.0308 in group 1 were significantly higher than in group 2. The average body weight of group 1 decreased significantly compared to group 2 (P=0.0088. Salivary flow decreased in all subjects throughout the course of IFN treatment and returned at 6th months after the end of treatment. In group 1, the level of albumin at the beginning of the 6th month of IFN administration was lower than in group 2 (P=0.0550. According to multivariate analysis, one factor, the presence of oral mucosal lesions, was associated with the detection of Candida. The adjusted odds ratio for the factor was 36.00 (95% confidence interval 2.68-1485.94. Conclusion We should pay more attention to oral candidiasis as well as other oral mucosal lesions, in patients with weight loss during IFN treatment.

  16. Examination of the pathogenic potential of Candida albicans filamentous cells in an animal model of haematogenously disseminated candidiasis.

    Cleary, Ian A; Reinhard, Sara M; Lazzell, Anna L; Monteagudo, Carlos; Thomas, Derek P; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Saville, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is an increasingly common threat to human health. Candida albicans grows in several morphologies and mutant strains locked in yeast or filamentous forms have attenuated virulence in the murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Thus, the ability to change shape is important for virulence. The transcriptional repressors Nrg1p and Tup1p are required for normal regulation of C. albicans morphology. Strains lacking either NRG1 or TUP1 are constitutively pseudohyphal under yeast growth conditions, and display attenuated virulence in the disseminated model. To dissect the relative importance of hyphae and pseudohyphae during an infection, we used strains in which the morphological transition could be externally manipulated through controlled expression of NRG1 or TUP1. Remarkably, hyphal form inocula retain the capacity to cause disease. Whilst induction of a pseudohyphal morphology through depletion of TUP1 did result in attenuated virulence, this was not due to a defect in the ability to escape the bloodstream. Instead, we observed that pseudohyphal cells are cleared from tissues much more efficiently than either hyphal (virulent) or yeast form (avirulent) cells, indicating that different C. albicans morphologies have distinct interactions with host cells during an infection. PMID:26851404

  17. Anticommensal Responses Are Associated with Regulatory T Cell Defect in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Patients.

    Hetemäki, Iivo; Jarva, Hanna; Kluger, Nicolas; Baldauf, Hanna-Mari; Laakso, Sini; Bratland, Eirik; Husebye, Eystein S; Kisand, Kai; Ranki, Annamari; Peterson, Pärt; Arstila, T Petteri

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the AIRE gene. Although mainly an endocrine disease, a substantial fraction of patients have gastrointestinal manifestations. In this study, we have examined the role of anticommensal responses and their regulation. APECED patients had increased levels of Abs against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (p symptoms, although scarcity of the available clinical data suggests that further study is required. However, the anti-S. cerevisiae Ab levels showed a significant inverse correlation with FOXP3 expression levels in regulatory T cells (Treg), previously shown to be dysfunctional in APECED. The correlation was strongest in the activated CD45RO(+) population (ρ = -0.706; p < 0.01). APECED patients also had decreased numbers of FOXP3(+) cells in gut biopsies. These results show that APECED patients develop early and sustained responses to gut microbial Ags in a pattern reminiscent of Crohn's disease. This abnormal immune recognition of gut commensals is linked to a systemic Treg defect, which is also reflected as a local decrease of gut-associated Treg. To our knowledge, these data are the first to show dysregulated responses to non-self commensal Ags in APECED and indicate that AIRE contributes to the regulation of gut homeostasis, at least indirectly. The data also raise the possibility of persistent microbial stimulation as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of APECED. PMID:26903483

  18. A clinical-economic study of caspofungin use in the treatment of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units

    A. S. Kolbin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. are the fourth on the list of sepsis pathogens in patients in intensive care units. Currently the physician’s armamentarium includes a whole range of antifungal medicines that have demonstrated high clinicalmycological effectiveness in clinical trials. The aim of this study to evaluate the clinical-economic usefulness of caspofungin therapy in the treatment of invasive candidiasis versus standard and alternative treatments in patients inintensive care units. The first time in the Russian clinical-economic analysis for targeted IC treatment in non-neutropenic patients in intensive care units who have not received primary prophylaxis with azole antimycotics, as well as in those with low (< 20% occurrence of in vitro Candida spp. resistance to fluconazole according to national or local study results, yielded the following findings: the best strategy is initial amphotericin B therapy with subsequent switching to caspofungin in patients with ineffective initial amphotericin B therapy or those with severe adverse events.

  19. Sequences type analysis of Candida albicans isolates from Iranian human immunodeficiency virus infected patients with oral candidiasis.

    Farzad Katiraee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of immunocompromised individuals has increased the incidence of infections caused by Candida species during the recent decades. Typing of C. albicans on the basis of DNA sequences at multiple loci has greatly advanced our knowledge about the epidemiology and phylogeny of candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity, and genetic relationships among C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV patients in Iran. using multilocus sequence typing (MLST method. We analyzed 25 C. albicans isolates obtained from HIV positive patients referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS. After diagnostic test and DNA extraction C. albicans isolates were typed using the original MLST scheme explained previously include of six loci: ACC1, VPS13, GLN4, ADP1, RPN2, and SYA1. Fifty one (2.17% nucleotide sites were found to be polymorphic; all were found to be heterozygous in at least one isolate. For the 25 clinical isolates, 22 diploid sequence types were defined by the genotypes identified from the six loci. The MLST data suggest a relatively high level of divergence in the population structure of C. albicans isolated from HIV infected patients. These findings indicate that in these patients there is a favorable context for the growth of potential pathogenic C. albicans. We found no association between fluconazole resistance, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART receiving and either sequence type or group.

  20. Formulation and evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive drug delivery system to treat intestinal candidiasis in immunocompromised patients

    SuparnaDugal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The limited solubility, and therefore bioavailability, of the antimycotic drug,itraconazole, used for the treatment of intestinal Candidiasis in immunocompromisedindividuals, has been well documented. Therapeutic regimen in these patients mayinclude daily administration of multiple doses of various drugs. Hence, improving theresidence time of therapeutic agents, would ensure a high continuous concentration inthe body and help decrease the dosing frequency. In our current study, we haveinvestigated a novel method of drug delivery, developed by utilizing the concept ofmucoadhesiveness, for the sustained release of the drug, itraconazole. Mucoadhesivebeads were prepared using two natural polymers, isabghula husk and alginate. Theminimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole for Candida was found to be1.5milligram per millilitre. Accordingly, beads were prepared by ionic gelation methodusing calcium chloride as a crosslinking agent. Marked improvement in solubility of thedrug was noted after entrapment. Prepared beads were subjected to various evaluationsincluding particle size, swelling behaviour and mucoadhesivity. At pH 7.4, goodmucoadhesive property was exhibited up to 7 hours. Maximum swelling of beads wasobserved at 4hours in phosphate buffer after which the beads showed slight erosion.Fresh cock intestinal mucosa was used to assess the sustained release of itraconazolefrom the drug loaded beads and the reduction in candidal cells adhering to the mucosawas verified by the viable count technique. The results of our present study indicate thatmucoadhesive intestinal retentive isabghula- alginate beads could represent a promisingvehicle for drug delivery and help improve therapeutic efficacy and patient compliancein the future.

  1. Clotrimazole-cyclodextrin based approach for the management and treatment of Candidiasis - A formulation and chemistry-based evaluation.

    Mohammed, Noorullah Naqvi; Pandey, Pankaj; Khan, Nayaab S; Elokely, Khaled M; Liu, Haining; Doerksen, Robert J; Repka, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    Clotrimazole (CT) is a poorly soluble antifungal drug that is most commonly employed as a topical treatment in the management of vaginal candidiasis. The present work focuses on a formulation approach to enhance the solubility of CT using cyclodextrin (CD) complexation. A CT-CD complex was prepared by a co-precipitation method. Various characterization techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, infrared (IR) and X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were performed to evaluate the complex formation and to understand the interactions between CT and CD. Computational molecular modeling was performed using the Schrödinger suite and Gaussian 09 program to understand structural conformations of the complex. The phase solubility curve followed an AL-type curve, indicating formation of a 1:1 complex. Molecular docking studies supported the data obtained through NMR and IR studies. Enthalpy changes confirmed that complexation was an exothermic and enthalpically favorable phenomenon. The CT-CD complexes were formulated in a gel and evaluated for release and antifungal activity. The in vitro release studies performed using gels demonstrated a sustained release of CT from the CT-CD complex with the complex exhibiting improved release relative to the un-complexed CT. Complexed CT-CD exhibited better fungistatic activity toward different Candida species than un-complexed CT. PMID:25923135

  2. Candidiasis oral en pacientes seropositivos al VIH y casos SIDA: Aspectos clínicos, micológicos y terapéuticos Oral candidiasis in HIV-seropositive patients and AIDS cases: Clinical, mycological and therapeutical aspects

    Luz Marina Prieto Santa Anna

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo para conocer aspectos clínicos y micológicos de la candidiasis oral, incluido un ensayo terapéutico para 4 drogas, 2 tópicas (clotrimazol y nistatina y 2 sistémicas (itraconazol y ketoconazol, entre marzo de 2003 y junio de 2004, a un total de 97 pacientes adultos infectados por el VIH. La edad promedio fue de 34,97 años con franco predominio del sexo masculino y de una conducta heterosexual como tendencia. Prevaleció la forma de presentación clínica pseudomembranosa, 93,8 % de los casos, con síntomas acompañantes (dolor, sensación de quemazón y dificultad para deglutir y lesiones extensas. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente aislada tanto en los exudados iniciales (92 % como en los realizados al finalizar los esquemas de tratamiento, en los pacientes que no alcanzaron la cura micológica (89,4 %. Los tratamientos fueron exitosos desde el punto de vista clínico, en 91,8 % de los casos con mejor��a o remisión total de síntomas y signos, y 51,6 % de curas micológicas. No existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las respuestas clínica y micológica obtenidas frente a los tratamientos tópicos al compararlos con los sistémicos. Lo anterior permitió recomendar una mayor utilización de los tratamientos locales, en la población estudiada, por los beneficios que estos tienen para los pacientes.A prospective study to identify clinical and mycological aspects of oral candidiasis including a therapeutic trial for 4 drugs-2 topical (chlotrimazole and nistatine and 2 systemic (Itraconale and ketoconazole was performed on 97 HIV adult patients from March 2003 to June 2004. Average age was 34,97 years, being males and heterosexual behaviour predominant. The pseudomembranous clinical form of presentation prevailed in 93.8% of cases, with accompanying symptoms like pain, burning sensation and difficult swallowing in addition to extensive lesions. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species both in swabs taken at the beginning (92% and at the end of the treatment schedules applied to patients who did not succeed in mycological cure (89.4%. Treatment schemes had positive results from the clinical viewpoint in 91.8% of cases with improvement or total remission of symptoms and signs, and in 51.6% of mycological curing. There were no statistically significant differences of clinical and mycological responses between topical and systemic treatments. The above-mentioned allowed recommending a more extensive use of local treatment in the studied population because of their benefits for the patients.

  3. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Mohammad Aamir Mirza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD and caffeine (Caff. The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em água e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA, ácido fúlvico (FA, β-ciclodextrina (β-CD, 2-hidroxipropil-β-ciclodextrina (HP-β-CD e cafeína (Caff. O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional, calorimetria de varredura diferencial (DSC, difração de raios-X (XRD, ressonância magnética nuclear (RMN e espectroscopia de massas. Além disso, os complexos foram avaliados in vivo, em ratas, no tocante à sua eficácia no tratamento de candidíase vaginal. Entre os cinco complexos testados, o complexo de ácido fúlvico-itraconazol foi o que apresentou melhor solubilidade, bem como melhor eficácia in vivo e, portanto, pode ser explorado para o desenvolvimento de uma formulação comercial para o tratamento de candidíase vaginal.

  4. Candidase vulvovaginal: sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonizao anal concomitante Vulvovaginal candidiasis: symptomatology, risk factors and concomitant anal colonization

    Antnio Arildo Reginaldo de Holanda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqncia de Candida albicans e no C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizaes anal e vaginal. MTODOS: foram includas 99 pacientes com suspeita clnica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clnico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo mtodo clssico, alm da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45C e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertnico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonizao anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois stios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para anlise estatstica utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correo de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espcie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69% dos casos. Uso de roupas ntimas justas e/ou sintticas, presena de doenas alrgicas, ocorrncia de prurido, leucorria e hiperemia apresentaram associao com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonizao anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espcies no C. albicans. CONCLUSES: C. albicans foi a espcie mais comum, tendo sido observada associao da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintticas, doenas alrgicas, prurido, leucorria e eritema (pPURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology and results of anal culture, to identify the frequency of species of Candida albicans and non-C. albicans, and to correlate anal and vaginal colonization. METHODS: a total of 99 patients were included with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis, from Natal, Brazil, between May 2003 and May 2005, totalling 294 collections. The clinical material, obtained by vaginal and anal swabs, was seeded on CHROMagar Candida. The yeasts were identified using the classic method, in addition to the growth test at 42 and 45C and the Hypertonic Saboraud broth test. Symptomatology, risk factors and anal colonization were assessed according to positive or negative culture for Candida spp. The cultures positive for C. albicans at the two sites were compared with other results encountered. Yates chi2 test and Fishers exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: the most frequent was C. albicans in 69% of the cases. Wearing tight and/or synthetic underclothing, the presence of allergic diseases, the occurrence of itching, leukorrhea and hyperemia showed a significant association with positive culture for Candida spp in the vagina. The chance of a patient with positive anal colonization to present with concomitant positive vaginal colonization was 2.8 and 4.9 times greater for Candida spp and C. albicans, respectively. The risk of a patient with anal culture positive for C. albicans to present with positive vaginal colonization was 3.7 times greater when compared to non-C. albicans species. CONCLUSIONS: the most common species was C. albicans, and a relevant association between vaginal cultures positive for Candida spp and the use of tight and/or synthetic underclothing, allergic diseases, the occurrence of pruritus, leukorrhea and erythema was observed (p<0.05. Positive anal colonization concomitant with vaginal colonization was significant, suggesting possible vaginal contamination from the anus.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients

    Grau, S; Pozo, JC; Rom, E; Salavert, M; Barrueta, JA; Peral, C; Rodriguez, I; Rubio-Rodrguez, D; Rubio-Terrs, C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin) and generic fluconazole in the treatment of nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Materials and methods A decision-tree model was applied. The success and safety (hepatic and renal adverse effects) of first-line treatments were obtained from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials. In the case of failure, a second-line treatment (liposomal amphotericin B after the echinocandins, or one of the echinocandins after fluconazole) was administered. The duration of the treatments (14 days total) was established by a panel of clinical experts using the Delphi method and according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The cost of the medications and renal toxicity were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Results The total cost of the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and fluconazole was 5,483, 5,968, 6,231, and 2,088, respectively. Anidulafungin was the dominant treatment (more effective, less expensive) compared to micafungin and caspofungin. The cost of achieving one more patient successfully treated with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin compared to fluconazole was 17,199, 23,962, and 27,339, respectively. The result remained stable, despite modification of the duration of the first-line and second-line treatments, as well as most of the dosing regimens. The probabilistic analysis also remained stable. Conclusion In accordance with this economic study, anidulafungin would produce savings and would be the dominant treatment compared with micafungin and caspofungin in nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. PMID:26508881

  6. Cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins and fluconazole in the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in nonneutropenic adult patients

    Grau S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available S Grau,1 JC Pozo,2 E Rom,2 M Salavert,3 JA Barrueta,4 C Peral,4 I Rodriguez,5 D Rubio-Rodrguez,6 C Rubio-Terrs6 1Hospital del Mar (IMIM, Barcelona, 2Hospital Universitario Reina Sofa, Crdoba, 3Hospital Universitario y Politcnico La Fe, Valencia, 4Pfizer SLU, Alcobendas, 5Trial Form Support, Madrid, 6Health Value, Madrid, Spain Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of three echinocandins (anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin and generic fluconazole in the treatment of nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Materials and methods: A decision-tree model was applied. The success and safety (hepatic and renal adverse effects of first-line treatments were obtained from meta-analyses and systematic reviews of clinical trials. In the case of failure, a second-line treatment (liposomal amphotericin B after the echinocandins, or one of the echinocandins after fluconazole was administered. The duration of the treatments (14 days total was established by a panel of clinical experts using the Delphi method and according to Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. The cost of the medications and renal toxicity were considered. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations were carried out. Results: The total cost of the treatment of candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, and fluconazole was 5,483, 5,968, 6,231, and 2,088, respectively. Anidulafungin was the dominant treatment (more effective, less expensive compared to micafungin and caspofungin. The cost of achieving one more patient successfully treated with anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin compared to fluconazole was 17,199, 23,962, and 27,339, respectively. The result remained stable, despite modification of the duration of the first-line and second-line treatments, as well as most of the dosing regimens. The probabilistic analysis also remained stable. Conclusion: In accordance with this economic study, anidulafungin would produce savings and would be the dominant treatment compared with micafungin and caspofungin in nonneutropenic adult patients with candidemia and/or invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in Spain. Keywords: invasive candidiasis, candidemia, anidulafungin, micafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, cost-effectiveness analysis

  7. RT-PCR analysis of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in a hyposalivatory rat model of oral candidiasis and in HIV-positive human patients

    Green, Clayton B.; Marretta, Sandra Manfra; CHENG, GEORGINA; Faddoul, Fady F.; EHRHART, E. J.; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2006-01-01

    ALS gene expression was studied in the hyposalivatory rat model of oral candidiasis and in clinical specimens collected from HIV-positive patients to assess similarities in expression patterns between the model system and clinical isolates. Two C. albicans strains, SC5314 and OY-2-76, were used in the rat model system and infection progressed for 3 or 5 days. The strains produced similar oral lesions at 3 days. At 5 days, strain OY-2-76 produced more superficial lesions containing relatively ...

  8. Fluconazole therapy for treatment of invasive candidiasis in Intensive Care patients. Is it still valid from a pharmacological point of view?

    Mario Musu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole – antimycotic belonging to the first generation azoles – is widely used as treatment for invasive candidiasis and candidemia in numerous clinical settings as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU, as well as oncology, onco-hematology and solid organ transplantation. More recently use of antimycotics has spread to medical divisions, where fungal infections represent an emerging problem due to population’s ageing, malnourishment and important comorbidities. Fluconazole is effective against numerous Candida species, particularly against albicans, tropicalis and parapsilosis strains. On the other hand, C. krusei is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and C. glabrata can be sensitive or resistant in a dose dependent fashion. Epidemiological variability is noteworthy and depends on the geographical location of the institution, the clinical setting, and the frequency and intensity of fluconazole employment for invasive candidiasis. In many ICUs fluconazole sensitive C. albicans is cultured in 50% of positive samples, while the remaining 50% show growth of variably sensitive fungal species, often resistant to fluconazole. Due to increasingly frequent emergence of resistant strains of Candida spp., American guidelines (IDSA in 2009, and European ones (ESCMID in 2012, recommended substitution of fluconazole with echinocandines as first line therapy in patients with severe disease, as defined by an APACHE II score greater than 15. Thus fluconazole must be limited to low risk cases, treatment of sensitive strains and de-escalation from echinocandin therapy, after microbiological diagnosis and drug resistance profile characterization.

  9. In Vitro Activity of Miltefosine against Candida albicans under Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Conditions and In Vivo Efficacy in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis.

    Vila, Taissa Vieira Machado; Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Rozental, Sonia; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

    2015-12-01

    The generation of a new antifungal against Candida albicans biofilms has become a major priority, since biofilm formation by this opportunistic pathogenic fungus is usually associated with an increased resistance to azole antifungal drugs and treatment failures. Miltefosine is an alkyl phospholipid with promising antifungal activity. Here, we report that, when tested under planktonic conditions, miltefosine displays potent in vitro activity against multiple fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant C. albicans clinical isolates, including isolates overexpressing efflux pumps and/or with well-characterized Erg11 mutations. Moreover, miltefosine inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation and displays activity against preformed biofilms. Serial passage experiments confirmed that miltefosine has a reduced potential to elicit resistance, and screening of a library of C. albicans transcription factor mutants provided additional insight into the activity of miltefosine against C. albicans growing under planktonic and biofilm conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of topical treatment with miltefosine in the murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Overall, our results confirm the potential of miltefosine as a promising antifungal drug candidate, in particular for the treatment of azole-resistant and biofilm-associated superficial candidiasis. PMID:26416861

  10. Etiologa de la candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante en la Atencin Primaria de Salud en Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiologia da candidase vulvovaginal recorrente na Ateno Primria Sade em Santa Catarina, Brasil Etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in the National Health System in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Rangeli Basso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue destacar las caractersticas epidemiolgicas que puedan subsidiar la Atencin Primaria de Salud (APS en mujeres portadoras de candidiasis vulvovaginal (CVV y candidiasis vulvovaginal recidivante (CVVR, a partir de estudios realizados en tres municipios del sur de Brasil. A travs del examen micolgico de la secrecin vaginal de 300 mujeres con sospecha clnica de CVV o CVVR se identificaron las especies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionndose los hallazgos con los principales factores de riesgo mencionados en la literatura. Fueron confirmadas levaduras en 90 (30% casos, resultando las especies ms frecuentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% y Candida spp. (11,1%. En los casos de CVVR, C. albicans fue la especie ms encontrada, con una prevalencia superior a la observada en la CVV. C. krusei apareci como la segunda especie ms prevalente en todas las muestras, resaltando la importancia del diagnstico a nivel de especie, dada la resistencia intrnseca al fluconazol. Las informaciones epidemiolgicas del estudio son tiles para que los gestores de la Atencin Primaria de Salud (APS y los profesionales de la Salud puedan tener subsidios adicionales para actuar preventivamente en el caso de candidiasis vulvovaginales.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi destacar as caractersticas epidemiolgicas que possam subsidiar a Ateno Primria Sade (APS em mulheres portadoras de candidase vulvovaginal (CVV e candidase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR, a partir de estudos realizados em trs municpios do sul do Brasil. Atravs do exame micolgico da secreo vaginal de 300 mulheres com suspeita clnica de CVV ou CVVR foram identificadas as espcies prevalentes de Candida, correlacionando os achados com os principais fatores de risco mencionados na literatura. Foram detectadas leveduras em 90 (30% dos casos, resultando as espcies mais frequentes C. albicans (61,1%, C. krusei (16,7%, C. tropicalis (6,7%, C. glabrata (4,4% e Candida spp. (11,1%. Nos casos de CVVR, C. albicans foi a espcie mais encontrada, com uma prevalncia superior observada nos casos de CVV. C. krusei apareceu como a segunda espcie mais prevalente em todas as amostras, ressaltando a importncia do diagnstico em nvel de espcie, devido resistncia intrnseca ao fluconazol. As informaes epidemiolgicas deste estudo so teis para que os gestores da Ateno Primria Sade (APS e os profissionais da Sade Pblica possam ter subsdios adicionais para atuar preventivamente nos casos de candidases vulvovaginais.The main purpose of this work was to highlight epidemiological characteristics serving as subsidies to health promotion activities for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC by the national health system, in three cities in southern Brazil. Through the mycological examination of vaginal secretions of 300 women with clinical suspicion of VVC or RVVC, Candida-prevalent species were identified and they were correlated with the main risk factors mentioned in the literature. Yeasts were confirmed in 90 (30% cases, resulting in C. albicans 61.1%, C. krusei 16.7%, C. tropicalis 6.7%, C. glabrata 4.4% and others 11.1%. C. albicans was the species most commonly found in cases of RVVC, with levels higher than the prevalence of the species in the VVC. C. krusei prevailed as the second most prevalent species in both samples, emphasizing the importance of diagnosing the species level, due to its intrinsic resistance to fluconazole. The epidemiological information of the study is useful for managers of the National Health Care System, as well as direct health professionals, who can have new subsidies to act preventively against vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  11. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    ... inflammation of the vagina (vaginitis). Long-lasting (persistent) symptoms and yeast infection that does not heal may be the first ... with HIV. Signs and Symptoms The appearance and symptoms of yeast infection depend upon the area affected. The most common ...

  12. The resistance to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis Resistência ao fluconazol em pacientes com candidíase esofágica

    Ana Botler Wilheim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal candidiasis is often observed in patients with risk factors for its development and fluconazole is the therapeutic choice for the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine its frequency, by performing upper digestive endoscopy; to determine Candida species involved in its pathogenesis and verify their distribution according with the predisposing factors and to determine susceptibility to fluconazole in the samples. METHODS: From March 2006 to April 2007, all patients submitted to esophagogastroduodenoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Recife, PE, Brazil, were eligible for the study. Samples were collected from patients who presented lesions consistent with esophageal candidiasis in order to identify Candida species and verify their susceptibility to fluconazole. The predisposing factors for the occurrence of esophageal candidiasis were described. RESULTS: Of 2,672 patients referred to upper endoscopy at the Digestive Endoscopy Unit, 40 (1.5% had endoscopic findings compatible with esophageal candidiasis. The average age was 49.1 years. Twenty one patients (52.5% were less than 50 years old, of which 82.6% were infected with HIV. Most of them (52.5% were males and 65.0% were inpatients. Diseases were identified in 90% of the patients and 21 (52.5% were HIV positive. Concerning endoscopic findings, severe forms of esophagitis were found in 50% of the patients with CD4 count CONTEXTO: A candidíase esofágica é comumente observada em pacientes com fatores de risco para seu desenvolvimento. OBJETIVOS:Determinar a freqüência da candidíase esofágica, por meio da endoscopia digestiva alta; identificar as espécies de Candida envolvidas na patogênese da candidíase esofágica e sua distribuição de acordo com o fator predisponente; determinar a susceptibilidade ao fluconazol nas amostras coletadas. MÉTODOS: De março de 2006 a abril de 2007, os pacientes submetidos a esofagogastroduodenoscopia no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, PE, foram considerados elegíveis para o estudo. Aqueles que apresentaram lesões compatíveis com candidíase esofágica tiveram amostras coletadas para a identificação das espécies de Candida, de sua sensibilidade ao fluconazol e descritos os fatores de risco para a doença. RESULTADOS: Dos 2.672 pacientes encaminhados para endoscopia, 40 (1,5% apresentaram achados compatíveis com candidíase esofágica. A média de idade foi de 49,1 anos. Vinte e um pacientes (52,5% tinham menos que 50 anos, dos quais 82,6% eram infectados pelo HIV. A maioria (52,5% era homens e 65,0% encontravam-se internados. Fatores predisponentes foram identificados em 90% da amostra, sendo que 21 (52,5% eram HIV positivos. As formas mais graves de esofagite foram encontradas em 50% dos pacientes com CD4 <200. Espécies de Candida não-albicans foram detectadas em 22,7% dos pacientes HIV positivos e em 45% dos pacientes não infectados. A resistência ao fluconazol foi observada em seis amostras (14,28% e a sensibilidade dose-dependente em duas (4,76%. CONCLUSÃO:A prevalência de candidíase esofágica foi baixa, embora dentro de variação esperada. Pacientes homens e que estavam internados foram os mais acometidos. Houve variação nas espécies encontradas, de acordo com as características dos grupos estudados. Tanto a resistência ao fluconazol como a sensibilidade dose-dependente foram consideradas altas.

  13. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  14. A novel gain-of-function STAT1 mutation resulting in basal phosphorylation of STAT1 and increased distal IFN-γ-mediated responses in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    Martinez-Martinez, Laura; Martinez-Saavedra, Maria Teresa; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Barnadas, Maria; Rubiales, Maria Victoria; Noda, Judith; Badell, Isabel; Rodríguez-Gallego, Carlos; Calle-Martin, Oscar de la

    2015-12-01

    Gain-of-function STAT1 mutations have recently been associated with autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The purpose of this study was to characterize the three members of a non-consanguineous family, the father and his two sons, who presented with recurrent oral thrush and ocular candidiasis since early childhood. The three patients had reduced levels of IL-17-producing T cells. This reduction affected specifically IL-17(+)IFN-γ(-) T cells, because the levels of IL-17(+)IFN-γ(+) T cells were similar to controls. We found that PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from the patients did not respond to Candida albicans ex vivo. Moreover, after polyclonal activation, patients' PBMC produced lower levels of IL-17 and IL-6 and higher levels of IL-4 than healthy controls. Genetic analyses showed that the three patients were heterozygous for a new mutation in STAT1 (c.894A>C, p.K298N) that affects a highly conserved residue of the coiled-coil domain of STAT1. STAT1 phosphorylation levels were significantly higher in patients' cells than in healthy controls, both in basal conditions and after IFN-γ stimulation, suggesting a permanent activation of STAT1. Cells from the patients also presented increased IFN-γ-mediated responses measured as MIG and IP-10 production. In conclusion, we report a novel gain-of-function mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT1, which increases STAT1 phosphorylation and impairs IL-17-mediated immunity. The mutation is responsible for CMC in this family with autosomal dominant inheritance of the disease. PMID:26514428

  15. Candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer interned in a university hospital Candidíases em pacientes pediátricos com câncer internados em um hospital universitário

    Ana Maria Rabelo De Carvalho Parahym; Luciana Resende Bandeira de Melo; Vera Lúcia Lins de Morais; Rejane Pereira Neves

    2009-01-01

    Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates), C. parapsilosis (nine isolates), C. guil...

  16. Treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis with anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin and its impact on use and costs - review of the literature

    Wilke MH

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Echinocandins are a relatively new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Currently there are three available agents: caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin. While the individual echinocandin antifungals have a different spectrum of licensed indications, basically all of them are available for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis. Antifungal treatment modalities basically include in therapy for suspected or proven infection and prophylaxis. All three drugs are comparatively expensive. Therefore a systematic review of the literature was performed to investigate the following aspects: • General aspects of cost-effectiveness in the treatment of invasive fungal infections • Cost-effectiveness of the treatment with the above-mentioned antifungals • Cost-effectiveness in two settings: therapy and prophylaxis Early initiation of antifungal therapy, adjustment after availability of microbiological results, duration of therapy, success and occurrence of severe complications (e.g renal failure are the most important cost drivers in antifungal therapy. Considering the specific antifungals, for caspofungin the best evidence for cost-effectiveness is found in treatment of invasive candidiasis and in empiric therapy of suspected infections. Favourable economic data are available for micafungin as a cost-effective alternative to LAmB for prophylaxis in patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. For anidulafungin, cost-effectiveness was demostrated in a pharmacoeconomic model. Net savings - yet not significant - were observed in a retrospective chart review of 234 patients. Generally, however, most analyses are still based on pharmacoeconomic modelling rather than direct analysis of trial data or real-life clinical populations. As an overall conclusion, using caspofungin, micafungin, or anidulafungin is not more expensive than using other established therapies. Micafungin has proven to be cost-effective in prophylaxis if the local fungal epidemiology indicates a high level of resistance to fluconazole. Switch strategies involving early initiation of broadly active therapy with switch to cheaper alternatives according to microbiology results and clinical status and early initiation of an appropriate therapy have been proven to be cost-efficient independent of the antifungal agent.

  17. Avaliao clnica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia j vem sendo utilizada com sucesso h vrios anos. Trata-se de um meio teraputico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicaes alopticas o fato de apresentar reaes adversas mnimas. A Uncaria tomentosa uma planta indgena da floresta Amaznica e de outras reas tropicais da Amrica do Sul e Central. Tem aplicao no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clnico e laboratorialmente a ao do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clnico e laboratorialmente infeco pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as leses na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um perodo de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicao da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Aps o perodo de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliao clnica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofrmaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de no ter provocado reaes adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reaes indesejveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  18. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV Infection: Analysis of Impaired Mucosal Immune Response to Candida albicans in Mice Expressing the HIV-1 Transgene.

    de Repentigny, Louis; Goupil, Mathieu; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2015-01-01

    IL-17-producing Th17 cells are of critical importance in host defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Speculation about defective Th17 responses to oral C. albicans infection in the context of HIV infection prompted an investigation of innate and adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans in transgenic mice expressing the genome of HIV-1 in immune cells and displaying an AIDS-like disease. Defective IL-17 and IL-22-dependent mucosal responses to C. albicans were found to determine susceptibility to OPC in these transgenic mice. Innate phagocytes were quantitatively and functionally intact, and individually dispensable for control of OPC and to prevent systemic dissemination of Candida to deep organs. CD8+ T-cells recruited to the oral mucosa of the transgenic mice limited the proliferation of C. albicans in these conditions of CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Therefore, the immunopathogenesis of OPC in the context of HIV infection involves defective T-cell-mediated immunity, failure of crosstalk with innate mucosal immune effector mechanisms, and compensatory cell responses, which limit Candida infection to the oral mucosa and prevent systemic dissemination. PMID:26110288

  19. Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in HIV Infection: Analysis of Impaired Mucosal Immune Response to Candida albicans in Mice Expressing the HIV-1 Transgene

    Louis de Repentigny

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available IL-17-producing Th17 cells are of critical importance in host defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC. Speculation about defective Th17 responses to oral C. albicans infection in the context of HIV infection prompted an investigation of innate and adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans in transgenic mice expressing the genome of HIV-1 in immune cells and displaying an AIDS-like disease. Defective IL-17 and IL-22-dependent mucosal responses to C. albicans were found to determine susceptibility to OPC in these transgenic mice. Innate phagocytes were quantitatively and functionally intact, and individually dispensable for control of OPC and to prevent systemic dissemination of Candida to deep organs. CD8+ T-cells recruited to the oral mucosa of the transgenic mice limited the proliferation of C. albicans in these conditions of CD4+ T-cell deficiency. Therefore, the immunopathogenesis of OPC in the context of HIV infection involves defective T-cell-mediated immunity, failure of crosstalk with innate mucosal immune effector mechanisms, and compensatory cell responses, which limit Candida infection to the oral mucosa and prevent systemic dissemination.

  20. In vivo analysis of helper T cell responses in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy - candidiasis - ectodermal dystrophy provides evidence in support of an IL-22 defect.

    Laakso, Sini M; Kekäläinen, Eliisa; Heikkilä, Nelli; Mannerström, Helga; Kisand, Kai; Peterson, Pärt; Ranki, Annamari; Arstila, T Petteri

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy - candidiasis - ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene and is associated with neutralizing anti-cytokine autoantibodies. We have used an in vivo challenge model to analyze antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell responses. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated patients and controls were injected tuberculin intradermally, skin blisters were induced by suction on the indurations and on unexposed skin, and the infiltrating cells harvested. The patients had a quantitatively normal CD4(+) T cell response and no significant abnormalities in the expression of T helper type (Th) 1- or Th2-related genes. The expression of interleukin (IL)-22, in contrast, was lower in the patients. Two patients, both with a pre-existing ocular keratopathy, experienced a relapse of keratoconjunctivitis, suggesting a possible immunological basis for this APECED component. Our in vivo data are compatible with a selective IL-22 defect in the activated CD4(+) T cells of APECED patients, affecting also unexposed skin in steady-state conditions. PMID:24957984

  1. A randomized clinical trial of the efficacy and safety of terconazole vaginal suppository versus oral fluconazole for treating severe vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Li, Ting; Zhu, Yuxia; Fan, Shangrong; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Huicong; Liang, Yiheng

    2015-06-01

    Terconazole is a new, broad-spectrum, triazole antifungal agent. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a 6-day course of a terconazole vaginal suppository (80 mg) with two doses of oral fluconazole (150 mg) for the treatment of severe vulvovaginal candidiasis (SVVC). In this prospective, randomized case-control study, 140 consecutive patients with SVVC were enrolled at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from July 1, 2013, through June 31, 2014. Patients with SVVC, initially at a 1:1 ratio, were randomly assigned to receive treatment with either the terconazole vaginal suppository or oral fluconazole. The patients had follow-up visits at 7-14 days and 30-35 days following the last dose of therapy. The clinical cure rates in the terconazole group and the fluconazole group were, respectively, 81.0% (47/58) and 75.8% (50/66) at follow-up day 7-14 and 60.3% (35/58) and 56.1% (37/66) at day 30-35. The mycological cure rates in the two groups were, respectively, 79.3% (46/58) and 71.2% (47/66) at follow-up day 7-14 and 62.1% (36/58) and 53.0% (35/66) at day 30-35 (P > .05 for all). Local irritation was the primary adverse event associated with terconazole, whereas systemic side effects were associated with fluconazole; however, these effects were minimal. This study demonstrated that a terconazole vaginal suppository (80 mg daily for 6 days) was as effective as two dose of oral fluconazole (150 mg) in the treatment of patients with SVVC; as such, terconazole could be a choice for therapy of this disorder. PMID:25877666

  2. Frequncia de leveduras em fluido vaginal de mulheres com e sem suspeita clnica de candidase vulvovaginal Frequency of yeasts in vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion of vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Joo Luciano Andrioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a candidase vulvovaginal em mulheres com e sem suspeita clnica a partir de fluido vaginal, identificando frequncia de Candida spp. e associando a fatores de risco intrnsecos e extrnsecos. MTODOS: foram coletadas 286 amostras de pacientes atendidas em clnicas e postos de sade entre Agosto de 2005 e Agosto de 2007. Foram 121 mulheres com suspeita e 165 sem suspeita clnica. Com zaragatoas estreis, as amostras foram coletadas, transportadas ao laboratrio em soluo fisiolgica 0,85%, semeadas em CHROMagar Candida e em meio gar Sabouraud 4% com cloranfenicol. Foram realizados os procedimentos clssicos para identificao: macro e micromorfologia, zimograma e auxanograma. Os dados obtidos foram analisados atravs de testes de frequncia e tabelas de contingncia (?2. RESULTADOS: Um total de 47,9% das mulheres com suspeita clnica obteve confirmao de candidase pelos exames laboratoriais. Das pacientes sem suspeita clnica (Grupo Controle, 78,2% foram negativas para candidase vulvovaginal pelos testes laboratoriais. Candida albicans foi a espcie prevalente com 74,5% dos casos. Foram encontradas diferenas significativas para os casos positivos, de acordo com as pacientes das duas cidades avaliadas (pPURPOSE: to study vulvovaginal candidiasis from the vaginal fluid of women with and without clinical suspicion, identifying the frequency of Candida spp., and associating it with intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. METHODS: a total of 286 samples from patients attended in private practices and public health units from August 2005 to August 2007 were collected, being 121 women under clinical suspicion and 165, without. The samples were collected with sterile swabs, taken to the laboratory in 0.85% physiological solution, and then seeded in CHROMagar Candida and in 4% agar Sabourad with chloramphenicol. Classical identification procedures were carried out: macro and micromorphology, zymogram and auxanogram. Data obtained were analyzed by frequency tests and contingency tables (?2. RESULTS: a total of 47.9% of the women under clinical suspicion got confirmation of candidiasis by the laboratorial tests. Among the patients without clinical suspicion (Control Group, 78.2% were vulvovaginal candidiasis negative according to the laboratorial tests. Candida albicans was the prevalent strain in 74.5% of the cases. There were significant differences among the positive cases, according to the patients from the two cities evaluated (p<0.05. Clothing was one differential aspect found among the two populations studied. CONCLUSIONS: the presence of predisposing factors does not necessarily define vulvovaginal candidiasis. Geographical localization has shown to be a relevant factor in the distribution of events. The type of clothing may be one of the reasons for it. Culture of samples from the vaginal contents, followed by microorganisms' identification, can be important.

  3. Candidase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulncia das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Cassiana Aparecida lvares

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: Leveduras do gnero Candida so patgenos oportunistas freqentemente isolados das superfcies mucosas de indivduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infeces denominadas candidases, que variam desde leses superficiais at infeces disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidase vulvovaginal (CVV: infeco de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal e candidase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrncia de quatro ou mais episdios de CVV no perodo de 12 meses, bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influncias do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulncia dos agentes causais da infeco, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importncia nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invaso por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicao no canal vaginal favorecida por uma srie de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta reviso. Tambm tem sido postulado que existem diferenas na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., no sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vrios fatores de virulncia tm sido propostos e so descritos. DISCUSSO E CONCLUSES: Este artigo de reviso bibliogrfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da rea da sade em relao a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulncia dos agentes causais, que so pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualizao e o conhecimento de conceitos bsicos e clnicos relacionados com essa patologia so muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da rea.INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae. C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of womens health.

  4. Mild heating of amphotericin B-desoxycholate: effects on ultrastructure, in vitro activity and toxicity, and therapeutic efficacy in severe candidiasis in leukopenic mice.

    van Etten, E W; van Vianen, W; Roovers, P; Frederik, P

    2000-06-01

    Heated (20 min at 70 degrees C) amphotericin B-desoxycholate (hAMB-DOC) was further characterized, as was another formulation obtained after centrifugation (60 min, 3000 x g), hcAMB-DOC. Conventional AMB-DOC consisted of individual micelles (approximately 4 nm in diameter) and threadlike aggregated micelles, as revealed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy. For both hAMB-DOC and hcAMB-DOC, pleiomorphic cobweb structures were observed with a mean particle size of approximately 300 nm as determined by laser diffraction. The potent antifungal activity of AMB-DOC against Candida albicans is not reduced by heating. Effective killing of C. albicans (>99.9% within 6 h) was obtained at 0.1 mg/liter with each of the AMB formulations. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, cation release ((86)Rb(+)) from C. albicans of > or =50% was observed at 0.8, 0.4, and 0.4 mg/liter, respectively. After heating of AMB-DOC, toxicity was reduced 16-fold as determined by red blood cell (RBC) lysis. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, hemolysis of > or =50% was observed at 6.4, 102.4, and 102.4 mg/liter, respectively. In contrast, AMB-DOC and its derivates showed similar toxicities in terms of cation release from RBC. For AMB-DOC, hAMB-DOC, and hcAMB-DOC, cation release ((86)Rb(+)) of > or =50% was observed at 1.6, 0.8, and 0.8 mg/liter, respectively. In persistently leukopenic mice with severe invasive candidiasis, higher dosages of both hAMB-DOC and hcAMB-DOC were tolerated than those of conventional AMB-DOC (3 versus 0.8 mg/kg of body weight, respectively), resulting in significantly improved therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, this new approach of heating AMB-DOC may be of great value for further optimizing the treatment of severe fungal infections. PMID:10817715

  5. Candidase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulncia das leveduras / Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Cassiana Aparecida, lvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet, Svidzinski; Mrcia Edilaine Lopes, Consolaro.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUO: Leveduras do gnero Candida so patgenos oportunistas freqentemente isolados das superfcies mucosas de indivduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infeces denominadas candidases, que variam desde leses superficiais at infeces disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os co [...] nhecimentos sobre candidase vulvovaginal (CVV: infeco de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrncia de quatro ou mais episdios de CVV no perodo de 12 meses), bem como caracterizar e abordar o ponto de vista das influncias do hospedeiro e dos fatores de virulncia dos agentes causais da infeco, principalmente C. albicans, visando identificar a sua importncia nessa patologia. Tanto fatores predisponentes locais como sistmicos do hospedeiro podem contribuir para a invaso por Candida sp. Sua intensa multiplicao no canal vaginal favorecida por uma srie de fatores predisponentes abordados nesta reviso. Tambm tem sido postulado que existem diferenas na patogenicidade de isolados de Candida sp., no sendo o fungo apenas um participante passivo no processo infeccioso; com isso vrios fatores de virulncia tm sido propostos e so descritos. DISCUSSO E CONCLUSES: Este artigo de reviso bibliogrfica buscou atualizar os profissionais da rea da sade em relao a CVV, CVVR, aspectos predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulncia dos agentes causais, que so pouco conhecidos. Assim, a atualizao e o conhecimento de conceitos bsicos e clnicos relacionados com essa patologia so muito importantes para auxiliar o seu manejo pelos profissionais da rea. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulva and vagina infection caused by comensal yeasts that inhabit the vaginal mucosa and eventually become patogenic, depending on host conditions. Eighty percent to 90% of the infections are due to C. albicans, and 10% to 20% to other species called [...] non-C. albicans (C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. lusitaniae). C. glabrata is the second agent in frequency in VVC and yeasts of other genus can also cause this infection, as Saccahromyces cerevisiae, Rhodutorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Besides host inherent factors, it has been postulated that differences exist in the patogenicity of different isolates of Candida sp. The fungus is not a mere passive participant in the infectious process, and a series of virulence factors has been proposed, but little was investigated in VVC. The objective of this work is to enlarge knowledge on VVC and RVVC, as well as to discuss the influences of host and virulence factors, aiming to identify their importance in this pathology. These aspects are of great importance for professionals that act in the area of womens health.

  6. An unusual case: Renal candidiasis; Der besondere Fall: Renale Candidiasis

    Pautz, Doerthe [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2009-03-15

    A 39-year old female patient suffering from congenital spastic tetraparesis, bilateral hip dysplasia and diabetes was hospitalized as an emergency because of violent pains in the right flank which emanated paravertebrally and into the pelvis. There was no fever or ague. The anamnesis included urolithiasis on the right side 5 years ago and an ileum conduit operation after a neurogenic disturbance of micturition 22 years ago. The sonographic pictures indicated no congestion of the kidneys. To exclude urolithiasis, a low-dose CT was carried out, followed by CT after application of a contrast medium. (orig.)

  7. Pulmonary candidiasis presenting as mycetoma

    Bachh Arshad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a saprophytic yeast that is frequently recovered from the respiratory tract. Most mycetoma lesions are due to Aspergillus species growing inside an existing cavity. The saprophytic nature of the Candida species in the human respiratory tract obscures diagnosis of Candida pulmonary infections. Only a few cases of mycetoma due to Can-dida have been reported. We report a case of mycetoma caused by Candida albicans in a diabetic immunocompromised tuberculous patient. Diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy and certain points strongly favoured the diagnosis. The patient was immunocompromised due to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Candida albicans was grown from bronchial and repeatedly from sputum samples and Candida antigen was positive from blood in high titre. There was a good clinical as well as radiological response to antifungal therapy and Candida antigen became negative. We emphasize that in the immunosuppressed host, a mycetoma-like lesion may be caused by Candida pulmonary infection.

  8. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  9. Aphthoid ulcerations in ileocolic candidiasis

    A case of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma complicated by Candida tropicalis ileocolic infection is reported. Candida tropicalis is a saprophytic organism, less abundant in man than the more commonly known Candida albicans. These organisms may be the source of infection in debilitated or immune-deficient patients. A 55-year-old man presented to Emory Hospital 7 months before admission with weight loss. At that time the diagnosis of well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma was made by bone-marrow biopsy

  10. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Children

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  11. Candidíase sistêmica com localização encefálica: estudo anátomo-clínico de cinco casos Septicaemia candidiasis with cerebral involvement: a report of five cases

    Luciano de Souza Queiroz

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Nas septicemias por Candida, a localização encefálica é rara, e apenas quatro casos isolados foram publicados no Brasil. Os AA. apresentam cinco observações anátomo-clínicas de candidíase do sistema nervoso central, diagnosticadas somente pela autópsia. Quatro dos pacientes eram adultos e apenas uma criança foi estudada. Todos eram portadores de uma ou mais doenças de base e foram submetidos à terapêutica antibiótica múltipla e prolongada. Os sintomas neurológicos eventualmente atribuíveis à infecção fúngica limitaram-se a convulsões em um caso e rigidez de nuca em outro. Em nenhum as lesões assumiram gravidade suficiente para serem responsabilizadas como causa imediata da morte. Revelaram-se múltiplas e microscópicas em três pacientes, com caráter exsudativo e granulomatoso; macroscópicas em um caso, com aspecto necro-hemorrágico. Na criança, dois granulomas apenas foram observados. O agente etiológico foi identificado como Candida, nos cortes histológicos, pela técnica de impregnação argêntica de Grocott. Os autores discutem a patogênese e a anatomia patológica da candidíase sistêmica, bem como seu diagnóstico clínico-laboratorial e a terapêutica. Os achados clínicos e an átomo-patológicos dos presentes casos são analisados à luz da literatura, enfatizando que a incidência de monilíase sistêmica no Brasil deve ser muito superior ao sugerido pela escassa casuística nacional.Central nervous system involvement in Candida septicaemia is rare and not more than four cases have been published in Brazil. Five new cases of systemic candidiasis with cerebral lesions are reported. All patients (four adults and a child had serious underlying diseases and were submitted to heavy long-term antibiotic therapy with multiple drugs. Seizures in one case and neck stiffness in another were the only neurologic signs that could be attributed to candidiasis. In no case were the lesions severe enough to be considered an immediate cause of death. In three patients, no macroscopic changes were evident in the brain, but microabscesses and granulomata were observed on microscopical examination; another patient had two gross areas with necrotic and haemorrhagic appearance in the cerebral hemispheres; the child had only two microscopic granulomata. The aetiological agent was demonstrated by Grocott's methenamine silver technique in all cases. Involvement of organs other than the central nervous system could be demonstrated in three autopsies. Discussion is confined mainly to such aspects as the contributory factors in the pathogenesis of systemic candidiasis as well as the marked rise in the incidence of this condition in the past few decades. It is suggested that the frequence of monilial septicaemia in Brazil may be far more serious than apparent from the scarcity of reported cases.

  12. Candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer interned in a university hospital Candidíases em pacientes pediátricos com câncer internados em um hospital universitário

    Ana Maria Rabelo De Carvalho Parahym

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are common causes of infection in immunocompromised patients. Candida species are frequently involved in these cases. In order to investigate candidiasis in pediatric patients with cancer, clinical samples were collected from one hundred and twenty two patients interned in the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital in Recife, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated from thirty-four clinical samples. The species isolated were: Candida albicans (fourteen isolates, C. parapsilosis (nine isolates, C. guilliermondii (two isolates and C. tropicalis (two isolates. We found that candidemia was most frequent in patients with malignant hematology and that C. parapsilosis infections caused the highest mortality.Os fungos são causas comuns de infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos e espécies de Candida são freqüentemente envolvidas nesses casos. A fim de investigar infecção fúngica em pacientes pediátricos com câncer, amostras clínicas foram coletadas de cento e vinte dois pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz em Recife, Brasil. Leveduras foram isoladas de trinta e quatro amostras clínicas. As leveduras isoladas foram: Candida albicans (catorze isolados, C. parapsilosis (nove isolados, C. guilliermondii (dois isolados e C. tropicalis (dois isolados. Descobrimos que candidemia foi mais freqüente em doentes com hematologias malignas e que C. parapsilosis apresentou maior mortalidade.

  13. An Evaluation of Theraphy with Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets Compared to Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets Plus Dermoxen Lenitiva Cream in The Time to Reduce Simptomatology in Women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Davide Carati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Authors investigated first of all the time to onset of first relief of symptoms. Secondary measures included the time to overall relief of symptoms and the reoccurrence rate over the first 45 days after the first visit. Methods. A randomized, open-label, parallel study evaluated 47 women with moderate to severe symptoms of Vulvo Vaginal Candidiasis (VVC. Patients were divided into two groups of treatment: group 1 followed a therapy with Fluconazole 150 mg tablets, while group 2 had a therapy based on Fluconazole 150 mg tablets coadjuvated by Dermoxen Lenitiva cream. Results. The time at which 50% of patients experienced first relief of symptoms was 24.6 hours for Group 1, while for Group 2 it was 12.4 hours (P<0.05. There were significant differences between the two groups in respect to the time of first relief of symptoms and reoccurrence of infection within 45 days of treatment. Conclusions. Combined treatment with Fluconazole 150 mg tablets and by Dermoxen Lenitiva cream provides statistically significant improvement in the time of first relief of symptoms, complete relief of symptoms and relapse time in the treatment of VVC compared to fluconazole 150 mg tablets only.

  14. Glossite rombide mediana associada a candidase esofagiana: uma possvel relao etiolgica com a Candida albicans Median rhomboid glossitis associated with esophagic candidiasis: a possible etiologic relation with Candida albicans

    Rubens Marcelo Souza Leite

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A glossite rombide mediana doena inflamatria que ocorre na superfcie da lngua. Apresenta-se como placa avermelhada ou vermelho-esbranquiada no dorso da lngua, na localizao mediana. A etiologia desconhecida. Acredita-se que possa haver relao com a m formao dos arcos branquiais durante a embriognese. Fatores infecciosos relacionados Candida albicans tambm so aventados. Os autores apresentam o caso clnico de uma paciente de 60 anos, com glossite rombide mediana associada a esofagite candidisica, ambas responsivas ao tratamento com itraconazol e fluconazol oral. Discute-se se a cndida no seria um dos fatores implicados na etiologia da doena lingual.Median rhomboid glossitis is an inflammatory disease involving the surface of the tongue. It develops clinically as an erythematous or white-erythematous area on the dorsal median surface of the tongue. Etiologic factors are unknown. One of the possible etiologic theories suggests a relation between median rhomboid glossitis and malformation of bronchial arches during embriogenesis. Candida albicans as an infectious etiologic factor has also been suggested. The study presents the case of a 60-year-old patient with median rhomboid glossitis associated with esophagic candidiasis. Both pathologies responded well to therapy with oral itraconazole and fluconazole. The authors argue in favor of the possibility of an etiologic relation between Candida albicans and median rhomboid glossitis .

  15. A prospective two-year assessment of miconazole resistance in Candida spp. With repeated treatment with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment in neonates and infants with moderate to severe diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis.

    Blanco, Daisy; van Rossem, Koen

    2013-01-01

    A petrolatum and zinc oxide-based ointment containing 0.25% miconazole nitrate is reported to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of diaper dermatitis complicated by cutaneous candidiasis (DDCC). This prospective, multicenter, open-label, long-term, phase IV study investigated the potential resistance of Candida spp. to repeated topical use of 0.25% miconazole nitrate in infants age 15months and younger with moderate to severe DDCC. For initial and recurring episodes of DDCC over the 2-year study period, subjects were treated with a 7-day course of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment (active components: miconazole nitrate 0.25%, zinc oxide 15%, and white petrolatum 81.35%) with a 7-day follow-up. Clinical and mycologic evaluations were conducted before treatment (day 0) and 7days after treatment (day 14). Potential resistance to miconazole was defined using an arbitrary breakpoint of minimum inhibitory concentration of 2?g/mL. There was no evidence of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. after single or repeated treatment courses of 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment. For the initial episode of DDCC, 83 of 168 subjects (49.4%) achieved a clinical cure, 77 (45.8%) achieved a mycologic cure, and 49 (29.2%) achieved an overall cure (clinical and mycologic). The overall cure rate for recurrent episodes of DDCC was similar to or numerically greater than rates observed for the initial episode. Treatment of DDCC with 0.25% miconazole nitrate ointment was effective and generally well tolerated. No evidence of the development of resistance to miconazole in Candida spp. was observed. PMID:23675632

  16. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: characterization of a family with STAT-1 gain-of-function and development of an ex-vivo assay for Th17 deficiency of diagnostic utility.

    Dhalla, F; Fox, H; Davenport, E E; Sadler, R; Anzilotti, C; van Schouwenburg, P A; Ferry, B; Chapel, H; Knight, J C; Patel, S Y

    2016-05-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent and persistent superficial infections, with Candida albicans affecting the mucous membranes, skin and nails. It can be acquired or caused by primary immune deficiencies, particularly those that impair interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 immunity. We describe a single kindred with CMC and the identification of a STAT1 GOF mutation by whole exome sequencing (WES). We show how detailed clinical and immunological phenotyping of this family in the context of WES has enabled revision of disease status and clinical management. Together with analysis of other CMC cases within our cohort of patients, we used knowledge arising from the characterization of this family to develop a rapid ex-vivo screening assay for the detection of T helper type 17 (Th17) deficiency better suited to the routine diagnostic setting than established in-vitro techniques, such as intracellular cytokine staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using cell culture supernatants. We demonstrate that cell surface staining of unstimulated whole blood for CCR6(+) CXCR3(-) CCR4(+) CD161(+) T helper cells generates results that correlate with intracellular cytokine staining for IL-17A, and is able to discriminate between patients with molecularly defined CMC and healthy controls with 100% sensitivity and specificity within the cohort tested. Furthermore, removal of CCR4 and CD161 from the antibody staining panel did not affect assay performance, suggesting that the enumeration of CCR6(+) CXCR3(-) CD4(+) T cells is sufficient for screening for Th17 deficiency in patients with CMC and could be used to guide further investigation aimed at identifying the underlying molecular cause. PMID:26621323

  17. Vaginal Epithelial Cell-Derived S100 Alarmins Induced by Candida albicans via Pattern Recognition Receptor Interactions Are Sufficient but Not Necessary for the Acute Neutrophil Response during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Yano, Junko; Palmer, Glen E.; Eberle, Karen E.; Peters, Brian M.; Vogl, Thomas; McKenzie, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects women worldwide. Animal and clinical studies suggest that the immunopathogenic inflammatory condition of VVC is initiated by S100 alarmins in response to C. albicans, which stimulate polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration to the vagina. The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. For the former, PMN migration was evaluated in vitro or in vivo in the presence or absence of S100 alarmins initiated by several approaches. For the latter, vaginal epithelial cells were evaluated for PRR expression and C. albicans-induced S100A8 and S100A9 mRNAs, followed by evaluation of the PMN response in inoculated PRR-deficient mice. Results revealed that, consistent with previously reported in vitro data, eukaryote-derived S100A8, but not prokaryote-derived recombinant S100A8, induced significant PMN chemotaxis in vivo. Conversely, a lack of biologically active S100A8 alarmin, achieved by antibody neutralization or by using S100A9?/? mice, had no effect on the PMN response in vivo. In PRR analyses, whereas Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and SIGNR1-deficient vaginal epithelial cells showed a dramatic reduction in C. albicans-induced S100A8/S100A9 mRNAs in vitro, inoculated mice deficient in these PRRs showed PMN migration similar to that in wild-type controls. These results suggest that S100A8 alarmin is sufficient, but not necessary, to induce PMN migration during VVC and that the vaginal PMN response to C. albicans involves PRRs in addition to SIGNR1 and TLR4, or other induction pathways. PMID:24478092

  18. An Evaluation of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Site Release® Vaginal Cream (Gynazole-1® Compared to Fluconazole 150 mg Tablets (Diflucan® in the Time to Relief of Symptoms in Patients With Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Campbell K. Skokos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is estimated that as many as 13 million cases of vulvovaginal infection occur in the United States annually, the majority of which are the result of Candida albicans infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal infections are often painful and distressing to the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the time to symptomatic relief of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC with butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release® vaginal cream (Gynazole-1® and oral fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan®.

  19. Chronic candidiasis - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

    Klajn-Laslo Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast named Candida normally colonizes the gut and vagina without causing any sign of its presence. It is a commensal and opportune fungus but in certain conditions it turns to be pathogenic, causing chronic disturbances in any part of the body. The pathogenesis is complex, signs and symptoms are non-specific. The colonisation is difficult to distinguish from invasive disease. The current diagnostic methods do not always allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Treatment is complex, individual and no protocol can be created. The author tries to give an overview of the Candida related problem.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis

    Warrier, S. Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV ...

  1. Chronic candidiasis - pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

    Klajn-Laslo Marija

    2009-01-01

    The yeast named Candida normally colonizes the gut and vagina without causing any sign of its presence. It is a commensal and opportune fungus but in certain conditions it turns to be pathogenic, causing chronic disturbances in any part of the body. The pathogenesis is complex, signs and symptoms are non-specific. The colonisation is difficult to distinguish from invasive disease. The current diagnostic methods do not always allow a definitive diagnosis to be made. Treatment is complex, indiv...

  2. Candidíase oral e leucoplasia pilosa como marcadores de progressão da infecção pelo HIV em pacientes brasileiros Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia as progression markers of HIV infection in Brazilian patients

    Ivan Dieb Miziara

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidíase oral (CO e leucoplasia pilosa (LP são importantes indicadores da progressão da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV para o quadro de AIDS, principalmente em locais onde exames específicos são inacessíveis. OBJETO: Relacionar CO e LP ao número de células CD4+ e à carga viral (CV em pacientes brasileiros HIV-positivos, confirmando-as como marcadores clínicos confiáveis de progressão da doença. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte longitudinal. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Avaliamos prospectivamente 124 pacientes HIV-positivos, isentos de terapia antiretroviral. Todos foram submetidos a exame ORL, dosagem de células CD4+ e CV, sendo divididos em dois grupos: P e A, de acordo com a presença ou ausência de CO e LP. Depois de seis meses, os pacientes do grupo A foram subdivididos nos subgrupos P6 (presença de lesões e A6. Dosamos novamente CD4+ e carga viral. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: No grupo P (43 pacientes, 28 CO e 15 LP a contagem de células CD4+ foi menor e a carga viral maior em relação ao grupo A (pOral candidiasis (OC and hairy leukoplakia (HL are important markers of HIV (Human Imunodeficiency syndrome infection progression for AIDS, mainly in locals where specific tests are inacessible. AIM: to intertwine OC and HL to CD4+ counting and to viral charge (VC on HIV positive brazilian patients, confirming them as trustworthy clinical markers of the disease progression. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: we have prospectively evaluated 124 HIV+ patients not in use of antiretroviral therapy. All of them have undertaken otorrhinolaringologic examination and CD4+ and VC counting, being divided in two groups: P and A, accordingly to presence or absence of OC and HL. After six months, patients belonging to the A group were re-divided on groups P6 (presence of lesions and A6 (absence of lesions. Again, CD4+ and VC were counted. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: on the P group, (43 patients, 28 OC, 15 HL the CD4+ counting was smaller with greater viral charge when compared to A group (P<0.001. After 6 months, 15 of the 81 patients from the A group were excluded as they have initiated antiretroviral therapy. Eighteen patients (11 OC and 7 HL were included on the P6 group. The others, who were free of lesions, were allocated on the A6 group. Again, CD4+ counting on the P6 group was smaller compared to the A6 group (P<0.001. The opposite occurred to the viral charge. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: OC and HL indicate CD4+ counting below 300 cells/mm³ and increased VC, thus being trustable clinical markers of the disease progression.

  3. Blastomycosis

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  4. Treatment for Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

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  5. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

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  6. Symptoms of Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

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  7. Medications that Weaken Your Immune System and Fungal Infections

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  8. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

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  9. Sporotrichosis

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  10. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

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  11. Symptoms of Aspergillosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  12. Histoplasmosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  13. Histoplasmosis Risk and Prevention

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  14. Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  15. Histoplasmosis Statistics

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  16. Treatment and Outcomes of Aspergillosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  17. Treatment and Outcomes of Histoplasmosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  18. Fungal Diseases

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  19. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

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  20. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  1. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  2. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  3. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

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  4. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

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  5. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Statistics

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  6. Risk and Prevention of Aspergillosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  7. Mucormycosis (Zygomycosis)

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  8. Aspergillosis

    ... Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis Treatment Statistics Healthcare Professionals ...

  9. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidase vulvovaginal / IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Ricardo Jos Victal de, Carvalho; Cristiane Martins, Cunha; Deise Aparecida de Oliveira, Silva; Mnica Camargo, Sopelete; Jane Eire, Urzedo; Tomaz Aquino, Moreira; Paula de Souza Abreu, Moraes; Ernesto Akio, Taketomi.

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar nveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) especficos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatognese desta doena. MTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sint [...] omas clnicos de candidase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreo vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida no-albicans) e 12 mulheres controles assintomticas (nove com cultura negativa). Amostras de soro e lavado vaginal foram obtidas para a deteco de anticorpos anti-C. albicans por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Pacientes sintomticas com cultura positiva apresentaram nveis de IgA especficas significativamente maiores no lavado vaginal e menores no soro do que aquelas com cultura negativa. Nveis sricos de IgE especfica foram extremamente baixos em relao ao lavado vaginal. Altos nveis de IgG total especfica foram encontrados no soro e lavado vaginal em ambos os grupos, independente da presena do fungo. Nveis de IgG1 e IgG4 especficas foram significativamente maiores somente no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomticas e cultura positiva, com relao IgG1/IgG4 ligeiramente maior, indicando que a resposta de anticorpos IgG1 possa estar predominantemente envolvida na resoluo da infeco fngica. CONCLUSES: Nossos resultados indicam resposta acentuada de IgA, IgG1 e IgG4 anti-C. albicans no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomticas com cultura positiva, sugerindo importante papel destes anticorpos na resposta imune local estimulada pela presena do fungo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) antibodies specific to C. albicans in serum and vaginal washes from women with or without vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to evaluate the role of these antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Thirty [...] women with clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (15 positive vaginal culture to C. albicans, 11 negative culture and 4 positive culture to non-C. albicans) and 12 asymptomatic control women were selected. Serum and vaginal wash samples were obtained for the detection of anti-C. albicans antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Symptomatic patients with positive culture showed significantly higher levels of specific IgA in vaginal washes and lower in serum than those with negative culture. Specific serum IgE levels were very low compared to vaginal IgE. High levels of total specific IgG were found in serum and vaginal washes in both groups, regardless the fungal presence or absence. Specific IgG1 e IgG4 levels were significantly higher only in vaginal washes from symptomatic patients with positive culture, with a slightly higher IgG1/IgG4 ratio, indicating that the IgG1 antibody response may be predominantly involved in the fungal clearance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a pronounced antibody response of IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 to C. albicans in vaginal washes in symptomatic patients with positive culture, suggesting a important role of these antibodies in the local immune response triggered by the presence of the fungus.

  10. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Ricardo José Victal de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar níveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4 específicos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidíase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sintomas clínicos de candidíase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreção vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida não-albicans e 12 mulheres controles assintomáticas (nove com cultura negativa. Amostras de soro e lavado vaginal foram obtidas para a detecção de anticorpos anti-C. albicans por ELISA. RESULTADOS: Pacientes sintomáticas com cultura positiva apresentaram níveis de IgA específicas significativamente maiores no lavado vaginal e menores no soro do que aquelas com cultura negativa. Níveis séricos de IgE específica foram extremamente baixos em relação ao lavado vaginal. Altos níveis de IgG total específica foram encontrados no soro e lavado vaginal em ambos os grupos, independente da presença do fungo. Níveis de IgG1 e IgG4 específicas foram significativamente maiores somente no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas e cultura positiva, com relação IgG1/IgG4 ligeiramente maior, indicando que a resposta de anticorpos IgG1 possa estar predominantemente envolvida na resolução da infecção fúngica. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados indicam resposta acentuada de IgA, IgG1 e IgG4 anti-C. albicans no lavado vaginal de mulheres sintomáticas com cultura positiva, sugerindo importante papel destes anticorpos na resposta imune local estimulada pela presença do fungo.PURPOSE: To determine the levels of IgA, IgE, IgG and subclasses (IgG1, IgG4 antibodies specific to C. albicans in serum and vaginal washes from women with or without vulvovaginal candidiasis in order to evaluate the role of these antibodies in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Thirty women with clinical symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (15 positive vaginal culture to C. albicans, 11 negative culture and 4 positive culture to non-C. albicans and 12 asymptomatic control women were selected. Serum and vaginal wash samples were obtained for the detection of anti-C. albicans antibodies by ELISA. RESULTS: Symptomatic patients with positive culture showed significantly higher levels of specific IgA in vaginal washes and lower in serum than those with negative culture. Specific serum IgE levels were very low compared to vaginal IgE. High levels of total specific IgG were found in serum and vaginal washes in both groups, regardless the fungal presence or absence. Specific IgG1 e IgG4 levels were significantly higher only in vaginal washes from symptomatic patients with positive culture, with a slightly higher IgG1/IgG4 ratio, indicating that the IgG1 antibody response may be predominantly involved in the fungal clearance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a pronounced antibody response of IgA, IgG1 and IgG4 to C. albicans in vaginal washes in symptomatic patients with positive culture, suggesting a important role of these antibodies in the local immune response triggered by the presence of the fungus.

  11. Immunopathogenesis of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    de Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases remain significant causes of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, despite the dramatic ability of antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immunity. Notable advances have been achieved in understanding, at the molecular level, the relationships between the progression of HIV infection, the acquisition, maintenance, and clonality of oral candidal populations, and the emergence of antifungal resistance. However, the critical i...

  12. Urinoma and arterial hypertension complicating neonatal renal candidiasis

    During antibiotic treatment for E.coli urinary tract infection and meningitis, a male new born developed a Candida albicans urinary tract infection with a mycotic kidney abcess and pelvicalyceal fungus balls diagnosed by US investigations and confirmed by radiology. Three weeks later a perirenal urinoma with arterial hypertension developed. After surgical treatment of the urinoma the arterial pressure returned to normal. (orig.)

  13. EVALUATION OF CERTAIN SIDDHA DRUGS IN THE TREATMENT OF CANDIDIASIS

    Suresh, B; Kalyanaraman, V.R.; Dhanashekaran, S.; Dhanraj, S.A.; Dube, Rajeev

    1994-01-01

    Search for naturally occurring compounds with antifungal activity has become quite intense due to the side effects of synthetic fungicides and the development of pathogens against such fungicides. Hence screening of various Siddha drugs for their antifungal activity against various strains of Candida albicans was considered worthwhile. Seven such Siddha drugs were screened for their antifungal activity against fourteen strains of Candida albicans . The results indicate that the drugs Nandhi m...

  14. Role of posaconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis

    Voichita Ianas; Kathryn R Matthias; Klotz, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Voichita Ianas1, Kathryn R Matthias2, Stephen A Klotz11Section of Infectious Diseases and Department of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USAAbstract: Posaconazole is the newest azole antifungal approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and possesses a broad spectrum of activity against numerous yeasts and filamentous fungi. It is available as an oral suspension and is generally well tolerated by patients, but gastrointestinal absorption is sometime...

  15. Indicacin de nuevos antimicticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva

    Moiss Morejn Garca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminacin en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresin propia del paciente en estado crtico, unido a la aplicacin de determinados procedimientos traumticos -- catteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilacin, intervenciones quirrgicas abdominales, nutricin parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infeccin. Al respecto, se est empleando una gama de nuevos antimicticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creacin de protocolos teraputicos puede disminuir el ndice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones

  16. Tuberculosis of gallbladder with candidiasis, a rare entity.

    Leong, B D K; Chan, K W; Ramu, P; Kumar, V M; Chuah, J A

    2011-06-01

    Gallbladder tuberculosis (GT) is an extremely rare condition. This is thought to be due to the protective property of bile against the infection. Clinical and radiological diagnosis of GT is difficult. We describe a case of GT who initially presented to us with jaundice, a right hypochondrial mass and computed tomographic findings suggestive of gallbladder empyema. Diagnosis was made from histopathological examination of the resected gallbladder which revealed epitheloid granulomas with caseating necrosis and presence of Langhan's giant cells. From a literature search and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first GT to be reported in South East Asia. PMID:22106698

  17. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medelln / Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medelln

    Clara Mara, Duque; Olga Luca, Uribe; Andrs Felipe, Soto; Juan, Alarcn.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogno favorecen la colonizacin y la infeccin vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del gnero Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres emb [...] arazadas de la ciudad de Medelln y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifngicos. Materiales y mtodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medelln, en el perodo de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determin la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificacin de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determin la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el mtodo comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenci crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho mtodo, se les realiz antibiograma por los mtodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilucin M27-A y mtodo de difusin en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%). Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se hall resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura ms frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patgenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la poblacin estudiada, las levaduras del gnero Candida son an ampliamente sensibles a los antifngicos. Se recomienda la identificacin de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla teraputica y en infecciones recidivantes. Abstract in english During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medelln and to test their sensitivit [...] y to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%). All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  18. Indicacin de nuevos antimicticos en pacientes con candidiasis invasiva / Prescription of new antifungal drugs in patients with invasive candidiasis

    Moiss, Morejn Garca.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones micticas invasivas han alcanzado tal importante diseminacin en las unidades de cuidados intensivos, que hoy constituyen la cuarta causa de infecciones adquiridas en este servicio, con una mortalidad de hasta 50 %. La inmunodepresin propia del paciente en estado crtico, unido a la [...] aplicacin de determinados procedimientos traumticos -- catteres, sondas, endoscopias, ventilacin, intervenciones quirrgicas abdominales, nutricin parenteral, entre otros --, predisponen a la infeccin. Al respecto, se est empleando una gama de nuevos antimicticos (triazoles y equiniocandinas) en el tratamiento de pacientes con micosis invasivas, sobre la base de que la creacin de protocolos teraputicos puede disminuir el ndice de mortalidad por dichas afecciones Abstract in english The invasive fungal infections have reached such an important dissemination in the intensive care units that today they constitute the fourth cause of acquired infections in this service, with a mortality of up to 50%. The immunodepression characteristic of the patient in critical state, together to [...] the application of certain traumatic procedures -- catheters, probes, endoscopies, ventilation, abdominal surgical interventions, parenteral nutrition, among other --, predispose to the infection. In this respect, a range of new antifungal drugs are being used (triazoles and equiniocandines) in the treatment of patients with invasive mycosis, on the base that the creation of therapeutic protocols can decrease the mortality index caused by these disorders

  19. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Humberto Fabio Boatto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% e C. guilliermondii (2,5% foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal.PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids, diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% and C. guilliermondii (2,5% were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  20. Candidiasis vulvovaginal en un grupo mujeres gestantes de Medellín Vulvovaginal candidiasis in a group of pregnant women from Medellín

    Clara María Duque

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En la mujer embarazada, factores como la carga hormonal y los altos niveles de glucogéno favorecen la colonización y la infección vaginal por levaduras. Objetivo. Determinar la prevalencia de levaduras del género Candida, aisladas de muestras de flujo vaginal de un grupo de mujeres embarazadas de la ciudad de Medellín y evaluar la sensibilidad a los antifúngicos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 300 mujeres gestantes que acudieron a los programas de control prenatal de diferentes IPS de Medellín, en el período de febrero de 2006 a junio de 2007. Se determinó la prevalencia de Candida spp. mediante cultivo e identificación de las levaduras obtenidas, y se determinó la sensibilidad a fluconazol e itraconazol por el método comercial del ATB fungus. A las cepas en las que se evidenció crecimiento residual en fluconazol por dicho método, se les realizó antibiograma por los métodos avalados por el Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI microdilución M27-A y método de difusión en disco M-44P. Resultados. La prevalencia de Candida spp. fue de 33,3% (C. albicans, 77%; C. parapsilosis, 11%; C. tropicalis, 5%; C. glabrata, 3%; C. guillermondii, 2%; C. kefyr, 1%, y C. famata, 1%. Todos los aislamientos mostraron sensibilidad al fluconazol. Se halló resistencia al itraconazol en 9% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y en 100% de los de C. glabrata. El 2,5% de los aislamientos de C. albicans y el 100% de los de C. kefyr resultaron sensibles dependiente de la dosis a dicho antifúngico. Conclusiones. C. albicans fue la levadura más frecuentemente aislada de flujo vaginal, seguida por patógenos emergentes, como C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. En la población estudiada, las levaduras del género Candida son aún ampliamente sensibles a los antifúngicos. Se recomienda la identificación de la levadura a nivel de especie y hacer pruebas de sensibilidad en el caso de falla terapéutica y en infecciones recidivantes.During pregnancy, risk factors such as the high hormonal load and high levels of glucogen allow vaginal colonization and infection by yeasts. Objective: To determine the prevalence of Candida spp. isolated from samples of vaginal discharge from pregnant women in Medellín and to test their sensitivity to antimycotic agents. Materials and methods: Descriptive study in which 300 pregnant women were tested between February 2006 to June 2007. The prevalence of Candida spp. was determined by culture, the yeasts were identified, and the sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole was determined by the ATB fungus method; the strains with residual growth in fluconazole by such method were submitted to antibiogram by the methods approved by the CLSI. Results: The prevalence of Candida spp. was 33.3% (C. albicans, 77%. All the isolations showed sensitivity to fluconazole. Resistance to itraconazole was found in 9% of C. albicans isolates, and in 100% of C. glabrata; 2.5% of the isolates of C. albicans and 100% of C. kefyr resulted sensitive dose-dependent to such antymicotyc. Conclusions: C. albicans was the yeast most frequently isolated from vaginal discharge, followed by emergent pathogens such as C. parasilopsis and C. tropicalis. In the studied population, yeasts from the Candida gender were still very sensitive to antimycotic agets. It is recommended to identify the yeast to its gender and to perform sensitivity tests in case of therapeutic failure or in recurrent infections.

  1. Gastrointestinal candidiasis in a murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

    Narayanan, R.; Joyce, W A; Greenfield, R A

    1991-01-01

    A murine model of severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (scid mice) affords an opportunity to study the interaction of Candida albicans with a host lacking functional B- and T-cell mechanisms. We have previously reported no significant difference in yeast recovery after intravenous challenge of BALB/c mice and scid mice with C. albicans (S. Mahanty, R.A. Greenfield, W.A. Joyce, and P.W. Kincade, Infect. Immun. 56:3162-3166, 1988). In this study, we evaluate the course of gastrointestinal ...

  2. In Vivo Analysis of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Expression in Human Oral Candidiasis

    Naglik, Julian R.; Newport, George; White, Theodore C.; Fernandes-Naglik, Lynette L.; Greenspan, John S.; Greenspan, Deborah; Sweet, Simon P.; Challacombe, Stephen J; Agabian, Nina

    1999-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases are putative virulence factors in Candida infections. Candida albicans possesses at least nine members of a SAP gene family, all of which have been sequenced. Although the expression of the SAP genes has been extensively characterized under laboratory growth conditions, no studies have analyzed in detail the in vivo expression of these proteinases in human oral colonization and infection. We have developed a reliable and sensitive procedure to detect C. albicans ...

  3. Invasive candidiasis in liver transplant patients: Incidence and risk factors in a pediatric cohort.

    De Luca, M; Green, M; Symmonds, J; Klieger, S B; Soltys, K; Fisher, B T

    2016-03-01

    Prolonged OR, re-transplantation, and high-volume intraoperative transfusion have been associated with increased risk for IC in adult LT recipients. Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for adult patients with these risk factors. There are limited data on the incidence of and risk factors for IC in pediatric LT recipients. A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric LT patients at the CHOP between 2000 and 2012 and the CHP between 2004 and 2012 was performed to define the incidence of IC within 30 days of LT. A 3:1 matched case-control study with incidence density sampling was performed. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to explore risk factors associated with IC. Among 397 recipients, the incidence of IC was 2.5%. Bivariate analyses showed that ICU admission prior to transplant, OR > 10 h, intraoperative volume infusion of >300 mL/kg, and broad-spectrum antibiotics were significantly associated with IC. In a multivariate model, only ICU admission remained significantly associated with IC. Antifungal prophylaxis was not significantly protective against IC. The low incidence of IC and lack of an identified protective effect from antifungal prophylaxis suggest that prophylaxis in pediatric LT recipients should not be routinely recommended to prevent IC events in the first 30 days post-transplant. PMID:26748472

  4. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Subramanion L. Jothy; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the mo...

  5. Exploration of the anticandidal mechanism of Cassia spectabilis in debilitating candidiasis.

    Torey, Angeline; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Dharmaraj, Saravanan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent. PMID:26870686

  6. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intraarterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: Yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-Candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect within the pulmonary artery showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic Candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive. (orig.)

  7. Nosocomial candidiasis in Rio de Janeiro State: Distribution and fluconazole susceptibility profile

    Paulo Murillo, Neufeld; Marcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; Marcos Dornelas, Ribeiro; Efignia de Lourdes Teixeira, Amorim; Manuela da, Silva; Marcia dos Santos, Lazra.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-one Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2002 to 2007, were analized in order to evaluate the distribution and susceptibility of these species to fluconazole. Candida albicans was the most frequent species ( [...] 45.4%), followed by C. parapsilosis sensu lato (28.4%), C. tropicalis (14.2%), C. guilliermondii (6.4%), C. famata (2.8%), C. glabrata (1.4%), C. krusei (0.7%) and C. lambica (0.7%). The sources of fungal isolates were blood (47.5%), respiratory tract (17.7%), urinary tract (16.3%), skin and mucous membrane (7.1%), catheter (5.6%), feces (2.1%) and mitral valve tissue (0.7%). The susceptibility test was performed using the methodology of disk-diffusion in agar as recommended in the M44-A2 Document of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The majority of the clinical isolates (97.2%) was susceptible (S) to fluconazole, although three isolates (2.1%) were susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and one of them (0.7%) was resistant (R). The S-DD isolates were C. albicans, C. parapsilosis sensu lato and C. tropicalis. One isolate of C. krusei was resistant to fluconazole. This work documents the high susceptibility to fluconazole by Candida species isolated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. Resistance mechanisms in fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates from vaginal candidiasis.

    Cernicka, Jana; Subik, Julius

    2006-05-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently identified yeast species causing mycotic vaginitis. A significant number of vaginal yeast isolates are resistant to azole antifungal agents in vitro. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of resistance in 22 randomly selected fluconazole-resistant vaginal C. albicans isolates. Twelve isolates in this collection were found to be cross-resistant to itraconazole and 15 to voriconazole. Most of them also displayed decreased susceptibility to terbinafine. Northern blot analyses revealed overexpression of the MDR1 gene in all isolates, which in some isolates was accompanied by elevated levels of CDR1/CDR2 and ERG11 expression. Sequence analysis of the polymerase chain reaction-amplified ERG11 gene of selected azole-resistant isolates identified D116E and V488I amino acid alterations in Erg11p that are known to be conserved in fluconazole-resistant strains. The results demonstrate that decreased susceptibilities of vaginal yeast isolates to clinically used azole derivatives are the result of a combination of several molecular mechanisms involving drug efflux and alterations in the structure or cellular amount of 14-alpha-lanosterol demethylase. PMID:16621465

  9. Gene Polymorphisms in Pattern Recognition Receptors and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    MartinJaeger

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion. Genetic variation in TLR2 may significantly enhance susceptibility to RVVC by modulating host defense mechanisms against Candida. Additional studies are warranted to assess systematically the role of host genetic variation for susceptibility to RVVC.

  10. Eucalyptus globulus (Eucalyptus) Treatment of Candidiasis in Normal and Diabetic Rats

    Bokaeian, Mohammad; Nakhaee, Alireza; Moodi, Bita; Ali Khazaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Background: The leaves of Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus) are used for treatment of diabetes mellitus in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of eucalyptus in treatment of established systemic infection with Candida albicans in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Sixty normoglycemic male Wistar rats, weighing 200-250 g, were selected and randomly divided into six groups (n= 10): normal control, control + C. albicans, control + eu...

  11. Diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis by measurement of urine D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratio.

    Lehtonen, L; Anttila, V J; Ruutu, T; Salonen, J; Nikoskelainen, J; Eerola, E; Ruutu, P

    1996-01-01

    Relative amounts of D-arabinitol (fungal origin) and L-arabinitol (part of normal human metabolism) in urine were determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry from 61 hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies. Seventeen neutropenic patients with acute leukemia (with 53 samples) had disseminated yeast infections and received empiric antifungal therapy before confirmation of the diagnosis. Control groups consisted of 22 hematologic patients (76 samples) with either mucosal (n = 10) or urinary (n = 12) Candida colonization and 22 neutropenic patients (34 samples) with no clinical or laboratory signs of invasive yeast infection. Reference values were also obtained from 50 healthy adults (50 samples). The mean urine D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratio +/- standard deviation (range) was 16.91 +/- 41.79 (1.41 to 254.75) in patients with disseminated infection, 2.73 +/- 2.48 (1.11 to 19.00) in colonized hematologic patients, 2.12 +/- 0.84 (1.16 to 5.84) in neutropenic controls, and 1.95 +/- 0.34 (0.97 to 3.44) in healthy adults (P < 0.001 between patients with disseminated infection and all control groups). The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting disseminated yeast infection were, respectively, 88 and 91% per patient (upper limit of normal, 4.00). Seventy-one percent of patients already expressed elevated values at the onset of empiric antifungal therapy. The diagnosis of disseminated infection was confirmed on average 21.7 days after the first elevation of the D-arabinitol/L-arabinitol ratio. The method contributes to diagnosis of disseminated yeast infection and helps in monitoring patients at risk, to support the initiation of antifungal therapy at an early stage of the disease. PMID:8862580

  12. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    Luciana Basili Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 160 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei analyzed.

  13. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  14. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites

  15. How Chemotherapy Increases the Risk of Systemic Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Current Paradigm and Future Directions

    Flora Teoh; Norman Pavelka

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal and a major colonizer of the human skin, as well as of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts. It is also one of the leading causes of opportunistic microbial infections in cancer patients, often presenting in a life-threatening, systemic form. Increased susceptibility to such infections in cancer patients is attributed primarily to chemotherapy-induced depression of innate immune cells and weakened epithelial barriers, which are the bodys first-...

  16. Is candidiasis the true cause of vulvovaginal irritation in women with diabetes mellitus?

    Rowe, B. R.; Logan, M N; Farrell, I; Barnett, A. H.

    1990-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is common in diabetic women and is often treated with antifungal agents on the assumption that the causative organism is Candida albicans. In a survey of 100 consecutive diabetic women attending a diabetes clinic 36 had complained to their general practitioner about vulvovaginal irritation during the past three years and 26 were treated with antifungal agents without a vaginal examination or swabs being taken. In a separate study 27 post-menopausal women with non-insulin depend...

  17. Interferon-gamma Immunotherapy in a Patient With Refractory Disseminated Candidiasis.

    Buddingh, Emilie P; Leentjens, Jenneke; van der Lugt, Jasper; Dik, Willem A; Gresnigt, Mark S; Netea, Mihai G; Pickkers, Peter; Driessen, Gertjan J

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in supportive care and novel antifungal agents, mortality caused by invasive Candida infection is high. A 3-year-old boy with disseminated Candida dubliniensis infection during induction chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia deteriorated despite resolution of neutropenia and appropriate antifungal treatment. Monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR expression was extremely low, suggesting immunoparalysis. Adjuvant immunotherapy with interferon-gamma restored the immune response, which was accompanied by clinical and radiographic recovery. PMID:26379166

  18. A Case of Stenotic Change from Gastric Candidiasis Managed with Temporary Stent Insertion

    Joo, Moon Kyung; Park, Jong-Jae; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Invasive gastric Candida infection in patient with co-morbidity can cause stenotic change if it is developed at anatomically narrowing portion, such as distal antrum, pylorus, or duodenal bulb. However, proper management of benign stenosis by diffuse gastric Candidasis is still under controversy and palliative bypass surgery has several shortcomings because high risk operative group may be included in this case. Palliative placement of self-expandable metallic stent has been settled as a stan...

  19. Bioadhesive tablets containing cyclodextrin complex of itraconazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

    Cevher, Erdal; Ama, Ay?e; Sinani, Genada; Aksu, Buket; Zloh, Mire; Mlaz?mo?lu, Ltfiye

    2014-08-01

    Itraconazole (ITR) is commonly used in the treatment of Candida infections. It has a nephrotoxic effect and low bioavailability in patients who suffer from renal insufficiency, and its poor solubility in water makes ITR largely unavailable. Cyclodextrins (CyDs) are used to form inclusion complexes with drugs to improve their aqueous solubility and to reduce their side effects. In this study, ITR was complexed with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CyD), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CyD), methyl-?-cyclodextrin (Met-?-CyD) and sulphobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE7-?-CyD) to increase its water solubility and to reduce the side effects of the drug without decreasing antifungal activity. Complex formation between ITR and CyDs was evaluated using SEM, (1)H NMR and XRD studies. The antifungal activity of the complexes was analyzed on Candida albicans strains, and the susceptibility of the strains was found to be higher for the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD complex than for the complexes that were prepared with other CyDs. Vaginal bioadhesive sustained release tablet formulations were developed using the ITR-SBE7-?-CyD inclusion complex to increase the residence time of ITR in the vagina, thereby boosting the efficacy of the treatment. The swelling, matrix erosion and bioadhesion properties of formulations and the drug release rate of these tablets were analyzed, and the most therapeutically effective vaginal formulation was determined. PMID:24857873

  20. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia correlate with HIV infection in Tanzania

    Schiødt, M; Bakilana, P B; Hiza, J F; Shao, J F; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Mbaga, I; Vestergaard, B F; Nielsen, C M; Lauritzen, E; Lerche, B

    1990-01-01

    We report a detailed study on oral lesions and their association with the WHO revised provisional case definition of AIDS as well as serologic signs of HIV infection among 186 patients in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. The patient material consisted of 39 hospitalized suspected AIDS patients, 44 medical...... HIV. Among the 147 patients not suspected of having AIDS 18 (12%) had AIDS criteria and 15% had serologic evidence of HIV infection. The presence of WHO AIDS criteria correlated significantly with the presence of HIV antibodies, but not with HIV antigen. Oral lesions were found in 54% of those with...... stomatitis in 2%, Kaposi's sarcoma in 4%, and nonspecific ulcer in 4%. The presence of oral lesions had a high predictive value for presence of AIDS criteria as well as for presence of HIV infection in this hospital setting. All patients should have a thorough oral examination and the presence of the...

  1. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    Luciana Basili, Dias; Mrcia de Souza Carvalho, Melhem; Maria Walderez, Szeszs; Jos, Meirelles Filho; Rosane Christine, Hahn.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 16 [...] 0 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed.

  2. Synergism of Voriconazole and Terbinafine against Candida albicans Isolates from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Weig, Michael; Müller, Frank-Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The synergism of voriconazole (VRC) and terbinafine was studied by using 39 genotypically defined clinical Candida albicans isolates that were cross-resistant to fluconazole and VRC and serial isolates that gradually developed azole resistance. Synergy was noticed in 100% (eight of eight) of the strains that were resistant to VRC. Antagonism was not observed.

  3. Spectrum and the In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Yeast Isolates in Ethiopian HIV Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Moges, Birhan; Bitew, Adane; Shewaamare, Aster

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, little is known regarding the distribution and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of yeasts. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the spectrum and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of yeasts isolated from HIV infected patients with OPC. Method. Oral pharyngeal swabs taken from oral lesions of study subjects were inoculated onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Yeasts were identified by employing conventional test procedures and the susceptibility of yeasts to antifungal agents was evaluated by disk diffusion assay method. Result. One hundred and fifty-five yeast isolates were recovered of which 91 isolates were from patients that were not under HAART and 64 were from patients that were under HAART. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species followed by C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. kefyr, Cryptococcus laurentii, and Rhodotorula species. Irrespective of yeasts isolated and identified, 5.8%, 5.8%, 12.3%, 8.4%, 0.6%, and 1.3% of the isolates were resistant to amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and nystatin, respectively. Conclusion. Yeast colonization rate of 69.2% and 31% resistance to six antifungal agents was documented. These highlight the need for nationwide study on the epidemiology of OPC and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:26880925

  4. Sonographic detection of intrarenal and intra-arterial fungus balls in a preterm infant due to systemic candidiasis

    Reither, M.; Schumacher, R.; Hagel, K.J.; Hering, F.

    1983-10-01

    Shortly after birth a preterm infant suffering from aspiration syndrome and subsequent Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis showed signs of renal insufficiency and mycotic infection: yeast cells were identified in several urinalyses; there was also an increasing anti-candida IgM antibody titer. At the same time sonographic examinations revealed an increasing echogenicity of the renal cortex and echogenic masses of variable size which did not cause acoustic shadows in both enlarged kidneys. A few days later, we found a right-sided hydronephrosis caused by an intraureteric prevesical mass of equal echogenicity. As we could observe sonographically, the aggressive antimycotic therapy was successful. Eleven weeks later there were signs of cardiac insufficiency. An angiographically demonstrated filling defect, within the pulmonary artery, showed the same sonographic findings as the previously found intrarenal masses. The baby underwent embolectomy and recovered. The thrombotic material contained yeast cells giving evidence of systemic candidasis. Provided appropriate equipment is available, ultrasound today is an excellent non-invasive screening and followup method not only for echoencephalography, but also for more complicated neonatologic problems as seen here. The detailed observation of a changing echogenicity of the renal cortex and pelvis is important and often allows a decisive diagnostic clue before other radiological methods become conclusive.

  5. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    Hurley Susan

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovaginitis had used probiotic Lactobacillus species to prevent or treat post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. There is no evidence that this therapy is effective. This study aims to test whether oral or vaginal lactobacillus is effective in the prevention of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Methods/design A randomised placebo-controlled blinded 2 × 2 factorial design is being used. General practitioners or pharmacists approach non-pregnant women, aged 18–50 years, who present with a non-genital infection requiring a short course of oral antibiotics, to participate in the study. Participants are randomised in a four group factorial design either to oral lactobacillus powder or placebo and either vaginal lactobacillus pessaries or placebo. These interventions are taken while on antibiotics and for four days afterwards or until symptoms of vaginitis develop. Women self collect a vaginal swab for culture of Candida species and complete a survey at baseline and again four days after completing their study medications. The sample size (a total of 496 – 124 in each factorial group is calculated to identify a reduction of half in post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis from 23%, while allowing for a 25% drop-out. An independent Data Monitoring Committee is supervising the trial. Analysis will be intention-to-treat, with two pre-specified main comparisons: (i oral lactobacillus versus placebo and (ii vaginal lactobacillus versus placebo.

  6. Preparation of Mucoadhesive Oral Patches Containing Tetracycline Hydrochloride and Carvacrol for Treatment of Local Mouth Bacterial Infections and Candidiasis

    Obaidat, Rana M.; Bader, Ammar; Al-Rajab, Wafa; Abu Sheikha, Ghassan; Obaidat, Aiman A.

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared ...

  7. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 inhibits biofilm formation by C. albicans and attenuates the experimental candidiasis in Galleria mellonella

    Vilela, Simone FG; Júnia O. Barbosa; Rossoni, Rodnei D; Santos, Jéssica D; Prata, Marcia CA; ANBINDER Ana Lia; Jorge, Antonio OC; Junqueira, Juliana C.

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic strains of Lactobacillus have been studied for their inhibitory effects on Candida albicans. However, few studies have investigated the effect of these strains on biofilm formation, filamentation and C. albicans infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on C. albicans ATCC 18804 using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro analysis evaluated the effects of L. acidophilus on the biofilm formation and on the capacity of ...

  8. Correlation between azole susceptibilities, genotypes, and ERG11 mutations in Candida albicans isolates associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in China.

    Ge, Shu-Hua; Wan, Zhe; Li, Juan; Xu, Jianping; Li, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between susceptibilities to fluconazole and itraconazole and microsatellite CAI genotypes were examined from a total of 154 Candida albicans isolates (97 isolates causing vulvovaginitis in Chinese women and 6 vaginal isolates and 51 oral cavity isolates from asymptomatic carriers). The two dominant genotypes, CAI 30-45 (45 isolates) and CAI 32-46 (33 isolates), associated with vulvovaginitis showed significantly different azole susceptibility patterns with strong statistical support. CAI 32-46 isolates were usually less susceptible to both fluconazole and itraconazole than CAI 30-45 isolates and than the oral isolates with other diversified CAI genotypes. Remarkably different mutation patterns in the azole target gene ERG11 were correspondingly observed among C. albicans isolates representing different genotypes and sources. Isolates with the same or similar CAI genotypes usually possessed identical or phylogenetically closely related ERG11 sequences. Loss of heterozygosity in ERG11 was observed in all the CAI 32-46 isolates but not in the CAI 30-45 isolates and most of the oral isolates sequenced. Compared with the ERG11 sequence of strain SC5314 (X13296), two homozygous missense mutations (G487T and T916C) leading to two amino acid changes (A114S and Y257H) in Erg11p were found in CAI 32-46 isolates. The correlation between azole susceptibility and C. albicans genotype may be of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:20516286

  9. Detection of fungal DNA in lysis-centrifugation blood culture for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in neonatal patients.

    Trovato, L; Betta, P; Romeo, M G; Oliveri, S

    2012-03-01

    We report data concerning the detection of fungal DNA directly from lysis-centrifugation blood culture to assess its value in the detection of fungaemia in 86 of the 347 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit between January 2009 and December 2010. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR were 87.5% and 98.5%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 93.3% and a negative predictive value of 97.1%. Detection of fungal DNA directly from blood culture Isolator 1.5 microbial tubes, without prior cultivation, is a promising approach for the rapid detection of Candida spp. in neonates with suspected candidaemia. PMID:22192484

  10. Association between oral candidiasis and low CD4+ count among HIV positive patients in Hoima Regional Referral Hospital

    Nanteza, Martina; Tusiime, Jayne B; Kalyango, Joan; Kasangaki, Arabat

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Human Immune Virus (HIV) related oral lesions and their association with Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4+) count among treatment naïve HIV positive patients. Methods This was a descriptive and analytical cross sectional study. Participants were 346 treatment naïve HIV positive adult patients. These were consecutively recruited from Hoima Regional Referral hospital between March and April 2012. Data collection involved inter...

  11. Spectrum and the In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Yeast Isolates in Ethiopian HIV Patients with Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Moges, Birhan; Bitew, Adane; Shewaamare, Aster

    2016-01-01

    Background. In Ethiopia, little is known regarding the distribution and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile of yeasts. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the spectrum and the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of yeasts isolated from HIV infected patients with OPC. Method. Oral pharyngeal swabs taken from oral lesions of study subjects were inoculated onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. Yeasts were identified by employing conventional test procedures and the susceptibility of yeasts to antifungal agents was evaluated by disk diffusion assay method. Result. One hundred and fifty-five yeast isolates were recovered of which 91 isolates were from patients that were not under HAART and 64 were from patients that were under HAART. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species followed by C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. kefyr, Cryptococcus laurentii, and Rhodotorula species. Irrespective of yeasts isolated and identified, 5.8%, 5.8%, 12.3%, 8.4%, 0.6%, and 1.3% of the isolates were resistant to amphotericin B, clotrimazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and nystatin, respectively. Conclusion. Yeast colonization rate of 69.2% and 31% resistance to six antifungal agents was documented. These highlight the need for nationwide study on the epidemiology of OPC and resistance to antifungal drugs. PMID:26880925

  12. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis

    We report the interest of the PET with 18F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with 18F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  13. Development, optimization and evaluation of polymeric electrospun nanofiber: A tool for local delivery of fluconazole for management of vaginal candidiasis.

    Sharma, Rahul; Garg, Tarun; Goyal, Amit K; Rath, Goutam

    2016-03-01

    The present study is designed to explore the localized delivery of fluconazole using mucoadhesive polymeric nanofibers. Drug-loaded polymeric nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning method using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the polymeric constituent. The prepared nanofibers were found to be uniform, non-beaded and non-woven, with the diameter of the fibers ranging from 150 to 180 nm. Further drug release studies indicate a sustained release of fluconazole over a period of 6 h. The results of studies on anti-microbial activity indicated that drug-loaded polymeric nanofibers exhibit superior anti-microbial activity against Candida albicans, when compared to the plain drug. PMID:25315503

  14. Formulation, toxicity, and antifungal activity in vitro of liposome-encapsulated nystatin as therapeutic agent for systemic candidiasis.

    Mehta, R T; Hopfer, R L; Gunner, L A; Juliano, R.L.; Lopez-Berestein, G.

    1987-01-01

    Multilamellar vesicles containing nystatin (NYS) were compared with vesicles containing the free drug for toxicity to erythrocytes and for antifungal activity in vitro. Liposomal nystatin was as active as free NYS was against a wide variety of yeasts and fungi. The antifungal activity against Candida albicans was maintained with different liposome compositions and without sterols. Liposome encapsulation also protected the erythrocytes from the toxicity of free NYS.

  15. The PAV trial: Does lactobacillus prevent post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN24141277

    Hurley Susan; Grover Sonia; Chondros Patty; Gunn Jane; Pirotta Marie; Garland Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines are used by many consumers, and increasingly are being incorporated into the general practitioner's armamentarium. Despite widespread usage, the evidence base for most complementary therapies is weak or non-existent. Post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis is a common problem in general practice, for which complementary therapies are often used. A recent study in Melbourne, Australia, found that 40% of women with a past history of vulvovagini...

  16. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis for the prevention of preterm birth [ACTRN12610000607077

    Rickard Kristen R; Morris Jonathan M; Roberts Christine L; Giles Warwick B; Simpson Judy M; Kotsiou George; Bowen Jennifer R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prevention of preterm birth remains one of the most important challenges in maternity care. We propose a randomised trial with: a simple Candida testing protocol that can be easily incorporated into usual antenatal care; a simple, well accepted, treatment intervention; and assessment of outcomes from validated, routinely-collected, computerised databases. Methods/Design Using a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study design, we aim to evaluate w...

  17. Structural characterization of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Astragalus membranaceus and its immunologic enhancement in recombinant protein vaccine against systemic candidiasis.

    Yang, Fan; Xiao, Chunyu; Qu, Jing; Wang, Guiyun

    2016-07-10

    Structure and immunologic enhancement of low molecular weight polysaccharide (LMW-ASP) isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. Were detected in recombinant protein vaccine. Structure analysis of LMW-ASP revealed that LMW-ASP (Mw=5.6kDa) was an acid heteropolysaccharide, which consisted of Glc, Gal, Ara, Xyl and GalA in ratio of 10.0:1.3:1.7:1.0:0.9. Recombinant protein (rP-HSP90C) contained epitope C (LKVIRK) from heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) of Candida albicans was used as a vaccine. The results indicated that LMW-ASP significantly promoted specific antibody titers IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, and IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 in sera of mice immunized with rP-HSP90C (p<0.05). It was also found LMW-ASP improved DTH response in HSP90C-injceted mice. More importantly, the mice immunized with rP-HSP90C/LMW-ASP had fewer CFU (colony forming unites) in the kidneys compared to the mice immunized with rP-HSP90C (p<0.05). Therefore, LMW-ASP could be exploited into the novel adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of recombinant protein vaccine. PMID:27106150

  18. Candidase vulvovaginal: fatores predisponentes do hospedeiro e virulncia das leveduras Vulvovaginal candidiasis: susceptibility factors of the host and virulence of the yeasts

    Cassiana Aparecida lvares; Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski; Mrcia Edilaine Lopes Consolaro

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUO: Leveduras do gnero Candida so patgenos oportunistas freqentemente isolados das superfcies mucosas de indivduos normais, mas podem levar ao desenvolvimento de infeces denominadas candidases, que variam desde leses superficiais at infeces disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Ampliar os conhecimentos sobre candidase vulvovaginal (CVV: infeco de vulva e vagina, causada por leveduras comensais que habitam a mucosa vaginal) e candidase vulvovaginal recorrente (CVVR: ocorrncia de q...

  19. Pharmacodynamic Target Evaluation of a Novel Oral Glucan Synthase Inhibitor, SCY-078 (MK-3118), Using an In Vivo Murine Invasive Candidiasis Model

    Lepak, Alexander J.; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Echinocandins inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-d-glucan in Candida and are the first-line therapy in numerous clinical settings. Their use is limited by poor oral bioavailability, and they are available only as intravenous therapies. Derivatives of enfumafungin are novel orally bioavailable glucan synthase inhibitors. We performed an in vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) evaluation with a novel enfumafungin derivative, SCY-078 (formerly MK-3118), in a well-established neutropenic murine model of invasiv...

  20. Atividade antifngica de produtos naturais indicados por raizeiros para tratamento de candidase oral / Antifungal activity of natural products indicated by herb sellers (raizeiros) for the treatment of oral candidiasis / Actividad antifngica de productos naturales indicados por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) para el tratamiento de la candidiasis oral

    Vanessa Maria, Freire Ablio; Bruno, da Silva Mesquita; Evelyn, Darly da Silva; Fabola, Vilar de Queiroz Carvalho; Luciana Lucena, Aranha de Macdo; Ricardo, Dias de Castro.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente resistncia das leveduras pertencentes ao gnero Candida frente aos antifngicos sintticos, atualmente disponveis no comrcio, impulsiona a busca por novos compostos antifngicos de origem vegetal. Assim, o propsito do presente estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antifngica dos d [...] ecoctos de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) e Punica granatum Linn (rom), vendidos por raizeiros em trs feiras livres distintas (A, B e C), frente a trs espcies de microorganismos do gnero Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis e C. krusei). O ensaio para determinao da atividade antifngica dos produtos naturais foi realizado pelo mtodo da difuso em meio slido, em triplicata, onde discos de papel de filtro estreis embebidos em 50 L dos extratos foram colocados sobre o meio de cultura. Os resultados foram avaliados a partir da mensurao dos dimetros dos halos de inibio de crescimento fngico em milmetros (mm), sendo considerada a moda dos valores obtidos. Foi observada atividade antifngica de S. terebenthifolius Raddi e de C. zeylanicum Breym sobre C. krusei. No entanto, diferenas foram identificadas entre os produtos obtidos nos diferentes locais. O decocto de Punica granatum Linn apresentou atividade antifngica sobre as trs cepas fngicas utilizadas no estudo. Tambm foram verificadas diferenas entres os produtos obtidos nas feiras livres, sendo que apenas as amostras de Punica granatum Linn provenientes da feira A foram capazes de inibir o crescimento fngico de todas as cepas analisadas. Desta forma, conclui-se que todos os produtos avaliados apresentam atividade antifngica, havendo diferenas relacionadas aos locais de sua obteno e sensibilidade das cepas ensaiadas. Abstract in spanish La resistencia cada vez mayor de levaduras del gnero candida a los antifngicos sintticos disponibles en la actualidad ha llevado a la bsqueda de nuevos compuestos antifngicos de origen vegetal. El propsito de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad antifngica in vitro de decocciones de Schinus [...] terebenthifolius Raddi (pimentero brasileo),Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (canela) y Punica granatum Linn (granada) sobre tres especies del gnero Candida (C. albicans, C . tropicalis y C. krusei). Este material vegetal fue vendido por vendedores de hierbas (raizeiros) en tres ferias callejeras distintas (A, B y C). El ensayo para determinar la actividad antifngica de los productos se realiz por triplicado. Se emple el mtodo de difusin en medio slido, en el que discos de papel de filtro estriles fueron empapados en 50 L de los extractos y colocados en medio de cultivo. Los datos fueron evaluados mediante la medicin de los dimetros de los halos de inhibicin del crecimiento fngico, en milmetros, y se consider la moda de los valores encontrados. Se observ actividad antifngica de S. terebinthifolius Raddi y C. zeylanicum Breym contra C. krusei, pero fueron identificadas diferencias entre los productos obtenidos en diferentes lugares. La decoccin de Punica granatum Linn present actividad antifngica sobre las tres levaduras en estudio. Adems, se encontraron diferencias entre los productos adquiridos en las ferias callejeras, pero slo las muestras de Punica granatum Linn de la feria A fueron capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de hongos de todas las levaduras analizadas. Todos los productos evaluados mostraron actividad antifngica, pero hubo diferencias en funcin de la localidad donde los productos fueron obtenidos y de la sensibilidad a las cepas ensayadas. Abstract in english An increasing resistance of Candida yeasts to the synthetic antifungals currently available has driven the search for new plant-derived antifungal compounds. In this respect, the present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of decoctions from Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Brazi [...] lian pepper tree), Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breym (cinnamon) and Punica granatum Linn (pom

  1. Disease: H01109 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available H01109 Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC); Familial candidiasis (CANDF) Chronic mucocutaneo ... Bustamante J, Wright JF, Liu L, Lim HK, Migaud M, Israel ... L, Chrabieh M, Audry M, Gumbleton M, Toulon A, Bod ...

  2. Interests of the PET with 18-F.D.G. in infectious pathology: about a case of systemic candidiasis; Interets de la TEP au 18-FDG en pathologie infectieuse: a propos d'un cas de candidose systemique

    Avet, J.; Granjon, D.; Prevot, N.; Isnardi, V.; Dubois, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France); Stephan, J.L.; Berger, C. [service de pediatrie, CHU de Saint-etienne, (France)

    2009-05-15

    We report the interest of the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the extension evaluation of injuries and in the therapy decision for a patient suffering of a systemic candida. Conclusions: In spite of a lack of recommendations, because of its great sensitivity for the deep infectious centres detection, the PET with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. can bring useful information to the management and follow up of the systemic infections. (N.C.)

  3. Glossite rombide mediana associada a candidase esofagiana: uma possvel relao etiolgica com a Candida albicans Median rhomboid glossitis associated with esophagic candidiasis: a possible etiologic relation with Candida albicans

    Rubens Marcelo Souza Leite; Adriana Arago Craveiro Leite; Horcio Friedman; Isabel Friedman

    2002-01-01

    A glossite rombide mediana doena inflamatria que ocorre na superfcie da lngua. Apresenta-se como placa avermelhada ou vermelho-esbranquiada no dorso da lngua, na localizao mediana. A etiologia desconhecida. Acredita-se que possa haver relao com a m formao dos arcos branquiais durante a embriognese. Fatores infecciosos relacionados Candida albicans tambm so aventados. Os autores apresentam o caso clnico de uma paciente de 60 anos, com glossite rombide mediana associada...

  4. Reverse transcription - 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends-nested PCR of ACT1 and SAP2 mRNA as a means of detecting viable Candida albicans in an in vitro cutaneous candidiasis model.

    Okeke, C N; Tsuboi, R; Kawai, M; Yamazaki, M; Reangchainam, S; Ogawa, H

    2000-01-01

    The presence of viable cells of Candida albicans, in broth or in a reconstructed living skin equivalent, was determined by the detection of amplicons of partial mRNA sequences of the genes encoding fungal actin (ACT1) and secreted aspartyl proteinase 2 (SAP2). The mRNA of both genes were amplified by reverse transcription-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends-nested polymerase chain reaction. Single bands of ACT1 (315 bp) and SAP2 (162 bp) mRNA were amplified from total RNA extracts of C. albicans grown in yeast carbon base-albumin broth or in living skin equivalent tissue; only the former was amplified from Sabouraud broth-grown organisms. Primer pairs targeted for ACT1 and SAP2 were Candida genus-specific and C. albicans-specific, respectively. The sensitivity limits of the assay were 100 fg of total RNA or 10 cells of C. albicans, by ethidium bromide staining. When C. albicans-infected living skin equivalent was exposed to amorolfine, amplicons of ACT1 and SAP2 mRNA were not detected in total RNA extracts. Non-amplification of the mRNA correlated with the absence of C. albicans growth in Sabouraud agar cultures of living skin equivalent samples. Reverse transcription-3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends-nested polymerase chain reaction of the mRNA encoding specific proteins of an organism has potential application in determining the viability of the organism in tissue, thus monitoring the efficacy of an antimicrobial therapy, and in detecting mRNA expressed in very little amounts in tissue. PMID:10620122

  5. Brazilian guidelines for the management of candidiasis - a joint meeting report of three medical societies: Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia, Sociedade Paulista de Infectologia and Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical

    Arnaldo Lopes Colombo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections account for 80% of all fungal infections in the hospital environment, including bloodstream, urinary tract and surgical site infections. Bloodstream infections are now a major challenge for tertiary hospitals worldwide due to their high prevalence and mortality rates. The incidence of candidemia in tertiary public hospitals in Brazil is approximately 2.5 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. Due to the importance of this infection, the authors provide a review of the diversity of the genus Candida and its clinical relevance, the therapeutic options and discuss the treatment of major infections caused by Candida. Each topography is discussed with regard to epidemiological, clinical and laboratory diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations based on levels of evidence.

  6. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Armstead Valerie; Parveen Zahida; Logan David A; Lobach Ludmila; Powell Garry; Acheampong Edward; Barodka Viachaslau M; Mukhtar Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Alth...

  7. Candida concentrations determined following concentrated oral rinse culture reflect clinical oral signs

    Tooyama, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hayashi, Kiyonori; Kurashina, Kenji; KURITA, HIROSHI; Uchida, Mitsuo; Kasuga, Eriko; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast-like fungus called Candida. Various methods can be used to isolate Candida from the oral cavity. However, it is difficult to correctly and satisfactorily diagnose oral candidiasis because currently no microbiological or laboratory standards based on samples from the oral cavity are available. The aim of this study is to establish a reliable laboratory test for diagnosing oral candidiasis. Methods Oral swab, rinse and concentrated r...

  8. Genetic Variability of Candida albicans in HIV Infection

    Challacombe, S.J.; Muir, J; Howell, S. A.; Sweet, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most common oral manifestation of HIV infection. but it is unclear whether, in addition to immune dysfunction, this predisposition is related to changcs in the biotypes or genotypes of infecting Candida. The objective of this study was to compare the genetic variability of Candida albicans isolated from 50 HIV infected patients (25 Candida carriers and 25 candidiasis patients) and 50 age and candidiasis matched control subjects. Candidal DNA was extracted, purified, cl...

  9. Comparison and correlation of candidal colonization in diabetic patients and normal individuals

    Pallavan, Bakthavatchalam; Ramesh, Venkatapathy; Dhanasekaran, Balamurali Pennagaram; Oza, Nirima; indu, Sudip; Govindarajan, Vasupradha

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common universal endocrine disorder with decreased host immunity towards infections. In these people the most common opportunistic infection is oral candidiasis. Oral candidiasis is most commonly caused by yeast like fungus Candida albicans. In healthy individuals these microorganisms are believed to be commensals but in diabetic patients, it forms severe colonization, even in the absence of any clinically evident oral candidiasis. This type of subclinical co...

  10. Bilateral chronic fungal dacryocystitis caused by Candida dubliniensis in a neutropenic patient

    Obi, E; Roy, A; Bates, V; Sandy, C

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, candida species other than Candida albicans have emerged as causes of human candidiasis, particularly in HIV‐infected and other immunocompromised people. C dubliniensis, a recently described species closely related to C albicans, first isolated from patients with AIDS in Dublin, has been implicated as an agent of oral candidiasis in HIV‐positive people. However, it has also been recovered from HIV‐negative people, with clinical signs of oral candidiasis and from the genital t...

  11. Vaginitis

    ... most common diseases diagnosed among women with these symptoms include bacterial vaginosis (40–45 percent), vulvovaginal candidiasis (20 – 25 percent), and trichomoniasis (15 – 20 percent). ...

  12. Esophageal strictures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Kelly, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal stricture is a rare complication of paediatric cancer treatment that usually occurs after esophageal exposure to radiotherapy. We describe 4 cases of esophageal stricture during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients presented with refractory vomiting and were diagnosed with radiologic contrast studies. None of the patients had received radiotherapy. Esophageal candidiasis was seen in 2 patients but the remaining 2 patients had earlier systemic candidiasis. High-dose dexamethasone may predispose these children to both esophageal candidiasis and peptic esophagitis. The etiology of esophageal strictures during treatment for acute leukemia is likely to be multifactorial but systemic candidiasis may play a significant role.

  13. Cancer drugs inhibit morphogenesis in the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

    Madhushree M Routh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida infections are very common in cancer patients and it is a common practice to prescribe antifungal antibiotics along with anticancer drugs. Yeast to hyphal form switching is considered to be important in invasive candidiasis. Targeting morphogenetic switching may be useful against invasive candidiasis. In this study, we report the antimorphogenetic properties of thirty cancer drugs.

  14. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    ... Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a ... rash and vaginal (yeast) infections. Candida overgrowth (or candidiasis ) can happen after a baby has ... thrush can affect anyone, although it's most ...

  15. Quantitative relationships between Candida albicans in saliva and the clinical status of human subjects.

    Epstein, J.B.; Pearsall, N N; Truelove, E L

    1980-01-01

    Patients with candidiasis had greater than 400 colony-forming units per ml of saliva, whereas carriers of Candida albicans had less than 400 colony-forming units per ml. Thus, quantitative cultures of saliva may aid in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis.

  16. Disease: H00363 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available H00363 Candidiasis Candidiasis is a fungal infection with Candida species, predominantly with Ca ... cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care ... unit (ICU) setting, causing bloodstream infections ... edside review: Candida infections in the intensive care ... unit. Crit Care ... 12:204 (2008) PMID:21350122 (gene) ...

  17. IgA, IgE e subclasses de IgG anti-Candida albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal IgA, IgE and IgG subclasses to Candida albicans in serum and vaginal fluid from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Ricardo José Victal de Carvalho; Cristiane Martins Cunha; Deise Aparecida de Oliveira Silva; Mônica Camargo Sopelete; Jane Eire Urzedo; Tomaz Aquino Moreira; Paula de Souza Abreu Moraes; Ernesto Akio Taketomi

    2003-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar níveis de anticorpos IgA, IgE, IgG e subclasses (IgG1, IgG4) específicos a C. albicans no soro e lavado vaginal de mulheres com ou sem candidíase vulvovaginal para avaliar o papel destes anticorpos na imunopatogênese desta doença. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 30 mulheres com sintomas clínicos de candidíase vulvovaginal (15 com cultura de secreção vaginal positiva para C. albicans, 11 com cultura negativa e quatro com cultura positiva para Candida não-albicans) e 12 mulhere...

  18. Fungal infections of the oral mucosa

    P Anitha Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the various predisposing factors, clinical presentations, clinical differential diagnosis, diagnosis and management of oral candidiasis, as well as briefly highlights upon a few of the more exotic non-Candidal fungi that infect the oral mucosa.

  19. Comparison Between Virulence Factors of Candida albicans and Non-Albicans Species of Candida Isolated from Genitourinary Tract

    Udayalaxmi,; Jacob, Shani; D’Souza, Diney

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida spp. is frequently isolated from cases of vulvovaginal candidiasis and catheter associated UTI. C.albicans is the most frequently isolated species but non-albicans species of candida are gaining clinical significance.

  20. Vaginal yeast infection

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1

    ... by mistake. In most cases, the signs and symptoms of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 begin in childhood or adolescence. This condition is characterized by three specific features: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. Affected individuals typically have ...

  2. Cytolytic Vaginosis: Misdiagnosed as Candidal Vaginitis

    M. Sinan Beksac

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, 210 women with vaginal discharge and other symptoms/signs of genital pathology suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC were involved in order to distinguish true VVC and cytolytic vaginosis (CV cases.

  3. Thrush - children and adults

    Candidiasis - oral; Oral thrush; Fungal infection - mouth; Candida - oral ... do not fit well. Candida can also cause yeast infections in the vagina. Thrush in newborns is somewhat common and easy to treat.

  4. Thrush in newborns

    Candidiasis - oral; Oral thrush; Fungal infection - mouth; Candida - oral ... thrush. You paint this medicine on your baby's mouth and tongue. If you have a yeast infection on your nipples, your doctor may recommend an ...

  5. Locus: 8201 [ASTRA[Archive

    Full Text Available Mm.35300 M. musculus + S: gi|28503644|ref|NT_039506.1|Mm10_39546_32 NT_039506 Mus musculus autoimmune ... mmune regulator (autoimmune ... polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystroph ...

  6. Locus: 5346 [ASTRA[Archive

    Full Text Available Hs.129829 H. sapiens + S: gi|29824592|ref|NC_000021.3|NC_000021 NC_000021 Homo sapiens autoimmune ... e regulator (autoimmune ... polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystroph ...

  7. Locus: 8336 [ASTRA[Archive

    Full Text Available Mm.35300 M. musculus - S: gi|38090639|ref|NT_039496.2|Mm10_39536_32 NT_039496 Mus musculus autoimmune ... mmune regulator (autoimmune ... polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystroph ...

  8. Diagnostic value of anti-Candida enolase antibodies.

    van Deventer, A J; Vliet, H.J. van der; Hop, W C; Goessens, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    An immunodominant antigen with enolase enzyme activity was purified and used for the development of an assay to detect antibodies directed against this antigen in sera from patients with either invasive candidiasis or Candida colonization. The Au enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay established with the Candida enolase antigen was able to discriminate significantly between invasive candidiasis and colonization in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient groups of patients. The test had a sensiti...

  9. Cerebral candiasis: CT studies in a case of brain abscess and granuloma due to candida albicans

    The CT features of a young female patient suffering from systemic candidiasis with intracerebral manifestation are reported. The definite diagnosis was made by spinal fluid cultures. The diffuse granulomatous lesions as well as an abscess formation remitted after specific therapy with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B for now more than 1 year. In contrast to reports of other cases with mycosis of the central nervous system this case of candidiasis shows lesions of primarily increased attenuation coefficients. (orig.)

  10. Candida Infections of the Genitourinary Tract

    Achkar, Jacqueline M.; Fries, Bettina C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: All humans are colonized with Candida species, mostly Candida albicans, yet some develop diseases due to Candida, among which genitourinary manifestations are extremely common. The forms of genitourinary candidiasis are distinct from each other and affect different populations. While vulvovaginal candidiasis affects mostly healthy women, candiduria occurs typically in elderly, hospitalized, or immunocompromised patients and in neonates. Despite its high incidence and clinical relevan...

  11. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans

    BEHZADI, Payam; BEHZADI, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution o...

  12. Treatment with Candida albicans biotherapic influences in vitro fungal adhesion to Ma-104 cells

    Carla Holandino; Rosangela Maria de Araújo Soares; Maristela Barbosa Portela; Venicio Feo da Veiga; Gleyce Moreno Barbosa; Camila Monteiro Siqueira; Beatriz Guerreiro Basílio Costa

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral candidiasis is an opportunist fungal infection in humans, mainly caused by Candida albicans. It occurs when the host presents an imbalance in the immune system and Candida spp., normally found in human flora, become able to develop the infection [1]. This disease is very common in HIV patients, and in all individuals that present immunossupression, such as patients treated with chemotherapy. Considering this scenario, the development of new medicines to treat oral candidiasis...

  13. Biofilm Formation by Candida dubliniensis

    Ramage, Gordon; Vande Walle, Kacy; Wickes, Brian L; López-Ribot, José L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic yeast closely related to Candida albicans that has been recently implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation, with cells in biofilms displaying properties dramatically different from free-living cells grown under normal laboratory conditions. Here, we report on the development of in vitro models of C. dubliniensis biofilms on the surf...

  14. Protection of the Oral Mucosa by Salivary Histatin-5 against Candida albicans in an Ex Vivo Murine Model of Oral Infection

    Brian M. Peters; Zhu, Jingsong; Fidel, Paul L; Mark A. Scheper; Hackett, William; Shaye, Sara El; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity is a primary target for opportunistic infections, particularly oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. A commensal fungus commonly colonizing mucosal surfaces, under conditions of immune dysfunction C. albicans can become a pathogen causing recurrent infections. Yet, the role of host oral innate immunity in the development of candidiasis is not fully elucidated. Specifically, the host salivary antimicrobial peptide histatin-5 (Hst-5) has been proposed to play a protective...

  15. Determination of Candida species nestled in denture fissures

    KOBA, CHIHARU; KOGA, CHIHIRO; Cho, Tamaki; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2013-01-01

    With the growing number of elderly individuals, Candida is occasionally recognised as a fungal cause of aspiration pneumonia. In addition, there are numerous investigational reports on oral candidiasis. However, there are currently no reports on Candida contamination of denture base materials. This study was conducted to investigate Candida species in the oral cavity, denture parts and oral lesions of older/elderly subjects with oral candidiasis. The Candida strains were isolated and the spec...

  16. Virulence of the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans Requires the Five Isoforms of Protein Mannosyltransferases

    Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Schaller, Martin; Corbucci, Cristina; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Prill, Stephan K.-H.; Giasson, Luc; Ernst, Joachim F.

    2005-01-01

    The PMT gene family in Candida albicans encodes five isoforms of protein mannosyltransferases (Pmt proteins Pmt1p, Pmt2p, Pmt4p, Pmt5p, and Pmt6p) that initiate O mannosylation of secretory proteins. We compared virulence characteristics of pmt mutants in two complex, three-dimensional models of localized candidiasis, using reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and engineered human oral mucosa (EHOM); in addition, mutants were tested in a mouse model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis ...

  17. Drug Susceptibility of Matrix-Encapsulated Candida albicans Nano-Biofilms

    Srinivasan, Anand; Gupta, Celia Macias; AGRAWAL, C. MAULI; Leung, Kai P.; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Anand K. Ramasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    The rise in the use of biomedical devices and implants has seen a concomitant surge in the advent of device-related nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections of bacterial and fungal origins. The most common nosocomial fungal infection is candidiasis caused mainly by Candida albicans biofilms. Candidiasis is associated with an unacceptably high mortality rate, and there is an urgent need for the discovery of new antifungal drugs that prevent or control biofilm formation. To this end, we recent...

  18. Echinocandins: A ray of hope in antifungal drug therapy

    Grover Neeta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are on the rise. Amphotericin B and azole antifungals have been the mainstay of antifungal therapy so far. The high incidence of infusion related toxicity and nephrotoxicity with amphotericin B and the emergence of fluconazole resistant strains of Candida glabrata egged on the search for alternatives. Echinocandins are a new class of antifungal drugs that act by inhibition of β (1, 3-D- glucan synthase, a key enzyme necessary for integrity of the fungal cell wall. Caspofungin was the first drug in this class to be approved. It is indicated for esophageal candidiasis, candidemia, invasive candidiasis, empirical therapy in febrile neutropenia and invasive aspergillosis. Response rates are comparable to those of amphotericin B and fluconazole. Micafungin is presently approved for esophageal candidiasis, for prophylaxis of candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT and in disseminated candidiasis and candidemia. The currently approved indications for anidulafungin are esophageal candidiasis, candidemia and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of infusion related adverse effects and nephrotoxicity is much lower than with amphotericin B. The main adverse effect is hepatotoxicity and derangement of serum transaminases. Liver function may need to be monitored. They are, however, safer in renal impairment. Even though a better pharmacoeconomical choice than amphotericin B, the higher cost of these drugs in comparison to azole antifungals is likely to limit their use to azole resistant cases of candidial infections and as salvage therapy in invasive aspergillosis rather than as first line drugs.

  19. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Humberto Fabio Boatto; Maria Sayonara de Moraes; Alexandre Paulo Machado; Manoel João Batista Castelo Girão; Olga Fischman

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometiment...

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin and its metabolites M1 and M5 in children and adolescents.

    Hope, William W; Kaibara, Atsunori; Roy, Michael; Arrieta, Antonio; Azie, Nkechi; Kovanda, Laura L; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this analysis was to identify therapeutic micafungin regimens for children that produce the same micafungin exposures known to be effective for the prevention and treatment of Candida infections in adults. Pediatric pharmacokinetic data from 229 patients between the ages of 4 months and micafungin within the 10th to 90th percentile range observed in a population of adults receiving a dose of micafungin with established efficacy for invasive candidiasis (100 mg/day), i.e., 75 to 139 ?gh/ml. Simulated pediatric dosages of 0.5 to 5 mg/kg of body weight/day were explored. A two-compartment model was used that incorporated body weight as a predefined covariate for allometric scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters. During construction of the model, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin were also identified as covariates that had a significant effect on micafungin clearance. A dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the highest proportion of children within the predefined micafungin AUC24 target range for invasive candidiasis. Cutoffs of 40 or 50 kg for weight-based dosing resulted in heavier children being appropriately dosed. Thus, dose regimens of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg/day micafungin are appropriate for the prevention of invasive candidiasis, the treatment of invasive candidiasis, and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, respectively, in children aged 4 months to <17 years. PMID:25421470

  1. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of resistance to oral Candida albicans infections.

    Saunus, Jodi Marie; Kazoullis, Andrea; Farah, Camile Selim

    2008-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a significant health problem in terms of both morbidity and economic outlay. Infections are predominantly caused by the commensal C. albicans, and affect immunocompromised individuals, including HIV-positive and AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients and chemotherapy patients. The molecular and cellular immune mechanisms involved in protection from and responses to oral candidiasis are overlapping, but distinct from those associated with other manifestations of the disease, including systemic, vaginal and gastric candidiasis. In oral candidiasis, clinical observations and experimental mouse models suggest a critical role for cell-mediated immunity. In mice, CD4+ T-cells and the p40 subunit of interleukins 12 and 23 are strict prerequisites for resistance; however abrogation of IFN-gamma does not confer susceptibility. Here, we discuss this apparent inconsistency, and review the experimental evidence that clarifies which immune pathways are specifically involved in resistance and responses to candidiasis of the oral cavity. We also highlight deficiencies in the literature, particularly concerning the putative roles of some relatively new elements in immunobiology: interleukin-23, interleukin-17 and T helper (Th)17 cells. PMID:18508591

  2. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-? immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  3. Anidulafungin in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

    Kathryn Sabol

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn Sabol, Tawanda GumboUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAAbstract: More antifungal agents have reached clinical use in the past two decades than at any other time. The echinocandins have been a welcome addition to this group, with the latest being anidulafungin. There are several lines of evidence to support anidulafungin’s role as primary therapy for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in non-neutropenic patients, and as alternative therapy to fluconazole in patients with esophageal candidiasis with azole intolerance or triazole-resistant Candida. Pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic studies in animals have demonstrated superior efficacy, defined as maximal microbial kill, when compared to fluconazole, regardless of the fluconazole susceptibility of the Candida species. These studies, as well as dose-effect studies in patients, also support the currently recommended dose of anidulafungin. A well designed randomized controlled trial has demonstrated anidulafungin’s efficacy in patients with invasive candidiasis. In this paper, we argue that anidulafungin may be preferable to fluconazole for the treatment of candidemia. However, as of yet, the difference between anidulafungin and the other two licensed echinocandins as first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis is unclear. On the other hand, there is insufficient evidence as of yet to support first-line use of anidulafungin in patients with neutropenia or aspergillosis.Keywords: anidulafungin, pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics, efficacy, candidiasis

  4. Fungal infections today: size of the problem and focus on the initial cost of therapy with echinocandin

    Mario Venditti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Three candins had been approved for the treatment of invasive candidiasis (IC: caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Different drugs are associated with different needs for dose adjustment which might affect the total cost. A Spanish economic analysis estimated the budget impact of caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin in the treatment of 100 patients with invasive candidiasis from the perspective of the Spanish hospital pharmacy setting. It has demonstrated that patients treated with anidulafungin did not required dose adjustment unlike caspofungin and micafungin, and the use of anidulafungin in the treatment of adult non-neutropenic patients with invasive candidiasis is a cost saving treatment option, from the pharmacy department perspective in Spain. The aim of this study was to estimate the initial costs of therapy with caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin in the perspective of the Italian hospital setting.

  5. Impairment of immunity to Candida and Mycobacterium in humans with bi-allelic RORC mutations*

    Halwani, Rabih; Ma, Cindy S.; Wong, Natalie; Soudais, Claire; Henderson, Lauren A.; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Shamma, Jamal; Gonzalez, Marcela; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubn; Okada, Chizuru; Avery, Danielle T.; Latorre, Daniela; Deswarte, Caroline; Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne; Torrado, Egidio; Fountain, Jeffrey; Belkadi, Aziz; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Migaud, Mlanie; Arlehamn, Cecilia S. Lindestam; Sette, Alessandro; Breton, Sylvain; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Moshous, Despina; Hambleton, Sophie; Latour, Sylvain; Arkwright, Peter D.; Picard, Capucine; Lantz, Olivier; Engelhard, Dan; Kobayashi, Masao; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin (IL)-17A/F underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon (IFN)-? immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional ROR? and ROR?T isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from ROR?- and ROR?T-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-? response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-? production by circulating ?? T cells and CD4+CCR6+ CXCR3+ ?? T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require ROR?, or ROR?T, or both. PMID:26160376

  6. IMMUNODEFICIENCIES. Impairment of immunity to Candida and Mycobacterium in humans with bi-allelic RORC mutations.

    Okada, Satoshi; Markle, Janet G; Deenick, Elissa K; Mele, Federico; Averbuch, Dina; Lagos, Macarena; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Ma, Cindy S; Wong, Natalie; Soudais, Claire; Henderson, Lauren A; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Shamma, Jamal; Gonzalez, Marcela; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubn; Okada, Chizuru; Avery, Danielle T; Latorre, Daniela; Deswarte, Caroline; Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne; Torrado, Egidio; Fountain, Jeffrey; Belkadi, Aziz; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; Migaud, Mlanie; Arlehamn, Cecilia S Lindestam; Sette, Alessandro; Breton, Sylvain; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Moshous, Despina; Hambleton, Sophie; Latour, Sylvain; Arkwright, Peter D; Picard, Capucine; Lantz, Olivier; Engelhard, Dan; Kobayashi, Masao; Abel, Laurent; Cooper, Andrea M; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Boisson-Dupuis, Stphanie; Puel, Anne; Sallusto, Federica; Bustamante, Jacinta; Tangye, Stuart G; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Human inborn errors of immunity mediated by the cytokines interleukin-17A and interleukin-17F (IL-17A/F) underlie mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of interferon-? (IFN-?) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report the discovery of bi-allelic RORC loss-of-function mutations in seven individuals from three kindreds of different ethnic origins with both candidiasis and mycobacteriosis. The lack of functional ROR? and ROR?T isoforms resulted in the absence of IL-17A/F-producing T cells in these individuals, probably accounting for their chronic candidiasis. Unexpectedly, leukocytes from ROR?- and ROR?T-deficient individuals also displayed an impaired IFN-? response to Mycobacterium. This principally reflected profoundly defective IFN-? production by circulating ?? T cells and CD4(+)CCR6(+)CXCR3(+) ?? T cells. In humans, both mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and systemic immunity to Mycobacterium require ROR?, ROR?T, or both. PMID:26160376

  7. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. PMID:26449508

  8. Diagnosis of superficial mycoses by direct microscopy - A statistical evaluation

    Mohanty J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A mycological study was undertaken in 250 cases of superficial mycotic infections, which included 210 cases of dermatophytosis, 18 cases of cutaneous candidiasis and 22 cases of tinea versicolor. The scrapings from all the cases were subjected to direct microscopic examination in 10% KOH solution and culture was done in case of candidiasis and dermatophytosis. Out of 250 cases direct microscopy was positive (KOH +ve in 88 cases of dermatophytosis, 11 cases of candidiasis and all cases of tinea versicolor. Culture for dermatophytes and candida species in SDA medium were positive in 76 and 9 cases respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the overall efficiency of the direct microscopy in the diagnosis of superficial mycotic infections were calculated to be 89.41%, 83.90%, 76.76%, 93.02% and 85.96% respectively.

  9. Clinico-Mycological Study Of Superficial Fungal Infection In Children In An Urban Clinic In Kolkata

    Barbhuiya Joyashree Nath

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy children up to the age of 12 years who were suffering from dermatophytosis, candidiasis or pityriasis versicolor were studied clinically and mycologically. Dermatophytosis was the major group, which constituted 52.86% of children. It was followed by candidiasis that constituted 40% of children and pityriasis versicolor was the least, being 7.14% of children. Amongst the clinical types of dermatophytosis, tinea capitis was the commonest (32.43% followed by tinea corporis (27.03%. Candidial intertrigo was the commonest (42.86% from of candidiasis, followed by diaper dermatitis (32.14%. Most susceptible age group was school going children. Peak incidence of infection was during the months of June to September. T rubrum was the commonest dermatophyte isolated in culture. C. albicans was the most common species of candida isolated in culture.

  10. Isolation of Candida albicans and their sensitivity to antifungal agents.

    Tsai, S S; Liu, C I; Chang, C F; Tsai, Y H

    1982-02-01

    During 1978 and 1979 outbreaks of candidiasis were encountered in about 500,000 broiler chickens on 30 farms, 30,000 guinea fowl on 4 farms, 500 geese on 1 farm, and 10 penguins in a zoo. This represents the first report of avian candidiasis in Taiwan. Diagnoses were based on typical gross and microscopic pathology consistent isolation of Candida albicans from crop and esophageal lesions, virulence of isolates in rabbits, identification of the isolates as C. albicans serotype A by chlamydospore and germ tube formation, fermentation tests, and agglutination by specific antisera, and the lack of any sign of fowl pox or trichomoniasis. The upsurge of candidiasis is attributed to the modernization stressors which interact deleteriously with opportunistic pathogens. In vitro sensitivity testing recorded the following order of effectiveness against 20 isolates: nystatin greater than gentian violet greater than copper sulfate = propionic acid = p-hydroxy benzoic acid greater than calcium propionate = propylene glycol. PMID:7042231

  11. SPECIES DISTRIBUTION AND IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORAL CANDIDA ISOLATES IN HIV PATIENTS AND CORRELATION WITH CD4 COUNT

    Kalpana Devi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral Candidiasi s, often the first sign of HIV infection, is the most prevalent fungal opportunistic infection in HIV infected individuals. The intrinsic resistance to antifungal therapy observed in some Candida species, along with the development of resistance during tre atment in others, is becoming a major problem in the management of these diseases. Considering the above facts, the study was conducted to speciate the Candida isolates from HIV patients with Oral Candidiasis and to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern and to correlate it with the CD4 count of the patients.

  12. Oral mucosal cell response to Candida albicans in transgenic mice expressing HIV-1.

    de Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Aumont, Francine; Hanna, Zaher; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Controlled studies on the immunopathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV infection have been hampered by the lack of a relevant animal model. We have previously reported that oral Candida infection in CD4C/HIV transgenic mice expressing gene products of HIV-1 in immune cells and developing an AIDS-like disease closely mimics oropharyngeal candidiasis in human HIV infection. The role of defective dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells in impaired induction of protective immunity and in the phenotype of chronic oral carriage of C. albicans can now be investigated under controlled conditions in these transgenic mice. PMID:19089395

  13. Differential Expression of Secretory Aspartyl Proteinase Genes (SAP1-10) in Oral Candida albicans Isolates with Distinct Karyotypes

    Tavanti, Arianna; Pardini, Giacomo; Campa, Daniele; Davini, Paola; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    Two karyotypes of oral Candida albicans isolates, named b and c, constituted >80% of a collection from healthy carriers (22 b and 16 c isolates) and oral candidiasis patients who were either infected (31 b and 16 c isolates) or uninfected (13 b and 38 c isolates) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The prevalence of the b and c karyotypes within HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients, respectively, who were suffering from oral candidiasis (P ≤ 0.0001) suggested that these two types posse...

  14. AIDS, the female patient, and the family physician.

    Mackie, I D

    1993-01-01

    Women constitute the most rapidly growing population with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Canada. Problems unique to women and related to HIV include gynecological disorders such as recurrent candidiasis, cervical dysplasia, and neoplasia. Women also face unique psychosocial issues related to their socioeconomic status, pregnancy, and sex. This article addresses these issues.

  15. Oral fungal and bacterial infections in HIV-infected individuals: an overview in Africa.

    Hodgson, T A; Rachanis, C C

    2002-01-01

    Oral opportunistic infections developing secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported from the early days of the epidemic and have been classified by both the EC-Clearinghouse and the World Health Organisation (WHO). Among the fungal infections, oral candidiasis, presenting in African HIV-infected patients has been sporadically documented. We review the literature with respect to candidal carriage, oral candidiasis prevalence and the predictive value of oral candidiasis for a diagnosis of underlying HIV disease in African HIV-infected patients. The use of oral candidiasis as a marker of disease progression, the species of yeasts isolated from the oral cavity in Africa and the resistance of the yeasts to antifungal agents and treatment regimens are discussed. Orofacial lesions as manifestations of the systemic mycoses are rarely seen in isolation and few cases are reported in the literature from Africa. In spite of the high incidence of noma, tuberculosis, chronic osteomyelitis and syphilis in Africa, surprisingly there have been very few reported cases of the oral manifestations of these diseases in HIV-positive individuals. Orofacial disease in HIV-infected patients is associated with marked morbidity, which is compounded by malnutrition. The authors indicate specific research areas, initially directed at the most effective management strategies, which would complete data in this important area. PMID:12164666

  16. The Candida albicans CNH1 gene encodes an antiporter important for potassium and pH homeostasis

    Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    Washington, DC : ASM, 2006. s. 50-50. ISBN 1-55581-382-8. [8th ASM Conference on Candida and Candidiasis. 13.03.2006-17.03.2006, Denver] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Keywords : Candida albicans * Na+,K+/H+ antiporter * potassium homeostasis * intracellular pH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Purification of actin from Candida albicans and comparison with the Candida 48,000-Mr protein.

    Fiss, E.; Buckley, H R

    1987-01-01

    Actin was purified from Candida albicans cells by affinity chromatography by DNase-Sepharose and was recognized by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibody directed against chick muscle actin. The C. albicans 48-kilodalton protein recognized by sera from patients with invasive candidiasis was shown by DEAE chromatography and immunoblotting not to be identical with the purified C. albicans actin.

  18. Severe methaemoglobinaemia after flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy.

    Kotler, R L; Hansen-Flaschen, J.; Casey, M. P.

    1989-01-01

    A patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) developed severe cyanosis after bronchoscopy (oxygen saturation 34%) from methaemoglobinaemia. This was thought to be due to enhanced absorption of local anaesthetic from the nasopharynx or trachea as a result of candidiasis. The patient responded dramatically to intravenous methylene blue.

  19. Chronic invasive aspergillosis of paranasal sinuses: A case report with review of literature

    Avinash P Tamgadge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis of the nasal and paranasal sinuses is recognized as being second to candidiasis, among opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. However, invasive variant in normal and mildly immunocompromised hosts is a very rare occurrence. We report one such case of aspergillosis involving paranasal sinuses in mildly immunocompromised patient.

  20. CXCR1-mediated neutrophil degranulation and fungal killing promote Candida clearance and host survival.

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Gao, Ji-Liang; Break, Timothy J; Johnson, Melissa D; Jaeger, Martin; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Lim, Jean K; Green, Nathaniel M; Collar, Amanda L; Fischer, Brett G; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Perfect, John R; Alexander, Barbara D; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G; Murphy, Philip M; Lionakis, Michail S

    2016-01-20

    Systemic Candida albicans infection causes high morbidity and mortality and is now the leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the United States. Neutropenia is a major risk factor for poor outcome in infected patients; however, the molecular factors that mediate neutrophil trafficking and effector function during infection are poorly defined. Using a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, we found that the neutrophil-selective CXC chemokine receptor Cxcr1 and its ligand, Cxcl5, are highly induced in the Candida-infected kidney, the target organ in the model. To investigate the role of Cxcr1 in antifungal host defense in vivo, we generated Cxcr1(-/-) mice and analyzed their immune response to Candida. Mice lacking Cxcr1 exhibited decreased survival with enhanced Candida growth in the kidney and renal failure. Increased susceptibility of Cxcr1(-/-) mice to systemic candidiasis was not due to impaired neutrophil trafficking from the blood into the infected kidney but was the result of defective killing of the fungus by neutrophils that exhibited a cell-intrinsic decrease in degranulation. In humans, the mutant CXCR1 allele CXCR1-T276 results in impaired neutrophil degranulation and fungal killing and was associated with increased risk of disseminated candidiasis in infected patients. Together, our data demonstrate a biological function for mouse Cxcr1 in vivo and indicate that CXCR1-dependent neutrophil effector function is a critical innate protective mechanism of fungal clearance and host survival in systemic candidiasis. PMID:26791948

  1. Psoriasis in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I: A possible complication or a non-endocrine minor component?

    Shital Amin Poojary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I is an autosomal recessive systemic autoimmune disorder, affecting primarily endocrine glands, in which chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an early and prominent manifestation. We describe the rare occurrence of unstable psoriasis (with onset of pustular lesions in a case of APS I without mucocutaneous candidiasis. A patient presenting with unstable psoriasis (with onset of pustular lesions was detected to have persistent hypocalcemia which led to the diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism. Subsequently he was found to have hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, primary adrenal insufficiency (compensated, and coeliac disease, thus confirming the diagnosis of APS I. Psoriasis is very rarely reported in APS I, possibly due to the protective effect of antibodies to Th17 cytokines, which are responsible for the occurrence of candidiasis in this syndrome. However, psoriasis could occur in APS I patients without mucocutaneous candidiasis, who lack these antibodies. In our patient, possible factors aggravating psoriasis include hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism as well as coeliac disease via anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. However, defining psoriasis as a possible minor component of APS I would require further studies of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene functions.

  2. Comparison of Fluconazole and Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Acute Candida Albicans Vulvovaginitis

    Fatemeh Bahadori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared two antifungal drugs, fluconazole and clotrimazole for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 women with vulvo vaginal candidiasis during a six month period. All patients answered a standard questionnaire containing questions about symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and presence of vaginal discharge and signs of vulvar and vaginal inflammation were documented according to physical examination. Two swabs of vaginal discharge were obtained for each woman, one for direct smear, another for culture. The culture medium was Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. Patients were randomized into two groups of clotrimazole (vaginal cream for 7 days and 150 mg fluconazole in a single dose. Clinical and paraclinical responses were calculated.Results: Clinical improvement occurred in 96 cases (80%. This value was 86.7% and 73.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole, respectively (P-value=0.04. Paraclinical response on tenth day of treatment was observed in 87 patients (72.5%. This value was 66.7% and 78.3%for clotrimazole and fluconazole groups, respectively (P-value=0.110. Mean days of treatment was 4.06 ±1.30 days for clotrimazole and 2.70 ±0.78 days for fluconazole (p value =0.031.Conclusion: Most of the clinical and paraclinical responses to the drugs used for the treatment of vulvo vaginal candidiasis are in the favour of fluconazole.

  3. ETUDE PHENOTYPIQUE E T MOLECULAIRE DES CA NDIDOSES VULVO - VAGINALES CHEZ DES P ATIENTES AU MAROC.

    H. BOURA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In vulvovaginal pathology, vaginal candidiasis is the most common etiologies. Candida albicans is involved in more than 75% in this pathology. Our study included 151 vaginal swabs from women atMedical center of the Institute Pasteur in Morocco. Each vaginal swab was exanimated by direct test and culture on specific media.Out 151 samples 18 were positive (11.9% by direct examination. However, culture results showed that 29/151(19.2%positive cases. The identification of positivecultures showed that Candida albicans is present in 21 cases 72%(21/29 of vaginal candidiasis followed byCandida glabrata with a frequency of 24% (7/29, andCandida tropicalis with a frequency of 3.4 % (1/29 .The clinical symptoms were essentially theleucorrhea, itching and sensation of burning.The most age range affected by vaginalcandidiasis is between 22 and 37 years.Our result showed that the prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 19% in Moroccan patient with a predominance ofCandida albicans and a sharp increase invaginal candidiasis due to non albicans species.These results will have an impact on thediagnosis and treatement of vaginal candidisis in Morocco.

  4. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    ... candidiasis. back to top Symptoms The most frequent symptoms of yeast infection in women are itching, burning, and irritation of ... use condoms. Diagnosis Because few specific signs and symptoms of yeast infections are usually present, healthcare providers can't diagnose ...

  5. Enhanced activity of antifungal drugs using natural phenolics against yeast strains of Candida and Cryptococcus

    Candidiasis and cryptococcosis are diseases of widening global incidence as a result of increasing immunosuppressive disorders, such as AIDS. An enduring problem for treatment of these mycoses is recurrent development of resistance to introduced antifungal drugs. We examined the potential for enhan...

  6. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. PMID:26449509

  7. Risk of malformations and other outcomes in children exposed to fluconazole in utero

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Olesen, Charlotte; Larsen, Helle; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Olsen, Jørn; Czeizel, Andrew E.

    1999-01-01

    Aim Fluconazole is an active drug systematically used in the oral treatment of vaginal candidiasis and other fungal diseases. We examined the risk of malformations and other birth outcomes following pregnancy related exposures. Method From 1 January 1991 to 31 December 1996 we identified 165 women...

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Candida albicans and Its Closely Related Yeasts Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana▿

    Romeo, Orazio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We performed a molecular study to determine the occurrence of Candida albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples. The study provides new insights into the epidemiology of candidiasis in hospitalized patients in three hospitals in southern Italy. It also reports the first detailed epidemiological data concerning the occurrence of C. africana in clinical samples.

  9. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis.

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Norelli, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs) and antibody (Abs)-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7) was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2) (PEV7), has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26473934

  10. Antimicrobial effects of liquid anesthetic isoflurane on Candida albicans

    Armstead Valerie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that can grow in yeast morphology or hyphal form depending on the surrounding environment. This ubiquitous fungus is present in skin and mucus membranes as a potential pathogen that under opportunistic conditions causes a series of systemic and superficial infections known as candidiasis, moniliasis or simply candidiasis. There has been a steady increase in the prevalence of candidiasis that is expressed in more virulent forms of infection. Although candidiasis is commonly manifested as mucocutaneous disease, life-threatening systemic invasion by this fungus can occur in every part of the body. The severity of candidal infections is associated with its morphological shift such that the hyphal morphology of the fungus is most invasive. Of importance, aberrant multiplication of Candida yeast is also associated with the pathogenesis of certain mucosal diseases. In this study, we assessed the anti-candidal activity of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in liquid form in comparison with the anti-fungal agent amphotericin B in an in vitro culture system. Exposure of C. albicans to isoflurane (0.3% volume/volume and above inhibited multiplication of yeast as well as formation of hyphae. These data suggest development of potential topical application of isoflurane for controlling a series of cutaneous and genital infections associated with this fungus. Elucidiation of the mechanism by which isoflurane effects fungal growth could offer therapeutic potential for certain systemic fungal infections.

  11. Studies of Immune Responses in Candida vaginitis

    Flavia De Bernardis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread occurrence of vaginal candidiasis and the development of resistance against anti-fungal agents has stimulated interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in an animal model of vaginal candidiasis, the mechanisms that play a role in the induction of mucosal immunity against C. albicans and the interaction between innate and adaptive immunity. Our studies evidenced the elicitation of cell-mediated immunity (CMIs and antibody (Abs-mediated immunity with a Th1 protective immunity. An immune response of this magnitude in the vagina was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis. Overall, our data provide clear evidence that it is possible to prevent C. albicans vaginal infection by active intravaginal immunization with aspartyl proteinase expressed as recombinant protein. This opens the way to a modality for anti-Candida protection at the mucosa. The recombinant protein Sap2 was assembled with virosomes, and a vaccine PEVION7 (PEV7 was obtained. The results have given evidence that the vaccine, constituted of virosomes and Secretory aspartyl proteinase 2 (Sap2 (PEV7, has an encouraging therapeutic potential for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  12. New antifungal agents for the treatment of candidaemia

    Muñoz, Patricia; Guinea, Jesus; Rojas, Loreto; Bouza, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Suspected or proven invasive candidiasis is an important indication for antifungal drugs and a leading cause of death. Prompt initiation of effective therapy has a marked effect on survival, but the indiscriminate application of different risk factor-based prediction models is massively increasing the number of patients treated unnecessarily. Fluconazole resistance levels are

  13. Miconazole-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: formulation and evaluation of a novel formula with high bioavailability and antifungal activity

    Aljaeid, Bader Mubarak; Hosny, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Miconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that has poor aqueous solubility (2.5-fold. Conclusion MN-SLN was more efficient in the treatment of candidiasis with enhanced oral bioavailability and could be a promising carrier for the oral delivery of miconazole. PMID:26869787

  14. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  15. Manifestaciones bucales en pacientes con Lupus Eritematoso Sistmico Oral manifestations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Nathaly ngel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin. El Lupus Eritematoso Sistmico (LES, es una enfermedad autoinmune inflamatoria crnica multisistmica. Los pacientes frecuentemente presentan manifestaciones bucales, lo cual puede ser el primer indicio de la enfermedad. Las lesiones bucales han sido clasificadas como: eritematosas, discoides y de tipo ulcerativo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir las manifestaciones de los tejidos blandos bucales en pacientes con diagnstico de LES y establecer si existe relacin entre estas manifestaciones con el tiempo de diagnstico de la enfermedad, los marcadores inmunolgicos, el compromiso sistmico y el tratamiento farmacolgico. Materiales y mtodos. Se incluyeron 66 pacientes con diagnstico de LES; se les realiz un examen estomatolgico y se recolect informacin demogrfica, clnica y de tratamiento por medio de revisin de historias clnicas y una entrevista. A diez pacientes se les realiz anlisis citolgico para candidiasis. Resultados. 55 pacientes presentaron algn tipo de lesin en cavidad bucal, las cuales fueron: lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis", en 26 pacientes; petequias, en 23; lceras, en 17 y queilitis actnica, en 11 pacientes. La candidiasis oral se asoci con el uso de prednisolona; de los 57 pacientes que tomaban este medicamento, 45.6% presentaban lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis". Sin embargo, no hay asociacin entre la dosis exacta de prednisolona y la presencia o ausencia de lesiones. Conclusiones. Los pacientes a quienes se les administra prednisolona, tienen un riesgo de presentar lesiones "sugestivas de candidiasis" 15.98 veces ms que los que no la toman. Sin embargo, no se encontr asociacin con ningn compromiso sistmico y la presencia de lesiones orales.Objective. Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE frequently experience oral manifestations, which can be the first symptom of the disease. Our objective was to describe the manifestations of oral soft tissue in patients diagnosed with SLE, and to establish whether or not there is a relationship between these manifestations and the time at which the disease was diagnosed, the immunological markers, systemic compromise, and pharmacological treatment. Methods. 66 patients diagnosed with SLE were included in the study. Each patient underwent an estomatological examination, and their demographical, clinical, and treatment information was gathered by way of reviewing their clinical history and by participating in an interview. Cytological analysis was performed on ten patients to test for candidiasis. Results. 55 patients presented some type of oral cavity lesion, which included: 26 patients with lesions "suggestive of candidiasis", 23 with petechiae, 17 with ulcers, and 11 with actinic cheilitis. Oral candidiasis was associated with the use of prednisolone. Of the 57 patients who took this medicine, 45.6% had lesions "suggestive of candidiasis". However, there is no association between the presence or absence of lesions and the exact dose of prednisolone taken. Conclusions. Patients taking prednisolone have 15.98 times more probability of suffering lesions "suggestive of candidiasis" than those who do not take this medication. However, no association was found between systemic compromise and the presence of oral lesions

  16. Comparative analysis of Gram’s method and PAS for the identification of Candida spp. samples from the oral mucosa

    Cátia Martins Leite Padilha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida species are part of the normal microbiota of healthy subjects, living as commensals. However, they can become pathogenic when changes in the mechanisms of host defense or disruption of anatomic barriers occur. Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in the oral cavity, mainly caused by Candida albicans. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and clinical aspects, in association with laboratory methods. Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Gram’s method for Candida spp. identification in scrapes from the buccal mucosa and evaluate the degree of concordance between clinical and cytological methods in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis. Material and methods: A blind study was performed in 170 smears from patients of Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro of Universidade Federal Fluminense (HUAP/UFF, stained by Gram (n = 57, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS (n = 57 and Papanicolaou (Pap (n = 57 methods. Results: The comparative analysis of the methods demonstrated a higher prevalence of Candida spp. (12% in PAS than in Gram staining, without statistic significance. The cytology method was positive in 93% of the clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. Conclusion: Gram was an adequate method; however more intensive professional training would be necessary to identify the fungus morphological structures. Although Pap test is the most common method of routine cytopathologic examination, for candidiasis diagnosis PAS staining is also recommended. Thus, it is suggested that candidiasis diagnosis should be accomplished by clinical evaluation in association with cytopathological analysis based on the identification of hyphae and/or pseudohyphae.

  17. Prevalencia de Lesiones de la Mucosa Oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de Temuco Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions at the Hernán Henríquez Aravena Hospital of Temuco

    Araceli Raposo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral en el Hospital Hernán Henríquez Aravena de la ciudad de Temuco, Chile. La muestra fue de 300 pacientes mayores de 20 años, examinados en el mismo hospital (intervalo de confianza del 95%. La prevalencia de las lesiones de la mucosa oral fue de 66%. Las lesiones más prevalentes fueron; gránulos de Fordyce (30%, candidiasis atrófica (14,33%, mácula melanótica (13,67%, várices orales (7,33%, pigmentación fisiológica (6%, nevos (4%, efélides (3,33%, úlceras traumáticas (4%, leucoplasia (3% y queilitis angular (2,68%. Se encontró una relación directa entre el aumento de la edad y la presencia de candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices, siendo esta asociación estadísticamente significativa. Podemos concluir que existe una alta prevalencia de lesiones de la mucosa oral en la población adulta de la muestra y que la cantidad de estas lesiones se incrementan con la edad (candidiasis atrófica, úlceras traumáticas y várices orales, por lo que es necesario intensificar el diagnóstico precoz y el tratamiento oportuno de ellas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions at the Hernan Henríquez Aravena Hospital in the city of Temuco Chile. Method: The sample consisted of 300 patients aged over 20 years, examined in the same hospital (confidence interval 95%. Results: The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was 66%. The most prevalent lesions were; Fordyce granules (30%, atrophic candidiasis (14.33%, oral melanotic macule (13.67%, oral mucosal varicosities (7.33%, physiological pigmentation (6%, nevus (4%, ephelis (3.33%, traumatic ulcers (4%, leukoplakia (3% and angular cheilitis (2.68%. A direct ratio was found between increased age and the presence of atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and oral mucoral varicosities, this association being statistically significant. It may be concluded that there is a high prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in the adult population of the sample and that the quantity of lesions increases with age (atrophic candidiasis, traumatic ulcers and mucosal varicosities, making it necessary to intensify their early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  18. Vulvovaginitis: correlacin con factores predisponentes, aspectos clnicos y estudios microbiolgicos Vulvovaginitis: correlation with predisposing factors, clinical manifestations and microbiological studies

    S. Fosch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Las vaginitis (V y vaginosis bacterianas (VB constituyen uno de los principales motivos de consultas ginecolgicas. El objeto de este trabajo fue analizar muestras de flujos vaginales para identificar la etiologa infecciosa y su relacin con factores predisponentes asociados (dispositivos intrauterinos, anticonceptivos orales, preservativos y antibiticos previos, y con signos y sntomas. Entre el 1/11/01 y el 30/10/03 se realiz un estudio de corte transversal con 400 mujeres en edad reproductiva y no embarazadas, en un rango de edad de 15 a 55 aos. En el laboratorio se analiz el contenido vaginal mediante examen en fresco, coloraciones (Gram y Giemsa y cultivo. Interpretacin: 1 normales (sin alteraciones manifiestas y sin deteccin de los agentes infecciosos estudiados, 2 infecciosos (con alteraciones manifiestas: vaginosis bacteriana (VB, candidiasis vaginal (CV y tricomoniasis (TC, 3 desequilibrio de la ecologa vaginal (con alteraciones intermedias (D. Los resultados obtenidos fueron: 1 normales, 209 (52,2%; 2 infecciosos, 115 (28,8%, los que incluyeron: VB, 13,5%; CV, 12,5%; TC, 2,8%; y 3 desequilibrio de la ecologa vaginal, 76 (19%. La vaginosis bacteriana y los desequilibrios de la flora se asociaron con la utilizacin de dispositivos intrauterinos, y la candidiasis con el uso de anticonceptivos orales y tratamiento antibitico previo. Las pacientes con candidiasis vaginal y tricomoniasis presentaron mayor porcentaje de sntomas.Vaginitis (V and bacterial vaginosis (BV are one of the most common reasons the middle class patient has to consult a gynaecologist. The purpose of this work is to analyse samples of vaginal fluid targeting the infection etiology and its relationship to related factors: (intrauterine devices, contraceptive pills, condoms, use of antibiotics, symptoms and signs. From November 1, 2001 to October 30, 2003, a cross-section study was carried out of 400 nonpregnant, sexually active women in an age range of 15 to 55. Vaginal secretions were analysed by Gram and Giemsa stains and culturing was used. Interpreting: (1 normal - no observable changes, absence of the infecting agents studied here; (2 infected - changes observed: bacterial vaginosis, vaginal candidiasis (CV and trichomoniasis (TC and (3 imbalance in vagina ecology, with medium alterations (D. Results obtained: (1 normal: 209 (52.2%; infected: 115 (28.8% including 13.5%VB, 12.5% CV, 2.8% TC, and (3 76 (19% with imbalance of vagina ecology. Bacterial vaginosis and flora imbalance were related to the use of intrauterine devices, and candidiasis to contraceptive pills and previous antibiotic use. The number of symptoms increased in patients with vaginal candidiasis and trichomoniasis.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Candida africana in Genital Specimens in Shanghai, China

    Hu, Yang; Yu, Aihua; Chen, Xiangming; Wang, Guojiang; Feng, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Candida africana, an emerging yeast pathogen, is closely related to Candida albicans and most commonly involved in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). However, its prevalence in candidal balanoposthitis is still unclear. In this study, the prevalence of C. africana in both candidal balanoposthitis and VVC in a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Shanghai, China, was analyzed, and the molecular characterization and susceptible profiles of C. africana isolates were investigated. As results, C. africana was only isolated in 5 out of 79 (6.3%) cases of candidal balanoposthitis rather than cases with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Among them, 4 out of 5 isolates share the same genotype of DST 782 with an isolate from vaginal swab in Japan published previously. All C. africana isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and micafungin. PMID:26665002

  20. The Absence of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Causes Attenuation of Virulence of Candida albicans upon Interaction with Vaginal Epithelial Cells In Vitro.

    Manczinger, Máté; Bocsik, Alexandra; Kocsis, Gabriella F; Vörös, Andrea; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Ördögh, Lilla; Kondorosi, Éva; Marton, Annamária; Vízler, Csaba; Tubak, Vilmos; Deli, Mária; Kemény, Lajos; Nagy, István; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular events underlying vulvovaginal candidiasis, we established an in vitro system. Immortalized vaginal epithelial cells were infected with live, yeast form C. albicans and C. albicans cultured in the same medium without vaginal epithelial cells were used as control. In both cases a yeast to hyphae transition was robustly induced. Whole transcriptome sequencing was used to identify specific gene expression changes in C. albicans. Numerous genes leading to a yeast to hyphae transition and hyphae specific genes were upregulated in the control hyphae and the hyphae in response to vaginal epithelial cells. Strikingly, the GlcNAc pathway was exclusively triggered by vaginal epithelial cells. Functional analysis in our in vitro system revealed that the GlcNAc biosynthesis is involved in the adherence to, and the ability to kill, vaginal epithelial cells in vitro, thus indicating the key role for this pathway in the virulence of C. albicans upon vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:26366412

  1. Echinocandins for candidemia: a rational choice

    Francesco Menichetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins (micafungin, caspofungin and anidulafungin represent a rational choice for the first-line therapy of candidemia/invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Among other properties characterizing echinocandins, it’s important to emphasize the broad spectrum of activity, the fungicidal activity against the majority of Candida spp., and the activity against the biofilm. Furthermore, echinocandins show greater efficacy than conventional amphotericin B and fluconazole, and similar efficacy to liposomal amphotericin B (but they are less toxic. Finally, echinocandins are recommended at the highest level of evidence (AI for the treatment of invasive candidiasis by IDSA and ESCMID guidelines.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.872

  2. Fungal infections associated with HIV infection.

    Samaranayake, L P; Fidel, P L; Naglik, J R; Sweet, S P; Teanpaisan, R; Coogan, M M; Blignaut, E; Wanzala, P

    2002-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is perhaps the commonest infection seen in HIV disease. The aim of this workshop was to provide a sketch of the multifarious aspects of the disease from a global perspective. To this end the panellists addressed issues such as the virulence of Candida, emergence of antifungal resistance, management of candidiasis and other exotic, oral mycotic diseases. An all-pervasive theme was the dramatic differences in the management of fungal infections consequential to the availability (or the lack) of anti-HIV drugs in the developed and the developing world. Further, the social stigmata associated with the HIV disease in many developing regions in Africa and Asia appears to modify the therapeutic strategies. Additionally, the lesser-known regional variations in the disease manifestations and therapeutic approaches were stark. Further work is direly needed to address these issues. PMID:12164650

  3. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

  4. Old and new pathogenic Nakaseomyces species: epidemiology, biology, identification, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance.

    Angoulvant, A; Guitard, J; Hennequin, C

    2016-03-01

    During the previous decades, as the number of immunocompromised patients, the average age of Western populations and the widespread use of indwelling medical devices have increased concomitantly, so has the incidence of infections caused by Candida species. Candida albicans remains the most frequently isolated agent of candidiasis. However, C. glabrata now accounts for a substantial part of clinical isolates, ranking number two among the etiologic agents of either superficial or invasive candidiasis in North America and Europe. Along with C. glabrata and belonging to the Nakaseomyces clade, two new species, C. nivariensis and C bracarensis have recently been described as emerging pathogens. This review provides information on the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, biology, identification, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance of C. glabrata, C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis. PMID:26691882

  5. [Oral manifestations in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus].

    Delgado Azañero, W; Mosqueda Taylor, A; Gotuzzo Herencia, E; Sánchez, J

    1989-10-01

    This study describes the stomatological findings reported on 20 Peruvian patients infected by the human AIDS virus. Lesions occurring most frequently were: xerostoma (80%), pseudomembranous candidiasis (70%), commissural cheilitis (55%), atrophy of filiform papillae (40%), ulcerative lesions (30%), vellous leucoplasia (25%) and erithematose or atrophic candidiasis (25%). Prevalence of the diverse lesions detected was correlated with the clinical stage of the disease in order to identify those manifestations that could be considered as early signs or precursors of the Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The present article includes a review of the literature related to those clinical, epidemiological and preventive aspects that the dental surgeon must understand if he is to perform diagnosis and treatment on this type of patients. PMID:2701241

  6. Long-term results of continuous subcutaneous recombinant PTH (1-34) infusion in children with refractory hypoparathyroidism.

    Linglart, Agnès; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Gueorgieva, Iva; Lucchini, Philippe; Silve, Caroline; Bougnères, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Hypoparathyroidism in children is most often due to mutations in genes involved in parathyroid development and calcium homeostasis signaling. Some rare cases result from autoimmune attack on the parathyroid glands as a part of the type 1 polyglandular failure syndrome (autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy). The majority of cases of pediatric hypoparathyroidism are well controlled under conventional treatment with calcium and vitamin D analogs. However, this treatment may be difficult to manage, especially in two situations: 1) in the context of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy and 2) activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor. We successfully treated three patients with hypoparathyroidism with continuous subcutaneous administration of rhPTH(1-34) (recombinant human PTH(1-34)), two of which were refractory to conventional therapy. PMID:21865375

  7. In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Pellati, Donatella; Fiore, Cristina; Armanini, Decio; Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio

    2009-04-01

    Compounds derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root have been used widely for centuries for their numerous therapeutic properties. The present study aimed to test the in vitro activity against Candida albicans strains of the compound 18-beta glycyrrhetinic acid (18-beta GA), derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza species. This antimicrobial activity was assessed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method on C. albicans strains that were isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). The in vitro growth of the C. albicans strains was markedly reduced, in a pH-dependent manner, by relatively low doses (6.2 microg/mL) of 18-beta GA. The results demonstrate that 18-beta GA is a promising biological alternative for the topical treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). PMID:19067381

  8. Uso de anfotericina B en mezcla lipdica: previene la toxicidad de la droga en pacientes crticos? / Use of amphotericin B as lipid emulsions to decrease its toxicity in critical patients

    Glenn, Hernndez P; Fernando, Altermatt C; Francisca, Bernucci P; Darwin, Acua C; Felipe, Apablaza E; Felipe, Valenzuela P; Alvaro, Lefio C; Carlos, Prez C; Guillermo, Bugedo T; Luis, Castillo F.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Amphotericin B is efficacious for the treatment of systemic candidiasis, however it has potentially serious toxic effects. Administration as lipid emulsions has been advocated to decrease its toxicity. Aim: To compare the safety and tolerance of amphotericin B administered as lipid emuls [...] ion or dissolved in dextrose in water. Patients and methods: Forty five patients with confirmed or highly suspected systemic candidiasis were studied. Between January 1996 and June 1997 amphotericin B was administered in dextrose in water to 17 patients (group 1). Between July 1997 and December 1998, the drug was delivered in lipid emulsions (Intralipid, group 2). Clinical and laboratory parameters (serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and potassium), were assessed daily. Results: Both treatment groups were clinically comparable and had the same survival. Accumulative amphotericin B dose administered was 343.2 197 and 414.6 518 mg respectively. Hypokalemia was more frequent in group 2 (52 and 25 % respectively, p

  9. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    Mittal, Subhangi; Roy, Sukhdev; Srivastava, J. N.

    2013-05-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He-Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment.

  10. Atividade antimicrobiana, antiaderente e antifngica in vitro de plantas medicinais brasileiras sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e cepas do gnero Candida In vitro antimicrobial, antiadherent and antifungal activity of Brazilian medicinal plants on oral biofilm microorganisms and strains of the genus Candida

    Pollianna Muniz Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana, antifngica e antiaderente da aroeira-do-serto, malva e goiabeira sobre microrganismos do biofilme dental e candidose oral. Os extratos mostraram-se eficazes, inibindo o crescimento das bactrias do biofilme dental e fungos da candidose oral, sugerindo a utilizao dessas plantas como meio alternativo na teraputica odontolgica.The antimicrobial, antifungal and antiadherent activity of aroeira-do-serto, mallow and guava tree on oral biofilm microorganisms and oral candidiasis was evaluated in vitro. The extracts were shown to be effective in inhibiting the growth of bacteria of the oral biofilm and fungi of oral candidiasis, thus suggesting that these extracts can be used as alternative means of dental therapy.

  11. Fixed drug eruption resulting from fluconazole use: a case report

    Tavallaee Mahkam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with a possible side effect of fixed drug eruption. However, this adverse drug effect is absent from the reported list of possible side effects of fluconazole. We are presenting a rare case in our report. Case presentation A 25-year-old Iranian woman developed fixed drug eruptions on different sites of her body after taking five doses of fluconazole to treat vaginal candidiasis. A positive patch test, positive oral challenge test and skin biopsy were all found to be consistent with fixed drug eruption. Conclusion Fluconazole is a widely prescribed drug, used mainly to treat candidiasis. Fixed drug eruption as a possible side effect of Fluconazole is not well known and thus, the lesions may be misdiagnosed and mistreated. Based on our findings, which are consistent with a number of other practitioners, we recommend adding fixed drug eruption to the list of possible side effects of fluconazole.

  12. Candida Colonization in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Noori Sanami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Candida colonization is a major risk factor for invasive candidiasis in premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the rate, risk factors, and sources of colonization in low birth weight (LBW and very low birth weight (VLBW infants in an NICU. Patients and Methods All cases were classified in to 1 of 2 groups: LBW and VLBW. A questionnaire that collected demographic data was completed for each case. Swabs were obtained from the ear, umbilicus, and rectum, as well as catheters, tracheal tubes, and nasogastric tubes. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 102 cases were examined in this study. The mean weight of the infants was 1720 474 gr (range 850 - 2500 gr. Positive Candida cultures were isolated in 19 (31.7% cases in the LBW group and 20 (47.6% cases in the VLBW group. In addition, 36 (35.3% cases showed signs of sepsis. The mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 1. The umbilicus and rectum were the most common sites for Candida colonization in both groups. The analysis also indicated that the duration of hospitalization, prolonged use of corticosteroids, central venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation were associated with candidiasis infection in VLBW infants while prolonged use of corticosteroids and central venous catheters were major risk factors associated with candidiasis infection in LBW infants. Conclusions These results show that maturity and birth weight are related to a decrease in the risk of developing a candidiasis infection.

  13. Manifestaciones bucales en embarazadas recien diagnosticadas con infecccion por vih/sida

    M E, Guerra; V, Tovar; E, Garrido; Lucila, Blanco; A, Ferreira; A, Carvajal; JR, Len.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realiz con el objetivo de determinar las manifestaciones bucales ms frecuentes en las embarazadas VIH/SIDA. que acudieron al CAPEI/UCV en el 2006. MATERIALES Y MTODOS: Previo consentimiento informado se les realiz la Historia Clnica 30 embarazadas que incluy examen clnico para [...] diagnosticar las manifestaciones bucales. El anlisis estadstico fue descriptivo utilizando la Clasificacin Jerrquica de Ward. RESULTADOS: la manifestacin bucal observada con mayor frecuencia en las embarazadas fue la gingivitis 16 (53;3%), seguida de candidiasis pseudomembranosa y queilitis angular ambas con 9 (30%), aftas recurrentes 6 (20%), eritema marginal lineal 5 (16,67%), xerostomia y candidiasis eritematosas 3 (6,67%) y parotiditis con 1 (3,3%) .CONCLUSIN: Las manifestaciones bucales observadas en las embarazadas VIH/SIDA resaltan la importancia del odontlogo en el diagnstico y manejo de las mismas en nuestra consulta. Abstract in english This study was made with the objective to determine the more frequent oral manifestations in the pregnant VIH/SIDA. that they went to the CAPEI/UCV in 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Previous informed consent was made the Clinical History to them 30 pregnant ones that included clinical examination to d [...] iagnose the oral manifestations. Tests concerning proportions were descriptive using jerarquica ward classification. RESULTS: observed oral manifestation most frequently in the pregnant women was gingivitis 16 (53; 3%),, candidiasis pseudomembranosa 9 (30%), queilitis angular 9 (30%), la aftas recurrentes con 6 (20%), lineal erithema con 5 (16,67%), la xerostomia y candidiasis eritematosas 3 (6,67%); parotiditis 1 (3,3%) CONCLUSION: The presence of oral manifestations that we saw in pregnant HIV women gives relevance to the dentistry in the diagnosis and handling of the infection.

  14. Fungal Disease in Britain and the United States 1850–2000 : Mycoses and Modernity

    Homei, Aya; WORBOYS, MICHAEL

    2013-01-01

    In this book, we discuss the changing medical and public profile of fungal infections in the period 1850–2000. We consider four sets of diseases: ringworm and athlete’s foot (dermatophytosis); thrush or candidiasis (infection with Candida albicans); endemic, geographically specific infections in North America (coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and histoplasmosis) and mycotoxins; and aspergillosis (infection with Aspergillus fumigatus). We discuss each disease in relation to developing medical...

  15. Development and Validation of an In Vivo Candida albicans Biofilm Denture Model▿

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Marchillo, Karen; Spiegel, Carol A.; Andes, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The most common form of oral candidiasis, denture-associated stomatitis, involves biofilm growth on an oral prosthetic surface. Cells in this unique environment are equipped to withstand host defenses and survive antifungal therapy. Studies of the biofilm process on dentures have primarily been limited to in vitro models. We developed a rodent acrylic denture model and characterized the Candida albicans and mixed oral bacterial flora biofilm formation, architecture, and drug resistance in viv...

  16. Investigating Biofilm Production, Coagulase and Hemolytic Activity in Candida Species Isolated From Denture Stomatitis Patients

    Nimet Yigit; Esin Aktas; Saadettin Dagistan; Ahmet Ayyildiz

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Oral candidiasis, in the form of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, represents a common disease in a large percentage of denture wearers, and Candida albicans remains the most commonly isolated species. In this study, we aimed to evaluate biofilm production, coagulase and hemolytic activity of Candida species isolated from denture stomatitis patients. Materials and Methods: This study included 70 patients (31 female, 39 male). Forty-eight of the patients were found to have a po...

  17. Inhibitory effect of farnesol on biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis

    E Zibafar; Hashemi SJ; F Zaini; H. Zeraati; S. Rezaie; Kordbacheh, P.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Candidiasis associated with indwelling medical devices is especially problematic since they can act as substrates for biofilm growth which are highly resistant to antifungal drugs. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits filamentation and biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Since in recent years Candida tropicalis have been reported as an important and common non-albicans Candida species with high drug resistance pattern, the inhibitory effect of farnesol o...

  18. Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis : comparison of biofilm formation in terms of biomass and activity

    Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis are two species responsible for oral candidiasis, especially in immunocompromised patients. Microbial infection is preceded by adherence and biofilm formation. Biofilm formation represents the most common form of C. albicans in the oral cavity and is considered to be one of the most important virulence factors. In this study, the biofilm formation ability of C. dubliniensis was compared with that of C. albicans in terms of biomass (...

  19. Oral hairy leukoplakia of the lips with CMV retinitis in a woman with AIDS

    Ganesh R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A female prostitute, seropositive for HIV by ELISA and Western blot, presenting with mucous lesions of tongue and lower lip and also with unilateral loss of vision of the right eye is discussed. The tongue and lip lesions were confirmed by histopathological examination to be hairy leukoplakia, and the loss of vision was found to be due to retinitis-probably due to cytomegalovirus infection. The patient also had candidiasis, both oral and genital and lymphopaenia.

  20. Clinical Validation of the Analysis of Fluconazole in Oral Fluid in Hospitalized Children

    van der Elst, Kim C. M.; van Alst, Manouche; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; van Hateren, Kai; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Jan-Willem C. Alffenaar; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluconazole is a first-line antifungal agent for the treatment and prophylaxis of invasive candidiasis in pediatric patients. Pediatric patients are at risk of suboptimal drug exposure, due to developmental changes in gastrointestinal and renal function, metabolic capacity, and volume of distribution. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can therefore be useful to prevent underexposure of fluconazole in children and infants. Children, however, often fear needles and can have difficult vascular a...