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1

Oral Candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Oral Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush") Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or ... other Fungal topics, visit the Fungal Homepage. Oral Candidiasis Topics Definition What is oral candidiasis? Symptoms Redness ...

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Oral candidiasis  

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Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic...

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

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Candidiasis (Thrush)  

Science.gov (United States)

... 15, 2013 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 501 Candidiasis (Thrush) WHAT IS THRUSH? CAN IT BE PREVENTED? ... chelitis. In the vagina, the infection is called yeast infection or vaginitis . This is a common vaginal infection. ...

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Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Older people are more likely to get thrush (oral candidiasis). In women, yeast infection is the second most ... References/Trusted Links Related diseases: Erythrasma Intertrigo Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) View all diseases Community: Discussion Forum Skinmatters Blog ...

5

Oropharyngeal candidiasis and radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common condition in cancer patients treated by irradiation, during and after their treatment. For example, almost 70% of patients treated with chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer are colonized, and 40% of symptomatic patients have an oropharyngeal candidiasis. Furthermore, we noticed an increase in non-albicans Candida strains, which are present in almost 50% of samples. Cancer treatments, especially radiation therapy, and co-morbidities are risk factors of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Oropharyngeal candidiasis has substantial effects on quality of life, and may limit treatment. Epidemiologic data, physiopathology, clinical diagnosis criteria, consequences and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis will be discussed in this article. (authors)

2012-01-01

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Candidiasis vaginal en primigestas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar evidencias de candidiasis vaginal en pacientes que acuden a la consulta prenatal de la Maternidad Castillo Plaza, utilizando como medio diagnostico el test Intray Colorex Yeast. Método: Se estudiaron embarazadas primigestas con sospecha clínica de candidiasis vaginal. Las muestras de secreción vaginal se inocularon en el medio Intray Colorex Yeast e incubaron a 37 °C durante 48 a 72 horas. Ambiente: Maternidad Castillo Plaza de Maracaibo, Estado Z (more) ulia. Resultados: Se demostró que un 38% (24 pacientes) presentaron candidiasis vaginal. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (88%), seguida por glabrata (8%) y krusei (4%). Conclusión: El desarrollo de colonias verdes, rosado oscuro y rosado claro (albicans, glabrata y krusei respectivamente) sugiere la utilidad del medio Intray Colorex Yeast para la identificación rápida de las principales especies productoras de candidiasis. Abstract in english Objective: Determine evidence of vaginal candidiasis in first-pregnancy mothers who assisted to pregnancy control to the Maternidad Castillo Plaza, using the test Intray Colorex Yeast as a medium for diagnosis. Method: We were studied first-pregnancy mothers in prenatal control with clinical suspicion of vaginal candidiasis. The samples of the vaginal secretions were inoculated on Intray Colorex Yeast medium and incubated to 37°C during 48- 72 hours. Setting: Maternidad (more) Castillo Plaza . Maracaibo, Estado Zulia Results: The study demostrated that 38% (24 patients) presented vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (88%) followed by glabrata (8%) and krusei (4%). Conclusion: The development of the green colonies, dark pink and light pink characteristic of albicans, glabrata and krusei suggest the possible use of the Intray Colorex Yeast medium for quickly identification of the Candida species investigated.

Torres, Karleidy; Soto, Augusto; Sandrea, Desiré; Villalobos, María; Rodríguez, Agustin; Hassanhi, Manzur; Mesa, Luz Mila

2005-06-01

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Candidiasis vaginal en primigestas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar evidencias de candidiasis vaginal en pacientes que acuden a la consulta prenatal de la Maternidad Castillo Plaza, utilizando como medio diagnostico el test Intray Colorex Yeast. Método: Se estudiaron embarazadas primigestas con sospecha clínica de candidiasis vaginal. Las muestras de secreción vaginal se inocularon en el medio Intray Colorex Yeast e incubaron a 37 °C durante 48 a 72 horas. Ambiente: Maternidad Castillo Plaza de Maracaibo, Estado Zulia. Resultados: Se demostró que un 38% (24 pacientes) presentaron candidiasis vaginal. Candida albicans fue la especie más frecuente (88%), seguida por glabrata (8%) y krusei (4%). Conclusión: El desarrollo de colonias verdes, rosado oscuro y rosado claro (albicans, glabrata y krusei respectivamente) sugiere la utilidad del medio Intray Colorex Yeast para la identificación rápida de las principales especies productoras de candidiasis.Objective: Determine evidence of vaginal candidiasis in first-pregnancy mothers who assisted to pregnancy control to the Maternidad Castillo Plaza, using the test Intray Colorex Yeast as a medium for diagnosis. Method: We were studied first-pregnancy mothers in prenatal control with clinical suspicion of vaginal candidiasis. The samples of the vaginal secretions were inoculated on Intray Colorex Yeast medium and incubated to 37°C during 48- 72 hours. Setting: Maternidad Castillo Plaza . Maracaibo, Estado Zulia Results: The study demostrated that 38% (24 patients) presented vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species (88%) followed by glabrata (8%) and krusei (4%). Conclusion: The development of the green colonies, dark pink and light pink characteristic of albicans, glabrata and krusei suggest the possible use of the Intray Colorex Yeast medium for quickly identification of the Candida species investigated.

Karleidy Torres; Augusto Soto; Desiré Sandrea; María Villalobos; Agustin Rodríguez; Manzur Hassanhi; Luz Mila Mesa

2005-01-01

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Miconazole in oral candidiasis.  

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Twenty-four patients were treated with oral miconazole (250 mg) for a total of 35 episodes of oral candidiasis. Sixteen had various forms of leukaemia and all were massively predisposed to fungal infection because of granulocytopenia and treatment with prednisolone and antibiotics. Clinical cure was...

Brincker, H

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Candidiasis in Simian Primates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candidiasis was diagnosed in 6 monkeys over a 10-month period. Most cases had been on antibiotic therapy for enterocolitis. Fungal invasion was seen in epithelium of the tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, and colon, and hard keratin of the nails. Gross lesio...

J. G. Fox R. M. Kovatch S. E. Wikse

1970-01-01

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Candidiasis in Simians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candidiasis was diagnosed in six monkeys over a 10-month period. Most cases had been on antibiotic therapy for enterocolitis. Fungal invasion was seen in epithelium of the tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, and colon, and in hard keratin of the nails. Gross ...

S. E. Wikse J. G. Fox R. M. Kovatch

1969-01-01

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Humoral immunity in vaginal candidiasis.  

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Serum antibody titers to Candida albicans were estimated in 37 women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis and in 148 normal American and Finnish subjects, using the passive-hemagglutination technique. The antibody titers ranged from 0 to 16 in normal individuals and 4 to 256 in vaginal candidiasis pat...

Mathur, S; Koistinen, G V; Horger, E O; Mahvi, T A; Fudenberg, H H

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Oral Candidiasis and Oral Hyperplastic Candidiasis: Clinical Presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection of the oral cavity. It is common and underdiagnosed among the elderly, particularly in those who wear dentures and in many cases is avoidable with a good mouth care regimen. It can also be a mark of systemic disease, such as diabetes mellitus and is a common problem among the immunocompromised. Oral candidiasis is caused by an overgrowth or infection of the oral cavity by a yeast-like fungus, candida.The important ones are C albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata , C pseudotropicalis, C guillierimondii, C krusei, C lusitaniae, C parapsilosis and C stellatoidea. C albicans, C glabrata and C tropicalis represent more than 80% of isolates from clinical infection. Oral candidiasis is the most common human fungal infection especially in early and later life. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis and angular cheilitis. Chronic hyperplastic candidosis/candidiasis (CHC; syn. candidal leukoplakia) is a variant of oral candidosis that typically presents as a white patch on the commissures of the oral mucosa. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing`s syndrome, malignancies and immunosuppressive conditions. The aim of the research is to describe the clinical manifestations of the disease.

G.A. Scardina; G. Fuca; A. Ruggieri; F. Carini; A. Cacioppo; V. Valenza; P. Messina

2007-01-01

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Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

1989-01-01

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Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

1989-07-01

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Psychological factors associated with recurrent vaginal candidiasis: a preliminary study  

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OBJECTIVE: To identify psychological factors associated with chronic recurrent vaginal candidiasis. DESIGN: A cross sectional exploratory study of women with chronic, recurrent vaginal candidiasis. PATIENTS: 28 women found culture positive and treated for vaginal candidiasis by a clinic physici...

Irving, G.; Miller, D.; Robinson, A.; Reynolds, S.; Copas, A. J.

16

Oral candidiasis and human immunodeficiency virus infection  

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The association of oral candidiasis with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known since the advent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and its diagnosis may have grave prognostic ...

Samaranayake, LP; Holmstrup, P

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Rethinking T cell immunity in oropharyngeal candidiasis  

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The disproportionate increase in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) compared with systemic and vaginal candidiasis in female patients with AIDS has been a paradox for almost three decades. New data now show that severe OPC develops in Th17-deficient mice, but not Th1-deficient mice, implicating Th17-in...

Pirofski, Liise-anne; Casadevall, Arturo

18

Challenging issues in neonatal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an era of quality improvement and 'getting to zero (infections and/or related mortality),' neonatal candidiasis is ripe for evidence-based initiatives. Knowledge of each institution's invasive Candida infection (ICI) incidence and infection-related mortality is critical to evaluate disease burden and effective interventions. Evidenced-based interventions include: antifungal prophylaxis, starting with appropriate dosing, and prompt removal of central venous catheters (CVC). There is A-I evidence supporting antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, and it should be considered in every neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The literature supports targeting infants vaginal candidiasis, especially with preterm labor or complications. Targeting modifiable risk factors, including restriction policies for use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, H2-antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, and postnatal steroids; guidelines for CVC care and removal; and feeding practices, with promotion of early feedings and breast milk, may also reduce risk. A few studies have emerged on empiric antifungal therapy with sepsis evaluations for preterm infants 1000 g and >or=28 weeks not receiving antifungal prophylaxis. Evaluation of ICI incidence and mortality by gestational age and birth week should be followed in each NICU, to evaluate infection control and prevention. PMID:20513206

Kaufman, David A

2010-07-01

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Challenging issues in neonatal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In an era of quality improvement and 'getting to zero (infections and/or related mortality),' neonatal candidiasis is ripe for evidence-based initiatives. Knowledge of each institution's invasive Candida infection (ICI) incidence and infection-related mortality is critical to evaluate disease burden and effective interventions. Evidenced-based interventions include: antifungal prophylaxis, starting with appropriate dosing, and prompt removal of central venous catheters (CVC). There is A-I evidence supporting antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole, and it should be considered in every neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The literature supports targeting infants <1000 g and/or candidiasis, especially with preterm labor or complications. Targeting modifiable risk factors, including restriction policies for use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, H2-antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, and postnatal steroids; guidelines for CVC care and removal; and feeding practices, with promotion of early feedings and breast milk, may also reduce risk. A few studies have emerged on empiric antifungal therapy with sepsis evaluations for preterm infants <1500 g and other high-risk patients that have shown favorable effects of eliminating mortality, but these have not been compared to appropriate antifungal therapy and central line removal. Further study of empiric therapy, prospective treatment studies with higher targeted dosing of amphotericin B preparations, fluconazole, and new antifungals with prompt CVC removal may contribute to a 100% survival rate for those infants >1000 g and >or=28 weeks not receiving antifungal prophylaxis. Evaluation of ICI incidence and mortality by gestational age and birth week should be followed in each NICU, to evaluate infection control and prevention.

Kaufman DA

2010-07-01

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Rethinking T cell immunity in oropharyngeal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The disproportionate increase in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) compared with systemic and vaginal candidiasis in female patients with AIDS has been a paradox for almost three decades. New data now show that severe OPC develops in Th17-deficient mice, but not Th1-deficient mice, implicating Th17-induced effector molecules in resistance to oral disease. These findings clarify and extend our current thinking about how CD4 T cell deficiency influences susceptibility to OPC. PMID:19204107

Pirofski, Liise-anne; Casadevall, Arturo

2009-02-09

 
 
 
 
21

Rethinking T cell immunity in oropharyngeal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The disproportionate increase in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) compared with systemic and vaginal candidiasis in female patients with AIDS has been a paradox for almost three decades. New data now show that severe OPC develops in Th17-deficient mice, but not Th1-deficient mice, implicating Th17-induced effector molecules in resistance to oral disease. These findings clarify and extend our current thinking about how CD4 T cell deficiency influences susceptibility to OPC.

Pirofski LA; Casadevall A

2009-02-01

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Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIM: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is relatively frequent condition, and may have serious health consequences, like chronic vulvovaginal pain syndrome. The aim of our study was to determine possible risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant females within the reproductive age. METHODS: The design of our study was of a case-control type. Case and control patients were selected from the gynecological patients at six primary care facilities in Serbia and in Montenegro. The data on the patients' health condition, concomitant therapy and diseases were taken from their records, and the data on habits were obtained by unstructured interview. For potential risk factors crude odds ratios were calculated, and then adjusted by logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of fifty-one patients had four or more episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis during the last year (cases), and 132 patients with one to three episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled as controls, matched by age. The only two significant associations were found between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and continual wearing of panty liners during the last year (Odds ratio - OR adjusted: 3.97; confidence interval--CI: 1.57-10.02;p = 0.004), and between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and predominant use of vaginal tampons during menstruation in the last year (OR adjusted: 4.25; CI: 1.11-16.27;p = 0.035). The synergistic effect was observed for the concurrent continual wearing of panty liners during the last year and self-medication with antimycotics. CONCLUSIONS: Local factors, like wearing of panty liners or use of tampons during menstruation, may promote recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, especially in patients who practice self-medication with antimycotics.

Jankovi? S; Bojovi? D; Vukadinovi? D; Daglar E; Jankovi? M; Laudanovi? D; Luki? V; Miskovi? V; Potpara Z; Projovi? I; Cokanovi? V; Petrovi? N; Foli? M; Savi? V

2010-10-01

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Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23705242

Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

2013-04-01

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Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.

Lalla RV; Patton LL; Dongari-Bagtzoglou A

2013-04-01

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Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis Recurrence During Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis is the most common gynecologic condition seen by practitioners rendering primary care to women. Vulvovaginitis Candidiasis (VVC) is the most common type of vaginitis and this study aimed at specifying VVC recurrence during pregnancy. In this prospective study, 150 pregnant women suffering from vaginal excretion, morsus and itching were studied. Initially, the patients were treated using clotrimazole local cream (5 g) for 7 successive days. After initial treatment, the patients were freely visited once a month until delivery considering vaginitis symptoms and VVC recurrence was examined during pregnancy. Mean age of the understudy mothers was 27.26±3.76. Mean of recurrence number was 0.17±0.48 during the first trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 0.92±0.76 during the second trimester. Mean of recurrence number was 2.16±0.63 during the third trimester. Statistically significant difference was between recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy (p<0.001). There is statistically significant difference between mean number of recurrences during three trimesters of pregnancy.

Z. Fardiazar; F. Ronaci; R. Torab; M. Goldust

2012-01-01

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Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia  

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Full Text Available La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC) y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento.Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B followed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

A. Larregina; B. Bartoletti; H. Romano; L. Paniccia; N. N. Polini

2004-01-01

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Candidiasis hepatoesplénica en un paciente con leucemia mieloide aguda/ Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute myeloid leukemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La candidiasis diseminada crónica, principalmente en su variedad hepatoesplénica, es una de las formas clínicas más características de infección invasora por Candida en pacientes hematológicos. Se presenta el caso clínico de un varón de 31 años, con leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA) M2, internado en el Servicio de Clínica Médica del hospital, que luego del tratamiento quimioterápico de inducción y consolidación presentó neutropenia febril leve. La candidiasis (more) hepatoesplénica fue diagnosticada por tomografía axial computada (TAC) y biopsia hepática. El enfermo fue tratado con anfotericina B, seguida de la forma liposomal hasta completar los 4 g. Se le dió el alta en espera de transplante de médula ósea. En este paciente se demostró que la sospecha temprana de candidiasis hepatoesplénica ayudó en la elección de un método de diagnóstico precoz y a su correcto tratamiento. Abstract in english Chronic diseminated candidiasis - mainly its hepatosplenic form- is one of the most characteristic invasive infection due to Candida in haematological patients. A case is presented of a 31 year old man admitted to the Clinical Department with acute mieloid leukosis M2, showing febrile neutropenia after induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Hepatoesplenic candidiasis was diagnosed and confirmed by computered axial tomography (CAT) and hepatic biopsy; amphotericin B fol (more) lowed by liposome encapsuled amphotericin B up to complete a total dose of 4 g was used for treatment. The patient was discharged waiting for bone marrow transplantation. Early suspicion of hepatosplenic candidiasis helps to select a rapid diagnosis method and an effective treatment.

Larregina, A.; Bartoletti, B.; Romano, H.; Paniccia, L.; Polini, N. N.

2004-03-01

28

Oral Candida: clearance, colonization, or candidiasis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans is frequently isolated from the human mouth, yet few carriers develop clinical signs of candidiasis. Oral candidiasis presents clinically in many forms. This reflects the ability of the yeast to colonize different oral surfaces and the variety of factors which predispose the host to Candida colonization and subsequent infection. Colonization of the oral cavity appears to be facilitated by several specific adherence interactions between C. albicans and oral surfaces which enable the yeast to resist host clearance mechanisms. Thus, Candida has been shown to adhere to complement receptors, various extracellular matrix proteins, and specific sugar residues displayed on host or bacterial surfaces in the oral cavity. Oral candidiasis results from yeast overgrowth and penetration of the oral tissues when the host's physical and immunological defenses have been undermined. Tissue invasion may be assisted by secreted hydrolytic enzymes, hyphal formation, and contact sensing. While these and other phenotypic characteristics may endow certain Candida species or strains with a competitive advantage in the oral cavity, it is the host's immune competence that ultimately determines whether clearance, colonization, or candidiasis occurs.

Cannon RD; Holmes AR; Mason AB; Monk BC

1995-05-01

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Cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy and oral candidiasis  

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The increased incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with malignancies stems partly from the systemic disease itself and, partly from the therapeutic measures such as cytotoxic and other immunosuppressive drugs and radiotherapy they receive during management of such malignancies. In this review w...

Soysa, NS; Samaranayake, LP; Ellepola, ANB

30

Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Animal Models  

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Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, r...

Samaranayake, Yuthika H.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

31

Experimental oral candidiasis in animal models  

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Oral candidiasis is as much the final outcome of the vulnerability of the host as of the virulence of the invading organism. We review here the extensive literature on animal experiments mainly appertaining to the host predisposing factors that initiate and perpetuate these infections. The monkey, r...

Samaranayake, YH; Samaranayake, LP

32

Association of oral candidiasis with diabetic control.  

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Factors associated with oral candidiasis in 51 diabetics were examined. The prevalence of oral yeast infection was 49 (n = 25)%. The association with diabetic control, as measured by fasting blood glucose concentration, urinary glucose concentration, and glycosylated haemoglobin, with the presence o...

Hill, L V; Tan, M H; Pereira, L H; Embil, J A

33

Butoconazole and miconazole in treating vaginal candidiasis.  

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In a single blind trial, a three day course of butoconazole nitrate cream was compared with a seven day course of miconazole nitrate cream, both applied intravaginally, in treating vaginal candidiasis. They were equally effective. The cure rate for patients treated with butoconazole was 82.8% at the...

Bradbeer, C S; Mayhew, S R; Barlow, D

34

Candidiasis cutánea generalizada en recién nacido a término/ Generalized cutaneous candidiasis in newborn at term  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. La candidiasis cutánea es una enfermedad que afecta tanto a población infantil como adulta. Las forma de presentación puede ser localizada o sistémica y el agente etiológico múltiple, siendo las especies infecciosas de Candida albicans más prevalentes en niños. Objetivo. Presentar un caso de candidiasis cutánea congénita cuya causa aparente fue la transmisión vertical durante el parto. Material y metodología. Se describe el caso de un recién na (more) cido a término expuesto a una candidiasis vaginal subclínica, que desarrolló una candidiasis cutánea congénita por C. albicans asociada a sepsis y dificultad respiratoria en las primeras 24 horas de vida. Se practicaron hemocultivos, biopsia cutánea de las lesiones pápulopústulo-vesiculosas, análisis de sangre y punción lumbar. Resultados. En la bioquímica y el hemograma se encontró una proteína C reactiva de 5,7 mg/dl, leucocitosis con desviación a la izquierda y anemia leve. A las 24 horas, en el control se encontró una proteína C reactiva (7,82 mg/dl) que fue en aumento progresivo durante tres días, por lo que se practicó punción lumbar. El hemocultivo fue positivo para Staphylococcus aureus. La biopsia cutánea dio como resultado histológico la candidiasis cutánea. Conclusiones. El diagnóstico precoz es fundamental para prevenir complicaciones derivadas del cuadro producido por C. albicans en neonatos. Abstract in english Introduction. Cutaneous candidiasis is a disease that affects children as well as adults. The presentation may be localized or systemic, and with multiple etiological agents. The most prevalent infecting species in children differs from that of the adult. Objective. A case is presented where a congenital cutaneous candidiasis was transmitted to the child during birth. Materials and methods. A full term newborn was exposed to a subclinical vaginal candidiasis infection, an (more) d 24 hr after birth, developed congenital cutaneous candidiasis. The etiological agent was Candida albicans, and was associated with sepsis and respiratory distress. Blood cultures, cutaneous biopsy of vesicular lesions, blood tests and lumbar puncture were performed. Results. Biochemistry and blood count showed a CRP of 5.7 mg/dl, leukocytosis with left shift and mild anemia. After 24 hr, the blood analyses showed an increase in a CRP (7.8 mg/dl) and increased progressively for three days; consequently, a lumbar puncture was performed. Blood culture was positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Cutaneous biopsy confirmed the cutaneous candidiasis. Conclusions. The early diagnosis is essential to prevent complications derived by the Candida albicans in newborns.

El Ahmed, Husein Husein; Cañadas-De la Fuente; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Cantero-Hinojosa, Jesús; Lardón-Fernández, Marita

2012-06-01

35

Candida zeylanoides causing candidiasis as tinea cruris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida zeylanoides caused candidiasis as tinea cruris in 4 cases. Candida zeylanoides were characterized by good growth of the strain in malt medium, potato dextrose agar and Sabourard's agar. Their colony was milky white and greasy with smooth surface. The diameter of the colony reaches 12 mm within a week. As candida type pseudohyphae but not hyphae, they do not produce ascospore and bolospore. Carbon sources fermentation showed positive results. Nitrogen sources assimilation agar (KNO3) negative, arbutin agar negative, nonvitamin medium positive. G+C mol% value of their DNA was 51.24. Animal experiment showed that guinea pigs were infected by Candida zeylanoides. The main feature of candidiasis as tinea cruris caused by the strain was pink infiltrative erythema with clear margin, a lot of grain-sized papules, a few vesicles, and thin scales. The disease can be cured by preparation of ketoconazole.

Liao WQ; Li ZG; Guo M; Zhang JZ

1993-07-01

36

AMPHOTERICIN B AND NEONATAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS  

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Full Text Available Systemic candidiasis i" a major problem in high risk neonates. Mortality is high but may be reduced by prompt antifungal therapy."nY> c administered amphotericin li to 22 infants lift preterm with imtin birti' weigh: < ISOOg; mean gestational age .t2 i 2 weeks} tun! 4 full term newborn (mean birth weith, MIX- z. 200g. mean gestational age, .M ± .i weeks) infant;. with systeoiii candidiasis. During the IO year period. 22 infants wiln systemic Candida! infection were identified. Ill males and 12 female Within 5 days of starting therapy. 3 infants died I nun overwhelming and severe multisystem involvement, including centra; nervous system Candida infection. Altnoiu-h amphotericin B' may have contributed to the death of -> infants, ovens-helming disseminated Candida infection was the more likely cause. Our experience supports the opinion that infants taurnic amphotericin H well.

G. Khotaei

1999-01-01

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Micosis superficiales: Candidiasis y pitiriasis versicolor  

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Full Text Available Se exponen las características clínicas de las lesiones cutáneas en las candidiasis y la pitiriasis versicolor. Se hace hincapié en las medidas de educación, prevención y control de estas afecciones a nivel primario de atención médica. Se exponen además las diferentes maniobras terapéuticas, tanto tópicas como sistémicas, con las que se cuenta para su tratamiento, y se hace referencia a las medidas terapéuticas alternativas que brinda la medicina natural y tradicional para estas afecciones.The clinical characteristics of the skin lesions in candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor are dealth with. Emphasis is made on the measures of education, prevention and control of these affections at the primary health care level. The different topic and systematic therapeutic maneuvers to be used in the treatment are explained. Reference is made to the alternative therapeutic measures offered by traditional and natural medicine for these affections.

Rubén José Larrondo Muguercia; Aymée Rosa González Angulo; Luis Manuel Hernández García

2001-01-01

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Symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study aimed to examine the incidence, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic candidiasis in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and to determine the risk factors associated with symptomatic candidiasis. Methods This retrospective study included 67 patients from a 7-bed PICU in a tertiary care hospital that had Candida-positive cultures between April 2007 and July 2009. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, Candida isolates, antimicrobial and antifungal treatments, and previously identified risk factors for symptomatic candidiasis were recorded, and symptomatic and asymptomatic patients were compared. Results In all, 36 (53.7%) of the patients with Candida-positive cultures had asymptomatic candidiasis and 31 (46.3%) had symptomatic candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most common Candida sp. in the asymptomatic patients (n = 20, 55.6%), versus Candida parapsilosis in the symptomatic patients (n = 15, 48.4%). The incidence of central venous catheter indwelling, blood transfusion, parenteral nutrition, and surgery was higher in the symptomatic patient group than in the asymptomatic patient group (P Conclusion Surgery was the only risk factor significantly associated with symptomatic candidiasis and non-albicans Candida species were more common among the patients with symptomatic candidiasis. While treating symptomatic candidiasis in any PICU an increase in the incidence of non-albicans candidiasis should be considered.

Arslankoylu Ali Ertug; Kuyucu Necdet; Yilmaz Berna; Erdogan Semra

2011-01-01

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Invasive candidiasis in pediatric intensive care units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candidemia and disseminated candidiasis are major causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients especially in the intensive care units (ICU). The incidence of invasive candidasis is on a steady rise because of increasing use of multiple antibiotics and invasive procedures carried out in the ICUs. Worldwide there is a shifting trend from C. albicans towards non albicans species, with an associated increase in mortality and antifungal resistance. In the ICU a predisposed host in one who is on broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, and central venous catheters. There are no pathognomonic signs or symptoms. The clinical clues are: unexplained fever or signs of severe sepsis or septic shock while on antibiotics, multiple, non-tender, nodular erythematous cutaneous lesions. The spectrum of infection with candida species range from superficial candidiasis of the skin and mucosa to more serious life threatening infections. Treatment of candidiasis involves removal of the most likely source of infection and drug therapy to speed up the clearance of infection. Amphotericin B remains the initial drug of first choice in hemodynamically unstable critically ill children in the wake of increasing resistance to azoles. Evaluation of newer antifungal agents and precise role of prophylactic therapy in ICU patients is needed.

Singhi S; Deep A

2009-10-01

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Hepatosplenic candidiasis in acute leukemia patients  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Hepatosplenic candidiasis is a disseminated invasive fungal infection that may affects patients with acute leukemia. The main clinical manifestation is a persistent fever in patients recovered from prolonged neutropenia after recent chemotherapy. CASE OUTLINE The authors present three patients, two women and one men, aged 23, 26 and 33 years, with acute leukemia; one with acute myeloblastic and two with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed hepatosplenic candidiasis. The diagnosis was based on prolonged fever, elevated serum bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase, as well as characteristic lesions on computed tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and ultrasonographic findings and positive blood culture in one patient. The antifungal treatment was successful in one patient only. Two patients died due to progression of leukemia. CONCLUSION If leukemia patient in remission after chemotherapy develops a prolonged fever of unknown origin, hepatosplenic candidiasis has to be considered and all efforts should be done to diagnose it. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and imaging techniques. The positive cultures of fungi are not usually possible and are not mandatory. The antifungal treatment may be prolonged, sometimes 2 to 3 months or even more.

Raji? Zoran; ?olovi? Nataša; Sretenovi? Mirjana; Ple?i? Mira; Jankovi? Snežana; Bakra? Milena; ?olovi? Milica

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Ultrastructural Features of Host-Parasite Relationship in Oral Candidiasis  

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In oral candidiasis, many keratinized epithelial cells and cells of Candida albicans are shed. Scales from patients with oral candidiasis were used for electron microscopic study of the epithelial-fungal relationship. Scales, scraped from the tongue and oral mucosa, were fixed for fungi. Electron mi...

Montes, Leopoldo F.; Wilborn, Walter H.

42

Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

2000-01-01

43

Radiological findings in the diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of fungus balls within the collecting system is an important clue to the radiological diagnosis of genitourinary candidiasis. In this report, an 8-month-old infant with this opportunistic infection is described. Emphasis is placed on the radiological findings of renal candidiasis, including previously unreported MR appearances. Sonographic and Doppler findings of accompanying Candida epididymitis are also described. (orig.)

Erden, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey); Hafta Sokak, Ankara (Turkey); Fitoz, S.; Karaguelle, T.; Tuekel, S.; Akyar, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ankara (Turkey)

2000-12-01

44

The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p < 0.01) in the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p < 0.001) in patients with Candida spp. positive hemocultures rather then in patients with Candida spp. negative hemocultures. In the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p < 0.05). Correlation of results of hemoculture and mannan antigens and antibodies in patients with disseminated candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

Gegi? M; Numanovi? F; Delibegovi? Z; Tihi? N; Nurki? M; Huki? M

2013-03-01

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CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS - A CASE REPORT  

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Full Text Available Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis(CMC) is a rare group of overlapping syndromes that have in common a clinical pattern of persistent and diffuse cutaneous or mucosal candidal infections. It is usually associated with multiple endocrine dysfunctions and autoimmune disorders therefore patients needs a complete systemic evaluation. Patients of CMC are also susceptible to other fungal and viral infections due to impaired cell mediated immunity. We report a case of CMC wherein the cutaneous and mucosal lesions were not associated with any systemic disorder. The patient responded to topical clotrimazole.

Hassan Iffat; Mashkoor Ahmed; Hayat Bhat Mohammad; Manaan Qazi; Shah Parvaiz Ahmad; Masood Qazi

2010-01-01

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Candidiasis de la mucosa bucal: Revisión bibliográfica  

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Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión de la literatura actualizada de una de las enfermedades más frecuentes de la mucosa bucal y la afección micótica más común en esta localización: la candidiasis de la mucosa bucal. Se detallan los factores predisponentes generales y locales que favorecen la aparición de esta alteración patológica como son los tratamientos prolongados con antibióticos, la diabetes, la anemia, la radioterapia y quimioterapia antineoplásicas, las drogas inmunosupresoras y el SIDA, entre otros. Se exponen las diferentes clasificaciones clínicas, según el criterio de distintos autores y el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Finalmente se presentan alternativas terapéuticas tanto en el campo de la medicina convencional como en el de la medicina tradicional y natural.This paper presents an updated literature review of one of the most frequent diseases in the oral mucosa and the most common mycotic affection in this site, i.e, oral mucosal candidiasis. The general and local predisposing factors that favor the occurrence of this pathological disorder such as extended antibiotic treatments, diabetes, anemia, anti-neoplastic radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunosuppresive drugs, AIDS, among others. Different clinical classifications, according to several authors´ criteria and the clinical picture of the disease, are stated. Finally, therapeutical options in the fields of conventional medicine and traditional and natural medicine are presented.

Judy Rodríguez Ortega; Josefa Miranda Tarragó; Haydée Morejón Lugones; Julio C Santana Garay

2002-01-01

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Genotypes of Candida albicans involved in development of candidiasis and their distribution in oral cavity of non-candidiasis individuals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genotype characteristics and distribution of commensal Candida albicans should be studied to predict the development of candidiasis, however, extensive genotype analysis of commensal C. albicans has not been made. In this study, 508 C. albicans isolates were collected from patients with/without candidiasis and divided into 4 isolate groups (SG-1, oral cavity of non-candidiasis patients; SG-2, patients with cutaneous candidiasis; SG-3, patients with vaginal candidiasis; SG-4, patients with candidemia). These isolates were characterized to study the relationship between genotypes and pathogenicity using microsatellite analysis. Using CDC3 and CAI, 5 genotypes (I, 111: 115/33: 41; II, 115: 119/23: 23; III, 115: 123/18: 27; IV, 115: 123/33: 40; and V, 123: 127/32: 41) were found in 4.2%, 8.9%, 7.1%, 2.2% and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively. Genotypes II and III were commonly found in all isolate groups. These genotypes were further divided into 28 types by additional HIS3 and CAIII microsatellite markers. In this analysis, C. albicans with type 6 and type 23 was widely distributed as a commensal species in the oral cavity of non-candidiasis patients and found to be related with candidiasis development. Additionally, genotypes I and IV were found in SG-2 and/or SG-4, suggesting that the fungus with those genotypes is also involved in this development. In contrast, genotype V was not identified in any infective isolates.

Takagi Y; Hattori H; Adachi H; Takakura S; Horii T; Chindamporn A; Kitai H; Tanaka R; Yaguchi T; Fukano H; Kawamoto F; Shimozato K; Kanbe T

2011-01-01

48

Genotypes of Candida albicans involved in development of candidiasis and their distribution in oral cavity of non-candidiasis individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genotype characteristics and distribution of commensal Candida albicans should be studied to predict the development of candidiasis, however, extensive genotype analysis of commensal C. albicans has not been made. In this study, 508 C. albicans isolates were collected from patients with/without candidiasis and divided into 4 isolate groups (SG-1, oral cavity of non-candidiasis patients; SG-2, patients with cutaneous candidiasis; SG-3, patients with vaginal candidiasis; SG-4, patients with candidemia). These isolates were characterized to study the relationship between genotypes and pathogenicity using microsatellite analysis. Using CDC3 and CAI, 5 genotypes (I, 111: 115/33: 41; II, 115: 119/23: 23; III, 115: 123/18: 27; IV, 115: 123/33: 40; and V, 123: 127/32: 41) were found in 4.2%, 8.9%, 7.1%, 2.2% and 3.1% of the isolates, respectively. Genotypes II and III were commonly found in all isolate groups. These genotypes were further divided into 28 types by additional HIS3 and CAIII microsatellite markers. In this analysis, C. albicans with type 6 and type 23 was widely distributed as a commensal species in the oral cavity of non-candidiasis patients and found to be related with candidiasis development. Additionally, genotypes I and IV were found in SG-2 and/or SG-4, suggesting that the fungus with those genotypes is also involved in this development. In contrast, genotype V was not identified in any infective isolates. PMID:22123330

Takagi, Yuki; Hattori, Hisao; Adachi, Hidesada; Takakura, Shunji; Horii, Toshinobu; Chindamporn, Ariya; Kitai, Hiroki; Tanaka, Reiko; Yaguchi, Takashi; Fukano, Hideo; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Shimozato, Kazuo; Kanbe, Toshio

2011-01-01

49

Candidiasis mucocutánea crónica: Informe de un caso/ Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La candidiasis mucocutánea crónica (CMC) es una inmunodeficiencia primaria que se caracteriza por infecciones candidiásicas persistentes o recurrentes en piel, uñas o membranas mucosas. La CMC puede asociarse con endocrinopatías, como hipoparatiroidismo, enfermedad de Addison, hipotiroidismo, diabetes mellitus de tipo 1 o hipogonadismo; otras patologías asociadas son enfermedades autoinmunitarias, como gastritis autoinmunitarias y hepatitis autoinmunitaria. Se prese (more) nta una paciente con CMC con déficit específico de linfocitos T y células NK, sin otra enfermedad asociada. Abstract in english Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails and/or mucosal tissues. CMC can be associated with endocrinopathies such as hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, type 1 diabetes mellitus or hypogonadism. Other associated conditions include autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune gastritis and autoimmune hepatitis. We report a patient with CMC and decreased T cell, natural killer cells without other associated condition.

Julián-González, Rolando Elías; Valdebrán-Canales, Manuel Augusto; Guidos-Morales, Héctor Eduardo

2010-04-01

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Microscopic features of vaginal candidiasis and their relation to symptomatology  

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OBJECTIVES: To document the microscopic features of vaginal candidiasis and to examine the relation between yeast morphology and patient symptomatology. METHOD: The study population comprised women undergoing screening for genital infection at a department of genitourinary medicine. RESULTS/CON...

Sonnex, C.; Lefort, W.

51

Resistance of Congenitally Immunodeficient Gnotobiotic Mice to Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Congenitally immunodeficient beige, athymic, and beige athymic mice whose orogastric mucosal tissues were chronically colonized and infected with a pure culture of Candida albicans were found to be resistant to naturally occurring vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Cantorna, Margherita; Mook, Dianna; Balish, Edward

52

Candida species and Candida albicans morphotypes in erythematous candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A group of full-denture-wearing patients with erythematous candidiasis was matched by age and sex with a group of healthy, full-denture-wearing persons who served as controls. In the group with erythematous candidiasis, clinical symptoms and signs of the disease were recorded. Denture hygiene and tobacco use were noted in both groups. Epithelial smears and imprint cultures were obtained from both groups from specified sites. Cultures were grown and subjected to species identification and C. albicans strain differentiation by a morphotyping technique. Denture-wearing subjects who smoked tobacco had a significantly greater incidence of erythematous candidiasis than the controls. Five species of Candida were isolated from both groups, with C. albicans as the dominant species. Twenty different morphotypes of C. albicans as well as strains involved in erythematous candidiasis were also isolated from the oral cavities of healthy, full-denture-wearing control subjects.

Crockett DN; O'Grady JF; Reade PC

1992-05-01

53

Resistance of congenitally immunodeficient gnotobiotic mice to vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Congenitally immunodeficient beige, athymic, and beige athymic mice whose orogastric mucosal tissues were chronically colonized and infected with a pure culture of Candida albicans were found to be resistant to naturally occurring vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Cantorna M; Mook D; Balish E

1990-11-01

54

Candidiasis Multifocal bucal. reporte de un caso  

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Full Text Available Resumen La Candidiasis es la micosis más común de la cavidad bucal. Candida albicans es la especie mayormente implicada, es un comensal inocuo que puede pasar de comensal a patógeno dependiendo del hospedero, del hongo y factores que alteren el microambiente de la cavidad bucal. Se presenta un caso de paciente femenino que acudió al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la U.C.V., la cual presentaba placas blancas generalizadas en toda la mucosa bucal, fácilmente desprendibles y fisuras bilaterales en las comisuras. Se realizo toma de muestras de las mismas, para ser cultivadas en medio Agar-Sabouraud, en donde se confirmó la presencia de Candida y luego se realizó identificación de C. albicans. Se le indico tratamiento antimicótico (Nistatina) y se le realizó control a las cuatro semanas, donde se encontró remisión clínica de la lesión.Abstract Candidosis is the most common mycosis of the mouth. Candida albicans seems to be the most pathogenic species,commmensal organism and its conversion to pathogen depends on the alteration and lack of defensive mechanisms in the colonized person as well as on the presence of several virulence factors. We present a case a 29 year-old female patient that assisted at the Stomatolgic Clinic Service in Dentist School UCV, with white multiple plaques an extensive area of the oral mucosa.Oral specimen was inoculated in Agar-Sabouraud culture medium. And Candida albicans was isolated.Topical antifungals was indicated, 30 days after the disappearance of clinical signs of candidiasis.

LJ Lazarde; O A Añez

2003-01-01

55

Candidiasis Multifocal bucal. Reporte de un caso  

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Full Text Available La Candidiasis es la micosis más común de la cavidad bucal. Candida albicans es la especie mayormente implicada, es un comensal inocuo que puede pasar de comensal a patógeno dependiendo del hospedero, del hongo y factores que alteren el microambiente de la cavidad bucal. Se presenta un caso de paciente femenino que acudió al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la U.C .V., la cual presentaba placas blancas generalizadas en toda la mucosa bucal, fácilmente desprendibles y fisuras bilaterales en las comisuras. Se realizo toma de muestras de las mismas, para ser cultivadas en medio Agar-Sabouraud, en donde se confirmó la presencia de Candida y luego se realizó identificación de C. albicans. Se le indico tratamiento antimicótico (Nistatina) y se le realizó control a las cuatro semanas, donde se encontró remisión clínica de la lesión.Candidosis is the most common mycosis of the mouth. Candida albicans seems to be the most pathogenic species,commmensal organism and its conversion to pathogen depends on the alteration and lack of defensive mechanisms in the colonized person as well as on the presence of several virulence factors. We present a case a 29 year-old female patient that assisted at the Stomatolgic Clinic Service in Dentist School UCV, with white multiple plaques an extensive area of the oral mucosa.Oral specimen was inoculated in Agar-Sabouraud culture medium. And Candida albicans was isolated.Topical antifungals was indicated, 30 days after the disappearance of clinical signs of candidiasis.

LJ Lazarde; O A Añez

2004-01-01

56

Candidiasis Multifocal bucal. reporte de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Resumen La Candidiasis es la micosis más común de la cavidad bucal. Candida albicans es la especie mayormente implicada, es un comensal inocuo que puede pasar de comensal a patógeno dependiendo del hospedero, del hongo y factores que alteren el microambiente de la cavidad bucal. Se presenta un caso de paciente femenino que acudió al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la U.C.V., la cual presentaba placas blancas generalizadas en toda (more) la mucosa bucal, fácilmente desprendibles y fisuras bilaterales en las comisuras. Se realizo toma de muestras de las mismas, para ser cultivadas en medio Agar-Sabouraud, en donde se confirmó la presencia de Candida y luego se realizó identificación de C. albicans. Se le indico tratamiento antimicótico (Nistatina) y se le realizó control a las cuatro semanas, donde se encontró remisión clínica de la lesión. Abstract in english Abstract Candidosis is the most common mycosis of the mouth. Candida albicans seems to be the most pathogenic species,commmensal organism and its conversion to pathogen depends on the alteration and lack of defensive mechanisms in the colonized person as well as on the presence of several virulence factors. We present a case a 29 year-old female patient that assisted at the Stomatolgic Clinic Service in Dentist School UCV, with white multiple plaques an extensive area of (more) the oral mucosa.Oral specimen was inoculated in Agar-Sabouraud culture medium. And Candida albicans was isolated.Topical antifungals was indicated, 30 days after the disappearance of clinical signs of candidiasis.

Lazarde, LJ; Añez, O A

2003-05-01

57

Candidiasis Multifocal bucal. Reporte de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La Candidiasis es la micosis más común de la cavidad bucal. Candida albicans es la especie mayormente implicada, es un comensal inocuo que puede pasar de comensal a patógeno dependiendo del hospedero, del hongo y factores que alteren el microambiente de la cavidad bucal. Se presenta un caso de paciente femenino que acudió al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología de la U.C .V., la cual presentaba placas blancas generalizadas en toda la muc (more) osa bucal, fácilmente desprendibles y fisuras bilaterales en las comisuras. Se realizo toma de muestras de las mismas, para ser cultivadas en medio Agar-Sabouraud, en donde se confirmó la presencia de Candida y luego se realizó identificación de C. albicans. Se le indico tratamiento antimicótico (Nistatina) y se le realizó control a las cuatro semanas, donde se encontró remisión clínica de la lesión. Abstract in english Candidosis is the most common mycosis of the mouth. Candida albicans seems to be the most pathogenic species,commmensal organism and its conversion to pathogen depends on the alteration and lack of defensive mechanisms in the colonized person as well as on the presence of several virulence factors. We present a case a 29 year-old female patient that assisted at the Stomatolgic Clinic Service in Dentist School UCV, with white multiple plaques an extensive area of the oral (more) mucosa.Oral specimen was inoculated in Agar-Sabouraud culture medium. And Candida albicans was isolated.Topical antifungals was indicated, 30 days after the disappearance of clinical signs of candidiasis.

Lazarde, LJ; Añez, O A

2004-01-01

58

Oral candidiasis in patients with renal transplants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Oral candidiasis (OC) is a frequent oral lesion in renal transplant patients (RTPs). Despite the increased prevalence of OC in RTPs, no study has examined related risk factors. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for OC in RTPs compared with age- and gender-matched healthy control group (HC) as well as determine the incidence of OC after transplantation. STUDY DESING: We analyzed the prevalence and risk factors of OC in a group of 500 RTPs (307 men, 193 women, mean age 53.63 years) and 501 HC subjects (314 men, 187 women, mean age 52.25 years). Demographic and pharmacological data were recorded for all subjects. Incident cases of OC were ascertained retrospectively from outpatient clinical records only in the RTP group. RESULTS: The prevalence of OC was 7.4% in RTPs compared with 4.19% in HC (P<0.03). The most frequent type of OC in the two groups was denture stomatitis. Statistical association was found between OC and age, mycophenolate mofetil dose and blood levels, dentures and tobacco. The multiple logistic regression model only chose for denture variable. According to the outpatient clinical records, 24 RTPs suffered OC during the first moth post-transplant. Severe lesions affecting the oral cavity and pharynx appeared in 79% of the OC cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a lower prevalence of OC in RTPs than previous reports. Denture stomatitis was the most frequent OC prevalence form described in RTPs. Severe candidiasis is more frequent in the immediate posttransplant period. The presence of denture is an important risk factor of OC. These results emphasise the importance of adequate pre- and post-transplant oral health and denture cleaning and adjustment is recommended for these subjects to prevent this infection.

López-Pintor RM; Hernández G; de Arriba L; de Andrés A

2013-05-01

59

Treatment of murine disseminated candidiasis with L-743,872.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

L-743,872 (M991), which is a pneumocandin derivative, was evaluated in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis caused by a fluconazole-resistant isolate of Candida albicans. In immunocompetent mice M991 prolonged survival at doses as low as 0.0125 mg/kg of body weight per day. In neutropenic mice 0.05 mg/kg was the lowest effective dose. M991 is a very potent drug for treatment of disseminated candidiasis.

Graybill JR; Najvar LK; Luther MF; Fothergill AW

1997-08-01

60

Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes con sida. Estudio clínico y microbiológico  

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Full Text Available Se estudiaron 18 pacientes con sida, que presentaban síntomas gastrointestinales altos o lesiones en la cavidad oral sugestivos de candidiasis. Se obtuvieron datos clínicos, muestras de la cavidad oral, biopsias y cepillado esofágico, así como suero de todos los pacientes. El síntoma que principalmente se observó en la candidiasis esofágica fue la disfagia; la candidiasis oral se comportó de forma asintomática. Candida albicans fue la especie que más se aisló con predominio del serotipo A. Se analizaron por la técnica de electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida los perfiles proteicos de las 12 cepas pertenecientes a esta especie, se observó identidad de sus patrones de peso molecular, lo que sugiere que sea la misma cepa la que se halla en la cavidad oral y en el esófago. Se evaluó la respuesta de anticuerpos anti-C. albicans, no resultó útil la inmunodifusión doble para el diagnóstico de candidiasis esofágica.18 AIDS patients who presented high gastrointestinal symptoms or lesions in the oral cavity suggestive of candidiasis were studied. Clinical data, specimen of the oral cavity, biopsies and esophageal brushing, as well as serum from all patients were obtained. Dysphagia was the main symptom observed in the esophageal candidiasis. Candida albicans was the most isolated species with a predominance of serotype A. The protein profiles of 12 strains belonging to this species were analyzed by the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and it was found that their molecular weight patterns were identical, which indicates that the same strain is in the oral cavity and in the esophagus. The response of the anti-C. albicans antibodies was evaluated. The double immunodiffussion was not useful for the diagnosis of esophageal candidiasis.

Zenia Flores de Apodaca Verdura; Gerardo Martínez Machín; Aroldo Ruiz Pérez; Carlos M. Fernández Andreu; Mayra Muné Jiménez; Mayda Perurena Lancha

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A clinico-pathological and cytological study of oral candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candidiasis of the oral mucosa arises chiefly as a re- sult of infection with Candida albicans. Many clinico- pathological analyses of macroscopic findings have been described, although the clinical findings of oral candidiasis vary considerably and the conditions are complex. The present study analyzes the distribution, clinical, cytological and histological diagnoses of oral candidiasis, associated complex diseases and the di-agnostic value of cytology. The ratio of Candida in-fection was 28.9% among 1551 study participants. Females were infected significantly more often than men (p < 0.01) and the affected age range was 60 - 79 years (61.0%, p < 0.01). The predominantly affected areas were the tongue (48.3%, p < 0.01) and gingiva (20.0%, p < 0.01), and occurrence at multiple loci was seen in 43 (9.6%) patients. The typical clinical find- ings of oral candidiasis were ulcerative/erythematous lesions (33.2%, p < 0.01) and pseudomembranous candidiasis (31.6%, p < 0.01). A histopathological dia- gnosis of candidiasis based on biopsy specimens from 26 lesions in patients with Candida infection indicated by cytology was confirmed from cultures. The break- down of a cytological to a definite diagnosis was 6 positive (SCC 4, verrucous carcinoma 1, moderate to severe dysplasia 1), 6 suspected positive (mild dyspla- sia, 2; moderate to severe dysplasia, 2; papilloma, 1 and SCC, 1) and 14 negative (epulis, 3; papilloma, 3; granulation tissue, 2; fibrosis, 2 and others, 4). Exfo-liative cytology can easily judge the presence of Can-dida species, although experience is necessary for the presumptive diagnosis of an oral mucosal disease. The application of exfoliative cytology using the Pe- riodic acid-Schiff reaction is helpful for the earlier detection of oral candidiasis with various macrosco- pic findings.

Kayo Kuyama; Yan Sun; Chieko Taguchi; Hiroyasu Endo; Masanobu Wakami; Masahiko Fukumoto; Takanori Ito; Hirotsugu Yamamoto

2011-01-01

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The value of chronic suppressive therapy with itraconazole versus clotrimazole in women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine the comparative efficacy of oral itraconazole versus intravaginal clotrimazole in suppressing recurrent episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective randomised open study of women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Clinical and microbiological assessments w...

Fong, I W

63

[Local humoral immunity in vulvovaginal candidiasis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a significant problem facing women of child bearing age. It is now accepted that RVVC is the consequence of local immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to assess differential secretion of IgAs and IgG anti-C. albicans in vaginal secretions of patients with RVVC, VVC and asymptomatic women. Vaginal secretions collected from 3 groups of women: 14 patients with RVVC, 8 patients with VVC and 17 asymptomatic women. Overall analysis of vaginal secretions revealed that the prevalence of IgAs (73%) and IgG (33%) antibodies anti-C. albicans were significantly different. The prevalence of IgAs antibodies was 86% in patients with RVVC, 75% in women with VVC and 61% in asymptomatic women. IgG antibodies were detected in 43% of women with RVVC, in 37% of women with VVC and in 18% of asymptomatic women. Sensibility and specificity of detection of IgA in vaginal secretion were 54% and 83%, respectively. The prevalence of detection of IgAs and IgG were more important in patients than asymptomatic women. However, RVVC cannot be attributed only to the impairment of local humoral immunity and further proteomic investigations are needed. PMID:23587578

Amouri, Imen; Hadrich, Inès; Abbes, Salma; Sellami, Hayet; Ayadi, Ali

64

Saccharomyces as a vaccine against systemic candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have shown heat-killed Saccharomyces (HKY) is a protective vaccine against aspergillosis and coccidioidomycosis. To test the hypothesis that the efficacy of HKY- induced protection may be due to the cross-reactive antigens in the cell walls of the different fungi, we studied the effect of HKY against systemic candidiasis. Male CD-1 mice were given different regimens of HKY subcutaneously prior to intravenous challenge with Candida albicans. Compared to PBS controls, the administration of HKY (6 × 10(7)) 3, 4 or 6 times prolonged survival (all P < 0.05) and reduced fungal load in the kidney (all P < 0.05). An HKY dose of 1.2 × 10(8) given 4 times prolonged survival (P = 0.02), but showed dose-limiting toxicity. HKY given by an oral route, or by a subcutaneous route with alum as an adjuvant, did not improve survival. Overall, we found that HKY protects mice from infection by Candida albicans in a dose-and regimen-dependent manner. To understand the protection induced by HKY against different fungal species, additional studies of epitope mapping are warranted.

Liu M; Clemons KV; Johansen ME; Martinez M; Chen V; Stevens DA

2012-01-01

65

[Local humoral immunity in vulvovaginal candidiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a significant problem facing women of child bearing age. It is now accepted that RVVC is the consequence of local immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to assess differential secretion of IgAs and IgG anti-C. albicans in vaginal secretions of patients with RVVC, VVC and asymptomatic women. Vaginal secretions collected from 3 groups of women: 14 patients with RVVC, 8 patients with VVC and 17 asymptomatic women. Overall analysis of vaginal secretions revealed that the prevalence of IgAs (73%) and IgG (33%) antibodies anti-C. albicans were significantly different. The prevalence of IgAs antibodies was 86% in patients with RVVC, 75% in women with VVC and 61% in asymptomatic women. IgG antibodies were detected in 43% of women with RVVC, in 37% of women with VVC and in 18% of asymptomatic women. Sensibility and specificity of detection of IgA in vaginal secretion were 54% and 83%, respectively. The prevalence of detection of IgAs and IgG were more important in patients than asymptomatic women. However, RVVC cannot be attributed only to the impairment of local humoral immunity and further proteomic investigations are needed.

Amouri I; Hadrich I; Abbes S; Sellami H; Ayadi A

2013-03-01

66

Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico  

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Full Text Available Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females aged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

Claudia Cortés M; Danny Oksenberg R; Alejandro Afani S; Carlos Defilippi C; Ana María Madrid S

2004-01-01

67

Anticandidal Effects of Shallot Extracts against Chronic Candidiasis Agents  

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Full Text Available Background : Shallots are an important part of the diet of many population and there is long-held belief in their health enhancing properties. At least one episode of vaginal candidiasis is reported in up to 75 percent of women that Candida albicans is responsible for 80 to 92 percent of episodes of vaginal candidiasis in the world. The aim of this study was to determine anticandidal activity of shallot against chronic candidiasis agents.Methods: This study is an experimental study. With use of microdilution method, antifungal activities of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of shallot (allium hirtifolium) were tested against 33 candida species in vitro that isolated from patient with chronic candidiasis that referred to Mirza Koochak khan and Lolagar hospitals.Results: The results showed antifungal activity of Allium hirtifolium against all the candida species tested and anticandidal activity of the alcoholic extract was much better than aqueous one. Conclusion: The results indicated that crude juice of shallot has anticandidal activity and might be promising in treatment of candidiasis

Mehraban Falahati; Roohollah Fateh; Somayeh Sharifynia; Ali Kanani; Ahmad Reza Memar; Fattaneh Hashem Dabbaghiyan

2012-01-01

68

Candidiasis esofágica en pacientes inmunocompetentes: Estudio clínico e inmunológico/ Clinical and immunological study of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: Esophageal candidiasis is associated with conditions that cause an immune depression. It is a defining disease for AIDS, is observed in poorly controlled diabetics, in patients with renal or hepatic failure, in patients with cancer and in subjects using medications causing immunosuppression or broad spectrum antimicrobials. Aim: To report the features of 10 immunocompetent patients with esophageal candidiasis. Patients and methods: Six males and four females a (more) ged between 48 and 82 years, without conditions associated with immunosuppression, in whom an esophageal candidiasis was found on an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Delayed skin hypersensitivity to eight antigens, Iymphocyte subpopulations, yeast phagocytosis and neutrophil chemotaxis were measured. Results: Six patients had a low CD4 Iymphocyte count and seven had a low CD8 count. Seven patients were anergic on skin hypersensitivity challenge. Yeast phagocytosis was abnormal in one patient and neutrophil chemotaxis was abnormal in two. Humoral immunity was normal in all subjects. All patients were treated with oral fluconazole in doses of 150 mg/day for 14 days, with complete resolution of candidiasis in all. Conclusions: Patients with esophageal candidiasis, have frequent alterations of cellular immunity, that must be diagnosed and treated

Cortés M, Claudia; Oksenberg R, Danny; Afani S, Alejandro; Defilippi C, Carlos; Madrid S, Ana María

2004-11-01

69

Two-phase treatment of inflamatory candidiasis of vulva  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this prospective study was to examine successfulnes of applaying two-phase treatment of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis. At the initial phase antimycotic izokonazol 1% nitrate in combination with corticosteriod diflucorton valerate (Travocort, Schering AG, Germany) was localy applied, and then pure antimycotic izoconasol nitrate (Travogen, Schering AG, Germany). Parametars that have been analyzed in the first phase of treatment were regression of inflamatory changes of vulva, and in the second phase healing of fungal disease. Two-phase treatment of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis showed full therapy benefit at cured patients. The initial short-term local application of combination corticosteroid and antimycotic showed almost a hundred percent regression of inflamatory changes and simptoms of vulvar inflamatory candidiasis, without any side-effects noted.

N. Ribi?; K. Drljevi?

2006-01-01

70

Autosomal dominant familial chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis associated with acne rosacea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) without endocrinopathy (OMIM 114580) is a well-described entity. The associations recorded with this disorder to date are intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) deficiency and hyper-immunoglobulin E syndrome. CLINICAL PICTURE: We report a new association in a family (mother and nonidentical twin sons) where acne rosacea is a prominent feature together with CMC. In addition, antibodies to thyroid microsomal and antiparietal cell were also isolated. The autoantibodies might be associated with a current "latent" endocrinopathy in particular autoimmune thyroiditis. TREATMENT: The patient was treated with intermittent pulses of itraconazole for the candidiasis and doxycycline initially before being substituted with isotretinoin 6 months later for the rosacea. OUTCOME: The patient's candidiasis responded well and has been in remission for 3 months while his rosacea continues to improve.

Ee HL; Tan HH; Ng SK

2005-10-01

71

Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the prevalence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.158) or the frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.133). Patients with lower cd4 cell counts showed a higher frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.046) and a greater occurrence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.036).

Andréa Lusvarghi Witzel; Fernando Ricardo Xavier da Silveira; Maria de Fátima Costa Pires; Mônica Andrade Lotufo

2008-01-01

72

Oral candidiasis in HIV+ patients under treatment with protease inhibitors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of Protease Inhibitors (PI) on the occurrence of oral candidiasis in 111 HIV+ patients under PI therapy (Group A). The controls consisted of 56 patients that were not using PI drugs (Group B) and 26 patients that were not using any drugs for HIV therapy (Group C). The patient's cd4 cell counts were taken in account for the correlations. One hundred and ninety three patients were evaluated. The PI did not affect the pr (more) evalence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.158) or the frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.133). Patients with lower cd4 cell counts showed a higher frequency of C. albicans isolates (p = 0.046) and a greater occurrence of oral candidiasis (p = 0.036).

Witzel, Andréa Lusvarghi; Silveira, Fernando Ricardo Xavier da; Pires, Maria de Fátima Costa; Lotufo, Mônica Andrade

2008-12-01

73

Use of Recombinant Antigens for the Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is a frequent and often fatal complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains difficult due to the lack of specific clinical symptoms and a definitive diagnostic method. The detection of antibodies against different Candida antigens may help in the diagnosis. However, the methods traditionally used for the detection of antibodies have been based on crude antigenic fungal extracts, which usually show low-reproducibility and cross-reactivity problems. The development of molecular biology techniques has allowed the production of recombinant antigens which may help to solve these problems. In this review we will discuss the usefulness of recombinant antigens in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

Ana Laín; Natalia Elguezabal; Elena Amutio; Iñigo Fernández de Larrinoa; María Dolores Moragues; José Pontón

2008-01-01

74

INVASIVE CANDIDIASIS IN NON-HEMATOLOGICAL PATIENTS.  

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Full Text Available Candida is one of the most frequent pathogens isolated in bloodstream infections, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In addition to haematological patients, there are several other populations with a substantial risk of developing invasive candidiasis (IC). These include patients undergoing prolonged hospitalisation with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, those fitted with intravascular catheters, admitted to both adult and neonate intensive care units (ICU) or gastrointestinal surgery wards and subjects with solid tumours undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. As a general rule, every immunocompromised patient might be at risk of Candida infection, including, for example, diabetic patients.The epidemiology of species responsible for IC has been changing, both at local and worldwide level, shifting from C. albicans to non-albicans species, that can be intrinsically resistant to fluconazole (C. krusei and, to some extent, C. glabrata), difficult to eradicate because of biofilm production (C. parapsilosis) or than might acquire resistance to azole during therapy.Delaying the specific therapy has been shown to increase morbidity and mortality, but traditional microbiological diagnosis is poorly sensitive and slow. Thus, culture-based treatment may result in therapy started too late. In order to reduce the mortality in IC, several management strategies have been developed: prophylaxis, empirical and pre-emptive therapy. Compared to prophylaxis, the latter approaches allow to reduce the use of antifungals by targeting only patients at very high risk of IC. Non-invasive serological markers and scores based on clinical prediction rules such as the presence of risk factors or Candida colonisation, have been developed with the aim of allowing prompt initiation of treatment. Although the use of these diagnostic tools in pre-emptive strategies is promising, the performance and cost-effectiveness should be tested in large trials. Agents recommended for initial treatment of candidemia in severely ill patients include echinocandins and lipid formulations of amphotericin B, while stable patients without risk factors for azole-resistance might be treated with fluconazole.

Malgorzata Mikulska; Matteo Bassetti; Sandra Ratto; Claudio Viscoli

2011-01-01

75

Candidiasis invasoras en el paciente crítico adulto/ Invasive candidiasis in critically ill adult patient  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las infecciones invasoras por Candida spp, representan una patología relevante en los pacientes críticos. Para su oportuno diagnóstico es necesaria una elevada sospecha clinica, tomando en consideración el cuadro clinico y la presencia de factores de riesgo. Pese a la incorporación de nuevos fármacos al arsenal terapéutico durante la última década, mantiene una elevada mortalidad. Las claves para mejorar los desenlaces clínicos en estos pacientes son el empleo d (more) e una terapia precoz, eficaz y que permita la cobertura de distintas especies de Candida: C albicans y no albicans. Recientes guías internacionales sugieren la terapia empírica con equinocandinas ante la sospecha de candidiasis invasora en esta población de pacientes. Este grupo de fármacos ha documentado adecuada eficacia clínica y seguridad en estos pacientes. Se espera que la incorporación de nuevas equinocandinas al mercado aminore sus costos y mejore el acceso a este grupo de fármacos. Abstract in english Invasive infections by Candida strains are a relevant pathology in critically ill patients. Candida should be considered where a high risk of infection is present for a critical early diagnosis. Despite the incorporation of new drugs in the therapeutic armamentarium over the last decade, mortality remains high. The key in improving clinical outcomes of these patients are the use of early effective therapies that offer coverage against different strains of Candida: C. albi (more) cans and non-albicans. Recent international guidelines suggest empiric therapy with echinocandins in suspected invasive candidiasis in this patient population. This group of drugs adequately documented clinical efficacy and safe use in these patients. The emergence of new echinocandins could improve access to these drugs by reducing their cost.

Tobar A, Eduardo; Silva O, Francisco; Olivares C, Roberto; Gaete G, Pablo; Luppi N, Mario

2011-02-01

76

Posterior Pharyngeal Candidiasis in the Absence of Clinically Overt Oral Involvement: A Cross-Sectional Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Although oropharyngeal candidiasis is associated with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) usage, there is sparse data on the prevalence of posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in those without any detectable oral candidiasis on clinical examination. We systematically investigated the relationship between oral candidiasis on clinical examination and the presence of posterior pharyngeal candidiasis at bronchoscopy. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a convenience sample of 100 patients undergoing bronchoscopy at our institution. Patients were assessed for symptoms of and risk factors for candida infection and had an examination of their oropharynx for evidence of candidiasis before bronchoscopy. They subsequently had a detailed assessment for posterior candidiasis at bronchoscopy. We performed a posteriori subgroup analysis, which focused solely on those patients on ICS maintenance therapy. RESULTS: Median age was 54.7 (27-84) years, and 55 patients were male; 47 % of patients were on ICS, and 20 % of this cohort received recent oral corticosteroids. Twenty-eight percent of this convenience sample had posterior pharyngeal candidiasis; however, only 10.7 % (3/28) of these patients had clinically detectable oral candidiasis on clinical examination before bronchoscopy. Factors that were independently associated with the presence of pharyngeal candidiasis at bronchoscopy were OR (95 % CI) ICS usage 6.9 (2.5-19.2), particularly fluticasone usage 6.8 (2.62-17.9) and the presence of dysphonia 3.2 (1.3-8.0). In the subgroup analysis of ICS usage, posterior pharyngeal candidiasis was correlated with the presence of dysphonia but was not independently associated with fluticasone or budesonide dosage. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that posterior pharyngeal candidiasis in the absence of clinically overt oral candidiasis is frequent amongst ICS users. A history of ICS use, particularly fluticasone usage, as well as the presence of dysphonia are associated with posterior pharyngeal candidiasis at bronchoscopy, even in the absence of clinically overt oral involvement.

Glavey SV; Keane N; Power M; O'Regan AW

2013-09-01

77

Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species  

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Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Dete...

Bokor-Brati? Marija B.

78

Oral Lactoferrin Treatment of Experimental Oral Candidiasis in Mice  

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We assessed the potential of lactoferrin (LF), a multifunctional milk protein, for treatment of oral candidiasis with immunosuppressed mice, which have local symptoms characteristic of oral thrush. Oral administration of bovine LF in drinking water starting 1 day before the infection significantly r...

Takakura, Natsuko; Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Teraguchi, Susumu; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

79

Sensitivity of Candida albicans from patients with chronic oral candidiasis.  

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Many patients with oral candidiasis respond very slowly or not at all to therapy with amphotericin. Strains of Candida albicans were collected from 17 patients clinically resistant and from 15 who responded to a normal course of amphotericin treatment. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determi...

Holbrook, W. P.; Kippax, R.

80

Effects of Amphetamine on Development of Oral Candidiasis in Rats  

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Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of amphetamine (0.4 mg/kg of body weight/day) on the development of oral candidiasis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were submitted to surgical hyposalivation in order to facilitate the establishment and persistence of Candida albicans infection...

Freire-Garabal, M.; Núñez, M. J.; Balboa, J.; Rodríguez-Cobo, A.; López-Paz, J. M.; Rey-Méndez, M.; Suárez-Quintanilla, J. A.

 
 
 
 
81

Candida-Specific Antibodies during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis in Mice  

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Protective host defense mechanisms against vaginal Candida albicans infections are poorly understood. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the predominant host defense mechanism against most mucosal Candida infections, the role of CMI against vaginal candidiasis is uncertain, both in humans and ...

Wozniak, Karen L.; Wormley, Floyd L.; Fidel, Paul L.

82

Effects of Reproductive Hormones on Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. Acute episodes of VVC often occur during pregnancy and during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when levels of progesteron...

Fidel, Paul L.; Cutright, Jessica; Steele, Chad

83

The Relationship of Pregnancy, Vaginal Candidiasis and Glucose Metabolism  

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In 72 pregnant women with culture-proved vaginal candidiasis, and an equal number of controls matched for parity, size, stage of gestation and age, the intravenous glucose tolerance curves were compared using Silverstone's method. The results in both study and control groups did not differ and resem...

Robinson, S. C.; Nicholas, W. C.; Lee, D. T.; Wanklin, J. M.; Zwicker, Betty

84

Role for Dendritic Cells in Immunoregulation during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by the commensal organism Candida albicans remains a significant problem among women of childbearing age, with protection against and susceptibility to infection still poorly understood. While cell-mediated immunity by CD4+ Th1-type cells is protective against m...

LeBlanc, Dana M.; Barousse, Melissa M.; Fidel, Paul L.

85

Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms aga...

Saavedra, Michael; Taylor, Brad; Lukacs, Nicholas; Fidel, Paul L.

86

Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or ...

Fidel, Paul L.; Luo, Wei; Steele, Chad; Chabain, Joseph; Baker, Marc; Wormley, Floyd

87

Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

2003-01-01

88

Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

1990-01-01

89

Thallium-201 accumulation in cerebral candidiasis: Unexpected finding on SPECT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors present an unexpected finding of Tl-201 uptake in the intracerebral lesions due to candidiasis. SPECT demonstrated the extent of the lesions and a high target-to-background ratio. The regions where abnormal Tl-201 accumulation was seen were nearly consistent with CT scans of those enhanced by a contrast agent. After treatment, most of the abnormal Tl-201 accumulation disappeared.

Tonami, N.; Matsuda, H.; Ooba, H.; Yokoyama, K.; Hisada, K.; Ikeda, K.; Yamashita, J. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan))

1990-06-01

90

T-cell deficiency with recurrent mucocutaneous candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case had recurrent and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis . The main immunological feature were gross T cell deficiency, anergy to common recall antigens but normal serum immunoglobulins, complement and phagocytosis. Ultimately, the multiple candida infections led to a fatal outcome.

Karnik A; Vijayvargiya R; Chitnis D; Sethi N

1990-01-01

91

Oropharyngeal and oesophageal candidiasis in HIV infected patients.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background- Candidiasis is a common infection caused by yeast-like fungus. Oropharyngeal candidiasis occurs when CD4 count is 200-500 cell/mm3, with fall in CD4 count to <200 cells/mm3 oesophageal candidiasis occur in HIV infected patients.Aim- To identify and characterize Candida species (oropharyngeal and oesophageal) in HIV infected patients and to correlate them with CD4+ T lymphocyte count.Method- Two hundred HIV positive cases were selected for this study. Identification of Candida species was done by conventional standard techniques using Gram’s stain, cultural character on Saboraud dextrose agar, germ tube test, morphology on corn meal agar, colour difference on CHROM agar and sugar assimilation test.Findings- The prevalence of candidiasis was 72.5% with majority of the patients belonged to age group 16 - 45 years. Male to female ratio was 1.64:1 with male preponderance. 58.62% of patients belonged to Stage 4 of WHO clinical staging. Majority of species (60.67%) were C. albicans. The non-Candida albicans isolated were C. dublinienses (25.33%), C. krusei (12.00%), C. tropicalis (1.33%) and C. glabrata (0.67%).Conclusion- Though Candida albicans continues to be the common and important pathogen among the Candida species there is a increase in the incidence of non- Candida albicans species like Candida dublinienses, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata.

Poonam Chanderlal Sharma

2013-01-01

92

[Candidiasis in children with diaper rash. Study of 140 cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The frequency of genito-crural candidiasis in infants presenting diaper rash, as well as the possible influence of bacterial flora in this region on the pathogenicity of Candida was studied. Skin scraping were made with sterile swabs and processed by bacteriological and mycological methods in 140 children whose ages ranged between 0 and 20 months. The most commonly found microbiological flora were Candida spp (65.7%), non hemolytic Streptococcus (18.5%), Staphylococus epidermidis (19.2%); beta hemolytic Streptococcus (12.8%) and alfa-hemolytic Streptococcus (9.2%). Of the 140 cases, 76 (54.3%) showed candidiasis associated with diaper rash and 16 (11.4%) had Candida as normal flora. C. albicans was most frequently found (66.3%) followed by C. tropicalis (19.6%). Candidiasis was more frequent in those infants that had no other associated of pathogenic flora. Factors significantly influencing the increase in the frequency of candidiasis were: A) Evolution time, which was directly proportional; B) Use of cotton diapers covered with plastic pants; C) Feeding with cow's as opposed to maternal milk; and D) Malnutrition associated with poor hygiene.

López Martínez R; Ruiz-Maldonado R

1982-01-01

93

D-arabinitol in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis  

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Invasive candidiasis (IC) is a serious condition and timely diagnosis with early initiation of antifungal therapy is imerative for improving outcomes. Arabinitol is a sugar alcohol with two stereoisomers, D-arabinitol (DA) and L-arabintiol (LA). Several pathogenic Candida species produce DA in vitro...

Sigmundsdóttir, Gudrún

94

La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África). Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásit (more) os y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH). Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA. Abstract in english Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa). It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to become a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people (more) whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

Morán López, Elena; Ferreiro Marín, Adis

2001-04-01

95

La candidiasis como manifestación bucal en el SIDA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) es un proceso patológico detectado por vez primera en los Estados Unidos de América en 1981 (aunque se plantea que su origen geográfico está en África). Adquiere, de inmediato, un carácter epidémico explosivo, que luego se extiende a otras partes del mundo y comienza a adoptar el carácter de un grave problema de salud mundial. Los seres humanos viven en armonía relativa con una serie de virus, bacterias, parásitos y hongos que no causan enfermedades a las personas sanas cuyas defensas inmunológicas están intactas, pero estos microorganismos pueden aprovecharse de un sistema inmunitario debilitado, como el de una persona infectada por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH). Las infecciones que ocasionan reciben el nombre de infecciones oportunistas, dentro de las cuales se encuentra la candidiasis, que es una infección fúngica causada por cualquiera de las especies del género Candida. En pacientes con VIH, la infección oportunista más frecuente es la Candida y de ésta la especie que más prevalece es la Candida albicans. La candidiasis más común es la seudomembranosa, localizada generalmente en la lengua, paladar duro y blando y la mucosa del carrillo. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes de la candidiasis son las infecciones por Candida de la cavidad bucal y el esófago. En los pacientes infectados por el VIH, asintomáticos, la presencia de candidiasis bucal suele anunciar la transición hacia el SIDA. El odontólogo puede reconocerla en sus diferentes formas de presentación y muchas veces, a través de su presencia, puede hacer diagnóstico precoz de enfermedades como el SIDA.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a pathological process detected for the first time in 1981 in the United States (although its geographic origin is said to be in Africa). It immediately acquired an explosive epidemic character that was later extended to other parts of the world and began to become a world serious health problem. Human beings live in relative harmony with a number of viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi which do not bring diseases to healthy people whose immune defense system is 100 % intact, but those microorganisms may affect a weakened immune system like in the case of a person infested with HIV. Infections caused by them are called opportunistic infections and among them, we may find candidiasis, a fungic infection provoked by any of the Candida species. In HIV patients, the most frequent opportunistic infection is candidiasis and the most prevailing species is Candida albicans. The most common candidiasis is that of pseudomembranous type located mostly in the back of the tongue, hard and soft palate and the mucosa of the cheek. The most frequent clinical manifestations of candidiasis are infections in oral cavity and esophagus. In asymptomatic HIV-infested patients, oral candidiasis may point to the occurrence of AIDS. The odontologist is able to recognize candidiasis in its various forms and many times, through the presence of this disease, he may early diagnose diseases such as AIDS.

Elena Morán López; Adis Ferreiro Marín

2001-01-01

96

Ultrasound scan in the diagnosis of neonatal renal candidiasis; Ecografia en el diagnostico de la candidiasis renal neonatal  

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To describe the most pertinent echographic findings regarding systemic and renal candidiasis in high-risk neonates. Echographic findings and clinical histories of 40 neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-eight presented systemic candidiasis with renal participation, while two showed only renal candidiasis. Ultrasound scans were performed using 7.5 MHz probes. Alterations in renal echo structure, presence of echogenic material without acoustic shadowing in the excretory system (mycetoma), presence of lithiasis, pyonephrosis and associated renal malformations were all evaluated. Ten patients presented renal alterations in ultrasound scan. Six children had originally shown increased eye-catching in the renal parenchyma which was resolved after medical treatment. Four children presented renal mycetoma, and in two there were renal malformations. Both of these exhibited a profile for pyonephrosis. One patient with renal mycetoma without urological abnormalities developed a lithiasis. Surgical intervention was unnecessary in all cases. The most common echographic findings in immature high-risk low-weight patients with systemic and renal candidiasis were alterations in the eye-catching of renal parenchyma and the presence of mycetoma. (Author) 22 refs.

Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Torres, D.; Berbel, O.; Andres, V. [Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

2003-07-01

97

Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis. PMID:23715031

Costa, Anna C B P; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio O C

2013-05-28

98

Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

Costa, Anna CBP; Pereira, Cristiane A; Junqueira, Juliana C; Jorge, Antonio OC

2013-01-01

99

Recent mouse and rat methods for the study of experimental oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Candida genus expresses virulence factors that, when combined with immunosuppression and other risk factors, can cause different manifestations of oral candidiasis. The treatment of mucosal infections caused by Candida and the elucidation of the disease process have proven challenging. Therefore, the study of experimentally induced oral candidiasis in rats and mice is useful to clarify the etiopathology of this condition, improve diagnosis, and search for new therapeutic options because the disease process in these animals is similar to that of human candidiasis lesions. Here, we describe and discuss new studies involving rat and mouse models of oral candidiasis with respect to methods for inducing experimental infection, methods for evaluating the development of experimental candidiasis, and new treatment strategies for oral candidiasis.

Costa AC; Pereira CA; Junqueira JC; Jorge AO

2013-07-01

100

[The role of various Candida species in oral candidiasis etiology in psoriasis and eczema patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the factors, contributing to the development of candidiasis in the oral cavity, eczema and psoriasis have great value. The most common type of agent which causes oral candidiasis is fungi C. albicans, but the role of non-albicans species is also sufficient. In order to identify candidiasis, candidiasis carriage and species identification of the causative agent, using clinical and laboratory methods have been examined 222 persons with psoriasis, 110 - with eczema and 93 persons became the control group. Among patients with skin diseases (psoriasis, eczema) incidence of oral candidiasis was significantly higher compared with the control group (p<0.05). No significant differences in the frequency of detection of the representatives of the type, other than C. albicans, have been found. The most frequent causative agents of candidiasis in all investigated groups after C. albicans were C. krusei and C. parapsilosis.

Sakharuk NA

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Primary candidiasis and squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx: report of a case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary candidiasis is rare and often confused with a pre-cancerous lesion, squamous cell carcinoma, or verrucous carcinoma. We report an extremely rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord following primary candidiasis. A 62-year-old man presented to our department reporting a 1-month history of hoarseness. He underwent laryngeal microscopic surgery for a presumptive diagnosis of glottic carcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed candidiasis and scattered moderate dysplasia. He was treated with itraconazole for 4 weeks, and followed up without any recurrence of candidiasis. However, the 42-month follow-up examination revealed a focal whitish lesion on the right true vocal cord, and a repeat biopsy of this area revealed squamous cell carcinoma without evidence of candidiasis. The patient was treated with radiotherapy and remains well with no signs of tumor recurrence or candidiasis.

Lee DH; Cho HH

2013-02-01

102

Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

Paula Cristina Anibal; Janaina de Cássia Orlandi Sardi; Iza Teixeira Alves Peixoto; Julianna Joanna de Carvalho Moraes; José Francisco Höfling

2010-01-01

103

Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

Anibal PC; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi J; Peixoto ITA; de Carvalho Moraes JJ; Höfling JF

2010-01-01

104

Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidiasis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

Anibal PC; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi J; Peixoto IT; de Carvalho Moraes JJ; Höfling JF

2010-10-01

105

Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

Bokor-Brati? Marija B.

2008-01-01

106

[Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95%) or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. METHODS: Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. RESULTS: Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. CONCLUSION: Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

2012-07-01

107

Fluconazol versus Nistatina en niños con Candidiasis Orofaríngea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La candidiasis orofaríngea constituye una patología frecuente en la población pediátrica. Con la finalidad de ofrecer una alternativa terapéutica segura y eficaz, se realizó un estudio multicéntrico, prospectivo, comparativo, simple ciego y de asignación aleatoria, donde se incluyeron 181 pacientes con diagnóstico clínico y micológico de candidiasis orofaríngea; fueron asignados al azar para recibir Fluconazol suspensión a 5 mgrs/Kg dosis única diaria o Nistatina suspensión 50.000 unidades/Kg cada 6 horas. Se obtuvo una respuesta clínica satisfactoria al final del tratamiento con una diferencia estadística altamente significativa (pThe Oropharyngeal Candidiasis constitute a frecuent pathology in the pediatric population. In order to offer a safe and efficient therapeutic alternative, an multicentric, prospective, single blind and randomized study was performed 181 patients which included clinic and micologic diagnostic of Orofaringeal Candidiasis; they were asigned in a randomized way to received fluconazole suspensión containing 5 mgrs/Kg once daily or Nystatin suspensión 50.000 units/Kg every six hours. Satisfactory clinic response was obtained at the end of the treatment with a very significant statistic difference (p<0.001) in the fluconazole group compared to the nystatin group. A month later the clinical response was very significant (p< 0.01). The mycological erradication reported a very high significant response p<0.0002 in the fluconazole group. The use of fluconazole oral suspensión is presented as an efficient therapeutic, well tolerated and with posologic confort in the pediatric age. The Candida albicans was isolated in 92% of the cases.

B Del Nogal; M Carrabs; JA Suárez; N SandovaI; L Escalona; O Febres; A González; A Martin; Y Izaguirre; G Espinoza

2001-01-01

108

Lamisil versus clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases) was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases) with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared. RESULTS: Our results shows that 12 (37.5%) patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8%) patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8%) patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0%) patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0%) of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0%) of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week. CONCLUSION: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Mahmoudabadi AZ; Najafyan M; Moghimipour E; Alwanian M; Seifi Z

2013-03-01

109

A CASE REPORT OF CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis due to Candida albicans in a 13 yr-old boy is reported. Evaluation of cell mediated immunity revealed cutaneous anergy to PPD and low level of T-Lymphocytes B-Cell count and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were increased and there was a low level of serum iron. The patient was put under treatment with oral administration of Ketoconazole and ferrus sulfate, which resulted in some clinical improvement

M. Moghaddami; M. Emami; P. Toosi; L. Nabai

1991-01-01

110

Lamisil Versus Clotrimazole in the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Vaginal candidiasis is a common disease in women during their lifetime and occurs in diabetes patients, during pregnancy and oral contraceptives users. Although several antifungals are routinely used for treatment; however, vaginal candidiasis is a challenge for patients and gynecologists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate terbinafine (Lamisil) on Candida vaginitis versus clotrimazole.Materials and Methods: In the present study women suspected to have vulvovaginal candidiasis were sampled and disease confirmed using direct smear and culture examination from vaginal discharge. Then, patients were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (32 cases) was treated with clotrimazole and the next (25 cases) with Lamisil. All patients were followed-up to three weeks of treatment and therapeutic effects of both antifungal were compared.Results: Our results shows that 12 (37.5%) patients were completely treated with clotrimazole during two weeks and, 6(18.8%) patients did not respond to drugs and were refereed for fluconazole therapy. Fourteen (43.8%) patients showed moderate response and clotrimazole therapy was extended for one more week. When Lamisil was administrated, 19 (76.0%) patients were completely treated with Lamisil in two weeks, and 1 (4.0%) of the patients did not respond to the drug and was refereed for fluconazole therapy. Five (20.0%) of our patients showed moderate response and Lamisil therapy was extended for one more week.Conclusion: Our results show that vaginal cream, 1% Lamisil, could be suggested as a first-line treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Ali Zarei Mahmoudabadi; Mahin Najafyan; Eskandar Moghimipour; Maryam Alwanian; Zahra Seifi

2013-01-01

111

Glucose tolerance in pregnant women with vaginal candidiasis.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of traditional historic risk factors to identify gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will miss half of women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to evaluate whether impaired glucose tolerance is a risk factor for vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we compared the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in 64 pregnant women with vaginal candidiasis (positive microscopy) and 59 Candida-negative control subjects. Subjects underwent standardized 75-gram oral glucose tolerance testing between the 24th and 28th weeks of their pregnancies. Patients were included only if they had no known diabetes mellitus or historic risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus, and had not been receiving antibiotic or steroid therapy. We compared glucose levels at fasting, 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes, and perinatal and neonatal outcomes in the two groups. RESULTS: There were no statistical differences between cases and controls in demographic characteristics. Glucose concentrations were higher in pregnant women with vaginal candidiasis than in control subjects at fasting (89 vs. 84 mg/dL, P=0.021), 30 minutes (139 vs. 126 mg/dL, P=0.050), and 60 minutes (124 vs. 106 mg/dL, P= 0.018) after intake of 75 gram of glucose. The two groups did not differ in glucose level at 120 minutes after glucose administration. Gestational diabetes prevalence was 3.1% and 3.4% in the study and control group, respectively (P=0.274). CONCLUSION: The tolerance to glucose in pregnant women with vaginal candidiasis seems discretely impaired.

Kelekci S; Kelekci H; Cetin M; Inan I; Tokucoglu S

2004-01-01

112

Opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis and geotrichosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Opportunistic yeast infections are diseases caused by fungi which normally are saprophytic and do not cause disease in humans or animals. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing due to immunosuppressive, corticosteroid, and long-term antibiotic treatment following organ transplantation or after serious metabolic, hematological, or immunological diseases. We review epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects of the four "big" opportunistic yeast infections: candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, and geotrichosis.

Vázquez-González D; Perusquía-Ortiz AM; Hundeiker M; Bonifaz A

2013-05-01

113

Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95%) or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Methods. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Results. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Conclusion. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

Živaljevi? Biljana; Golubovi? Ilija; Seratli? Jelena; Nikoli? Petar; Simi? Dušan; Magdi? Ivica; Mari?-Krejovi? Snežana; Markovi?-Kneževi? Danijela; Krsmanovi? Snežana

2012-01-01

114

Models hosts for the study of oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by yeast of the Candida genus, primarily Candida albicans. It is generally associated with predisposing factors such as the use of immunosuppressive agents, antibiotics, prostheses, and xerostomia. The development of research in animal models is extremely important for understanding the nature of the fungal pathogenicity, host interactions, and treatment of oral mucosal Candida infections. Many oral candidiasis models in rats and mice have been developed with antibiotic administration, induction of xerostomia, treatment with immunosuppressive agents, or the use of germ-free animals, and all these models has both benefits and limitations. Over the past decade, invertebrate model hosts, including Galleria mellonella, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster, have been used for the study of Candida pathogenesis. These invertebrate systems offer a number of advantages over mammalian vertebrate models, predominantly because they allow the study of strain collections without the ethical considerations associated with studies in mammals. Thus, the invertebrate models may be useful to understanding of pathogenicity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity, interactions of oral microorganisms, and study of new antifungal compounds for oral candidiasis.

Junqueira JC

2012-01-01

115

Efficacy of itraconazole versus fluconazole in vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of fluconazole 150mg single dose and itraconazole 200mg twice for one day in the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis. METHODS: The study was carried out at the Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from March, 2008 to February 2009 and comprised 60 women with clinical and mycological diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis. Diagnosis was based on history, clinical examination and relevant investigations. The women were divided into two equal groups. After initial assessment, Group 1 was treated with capsule fluconazole 150mg stat, and Group 2 with capsule itraconazole 200mg twice for one day. They were assessed clinically for cure and relapse on day 7 and 21 respectively. All findings were recorded in the proforma. Data was analysed using SPSS 12. RESULTS: The overall clinical evaluation showed 70% (n = 21) cure rate with itraconazole and 50% (n = 15) with fluconazole. In Group-1, 7 (23.33%) and in Group-2 8 (26.6%) showed some improvement, while 2 (6.66%) in Group 1, and 7 (23%) in Group 2 failed to respond. Relapse was observed in 9 (28.5%) and 16 (53%) of the cured cases in Group 1 and Group 2 respectively. CONCLUSION: Itraconazole was found to be more effective in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis compared to fluconazole with high cure and low relapse rate.

Akhtar S; Masood S; Tabassum S; Rizvi DA

2012-10-01

116

Vulvovaginal Candidiasis as a Chronic Disease: Diagnostic Criteria and Definition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Although recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is defined as 4 or more discrete attacks of vulvovaginal candidiasis per year, there is no diagnostic nomenclature or definition for the many women who are chronically symptomatic. This study aims to establish and propose a definition and a set of diagnostic criteria, which would enable clinicians to promptly identify and treat women with chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis (CVVC). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Public and private vulvar dermatology outpatient clinics in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Data were obtained prospectively from 50 women with presumptive CVVC and 42 controls. Historical and clinical features of CVVC identified by expert consensus were compared between the 2 groups. Diagnostic criteria were then prospectively applied to a further 163 patients to verify their accuracy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Signs and symptoms diagnostic of CVVC. RESULTS: The following characteristics were found to be significantly more common in women with CVVC compared to controls (p ? .001): a history of positive vaginal Candida swab, discharge, dyspareunia, soreness, swelling, cyclicity, and exacerbation of symptoms with antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that CVVC can be confidently diagnosed using the major criteria of a chronic nonspecific and nonerosive vulvovaginitis that includes at least 5 or more properties from the following criteria: soreness, dyspareunia, positive vaginal swab either at presentation or in the past, previous response to antifungal medication, exacerbation with antibiotics, cyclicity, swelling, and discharge. This condition responds reliably to oral antifungal medication.

Hong E; Dixit S; Fidel PL; Bradford J; Fischer G

2013-06-01

117

Pathology and clinical correlates in oral candidiasis and its variants: A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although Candida albicans is well recognised as the major agent of oral candidiasis, it is not clear why several variants such as pseudomembranous (PC), erythematous (EC) and hyperplastic candidiasis (HC) manifest in different individuals, sometimes singly and on other occasions, in combination. The...

Reichart, PA; Samaranayake, LP; Philipsen, HP

118

Cell Adhesion Molecule and Lymphocyte Activation Marker Expression during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cell-mediated immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal candidiasis. However, studies using an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis have demonstrated little to no change in resident vaginal T cells during infection and no systemic T...

Wormley, Floyd L.; Chaiban, Joseph; Fidel, Paul L.

119

Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jose A VazquezDivision of Infectious Diseases, Henry Ford Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USAAbstract: Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the f irst signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole) have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin) in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE) is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin).Keywords: oropharyngeal candidiasis, esophageal candidiasis, HAART, antifungal agents, HIV, AIDS

Jose A Vazquez

2010-01-01

120

Genotypes of Candida albicans isolated from healthy individuals and their distribution in patients with oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the study of Candida albicans genotypes involved in development of candidiasis, Candida albicans isolates were collected from healthy volunteers and patients with oral candidiasis and genotyped on the basis of 25S rDNA and microsatellite polymorphisms. In the microsatellite analysis using two microsatellite markers (CDC3 and CAI), 63 healthy volunteer isolates were classified into 35 genotypes (allelic relations to CDC3 alleles 1:2/CAI alleles 1:2), among which genotypes II (115:119/23:23), III (115:123/18:27), and V (123:127/32:41) were found at frequencies of 12.7 %, 7.9 %, and 7.9 %, respectively. In 68 oral candidiasis isolates classified into 39 genotypes, genotypes II and III were identified in 4.4 % and 20.6 % of the isolates, respectively. The frequency of genotype III was higher in the candidiasis isolates than in the healthy isolates (p oral candidiasis. PMID:23757030

Takagi, Yuki; Fukano, Hideo; Shimozato, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko; Horii, Toshinobu; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kanbe, Toshio

2013-06-12

 
 
 
 
121

New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy childbearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis. PMID:22905033

Vecchiarelli, Anna; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Pietrella, Donatella

2012-08-13

122

New approaches in the development of a vaccine for mucosal candidiasis: progress and challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes mucosal candidiasis in the rapidly expanding number of immunocompromised patients. Mucosal candidiasis includes oropharyngeal, esophageal, gastrointestinal, and vaginal infections. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and antimycotic-refractory recurrent VVC is a frequent problem in healthy childbearing women. Both these mucosal infections can affect the quality of life and finding new therapeutical and preventive approaches is a challenge. A vaccine against candidal infections would be a new important tool to prevent and/or cure mucosal candidiasis and would be of benefit to many patients. Several Candida antigens have been proposed as vaccine candidates including cell wall components and virulence factors. Here we discuss the recent progress and problems associated with vaccination against mucosal candidiasis.

Vecchiarelli A; Pericolini E; Gabrielli E; Pietrella D

2012-01-01

123

Time to initiation of antifungal therapy for neonatal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of delayed antifungal therapy in critically ill infants with invasive candidiasis has not been studied. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of time to initiation of antifungal therapy (TIA) on mortality, disseminated disease, and postinfection hospital stay. We conducted a cohort study of critically ill infants with cultures positive for Candida from 1990 to 2008. TIA was defined as the number of hours from the collection of the first positive culture until the start of antifungal therapy. Of 96 infants, 57% were male, the median gestational age was 27 weeks (range, 23 to 41 weeks), and the median birth weight was 956 g (range, 415 to 6,191 g). Most subjects received amphotericin B deoxycholate. TIA was ? 24 h for 35% of infants, between 25 and 48 h for 42%, and >48 h for 23%. Eleven subjects died during hospitalization, and 22% had disseminated candidiasis. The median duration of hospital stay postinfection was 53 days (range, 6 to 217 days). Both univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that TIA was not associated with mortality, disseminated disease, or hospital stay postinfection. However, ventilator use for >60 days significantly increased the risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 9.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 66.7; P = 0.002). Prolonged candidemia increased the risk of disseminated disease by 10% per day of positive culture (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.2; P = 0.007), and low gestational age was associated with increased neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay after the first positive Candida culture by 0.94 weeks (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.98; P < 0.001). The TIA was not associated with all-cause mortality, disseminated candidiasis, and postinfection length of hospital stay.

Le J; Tran TT; Bui I; Wang MK; Vo A; Adler-Shohet FC

2013-06-01

124

Liver candidiasis. The various sonographic patterns in the immunocompromised child.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Liver candidiasis is characterised by small abscesses spread throughout the organ at random. These lesions may be identified sonographically. In the active phase of the disease, hepatomegaly is seen together with the "wheel in wheel" phenomenon, the "wagon wheel" appearance and/or the "bull's eye" lesion. Later on, hypoechoic defects develop. When the echogenic foci are revealed, the healing phase is initiated. These manifestations are demonstrated in 4 pediatric oncology patients. The sonographic patterns as well as its differential diagnosis from primary liver tumors, metastatic infiltrations or other abscess formations are discussed.

Grünebaum M; Ziv N; Kaplinsky C; Kornreich L; Horev G; Mor C

1991-01-01

125

[Candidiasis of the upper urinary tract. Report of a case  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We report a case of candidiasis of the upper urinary tract that presented as acute renal failure associated with septic syndrome. The patient initially required hemodialysis. Right hydronephrosis and perirenal collection were observed on ultrasound examination. METHODS: A percutaneous nephrostomy was performed. Nephrostomy urine cytology and cultures were positive for Candida tropicalis. An anterograde pyelography showed a 'fungus ball' in the urinary tract. RESULTS: Therapy with oral fluconazole and percutaneous amphotericin B achieved excellent results. CONCLUSIONS: Candidiasic urinary infection of the upper urinary tract often produces obstructive uropathy requiring percutaneous nephrostomy, which can also be used to instill amphotericin B. Combination therapy with amphotericin B and fluconazole can achieve excellent results.

Sánchez Sanchís M; Pastor Lence J; San Juan de Laorden C; Llopis Guixot B; Tarin Planes M; Carrascosa Lloret V

1996-01-01

126

[Anidulafungin: a new therapeutic option in systemic candidiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The increasing incidence of invasive fungal infections, epidemiological changes in these infections, and safety or interactions issues that might limit the use of traditional antifungal therapies explain the need for new antifungal agents. Anidulafungin is a new echinocandin with excellent activity on most Candida as well as on Aspergillus species. Its pharmacokinetic properties allow its administration without dosage adjustments in patients with hepatic and renal impairment and account for the absence of drug interactions. Anidulafungin has showed its efficacy and good tolerability in systemic candidiasis of non-neutropenic adults, including candidemia especially in fragile patients.

Lanternier F; Lortholary O

2010-08-01

127

Antifungal activity of fenticonazole in experimental dermatomycosis and candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antifungal activity of alpha-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-beta,N-imidazolylethyl 4-phenylthiobenzyl ether nitrate (fenticonazole, Rec 15/1476) in experimental dermatomycosis and candidiasis in guinea pigs was studied. Fenticonazole proved to be a very active drug with a healing capacity generally higher than that of the reference compounds. The adequate range of activity was from 1% to 3%, giving complete healing without relapses in 100% of cases treated. Fenticonazole is presently undergoing further experimental studies and on the basis of our results a clinical trial would therefore seem to be essential.

Veronese M; Barzaghi D; Bertoncini A

1981-01-01

128

Antifungal activity of fenticonazole in experimental dermatomycosis and candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antifungal activity of alpha-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-beta,N-imidazolylethyl 4-phenylthiobenzyl ether nitrate (fenticonazole, Rec 15/1476) in experimental dermatomycosis and candidiasis in guinea pigs was studied. Fenticonazole proved to be a very active drug with a healing capacity generally higher than that of the reference compounds. The adequate range of activity was from 1% to 3%, giving complete healing without relapses in 100% of cases treated. Fenticonazole is presently undergoing further experimental studies and on the basis of our results a clinical trial would therefore seem to be essential. PMID:7199314

Veronese, M; Barzaghi, D; Bertoncini, A

1981-01-01

129

Single-dose sertaconazole vaginal tablet treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (WC) is a bothersome disease in women. Poor compliance with the continuous use of antifungal vaginal drugs often results in treatment failure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, acceptability, and safety of single-dose sertaconazole vaginal tablet (500 mg) treatment compared with conventional 3-dose econazole vaginal tablet (150 mg) treatment for VVC. METHODS: In this open, randomized, and comparative study, 40 symptomatic patients with VVC confirmed by the smear method were enrolled. Patients in group A were treated with single-dose sertaconazole vaginal tablet and those in group B were treated continuously with econazole vaginal tablet for 3 days. RESULTS: The characteristics of the patients in both groups were comparable and without statistical difference. Group A showed a significantly better clearance rate for candidiasis than group B (100% vs. 72.2% on day 7, p = 0.013; 100% vs. 77.8% on day 14, p = 0.030), based on smear method results. Group A showed a more rapid response for symptom relief than group B on day 7, but there was no difference in overall symptom relief between group A and group B on day 14. CONCLUSION: Single-dose sertaconazole proved to be a more convenient and symptom-relieving treatment for VVC. The advantages of such management are worthy of further study in women with relapse VVC.

Wang PH; Chao HT; Chen CL; Yuan CC

2006-06-01

130

Management of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at increased risk of encountering bloodstream infections (BSIs) with Candida spp., associated with an elevated crude mortality rate. This supports the significance of early detection of infection and identification of the most effective management approach. A review of the various antifungal treatments and an evaluation of the diverse management approaches for invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients is necessary for guiding evidence-based decision-making. Different early detection schemes for invasive candidiasis are well documented in the literature. Other than the common use of blood cultures, new methods entail the use of risk prediction scores and biomarker tests. Regarding management strategies, different options are currently supported. These include prophylaxis, empirical therapy, pre-emptive therapy, and treatment of culture-documented infections. The choice of treatment is greatly dependent on several factors related to the patient and/or to the surrounding environment. Attention needs to be given to previous exposure to azoles, epidemiological data on dominant Candida spp. in local ICUs, severity of illness and associated morbidities. This paper summarises the most recent literature as well as the guidelines issued by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The objective is to identify the best diagnosis and management approaches for serious Candida infections in critically ill patients. In addition, this article addresses an important aspect associated with managing candidaemia in critically ill patients pertaining to the decision for intravenous catheter removal.

Chahoud J; Kanafani ZA; Kanj SS

2013-06-01

131

Fluconazole for ketoconazole-resistant oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV-1 infected patients.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The efficacy of fluconazole in doses ranging from 50 to 200 mg/day in controlling oropharyngeal candidiasis was retrospectively evaluated in 16 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients. 13 patients received fluconazole due to failure of treatment with ketoconazole, and among these 11 (84%) initially showed complete or partial remission of oropharyngeal candidiasis. 3 (27%) of these subsequently developed failure of treatment within a median observation period of 38 days. No major toxicities were observed. Fluconazole appears promising in the therapy of ketoconazole-resistant candidiasis.

Thorsen, S; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

1990-01-01

132

An elderly case of type 2 diabetes which developed in association with oral and esophageal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 75-year-old woman who had been healthy except for mild glycemia and lipidemia discovered three and a half months before admission experienced severe dysphagia secondary to oral and esophageal candidiasis. She eventually developed diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome and ketoacidosis. Since anti-GAD antibody was negative and her diabetes was controlled with a moderate dose of insulin, we made a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Her only risk factors for candidiasis were hyperglycemia, age, and continuous denture use. The fact that her diabetes developed in association with oral candidiasis supports the hypothesis that there is a bidirectional interrelationship between diabetes and oral infection. PMID:17409603

Takasawa, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Abe, Makiko; Osame, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Shigeru; Hisatake, Tomoko; Yasuda, Kazuki; Kaburagi, Yasushi; Kajio, Hiroshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

2007-04-02

133

A radioimmunoassay method for the rapid detection of Candida antibodies is experimental systematic candidiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rabbits were employed as experimental models to evaluate a solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) method for the diagnosis of systematic candidiasis. Ten rabbits were incubated subcutaneously to mimic superficial candidiasis and were found to produce no antibodies to Candida as determined by both immunodiffusion and RIA procedures. However, 94 per cent of 18 rabbits systematically infected by intravenous injection of Candida cells were observed to produce antibody as assessed by the RIA technique. These data encourage further tests with human sera and the continued development of this RIA procedure as a useful tool in the early serodiagnosis of systematic candidiasis. (Auth.)

1979-03-30

134

Hospital-based emergency department visits with oral candidiasis in the USA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the number of hospital Emergency Department (ED) visits with a diagnosis of oral candidiasis for the year 2007 in the USA and to identify the comorbid conditions associated with it. STUDY DESIGN: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) for 2007 was employed in this study. Patients who visited the ED with a diagnosis of oral candidiasis were selected, and the estimates were projected to the national levels using the discharge weights. Presence of comorbid conditions in these patients was also determined. RESULTS: A total of 249,092 ED visits had oral candidiasis. Most of the patients belonged to the lower socioeconomic strata. Patients presented with a wide range of comorbid conditions and a large percentage of the patients were subsequently hospitalized after ED visits. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of patients in the US visited the ED with oral candidiasis in the year 2007.

Elangovan S; Srinivasan S; Allareddy V

2012-08-01

135

Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis.

Seino, Yasuo; Tamakawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Kimura, Y.; Miyazaki, S.; Miura, R.; Ishida, H.

1988-01-01

136

Imaging of liver and spleen candidiasis in patients with acute leukemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four patients with acute leukemia were found to have candidal abscess of liver and spleen. CT and US showed hepatosplenomegaly and microabscess. These findings might be useful in diagnosis of visceral candidiasis. (author).

1988-01-01

137

Role of posaconazole in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Voichita Ianas1, Kathryn R Matthias2, Stephen A Klotz11Section of Infectious Diseases and Department of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USAAbstract: Posaconazole is the newest azole antifungal approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and possesses a broad spectrum of activity against numerous yeasts and filamentous fungi. It is available as an oral suspension and is generally well tolerated by patients, but gastrointestinal absorption is sometimes inadequate and remains a clinical concern in treating deep-seated infections. It is used routinely and effectively for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in immunosuppressed hosts and is an effective treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, including azole-resistant disease.Keywords: posaconazole, azole, yeasts, filamentous fungi

Voichita Ianas; Kathryn R Matthias; Stephen A Klotz

2010-01-01

138

Genetic basis for recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent disease affecting more than 75% of all women at least once in their lifetime. Up to 8% of them suffer from recurrent VVC (RVVC) characterized by at least three episodes each year. Several risk factors, such as antibiotic use, diabetes, or pregnancy, are known, but the vast majority of women with RVVC develop the infection without having any risk factor, implying that a genetic component most likely plays an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. This review summarizes the immunogenetic alterations that lead to an increased susceptibility to vaginal infections with Candida albicans. Different mutations and polymorphisms in innate immune genes alter the mucosal immune response against fungi and are likely to have an important role in susceptibility to RVVC. A better understanding of the genetic and immunological mechanisms leading to RVVC is important for both the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and the design of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23354953

Jaeger, Martin; Plantinga, Theo S; Joosten, Leo A B; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G

2013-04-01

139

Conventional and alternative antifungal therapies to oral candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Candida-associated denture stomatitis is the most common form of oral candidal infection, with Candida albicans being the principal etiological agent. Candida adheres directly or via an intermediary layer of plaque-forming bacteria to denture acrylic. Despite antifungal therapy to treat denture stomatitis, infection is reestablished soon after the treatment ceases. In addition, many predisposing factors have been identified as important in the development of oral candidia (more) sis, including malnourishment, common endocrine disorders, such as diabetis mellitus, antibacterial drug therapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and other immunocompromised conditions, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These often results in increased tolerance to the most commonly used antifungals. So this review suggests new therapies to oral candidiasis.

Anibal, Paula Cristina; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Moraes, Julianna Joanna de Carvalho; Höfling, José Francisco

2010-12-01

140

Genetic basis for recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a frequent disease affecting more than 75% of all women at least once in their lifetime. Up to 8% of them suffer from recurrent VVC (RVVC) characterized by at least three episodes each year. Several risk factors, such as antibiotic use, diabetes, or pregnancy, are known, but the vast majority of women with RVVC develop the infection without having any risk factor, implying that a genetic component most likely plays an important role in the susceptibility to RVVC. This review summarizes the immunogenetic alterations that lead to an increased susceptibility to vaginal infections with Candida albicans. Different mutations and polymorphisms in innate immune genes alter the mucosal immune response against fungi and are likely to have an important role in susceptibility to RVVC. A better understanding of the genetic and immunological mechanisms leading to RVVC is important for both the understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and the design of novel therapeutic strategies.

Jaeger M; Plantinga TS; Joosten LA; Kullberg BJ; Netea MG

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

1987-01-01

142

Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

1982-01-01

143

Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

1982-02-01

144

Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

1982-02-01

145

Hyperplastic candidiasis - right-oral cavity, tonsil hypopharynx and larynx.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A twenty five year old female, presented with burning in throat, Odynophagia and characteristic history of falling of granules, He had a verrucous type granular lesion right retromolar area., tonsil & its fossa, Lingual Surface Epiglottis & Hypoharyngeal wall, Right Aryepiglottic fold & ventricular fold Oedmatous and Scattered granules on both vocal folds & right Posterolateral border of tongue. Candida was detected in 10% Potassium Hydroxide, gram stained smear, prepared from tissue scrapping. Histopathology report of excised specimen was Fungal Granuloma. She was immunocompetent & was otherwise normal. Disease could possibly be attributed to virulence attributes of Candida. This hyperplastic candidiasis was combinedly treated with surgical excision and oral daily 100mg, fluconazole for six weeks, with Elevan months of follow-up. This is indeed a very rare case & only very few such cases, are reported so far in literature.

Chourdia V

2001-07-01

146

Determination of Vaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to Shahid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Genital tract infections are among the mostcommon causes of patients referred to therapeutic centers. Nearly 75% ofwomen suffer from genital Candida infection, at least once in their lifetime.The aim of present study was detection of Candida species causing vaginitisand the evaluation of antimycotic effects of ketoconazol, clotrimazole andfluconazole against Candida species.Material and Methods: In this study, 210 vaginal samples were obtainedfrom the patients suspected of Vaginal Candidiasis. Direct examination andculture were carried out for all specimens to detect the yeast. The isolatedyeast species were then identified, using various different tests such as cultureon corn meal agar, tween-80, germ tube test, and assimilation test by API 20Ckit by using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and microdilution broth, MIC90 andMIC50 of drug were measured and determined their drug resistance.Results: In the present study, 100 yeast colonies were isolated from patients;%80 are C. albicans and the rest are C. parapsilosis(2%), C. tropicalis(6%), C.glabrata(4%), C. krusei(2%), C. guilliermondii (3%), C.stellatoidea(3%). Interms of drug resistance test MIC50 and MIC90 of fluconazole for candidaalbicans are 5.33 and 35.27?g/ ml, respectively, and for non-albicans candidaare 3 and 21.4?g/ml, respectively. Clotrimazole MIC for Candida albicans(MIC50, MIC90) 0.97 and 4.9?g/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 0.63and 3.4/ml, respectively. Kectoconazole MIC for Candida albicans 2.43 and16.45?g/ml, respectively, and for non-albicans 1.12 and 6.6?g/ml,respectively.Conclusion: Clotrimazole has been better than the two other drugs forCandida species on the whole, non albicans species are more sensitive thanalbicans species in the presence of the drugs used in this study.Key words: Candida, vaginal candidiasis, Resistance drug , Tonekabon.

Nasrollahi omran A; Vakili L; Jafarpur M

2011-01-01

147

Pseudomembranous candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Cali, Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated yeast from the oral cavity of HIV/AIDS individuals. The use of fluconazole has increased the number of resistant or less-sensitive Candida species different than C. albicans. The purpose of this study was to identify the Candida species producing pseudomembranous candidiasis in patients suffering from AIDS, their relationship with CD4(+) counts and their sensitivity to fluconazole and itraconazole. We studied 71 patients at a hospital in the city of Cali. Samples of white plaque were seeded on CHROMagar Candida, yeast identification was done with API 20C Aux, and susceptibility testing was determined by E test. Ninety-three yeast isolates were obtained, 52 single and 41 mixed. C. albicans was the most isolated, followed by C. glabrata. An increased frequency of isolates and variety of Candida species occurred in patients with a CD4(+) cell count ?100 cells/mm(3) without significant differences (p = 0.29). The susceptibility study showed that 8 (8.6%) isolates were resistant to fluconazole and 11 (11.8%) to itraconazole, while 6 (8.8%) C. albicans were simultaneously resistant. No association was found between the isolates of C. albicans or Candida species different than C. albicans and the use of fluconazole (p = 0.21). The results of this study indicate that in the tested population, fluconazole continues to be the best treatment option for oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients suffering from AIDS (HIV/AIDS); however, susceptibility tests are necessary in patients who present therapeutic failure.

Castro LÁ; Álvarez MI; Martínez E

2013-02-01

148

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy from the pediatric perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations of the autoimmune regulator gene. The clinical spectrum of the disease encompasses several autoimmune endocrine and non endocrine manifestations, which may lead to acute metabolic alterations and eventually life-threatening events. The clinical diagnosis is defined by the presence of at least two components of the classic triad including chronic mucocoutaneous candidiasis (CMC), chronic hypoparathyroidism (CH), Addison's disease (AD). Other common features of the disease are hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, alopecia, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, type 1 diabetes, gastrointestinal dysfunction. APECED usually begins in childhood. CMC is the first manifestation to appear, usually before the age of 5 years, followed by CH and then by AD. The clinical phenotype may evolve over several years and many components of the disease may not appear until the 4th or 5th decade of life. The phenotypical expression of the syndrome shows a wide variability even between siblings with the same genotype. In view of this heterogeneity, an early diagnosis of APECED can be very challenging often leading to a considerable diagnostic delay. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that the presence of even a minor component of APECED in children should prompt a careful investigation for other signs and symptoms of the disease, thus allowing an early diagnosis and prevention of severe and life-threatening events. Aim of this review is to focus on clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of the major components of APECED in children particularly focusing on endocrine features of the disease.

Capalbo D; Improda N; Esposito A; De Martino L; Barbieri F; Betterle C; Pignata C; Salerno M

2013-05-01

149

Candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a neonate: Case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic Candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic Candida infection. We report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by Candida kefyr in a term neonate. Case Presentation Renal agenesis on the left side was diagnosed antenatally and anal atresia postnatally. Moreover, a vesico-ureteral-reflux (VUR) grade V was detected by cystography. The first surgical procedure, creating a protective colostoma, was uneventful. Afterwards our patient developed urosepsis caused by Enterococcus faecalis and was treated with piperacillin. The child improved initially, but deteriorated again. A further urine analysis revealed Candida kefyr in a significant number. As antibiotic resistance data about this non-albicans Candida species are limited, we started liposomal amphotericin B (AMB), but later changed to fluconazole after receiving the antibiogram. Candiduria persisted and abdominal imaging showed a Candida pyelonephritis. Since high grade reflux was prevalent we instilled AMB into the child's bladder as a therapeutic approach. While undergoing surgery (creating a neo-rectum) a recto-vesical fistula could be shown and subsequently was resected. The child recovered completely under systemic fluconazole therapy over 3 months. Conclusions Candidiasis is still of major concern in neonates with accompanying risk factors. As clinicians are confronted with an increasing number of non-albicans Candida species, knowledge about these pathogens and their sensitivities is of major importance.

Weichert Stefan; Reinshagen Konrad; Zahn Katrin; Geginat Gernot; Dietz Annebärbel; Kilian Anna; Schroten Horst; Tenenbaum Tobias

2012-01-01

150

Candidiasis Bucal: Una revisión sistemática de las pruebas de laboratorio Oral Candidiasis: A systematic review about labs prubes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el manejo de la Candidiasis Bucal, los hallazgos clínicos no suelen ser suficientes, para determinar su diagnóstico e instaurar un tratamiento, siendo necesaria la realización de pruebas microbiológicas que garanticen una respuesta a la terapéutica instaurada, evitándose así, la resistencia a ciertos medicamentos. En la actualidad existe gran cantidad de pruebas de laboratorio para llegar a un diagnostico diferencial entre especies de Càndida, por lo que este artículo tiene por objetivo profundizar cuales de estas pruebas poseen mayor evidencia clínica en la determinación de la Candidiasis Bucal. Se utilizó la revisión sistemática como metodología que proporciona una apreciación crítica de datos que de otra manera serían inmanejables, integrando de manera eficiente toda información valida, la cual nos aporte una base racional para tomar decisiones en el establecimiento de políticas de atención. Al analizar los diversos trabajos, se determinó que las pruebas de laboratorio existentes, poseen poca evidencia clínica acerca de su utilidad, recomendándose realizar estudios que cumplan con los criterios de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo que garanticen su validez clínica.Oral mycosis management, the clinics reward’s its not be enough, to determine it’s diagnosis and restore a treatment. It is be necessary to make labs prubes microbiology that guarantied a response an adequate treatment, it to avoid its resistance to some medicament. Actually exist a lot of labs prubes to find a differential diagnosis between species of Candida, the objective of this article its to low about which one of the labs prubes have the greatest clinic evidence to determine Oral Candidiasis, its used systematic review as methodology to proportion a critic appreciation of information in other way it would be unmanageable, to integrate of efficiency way validity information, the which one proportionated us a base rational to make decisions to establishment attention politics . At analyzed the different works, it determine that the existent lab prubes, it isn’t clinic evidence of its utility, we recommended to make studies that perform with the criterions sensibility, specify and predictive value.

Elba Añez; Thaìs Rojas-Morales; José Luis Calleja; Rita Navas

2009-01-01

151

Candidiasis Bucal: Una revisión sistemática de las pruebas de laboratorio/ Oral Candidiasis: A systematic review about labs prubes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el manejo de la Candidiasis Bucal, los hallazgos clínicos no suelen ser suficientes, para determinar su diagnóstico e instaurar un tratamiento, siendo necesaria la realización de pruebas microbiológicas que garanticen una respuesta a la terapéutica instaurada, evitándose así, la resistencia a ciertos medicamentos. En la actualidad existe gran cantidad de pruebas de laboratorio para llegar a un diagnostico diferencial entre especies de Càndida, por lo que este a (more) rtículo tiene por objetivo profundizar cuales de estas pruebas poseen mayor evidencia clínica en la determinación de la Candidiasis Bucal. Se utilizó la revisión sistemática como metodología que proporciona una apreciación crítica de datos que de otra manera serían inmanejables, integrando de manera eficiente toda información valida, la cual nos aporte una base racional para tomar decisiones en el establecimiento de políticas de atención. Al analizar los diversos trabajos, se determinó que las pruebas de laboratorio existentes, poseen poca evidencia clínica acerca de su utilidad, recomendándose realizar estudios que cumplan con los criterios de sensibilidad, especificidad y valor predictivo que garanticen su validez clínica. Abstract in english Oral mycosis management, the clinics reward?s its not be enough, to determine it?s diagnosis and restore a treatment. It is be necessary to make labs prubes microbiology that guarantied a response an adequate treatment, it to avoid its resistance to some medicament. Actually exist a lot of labs prubes to find a differential diagnosis between species of Candida, the objective of this article its to low about which one of the labs prubes have the greatest clinic evidence (more) to determine Oral Candidiasis, its used systematic review as methodology to proportion a critic appreciation of information in other way it would be unmanageable, to integrate of efficiency way validity information, the which one proportionated us a base rational to make decisions to establishment attention politics . At analyzed the different works, it determine that the existent lab prubes, it isn?t clinic evidence of its utility, we recommended to make studies that perform with the criterions sensibility, specify and predictive value.

Añez, Elba; Rojas-Morales, Thaìs; Calleja, José Luis; Navas, Rita

2009-09-01

152

US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports  

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Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

Kim, Kyo Nam; Woo, Joung Joo; Bahk, Yong Whee; Kim, Soon Yong; Kim, Eun Ryoung [Sungae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2001-07-01

153

US and MR imaging of candidiasis of the nervous system in premature infants: two case reports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Candidiasis of central nervous system (CNS) is rare condition and like other opportunistic fungal infections, most commonly occurs in immune-compromised patients. Because of the increasing use of antibiotics and the improving survival rate of premature infants requiring intensive care, the incidence of fungal infection in the brain has increased. We report the findings of ultrasonography and MR imaging in two cases of candidiasis of the CNS in premature infants.

2001-01-01

154

Effect of chromic ?-irradiation with small doses on candidiasis development in white rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rats continuously exposed to 2 rads/day during eight months (cumulative dose of 400 rads) and nonirradiated rats were infected with a candida cells administered intravenously. All the irradiated animals died ten days after infection while only ten per cent of the control animals died for the same period of time. A morphological study has revealed candidiasis in the irradiated rats; changes, mainly in the kidneys, and formation of candidiasis granulomas have been detected in the control animals

1976-01-01

155

A child with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis and ectodermal dysplasia treated with immunosuppression: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Common features of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia include candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and hypoadrenalism. The initial manifestation of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia may be autoimmune hepatitis, keratoconjunctivitis, frequent fever with or without a rash, chronic diarrhea, or different combinations of these with or without oral candidiasis. CASE PRESENTATION: We discuss a profoundly affected 2.9-year-old Caucasian girl of Western European descent with a dramatic response to immunosuppression (initially azathioprine and oral steroids, and then subsequently mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy). At four years of follow-up, her response to mycophenolate mofetil is excellent. CONCLUSION: The clinical features of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia may continue for years before some of the more common components appear. In such cases, it may be life-saving to diagnose autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dysplasia and commence therapy with immunosuppressive agents. The response of our patient to immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil has been dramatic. It is possible that other patients with this condition might also benefit from immunosuppression.

O'Gorman CS; Shulman R; Lara-Corrales I; Pope E; Marcon M; Grasemann H; Schneider R; Upton J; Sochett EB; Koltin D; Cohen E

2013-01-01

156

Optimal management of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis in patients living with HIV infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mucocutaneous candidiasis is frequently one of the first signs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Over 90% of patients with AIDS will develop oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) at some time during their illness. Although numerous antifungal agents are available, azoles, both topical (clotrimazole) and systemic (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole) have replaced older topical antifungals (gentian violet and nystatin) in the management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. The systemic azoles, are generally safe and effective agents in HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. A constant concern in these patients is relapse, which is dependent on the degree of immunosuppression commonly seen after topical therapy, rather than with systemic azole therapy. Candida esophagitis (CE) is also an important concern since it occurs in more than 10% of patients with AIDS and can lead to a decrease in oral intake and associated weight loss. Fluconazole has become the most widely used antifungal in the management of mucosal candidiasis. However, itraconazole and posaconazole have similar clinical response rates as fluconazole and are also effective alternative agents. In patients with fluconazole-refractory mucosal candidiasis, treatment options now include itraconazole solution, voriconazole, posaconazole, and the newer echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin).

Vazquez JA

2010-01-01

157

Management of oropharyngeal candidiasis with localized oral miconazole therapy: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability  

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Full Text Available Curtis D Collins1, Sarah Cookinham2, Jeannina Smith21Department of Pharmacy Services, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a very common localized infection of the mucus membranes of the oropharynx that is most commonly caused by the patient's own commensal Candida albicans. It is the most common opportunistic infection affecting patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is also quite common in patients with hematological malignancies. Effective treatment options are of high importance given the worldwide incidence of these disease states and the potential for development of oropharyngeal candidiasis in these patients. Various systemic and topical treatment options for patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis have existed for many years. Miconazole buccal tablets have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Clinical trials have demonstrated noninferiority in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis when compared with clotrimazole troches in patients with HIV and against miconazole gel in patients with head and neck cancer. Miconazole buccal tablets exhibit few drug interactions because of low systemic absorption and are generally well tolerated with a safety profile similar to comparators. The once-daily dosing schedule may improve patient adherence compared with topical alternatives; however, the cost of therapy may be a barrier for some patients and should be considered by prescribers compared with alternative treatments.Keywords: esophageal candidiasis, miconazole, antifungal agents

Collins CD; Cookinham S; Smith J

2011-01-01

158

Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To determine the frequency of vaginal candidiasis in clinically symptomatic and asymptomatic cases of pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. A total of 110 pregnant women were nonrandomly recruited by convenient sampling. The studied variables included the demographic data information on parity, trimester of pregnancy, presence of vaginal discharge and the presence or absence of diabetes. Vulva and vagina were inspected for signs of inflammation and discharge with sterile speculum and vaginal specimens were collected with sterile cotton tipped swabs. Swabs were subjected to Gram staining and examined microscopically for the diagnosis of candidiasis. The frequency of vaginal candidiasis during pregnancy was found to be 38%, in which 27% were symptomatic and 11% were asymptomatic group. Increased ratio of infection was observed in multigravida and diabetic women. There was no marked differences in results with respect to age and trimester of pregnancy. Although there is generally a high frequency of vaginal candidiasis, an increased ratio of vaginal candidiasis in multigravida and diabetic pregnant women requires these women to be routinely screened for vaginal candidiasis regardless of symptomatic status. (author)

2008-01-01

159

Results from a prospective, international, epidemiologic study of invasive candidiasis in children and neonates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Candida species are the third most common cause of pediatric health care-associated bloodstream infection in the United States and Europe. To our knowledge, this report from the International Pediatric Fungal Network is the largest prospective, multicenter observational study dedicated to pediatric and neonatal invasive candidiasis. METHODS: From 2007 to 2011, we enrolled 196 pediatric and 25 neonatal patients with invasive candidiasis. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida species predominated in pediatric (56%) and neonatal (52%) age groups, yet Candida albicans was the most common species in both groups. Successful treatment responses were observed in pediatric (76%) and neonatal patients (92%). Infection with Candida parapsilosis led to successful responses in pediatric (92%) and neonatal (100%) patients, whereas infection with Candida glabrata was associated with a lower successful outcome in pediatric patients (55%). The most commonly used primary antifungal therapies for pediatric invasive candidiasis were fluconazole (21%), liposomal amphotericin B (20%) and micafungin (18%). Outcome of pediatric invasive candidiasis was similar in response to polyenes (73%), triazoles (67%) and echinocandins (73%). The most commonly used primary antifungal therapies for neonatal invasive candidiasis were fluconazole (32%), caspofungin (24%) and liposomal amphotericin B (16%) and micafungin (8%). Outcomes of neonatal candidiasis by antifungal class again revealed similar response rates among the classes. CONCLUSIONS: We found a predominance of non-albicans Candida infection in children and similar outcomes based on antifungal class used. This international collaborative study sets the foundation for large epidemiologic studies focusing on the unique features of neonatal and pediatric candidiasis and comparative studies of therapeutic interventions in these populations.

Steinbach WJ; Roilides E; Berman D; Hoffman JA; Groll AH; Bin-Hussain I; Palazzi DL; Castagnola E; Halasa N; Velegraki A; Dvorak CC; Charkabarti A; Sung L; Danziger-Isakov L; Lachenauer C; Arrieta A; Knapp K; Abzug MJ; Ziebold C; Lehrnbecher T; Klingspor L; Warris A; Leckerman K; Martling T; Walsh TJ; Benjamin DK Jr; Zaoutis TE

2012-12-01

160

Mutations in the AIRE Gene: Effects on Subcellular Location and Transactivation Function of the Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis–Ectodermal Dystrophy Protein  

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Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a monogenic autosomal disease with recessive inheritance. It is characterized by multiple autoimmune endocrinopathies, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophies. The defective gene responsible for this dis...

Björses, Petra; Halonen, Maria; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Kolmer, Meelis; Aaltonen, Johanna; Ellonen, Pekka; Perheentupa, Jaakko

 
 
 
 
161

MICROBIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF IRISH AUTOIMMUNE POLYENDOCRINOPATHY-CANDIDIASIS-ECTODERMAL DYSTROPHY (APECED) PATIENTS REVEALS PERSISTENCE OF CANDIDA ALBICANS STRAINS, GRADUAL REDUCTION IN SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AZOLES AND INCIDENCES OF CLINICAL SIGNS OF ORAL CANDIDIASIS WITHOUT CULTURE EVIDENCE  

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Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, approximately half the t...

MORAN, GARY; MC MANUS, BRENDA; SULLIVAN, DEREK; HEALY, CLAIRE; NUNN, JUNE; COLEMAN, DAVID; FLEMING, PADRAIG

162

Association among vitamin D, oral candidiasis, and calprotectinemia in HIV.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with negative health outcomes, including infections. Vitamin D modulates inflammation and down-regulates the expression of calprotectin, a molecule which influences neutrophil functions and which has been linked to oral candidiasis (OC), the most prevalent oral lesion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We hypothesized a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and OC, and that this effect was partially modulated by calprotectinemia. Plasma calprotectin and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were measured in stored samples from 84 HIV-seropositive Chicago women enrolled in the Oral Substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). OC and vitamin D deficiency were diagnosed in, respectively, 14 (16.7%) and 46 (54.8%) of those studied. Vitamin D deficiency was positively associated with OC (p = 0.011) and with higher calprotectinemia (p = 0.019) in univariate analysis. After adjustment for CD4, HIV viral load, HIV treatment, and tobacco and heroin/methadone use, vitamin D deficiency remained a significant predictor of OC (OR 5.66; 95% confidence interval 1.01-31.71). This association weakened after adjustment for calprotectinemia, supporting a role for calprotectinemia as a moderator of this effect. These findings support studies to examine the effect of vitamin D status on calprotectinemia, neutrophil functions, and opportunistic mucosal infections in HIV.

Sroussi HY; Burke-Miller J; French AL; Adeyemi OM; Weber KM; Lu Y; Cohen M

2012-07-01

163

Treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with boric acid powder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A double-blind comparison was made of the use of 14 daily intravaginal gelatin capsules containing 600 mg of boric acid powder versus the use of identical capsules containing 100,000 U nystatin diluted to volume with cornstarch for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis albicans. Cure rates for boric acid were 92% at 7 to 10 days after treatment and 72% at 30 days, whereas the nystatin cure rates were 64% at 7 to 10 days and 50% at 30 days. The speed of alleviation of signs and symptoms was similar for the two drugs. There were no untoward side effects, and cervical cytologic features were not affected. In vitro studies found boric acid to be fungistatic and its effectiveness to be unrelated to pH. Blood boron analyses indicated little absorption from the vagina and a half-life of less than 12 hours. Acceptance by the patients was better than for "messy" vaginal creams, and self-made capsules containing boric acid powder are inexpensive (31 cents for fourteen) compared with the costly medication commonly prescribed.

Van Slyke KK; Michel VP; Rein MF

1981-09-01

164

Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of vaginal candidiasis in the UAE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vaginal candidiasis (VC) continues to be a health problem to women worldwide. Although the majority of VC cases are caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), non-albicans Candida spp. like C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are emerging as important and potentially resistant opportunistic agents of VC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of VC in the UAE through retrospective analysis of pertinent data compiled by the microbiology and infection control unit at Latifa Hospital, Dubai between 2005 and 2011. The incidence of VC significantly increased from 10.76% in 2005 to 17.61% in 2011; average prevalence was 13.88%. C. albicans occurred at a frequency of 83.02%, C. glabrata at 16.5% and C. tropicalis at 1.2%. A single C. dubliniensis isolate was identified in the sample population. The percentage of C. albicans significantly decreased from 83.02% in the sample population as a whole to 60.8% in subjects over 45 years of age (P < 0.01) and that of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei significantly increased from 13.88%, 0.9% and 0.03% to 29.7%, 6.7% and 1.4% (P < 0.05) respectively. The incidence of VC in the UAE is on the rise and the frequency of non-albicans Candida spp. is noticeably increasing especially in postmenopausal women.

Hamad M; Kazandji N; Awadallah S; Allam H

2013-09-01

165

Association among vitamin D, oral candidiasis, and calprotectinemia in HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with negative health outcomes, including infections. Vitamin D modulates inflammation and down-regulates the expression of calprotectin, a molecule which influences neutrophil functions and which has been linked to oral candidiasis (OC), the most prevalent oral lesion in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We hypothesized a positive association between vitamin D deficiency and OC, and that this effect was partially modulated by calprotectinemia. Plasma calprotectin and serum 25 (OH) vitamin D levels were measured in stored samples from 84 HIV-seropositive Chicago women enrolled in the Oral Substudy of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). OC and vitamin D deficiency were diagnosed in, respectively, 14 (16.7%) and 46 (54.8%) of those studied. Vitamin D deficiency was positively associated with OC (p = 0.011) and with higher calprotectinemia (p = 0.019) in univariate analysis. After adjustment for CD4, HIV viral load, HIV treatment, and tobacco and heroin/methadone use, vitamin D deficiency remained a significant predictor of OC (OR 5.66; 95% confidence interval 1.01-31.71). This association weakened after adjustment for calprotectinemia, supporting a role for calprotectinemia as a moderator of this effect. These findings support studies to examine the effect of vitamin D status on calprotectinemia, neutrophil functions, and opportunistic mucosal infections in HIV. PMID:22538413

Sroussi, H Y; Burke-Miller, J; French, A L; Adeyemi, O M; Weber, K M; Lu, Y; Cohen, M

2012-04-25

166

Clinical and mycological spectrum of cutaneous candidiasis in Bombay.  

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Full Text Available A total of 150 patients with cutaneous candidiasis were studied. A detailed clinical history was taken. Scrapings were examined in 10% KOH, and the material cultured on Sabouraud?s agar. Species were identified by the serum germ tube test, sugar fermentation and sugar assimilation tests. Of 150 patients 79 were females. The commonest presentation was intertrigo (75), vulvovaginitis (19) and paronychia (17). A history of chronic exposure to water was obtained in 94 cases, all had erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica and/or paronychia. Diabetes melltius as a predisposing factor was observed in 22 patients. The 10 cases of balanoposthitis had associated diabetes mellitus. Smear and culture were positive in all the patients. C. albicans was isolated in 136 cases, C. tropicalis in 12, and C. guillermondi in 2. The cultures of C. albicans had positive serum germ tube test. The 6 patients in the paediatric age group having perianal/genital involvement had a stools culture positive for C. albicans.

Shroff P; Parikh D; Fernandez R; Wagle U

1990-01-01

167

Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis; Report of Three Cases with Different Phenotypes  

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Full Text Available Despite the fact that higher BMI is a risk factor for, wheeze ever, wheeze and dyspnea in the last 12 months, and diagnosed asthma, higher BMI is not a risk factor for obstructive pattern in pulmonary function test.Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis (CMCC) refers to a group of immunodeficiencies, characterized by persistent or recurrent infections of the skin, nails, and mucus membranes caused by candida. A wide range of immunologic abnormality has been reported in CMCC. Defects in cellular limb of the immune system, mainly the specific response to antigens of candida species, are well documented in CMCC patients. A subgroup of patients is predisposed to development of autoimmune endocrinopathies. These patients need repeated monitoring of endocrine functions. Immunologic studies are needed to identify the extent of immunodeficiency and other abnormalities of immune functions. We report three cases of CMCC. These patients show different phenotypes and highlight the need for complete evaluation and long term follow-up for accompanying disorders.

Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi; Abolhassan Farhoudi; Masoud Movahedi; Mohammad Gharagozlou; Kourosh Mohammadi; Nima Rezaei

2005-01-01

168

Prevalance of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in women of reproductive age group  

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Full Text Available Background : Vulvovaginal Candidiasis is a common problem in women of reproductive age group with overgrowth of fungus Candida due to loss of imbalance between normal vaginal flora, Candida and immune defense mechanisms. Most common Candida species is C. albicans. However, the incidence of non-albicans species is on the rise. Direct microscopy and vaginal cultures are a valuable tool for identifying Candida species so that appropriate therapy may be given to eliminate the vaginal source of infection rather than treating vulval symptoms.  Objectives :The main objectives of the present study were to estimate the incidence of Candida infections in women of reproductive age and identify the species of Candida causing such infections. 150 women were subjected to speculum examination and vaginal swabs were collected for culture, direct microscopy and candida isolation. Results : 53.3% of women in their early reproductive years were found to suffer from Candida infections of which 86%  were Candida albicans species. Conclusion :  Culture for Candida species routinely maybe a valuable tool not only to treat vaginal symptoms effectively but also to avoid usage of unnecessary antifungal agents.

Sarada Tiyyagura; Madhuri Taranikanti; Swati Ala; Dinesh Raj Mathur

2013-01-01

169

Oral candidiasis mimicking an oral squamous cell carcinoma: report of a case.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral candidiasis is a significant problem in immune-compromised patients. The most common forms of mucosal candidiasis are oropharyngeal, oesophageal and vaginal, and more than 90% of HIV positive persons will manifest at least one episode of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Local and systemic factors such as uninterrupted daily use of a prosthesis by patients, smoking habit, as well as high glucose intake may contribute to the development of the lesion. The aim of this article is to report an uncommon case of oral candidiasis presenting an aggressive clinical behaviour in a 64-year-old male patient, with a significant smoking habit and a medical history of non-controlled diabetes. The lesion affected the hard and soft palate of the right side, revealing erythematous and ulcerated areas, elevated borders and central portions resembling necrosis, mimicking the clinical features of oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the correct diagnosis of oral candidiasis was obtained after histopathological and cytological examinations and the patient was easily treated with traditional antifungal drugs and correction of his glucose levels.

Pontes HA; Paiva HB; de Freitas Silva BS; Fonseca FP; da Silva FB; Pontes FS; Dos Santos Pinto D Jr

2012-03-01

170

Early detection of systemic candidiasis in the whole blood of patients with hematologic malignancies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Systemic candidiasis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematologic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of systemic candidiasis and the efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELIZA) method for the early detection of Candida spp. in patients with hematologic malignancies. From 2004 to 2006, 194 patients with hematologic malignancies were evaluated for systemic candidiasis. Collected blood samples were assayed using the PCR-ELISA method for the presence of the bands on ethidium bromide stained gel, and for hybridization with Candida spp. as well. The female-to-male ratio was 61:133, the mean age was 33.7 years, and the mean hospitalization period was 21.2 days. Twenty-five patients (12.9%) had positive PCR-ELISA results for systemic candidiasis. The etiologic agents were Candida albicans (21 cases), C. tropicalis (3 cases), and C. krusei (1 case). The mean interval of PCR-ELISA positivity in blood samples before the manifestation of clinical signs was 12.6 days. Fungal PCR-ELISA assay became negative after 14 days when patients were treated successfully with amphotericin B, and the assay remained positive until death when the treatment failed. The PCR-ELISA method can potentially serve as a useful tool for the management of patients suffering from hematologic malignancies and at risk for systemic candidiasis.

Badiee P; Kordbacheh P; Alborzi A; Zakernia M; Haddadi P

2009-01-01

171

Genotypes of Candida albicans isolated from healthy individuals and their distribution in patients with oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For the study of Candida albicans genotypes involved in development of candidiasis, Candida albicans isolates were collected from healthy volunteers and patients with oral candidiasis and genotyped on the basis of 25S rDNA and microsatellite polymorphisms. In the microsatellite analysis using two microsatellite markers (CDC3 and CAI), 63 healthy volunteer isolates were classified into 35 genotypes (allelic relations to CDC3 alleles 1:2/CAI alleles 1:2), among which genotypes II (115:119/23:23), III (115:123/18:27), and V (123:127/32:41) were found at frequencies of 12.7 %, 7.9 %, and 7.9 %, respectively. In 68 oral candidiasis isolates classified into 39 genotypes, genotypes II and III were identified in 4.4 % and 20.6 % of the isolates, respectively. The frequency of genotype III was higher in the candidiasis isolates than in the healthy isolates (p < 0.05). These results suggest that genotype III C. albicans assigned by CDC3/CAI is related to the development of oral candidiasis.

Takagi Y; Fukano H; Shimozato K; Tanaka R; Horii T; Kawamoto F; Kanbe T

2013-06-01

172

Th17 cells and IL-17 receptor signaling are essential for mucosal host defense against oral candidiasis  

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The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) in settings of immunodeficiency. Although disseminated, vaginal, and oral candidiasis are all caused by C. albicans species, host defense against C. albicans varies by anatomical location. T helper 1 (Th1) cells hav...

Conti, Heather R.; Shen, Fang; Nayyar, Namrata; Stocum, Eileen; Sun, Jianing N.; Lindemann, Matthew J.; Ho, Allen W.

173

Genetic dissimilarity of two fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains causing meningitis and oral candidiasis in the same AIDS patient.  

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We describe a patient with AIDS who simultaneously developed Candida meningitis with three positive cerebrospinal fluid cultures and oral candidiasis. This patient also had a history or recurrent episodes of oral candidiasis treated with fluconazole. The patient did not respond to this therapy but w...

Berenguer, J; Diaz-Guerra, T M; Ruiz-Diez, B; Bernaldo de Quiros, J C; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Martinez-Suarez, J V

174

Circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells have little impact on host defense against experimental vaginal candidiasis.  

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The etiology of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in otherwise healthy women of child-bearing age remains an enigma. To date, results from both clinical studies and a murine model of vaginal candidiasis indicate that Candida vaginitis can occur in the presence of Candida-specific Th1-type cell-medi...

Fidel, P L; Lynch, M E; Sobel, J D

175

Efficacy of FK463, a New Lipopeptide Antifungal Agent, in Mouse Models of Disseminated Candidiasis and Aspergillosis  

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The efficacy of intravenous injection of FK463, a novel water-soluble lipopeptide, was evaluated in mouse models of disseminated candidiasis and aspergillosis and was compared with those of fluconazole (FLCZ) and amphotericin B (AMPH-B). In the candidiasis model, FK463 significantly prolonged the su...

Ikeda, Fumiaki; Wakai, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Maki, Katsuyuki; Watabe, Etsuko; Tawara, Shuichi; Goto, Toshio

176

Practice guidelines for the treatment of candidiasis. Infectious Diseases Society of America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infections due to Candida species are the most common of the fungal infections. Candida species produce a broad range of infections, ranging from nonlife-threatening mucocutaneous illnesses to invasive process that may involve virtually any organ. Such a broad range of infections requires an equally broad range of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. This document summarizes current knowledge about treatment of multiple forms of candidiasis and is the guideline of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) for the treatment of candidiasis. Throughout this document, treatment recommendations are scored according to the standard scoring scheme used in other IDSA guidelines to illustrate the strength of the underlying data. The document covers 4 major topical areas. The role of the microbiology laboratory. To a greater extent than for other fungi, treatment of candidiasis can now be guided by in vitro susceptibility testing. The guidelines review the available information supporting current testing procedures and interpretive breakpoints and place these data into clinical context. Susceptibility testing is most helpful in dealing with infection due to non-albicans species of Candida. In this setting, especially if the patient has been treated previously with an azole antifungal agent, the possibility of microbiological resistance must be considered. Treatment of invasive candidiasis. In addition to acute hematogenous candidiasis, the guidelines review strategies for treatment of 15 other forms of invasive candidiasis. Extensive data from randomized trials are really available only for therapy of acute hematogenous candidiasis in the nonneutropenic adult. Choice of therapy for other forms of candidiasis is based on case series and anecdotal reports. In general, both amphotericin B and the azoles have a role to play in treatment. Choice of therapy is guided by weighing the greater activity of amphotericin B for some non-albicans species (e.g., Candida krusei) against the lesser toxicity and ease of administration of the azole antifungal agents. Flucytosine has activity against many isolates of Candida but is not often used. Treatment of mucocutaneous candidiasis. Therapy for mucosal infections is dominated by the azole antifungal agents. These drugs may be used topically or systemically and have been proven safe and efficacious. A significant problem with mucosal disease is the propensity for a small proportion of patients to suffer repeated relapses. In some situations, the explanation for such a relapse is obvious (e.g., relapsing oropharyngeal candidiasis in an individual with advanced and uncontrolled HIV infection), but in other patients the cause is cryptic (e.g., relapsing vaginitis in a healthy woman). Rational strategies for these situations are discussed in the guidelines and must consider the possibility of induction of resistance over time. Prevention of invasive candidiasis. Prophylactic strategies are useful if the risk of a target disease is sharply elevated in a readily identified group of patients. Selected patient groups undergoing therapy that produces prolonged neutropenia (e.g., some bone-marrow transplant recipients) or who receive a solid-organ transplant (e.g., some liver transplant recipients) have a sufficient risk of invasive candidiasis to warrant prophylaxis.

Rex JH; Walsh TJ; Sobel JD; Filler SG; Pappas PG; Dismukes WE; Edwards JE

2000-04-01

177

Hepatosplenic and renal candidiasis in leukemic patients: CT spectrum before and after therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdominal CT performed in 14 leukemic patients with systemic candidiasis and involvement of the liver, spleen, or kidneys revealed numerous low-density lesions in ten livers (71%), eight spleens (57%), and in the kidneys of three patients (21%). Biopsy of all livers and of three kidneys proved hepatic candidiasis in all (100%) and renal candidiasis in three patients (21%). After treatment with amphotericin B and splenectomy (one patient), CT disclosed abnormal livers in eleven (80%) patients, abnormal spleens in seven (53%), and abnormal kidneys in three patients (21%). Rebiopsy disclosed Candida infection in all livers and all abnormal kidneys, so the patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B. Although the patients became asymptomatic, CT continued to show abnormal livers in five (35%) and abnormal spleens in two (16%) (the previously abnormal kidneys became normal). Rebiopsy of the abnormal livers showed focal fibrosis and necrosis. These findings emphasize the importance of clinical and pathologic correlation of CT appearance.

1986-12-05

178

Frequency and Etiology of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Women Referred to a Gynecological Center in Babol, lran  

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Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most common fungal disease in sexually activewomen of which Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to determine the etiologic agentsof vulvovaginal candidiasis amongst 2000 women who presented to the Gynecological Center ofBabol Shahid Yahyanejad Educational Hospital from 2006-2007 with symptoms of vulvovaginalcandidiasis.Results: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms in patients (80%). There were42 out of 97 (43.3%) specimens which were positive for yeast. Of these, 80.95% belonged toCandida albicans and 14.29% were Candida krusei.Conclusion: Discharge and pruritus were the most common symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis.In our study, C. albicans was the most common species isolated from the specimens.

Seddigheh Esmaeilzadeh; Saeid Mahdavi Omran; Zahra Rahmani

2009-01-01

179

[Microbiological non-culture methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis: usefulness of surrogate markers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The usefulness of surrogate markers in the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis is based on their ability to detect the infection caused by the different Candida spp. and to differentiate when the fungus is a colonizer or it is causing an invasive disease. This differentiation has been tried by detecting antigens, antibodies and other Candida components in the patient's sera. In this paper we will review the antigens, antibodies and other Candida components which may be useful in the laboratory diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the non-neutropenic critically ill patient.

Pontón J

2006-03-01

180

Oral candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected individuals in Iran  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection in HIV patients. The aims of this study were to appraise prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis and to determine factors associated with oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization among Iranian HIV patients."n"nMethods: The patients were composed 150 Iranian HIV positive individuals referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV & Aids (IRCHA), Imam Khomeini Hospital complex in Tehran, Iran. Oral samples were obtained and cultured on mycological media. TCD4 lymphocyte count/percentage was measured and patients were categorized. Patients evaluated for some risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral candida colonization."n"nResults: Fifty nine percent of patients were presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and the carriage rate of yeasts was 116 (77.2%). The most frequent isolated candida species were Candida albicans (102) 50.2% and Candida glabrata (45) 22%. Thrush in 57(38%), perleche in 30(20%) and erythematous lesions in 7(4.7%) of patients were observed. Significant differences in TCD4 count (p=0.01), gender (p=0.02), antifungal therapy (p=0.001), smoking (p=0.02), and intravenous drug use (p=0.03), between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were observed."n"nConclusion: Oral candidiasis is a frequent complication among Iranian HIV individuals. C. albicans and C. glabrata are most important etiologic agents of oral candidiasis. In Iranian HIV individuals; TCD4 count, antifungal therapy, gender, smoking and intravenous drug use are important risk factors for oropharyngeal candidiasis. Denture wearing and age are predisposing factors for oral colonization.

Farzad Katiraee; Ali Reza Khosravi; Vahid Khalaj; Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi; Ali Asghar Khaksar; Mehrnaz Rasoulinejad; Mir Saeed Yekani nejad

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Unilateral presentation of disseminated candidiasis: case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in immunocompromised patients who are at greater risk for developing disseminated disease. Renal transplant recipients often are administered immunosuppressants and therefore are at an increased risk for developing disseminated candidal infections. Disseminated candidiasis generally does not present with cutaneous lesions, but when present, lesions usually are generalized or limited to the trunk and limbs. We describe the case of an immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient who developed a disseminated Candida kefyr infection and presented with oral mucosal lesions and cutaneous lesions limited to the left lower extremity. The lesions were localized due to a thrombus that was subsequently found in the patient's left external iliac artery.

Ranario JC; Reddick CS; Peterson JD; Smith JL

2013-03-01

182

Primary renal candidiasis: fungal mycetomas in the kidney  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fungal infections of the urinary tract have a predilection for drainage structures rather than for the renal parenchyma. Of the causal factors, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppressed states, AIDS and prematurity are those most commonly encountered. The case of a young, diabetic man whose chief clinical presentation was dysuria is described. On further examination he was found to harbour fungal balls in the right kidney. Radiological manifestations of acute pyelonephritis were also present. Although primary renal candidiasis is often commensurate with systemic fungaemia, he displayed none of the clinical features of disseminate infection and, hence, was treated conservatively with oral antifungal agents. Fortuitously, spontaneous passage of fungal particulate matter in urine was later reported. A significant increase in the incidence of fungal cystitis has been found in recent years; however, the patient presents with many non-specific features of cystitis. Both sonography and CT show thickening of the bladder wall but, again, this lacks specificity. In the rare instance of prostate involvement, low attenuation foci on CT are seen within the gland. Despite the existence of a large number of fungal species, only a few are pathogenic to humans. Of those that cause disease in the urinary tract, Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered. A highly characteristic finding in such infections is of fungal balls, which are made up of aggregates of mycelia. However, care should be exercised in interpretation as a host of other conditions can mimic fungal bezoars. Although a CT scan at initial examination may qualify as the more descriptive, sonography provides a serial non-invasive means of evaluating the urinary tract. When in doubt, a urine culture clinches the diagnosis. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

2002-01-01

183

Protein carbonyl group content in patients affected by familiar chronic nail candidiasis.  

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Familiar chronic nail candidiasis (FCNC) is a rare disorder characterized by early-onset infections caused by different species of Candida, restricted to the nail of the hands and feet, and associated with a low serum concentration of intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Host defense mechanisms agains...

Gangemi, S; Saija, A; Tomaino, A; Cimino, F; Merendino, R A; Minciullo, P L; Briuglia, S; Merlino, M V; Dallapiccola, B

184

Evaluation of Prevalence of Oral Candidiasis in Patients Using Complete Denture Wears  

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Full Text Available Denture stomatotos os a common problem of the denture wears, and its etiology is not clear from the literatures. Some studies show that the aetiology is candida albicans, while other reports point out the other agents including candida albicans. The present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of oral candidiasis in patients using complete denture with different datas. 50 subjects all wearing complete denture participated in this study. The palatal mucosa was swabbed and swabs were cultured in Sabourauds medium containing 0.005% chloramphenicol then cultures were tested with common mycological lab tests. In 80% of patients oral candidiasis have been diagnosed. In the investigation a direct relation between the oral candidiasis and removal of denture at night, denture cleanliness, presence of any suction and symptoms of denture stomatitis was shown. No relation between the oral candidiasis and sex, smoking habit, succeptible disease, angular cheilitis; the recent condition of denture and the retention of denture were found. The findings of our investigation indicates that candida albicans is the causative agent of denture stomatitis while other factors such as denture cleanliness, removal of denture at night and presence of any suction may be considered as well.

P Tavakkol; S Emdadi

2001-01-01

185

Cellular and Cytokine Correlates of Mucosal Protection in Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis  

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Host protection against Candida albicans infection in a model of oral candidiasis involving infection-prone [DBA/2 (H-2d)] and less infection-prone [BALB/c (H-2d)] mouse strains was analyzed in terms of antibody and cellular responses, and in terms of cytokine patterns from regional lymph node cells...

Elahi, Shokrollah; Pang, Gerald; Clancy, Robert; Ashman, Robert B.

186

N-acetylglucosamine increases symptoms and fungal burden in a murine model of oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is an in vitro inducer of the hyphal mode of growth of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. The development of hyphae by C. albicans is considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of mucosal oral candidiasis. GlcNAc is also a commonly used nutritional supplement for the self-treatment of conditions such as arthritis. To date, no study has investigated whether ingestion of GlcNAc has an effect on the in vivo growth of C. albicans or the pathogenesis of a C. albicans infection. Using a murine model of oral candidiasis, we have found that administration of GlcNAc, but not glucose, increased oral symptoms of candidiasis and fungal burden. Groups of mice were given GlcNAc in either water or in a viscous carrier, i.e., 1% methylcellulose. There was a dose-dependent relationship between GlcNAc concentration and the severity of oral symptoms. Mice given the highest dose of GlcNAc, 45.2 mM, also showed a significant increase in fungal burden, and increased histological evidence of infection compared to controls given water alone. We propose that ingestion of GlcNAc, as a nutritional supplement, may have an impact on oral health in people susceptible to oral candidiasis.

Ishijima SA; Hayama K; Takahashi M; Holmes AR; Cannon RD; Abe S

2012-04-01

187

Oral candidiasis caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in a HIV patient in Chennai, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kodamaea ohmeri was isolated from a 38-year-old HIV seropositive woman with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis. The isolate was identified by the API 20 C yeast identification system and confirmed by sequence analysis. Antifungal susceptibility testing done by E-test showed that the isolate was susceptible to voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin.

Menon T; Herrera M; Periasamy S; Palanivelu V; Sikhamani R; Wickes B

2010-09-01

188

Oral candidiasis caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in a HIV patient in Chennai, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kodamaea ohmeri was isolated from a 38-year-old HIV seropositive woman with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis. The isolate was identified by the API 20 C yeast identification system and confirmed by sequence analysis. Antifungal susceptibility testing done by E-test showed that the isolate was susceptible to voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. PMID:19531098

Menon, Thangam; Herrera, Monica; Periasamy, Shankar; Palanivelu, Veena; Sikhamani, Rajasekaran; Wickes, Brian

2009-06-15

189

Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis  

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The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week ...

Al-Sadeq Ameera; Hamad Mawieh; Abu-Elteen Khaled

190

Effects of preinduced Candida-specific systemic cell-mediated immunity on experimental vaginal candidiasis.  

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It has been postulated that systemic cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is an important host defense factor against recurrent vaginal infections caused by Candida albicans. Using an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, we have previously shown that mice inoculated vaginally with C. albi...

Fidel, P L; Lynch, M E; Sobel, J D

191

Miconazole nitrate compared with chlordantoin in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.  

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In a double-blind study of the treatment of vaginal candidiasis, miconazole nitrate gave a cure-rate of 88 per cent. (29 out of 33) compared with 58 per cent. (21 out of 36) using chlordantoin. Although approximately two-thirds of the patients who responded did so to a 10-day course of treatment, th...

Morris, D F; Sugrue, D L

192

Candida-specific Th1-type responsiveness in mice with experimental vaginal candidiasis.  

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The role of systemic cell-mediated immunity (CMI) as a host defense mechanism in the vagina is poorly understood. Using a murine pseudoestrus model of experimental vaginal candidiasis, we previously found that animals given a vaginal inoculum of viable Candida albicans blastoconidia acquired a persi...

Fidel, P L; Lynch, M E; Sobel, J D

193

Successful treatment of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida albicans with posaconazole.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Refractory or recurrent infections of skin, nails, and the mucous membranes are clinical signs of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, frequently associated with immunological defects. Here we describe a 39-years-old female patient, with familial CMC, that presented with an extensive infection caused by an azole-resistant Candida albicans isolate, successfully treated with posaconazole.

Firinu D; Massidda O; Lorrai MM; Serusi L; Peralta M; Barca MP; Serra P; Manconi PE

2011-01-01

194

Pharmacokinetics of micafungin in pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis and candidemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although micafungin pharmacokinetic values were comparable between younger (<5 years) and older children (?5 years) with candidemia and invasive candidiasis, younger children had a lower peak plasma micafungin concentration, lower micafungin exposure and larger micafungin clearance. Half-life remained unchanged with repeated dosing. Metabolite plasma concentrations remained low in older children; however, metabolite M-5 concentrations were higher in younger children.

Undre NA; Stevenson P; Freire A; Arrieta A

2012-06-01

195

Pharmacokinetics of micafungin in pediatric patients with invasive candidiasis and candidemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although micafungin pharmacokinetic values were comparable between younger (<5 years) and older children (?5 years) with candidemia and invasive candidiasis, younger children had a lower peak plasma micafungin concentration, lower micafungin exposure and larger micafungin clearance. Half-life remained unchanged with repeated dosing. Metabolite plasma concentrations remained low in older children; however, metabolite M-5 concentrations were higher in younger children. PMID:22301478

Undre, Nasrullah A; Stevenson, Paul; Freire, Antonio; Arrieta, Antonio

2012-06-01

196

Immunological Effects of Honey Bee Venom in Mice with Intracerebral Candidiasis  

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Bee Venom (BV) is a natural substance, reported to booster the immune system. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of bee venom in stimulation of the immune system in mice infected with intracerebral Candidiasis probing for its possible use in treatment of this ailment. In vivo stud...

Nermine K.M. Saleh; Abeer A. Elsayed

197

Candidiasis Eritematosa de la cavidad bucal. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura  

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Full Text Available Resumen La Candidiasis bucal, causada principalmente por Candida albicans, es de gran importancia estomatológica, por su frecuencia y variedad clínica. Estas infecciones se observan frecuentemente en personas con distintos tipos de factores predisponentes. Las formas clínicas de Candidiasis bucal es variable y se han usado diferentes clasificaciones. Se presenta un caso clínico de paciente femenina, con lesión eritematosa en el dorso de la lengua y paladar, la cual refería dolor y ardor bucal. Se le realizó toma de muestra de las lesiones para ser cultivadas y posteriormente se identificó la presencia de C. albicans, lo que confirmó el diagnóstico clínico de Candidiasis Eritematosa. Se le realizó terapia antimicótica (Nistatina), el control a las dos semanas reveló mejoría de la lesión y luego a las cuatro semanas se pudo evidenciar total remisión de la lesión así como de la sintomatología.Abstract Oral Candidosis, caused maily by Candida albicans,has an important stomatological repercussion, because of his frequency and clinical variety. These infections are frequently observed in persons with different types of predisposing factors. The clinical characteristics of oral candidosis is variabke, and different classifications have been used.this is a case report,female of sexty-five yeasr old with red lesion on the dorsal tongue and hard palate, patient may complain of a burning sensation. Epithelial smears and imprint cultures were obtained and subjeted to species identificacion of Candida albicans, diagnostic Erythematous Candidiasis were confirmed.

L J Lazarde; B I Avilán

2003-01-01

198

Rapid identification of drug resistant Candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37?, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Diba K; Namaki A; Ayatolahi H; Hanifian H

2012-01-01

199

New US and CT patterns of hepatic and spienic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nine immunocompromised cancer patients with tissue-proved candidiasis underwent a total of eight serial abdominal US studies and 53 CT examinations. Four US patterns of hepatic and splenic candidiasis were recognized. Type 1 was a ''wheel within a wheel'', or a central hypoechoic nidus surrounded by a dense band, in turn surronded by a rim of hypoechoic tissue. Type 2 was the classic ''bull's eye'' lesion. Type 3, the most common, was a uniformly hypoechoic lesion, 1-4 cm in diameter. Type 4 was a small, dense, echogenic focus with no surrounding lucency and varying amounts of posterior shadowing. Types 1,2 and 3 were seen early in infection; types 3 and 4 were present later. Lesion types 2,3 and 4 were also identified on CT scans. In addition, periportal linear areas of increased attenuation, possibly calcified, were identified on follow-up, non-contrast-enhanced CT. Some abscesses were better seen on non-contrast-enhanced CT scans, while others became visible only after iodinated contrast medium was administered intravenously. Although lesions not seen on US were often seen on CT, the opposite was also true. In two cases pathologic proof of candidiasis was established even when all imaging studies were negative. Patients should be studied by US and by CT before and after contrast agent administration for maximum sensitivity. Even when both US and CT are negative, if there is a strong clinical suspicion of candidiasis, open biopsy is recommended.

1986-12-05

200

Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT  

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A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

1987-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

Human Monoclonal Antibody-Based Therapy in the Treatment of Invasive Candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive candidiasis (IC) represents the leading fungal infection of humans causing life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed and neutropenic individuals including also the intensive care unit patients. Despite progress in recent years in drugs development for the treatment of IC, morbidity and mortality rates still remain very high. Historically, cell-mediated immunity and innate immunity are considered to be the most important lines of defense against candidiasis. Nevertheless recent evidence demonstrates that antibodies with defined specificities could act with different degrees showing protection against systemic and mucosal candidiasis. Mycograb is a human recombinant monoclonal antibody against heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that was revealed to have synergy when combined with fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B against a broad spectrum of Candida species. Furthermore, recent studies have established an important role for Hsp90 in mediating Candida resistance to echinocandins, giving to this antibody molecule even more attractive biological properties. In response to the failure of marketing authorization by the CHMP (Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use) a new formulation of Mycograb, named Mycograb C28Y variant, with an amino acid substitution was developed in recent years. First data on Mycograb C28Y variant indicate that this monoclonal antibody lacked efficacy in a murine candidiasis model.

Bugli, Francesca; Cacaci, Margherita; Martini, Cecilia; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Brunella; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco

2013-01-01

202

Histopathological Characteristics of Experimental Candida tropicalis Induced Acute Systemic Candidiasis in BALB/c Mice  

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Full Text Available Systemic candidiasis caused by Candida tropicalis is potentially fatal in human but studies relating the histological characteristics with C. tropicalis induced acute systemic candidiasis are few in number. Hence, this study was undertaken to establish and to characterize the distinctive histopathological features of acute systemic candidiasis by varying the inoculum size of C. tropicalis injected in mice. Thirty BALB/c mice were divided into three groups and were injected with either 1x105 or 1x107 C. tropicalis cells. On observation, the histopathological findings and the fungal burden load following intravenous injection were similar to the previously reported mouse model for Candida albicans. Viable yeast cells in the kidneys reached approximately 22.5 log10 cfu g-1 at day 7 post-infection. Compared with the control group, the infected mice group developed acute pyelonephritis characterized by infiltration of large masses of neutrophils within the infected nephrons. Similarly, foci of acute renal inflammation within the kidney were more pronounced when the C. tropicalis inoculum was increased. Interestingly, we also observed infection of mice with a higher inoculum of C. tropicalis resulted in more severe invasiveness. In conclusion, these results suggest that the BALB/c mouse is highly susceptible to C. tropicalis dissemination and represents a significant model system of acute systemic candidiasis.

Yong Voon Chen; Rozita Rosli; Seow Heng Fong; Shiran Mohd Sidik; Chong Pei Pei

2012-01-01

203

Vaginal candidiasis and its risk factors among women attending a Nigerian Teaching Hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study was set to detect Candida species in female genital discharge and validate the associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study of female genital swabs collected from women with abnormal vaginal discharge (test group) and a control group who were attending gynaecology, family planning, antenatal care or HIV/STI clinics of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria and analysed for microscopy and culture in microbiology laboratory from December 2008 to December 2009. Data on epidemiologic indices were collected from the patients, using structured interviewer- administered questionnaires. RESULTS: Candida species were detected in the test group in 60% (n=600/1000) cases of infective vaginal discharge while 12%(120/1000) in the control group. The isolation rate of Candida albicans was 69% more than the non- albicans. Distribution of vaginal candidiasis in the test group, was prevalent in young adults age group of 21 to 30 years with 50% (n=300/600), in patients with pregnancy 38% (n=225/600) and patients with chronically debilitating illnesses 26%(n=157/600). CONCLUSION: The result shows that vaginal candidiasis is quite common and Candida albicans is the most prevalent species. We therefore recommend early diagnosis and prompt treatment of vaginal candidiasis in all women clinics especially among the patients with chronic debilitating illness, pregnancy and young adults in order to avert the complications of vaginal candidiasis and reduce HIV transmission.

Nwadioha SI; Nwokedi EO; Egesie J; Enejuo H

2013-03-01

204

Immunosuppressive Effect of Disseminated Breast Carcinoma on Severity of Hepatic Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available This study aims to demonstrate this relationship by observing the histopathological changes of the livers harvested from female Balb/c mice which were experimentally induced with breast cancer and inoculated with candida. The mice were randomly assigned to 5 different groups (n = 12). The first group (Group 1) was injected with Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS), the second group (Group 2) with candida, third group (Group 3) with breast cancer and the final two groups, fourth and fifth group (Group 4, 5) having co-existence of candidiasis and breast cancer at 2 different doses of candidiasis, respectively. The prepared slides with the livers were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (H and E), Periodic Acidic Schiff (PAS) and Gomori Methenamine Silver (GMS) stains for histopathology analysis. Grading of primary tumour and identification of metastatic deposits were done. Scoring of inflammation and congestion in the liver was done. Statistical tests done to compare group 2 and 4 showed that group 4 exhibited a highly statistically significant increase in inflammation and congestion (p<0.01). The median severity of candidiasis was also increased in group 4 as compared to group 2. In conclusion, based on the above evidences, hepatic candidiasis was significantly increased in mice with breast cancer.

S. Chakravarthi; C.Z. Wei; H.S. Nagaraja; W.S. Fung; M.J. Wah; P.M. Thani; A. Radhakrishnan; A. Tay

2010-01-01

205

Human monoclonal antibody-based therapy in the treatment of invasive candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Invasive candidiasis (IC) represents the leading fungal infection of humans causing life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed and neutropenic individuals including also the intensive care unit patients. Despite progress in recent years in drugs development for the treatment of IC, morbidity and mortality rates still remain very high. Historically, cell-mediated immunity and innate immunity are considered to be the most important lines of defense against candidiasis. Nevertheless recent evidence demonstrates that antibodies with defined specificities could act with different degrees showing protection against systemic and mucosal candidiasis. Mycograb is a human recombinant monoclonal antibody against heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) that was revealed to have synergy when combined with fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B against a broad spectrum of Candida species. Furthermore, recent studies have established an important role for Hsp90 in mediating Candida resistance to echinocandins, giving to this antibody molecule even more attractive biological properties. In response to the failure of marketing authorization by the CHMP (Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use) a new formulation of Mycograb, named Mycograb C28Y variant, with an amino acid substitution was developed in recent years. First data on Mycograb C28Y variant indicate that this monoclonal antibody lacked efficacy in a murine candidiasis model.

Bugli F; Cacaci M; Martini C; Torelli R; Posteraro B; Sanguinetti M; Paroni Sterbini F

2013-01-01

206

Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author).

1987-01-01

207

Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries. (orig.)

1985-01-01

208

Identification of Candida Species Associated with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis by Multiplex PCR  

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Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection. The aim of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using multiplex PCR technique. Methods. 191 isolates from patients admitted to Mahdieh hospital were identified. The vaginal swab specimens were cultured on S...

Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Zafarghandi, Ameneh Sh; Amel Zabihi, Maryam; Tavallaee, Mahkam; Mirdamadi, Yasaman

209

Candidiasis Eritematosa de la cavidad bucal. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Resumen La Candidiasis bucal, causada principalmente por Candida albicans, es de gran importancia estomatológica, por su frecuencia y variedad clínica. Estas infecciones se observan frecuentemente en personas con distintos tipos de factores predisponentes. Las formas clínicas de Candidiasis bucal es variable y se han usado diferentes clasificaciones. Se presenta un caso clínico de paciente femenina, con lesión eritematosa en el dorso de la lengua y paladar, la cual r (more) efería dolor y ardor bucal. Se le realizó toma de muestra de las lesiones para ser cultivadas y posteriormente se identificó la presencia de C. albicans, lo que confirmó el diagnóstico clínico de Candidiasis Eritematosa. Se le realizó terapia antimicótica (Nistatina), el control a las dos semanas reveló mejoría de la lesión y luego a las cuatro semanas se pudo evidenciar total remisión de la lesión así como de la sintomatología. Abstract in english Abstract Oral Candidosis, caused maily by Candida albicans,has an important stomatological repercussion, because of his frequency and clinical variety. These infections are frequently observed in persons with different types of predisposing factors. The clinical characteristics of oral candidosis is variabke, and different classifications have been used.this is a case report,female of sexty-five yeasr old with red lesion on the dorsal tongue and hard palate, patient may c (more) omplain of a burning sensation. Epithelial smears and imprint cultures were obtained and subjeted to species identificacion of Candida albicans, diagnostic Erythematous Candidiasis were confirmed.

Lazarde, L J; Avilán, B I

2003-08-01

210

Abdominal aortic aneurysm in a premature neonate with disseminated candidiasis: Ultrasound and angiography  

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When using ultrasound for detection of kidney enlargement, we found an acute abdominal aortic aneurysm secondary to aortitis arising from umbilical artery catheterisation in a premature neonate with systemic candidiasis. Aortography was performed to provide vascular details such as involvement of celiac, renal, iliac and femoral arteries.

Khoss, A.E.; Ponhold, W.; Pollak, A.; Schlemmer, M.; Weninger, M.

1985-09-01

211

The value of prophylactic (monthly) clotrimazole versus empiric self-treatment in recurrent vaginal candidiasis.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine the comparative efficacy and cost benefit of prophylactic monthly (perimenstrual) clotrimazole, versus empiric self-treatment with the same agent at the onset of symptoms in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. DESIGN--Prospective, randomised, open cross-over study of women wi...

Fong, I W

212

Single-dose tioconazole compared with 3-day clotrimazole treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

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A total of 80 patients were equally randomized to receive a single dose of 6.5% tioconazole ointment or a 3-day course of 100-mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Of the 32 evaluable patients treated with tioconazole, 27 (84%) remained asymptomatic 4 weeks p...

Stein, G E; Gurwith, D; Mummaw, N; Gurwith, M

213

Inhaled corticosteroids and the occurrence of oral candidiasis: a prescription sequence symmetry analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the study was to gain insight into the relative risk of clinically relevant oral candidiasis following inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) initiation over time. A secondary aim was to analyse the influence of patient characteristics and co-medication on the occurrence of this adverse effect. METHODS: Drug prescription data from 1994 to 2011 were retrieved from the IADB.nl database. To study the influence of ICS use on occurrence of oral candidiasis, a prescription symmetry analysis was used, including patients using medication for oral candidiasis up to 1 year before or after ICS initiation. The relative risk was calculated by dividing the number of patients receiving medication for oral candidiasis after ICS initiation by the number of patients receiving the same medication before ICS initiation. Sub-analyses were conducted to compare the relative risks at several time points after ICS initiation and to account for therapy persistence by only including chronic users of ICS. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: A total of 52,279 incident users of ICS therapy were identified, of which 1,081 received medication for oral candidiasis up to 1 year before or after ICS initiation. A total of 701 patients received medication for oral candidiasis after ICS initiation, while 361 received these medications in the reversed sequence, resulting in a sequence ratio (SR) of 1.94 (95 % CI 1.71-2.21). In the first 3 months after ICS initiation, the SR was 2.72 (95 % CI 2.19-3.38) and then decreased to 1.47 (95 % CI 1.11-1.95) 9-12 months after ICS initiation. Predictive factors were higher daily dose of ICS and concomitant use of oral corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a significant and clinically relevant increased number of patients receiving medication for oral candidiasis in the first year after therapy initiation with ICS. Relative risk is highest in the first 3 months, but remains increased up to at least 1 year after ICS initiation. This study stresses the need for patient education and inhalation instruction.

van Boven JF; de Jong-van den Berg LT; Vegter S

2013-04-01

214

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been used to combat local infections, and it consists of the combination of a photosensitizer, a light source, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to kill microbial cells. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of aPDT in the treatment of candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Twenty-one patients were divided into three groups. Control group (CG) was treated with the conventional medication for candidiasis (fluconazole 100 mg/day during 14 days). Laser group (LG) was subjected to low-level laser therapy (LLLT), wavelength 660 nm, power of 30 mW, and fluence of 7.5 J/cm(2), in contact with mucosa during 10 sec on the affected point. An aPDT group (aPDTG) was treated with aPDT, that is, combination of a low-power laser and methylene blue 450 ?g/mL. Pre-irradiation time was 1 min. Parameters of irradiation were the same ones as for the LG, and patients were single irradiated. Patients were clinically evaluated and culture analysis was performed before, immediately after, and 7, 15, and 30 days after the treatment. Results: Our results showed that fluconazole was effective; however, it did not prevent the return of the candidiasis in short-term. LLLT per se did not show any reduction on Candida spp. aPDT eradicated 100% of the colonies of this fungus and the patients did not show recurrence of candidiasis up to 30 days after the irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that aPDT is a potential approach to oral candidiasis treatment in HIV-infected patients.

Scwingel AR; Barcessat AR; Núñez SC; Ribeiro MS

2012-08-01

215

Prevalence of oral candidiasis in hospitalized patients and evaluation of risk factors  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Oral candidiasis (OC) is an opportunistic fungalinfection, prevalent mainly in immunosuppressed patients. Objective:To investigate the prevalence of OC in hospitalized patients in twouniversity hospitals of Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Curitiba-PR, relating with local and systemic predisposing factors. Material and methods: A total of 160 patients were evaluated between the months of July to October 2006. Besides the analysis of medical records, each patient was questioned and intra-and extra-oral linically evaluated,looking for injuries consistent with candidiasis. Results: The results were analyzed by the tests of the chi-square (x2) and the difference between two ratios, with a level of significance of 5%. Prevalence of oral candidiasis was 30% (n = 48). In relation to the local risk factors, prevalence of oral candidiasis was statistically dependent on the use of upper removable total or partial prosthesis, on the time of use of the same prosthesis, on the use of prosthesis during hospitalization, on the hygiene condition, on the frequency of cleaning and on the continued use of the prosthesis (p < 0.05). Among the systemic factors analyzed,prevalence of oral candidiasis was statistically dependent on the age of the patients and on the use of nasogastric probe (p < 0.05). Conclusion:Results indicate that local risk factors have a strong association with the prevalence of OC in hospitalized patients, emphasizing the importance regarding the oral hygiene care and the prosthesis of these patients, especially the ones that use a nasogastric probe.

Roberta Targa STRAMANDINOLI; Paulo Henrique Couto SOUZA; Fernando Henrique WESTPHALEN; Julio César BISINELLI; Sérgio Aparecido IGNÁCIO; Liliane Soares YURGEL

2010-01-01

216

Oral Candidiasis in children and adolescents with cancer: Identification of Candida spp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Oral candidiasis represents a serious problem for children with cancer. The mortality rate of this infection has increased due to fungal septicemia, associated with a primary buccal infection. Objective: Identify the Candida spp. in buccal lesions of patients with cancer, establish the predominant species and correlate them to age and sex of the patient, clinical presentation, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic therapy received. Study design: 62 patients, between 0- (more) 16 years, were investigated in a cross sectional study. Sample inclusion criteria: Patients with malignant neoplasic disease that were receiving cytostatic treatment and had suspicious lesions of oral candidiasis. Patients with antifungal therapy, active caries, calculus or intraoral appliances were excluded. A clinical evaluation was carried out. The lesion sample was taken and studied by direct exam and culture in CHROMagar-Candida and Sabouraud-Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol. The identification of the isolated yeast was done by the filamentation test, carbohydrate fermentation and assimilation. Results: Most of the cases (69.35%) were positive to oral candidiasis, C. albicans was the most frequent species found, followed by C. parapsilosis (14.89%), C. tropicalis (12.77%), C. krusei (4.26%), C. glabrata (2.13%) and C. lusitaniae (2.13 %). In some cases more than one specie were isolated (9.30%). The most frequent location of the lesion was in the tongue (72.70%). The pseudomembranous candidiasis was the most frequent clinical presentation found (78.71%). There were not significant statistically differences with regard to sex and age of the patient, type of neoplasic disease and cytostatic agent received. Conclusion: The results suggest that oral candidiasis is a frequent complication in the pediatric oncological population, being C. albicans the main etiological agent, however, there is an important participation of other Candida species.

González Gravina, Haylen; González de Morán, Evelyn; Zambrano, Olga; Lozano Chourio, María; Rodríguez de Valero, Sofía; Robertis, Sandra; Mesa, Luz

2007-10-01

217

Risk factors for invasive candidiasis in infants >1500 g birth weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We describe the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of invasive candidiasis in infants >1500 g birth weight. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of infants >1500 g birth weight discharged from 305 neonatal intensive care units in the Pediatrix Medical Group from 2001 to 2010. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified risk factors for invasive candidiasis. RESULTS: Invasive candidiasis occurred in 330 of the 530,162 (0.06%) infants. These were documented from positive cultures from ?1 of these sources: blood (n = 323), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 6) or urine from catheterization (n = 19). Risk factors included day of life >7 (odds ratio [OR]: 25.2; 95% confidence interval: 14.6-43.3), vaginal birth (OR: 1.6 [1.2-2.3]), exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics (OR: 1.6 [1.1-2.4]), central venous line (OR: 1.8 [1.3-2.6]) and platelet count <50,000/mm (OR: 3.7 [2.1-6.7]). All risk factors had poor sensitivities, low positive likelihood ratios and low positive predictive values. The combination of broad-spectrum antibiotics and low platelet count had the highest positive likelihood ratio (46.2), but the sensitivity of this combination was only 4%. Infants with invasive candidiasis had increased mortality (OR: 2.2 [1.3-3.6]). CONCLUSIONS: Invasive candidiasis is uncommon in infants >1500 g birth weight. Infants at greatest risk are those exposed to broad-spectrum antibiotics and with platelet counts of <50,000/mm(3).

Lee JH; Hornik CP; Benjamin DK Jr; Herring AH; Clark RH; Cohen-Wolkowiez M; Smith PB

2013-03-01

218

[Systemic enzyme therapy in the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Phase I: A prospective evaluation of long-term systemic enzyme therapy (Wobenzym; WE) effects on the frequency of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) episodes. Phase II: A retrospective analysis of possible positive effects remaining in the next 3 years. TRIAL DESIGN: Original work - pilot project consisting of prospective phase I and retrospective phase II trials. METHODS: Composition of animal and plant proteo-lytic enzymes (WE) is a common component in the treatment of chronic or recurrent inflammatory diseases and has been also shown to have immunomodulatory effects. Project involving 7 gynecology practices has been started in 2005 - 2007 to evaluate the effectiveness of WE in the complex treatment of RVVC. The trial involved 62 women with at least 4 microscopically confirmed episodes of RVVC in the last 12 months (year 1; 4-9 episodes, mean 4.4 episodes per patient-year). From the beginning of the trial, participants took WE in the dose of 2× 8 tbl/day for 10 weeks and were monitored for 12 months (year +1). All infections of RVVC were treated according to usual practice of the particular gynecologist. The number of RVVC episodes during the year -1 was compared to the number of RVVC during the year +1. To evaluate possible long-term effects of the WE treatment, retrospective analysis of the data from 3 years following the phase I (year +2, +3, +4) was performed. Complete data for 54 women were collected (87.1% of the former group of patients). All data were processed with regular statistics methods. RESULTS: Mean number of RVVC in the year +1 has decreased from 4.4 to 0.5 per patient-year (i.e. by 88.5%; p < 0.001). All women experienced an improvement, 63% of them experienced no recurrence. The lower incidence of RVVC remained also for the phase II (year +2: 0.91; year +3: 0.57; year +4: 0.52 episodes of RVVC per patient-year). The difference, as compared to the mean incidence of RVVC before the treatment (year -1), remains significant (p < 0.001) although women, who became pregnant during the trial, were not excluded from the observed population. If only non-pregnant women were analyzed (41 women), the mean incidence of RVVC was even lower (year +2: 0.69; year +3: 0.39; year +4: 0.44 episodes of RVVC per patient-year). CONCLUSION: 10 weeks of systemic enzyme therapy (WE) in women with RVVC significantly reduced recurrence of this disease not only for the first year following the treatment, but also for the next 3 years. An explanation of the basis for this effect needs further research.

Unzeitig V; Dvo?ák V; Hlavá?ková O; Malík T; Nový J; Stará A; Sk?ivánek A; St?pán J

2013-04-01

219

Finding the "missing 50%" of invasive candidiasis: how nonculture diagnostics will improve understanding of disease spectrum and transform patient care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood cultures are limited for diagnosing invasive candidiasis by poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time. New diagnostics are needed to complement cultures, in particular to identify the "missing 50%" of patients who are blood culture-negative. Mannan/anti-mannan immunoglobulin G, ?-D-glucan (BDG) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays can diagnose candidemia before blood cultures and show promising sensitivity/specificity, but they are not widely investigated in blood culture-negative, deep-seated candidiasis. In a recent study, BDG and PCR were superior to blood cultures in deep-seated candidiasis, suggesting they may identify currently undiagnosed patients and expand our understanding of disease spectrum. Positive predictive values of nonculture tests are limited by the low prevalence of invasive candidiasis, which mandates that results be interpreted judiciously. When used as biomarkers that assess a patient's risk of having invasive candidiasis, tests will facilitate preemptive antifungal strategies. Because negative predictive values are excellent, tests will also be useful for ruling out invasive candidiasis and discontinuing unnecessary antifungal therapy.

Clancy CJ; Nguyen MH

2013-05-01

220

DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO CANDIDA ALBICANS GERM TUBE BY IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED MICE WITH EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEMIC CANDIDIASIS  

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Full Text Available "nThe increasing incidence of systemic candidiasis, which parallels the use of invasive and immunosuppressive medical procedures, necessitates development of rapid and cost effective tests for diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. Therefore in this study 85 mice were first immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide and then infected by Candida albicans NCPF 3153. Other 85 mice were employed as control. The case and control mice were bled and then autopsied. Hearts and kidneys were checked by direct, histopathological and cultural examination for systemic candidiasis. The 85 sera from histological proven cases and 85 control mice were adsorbed with heat killed blastospores of same strain of C. albicans. Anti-Candida albicans germ tube antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in case and control mice. In addition, sera from 35 mice with proven cryptococcosis were also tested. While 84 mice with proven systemic candidiasis (100%) had anti-germ tube antibodies, these antibodies were absent in all controls and mice with cryptococcosis. The specificity was 100%, indicating a high degree of discrimination was possible between systemic candidiasis and cryptococcosis in the mice studied. It must be concluded that anti-germ tube responses did not appear to be significantly reduced in immunocompromised mice.

F. Zaini; N. Jafari-Aryan; A. Sarrafnejad; P. Kordbacheh M. Safara

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localización geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local.Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to establish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches) is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

Catalina de Bedout; Beatriz L Gómez

2010-01-01

222

Candida y candidiasis invasora: un reto continuo para su diagnóstico temprano/ Candida and candidiasis: the challenge continues for an early diagnosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La candidiasis invasora representa el 75% de las infecciones por hongos en pacientes hospitalizados, con una mortalidad que alcanza cifras hasta del 78%. La frecuencia de estas infecciones varía de acuerdo con el servicio de hospitalización y los factores de riesgo de los pacientes. Paralelamente, se han venido observando cambios en la epidemiología de las especies de Candida, variaciones en su prevalencia y en la resistencia a los antimicóticos según su localizació (more) n geográfica. Por todo lo anterior, es imperativo establecer un diagnóstico temprano que lleve a la identificación correcta de la especie implicada de manera que se instaure un pronto y adecuado tratamiento antimicótico. El diagnóstico de la candidiasis invasora continúa siendo un reto, en el cual combinar los diferentes métodos diagnósticos, los microbiológicos, los inmunológicos y los nuevos moleculares, aún en desarrollo y validación, es la mejor estrategia para lograr un dictamen oportuno. En esta revisión se describen los métodos disponibles, sus limitaciones y las perspectivas de los que están en etapa de desarrollo y validación. En la última década se cuenta con métodos de referencia para la medición de susceptibilidad in vitro a los antimicóticos, lo cual ha permitido conocer los perfiles de sensibilidad de las diferentes especies de Candida a escala mundial y local. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis represents 75% of fungal infections in hospitalized patients, with reported mortalities up to 78%. The frequency of these infections varies according to the hospital services and the risk factors of the patients. In parallel, changes in the epidemiology of the Candida species have been observed, in particular variations in their prevalence and in their resistance to antifungals according to geographic location. For these reasons it is crucial to estab (more) lish an early diagnosis that identifies the pathogen to the species level in order to allow an appropriate therapeutic decision. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis continues to be a challenge, where combining the different available methods (microbiologic, immunologic and new molecular approaches) is the best strategy to achieve a prompt and accurate diagnosis. We review the currently available assays for conventional and molecular diagnosis, their limitations, and the perspectives for assays that are now in development and validation. In the last decade, well established reference methods have become available for testing antifungal susceptibility and this has allowed worldwide and regional sensitivity profiles to be established for the different Candida species.

de Bedout, Catalina; Gómez, Beatriz L

2010-12-01

223

A novel bioluminescence mouse model for monitoring oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oropharyngeal Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection usually occurs in patients with altered cell-mediated immune response. Many animal models have been developed for studying the pathogenesis of disease. Here we describe a new model for real-time monitoring of oral candidiasis. Mice were rendered susceptible to oral candidiasis by injection with cortisone acetate. Oral infection was performed by placing a swab saturated with genetically engineered bioluminescent strain of C. albicans sublingually. An in vivo imaging technique, exploiting stably trasformed C. albicans that costitutively express luciferase, was adopted. This novel longitudinal study represents a powerful tool to: (1) test real-time progression of infection, (2) identify the target site of C. albicans in specific organs, (3) evaluate the efficacy of antifungal therapies and (4) explore the spread of C. albicans from the local to systemic compartment in a new way. PMID:23334179

Mosci, Paolo; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Kenno, Samyr; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Francesco; d'Enfert, Christophe; Vecchiarelli, Anna

2013-01-18

224

Treatment of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis with sustained-released butoconazole pessary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infection among women. 5% of women with acute infection experience recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC). There is currently no optimal or recommended regime for RVVC. Although antifungal agents, such as imidazoles, have been successfully used as a first-line treatment for acute VVC, its effectiveness is limited in RVVC. This could be due to patient factors, drug application (such as leakage) or dosing factors. A sustained-release (SR) bioadhesive vaginal cream (2% butoconazole nitrate) has incorporated VagiSite technology, a topical drug delivery system that allows SR of the drug. We describe its efficacy and the successful use of a butoconazole-SR formulation in the treatment of two cases of RVVC.

Heng LZ; Chen Y; Tan TC

2012-12-01

225

Treatment of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis with sustained-released butoconazole pessary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common infection among women. 5% of women with acute infection experience recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC). There is currently no optimal or recommended regime for RVVC. Although antifungal agents, such as imidazoles, have been successfully used as a first-line treatment for acute VVC, its effectiveness is limited in RVVC. This could be due to patient factors, drug application (such as leakage) or dosing factors. A sustained-release (SR) bioadhesive vaginal cream (2% butoconazole nitrate) has incorporated VagiSite technology, a topical drug delivery system that allows SR of the drug. We describe its efficacy and the successful use of a butoconazole-SR formulation in the treatment of two cases of RVVC. PMID:23268172

Heng, Ling Zhi; Chen, Yujia; Tan, Thiam Chye

2012-12-01

226

Cytological analysis of the epithelial cells in patients with oral candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate oral epithelial cells of the oral mucosa infected by Candida albicans using exfoliative cytology. Oral smears were collected from clinically normal-appearing mucosa by liquid-based exfoliative cytology of 60 individuals (30 patients with oral candidiasis and 30 healthy controls matched for age and gender) and analysed for morphologic and cytomorphometric technique. Morphologically, candida-infected epithelial cells exhibited nuclear enlargement, perinuclear rings, discrete orangeophilia, and cytoplasmic vacuoles. The cytomorphometric analysis demonstrated that the cytoplasmic area (CA) of the epithelial cells was diminished in patients undergoing candidiasis as compared to the non-infected controls. In addition, there was an augmentation in nuclear area (NA) and NA/CA area ratio. This study revealed that oral mucosa of patients undergoing candidal infection exhibited significant changes in the size and shape of the oral epithelial cells.

Loss R; Sandrin R; França BH; de Azevedo-Alanis LR; Grégio AM; Machado MÂ; de Lima AA

2011-07-01

227

Development of Film Dosage Forms Containing Miconazole for the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Film dosage forms (FDs) containing miconazole (MCZ) for the treatment of oral candidiasis were prepared using water-soluble polysaccharides, and the dissolution profiles of MCZ from the FDs were investigated. In addition, the forms were modified by the addition of a surface active agent to accelerate the drug dissolution rate. Circular films incorporating MCZ were obtained using each polysaccharide. Most FDs were easy to handle and resistant to tearing. No diffraction peaks were observed in the X-ray diffractograms of FDs. FDs prepared with sodium alginate or pullulan immediately swelled and disintegrated in aqueous medium, whereas MCZ incorporated in the FD gradually dissolved. A marked acceleration in the MCZ dissolution rate was observed when FD was prepared with polysaccharide containing a surfactant. These results confirmed that modified FDs are useful for treating localized conditions in the oral cavity, such as oral candidiasis, and that FDs can simplify the administration of drugs to patients.

Yoshifumi Murata; Takashi Isobe; Kyoko Kofuji; Norihisa Nishida; Ryosei Kamaguchi

2013-01-01

228

Sertaconazole: an antifungal agent for the topical treatment of superficial candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sertaconazole is a useful antifungal agent against mycoses of the skin and mucosa, such as cutaneous, genital and oral candidiasis and tinea pedis. Its antifungal activity is due to inhibition of the ergosterol biosynthesis and disruption of the cell wall. At higher concentrations, sertaconazole is able to bind to nonsterol lipids of the fungal cell wall, increasing the permeability and the subsequent death of fungal cells. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities on Candida are dose-dependent. The antifungal spectrum of sertaconazole includes deramophytes, Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia and also Aspergillus, Scedosporium and Scopulariopsis. Sertaconazole also shows an antimicrobial activity against streptococci, staphylococci and protozoa (Trichomonas). In clinical trials including patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, a single dose of sertaconazole produced a higher cure rate compared with other topical azoles such as econazole and clotrimazole, in shorter periods. Sertaconazole has shown an anti-inflammatory effect that is very useful for the relief of unpleasant symptoms.

Carrillo-Muñoz AJ; Tur-Tur C; Giusiano G; Marcos-Arias C; Eraso E; Jauregizar N; Quindós G

2013-04-01

229

A novel bioluminescence mouse model for monitoring oropharyngeal candidiasis in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oropharyngeal Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection usually occurs in patients with altered cell-mediated immune response. Many animal models have been developed for studying the pathogenesis of disease. Here we describe a new model for real-time monitoring of oral candidiasis. Mice were rendered susceptible to oral candidiasis by injection with cortisone acetate. Oral infection was performed by placing a swab saturated with genetically engineered bioluminescent strain of C. albicans sublingually. An in vivo imaging technique, exploiting stably trasformed C. albicans that costitutively express luciferase, was adopted. This novel longitudinal study represents a powerful tool to: (1) test real-time progression of infection, (2) identify the target site of C. albicans in specific organs, (3) evaluate the efficacy of antifungal therapies and (4) explore the spread of C. albicans from the local to systemic compartment in a new way.

Mosci P; Pericolini E; Gabrielli E; Kenno S; Perito S; Bistoni F; d'Enfert C; Vecchiarelli A

2013-04-01

230

[Sensitivity of Candida strains to polyenic antibiotics in the treatment of oral candidiasis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sensitivity of 146 clinical strains of Candida albicans to nystatin, levorin and amphoglucamine was studied on solid media with the replica method. The strains were isolated from 79 patients with candidiasis of the oral mucosa. It was found that sensitivity of the fungi to the polyenic antibiotics was different which should be considered in treatment of candidiasis. On the basis of the mean MICs for the clinical strains and their distribution by the MICs it was shown that the activity level of levorin and amphoglucamine was higher than that of nystatin. During the treatment resistance of the Candida strains to the polyenic antibiotics increased and cross resistance developed which required application of other treatment means.

Bo?ko GI; Sosnin GP; Adarchenko AA; Moroz GS

1984-11-01

231

[Isolation frequency and spectrum of sensitivity to antifungal preparations of vulvovaginal candidiasis pathogens].  

Science.gov (United States)

The conducted microbiological examination of 362 women of reproductive age has shown the availability of vulvovaginal candidiasis in 282 of them. The following representatives of the genus Candida were isolated from the urogenital tract of women: C. albicans (53%), C. krusei (18%), C. glabrata (14%), C. tropicalis (9%), C. pseudotropicalis (6%). The comparative analysis of sensitivity of the given fungi to a number of antimycotic preparations used in the clinic has been conducted. One can observe maximum sensitivity (89%) of the isolated fungi of Candida genus to itraconazole, minimum (49%)--to nystatin. Therefore itraconazole can be a preparation of choice when treating vulvovaginal candidiasis, which agents are the Candida genus fungi being resistant to other antimycotics. PMID:17682532

Skliar, T V; Krysenko, A V; Sirokvasha, E A; Vinnikov, A I

232

[Isolation frequency and spectrum of sensitivity to antifungal preparations of vulvovaginal candidiasis pathogens  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conducted microbiological examination of 362 women of reproductive age has shown the availability of vulvovaginal candidiasis in 282 of them. The following representatives of the genus Candida were isolated from the urogenital tract of women: C. albicans (53%), C. krusei (18%), C. glabrata (14%), C. tropicalis (9%), C. pseudotropicalis (6%). The comparative analysis of sensitivity of the given fungi to a number of antimycotic preparations used in the clinic has been conducted. One can observe maximum sensitivity (89%) of the isolated fungi of Candida genus to itraconazole, minimum (49%)--to nystatin. Therefore itraconazole can be a preparation of choice when treating vulvovaginal candidiasis, which agents are the Candida genus fungi being resistant to other antimycotics.

Skliar TV; Krysenko AV; Sirokvasha EA; Vinnikov AI

2007-05-01

233

Multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans isolates from candidemia and superficial candidiasis in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Forty two Candida albicans isolates were collected from clinical samples in Israel. Twenty strains were isolated from blood cultures and 22 from superficial candidiasis. Isolates were typed by MLST analysis. Thirty-seven Diploid Sequence Types (DSTs) were identified. Seventeen isolates (40.5%) displayed new DSTs; 34 (81%) clustered within previously described clades, while nine (19%) did not cluster in any known group. Clonal Complex (CC) 124 was the most prevalent in both candidemia and superficial candidiasis isolates, CC 918 was only found in candidemia strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing C. albicans clinical isolates from Israel using MLST methodology, possibly pointing to geographic differences in strain distribution. PMID:23521555

Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Mandelblat, Marina; Ben Ami, Ronen; Perlin, David S; Segal, Esther

2013-03-22

234

Multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans isolates from candidemia and superficial candidiasis in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Forty two Candida albicans isolates were collected from clinical samples in Israel. Twenty strains were isolated from blood cultures and 22 from superficial candidiasis. Isolates were typed by MLST analysis. Thirty-seven Diploid Sequence Types (DSTs) were identified. Seventeen isolates (40.5%) displayed new DSTs; 34 (81%) clustered within previously described clades, while nine (19%) did not cluster in any known group. Clonal Complex (CC) 124 was the most prevalent in both candidemia and superficial candidiasis isolates, CC 918 was only found in candidemia strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing C. albicans clinical isolates from Israel using MLST methodology, possibly pointing to geographic differences in strain distribution.

Alastruey-Izquierdo A; Mandelblat M; Ben Ami R; Perlin DS; Segal E

2013-10-01

235

Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord.

Ito F; Okubo T; Yasuo T; Mori T; Iwasa K; Iwasaku K; Kitawaki J

2013-01-01

236

Características Clínico-Epidemiológicas y Taxonómicas de las Candidiasis Sistémicas en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos. Definir el perfil clínico de los pacientes con candidiasis sistémica ingresados en nuestra UCI, así como las características microbiológicas del agente causal. Realizar un análisis de mortalidad, incluyendo la aplicación del Score de Sevilla. Métodos. Diseño: Serie de casos registrados en estudio retrospectivo durante los años 2002-2004 y prospectivo durante el 2005-2006. Ambito: UCI médico-quirúrgica de un hospital de tercer nivel. Pacientes y métodos: Se incluyeron los 26 pacientes diagnosticados de candidiasis sistémica por hemocultivos positivos para Candida sp., analizando motivo de ingreso en la Unidad, factores de riesgo asociados, estancia, tipo de Candida y mortalidad, entre otras variables. Resultados. 26 casos de candidiasis diseminadas (75% hombres), estancia superior a 14 días en la UCI, APACHE II medio de 22.6. El principal motivo de ingreso fue la sepsis, seguido de politraumatismo. Los factores de riesgo asociados fueron la diabetes mellitus y neoplasias. A todos se les canalizó un catéter venoso central, recibieron antibioticoterapia previo al diagnóstico un 92%, multinstrumentación un 88%, tratamiento esteroideo previo un 7.7%, nutrición parenteral un 66%. Se aisló C. albicans en un 53.8% y C. no albicans en un 46,2% (C. parapsilosis, 34.6%). Hubo un aumento en la incidencia de infecciones fúngicas en los últimos años, con mayor incidencia (p C. no albicans frente a C. albicans desde el año 2004 con respecto a los previos y casi mayor incidencia significativa de C. no albicans en pacientes con nutrición parenteral (p C. albicans predominaron en pacientes sépticos, y las de C. no albicans en politraumatizados. La mortalidad fue del 42%, más elevada en infecciones por C. albicans. Se constató incremento de mortalidad (p Conclusiones. 1) La candidiasis en nuestra UCI afecta a hombres que ingresan por sepsis o politraumatismo, con APACHE II elevado, multiinstrumentación, estancia superior a dos semanas y frecuente desarrollo de fracaso multiorgánico. La C. no albicans predominó en politraumatizados y la C. albicans en los sépticos. 2) Aumentó la incidencia de candidemia en los últimos años, a expensas de C. no albicans, especialmente C. parapsilosis. 3) Se registró una mortalidad elevada, sobre todo en infección por C. albicans. El score de Sevilla definió la mortalidad en los grupos progresivos de riesgo. Palabras Clave: Candidiasis sistémica; Candida albicans; C. no albicans; Candida parapsilosis; Candida sp; Score de Sevilla; mortalidad. .......................... Clinical, Epidemiological and Taxonomic Aspects of Systemic Candidiasis in an Intensive Care Unit ABSTRACT Objectives. To define the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients admitted into our intensive care unit (ICU), together with the microbiological characteristics of the pathogen. Perform a survival analysis, including the application of the Sevilla score system. Methods. Design: Retrospective-prospective case series from 2002 to 2004 and 2005 to 2006, respectively. Location: Clinical and surgical ICU in a third level University Hospital. Patients and methods: 26 patients were diagnosed with systemic candidiasis, with positive haemoculture of Candida sp. Analysis was done on reason for admission to the unit, associated risk factors, value of APACHE II, length of stay in the ICU and mortality rate among other clinical data. The type of diagnosed Candida, its sensitivity profile, and the existence of previous wide spectrum antibiotic therapy or antifungal therapy were determined. The Sevilla risk score was applied and correlated to observed mortality. Results. Twenty-six cases with disseminated candidiasis were included in the study (75% of the cases were male, mean APACHE II was 22.6 points) whose permanence in the ICU were longer than 14 days. The first motive to enter ICU was sepsis, after which came trauma, which accompanied four organ failure. The associat

Begoña Hernández Sierra; Miguel Ángel Prieto Palomino; Javier Muñoz Bono; Emilio Curiel Balsera; Juan Mora Ordóñez; Lola Arias Verdú

2008-01-01

237

Development, characterization and efficacy of niosomal diallyl disulfide in treatment of disseminated murine candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In the current study, a novel niosome based formulation of diallyl disulfide (DADS) was evaluated for its potential to treat disseminated candidiasis in mouse model. Among various non-ionic surfactants tested, niosome formulation prepared using Span 80 was found to be most efficient in the entrapment of DADS. The DADS loaded niosomes had size dimensions in the range of 140 ± 30 nm with zeta potential of -30.67 ± 4.5. Liver/kidney function tests as well as histopathologic studies suggested that noisome-based DADS formulations are safe at the dose investigated. When administered to Candida albicans infected animals, the DADS bearing niosomal formulation cleared the fungal burden and increased their survival much efficiently than its free form. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: In this study, a novel niosomal formulation of the antifungal DADS was utilized in a murine candidiasis model, resulting in more efficient fungal clearance compared to the free formulation.

Alam M; Zubair S; Farazuddin M; Ahmad E; Khan A; Zia Q; Malik A; Mohammad O

2013-02-01

238

Endogenous thrombospondin-1 regulates leukocyte recruitment and activation and accelerates death from systemic candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disseminated Candida albicans infection results in high morbidity and mortality despite treatment with existing antifungal drugs. Recent studies suggest that modulating the host immune response can improve survival, but specific host targets for accomplishing this goal remain to be identified. The extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 is released at sites of tissue injury and modulates several immune functions, but its role in C. albicans pathogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we show that mice lacking thrombospondin-1 have an advantage in surviving disseminated candidiasis and more efficiently clear the initial colonization from kidneys despite exhibiting fewer infiltrating leukocytes. By examining local and systemic cytokine responses to C. albicans and other standard inflammatory stimuli, we identify a crucial function of phagocytes in this enhanced resistance. Subcutaneous air pouch and systemic candidiasis models demonstrated that endogenous thrombospondin-1 enhances the early innate immune response against C. albicans and promotes activation of inflammatory macrophages (inducible nitric oxide synthase?, IL-6(high), TNF-?(high), IL-10(low)), release of the chemokines MIP-2, JE, MIP-1?, and RANTES, and CXCR2-driven polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruitment. However, thrombospondin-1 inhibited the phagocytic capacity of inflammatory leukocytes in vivo and in vitro, resulting in increased fungal burden in the kidney and increased mortality in wild type mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 enhances the pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis by creating an imbalance in the host immune response that ultimately leads to reduced phagocytic function, impaired fungal clearance, and increased mortality. Conversely, inhibitors of thrombospondin-1 may be useful drugs to improve patient recovery from disseminated candidiasis.

Martin-Manso G; Navarathna DH; Galli S; Soto-Pantoja DR; Kuznetsova SA; Tsokos M; Roberts DD

2012-01-01

239

Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (more) (p

Chami, N.; Chami, F.; Bennis, S.; Trouillas, J.; Remmal, A.

2004-06-01

240

Hormonal contraception decreases bacterial vaginosis but oral contraception may increase candidiasis: implications for HIV transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE:: A 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) consultation concluded that combined oral contraception (COC) does not increase HIV acquisition in women, but the evidence for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is conflicting. We evaluated the effect of COC and DMPA use on the vaginal microbiome because current evidence suggests that any deviation from a 'healthy' vaginal microbiome increases women's susceptibility to HIV. METHODS:: We conducted a systematic review, and re-analyzed the Hormonal Contraception and HIV Acquisition (HC-HIV) study. Vaginal microbiome outcomes included BV by Nugent scoring, vaginal candidiasis by culture or KOH wet mount, and microbiome compositions as characterized by molecular techniques. RESULTS:: Our review of 36 eligible studies found that COC and DMPA use reduce BV by 10-20% and 18-30%, respectively. The HC-HIV data showed that COC and DMPA use also reduce intermediate microbiota (Nugent score of 4-6) by 11% each. In contrast, COC use (but not DMPA use) may increase vaginal candidiasis. Molecular vaginal microbiome studies (n?=?4) confirm that high estrogen levels favor a vaginal microbiome composition dominated by 'healthy' Lactobacillus species; the effects of progesterone are less clear and not well studied. CONCLUSIONS:: DMPA use does not increase HIV risk by increasing BV or vaginal candidiasis. COC use may predispose for vaginal candidiasis, but is not believed to be associated with increased HIV acquisition. However, the potential role of Candida species, and vaginal microbiome imbalances other than BV or Candida species, in HIV transmission cannot yet be ruled out. Further in-depth molecular studies are needed.

Van de Wijgert JH; Verwijs MC; Turner AN; Morrison CS

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prevalence and Predisposing Factors to Candidiasis Infection in Women Supported by Health Centers of Tabriz, 2004.  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Vaginits is probably the most common infection in women during their reproductive years, resulting in 5-10 million health-care visits a year, worldwide. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (vvc) is the second-most common form of vaginitis in the United States, which is associated with use of oral contraceptives containing high levels of estrogen and hormonal therapies. Midwives play an important role not only in the assessment and management of vaginal infections, but also in educating women about vaginal health. Recognizing risk factors associated with infections are the key to vaginal health.The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Candidal vaginitis in women referring to Tabriz health centers. Methods: This was a cross sectional study carried out on 1000 women aged 15-49 years who were selected by multiple random method. A sample of vaginal discharge was taken from the posterior fornix of the cervix and from the vaginal wall using sterile cotton swabs. The mycelium was observed by microscopic examination of a wet mount of the secretions. Another sample was taken for culturing in Agar sabura and transported to the laboratory. In addition, questionnaires with personal and reproductive information were completed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 15 and chi-square and, t student statistical tests were used for analysis. Results : This investigation indicated that prevalence of candidiasis was 25.2%. There was no meaningful statistical relationship between age, marriage age, occupation, education status, body mass index, day of menstruation cycle and abortion history with candidal vaginitis (p>.05),but a statistically significant relationship was observed between number of deliveries, vaginal Ph with candidiasis. Also, there was a reverse statistical relationship between OCP, DMPA methods and candidiasis. Conclusion: Midwives and other health professionals have an important role to play by giving more information to women about infections and associated risk factors, thus improving their quality of life.

A Namazi; F Sahati; M Adibpour; AS Mazloomi; S Mohammad alizadeh; J Babapour

2007-01-01

242

Renal candidiasis in newborn: the ultrasonography as diagnostic and therapeutic method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a case of systemic candidiasis in a low-weight newborn. Renal involvement presented as unilateral hydronephrosis secondary to the fungal construction. Ultrasound served not only as a diagnostic tool, but as a guide for the performance of performance of percutaneous nephrostomy which was included in the therapeutic approach to decompress the excretory pathway and allow local installation of anti fungal agents. (Author) 16 refs.

1995-01-01

243

Hormonal contraception decreases bacterial vaginosis but oral contraception may increase candidiasis: implications for HIV transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE:: A 2012 World Health Organization (WHO) consultation concluded that combined oral contraception (COC) does not increase HIV acquisition in women, but the evidence for depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is conflicting. We evaluated the effect of COC and DMPA use on the vaginal microbiome because current evidence suggests that any deviation from a 'healthy' vaginal microbiome increases women's susceptibility to HIV. METHODS:: We conducted a systematic review, and re-analyzed the Hormonal Contraception and HIV Acquisition (HC-HIV) study. Vaginal microbiome outcomes included BV by Nugent scoring, vaginal candidiasis by culture or KOH wet mount, and microbiome compositions as characterized by molecular techniques. RESULTS:: Our review of 36 eligible studies found that COC and DMPA use reduce BV by 10-20% and 18-30%, respectively. The HC-HIV data showed that COC and DMPA use also reduce intermediate microbiota (Nugent score of 4-6) by 11% each. In contrast, COC use (but not DMPA use) may increase vaginal candidiasis. Molecular vaginal microbiome studies (n?=?4) confirm that high estrogen levels favor a vaginal microbiome composition dominated by 'healthy' Lactobacillus species; the effects of progesterone are less clear and not well studied. CONCLUSIONS:: DMPA use does not increase HIV risk by increasing BV or vaginal candidiasis. COC use may predispose for vaginal candidiasis, but is not believed to be associated with increased HIV acquisition. However, the potential role of Candida species, and vaginal microbiome imbalances other than BV or Candida species, in HIV transmission cannot yet be ruled out. Further in-depth molecular studies are needed. PMID:23660575

Van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Verwijs, Marijn C; Turner, Abigail Norris; Morrison, Charles S

2013-05-01

244

[Invasive candidiasis in ICU: analysis of antifungal treatments in the French study AmarCand].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of treatments initiated during invasive candidiasis in intensive care units with current French guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational, French multicenter study (October 2005-May 2006). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Selection of patients with Candida species identification and in vitro antifungal susceptibility determination. The empiric treatments instituted before the microbiologic documentation of infection and the curative treatments instituted after identification of the causative Candida and determination of its susceptibility were collected and compared with treatments proposed by the French clinical practice guidelines (2004) for the management of patients with invasive candidiasis. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-six patients were studied. Invasive candidiasis was due to fluconazole-resistant or susceptible-dose dependent Candida in 18.3% of patients, without any significant influence of a previous treatment with azoles. Empiric and curative treatments were both in accordance with recommendations for 47% of patients. Recommendations were mainly not respected when proposed therapy was amphotericin B that disappeared from therapeutics used in ICU. Finally, 16.9% of episodes of invasive candidiasis, for which fluconazole was the recommended treatment, were due to fluconazole-resistant or susceptible-dose dependent Candida. CONCLUSION: The support of French ICU physicians to current French guidelines was observed in 47% of cases. The infrequent use of amphotericin B must be emphasized. The nonnegligible incidence of fluconazole-resistant or susceptible-dose dependent Candida sp., particularly in patients without any prior exposition to azole agents, and the inability to predict this resistance should lead to propose a revision of 2004 guidelines.

Leroy O; Mira JP; Montravers P; Gangneux JP; Gouin F; Sollet JP; Carlet J; Reynes J; Rosenheim M; Régnier B; Lortholary O

2008-12-01

245

Th17 cells and IL-17 in protective immunity to vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Th17 cells play a major role in coordinating the host defence in oropharyngeal candidiasis. In this study we investigated the involvement of the Th17 response in an animal model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). METHODS: To monitor the course of infection we exploited a new in vivo imaging technique. RESULTS: i) The progression of VVC leads to a strong influx of neutrophils in the vagina soon after the challenge which persisted despite the resolution of infection; ii) IL-17, produced by vaginal cells, particularly CD4 T cells, was detected in the vaginal wash during the infection, reaching a maximum 14 days after the challenge; iii) The amount and kinetics of IL-23 in vaginal fluids were comparable to those in vaginal cells; iv) The inhibition of Th17 differentiation led to significant inhibition of IL-17 production with consequent exacerbation of infection; v) An increased production of ?defensin 2 was manifested in cells of infected mice. This production was strongly reduced when Th17 differentiation was inhibited and was increased by rIL-17 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results imply that IL-17 and Th17, along with innate antimicrobial factors, have a role in the immune response to vaginal candidiasis.

Pietrella D; Rachini A; Pines M; Pandey N; Mosci P; Bistoni F; d'Enfert C; Vecchiarelli A

2011-01-01

246

Prevalence of Candida species and potential risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis in Aligarh, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the frequency of Candida species in women of different age groups as well as to suggest the criteria for the diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of vulvovaginal candidiasis was carried out using laboratory diagnosis, with the estimation of vaginal pH and the direct microscopic and biochemical examination of vaginal discharge/secretions. Vaginal cultures for Candida species were collected from 1050 women with vulvovaginal symptoms. RESULTS: Out of 1050 women, 215 (20.47%) were positive for Candida species. Of 215 women, 172 (80%) had pH within the normal range and 167 (77.67%) were showing yeast cells and mycelia on direct microscopic examination. Candida albicans accounted for 46.9% of cases, Candida glabrata 36.7%, Candida parapsilosis 10.2%, Candida tropicalis 2.8%, Candida krusei 1.4%, and Candida kiefer 1.9%. The frequency of culture positivity was related to pregnancy (P<0.001), an increase in parity (P<0.001), and use of oral contraceptives (P<0.001) and antibiotics (P<0.001). The most common signs and symptoms in 215 women with positive cultures were pruritus with or without vaginal discharge and vaginal erythema. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that vulvovaginal candidiasis can only be diagnosed by using clinical criteria in correlation with vulvovaginal symptoms and Candida cultures.

Ahmad A; Khan AU

2009-05-01

247

Usefulness of culture test and direct examination for the diagnosis of oral atrophic candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Culture test and direct microscopy, which are currently used in the diagnosis of oral candidiasis, can yield false-negative results. METHODS: Forty patients with atrophic candidiasis of the tongue were evaluated. The diagnosis was confirmed by a favorable outcome consisting of tongue pain improvement and regeneration of filiform papilla after antifungal treatment in all patients. Specimens were examined by fungal culture and direct microscopy following rapid staining; the usefulness of these procedures for diagnosis was reevaluated retrospectively after treatment. RESULTS: In the culture test, 30 patients (75.0%) were positive for candidal species, most of which were confirmed to be Candida albicans. Twenty-three (57.5%) were positive for pseudohyphae of fungi on direct examination. Twenty-two (55.0%) were positive and nine (22.5%) were negative for both. With regard to the diagnosis of oral atrophic candidiasis, these examinations revealed false-negative results of 25% in the culture examination and 42.5% in the direct examination. CONCLUSION: Careful clinical observation of the patient for signs, such as prolonged disease duration, pain on eating, and no benefit from topical steroid treatment, and cytologic examination are important in the diagnosis of this disease.

Terai H; Shimahara M

2009-04-01

248

Efficacy of Fungiflora Y staining for the diagnosis of oral erythematous candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Fungiflora Y staining (fluorescent stain) for the diagnosis of erythematous candidiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study enrolled 48 patients who were diagnosed with erythematous candidiasis and who underwent fungal culture and microscopic examination of a smear specimen stained with CytoQuick (modification of the Giemsa stain) and Fungiflora Y. Fungiflora Y staining was observed using a portable fluorescent microscope (CyScope(®)). The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using fungal culture as the gold standard test. Accuracy was calculated, and the difference between the CytoQuick and Fungiflora Y groups was examined using contingency tables and the chi-square test. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of the CytoQuick stain was 0.51 and 0.91, respectively; the positive predictive value was 0.95, and the negative predictive value was 0.36. The sensitivity and specificity of the Fungiflora Y stain was 0.84 and 1.0, respectively; the positive predictive value was 1.00, and the negative predictive value was 0.65. The accuracy of Fungiflora Y (0.88) was superior to that of CytoQuick (0.60) (p = 0.0052). CONCLUSIONS: Microscopic examinations of smear specimens using a combination of Fungiflora Y staining and the CyScope(®) portable fluorescent microscope was found to be useful for the diagnosis of oral erythematous candidiasis.

Okamoto MR; Kamoi M; Yamachika S; Tsurumoto A; Imamura T; Yamamoto K; Kadomatsu S; Saito I; Maeda N; Nakagawa Y

2013-09-01

249

Prevalencia de Candidiasis Bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA: Estudio retrospectivo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de Candidiasis Bucal en un grupo de pacientes VIH/SIDA que acudieron al Servicio de Atención a Pacientes con Enfermedades Infectocontagiosas (SAPEI) de la Facultad de Odontología de la UCV. Se estudiaron 509 pacientes de los cuales 151 pacientes al examen clínico presentaron lesiones bucales de Candidiasis, de estos, 119 eran hombres y 32 mujeres, con un rango de edades entre 19 y 64 años y un promedio de 38,12 años. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según los factores predisponentes o facilitadores de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) en: heterosexuales, homosexuales, uso de drogas por vía parenteral, transfusión sanguínea o por factor desconocido. A todos los sujetos se les examinó la cavidad bucal y se realizó toma de muestra bucal la cual fue sembrada en el medio de Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud e incubadas a 37°C por 48-72 horas. La prevalencia de lesiones candidiásicas bucales fue de 29,66%.The aim of this study has been to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis. Of 509 AIDS patients only 151 showed oral Candida lesions, 119 men and 32 female, and ranged in age 19 a 64 years old. Patients were grouped attending the predisposing factors for VIH infection in: heterosexuals, homosexuals, intravenous drug users, transfusion or having unknown factors. Oral cavity was examined and an oral specimen was inoculated culture medium Sabouraud. The prevalence of oral Candida lesions was 29.66%.

V Tovar; E Albornoz; M Guerra; J Lazarde

2004-01-01

250

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in rat experimental candidiasis: evaluation of pathogenicity factors of Candida albicans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effects of photodynamic therapy on pathogenicity of Candida albicans. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-six rats were submitted to development of candidiasis on the tongue dorsum by C. albicans inoculations. After 5 days, different treatments were administered: laser and photosynthesizer methylene blue (L+P+); laser only (L+P-); photosensitizer only (L-P+); and physiologic solution only (L-P-). Samples of the oral cavity were collected for a count of colony-forming units per mL. Colonies were isolated for evaluation of proteinase and phospholipase activities. The rats were killed for microscopic analysis of the tongue dorsum. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: The number of C. albicans recovered from the oral cavity of the rats was similar between the groups (P = .106). The L+P+ group showed fewer microscopic lesions of candidiasis than the L-P- group (P = .001). The L+P+ group presented lower proteinase activity compared with the other groups, with significant difference between the groups L+P+ and L-P+ (P = .018). CONCLUSIONS: Photodynamic therapy reduced the microscopic lesions of experimental candidiasis in rats and inhibited the proteinase activity of C. albicans.

Martins Jda S; Junqueira JC; Faria RL; Santiago NF; Rossoni RD; Colombo CE; Jorge AO

2011-01-01

251

Distribution of Candida species among HIV-positive patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis in Accra, Ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common occurrence in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of oropharyngeal candidiasis and type of Candida species profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in patients. The aim of this study was to undertake a baseline Candida species identification for future reference. METHODOLOGY: Oral swabs of 267 HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis were cultured and Candida species were identified by API 32 C. RESULTS: A total of 201 (75.3%) Candida species and 10 (3.7%) non candida fungi were identified. Twenty different Candida species were isolated. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (68.5%) followed by C. tropicalis (7.4%), C. krusei (6.4%), C. parapsilosis (3.0%) and C. sake (2.5%). Other species ranged from 0.5% to 1.5%. Positive culture was independent of whether patients were on anti-retroviral therapy or not. CONCLUSION: Of all Candida isolates, 68.5% were identified as C. albicans. Since other uncommon species were also isolated, it may be necessary in this group of patients to identify Candida species causing severe infections.

Kwamin F; Nartey NO; Codjoe FS; Newman MJ

2013-01-01

252

Galectin-3 plays an important role in protection against disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent in vitro studies have implicated galectin-3 as an important receptor in host recognition and response to specific Candida species; however, its role in protection against disseminated candidiasis in vivo has not been evaluated. This study investigated the importance of galectin-3 in host defense against systemic infection with the highly virulent species Candida albicans, and the less virulent species, C. parapsilosis. Mice deficient in galectin-3 (gal3-/-) were more susceptible to infection than wild-type (WT) mice. When infected with C. albicans, gal3-/- mice died significantly faster and exhibited a trend towards increased fungal burden and increased abscess formation in infected brains compared to WT mice. When infected with C. parapsilosis, gal3-/- mice had significantly higher renal fungal burdens and abscess formation compared to WT mice. To evaluate whether galectin-3 may contribute to susceptibility to candidiasis in human infants, galectin-3 levels in sera of newborn infants, a patient population uniquely susceptible to infections with both C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, were compared to serum galectin-3 levels of adults. Galectin-3 levels were significantly lower in newborn infant sera compared to adult sera. These data indicate that galectin-3 plays an important role in a murine model of disseminated candidiasis and suggest a potential mechanism of neonatal susceptibility to these infections. PMID:23488971

Linden, Jennifer R; De Paepe, Monique E; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Bliss, Joseph M

2013-03-14

253

Identificación de especies de Candida en un grupo de pacientes con Candidiasis Atrófica Crónica Candida species isolated in Chronic atrophic (Erythematous) Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Se estudiaron 40 pacientes que acudieron al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología. U.C.V., quienes presentaron signos clínicos y microbiológicos de Candidiasis atrófica crónica. El 40% de los pacientes pertenecían al rango de edades de 51 a 60 años, y el 97.5% pertenecían al sexo femenino. Al evaluar la presencia de prótesis dental en éstos pacientes, se pudo evidenciar que el 67.5% usaban prótesis total y el 32.5% prótesis parcial removible. Con respecto a la identificación de las especies de Candida, se pudo demostrar que el 72.5% correspondió a C. albicans, el 15% a C. tropicalis, el 2% a T. glabrata y C. famata, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa representaron el 1% respectivamente. Es necesario realizar un correcto diagnóstico clínico y micológico con la identificación exacta de las levaduras con fines de establecer pautas terapéuticas correctas y evitar la resistencia a los antimicóticos.A group of denture wearing patients with erythematous candidiasis was investigated by age and sex, clinical symptoms and signs of the disease were recorded.There were 39 women and 1 man, and ranged in age from 51 a 60 years old. Six species of Candida were isolated, with C. albicans as the dominant species (72.5%).

L, J Lazarde; A Pacheco

2001-01-01

254

Identificación de especies de Candida en un grupo de pacientes con Candidiasis Atrófica Crónica/ Candida species isolated in Chronic atrophic (Erythematous) Candidiasis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estudiaron 40 pacientes que acudieron al Servicio de Clínica Estomatológica de la Facultad de Odontología. U.C.V., quienes presentaron signos clínicos y microbiológicos de Candidiasis atrófica crónica. El 40% de los pacientes pertenecían al rango de edades de 51 a 60 años, y el 97.5% pertenecían al sexo femenino. Al evaluar la presencia de prótesis dental en éstos pacientes, se pudo evidenciar que el 67.5% usaban prótesis total y el 32.5% prótesis parcial (more) removible. Con respecto a la identificación de las especies de Candida, se pudo demostrar que el 72.5% correspondió a C. albicans, el 15% a C. tropicalis, el 2% a T. glabrata y C. famata, C. parapsilosis, C. rugosa representaron el 1% respectivamente. Es necesario realizar un correcto diagnóstico clínico y micológico con la identificación exacta de las levaduras con fines de establecer pautas terapéuticas correctas y evitar la resistencia a los antimicóticos. Abstract in english A group of denture wearing patients with erythematous candidiasis was investigated by age and sex, clinical symptoms and signs of the disease were recorded.There were 39 women and 1 man, and ranged in age from 51 a 60 years old. Six species of Candida were isolated, with C. albicans as the dominant species (72.5%).

Lazarde, L, J; Pacheco, A

2001-01-01

255

[Systemic candidiasis in medical intensive care unit: analysis of risk factors and the contribution of colonization index].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Description of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the patients introducing risk factors of invasive candidiasis. Analysis of risk factors for candidiasis invasive and evaluation of the contribution of colonization index (CI) in the diagnosis of the systematic candidiasis in medical intensive care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective observational study (October 2007 to October 2009). The selected patients present risk factors of system IC candidiasis with an infectious syndrome or clinical signs suggestive of Candida infection and hospitalized more than 48 hours in medical intensive care unit. Pittet's colonization index was calculated at admission and then once a week added to a blood culture. Patients were classified according to level of evidence of Candida infection and the degree of colonization (CI<0.5, CI ? 0.5). RESULTS: The study included 100 patients. Mean age of our patients was 55.8 ± 18.2 years with male prevalence. Neurological disease was the most frequent pathology in admission (48%). The most common risk factors were broad-spectrum antibiotics and foreign material. In the various mycology IC specimens, Candida albicans was the most frequent, followed by C. tropicalis, then C. glabrata. The CI was greater than or equal to 0.5 at 53% of the patients, and less than 0.5 in 47% of the cases. Among the patients, 15% developed an invasive candidiasis. In multivariate analysis, the corticosteroid therapy was associated with a high colonisation (IC ? 0.5) and neutropenia with a high risk of systemic candidiasis. The positive predictive value of CI was 26%. The negative predictive value was 98%, the sensitivity and specificity was 93% and 48% respectively. CONCLUSION: CI has the advantage to provide a quantified data of the patient's situation in relation to the colonization. But, it isn't helpful with patients having an invasive candidiasis in medical intensive care unit.

Massou S; Ahid S; Azendour H; Bensghir M; Mounir K; Iken M; Lmimouni BE; Balkhi H; Drissi Kamili N; Haimeur C

2013-06-01

256

Factors Associated with Esophageal Candidiasis and Its Endoscopic Severity in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Candidia esophagitis (CE) is an AIDS-defining condition, usually occurring in individuals with low CD4 counts of <200 cells/µL. Endoscopy is a valuable definitive diagnostic method for CE but may not be indicated for asymptomatic patients or for those with high CD4 counts or without oral candidiasis. This study assessed such patients to clarify the factors associated with CE and its severity on endoscopy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Methodology/ Principal Findings A total of 733 HIV-infected patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were analyzed. Sexual behavior, CD4+ count, HIV-RNA viral load (VL), history of HAART, GI symptoms, GI diseases, and oral candidiasis were assessed. Endoscopic severity of CE was classified as mild (Kodsi's grade I/II) or severe (grade III/IV). Of the 733 subjects, 62 (8.46%) were diagnosed with CE (mild, n?=?33; severe, n?=?29). Of them, 56.5% (35/62) had no GI symptoms, 30.6% (19/62) had CD4 + ?200 cells/?L, and 55.3% (21/38) had no oral candidiasis. Univariate analysis found lower CD4+ counts, higher HIV VL, and no history of HAART to be significantly associated with CE. With lower CD4+ counts and higher HIV VL, CE occurrence increased significantly (P<0.01 for trend in odds). Multivariate analysis showed low CD4+ counts and high HIV VL to be independently associated with CE. Of the severe CE patients, 55.2% (16/29) had no GI symptoms and 44.4% (8/18) had no oral candidiasis. Median CD4+ counts in severe cases were significantly lower than in mild cases (27 vs. 80; P?=?0.04). Conclusions Low CD4+ counts and high HIV VL were found to be factors associated with CE, and advanced immunosuppression was associated with the development of severity. Endoscopy is useful as it can detect CE, even severe CE, in patients without GI symptoms, those with high CD4 counts, and those without oral candidiasis.

Nishimura, So; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Asayama, Naoki; Akiyama, Junichi; Ohmagari, Norio; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

2013-01-01

257

Factors associated with esophageal candidiasis and its endoscopic severity in the era of antiretroviral therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Candidia esophagitis (CE) is an AIDS-defining condition, usually occurring in individuals with low CD4 counts of <200 cells/µL. Endoscopy is a valuable definitive diagnostic method for CE but may not be indicated for asymptomatic patients or for those with high CD4 counts or without oral candidiasis. This study assessed such patients to clarify the factors associated with CE and its severity on endoscopy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. METHODOLOGY PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 733 HIV-infected patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy were analyzed. Sexual behavior, CD4(+) count, HIV-RNA viral load (VL), history of HAART, GI symptoms, GI diseases, and oral candidiasis were assessed. Endoscopic severity of CE was classified as mild (Kodsi's grade I/II) or severe (grade III/IV). Of the 733 subjects, 62 (8.46%) were diagnosed with CE (mild, n = 33; severe, n = 29). Of them, 56.5% (35/62) had no GI symptoms, 30.6% (19/62) had CD4 + ?200 cells/?L, and 55.3% (21/38) had no oral candidiasis. Univariate analysis found lower CD4+ counts, higher HIV VL, and no history of HAART to be significantly associated with CE. With lower CD4(+) counts and higher HIV VL, CE occurrence increased significantly (P<0.01 for trend in odds). Multivariate analysis showed low CD4+ counts and high HIV VL to be independently associated with CE. Of the severe CE patients, 55.2% (16/29) had no GI symptoms and 44.4% (8/18) had no oral candidiasis. Median CD4(+) counts in severe cases were significantly lower than in mild cases (27 vs. 80; P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Low CD4+ counts and high HIV VL were found to be factors associated with CE, and advanced immunosuppression was associated with the development of severity. Endoscopy is useful as it can detect CE, even severe CE, in patients without GI symptoms, those with high CD4 counts, and those without oral candidiasis.

Nishimura S; Nagata N; Shimbo T; Asayama N; Akiyama J; Ohmagari N; Yazaki H; Oka S; Uemura N

2013-01-01

258

Candidiasis sistémica: experiencia en el Hospital San Juan de Dios 1996-1998  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La sobrevida de los pacientes con enfermedades crónicas así como de aquellos expuestos a terapias médicas y quirúrgicas agresivas ha aumentado. entre otras cosas, gracias al empleo de antibiáticos de amplio espectro, al uso de nutrición parenteral, a la aplicación de medicamentos inmunomoduladores, al transpiante de órganos y al desarrollo de las unidades de cuidado intensivo. No obstante, esto ha conllevado a la aparición de complicaciones como son las infeccion (more) es por hongos. Dentro de éstas, en los últimos años se ha demostrado que las diversas especies de cándida tienen un papel importante. La candidiasis sistémica puede ser una complicación severa en estos pacientes, con una alta morbimortalidad. En nuestro medio, desconocemos estudios donde se analice esta patología, razón por la cual se llevó a cabo este trabajo. Se estudiaron retrospectivamente los pacientes con candidiasis sistémica diagnosticados en el Hospital San Juan de Dios, hospital nacional de aproximadamente 700 camas, entre los meses de enero de 1996 a diciembre de 1998. Se analizaron 48 episodios de candidiasis sistémica en 47 pacientes. La edad promedio fue de 53 años, 60% fueron hombres. La mortalidad fue de 36%. En 77% de los pacientes se logró identificar alguna patología de base (enfermedad hematooncológica, diabetes mellitus, cirugía abdominal, enfermedad por VIH, quemaduras extensas). Los principales factores de riesgo demostrados fueron el uso previo de antibióticos de amplio espectro (87%), presencia de catéter venoso central (72%), candidiasis en otros sitios (64%), cirugía abdominal previa (25%),empleo de nutrición parenteral (23%) y uso de corticoesteroides (23%). En todos los pacientes se logró identificar al menos un factor de riesgo. Las principales especies de cándida aisladas fueron C albicans (47%), C tropicalis (19%), C parapsilosis (11%), C krusei (4%) y C glabrata (2%). Se analizó la relación entre la especie aislada y los factores de riesgo. Se encontró que C krusei y C parapsílosís se relacionaron con el uso previo de antimicóticos azoles. La mortalidad fue mayor en aquellos pacientes no tratados con antimicóticos. Se discuten estos hallazgos y se correlacionan con lo publicado en la literatura médica, llamándose la atención sobre el aumento en la incidencia de candidiasis sistémicas por candidas no aibicans. Abstract in english The mortality of patients with chronic diseases and those with agressive medical and surgical therapies has decreased in recent years, specially due to the use of broad spectrum antibiotics, parenteral nutrition, immunosupressives therapies, organ transpiantation and management of those patients in intensive care units. However, new infectious diseases have emerged in this population, for example candidal infections. We do not have reports in Costa Rica about this problem (more) . The objective of this study was to analized, retrospectiviy, demographic characteristics, risk factors, microbiologic findings, mortaiity and treatment of patients with candidal bloodstream infections between January 1996 and December 1998, in the Hospital San Juan de Dios, a costarrican reference hospital. Forty seven patients with 48 systemic candidiasis episodes met the criteria to be included in our study. Sixty percent were men and the mean age was 53 years oid. The mortality rate was 36%. All the patients presentes at least, one risk factor.The most common were the use of broad spectrum antibiotics (87%), the presence of central venous catheter(72%), candidiasis in other anatomic site (64%), previous abdominal surgery (25%),use of parenteral nutrition (23%) and neutropenia (17%). The species isolated were: C albicans (47%), C tropicalis (19%), C parapsilosis (11%), C krusei (4%) and C glabrata (2%). The last two species were related to the previous use of antimycotic azoles. The use of an early specific antimycotic treatment was related with low mortaiity rate. We discussed our data and we found similar results in previous reports in t

Caballero, Ernesto; Boza, Ricardo; González, Kenneth

1999-12-01

259

[The Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (SEIP) recommendations on the diagnosis and management of invasive candidiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida yeasts are ubiquitous commensals, which can cause opportunistic infection in any location of the body. The source of infection may be both endogenous and exogenous. Invasive candidiasis encompasses different entities ranging from invasive candidiasis to disseminated multiorgan infection. Invasive candidiasis is the third leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection and the fourth of all nosocomial infections. It is also the most common invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic critically ill patients, with a remarkable increase in the last 20 years owing to the increased survival of these patients and to more complex diagnostic, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Its incidence in infants, according to recent reviews, stands at 38.8 cases/100,000 children younger than 1 year. Candida albicans remains the most frequent isolate in invasive infections, although infections caused by other species have risen in the last years, such as C. kruzsei, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis; the latter causing invasive candidiasis mainly associated with central venous catheter management, especially in neonatal units. The overall mortality of invasive candidiasis is high, with 30-day mortality reaching 20-44% in some series involving paediatric patients. This report provides an update on incidence, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of invasive infection by Candida spp. in the paediatric patient.

Figueras C; Díaz de Heredia C; García JJ; Navarro M; Ruiz-Contreras J; Rossich R; Rumbao J; Frick MA; Roselló EM

2011-05-01

260

Effect of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the In Vitro Growth of Candida albicans and Its Protective Effect in an Oral Candidiasis Model  

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Oral candidiasis is often accompanied by severe inflammation, resulting in a decline in the quality of life of immunosuppressed individuals and elderly people. To develop a new oral therapeutic option for candidiasis, a nonpathogenic commensal oral probiotic microorganism, Streptococcus salivarius K...

Ishijima, Sanae A.; Hayama, Kazumi; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor; Okada, Masashi; Matsushita, Yuji; Abe, Shigeru

 
 
 
 
261

Incidence and anatomic localization of oral candidiasis in patients with AIDS hospitalized in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, anatomic localization and yeast species isolated from each clinical type of oral candidiasis. The clinical samples were obtained from 67 patients with AIDS with CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm³ and hospitalized in a public hospital (Eduardo de Menezes Hospital) in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated using Chromagar® Candida. The results show that 50.7% of these patients had oral candidiasis. The pseudomembranous form was the most frequent clinical manifestation of oral candidiasis, followed by the erythematous and angular cheilite forms. The most common site of these clinical forms of oral candidiasis was the tongue. Candida albicans was the most common yeast species isolated from the lesions. However, other species were also found to be associated with these forms of oral candidiasis.

Ilanna G. Gableri; Anne C. Barbosa; Raquel R. Velela; Sandra Lyon; Carlos A. Rosa

2008-01-01

262

A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

2009-01-01

263

Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS: We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study design. Pregnant women presenting at <20 weeks gestation with singleton pregnancies self-collected a vaginal swab. Those who were asymptomatic and culture positive for Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg) or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment). The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth <37 weeks gestation was also assessed. RESULTS: Of 779 women approached, 500 (64%) participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6%) had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. CONCLUSIONS: A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12609001052224.

Roberts CL; Rickard K; Kotsiou G; Morris JM

2011-01-01

264

Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth: an open-label pilot randomized controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the connection between ascending infection and preterm birth is undisputed, research focused on finding effective treatments has been disappointing. However evidence that eradication of Candida in pregnancy may reduce the risk of preterm birth is emerging. We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of conducting a large randomized controlled trial to determine whether treatment of asymptomatic candidiasis in early pregnancy reduces the incidence of preterm birth. Methods We used a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint (PROBE) study design. Pregnant women presenting at Candida were randomized to 6-days of clotrimazole vaginal pessaries (100mg) or usual care (screening result is not revealed, no treatment). The primary outcomes were the rate of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis, participation and follow-up. The proposed primary trial outcome of spontaneous preterm birth Results Of 779 women approached, 500 (64%) participated in candidiasis screening, and 98 (19.6%) had asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis and were randomized to clotrimazole or usual care. Women were not inconvenienced by participation in the study, laboratory testing and medication dispensing were problem-free, and the follow-up rate was 99%. There was a tendency towards a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth among women with asymptomatic candidiasis who were treated with clotrimazole RR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.04-3.03. Conclusions A large, adequately powered, randomized trial of clotrimazole to prevent preterm birth in women with asymptomatic candidiasis is both feasible and warranted. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12609001052224

Roberts Christine L; Rickard Kristen; Kotsiou George; Morris Jonathan M

2011-01-01

265

Prevalencia de Candidiasis Bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA: Estudio retrospectivo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de Candidiasis Bucal en un grupo de pacientes VIH/SIDA que acudieron al Servicio de Atención a Pacientes con Enfermedades Infectocontagiosas (SAPEI) de la Facultad de Odontología de la UCV. Se estudiaron 509 pacientes de los cuales 151 pacientes al examen clínico presentaron lesiones bucales de Candidiasis, de estos, 119 eran hombres y 32 mujeres, con un rango de edades entre 19 y 64 años y un promedio de 38,12 a? (more) ?os. Los pacientes fueron agrupados según los factores predisponentes o facilitadores de la infección por el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) en: heterosexuales, homosexuales, uso de drogas por vía parenteral, transfusión sanguínea o por factor desconocido. A todos los sujetos se les examinó la cavidad bucal y se realizó toma de muestra bucal la cual fue sembrada en el medio de Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud e incubadas a 37°C por 48-72 horas. La prevalencia de lesiones candidiásicas bucales fue de 29,66%. Abstract in english The aim of this study has been to determine the prevalence of oral candidiasis. Of 509 AIDS patients only 151 showed oral Candida lesions, 119 men and 32 female, and ranged in age 19 a 64 years old. Patients were grouped attending the predisposing factors for VIH infection in: heterosexuals, homosexuals, intravenous drug users, transfusion or having unknown factors. Oral cavity was examined and an oral specimen was inoculated culture medium Sabouraud. The prevalence of oral Candida lesions was 29.66%.

Tovar, V; Albornoz, E; Guerra, M; Lazarde, J

2004-01-01

266

Tulbaghia alliacea phytotherapy: a potential anti-infective remedy for candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproductive health of individuals is severely compromised by HIV infection, with candidiasis being the most prevalent oral complication in patients. Although not usually associated with severe morbidity, oropharyngeal candidiasis can be clinically significant, as it can interfere with the administration of medications and adequate nutritional intake, and may spread to the esophagus. Azole antifungal agents are commonly prescribed for the treatment and prophylaxis of candidal infections, however, the emergence of drug resistant strains and dose limiting toxic effects has complicated the treatment of candidiasis. Consequently, safe and effective and affordable medicine is required to combat this fungus. Commercial garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since time immemorial as a natural antibiotic, however, very little is known about the antifungal properties of two indigenous South African species of garlic, namely Tulbaghia alliacea and Tulbaghia violacea, used as folk medicines for a variety of infections. This study compares the in vitro anticandidal activity of Tulbaghia alliacea, Tulbaghia violacea and Allium sativum extracts. It was found that the greatest concentrations of inhibitory components were extracted by chloroform or water. The IC50 concentrations of Tulbaghia alliacea were 0.007-0.038% (w/v). Assays using S. cerevisiae revealed that the T. alliacea extract was fungicidal, with a killing half-life of approximately 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the T. alliacea extracts was observed via TLC, and may be due to an active compound called marasmicin, that was identified using NMR. This investigation confirms that extracts of T. alliacea exhibit anti-infective activity against candida species in vitro. PMID:16835880

Thamburan, S; Klaasen, J; Mabusela, W T; Cannon, J F; Folk, W; Johnson, Q

2006-10-01

267

Tulbaghia alliacea phytotherapy: a potential anti-infective remedy for candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The reproductive health of individuals is severely compromised by HIV infection, with candidiasis being the most prevalent oral complication in patients. Although not usually associated with severe morbidity, oropharyngeal candidiasis can be clinically significant, as it can interfere with the administration of medications and adequate nutritional intake, and may spread to the esophagus. Azole antifungal agents are commonly prescribed for the treatment and prophylaxis of candidal infections, however, the emergence of drug resistant strains and dose limiting toxic effects has complicated the treatment of candidiasis. Consequently, safe and effective and affordable medicine is required to combat this fungus. Commercial garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since time immemorial as a natural antibiotic, however, very little is known about the antifungal properties of two indigenous South African species of garlic, namely Tulbaghia alliacea and Tulbaghia violacea, used as folk medicines for a variety of infections. This study compares the in vitro anticandidal activity of Tulbaghia alliacea, Tulbaghia violacea and Allium sativum extracts. It was found that the greatest concentrations of inhibitory components were extracted by chloroform or water. The IC50 concentrations of Tulbaghia alliacea were 0.007-0.038% (w/v). Assays using S. cerevisiae revealed that the T. alliacea extract was fungicidal, with a killing half-life of approximately 2 h. This inhibitory effect of the T. alliacea extracts was observed via TLC, and may be due to an active compound called marasmicin, that was identified using NMR. This investigation confirms that extracts of T. alliacea exhibit anti-infective activity against candida species in vitro.

Thamburan S; Klaasen J; Mabusela WT; Cannon JF; Folk W; Johnson Q

2006-10-01

268

Evaluation of protective efficacy of Spirulina platensis in Balb/C mice with candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at evaluating the immunostimulatory effect of Spirulina platensis in prophylaxis of Balb/C mice with systemic candidiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In first experiment, 40 mice were divided into four groups, ten mice per each group, for cytokines assay. Animals received a dose of 800mg/kg of S. platensis for 4days and then were intravenously inoculated with 1×10(6) Candida albicans. Control groups received 0.2mL and 0.1mL normal saline for prophylaxis and inoculation, respectively. Five mice from each group were euthanized after 24hours and 72hours and the serum levels of IFN-? and TNF-? were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In second experiment, two mice groups with systemic candidiasis, 11 mice per each group, were included to evaluate the survival rate. Animals were monitored for 30days and the kidneys, liver, lungs and spleen were analyzed for fungal invasion. RESULTS: The results indicated that the Spirulina-treated mice produced more IFN-g and TNF-? level than their control groups. This infected group showed that the mean survival time (28.86±2.7) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than control group (13.9±3.34). They also exhibited that fungal clearance in selected organs at death time represents significant differences between spleen and liver (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Prophylaxis with S. platensis had synergistic effect through producing cytokines such as TNF-? and IFN-?. Our results provide important information for the potential application of S. platensis in the treatment and resistance of Balb/C mice with systemic candidiasis.

Soltani M; Khosravi AR; Asadi F; Shokri H

2012-12-01

269

Central Nervous System Candidiasis Presenting with Persistent Brain Parenchymal Microabscess in a Premature Infant  

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Full Text Available Candidal meningitis is a serious complication of systemic candidiasis and cause ofmajor morbidity and mortality. This is especially true in very low birth weight prematureinfants. We describe a premature neonate who suffered from systemic candidal infectionwith brain parenchymal involvement detected by cranial ultrasound. This patient survivedafter antifungal treatment but delayed neurodevelopmental outcome was noted in the subsequentfollow-up. Physicians should be more alert to the early diagnosis of fungal infection inpremature babies as central nervous system candidal infection can result in neurodevelopmentaldelay in such infants.

Hsin-Yueh Hsu; Hsin-Chun Huang; Chia-Lu Wu; Chih-Lu Wang; Chieh-An Liu

2006-01-01

270

Ketoconazole hepatotoxicity in a patient treated for environmental illness and systemic candidiasis  

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Environmental illness, a hypothesized disease caused by exposure to substances such as combustion products, pesticides, food additives, and Candida albicans, is discussed. The case of a patient with environmental illness and systemic candidiasis for six weeks with ketoconazole, liver enzyme concentrations increased. One month after discontinuation of ketoconazole, the liver enzyme concentrations decreased; however, over the next five months, liver enzymes and bilirubin increased. The patient developed encephalopathy and eventually was transferred to a medical center for possible liver transplant. A review of the literature pertaining to ketoconazole hepatotoxicity is also presented.16 references.

Brusko, C.S.; Marten, J.T. (Purdue University School of Pharmacy and Pharmacal Sciences, Lafayette, IN (United States))

1991-12-01

271

The efficacy and safety of sertaconazole cream (2 %) in diaper dermatitis candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Diaper dermatitis (DD) is an inflammatory irritating condition that is common in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonization of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC), and therefore, the signs and symptoms improve with antimycotic treatment. Sertaconazole is a broad-spectrum third-generation imidazole derivative that is effective and safe for the treatment for superficial mycoses, such as tineas, candidiasis, and pityriasis versicolor. Our goal was to assess the efficacy and safety of sertaconazole cream (2 %) in DDC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with clinical and mycological diagnosis of DDC were enrolled and treated with 2 daily applications for 14 days and were followed-up for 2 further weeks. RESULTS: Three etiologic agents were isolated: Candida albicans in 88.8 %, Candida parapsilosis in 7.3 %, and Candida glabrata in 3.2 %. There was an average symptom reduction from 7.1 to 3.2 in the middle of treatment and to 1.2 and 0.4 units at the end of treatment and follow-up, respectively. The treatment evaluation at the end of the follow-up period showed a total clinical and mycological cure in 88.8 %, improvement in 3.7 %, and failure in 7.4 %. There was side effect (3.7 %) of skin irritation, but the drug was not discontinued. CONCLUSIONS: Based on its safety and effectiveness, sertaconazole cream may be considered a new alternative for DDC treatment.

Bonifaz A; Tirado-Sánchez A; Graniel MJ; Mena C; Valencia A; Ponce-Olivera RM

2013-04-01

272

Adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines for the treatment of disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the discovery in the last decade of azoles and echinocandins as novel and potent antimycotic drugs, systemic Candida infections are still accompanied by an unacceptably high burden of morbidity and mortality. A rational novel therapeutic approach would be the use of adjuvant immunotherapy, with the aim of improving host defence against Candida. Increases in our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of Candida infections, such as the role played by pattern recognition receptors and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines during the early phases of infection, have led to the hypothesis of a potential therapeutic role of recombinant cytokines in systemic candidiasis. In the present review, we give an update of both experimental data and proof-of-principle studies in humans that argue for the use of adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines in invasive Candida infections. Sufficiently powered studies on the role of cytokine-based treatment regimens for invasive candidiasis are needed to fully demonstrate the feasibility of this immunotherapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of severe invasive Candida infections. PMID:22032929

van de Veerdonk, F L; Kullberg, B-J; Netea, M G

2011-10-27

273

Adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines for the treatment of disseminated candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the discovery in the last decade of azoles and echinocandins as novel and potent antimycotic drugs, systemic Candida infections are still accompanied by an unacceptably high burden of morbidity and mortality. A rational novel therapeutic approach would be the use of adjuvant immunotherapy, with the aim of improving host defence against Candida. Increases in our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of Candida infections, such as the role played by pattern recognition receptors and the induction of proinflammatory cytokines during the early phases of infection, have led to the hypothesis of a potential therapeutic role of recombinant cytokines in systemic candidiasis. In the present review, we give an update of both experimental data and proof-of-principle studies in humans that argue for the use of adjunctive immunotherapy with recombinant cytokines in invasive Candida infections. Sufficiently powered studies on the role of cytokine-based treatment regimens for invasive candidiasis are needed to fully demonstrate the feasibility of this immunotherapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of severe invasive Candida infections.

van de Veerdonk FL; Kullberg BJ; Netea MG

2012-02-01

274

Polymeric microparticles-based formulation for the eradication of cutaneous candidiasis: development and characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Cutaneous candidiasis is a common topical fungal infection which may be more prominent in patients associated with AIDS. It is usually treated by conventional formulations such as cream, gel, which show various adverse effects on skin along with systemic absorption. To overcome these drawbacks, various novel drug delivery systems have been explored. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based microparticulate systems have shown good dermal penetration after topical application. Therefore, in the present study clotrimazole-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared for targeted dermal delivery. Microspheres were prepared by using a single emulsification (oil-in-water, O/W) evaporation technique and characterized for different parameters. Prepared microparticulate systems were dispersed in Carbopol 934® gel and antifungal activity was carried out on experimentally induced cutaneous candidiasis in immunosuppressed guinea pigs. Particle size of optimized formulation was 2.9?µm along with 74.85% entrapment of drug. Skin retention studies revealed that drug accumulation in the skin was higher with microspheres gel as compared to marketed gel. Confocal microscopy of skin further confirmed penetration of microspheres up to 50?µm into the dermal region. In-vivo antifungal activity studies demonstrated that microsphere gel showed better therapeutic activity, lowest number of cfu/ml was recorded, as compared to marketed gel after 96?h of application. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that PLGA microparticles may be promising carriers to deliver clotrimazole intradermally for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. PMID:23560821

Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Jamwal, Sumit; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar

2013-04-01

275

Mouse strain-dependent differences in estrogen sensitivity during vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The animal models available for studying the immune response to genital tract infection require induction of a pseudo estrous state, usually achieved by administration of 17-?-estradiol. In our experimental model of vaginal candidiasis, under pseudo estrus, different strains of mice were used. We observed major differences in the clearance of Candida albicans infection among the different strains, ascribable to differing susceptibility to estradiol treatment. In the early phase of infection CD1, BALB/c, C57BL/6 albino and C57BL/6 mice were colonized to similar levels, while in the late phase of infection, BALB/c mice, which are considered genetically resistant to C. albicans infection, exhibited greater susceptibility to vaginal candidiasis than CD1 and C57BL/6 albino strains of mice. This was because estradiol induced "per se" enlarged and fluid-filled uteri, more pronounced in infected mice and consistently more evident in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice than in CD1 mice. Unlike CD1, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed a heavy fungal colonization of the uterus, even though C57BL/6 mice apparently cleared C. albicans from the vagina. The presence of C. albicans in the vagina and uterus was accompanied by a heavy bacterial load. Collectively these observations prompted us to carry out a careful analysis of estradiol effects in a mouse model of vaginal infection. PMID:23054331

Mosci, Paolo; Pietrella, Donatella; Ricci, Giovanni; Pandey, Neelam; Monari, Claudia; Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Francesco; Vecchiarelli, Anna

2012-10-07

276

Feasibility of histological scoring and colony count for evaluating infective severity in mouse vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The infected mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 ?l (5 × 10(4) conidia) of Candida albicans suspension, while the noninfected mice were inoculated with 10 ?l phosphate-buffered saline. Direct microscopic examination, colony count and vaginal histopathology including infection degree and inflammation extent were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation. Estrogen treatment increased the vaginal fungal burden and extent of infection and inflammation compared with the control group, and 0.3 mg/week estrogen generally induced more severe infection and inflammation than 0.15 mg/week estrogen did. Colony count peaked on day 3 and decreased remarkably after 7 days. Infection score increased gradually during the first 7 days and decreased on day 14, while inflammation extent exacerbated progressively over the course of 14 days. This study demonstrates that the modified histological scoring system might be more feasible than colony count for evaluation of infectivity and dynamic change in experimental vaginal candidiasis. PMID:23903055

Zhang, Jin-E; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rong-Yi; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Ying; Fan, Yi-Ming

2013-01-01

277

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in APECED or thymoma patients correlates with autoimmunity to Th17-associated cytokines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is frequently associated with T cell immunodeficiencies. Specifically, the proinflammatory IL-17A-producing Th17 subset is implicated in protection against fungi at epithelial surfaces. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome 1), CMC is often the first sign, but the underlying immunodeficiency is a long-standing puzzle. In contrast, the subsequent endocrine features are clearly autoimmune, resulting from defects in thymic self-tolerance induction caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE). We report severely reduced IL-17F and IL-22 responses to both Candida albicans antigens and polyclonal stimulation in APECED patients with CMC. Surprisingly, these reductions are strongly associated with neutralizing autoantibodies to IL-17F and IL-22, whereas responses were normal and autoantibodies infrequent in APECED patients without CMC. Our multicenter survey revealed neutralizing autoantibodies against IL-17A (41%), IL-17F (75%), and/ or IL-22 (91%) in >150 APECED patients, especially those with CMC. We independently found autoantibodies against these Th17-produced cytokines in rare thymoma patients with CMC. The autoantibodies preceded the CMC in all informative cases. We conclude that IL-22 and IL-17F are key natural defenders against CMC and that the immunodeficiency underlying CMC in both patient groups has an autoimmune basis.

Kisand K; Bøe Wolff AS; Podkrajsek KT; Tserel L; Link M; Kisand KV; Ersvaer E; Perheentupa J; Erichsen MM; Bratanic N; Meloni A; Cetani F; Perniola R; Ergun-Longmire B; Maclaren N; Krohn KJ; Pura M; Schalke B; Ströbel P; Leite MI; Battelino T; Husebye ES; Peterson P; Willcox N; Meager A

2010-02-01

278

Antifungal treatment with carvacrol and eugenol of oral candidiasis in immunosuppressed rats  

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Full Text Available Carvacrol and eugenol, the main (phenolic) components of essential oils of some aromatic plants, were evaluated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of experimental oral candidiasis induced by Candida albicans in immunosuppressed rats. This anticandidal activity was analyzed by microbiological and histopathological techniques, and it was compared with that of nystatin, which was used as a positive control. Microbiologically, carvacrol and eugenol significantly (p<0.05) reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU) sampled from the oral cavity of rats treated for eight consecutive days, compared to untreated control rats. Treatment with nystatin gave similar results. Histologically, the untreated control animals showed numerous hyphae on the epithelium of the dorsal surface of the tongue. In contrast no hyphal colonization of the epithelium was seen in carvacrol-treated animals, while in rats treated with eugenol, only a few focalized zones of the dorsal surface of the tongue were occupied by hyphae. In the nystatin treated group, hyphae were found in the folds of the tongue mucosa. Thus, the histological data were confirmed by the microbiological tests for carvacrol and eugenol, but not for the nystatin-treated group. Therefore, carvacrol and eugenol could be considered as strong antifungal agents and could be proposed as therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis.

N. Chami; F. Chami; S. Bennis; J. Trouillas; A. Remmal

2004-01-01

279

Long Term Vaginal Azoles Versus Prophylactic Oral Fluconazole in Treatment of Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC) is a fungal infection of the vagina and vulva that occur usually = 4 episodes in a year. Our object was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose of fluconazole (150 mg) weekly with clotrimazole vaginal cream 150 mg twice weekly for 6 months as treatment of recurrent VVC. We conducted a clinical trial study among 124 women with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC) among patients presenting to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from 2002-2004. There was no significant difference in the therapeutic response as the recurrence rate during 12 months between the two groups. The drug side effects in the fluconazole group were significantly more than clotrimazole group. The satisfactory from the drug in the fluconazole group was significantly less than clotrimazole group. Due to the fewer side effects and more satisfactory of local treatment, we recommend profilactic use of Azole vaginal creams for treatment of RVVC especially in women who are pregnant or have systemic problems.

Zahra Fardy Azar; Shahram Habib Zadeh

2007-01-01

280

The Effect of Combinations of Antimycotics on Systemic Candidiasis in a Mouse Model  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of terbinafine and interaction between terbinafine with amphotericin B, and fluconazole on candidiasis in a mouse model. Material and Methods: Treatment with amphotericin B (1mg/kg/day intraperitoneally), fluconazole (100 mg/kg/day ip), terbinafine (100 mg/kg/day by oral gavage) and combinations of terbinafine with amphotericin B and terbinafine with fluconazole at the same doses began 24 h after infection and continued for 10 days, and kidney cultures were performed. Results: No significant improvement in survival was not found between the control and the terbinafine group (p>0.05). With the addition of amphotericin B to terbinafine, significant improvement in survival was found compared with the survival of untreated controls (p0.05). Terbinafine with amphotericin B and terbinafine with fluconazole combinations, when compared by fungal density reduction with amphotericin B, were less effective and the difference was significant (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Terbinafine had no effect on controlling systemic candidiasis alone and a slight effect in combination with amphotericin B and fluconazole.

Cem ARTAN; Nedret KOÇ; Müge O?uzkaya-ARTAN

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Correlation of in vitro itraconazole and fluconazole susceptibility with clinical outcome for patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Between April 2001 and April 2002 were studied 106 women with a clinical diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis seen at the Gynecology and Obstetrics Ambulatory of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Goiás. The patients were assessed on two occasions, before starting treatment with itraconazole or fluconazole (initial visit) and 14 days after treatment (return). At two visits the signs and symptoms were recorded and vaginal secretion was collected. According to the clinical evaluation, itraconazole was effective in 64.3%, while fluconazole was effective in 71.0% of the patients. The mycological cure rates (negative culture) in the return were 64.3% for the patients treated with itraconazole and 78.9% for the patients treated with fluconazole. The MICs of itraconazole and fluconazole for 80 Candida isolates were determined by Etest method. We investigated the correlation between in vitro susceptibility (Susceptible, Susceptibility Depending Dose and Resistant) to itraconazole and fluconazole with clinical outcome of the patients. The success rates were 63.9% for itraconazole and 90.6% for fluconazole in the susceptible category, 100.0% for both drugs in the susceptible dose dependent category, and 0.0% for both drugs in the resistant category. Our results showed there were a positive correlation between in vitro susceptibility test results with clinical outcome in vaginal Candida infections and that both drugs might be one choice in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

Costa M; Passos XS; Miranda AT; de Araújo RS; Paula CR; Silva Mdo R

2004-01-01

282

Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P < 0.001). The prevalence of C. albicans was 41%. The frequencies of Vulval itching, Dyspareunia and vulval excoriation among those with candidiasis were 151 (50.3%), 14 (56.0%) and 75 (75.0%) respectively (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

Ibrahim SM; Mohammed B; Yahaya M; Audu BM; Ibrahim HA

2013-04-01

283

Patterns of Expression of Vaginal T-Cell Activation Markers during Estrogen-Maintained Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Full Text Available The immunosuppressive activity of estrogen was further investigated by assessing the pattern of expression of CD25, CD28, CD69, and CD152 on vaginal T cells during estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis. A precipitous and significant decrease in vaginal fungal burden toward the end of week 3 postinfection was concurrent with a significant increase in vaginal lymphocyte numbers. During this period, the percentage of CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD152+, and CD28+ vaginal T cells gradually and significantly increased. The percentage of CD3+ and CD3+CD4+ cells increased from 43% and 15% at day 0 to 77% and 40% at day 28 postinfection. Compared with 29% CD152+ vaginal T cells in naive mice, > 70% of vaginal T cells were CD152+ at day 28 postinfection. In conclusion, estrogen-maintained vaginal candidiasis results in postinfection time-dependent changes in the pattern of expression of CD152, CD28, and other T-cell markers, suggesting that T cells are subject to mixed suppression and activation signals.

Al-Sadeq Ameera; Hamad Mawieh; Abu-Elteen Khaled

2008-01-01

284

Evaluation of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhl. extract as antifungal and in treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anticandidal activity of a methanolic extract of Syngonanthus nitens scapes against different Candida species and clinical isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and its effect in vivo in the treatment of vaginal infection. Chemical characterization of the extract was performed by HPLC-UV analyses and showed the presence of flavones derivatives. The extract was effective against several Candida strains from our collection and species recovered from VVC patients, and was able to inhibit the yeast-hyphal transition. No cytotoxic activity against human female reproductive tract epithelial cells and no hemolytic activity against human red blood cells were observed. In the in vivo model of VVC, we evaluated the efficacy of the intravaginal treatment with a cream containing the extract at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. The treatment eradicated the vaginal fungal burden in infected rats after 8 days of treatment. S. nitens extract could be considered as an effective and non-toxic natural antifungal agent in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

de Freitas Araújo MG; Pacífico M; Vilegas W; Dos Santos LC; Icely PA; Miró MS; Scarpa MV; Bauab TM; Sotomayor CE

2013-10-01

285

Candidiasis drug discovery and development: new approaches targeting virulence for discovering and identifying new drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Introduction: Targeting pathogenetic mechanisms, rather than essential processes, represents a very attractive alternative for the development of new antibiotics. This may be particularly important in the case of antimycotics, due to the urgent need for novel antifungal drugs and the paucity of selective fungal targets. The opportunistic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the main etiological agent of candidiasis, the most common human fungal infection. These infections carry unacceptably high mortality rates, a clear reflection of the many shortcomings of current antifungal therapy, including the limited armamentarium of antifungal agents, their toxicity and the emergence of resistance. Moreover, the antifungal pipeline is mostly dry. Areas covered: This review covers some of the most recent progress toward understanding C. albicans pathogenetic processes and how to harness this information for the development of anti-virulence agents. The two principal areas covered are filamentation and biofilm formation, as C. albicans pathogenicity is intimately linked to its ability to undergo morphogenetic conversions between yeast and filamentous morphologies and to its ability to form biofilms. Expert opinion: Filamentation and biofilm formation represent high value targets, yet are clinically unexploited, for the development of novel anti-virulence approaches against candidiasis. Although this has proved a difficult task despite increasing understanding at the molecular level of C. albicans virulence, there are some opportunities and prospects for antifungal drug development targeting these two important biological processes.

Pierce CG; Lopez-Ribot JL

2013-09-01

286

Trafficking of phagocytic peritoneal cells in hypoinsulinemic-hyperglycemic mice with systemic candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a severe fungal infection that primarily affects hospitalized and/or immunocompromised patients. Mononuclear phagocytes have been recognized as pivotal immune cells which act in the recognition of pathogens, phagocytosis, inflammation, polarization of adaptive immune response and tissue repair. Experimental studies have showed that the systemic candidiasis could be controlled by activated peritoneal macrophages. However, the mechanism to explain how these cells act in distant tissue during a systemic fungal infection is still to be elucidated. In the present study we investigate the in vivo trafficking of phagocytic peritoneal cells into infected organs in hypoinsulinemic-hyperglycemic (HH) mice with systemic candidiasis. METHODS: The red fluorescent vital dye PKH-26 PCL was injected into the peritoneal cavity of Swiss mice 24 hours before the intravenous inoculation with Candida albicans. After 24 and 48 hours and 7 days of infection, samples of the spleen, liver, kidneys, brain and lungs were submitted to the microbiological evaluation as well as to phagocytic peritoneal cell trafficking analyses by fluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: In the present study, PKH+ cells were observed in the peritoneum, kidney, spleen and liver samples from all groups. In infected mice, we also found PKH+ cells in the lung and brain. The HH condition did not affect this process. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study we have observed that peritoneal phagocytes migrate to tissues infected by C. albicans and the HH condition did not interfere in this process.

Fraga-Silva TF; Venturini J; de Arruda MS

2013-01-01

287

Prevalence and risk factors of esophageal candidiasis in healthy individuals: a single center experience in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Esophageal candidiasis (EC) is the most frequent opportunistic fungal infection in immunocompromised host. However, we have found EC in healthy individuals through esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for EC in healthy individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 281 patients who had been incidentally diagnosed with EC. We also conducted age and sex matched case control study to identify the risk factor for EC. RESULTS: The prevalence of EC was 0.32% (281/88125). The most common coexisting EGD finding was reflux esophagitis (49/281, 17.4%). An antifungal agent was prescribed in about half of EC, 139 cases (49.5%). Follow-up EGD was undertaken in 83 cases (29.5%) and 20 cases of candidiasis was persistently found. Case control study revealed EC were more often found in user of antibiotics (p=0.015), corticosteroids (p=0.002) and herb medication (p=0.006) as well as heavy drinking (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of EC was 0.32% (281/88125) in Korea. Use of antibiotics, corticosteroids and herb as well as heavy drinking were significant risk factors for EC in healthy individuals.

Choi JH; Lee CG; Lim YJ; Kang HW; Lim CY; Choi JS

2013-01-01

288

Feasibility of histological scoring and colony count for evaluating infective severity in mouse vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Qualitative measurement of the infective level is relatively difficult in experimental vaginal candidiasis. Female BALB/c mice aged 8 to 10 weeks were randomly divided into E1, E2 and E0 groups, which received subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg of estradiol benzoate or 0.1 ml soybean oil 3 days before vaginal inoculation, respectively, and hormone treatment continued every other day thereafter. Each group was further divided into infected and noninfected subgroups. The infected mice were inoculated intravaginally with 10 ?l (5 × 10(4) conidia) of Candida albicans suspension, while the noninfected mice were inoculated with 10 ?l phosphate-buffered saline. Direct microscopic examination, colony count and vaginal histopathology including infection degree and inflammation extent were performed at 3, 7 and 14 days post inoculation. Estrogen treatment increased the vaginal fungal burden and extent of infection and inflammation compared with the control group, and 0.3 mg/week estrogen generally induced more severe infection and inflammation than 0.15 mg/week estrogen did. Colony count peaked on day 3 and decreased remarkably after 7 days. Infection score increased gradually during the first 7 days and decreased on day 14, while inflammation extent exacerbated progressively over the course of 14 days. This study demonstrates that the modified histological scoring system might be more feasible than colony count for evaluation of infectivity and dynamic change in experimental vaginal candidiasis.

Zhang JE; Luo D; Chen RY; Yang YP; Zhou Y; Fan YM

2013-01-01

289

Mouse strain-dependent differences in estrogen sensitivity during vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The animal models available for studying the immune response to genital tract infection require induction of a pseudo estrous state, usually achieved by administration of 17-?-estradiol. In our experimental model of vaginal candidiasis, under pseudo estrus, different strains of mice were used. We observed major differences in the clearance of Candida albicans infection among the different strains, ascribable to differing susceptibility to estradiol treatment. In the early phase of infection CD1, BALB/c, C57BL/6 albino and C57BL/6 mice were colonized to similar levels, while in the late phase of infection, BALB/c mice, which are considered genetically resistant to C. albicans infection, exhibited greater susceptibility to vaginal candidiasis than CD1 and C57BL/6 albino strains of mice. This was because estradiol induced "per se" enlarged and fluid-filled uteri, more pronounced in infected mice and consistently more evident in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice than in CD1 mice. Unlike CD1, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed a heavy fungal colonization of the uterus, even though C57BL/6 mice apparently cleared C. albicans from the vagina. The presence of C. albicans in the vagina and uterus was accompanied by a heavy bacterial load. Collectively these observations prompted us to carry out a careful analysis of estradiol effects in a mouse model of vaginal infection.

Mosci P; Pietrella D; Ricci G; Pandey N; Monari C; Pericolini E; Gabrielli E; Perito S; Bistoni F; Vecchiarelli A

2013-02-01

290

Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection. PMID:20185867

Taguchi, Yuuki; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Sagawa, Takehito; Arai, Ryo; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

2010-01-01

291

Therapeutic effects on murine oral candidiasis by oral administration of cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) preparation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effects of spices and herbs on Candida albicans growth using in vitro assay and therapeutic activity of some selected herbal preparations against murine oral candidiasis. All tested samples: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), green tea (Camellia sinensis), and cassia (Cinnamomum cassia) inhibited Candida mycelial growth in vitro. The results of this assay showed that the anti-Candida activity of lemongrass, green tea, and cassia is stronger than that of the other tested herbs. Oral administration of lemongrass or green tea did not result in significant improvement in the murine oral candidiasis, while the administration of cassia improved the symptoms and reduced the number of viable Candida cells in the oral cavity. The results of in vitro Candida growth assay including GC/MS analysis suggested that cinnamaldehyde in the cassia preparation was the principal component responsible for the inhibitory activity of Candida mycelial growth. These findings suggest that oral intake of a cassia preparation is a clinical candidate for a prophylactic or therapeutic tool against oral Candida infection.

Taguchi Y; Takizawa T; Ishibashi H; Sagawa T; Arai R; Inoue S; Yamaguchi H; Abe S

2010-01-01

292

Identification of Candida Species Associated with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis by Multiplex PCR  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection. The aim of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using multiplex PCR technique. Methods. 191 isolates from patients admitted to Mahdieh hospital were identified. The vaginal swab specimens were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region were amplified. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Spearman correlation were used to summarize the findings. Results. C. albicans and C. glabrata were the most common species isolated from the specimens. A mix of C. glabrata and C. albicans was the most common mixed infection isolated from the samples. The analysis revealed a significant positive association between older age and infection with C. glabrata isolates (Spearman's rho = 0.89, P = 0.015). Conclusion. Multiplex PCR is a fast, yet reliable method to identify Candida species. C. albicans and then C. glabrata are the two most common causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of mixed fungal infections is higher among Iranian population compared to international reports.

Mahmoudi Rad, Mahnaz; Zafarghandi, Ameneh Sh; Amel Zabihi, Maryam; Tavallaee, Mahkam; Mirdamadi, Yasaman

2012-01-01

293

Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by multiplex PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection. The aim of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using multiplex PCR technique. METHODS: 191 isolates from patients admitted to Mahdieh hospital were identified. The vaginal swab specimens were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region were amplified. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Spearman correlation were used to summarize the findings. RESULTS: C. albicans and C. glabrata were the most common species isolated from the specimens. A mix of C. glabrata and C. albicans was the most common mixed infection isolated from the samples. The analysis revealed a significant positive association between older age and infection with C. glabrata isolates (Spearman's rho = 0.89, P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Multiplex PCR is a fast, yet reliable method to identify Candida species. C. albicans and then C. glabrata are the two most common causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of mixed fungal infections is higher among Iranian population compared to international reports.

Mahmoudi Rad M; Zafarghandi ASh; Amel Zabihi M; Tavallaee M; Mirdamadi Y

2012-01-01

294

Candidiasis drug discovery and development: new approaches targeting virulence for discovering and identifying new drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Targeting pathogenetic mechanisms, rather than essential processes, represents a very attractive alternative for the development of new antibiotics. This may be particularly important in the case of antimycotics, due to the urgent need for novel antifungal drugs and the paucity of selective fungal targets. The opportunistic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is the main etiological agent of candidiasis, the most common human fungal infection. These infections carry unacceptably high mortality rates, a clear reflection of the many shortcomings of current antifungal therapy, including the limited armamentarium of antifungal agents, their toxicity and the emergence of resistance. Moreover, the antifungal pipeline is mostly dry. Areas covered: This review covers some of the most recent progress toward understanding C. albicans pathogenetic processes and how to harness this information for the development of anti-virulence agents. The two principal areas covered are filamentation and biofilm formation, as C. albicans pathogenicity is intimately linked to its ability to undergo morphogenetic conversions between yeast and filamentous morphologies and to its ability to form biofilms. Expert opinion: Filamentation and biofilm formation represent high value targets, yet are clinically unexploited, for the development of novel anti-virulence approaches against candidiasis. Although this has proved a difficult task despite increasing understanding at the molecular level of C. albicans virulence, there are some opportunities and prospects for antifungal drug development targeting these two important biological processes. PMID:23738751

Pierce, Christopher G; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L

2013-06-06

295

Evaluation of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhl. extract as antifungal and in treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anticandidal activity of a methanolic extract of Syngonanthus nitens scapes against different Candida species and clinical isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and its effect in vivo in the treatment of vaginal infection. Chemical characterization of the extract was performed by HPLC-UV analyses and showed the presence of flavones derivatives. The extract was effective against several Candida strains from our collection and species recovered from VVC patients, and was able to inhibit the yeast-hyphal transition. No cytotoxic activity against human female reproductive tract epithelial cells and no hemolytic activity against human red blood cells were observed. In the in vivo model of VVC, we evaluated the efficacy of the intravaginal treatment with a cream containing the extract at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%. The treatment eradicated the vaginal fungal burden in infected rats after 8 days of treatment. S. nitens extract could be considered as an effective and non-toxic natural antifungal agent in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:23758104

de Freitas Araújo, Marcelo Gonzaga; Pacífico, Mariana; Vilegas, Wagner; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Icely, Paula Alejandra; Miró, Maria Soledad; Scarpa, Maria Virginia Costa; Bauab, Tais Maria; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena

2013-06-13

296

Empiric antifungal therapy and outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants with invasive candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of empiric antifungal therapy for invasive candidiasis on subsequent outcomes in premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of infants with a birth weight ? 1000 g receiving care at Neonatal Research Network sites. All infants had at least one positive culture for Candida. Empiric antifungal therapy was defined as receipt of a systemic antifungal on the day of or the day before the first positive culture for Candida was drawn. We created Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models stratified on propensity score quartiles to determine the effect of empiric antifungal therapy on survival, time to clearance of infection, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, end-organ damage, and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). RESULTS: A total of 136 infants developed invasive candidiasis. The incidence of death or NDI was lower in infants who received empiric antifungal therapy (19 of 38; 50%) compared with those who had not (55 of 86; 64%; OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08-0.86). There was no significant difference between the groups for any single outcome or other combined outcomes. CONCLUSION: Empiric antifungal therapy was associated with increased survival without NDI. A prospective randomized trial of this strategy is warranted.

Greenberg RG; Benjamin DK Jr; Gantz MG; Cotten CM; Stoll BJ; Walsh MC; Sánchez PJ; Shankaran S; Das A; Higgins RD; Miller NA; Auten KJ; Walsh TJ; Laptook AR; Carlo WA; Kennedy KA; Finer NN; Duara S; Schibler K; Ehrenkranz RA; Van Meurs KP; Frantz ID 3rd; Phelps DL; Poindexter BB; Bell EF; O'Shea TM; Watterberg KL; Goldberg RN; Smith PB

2012-08-01

297

Polymeric microparticles-based formulation for the eradication of cutaneous candidiasis: development and characterization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Cutaneous candidiasis is a common topical fungal infection which may be more prominent in patients associated with AIDS. It is usually treated by conventional formulations such as cream, gel, which show various adverse effects on skin along with systemic absorption. To overcome these drawbacks, various novel drug delivery systems have been explored. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based microparticulate systems have shown good dermal penetration after topical application. Therefore, in the present study clotrimazole-loaded PLGA microspheres were prepared for targeted dermal delivery. Microspheres were prepared by using a single emulsification (oil-in-water, O/W) evaporation technique and characterized for different parameters. Prepared microparticulate systems were dispersed in Carbopol 934® gel and antifungal activity was carried out on experimentally induced cutaneous candidiasis in immunosuppressed guinea pigs. Particle size of optimized formulation was 2.9?µm along with 74.85% entrapment of drug. Skin retention studies revealed that drug accumulation in the skin was higher with microspheres gel as compared to marketed gel. Confocal microscopy of skin further confirmed penetration of microspheres up to 50?µm into the dermal region. In-vivo antifungal activity studies demonstrated that microsphere gel showed better therapeutic activity, lowest number of cfu/ml was recorded, as compared to marketed gel after 96?h of application. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that PLGA microparticles may be promising carriers to deliver clotrimazole intradermally for the treatment of invasive fungal infections.

Kumar L; Verma S; Jamwal S; Vaidya S; Vaidya B

2013-04-01

298

Effect of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the in vitro growth of Candida albicans and its protective effect in an oral candidiasis model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral candidiasis is often accompanied by severe inflammation, resulting in a decline in the quality of life of immunosuppressed individuals and elderly people. To develop a new oral therapeutic option for candidiasis, a nonpathogenic commensal oral probiotic microorganism, Streptococcus salivarius K12, was evaluated for its ability to modulate Candida albicans growth in vitro, and its therapeutic activity in an experimental oral candidiasis model was tested. In vitro inhibition of mycelial growth of C. albicans was determined by plate assay and fluorescence microscopy. Addition of S. salivarius K12 to modified RPMI 1640 culture medium inhibited the adherence of C. albicans to the plastic petri dish in a dose-dependent manner. Preculture of S. salivarius K12 potentiated its inhibitory activity for adherence of C. albicans. Interestingly, S. salivarius K12 was not directly fungicidal but appeared to inhibit Candida adhesion to the substratum by preferentially binding to hyphae rather than yeast. To determine the potentially anti-infective attributes of S. salivarius K12 in oral candidiasis, the probiotic was administered to mice with orally induced candidiasis. Oral treatment with S. salivarius K12 significantly protected the mice from severe candidiasis. These findings suggest that S. salivarius K12 may inhibit the process of invasion of C. albicans into mucous surfaces or its adhesion to denture acrylic resins by mechanisms not associated with the antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin. S. salivarius K12 may be useful as a probiotic as a protective tool for oral care, especially with regard to candidiasis.

Ishijima SA; Hayama K; Burton JP; Reid G; Okada M; Matsushita Y; Abe S

2012-04-01

299

[Proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans has a variety of virulence factors, including secreted aspartyl proteases (Saps), which are determinant factors in the pathogenesis of this yeast in immunocompromised patients. AIM: Proteinase activity was identified in C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients with cancer, diabetes and HIV+, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty C. albicans strains were analyzed, distributed in five different groups: patients with cancer, diabetes, HIV+, with oral candidiasis and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Proteolytic activity was identified in 46% of strains from cancer patients, 54% from HIV+ patients, 60% from diabetics, 70% from oral candidiasis patients, and 42% from healthy subjects. Activity was higher in strains from immunocompromised and oral candidiasis patients than in healthy subjects. Differences were observed between the candidiasis-healthy, candidiasis-HIV+, and diabetic-healthy groups. No differences were observed between the oral candidiasis, diabetes and cancer patients; between the diabetes and HIV+ patients; or between the cancer patients, HIV+ patients and healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that although Saps are important in the pathogenesis of C. albicans, their activity depends on host conditions.

Hernández-Solís SE; Rueda-Gordillo F; Rojas-Herrera RA

2013-09-01

300

Candida albicans biotypes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with oral candidiasis before and after antifungal therapy.  

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A prospective 19-month study of 26 human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients with episodes of erythematous or pseudomembranous oral candidiasis was done to evaluate the significance of Candida albicans biotypes in patients treated with antifungal therapy. Changes in the biotype of C. alb...

Bruatto, M; Vidotto, V; Marinuzzi, G; Raiteri, R; Sinicco, A

 
 
 
 
301

Response to fluconazole by 23 patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and oral candidiasis: pharmacological and mycological factors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The MICs of fluconazole for strains of Candida species and the levels of fluconazole in serum were determined at day 0 and day 14 for 23 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with oral candidiasis who were treated orally with 100 mg of fluconazole per day for 14 days. Among the 23 patients,...

Lacassin, F; Damond, F; Chochillon, C; Longuet, P; Lebras, J; Vilde, J L; Leport, C

302

A D-octapeptide drug efflux pump inhibitor acts synergistically with azoles in a murine oral candidiasis infection model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical management of patients undergoing treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis with azole antifungals can be impaired by azole resistance. High-level azole resistance is often caused by the overexpression of Candida albicans efflux pump Cdr1p. Inhibition of this pump therefore represents a target for combination therapies that reverse azole resistance. We assessed the therapeutic potential of the D-octapeptide derivative RC21v3, a Cdr1p inhibitor, in the treatment of murine oral candidiasis caused by either the azole-resistant C. albicans clinical isolate MML611 or its azole-susceptible parental strain MML610. RC21v3, fluconazole (FLC), or a combination of both drugs were administered orally to immunosuppressed ICR mice at 3, 24, and 27 h after oral inoculation with C. albicans. FLC protected the mice inoculated with MML610 from oral candidiasis, but was only partially effective in MML611-infected mice. The co-application of RC21v3 (0.02 ?mol per dose) potentiated the therapeutic performance of FLC for mice infected with either strain. It caused a statistically significant decrease in C. albicans cfu isolated from the oral cavity of the infected mice and reduced oral lesions. RC21v3 also enhanced the therapeutic activity of itraconazole against MML611 infection. These results indicate that RC21v3 in combination with azoles has potential as a therapy against azole-resistant oral candidiasis.

Hayama K; Ishibashi H; Ishijima SA; Niimi K; Tansho S; Ono Y; Monk BC; Holmes AR; Harding DR; Cannon RD; Abe S

2012-03-01

303

Pharmacokinetics of itraconazole (oral solution) in two groups of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with oral candidiasis.  

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The pharmacokinetics of itraconazole formulated in a hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin oral solution was determined for two groups of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with oral candidiasis (group A, 12 patients with CD4+ T-cell count of >200/mm3 and no AIDS, and group B, 11 patients ...

Reynes, J; Bazin, C; Ajana, F; Datry, A; Le Moing, J P; Chwetzoff, E; Levron, J C

304

Comparison of oral fluconazole and clotrimazole troches as treatment for oral candidiasis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

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Thirty-nine adult patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and oral candidiasis were randomly assigned to receive either one fluconazole capsule (100 mg) or five clotrimazole troches (10 mg each) daily for 14 days. Among 36 evaluable patients, clinical resolution rates were 100 and 65%, ...

Koletar, S L; Russell, J A; Fass, R J; Plouffe, J F

305

The effect of antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of HIV-associated oral candidiasis in a Spanish cohort  

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Objective. To investigate the temporal changes in the prevalence of oral candidiasis in a cohort of Spanish human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Study design. Retrospective analysis of a clinical d...

CeballosSalobreña, A; GaitaínCepeda, L; CeballosGarcía, L; Samaranayake, LP

306

Use of Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Analyses To Optimize Therapy with the Systemic Antifungal Micafungin for Invasive Candidiasis or Candidemia?†  

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Echinocandins have become a first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC). Using phase 3 trial data for patients with IC, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) relationships for efficacy for micafungin were examined. Micafungin exposures were estimated using a population pharmacokinetic model, ...

Andes, David; Ambrose, Paul G.; Hammel, Jeffrey P.; Van Wart, Scott A.; Iyer, Varsha; Reynolds, Daniel K.; Buell, Donald N.

307

Candida albicans-Secreted Aspartic Proteinases Modify the Epithelial Cytokine Response in an In Vitro Model of Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) are important virulence factors of Candida albicans during mucosal and disseminated infections and may also contribute to the induction of an inflammatory host immune response. We used a model of vaginal candidiasis based on reconstituted human vaginal epithelium...

Schaller, Martin; Korting, Hans C.; Borelli, Claudia; Hamm, Gerald; Hube, Bernhard

308

Acute Neutropenia Decreases Inflammation Associated with Murine Vaginal Candidiasis but Has No Effect on the Course of Infection  

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We have used a mouse model of vaginal candidiasis to determine the effect of neutrophil depletion on (a) the clearance of Candida albicans and (b) the degree of inflammation associated with infection. No differences in recoverable yeast number or rate of clearance were observed between normal and ne...

Black, C. Allen; Eyers, Fiona M.; Russell, Adrian; Dunkley, Margaret L.; Clancy, Robert L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

309

Comparison between Candida albicans Agglutinin-Like Sequence Gene Expression Patterns in Human Clinical Specimens and Models of Vaginal Candidiasis  

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Expression of the eight genes in the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) family was studied by reverse transcription-PCR of RNA isolated from clinical vaginal fluid specimens and vaginal candidiasis model systems. Although expression of all ALS genes was detected across the set of clinic...

Cheng, Georgina; Wozniak, Karen; Wallig, Matthew A.; Fidel, Paul L.; Trupin, Suzanne R.; Hoyer, Lois L.

310

Trial of glucose versus fat emulsion in preparation of amphotericin for use in HIV infected patients with candidiasis.  

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OBJECTIVES--To compare the tolerance, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of amphotericin deoxycholate (Fungizone) prepared in a parenteral fat emulsion (Intralipid 20%) or glucose in HIV patients with candidiasis. DESIGN--Non-blind randomised controlled trial. SETTING--University hospital; tertiary clin...

Chavanet, P. Y.; Garry, I.; Charlier, N.; Caillot, D.; Kisterman, J. P.; D'Athis, M.; Portier, H.

311

Comparison of immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine A in a murine model of systemic candidiasis and of localized thrushlike lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen preferentially causing invasive and disseminated infection in patients with defective phagocytic defenses and serious mucocutaneous infection in patients with deficient T-cell function. Phagocytes appear to protect the host from fungal invasion even in the absence of adaptive immune mechanisms, while as-yet-undefined T-cell-dependent factors seem necessary for control of C. albicans on body surfaces. To study host defense mechanisms on body surfaces, we developed a new model of thrush in artificial pneumatized cysts in mice. Cyclosporine A, a relative selective suppressor of T-cell-mediated immunity and natural killer cell activity, promoted the formation of thrushlike lesions on cyst surfaces and impeded elimination of C. albicans from such lesions. As expected from the absence of an impairment of antimicrobial phagocytic activity, cyclosporine A had no effect on systemic candidiasis induced by intravenous inoculation. Surprisingly, athymic nude mice were not more susceptible to superficial candidiasis than control mice and were comparably affected by cyclosporine A. In contrast, beige mice, which in addition to phagocytic dysfunction have reduced natural killer cell activity, were more susceptible to thrushlike lesions, and cyclosporine A was correspondingly less active in this mouse strain. Immunosuppression with cyclosporine A affects host defense mechanisms which are operative against superficial candidiasis but appear superfluous in resistance to the invasive form of this mycosis, an indication for the divergent nature of host defense against the two forms of candidiasis.

Krause MW; Schaffner A

1989-11-01

312

Use of Monoclonal Antibody in Diagnosis of Candidiasis Caused by Candida albicans: Detection of Circulating Aspartyl Proteinase Antigen  

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To develop a serological diagnosis of invasive candidiasis based on detection of circulating secreted aspartyl proteinase (SAP) antigen of Candida albicans, three different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared. The first was a standard ELISA to detect anti-SAP antibodies, an...

Na, Byoung-Kuk; Song, Chul-Yong

313

Intermittent prophylactic treatment of recurrent vaginal candidiasis by postmenstrual application of a 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The therapeutic efficacy of intermittent, monthly, postmenstrual prophylaxis with a single 500 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablet (n = 33) was compared with placebo tablets (n = 29) in 62 woman (age 28.1, SD 7.2 years) with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of episodes of acute vulvovaginal...

Roth, A C; Milsom, I; Forssman, L; Wåhlén, P

314

Candida albicans IRS4 contributes to hyphal formation and virulence after the initial stages of disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans is a common cause of mucosal and bloodstream infections. As a screening strategy to identify novel candidal virulence factors, sera recovered from HIV-infected patients with active oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) were previously used to probe a C. albicans genomic expression library. IRS4 was identified as a gene that encodes an immunogenic protein. In the present study, the presence of IRS4 transcripts was verified within OPC pseudomembranes recovered from patients. Having confirmed that the gene is expressed during human candidiasis, gene disruption strains were created and this implicated IRS4 in diverse processes, including hyphal formation on solid media and under embedded conditions, cell wall integrity and structure, and adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro. IRS4 disruption, however, did not influence hyphal formation or virulence in a murine model of OPC. Rather, the gene was found to be necessary for normal morphogenesis and full virulence during murine intravenously disseminated candidiasis (DC). IRS4's effects on hyphal formation and virulence during DC were not evident on the first day after intravenous inoculation, even though transcripts were detected within murine kidneys. After 4 days, however, an irs4 null mutant strain was associated with attenuated mortality, diminished tissue burdens, less extensive infections, impaired C. albicans hyphal formation and decreased kidney damage. Taken together, these findings suggest that IRS4 makes distinct temporal-spatial contributions to the pathogenesis of candidiasis, which appear to vary between different tissue sites as well as within a given tissue over time. PMID:16151204

Badrane, Hassan; Cheng, Shaoji; Nguyen, M Hong; Jia, Hong Yan; Zhang, Zongde; Weisner, Nghe; Clancy, Cornelius J

2005-09-01

315

Candida albicans IRS4 contributes to hyphal formation and virulence after the initial stages of disseminated candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans is a common cause of mucosal and bloodstream infections. As a screening strategy to identify novel candidal virulence factors, sera recovered from HIV-infected patients with active oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) were previously used to probe a C. albicans genomic expression library. IRS4 was identified as a gene that encodes an immunogenic protein. In the present study, the presence of IRS4 transcripts was verified within OPC pseudomembranes recovered from patients. Having confirmed that the gene is expressed during human candidiasis, gene disruption strains were created and this implicated IRS4 in diverse processes, including hyphal formation on solid media and under embedded conditions, cell wall integrity and structure, and adherence to human epithelial cells in vitro. IRS4 disruption, however, did not influence hyphal formation or virulence in a murine model of OPC. Rather, the gene was found to be necessary for normal morphogenesis and full virulence during murine intravenously disseminated candidiasis (DC). IRS4's effects on hyphal formation and virulence during DC were not evident on the first day after intravenous inoculation, even though transcripts were detected within murine kidneys. After 4 days, however, an irs4 null mutant strain was associated with attenuated mortality, diminished tissue burdens, less extensive infections, impaired C. albicans hyphal formation and decreased kidney damage. Taken together, these findings suggest that IRS4 makes distinct temporal-spatial contributions to the pathogenesis of candidiasis, which appear to vary between different tissue sites as well as within a given tissue over time.

Badrane H; Cheng S; Nguyen MH; Jia HY; Zhang Z; Weisner N; Clancy CJ

2005-09-01

316

Perfil epidemiológico de la candidiasis invasora en unidades de pacientes críticos en un hospital universitario Epidemiologial profile of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units at a university hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La epidemiología de candidiasis invasora (CI) ha cambiado, lo cual no ha sido suficientemente estudiado en Chile. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico de CI en pacientes críticos. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo entre octubre 2001 y agosto 2003, en pacientes críticos adultos con sospecha o confimnación de CI. Resultados: 53 pacientes cumplieron criterios de CI. De ellos, 18 (33,9%) tuvieron candidemia, 22(41,5%) CI diseminada y 13(24,5%) CI local. Entre las candidemias, hubo 8 C. albicans (44,4%) y 10 Candida no albicans (55,6%), predominando C. tropicalis (27,7%). Un 88,8% de las candidemias fueron susceptibles a fluconazol. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 24,5%, significativamente menor en pacientes con candidemias vs CI diseminada (16,6 vs 31,8%, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: Se observó una mayor proporción de Candida no albicans en candidemias de pacientes críticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de estas cepas fue susceptible a fluconazol. La mortalidad global fue menor en candidemias.Invasive candidiasis (IC) epidemiology has changed in critically ill patients and limited data are available in Chile. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological profile of IC in critically ill patients. Methods: Observational prospective study conducted from October 2001 to August 2003 in critically ill adults with suspected or confirmed IC. Results: 53 patients met criteria for IC, finding 18 (33.9%) candidemias, 22 (41.5%) disseminated IC, and 13 (24.5%) local IC. We identified 8 (44.4%) C. albicans and 10 (55.6%) non-albicans Candida in candidemias. C. tropicalis was the predominant non-albicans species (27.7%). An 88.8 % of Candidas sp recovered in candidemias were fluconazole susceptible. Overall hospital mortality was 24.5%. Mortality in candidemia was significantly lower than in disseminated IC (16.6 vs 31.8%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: A higher proportion of non-albicans Candida was observed in candidemias from critically ill patients. However, most of these strains were fluconazole susceptible. A lower overall mortality was observed in candidemias.

M. Cristina Ajenjo H; Andrés Aquevedo S; Ana María Guzmán D; Helena Poggi M; Mario Calvo A; Claudia Castillo V; Eugenia León C; Max Andresen H; Jaime Labarca L

2011-01-01

317

Perfil epidemiológico de la candidiasis invasora en unidades de pacientes críticos en un hospital universitario/ Epidemiologial profile of invasive candidiasis in intensive care units at a university hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La epidemiología de candidiasis invasora (CI) ha cambiado, lo cual no ha sido suficientemente estudiado en Chile. Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico y microbiológico de CI en pacientes críticos. Métodos: Estudio observacional prospectivo entre octubre 2001 y agosto 2003, en pacientes críticos adultos con sospecha o confimnación de CI. Resultados: 53 pacientes cumplieron criterios de CI. De ellos, 18 (33,9%) tuvieron candidemia, 22(41,5%) CI diseminada y 1 (more) 3(24,5%) CI local. Entre las candidemias, hubo 8 C. albicans (44,4%) y 10 Candida no albicans (55,6%), predominando C. tropicalis (27,7%). Un 88,8% de las candidemias fueron susceptibles a fluconazol. La mortalidad hospitalaria global fue 24,5%, significativamente menor en pacientes con candidemias vs CI diseminada (16,6 vs 31,8%, p = 0,02). Conclusiones: Se observó una mayor proporción de Candida no albicans en candidemias de pacientes críticos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de estas cepas fue susceptible a fluconazol. La mortalidad global fue menor en candidemias. Abstract in english Invasive candidiasis (IC) epidemiology has changed in critically ill patients and limited data are available in Chile. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and microbiological profile of IC in critically ill patients. Methods: Observational prospective study conducted from October 2001 to August 2003 in critically ill adults with suspected or confirmed IC. Results: 53 patients met criteria for IC, finding 18 (33.9%) candidemias, 22 (41.5%) disseminated IC, and 13 (2 (more) 4.5%) local IC. We identified 8 (44.4%) C. albicans and 10 (55.6%) non-albicans Candida in candidemias. C. tropicalis was the predominant non-albicans species (27.7%). An 88.8 % of Candidas sp recovered in candidemias were fluconazole susceptible. Overall hospital mortality was 24.5%. Mortality in candidemia was significantly lower than in disseminated IC (16.6 vs 31.8%, p = 0.02). Conclusions: A higher proportion of non-albicans Candida was observed in candidemias from critically ill patients. However, most of these strains were fluconazole susceptible. A lower overall mortality was observed in candidemias.

Ajenjo H, M. Cristina; Aquevedo S, Andrés; Guzmán D, Ana María; Poggi M, Helena; Calvo A, Mario; Castillo V, Claudia; León C, Eugenia; Andresen H, Max; Labarca L, Jaime

2011-04-01

318

Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %), Candida tropicalis (8,1 %) y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %). Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuen (more) cia (30,8 %) que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %). De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD) y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST) permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS), el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos. Abstract in english A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %), Candida tropicalis (8.1 %), and Torulopsis glabrata (8.1 %). It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 %) (more) than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %). Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA) with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA) allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA), the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN, GERARDO; PERURENA LANCHA, MAYDA; NÚÑEZ CARVAJAL, JOSÉ; FERNÁNDEZ ANDREU, CARLOS M.; BANDERA TIRADO, FRANCISCO

1997-12-01

319

Aislamiento, identificación y tipificación de levaduras en pacientes VIH positivos con candidiasis oral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de candidiasis oral a 25 pacientes VIH positivos y SIDA. La forma clínica de presentación predominante fue la pseudomembranosa y las especies de levadura más frecuentes en los aislamientos fueron Candida albicans (54,1 %), Candida tropicalis (8,1 %) y Torulopsis glabrata (8,1 %). Se demostró que los pacientes con infecciones recurrentes suelen tener colonización de la cavidad oral por múltiples cepas y/o especies de levaduras con mayor frecuencia (30,8 %) que los que cursan por su primer episodio de candidiasis oral (12,5 %). De los 3 medios de cultivo utilizados para el aislamiento inicial, la combinación del agar papa dextrosa (APD) y el agar Sabouraud trifeniltetrazolium (AST) permitió obtener el máximo de aislamiento y de diferenciación entre cepas. El agar Sabouraud (AS), el medio más utilizado para estos fines internacionalmente, fue menos útil que los anteriores. El AST resultó ser, además, un medio de gran utilidad para estudios de tipificación fenotípica de la mayoría de las especies de levaduras aisladas y especialmente de C. albicans, lo cual permitirá abordar estudios epidemiológicos.A study of oral candidiasis was conducted among 25 HIV-positive and AIDS patients. The predominant clinical form of presentation was the pseudomembranous one, whereas the most frequently yeast species found in the isolations were: Candida albicans (54.1 %), Candida tropicalis (8.1 %), and Torulopsis glabrata (8.1 %). It was demonstrated that patients with recurrent infections have colonization of the oral cavity by multiple strains and/or yeast species more often (30.8 %) than those through their first episode of oral candiadisis (12.5 %). Of the 3 culture media used for the initial isolation, the combination of the potato-dextrose agar (PDA) with Sabouraud triphenytletrazolium agar (STA) allowed to obtain the maximum isolation and differentiation among strains. The Sabouraud agar (SA), the most used medium to these ends at the international level, proved to be less useful than the previous ones. The STA was very efficient in the studies of phenotypic typing of most of the isolated yeast species and specially of C. albicans, which will make possible to approach epidemiological studies.

GERARDO MARTÍNEZ MACHÍN; MAYDA PERURENA LANCHA; JOSÉ NÚÑEZ CARVAJAL; CARLOS M. FERNÁNDEZ ANDREU; FRANCISCO BANDERA TIRADO

1997-01-01

320

Incidence and anatomic localization of oral candidiasis in patients with AIDS hospitalized in a public hospital in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, anatomic localization and yeast species isolated from each clinical type of oral candidiasis. The clinical samples were obtained from 67 patients with AIDS with CD4 cell counts below 200 cells/mm³ and hospitalized in a public hospital (Eduardo de Menezes Hospital) in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Yeasts were isolated using Chromagar® Candida. The results show that 50.7% of these patients had oral candi (more) diasis. The pseudomembranous form was the most frequent clinical manifestation of oral candidiasis, followed by the erythematous and angular cheilite forms. The most common site of these clinical forms of oral candidiasis was the tongue. Candida albicans was the most common yeast species isolated from the lesions. However, other species were also found to be associated with these forms of oral candidiasis.

Gableri, Ilanna G.; Barbosa, Anne C.; Velela, Raquel R.; Lyon, Sandra; Rosa, Carlos A.

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Development of a novel synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal candidiasis: an in vitro, in vivo evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The singular aim of the proposed work is the development of a synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal application in subjects prone to recurrent vaginal candidiasis and other microbial infections. The dual loading of Itraconazole and tea tree oil in a single formulation seems promising as it would elaborate the microbial coverage. Despite being low solubility of Itraconazole in tea tree oil, a homogeneous, transparent and stable solution of both was created by co-solvency using chloroform. Complete removal of chloroform was authenticated by GC-MS and the oil solution was used in the development of nanoemulsion which was further translated into a gel bearing thermosensitive properties. In vitro analyses (MTT assay, viscosity measurement, mucoadhesion, ex vivo permeation, etc.) and in vivo studies (bioadhesion, irritation potential and fungal clearance kinetics in rat model) of final formulation were carried out to establish its potential for further clinical evaluation. PMID:23201748

Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Ahmad, Sayeed; Mallick, Md Nasar; Manzoor, Nikhat; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat

2012-10-30

322

Development of a novel synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal candidiasis: an in vitro, in vivo evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The singular aim of the proposed work is the development of a synergistic thermosensitive gel for vaginal application in subjects prone to recurrent vaginal candidiasis and other microbial infections. The dual loading of Itraconazole and tea tree oil in a single formulation seems promising as it would elaborate the microbial coverage. Despite being low solubility of Itraconazole in tea tree oil, a homogeneous, transparent and stable solution of both was created by co-solvency using chloroform. Complete removal of chloroform was authenticated by GC-MS and the oil solution was used in the development of nanoemulsion which was further translated into a gel bearing thermosensitive properties. In vitro analyses (MTT assay, viscosity measurement, mucoadhesion, ex vivo permeation, etc.) and in vivo studies (bioadhesion, irritation potential and fungal clearance kinetics in rat model) of final formulation were carried out to establish its potential for further clinical evaluation.

Mirza MA; Ahmad S; Mallick MN; Manzoor N; Talegaonkar S; Iqbal Z

2013-03-01

323

Prospects for development of a vaccine to prevent and control vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A vaccine against recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) would benefit a large number of women who suffer from this debilitating syndrome. To date, several antigen formulations have been tested with modest results. In this article, we review the latest vaccine study reported in the literature. The candidate is a ?-glucan conjugate administered with a human compatible adjuvant. Results in a mouse model of vaginitis were again modest for protection. However, the study included live animal imaging to quantify fungal burden; animals were challenged with a Candida strain carrying a gene encoding a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell wall protein and luciferase. Fungal burden was expressed as photons following substrate administration. Protection appeared to be mediated by ?-glucan antibodies. Although modest protection was observed, the imaging system was less variable than semi-quantitative plate counts of vaginal lavage fluid. Despite these advances in evaluating protection, a vaccine candidate against RVVC worthy of clinical testing remains elusive.

Fidel PL Jr; Cutler JE

2011-02-01

324

Prospects for development of a vaccine to prevent and control vaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A vaccine against recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) would benefit a large number of women who suffer from this debilitating syndrome. To date, several antigen formulations have been tested with modest results. In this article, we review the latest vaccine study reported in the literature. The candidate is a ?-glucan conjugate administered with a human compatible adjuvant. Results in a mouse model of vaginitis were again modest for protection. However, the study included live animal imaging to quantify fungal burden; animals were challenged with a Candida strain carrying a gene encoding a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cell wall protein and luciferase. Fungal burden was expressed as photons following substrate administration. Protection appeared to be mediated by ?-glucan antibodies. Although modest protection was observed, the imaging system was less variable than semi-quantitative plate counts of vaginal lavage fluid. Despite these advances in evaluating protection, a vaccine candidate against RVVC worthy of clinical testing remains elusive. PMID:21308461

Fidel, Paul L; Cutler, Jim E

2011-02-01

325

Treatment of invasive candidiasis in neutropenic patients: systematic review of randomized controlled treatment trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candidemia and invasive candidiasis (CIC) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, with a paucity of controlled data in neutropenic patients. A systematic review was conducted of available data for the treatment of CIC during neutropenia. A structured OVID search of multiple databases was performed. Data from randomized controlled trials of CIC and of empirical antifungal therapy in febrile neutropenic patients was included. A total of 17 trials randomizing 342 neutropenic patients were included. Eight of the studies compared amphotericin B (AmB) to other non-polyene antifungal agents. Pooling of results favored use of comparator compounds (odds ratio [OR] 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-1.29). To strengthen our analysis, a pre-planned sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Overall, there was a non-significant benefit in favor of non-polyene compounds. Across studies, echinocandins provided the benefit of favorable outcomes with fewest side effects and toxicity.

Kanji JN; Laverdière M; Rotstein C; Walsh TJ; Shah PS; Haider S

2013-07-01

326

A multidisciplinary approach to management of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a case of an 18-year-old Caucasian man with a rare autosomal recessive disorder called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). This patient had manifestations of all clinical components of this multisystemic disease which included intestinal failure secondary to autoimmune enteropathy. We present a unique multidisciplinary management for this genetic condition. Although patients with APECED do not always have all the disease components (a total of eight exist), the majority have at least 3-5 components. This excludes the psychosexual implications which are often ignored. This case highlights the importance of (1) management of APECED in a multidisciplinary nature that includes a gastroenterologist, immunologist, endocrinologist, dietitians, etc and the (2) management of intestinal failure component of APECED is best suited in a specialist intestinal failure unit where expertise is available for complex malabsorption disorders.

Gouda MR; Al-Amin A; Grabsch H; Donnellan C

2013-01-01

327

An oral vaccine against candidiasis generated by yeast molecular display system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enolase 1 (Eno1p) of Candida albicans is an immunodominant antigen. However, conventional technologies for preparing an injectable vaccine require purification of the antigenic protein and preparation of an adjuvant. To develop novel type of oral vaccine against candidiasis, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that display the Eno1p antigen on their surfaces. Oral delivery of the engineered S. cerevisiae cells prolonged survival rate of mice that were subsequently challenged with C. albicans. Given that a vaccine produced using molecular display technology avoids the need for protein purification, this oral vaccine offers a promising alternative to the use of conventional injectable vaccines for preventing a range of infectious diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Shibasaki S; Aoki W; Nomura T; Miyoshi A; Tafuku S; Sewaki T; Ueda M

2013-07-01

328

Intestinal candidiasis in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta): an immunohistochemical study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Post mortem examination of a juvenile loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) stranded in the Canary Islands revealed a fishing-line in the small intestine. Histologically, severe necrotic enteritis, multiple haemorrhages, and marked oedema of the intestinal submucosa were observed. Yeast cells and fungal hyphae were seen in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa and in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Because fungal cultures were not taken at the time of necropsy, an immunohistochemical study was performed in order to identify the fungus involved. Specific monoclonal and heterologously absorbed polyclonal antibodies served as the primary reagents for identification of aspergillosis, candidiasis, fusariosis, geotricosis, scedosporiosis, and zygomycosis, using an indirect immunofluorescence staining technique. The fungal elements were strongly stained only by a polyclonal antibody against Candida albicans and a monoclonal antibody against C. albicans. There are no known previous reports of Candida sp. causing skin disease or systemic mycotic infection in sea turtles.

Orós J; Arencibia A; Fernández L; Jensen HE

2004-03-01

329

Intestinal candidiasis in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta): an immunohistochemical study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post mortem examination of a juvenile loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) stranded in the Canary Islands revealed a fishing-line in the small intestine. Histologically, severe necrotic enteritis, multiple haemorrhages, and marked oedema of the intestinal submucosa were observed. Yeast cells and fungal hyphae were seen in the lamina propria of the intestinal mucosa and in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Because fungal cultures were not taken at the time of necropsy, an immunohistochemical study was performed in order to identify the fungus involved. Specific monoclonal and heterologously absorbed polyclonal antibodies served as the primary reagents for identification of aspergillosis, candidiasis, fusariosis, geotricosis, scedosporiosis, and zygomycosis, using an indirect immunofluorescence staining technique. The fungal elements were strongly stained only by a polyclonal antibody against Candida albicans and a monoclonal antibody against C. albicans. There are no known previous reports of Candida sp. causing skin disease or systemic mycotic infection in sea turtles. PMID:14975396

Orós, J; Arencibia, A; Fernández, L; Jensen, H E

2004-03-01

330

Algunas consideraciones sobre Candida Albicans como agente etiológico de candidiasis bucal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el presente artículo, se describen los principales aspectos referentes a Candida albicans, microorganismo mayormente implicado en la Candidiasis Bucal, entre los cuales se destacan: Historia, taxonomía, características morfológicas y fisiológicas (haciendo especial énfasis en la ultraestructura del hongo), características de cultivo, algunas consideraciones ecológicas, así como una serie de factores específicos que afectan en la distribución de Candida en la cavidad bucal.In this article, we make reference about some considerations of Candida albicans, the most important aetiological agent implicated in Oral Candidiosis refering to: History, taxonomy, morphological and physiological characteristics (making special emphasis in ultrastructure), culture characteristics, ecological aspects and specific factors afected Candida distribution within the oral cavity.

2002-01-01

331

Systemic candidiasis and mesenteric mast cell tumor with multiple metastases in a dog.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 5-year-old female miniature dachshund presenting with persistent vomiting and diarrhea had two concurrent rare pathological conditions: systemic candidiasis and mesenteric mast cell tumor with multiorgan metastases. Neoplastic mast cells formed mass in the mesentery of the cecal-colonic region and were also found in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, adrenal grands, ovaries, bone marrow and other tissues. The cells had intracytoplasmic granules with metachromasia and were immunohistochemically positive for c-kit and histamine. Granulomatous lesions with fungal organisms were present in the heart, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, subserosal and surrounding adipose tissue of the duodenum, thyroid glands and mesenteric mass, and phagocytosed organisms were detected in the liver and bone marrow. Bacteriologically and immunohistochemically, the fungi were consistent with Candida albicans.

Matsuda K; Sakaguchi K; Kobayashi S; Tominaga M; Hirayama K; Kadosawa T; Taniyama H

2009-02-01

332

Vulvovaginal candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... to refrain from the use of intravaginal products during the treatment period (eg, douches, spermicides, condoms, tampons, diaphragms) because ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

333

Renal candidiasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most fungal infections of the urinary tract are caused by Candida albicans, a yeast-like saprophytic fungus which may become apathogen under various conditions which lower the host resistance. The use of computed tomography in the diagnosis of renal fungus balls is the subject of this communication with emphasis on the radiologists role in the recognition of this entity. (H.W.). 6 refs.; 2 figs.

1990-01-01

334

Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of disseminated candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A polymerase chain reaction enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) was developed for the semiquantitative of circulating candidal DNA in disseminated candidiasis due to Candida albicans. Polymerase chain reaction was based on primers from the internal transcribed ribosomal region. Binding of the product to a streptavidin-coated microtitration plate was mediated by a biotinylated capture probe. The product was digoxigenylated during PCR; this was the tag to which antibody was bound in the subsequent EIA. The optical density (OD) endpoint was < 0.1 in 15 sera from patients with no evidence of candidal infection (group 1) and in 13 of the 16 sera from colonized patients (group 2); it was > 0.1 in the other three sera from group 2 blood culture-negative patients who required intravenous amphotericin B for cure. The OD was positive in 28 patients with disseminated candidiasis (group 3), defined as positive blood cultures and successful treatment with amphotericin B (n = 11), positive blood culture confirmed at autopsy (n = 11), or negative blood culture first proven at necropsy (n = 6). In patients from whom multiple samples were available, recovery correlated with an optical density of < 0.1 by day 4 in four patients and by day 13 in the rest. In the five patients with fatal outcome from whom multiple samples were available, the mean OD rose from 0.174 to 0.668. Samples seeded with Candida albicans blastoconidia demonstrated that on OD of 0.220 was equivalent to 10 cfu. Assay of the group 3 sera by a commercial antigen detection test gave a corresponding sensitivity of 60% which rose to 67.9% when an in-house reverse passive latex agglutination test was used.

Burnie JP; Golbang N; Matthews RC

1997-05-01

335

Oropharyngeal candidiasis and resistance to antifungal drugs in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common infection in patient receiving radiotherapy for head and neckcancer. Accurate and rapid identification of candida species is very important in clinical laboratory, because theincidence of candidiasis continues to rise after radiotherapy. The genus Candida has about 154 species that showdifferent level of resistance to antifungal drugs and have high degree of phenotypic similarity. The aim of this study wasto investigate oral yeast colonization and infection and resistance to antifungal drugs in these patients.METHODS: Thirty patients receiving a 6-week course of radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer at theOncology Unit in Shafa Hospital, in 2008, were enrolled in the study. Specimens from patients were cultured weeklyfor Candida. All isolates were plated on CHROM agar and RPMI-based medium. They were subcultured and submittedfor antifungal susceptibility testing (nystatin, fluconazole, clotrimazole and ketoconazole) and molecular typing.RESULTS: Infection (clinical and microbiological evidence) occurred in 50% of the patients and Candida colonization(only microbiological evidence) occurred in 70% of subjects in the first week. Candida albicans alone was isolated in94.9% of patient visits with positive cultures. Candida tropicalis was isolated from 5.1% of patient visits with positivecultures. All isolates were susceptible to nystatin, but did not respond to the other antifungal drugsCONCLUSIONS: The irradiation-induced changes of the intraoral environment such as xerostomia lead to increasedintraoral colonization by Candida species. All yeast isolates were susceptible to nystatin. Thus prophylactic therapywith nystatin should be considered for these patients.

Maryam Rad DMD, MSc; Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi PhD; Shahla Kakoei DDS, MSc; Maryam Bahador MD; Nazila Lashkarizadeh DDS

2012-01-01

336

Efficacy of oral cochleate-amphotericin B in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphotericin B (AMB) remains the principal therapeutic choice for deep mycoses. However, its application is limited by toxicity and a route of administration requiring slow intravenous injection. An oral formulation of this drug is desirable to treat acute infections and provide prophylactic therapy for high-risk patients. Cochleates are a novel lipid-based delivery system that have the potential for oral administration of hydrophobic drugs. They are stable phospholipid-cation crystalline structures consisting of a spiral lipid bilayer sheet with no internal aqueous space. Cochleates containing AMB (CAMB) inhibit the growth of Candida albicans, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of CAMB administered orally was evaluated in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. The results indicate that 100% of the mice treated at all CAMB doses, including a low dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight/day, survived the experimental period (16 days). In contrast, 100% mortality was observed with untreated mice by day 12. The fungal tissue burden in kidneys and lungs was assessed in parallel, and a dose-dependent reduction in C. albicans from the kidneys was observed, with a maximum 3.5-log reduction in total cell counts at 2.5 mg/kg/day. However, complete clearance of the organism from the lungs, resulting in more than a 4-log reduction, was observed at the same dose. These results were comparable to a deoxycholate AMB formulation administered intraperitoneally at 2 mg/kg/day (P < 0.05). Overall, these data demonstrate that cochleates are an effective oral delivery system for AMB in a model of systemic candidiasis. PMID:10952579

Santangelo, R; Paderu, P; Delmas, G; Chen, Z W; Mannino, R; Zarif, L; Perlin, D S

2000-09-01

337

Invasive candidiasis in pediatric intensive care in Greece: a nationwide study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To record the practices for prevention and management of invasive candidiasis in the PICU and investigate the epidemiology of candidiasis and its outcome nationwide. METHODS: A multicenter national study among PICUs throughout Greece. A questionnaire referring to local practices of prevention and management of candidemia was filled in, and a retrospective study of episodes that occurred during 5 years was conducted in all seven Greek PICUs. RESULTS: Clinical practices regarding surveillance cultures, catheter replacement protocols and antibiotic use were similar, although the case mix differed. In all PICUs prophylactic antifungal treatment was administered in transplant and neutropenic oncology patients. Discrepancy existed between PICUs concerning the first-line antifungal agents and treatment duration of candidemia. Twenty-two candidemias were nationally recorded between 2005 and 2009 with a median incidence of 6.4 cases/1,000 admissions. Median age was 8.2 (0.3-16.6) years. Candida albicans was isolated in 45.4 % of episodes followed by Candida parapsilosis (22.7 %). Common findings were presence of central venous and urinary catheters as well as mechanical ventilation and administration of antibiotics with anti-anaerobic activity in almost all patients with candidemia. Total parenteral nutrition was administered to five (22.7 %) patients. Most of the patients had a chronic underlying disease; five were oncology patients, and two-thirds of those with candidemia were colonized with Candida spp. Lipid amphotericin B formulations were the predominant therapeutic choice (54.5 %). Thirty-day mortality was 18.2 %. CONCLUSION: This first national study adds information to the epidemiology of candidemia in critically ill children. In these special patients, candidemia has a relatively low incidence and tends toward non-albicans Candida preponderance.

Vogiatzi L; Ilia S; Sideri G; Vagelakoudi E; Vassilopoulou M; Sdougka M; Briassoulis G; Papadatos I; Kalabalikis P; Sianidou L; Roilides E

2013-08-01

338

Avaliação da resposta imune celular em pacientes com candidíase recorrente Evaluation of cellular immune response in patients with recurrent candidiasis  

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Full Text Available A candidíase recorrente cutânea ou mucosa é caracterizada pela ocorrência de, no mínimo, 4 episódios de candidíase no período de um ano. Não são conhecidos os fatores que levam à recorrência desta infecção. O presente estudo avaliou a resposta linfoproliferativa e a produção de IFN-g de pacientes com candidíase recorrente. Os índices de estimulação da resposta linfoproliferativa em culturas de células de pacientes com candidíase recorrente estimuladas com antígeno de Candida albicans, PPD e TT foram respectivamente de 6±8, 17±20 e 65±30. A adição de anticorpo monoclonal anti-IL-10 às culturas de células de 6 pacientes aumentou a resposta linfoproliferativa de 735±415 para 4143±1746 cpm. A produção de IFN-g em culturas de células estimuladas com antígeno de Candida, foi 162±345pg/ml. Pacientes com candidíase recorrente apresentam uma deficiência na resposta linfoproliferativa e na produção de IFN-g, podendo a resposta imune celular ao antígeno de Candida ser restaurada parcialmente através da neutralização da IL-10 in vitro.Recurrent cutaneous or mucosal candidiasis is characterized by the occurrence of at least four candidiasis episodes within a one-year period. The factors involved in recurrence of infection are still unknown. In the present study the lymphoproliferative response and the IFN-g production by candidiasis patients were evaluated. The stimulation index of mononuclear cell cultures of candidiasis patients stimulated with Candida albicans antigen, PPD and TT were 6±8, 17±20 and 65±30, respectively. The addition of monoclonal antibody anti-IL-10 to Candida albicans antigen stimulated cultures raised the lymphoproliferative response from 735±415 to 4143±1746 cpm. The IFN-g production by cells of candidiasis patients stimulated with Candida albicans antigen was 162±345pg/ml. Candidiasis patients have an impairment in the lymphoproliferative response specific to C. albicans antigen and on IFN-g production and the lymphoproliferative response can be partially restored, in vitro, by IL-10 neutralization.

Lucas P. Carvalho; Olívia Bacellar; Nilma A. Neves; Edgar M. Carvalho; Amélia R. de Jesus

2003-01-01

339

Evolución favorable de trillizos prematuros con candidiasis sistémica neonatal tratados con caspofungina/ Successfully evolution of premature triplets with systemic neonatal candidiasis treated with caspofungin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: Las infecciones por especies de Candida son un problema que se ha incrementado de manera importante en pacientes de las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales (UCIN) y son una causa común de morbi-mortalidad en dicha población. La anfotericina B ha sido considerada como el principal agente terapéutico antifúngico; sin embargo, se ha asociado con efectos adversos como la fungemia persistente debido al aumento en la resistencia a Candida, particularme (more) nte especies no albicans, a menudo resistentes también a otros antifúngicos, como el fluconazol. Casos clínicos: Se trata de recién nacidos trillizos de 29 semanas de gestación, quienes recibieron soporte avanzado en la UCIN, incluyendo ventilación mecánica (VM), inserción de catéteres venosos centrales, nutrición parenteral total (NPT) y varios esquemas de antibióticos de amplio espectro, desarrollando sepsis por Candida parapsillosis en los tres casos; la terapia antifúngica fue iniciada con fluconazol, posteriormente con anfotericina B convencional y anfotericina B liposomal, sin mejoría clínica y con hemocultivos positivos. El deterioro fue revertido después del inicio de caspofungina (2 mg/kg/día) añadida a la anfotericina B liposomal. Los tres pacientes se recuperaron totalmente, sin ningún efecto adverso y con adecuada tolerancia. Conclusiones: La caspofungina resultó ser efectiva y bien tolerada en los pacientes tratados a dosis de 2 mg/kg/ día, por lo que se puede considerar una alternativa de tratamiento de la candidiasis invasiva en neonatos prematuros, aunque la dosis óptima no se ha determinado. Abstract in english Background: Infections caused by Candida sp. have been significantly increasing in patients in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and are the most common causes of morbi-mortality in this population group. Amphotericin B has been considered to be the standard antifungal therapy. However, it has been associated with adverse effects such as persistent fungemia due to the increase of Candida resistance, in particular the non-albicans species, similar to the resistance show (more) n by other antifungals such as fluconazol. Clinical cases: Triplets of gestational age of 29 weeks received advanced life support in the NICU, including mechanical ventilation (MV), insertion of venous catheters, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and multiple regimes of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The three patients developed C. parapsilosis sepsis. Antifungal therapy was initiated with fluconazol prior to the use of conventional amphotericin B and liposomal amphotericin B. There was no clinical improvement and blood cultures remained positive. Clinical improvement was noted after the initiation of caspofungin (2 mg/kg/day) in addition to the use of liposomal amphotericin B. The triplets recovered completely with adequate tolerance to the medication and without adverse effects. Conclusion: Use of caspofungin proved to be an effective and well-tolerated therapy in these patients (2 mg/ kg/day). It can be considered an alternative treatment for invasive candidiasis in premature neonates, although optimal dosage remains undetermined.

Granados-Perales, Diana E.; Ugalde-Fernández, J. Horacio

2010-02-01

340

Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

McManus BA; McGovern E; Moran GP; Healy CM; Nunn J; Fleming P; Costigan C; Sullivan DJ; Coleman DC

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Perfil clínico-epidemiológico y taxonómico de la candidiasis sistémica en una unidad de cuidados intensivos Clinical, epidemiological and taxonomic aspects of systemic candidiasis in an intensive care unit  

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Full Text Available Se define el perfil clínico de los pacientes con candidiasis sistémica ingresados en nuestra UCI y se realiza un análisis de mortalidad. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los casos de candidiasis sistémica durante 2002-2004 y, prospectivamente, durante 2005-2006, en una unidad de cuidados intensivos de un hospital de tercer nivel. Se registraron 26 casos (el 75% varones), cuyo principal motivo de ingreso fue la sepsis, con multiinstrumentación y una estancia prolongada. Se aisló Candida albicans en el 53,8% y otras cándidas en el 46,2%. La incidencia de otras cándidas fue superior a la de C. albicans desde el año 2004 (p = 0,02). La mortalidad fue del 42%, más elevada en infecciones por C. albicans, en especial (p = 0,026) en los grupos progresivos de riesgo determinados en el «Score Sevilla».The clinical and epidemiological profile and survival of patients admitted into our intensive care unit (ICU) was analyzed. A retrospective-prospective case series from 2002 to 2004 and 2005 to 2006, respectively, of patients diagnosed with systemic candidiasis in an ICU in a tertiary hospital was studied. Twenty-six cases with systemic candidiasis were included (75% of the cases were male). These subjects underwent multiple vascular or drainage interventions and had a prolonged length of stay in ICU. The first motive to enter ICU was sepsis. Candida albicans (CA) was isolated in 53.8% of cases versus 46.2% for other Candidae (CNA). Over the last years, we have observed a progressively higher incidence for CNA (p = 0.02). We registered an especially high mortality rate (42%), that is higher in the CA group. «Sevilla Score» defined the mortality in the progressive risk groups (p = 0.026).

B. Hernández Sierra; M.Á. Prieto Palomino; E. Curiel Balsera; J. Muñoz Bono; G. Quesada García; M.D. Arias Verdú

2009-01-01

342

Effect of exogenous administration of Candida albicans autoregulatory alcohols in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans supernatants contain a mixture of autoregulatory alcohols. In vitro, when added individually or in combination, these alcohols inhibit the yeast to filamentous form conversion. Here we evaluate the in vivo effect of the exogenous administration of a Cocktail solution simulating the composition of alcohols present in a C. albicans culture supernatant (1 ml; 94 ?mol l(-1) isoamyl alcohol, 70 ?mol l(-1) 2-phenylethanol, 3.2 n mol l(-1) E -nerolidol, and 18 n mol l(-1) E,E -farnesol) using the well established murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Mice injected intraperitoneally with the Cocktail solution demonstrated increased survival and decreased organ fungal burden compared to control mice. Histological observations suggest that the Cocktail, to some extent, has an inhibitory effect on cell filamentation within the kidney. These findings suggest that the exogenous administration of C. albicans autoregulatory alcohols displays a protective effect during disseminated candidiasis. PMID:22052380

Martins, Margarida; Lazzell, Anna L; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário

2011-11-03

343

Effect of exogenous administration of Candida albicans autoregulatory alcohols in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans supernatants contain a mixture of autoregulatory alcohols. In vitro, when added individually or in combination, these alcohols inhibit the yeast to filamentous form conversion. Here we evaluate the in vivo effect of the exogenous administration of a Cocktail solution simulating the composition of alcohols present in a C. albicans culture supernatant (1 ml; 94 ?mol l(-1) isoamyl alcohol, 70 ?mol l(-1) 2-phenylethanol, 3.2 n mol l(-1) E -nerolidol, and 18 n mol l(-1) E,E -farnesol) using the well established murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Mice injected intraperitoneally with the Cocktail solution demonstrated increased survival and decreased organ fungal burden compared to control mice. Histological observations suggest that the Cocktail, to some extent, has an inhibitory effect on cell filamentation within the kidney. These findings suggest that the exogenous administration of C. albicans autoregulatory alcohols displays a protective effect during disseminated candidiasis.

Martins M; Lazzell AL; Lopez-Ribot JL; Henriques M; Oliveira R

2012-08-01

344

The autoimmune regulator: a key toward understanding the molecular pathogenesis of autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autoimmune disease with autosomal recessive inheritance. APECED is characterized by the breakdown of tolerance to several organ-specific selfantigens. The symptoms of APECED fall into three main categories: autoimmune polyendocrinopathies, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophies. The gene defective in APECED, AIRE, has been cloned and numerous mutations in this gene have been found in patients with APECED. AIRE is predicted to encode a 545-amino-acid protein containing structural domains characteristic for transcription regulators. The protein has been shown to act as a transcriptional activator in vitro. The AIRE protein is mainly localized to the nucleus, where it can be detected as speckles resembling nuclear bodies. In humans, the expression of AIRE has been observed predominantly in immunologically relevant tissues, especially the thymus. Recently, we have shown in the mouse that Aire is also expressed in various tissues and cell types outside the immune system. PMID:11806500

Meriluoto, T; Halonen, M; Pelto-Huikko, M; Kangas, H; Korhonen, J; Kolmer, M; Ulmanen, I; Eskelin, P

2001-12-01

345

The role of percutaneous nephrostomy in the management of obstructing candidiasis of the urinary tract in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on 5 neonates with obstructive urinary tract candidiasis in whom percutaneous nephrostomy had a major role in management. The advantages of percutaneous nephrostomy in this setting include prompt drainage of the obstructed renal pelvis or ureter, direct access to obtain specimens from the renal pelvis to confirm the diagnosis, direct irrigation of the fungus balls with amphotericin B and an access route for fragmentation of fungus balls by guide wire manipulation. In 3 cases percutaneous placement of the nephrostomy tube was successful in obtaining and maintaining access to the renal pelvis, while in 2 surgical intervention was required because of problems maintaining placement of the percutaneous catheters. Percutaneous nephrostomy with antegrade amphotericin B irrigation, coupled with systemic antifungal therapy, is the mainstay of treatment. The usefulness of ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of renal candidiasis also is emphasized. PMID:3398131

Bartone, F F; Hurwitz, R S; Rojas, E L; Steinberg, E; Franceschini, R

1988-08-01

346

The role of percutaneous nephrostomy in the management of obstructing candidiasis of the urinary tract in infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on 5 neonates with obstructive urinary tract candidiasis in whom percutaneous nephrostomy had a major role in management. The advantages of percutaneous nephrostomy in this setting include prompt drainage of the obstructed renal pelvis or ureter, direct access to obtain specimens from the renal pelvis to confirm the diagnosis, direct irrigation of the fungus balls with amphotericin B and an access route for fragmentation of fungus balls by guide wire manipulation. In 3 cases percutaneous placement of the nephrostomy tube was successful in obtaining and maintaining access to the renal pelvis, while in 2 surgical intervention was required because of problems maintaining placement of the percutaneous catheters. Percutaneous nephrostomy with antegrade amphotericin B irrigation, coupled with systemic antifungal therapy, is the mainstay of treatment. The usefulness of ultrasonography in the early diagnosis of renal candidiasis also is emphasized.

Bartone FF; Hurwitz RS; Rojas EL; Steinberg E; Franceschini R

1988-08-01

347

Profiling of Candida albicans Gene Expression During Intra-abdominal Candidiasis Identifies Biologic Processes Involved in Pathogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background.?The pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis is poorly understood. Methods.?Mice were intraperitoneally infected with Candida albicans (1 × 10(6) colony-forming units) and sterile stool. nanoString assays were used to quantitate messenger RNA for 145 C. albicans genes within the peritoneal cavity at 48 hours. Results.?Within 6 hours after infection, mice developed peritonitis, characterized by high yeast burdens, neutrophil influx, and a pH of 7.9 within peritoneal fluid. Organ invasion by hyphae and early abscess formation were evident 6 and 24 hours after infection, respectively; abscesses resolved by day 14. nanoString assays revealed adhesion and responses to alkaline pH, osmolarity, and stress as biologic processes activated in the peritoneal cavity. Disruption of the highly-expressed gene RIM101, which encodes an alkaline-regulated transcription factor, did not impact cellular morphology but reduced both C. albicans burden during early peritonitis and C. albicans persistence within abscesses. RIM101 influenced expression of 49 genes during intra-abdominal candidiasis, including previously unidentified Rim101 targets. Overexpression of the RIM101-dependent gene SAP5, which encodes a secreted protease, restored the ability of a rim101 mutant to persist within abscesses. Conclusions.?A mouse model of intra-abdominal candidiasis is valuable for studying pathogenesis and C. albicans gene expression. RIM101 contributes to persistence within intra-abdominal abscesses, at least in part through activation of SAP5. PMID:24006479

Cheng, Shaoji; Clancy, Cornelius J; Xu, Wenjie; Schneider, Frank; Hao, Binghua; Mitchell, Aaron P; Nguyen, M Hong

2013-09-04

348

[Evaluation of a new commercial test (Candida albicans IFA IgG) for the serodiagnosis of invasive candidiasis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Two tests for the detection of antibodies to Candida albicans germ tubes in patients with invasive candidiasis were compared: a new commercially available test (Candida albicans IFA IgG) and the indirect immunofluorescence test generally used for this purpose. METHODS: With the use of two indirect immunofluorescence tests, retrospective study was done on 172 sera from 51 patients classified into two groups: Group I included 123 serum samples from 32 patients with invasive candidiasis, and Group II, the control, included 49 serum samples from 19 patients with no evidence of Candida infection. RESULTS: In Group I, 84% of patients presented anti-germ tube antibody titers >or= 1:160 by the Candida albicans IFA IgG test and 78.1% of patients were positive by the generally used test. There was a high correlation between the two tests (R2 =0.9512 by patients; R2 = 0.8986 by sera). When a titer value of >or= 1:160 was used as cutoff, the Candida albicans IFA IgG test showed a sensitivity of 84.4% and a specificity of 94.7%, whereas the traditional test showed a sensitivity of 78.1% and a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The commercially available Candida albicans IFA IgG test is similar to the test generally used for the detection of antibodies to C. albicans germ tubes and provides faster and easier diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

Moragues MD; Ortiz N; Iruretagoyena JR; García-Ruiz JC; Amutio E; Rojas A; Mendoza J; Quindós G; Pontón-San Emeterio J

2004-02-01

349

AIRE mutations and human leukocyte antigen genotypes as determinants of the autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, OMIM 240300) is a rare autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene on chromosome 21q22.3. This monogenic disease provides an interesting model for studies of other common and more complex autoimmune diseases. The most common components of APECED are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease, but several other endocrine deficiencies and ectodermal dystrophies also occur and the phenotype varies widely. The AIRE genotype also varies; 42 different mutations have been reported so far. To understand the complexity of the phenotype, we studied the AIRE and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genotypes in a series of patients with APECED. The only association between the phenotype and the AIRE genotype was the higher prevalence of candidiasis in the patients with the most common mutation, R257X, than in those with other mutations. Addison's disease was associated with HLA-DRB1*03 (P = 0.021), alopecia with HLA-DRB1*04- DQB1*0302 (P < 0.001), whereas type 1 diabetes correlated negatively with HLA-DRB1*15-DQB1*0602 (P = 0.036). The same HLA associations have previously been established for non-APECED patients. We conclude that mutation of AIRE per se has little influence on the APECED phenotype, whereas, in contrast to earlier reports, HLA class II is a significant determinant. PMID:12050215

Halonen, Maria; Eskelin, Petra; Myhre, Anne-Grethe; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Husebye, Eystein S; Kämpe, Olle; Rorsman, Fredrik; Peltonen, Leena; Ulmanen, Ismo; Partanen, Jukka

2002-06-01

350

Efficacy of micafungin in invasive candidiasis caused by common Candida species with special emphasis on non-albicans Candida species.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of invasive candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) spp. is increasing. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B in patients with invasive candidiasis and candidaemia caused by different Candida spp. This post hoc analysis used data obtained from two randomised phase III trials was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of micafungin vs. caspofungin and micafungin vs. liposomal amphotericin B. Treatment success, clinical response, mycological response and mortality were evaluated in patients infected with C. albicans and NAC spp. Treatment success rates in patients with either C. albicans or NAC infections were similar. Outcomes were similar for micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B. Candida albicans was the most prevalent pathogen recovered (41.0%), followed by C. tropicalis (17.9%), C. parapsilosis (14.4%), C. glabrata (10.4%), multiple Candida spp. (7.3%) and C. krusei (3.2%). Age, primary diagnosis (i.e. candidaemia or invasive candidiasis), previous corticosteroid therapy and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were identified as potential predictors of treatment success and mortality. Micafungin, caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin B exhibit favourable treatment response rates that are comparable for patients infected with different Candida spp.

Cornely OA; Vazquez J; De Waele J; Betts R; Rotstein C; Nucci M; Pappas PG; Ullmann AJ

2013-06-01

351

Profiling of Candida albicans Gene Expression During Intra-abdominal Candidiasis Identifies Biologic Processes Involved in Pathogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background.?The pathogenesis of intra-abdominal candidiasis is poorly understood.Methods.?Mice were intraperitoneally infected with Candida albicans (1 × 10(6) colony-forming units) and sterile stool. nanoString assays were used to quantitate messenger RNA for 145 C. albicans genes within the peritoneal cavity at 48 hours.Results.?Within 6 hours after infection, mice developed peritonitis, characterized by high yeast burdens, neutrophil influx, and a pH of 7.9 within peritoneal fluid. Organ invasion by hyphae and early abscess formation were evident 6 and 24 hours after infection, respectively; abscesses resolved by day 14. nanoString assays revealed adhesion and responses to alkaline pH, osmolarity, and stress as biologic processes activated in the peritoneal cavity. Disruption of the highly-expressed gene RIM101, which encodes an alkaline-regulated transcription factor, did not impact cellular morphology but reduced both C. albicans burden during early peritonitis and C. albicans persistence within abscesses. RIM101 influenced expression of 49 genes during intra-abdominal candidiasis, including previously unidentified Rim101 targets. Overexpression of the RIM101-dependent gene SAP5, which encodes a secreted protease, restored the ability of a rim101 mutant to persist within abscesses.Conclusions.?A mouse model of intra-abdominal candidiasis is valuable for studying pathogenesis and C. albicans gene expression. RIM101 contributes to persistence within intra-abdominal abscesses, at least in part through activation of SAP5.

Cheng S; Clancy CJ; Xu W; Schneider F; Hao B; Mitchell AP; Nguyen MH

2013-09-01

352

Study of risk factors and prevalence of invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital  

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Full Text Available Introduction: The frequency of invasive mycoses has increased dramatically during the past two decades owing to medical advances such as intensive cancer chemotherapy, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, invasive medical devices, organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease epidemic and an expanding aging population. There were few Indian studies regarding the incidence and risk factors for candidemia. Hence the aim of this work was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis in a tertiary care hospital and also to assess the risk factors and predictors of mortality Materials and Methods: Nonsystematic review of patients with candidemia/invasive candidiasis was done during the period 1999 to 2004. All in-patients who had shown signs and symptoms of nosocomial blood stream infection were screened for candidial infection. Among these, 29 patients had candidemia/invasive candidiasis. Demographic and clinical data of these patients were recorded on a standardized form, which included age, sex, site of isolation, infectious diagnosis, underlying conditions, predisposing factors, catheter status and clinical outcome. The data were collected during the years of 1999 to 2004, which is divided into two time periods (1999-2001 and 2002-2004). Data collected during these different time spans are compared with each other. Results: A total of 255 patients were screened during the study period. Among these, 100 patients were screened during the period 1999-2001 and 155 patients were screened during the year 2002-2004. Out of these patients, 29 showed positive cultures in blood or other sterile site (ascitic fluid, bronchial aspirate and urine from suprapubic puncture). Out of these, 24 were males and five were females. The most common risk factor was use of intravenous canulae (62.1%), followed by prolonged use of antibiotics (34.5%) and HIV infection (24.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the risk factors during the two different study periods. Candida was mainly isolated from blood (75.9%). Other sources included ascitic fluid (10.4%), bronchial aspirate (3.4%), sputum (3.4%) and urine (6.9%). Distributions of sources were comparable during the two study periods. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis caused 89.7%, 3.4%, 6.9% of the candidemia episodes respectively. The overall mortality was 51.7%. Conclusion: The present study emphasizes the importance of candidemia among hospitalized patients. Continued surveillance of candidemia will be important to track trends of this serious infection and to document changes in its epidemiological features. More active screening in high-risk groups should be done to avoid diagnostic delay. Risk factors like prolonged use of multiple antibiotics, central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation and prolonged hospital stay should be restricted whenever possible. Timely use of antiretroviral drugs and other measures to improve the immunity of HIV patients may help to decrease the incidence of candidemia in this patient population.

Chowta Mukta; Adhikari Prabha; Rajeev A; Shenoy Ashok

2007-01-01

353

Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by Multiplex PCR method  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a fungal disease with itching, and vaginal thick white discharge. Most of non-albicans species have less sensitivity to azoles. So, definition of candida species which lead to vulvovaginal candidiasis is very important to perfect usage of drugs. In the present study 191 Candida isolates from 175 patients who admitted in Gynecology department of Mahdieh Hospital during the period 1385-1387 were identified by multiplex PCR."n"nMethods: One hundred seventy five vaginal swab specimens from patients were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). The internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region of Candida albicans were amplified and the multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel (200 mA, 140V), visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed."n"nResults: One hundred ninety one Candida isolates were identified in vaginal swab specimens from 175 patients. In 89.7% of cases, single candida species and in 10.3% cases, multiple candida species were isolated. C. albicans (65.1%), C. glabrata (13.1%), C. tropicalis (6.2%), C. krusei (4%), C. guilliermondii (0.6%), C. parapsilosis (0.6%), C. glabrata and C. albicans (5.7%), C. albicans and C. parapsilosis (1.1%), C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (0.6%), C. krusei and C. tropicalis (0.6%), C. albicans and C. tropicalis (0.6%), C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6%), C. glabrata and C. krusei (0.6%), and C. glabrata and C. krusei and C. albicans (0.6%) were the cause of disease."n"nConclusion: Our findings suggest that, the common cause of both recurrent and non-recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was C. albicans, and then C. glabrata. Also the most common mixtures of Candida species were combination of them

Mahmoudi Rad M; Zafarghandi AS; Amel Zabihi M; Mirdamadi Y; Rahbarian N; Abbasabadi B; Shivaei M; Amiri Z

2009-01-01

354

Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of a sordarin derivative (GM 237354) in a murine model of lethal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sordarins are a new class of antifungal agents which selectively inhibit fungal protein synthesis (FPS) by impairing the function of elongation factor 2. The present study investigates possible correlations between sordarin pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and therapeutic efficacy, based on a murine model of invasive systemic candidiasis, and provides a rationale for dose selection in the first study of efficacy in humans. A significant correlation between PK parameters and the in vivo activity of GM 237354, taken as a representative FPS inhibitor, was demonstrated in a murine model of lethal systemic candidiasis. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max)) over 24 h were determined after a single GM 237354 subcutaneous (s.c.) dose (50 mg/kg of body weight) in healthy animals (no significant PK changes with infection were observed for other sordarin derivatives). These results have been used to simulate PK profiles obtained after several doses and/or schedules in animal therapy. A PK-pharmacodynamic (PD) parameter such as the time that serum drug concentrations remain above the MIC (t > MIC) was also determined. Treatment efficacies were evaluated in terms of the area under the survival time curve (AUSTC), using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and in terms of kidney fungal burden (log CFU/gram) after s.c. doses of 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg every 4, 8, or 12 h (corresponding to total daily doses of 5 to 240 mg/kg). The results show all treatments to significantly prolong survival versus that of infected and nontreated controls (P < 0.05). Relationships between simulated PK and PK-PD parameters and efficacy were explored. A good correlation independent of the dosing interval was observed with AUC (but not C(max) or t > MIC) and both AUSTC and kidney burden. Following repeated dosing every 8 h, AUC(50) (AUC at which 50% of the maximum therapeutic efficacy is obtained) was estimated as 21.7 and 37.1 microg. h/ml (total concentrations) for AUSTC and kidney burden using a sigmoid E(max) and an inhibitory sigmoid E(max) PK-PD model, respectively. For an efficacy target of 90% survival, AUC was predicted as 67 microg. h/ml. We conclude that the PK-PD approach is useful for evaluating relationships between PK parameters and efficacy in antifungal research. Moreover, the results obtained with this approach could be successfully applied to clinical studies.

Aviles P; Falcoz C; San Roman R; Gargallo-Viola D

2000-09-01

355

Oral microflora and their relation to risk factors in HIV+ patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral microflora and association of oral candidiasis and multiple risk factors in HIV(+) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 100 HIV-infected patients participated in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran for Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and HIV. We assessed the presence or absence of OPC, and samples were obtained from the oral cavity and direct microscopic examination, gram staining and culture on standard microbiological media were performed in all patients. CD4(+) cell count/CD4(+) percentage were also calculated. RESULTS: The demographic characteristics showed that the patients had a mean age of 32.3 years old, 78% male and 22% female. Patients belonging to 'O(+)' blood group (27%) were more prone to develop OPC. A total of 460 bacterial colonies were obtained and Streptococcus mutans (15.4%) was the most frequently isolated species in the HIV(+) patients, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.8%) and Corynebacterium (8.7%). In addition, 254 yeasts (from four different genera) were isolated from the patient under study. Candida species (94.4%) were the most frequently obtained genera, followed by Saccharomyces (2.4%), Kluyveromyces and Cryptococcus (1.6% for both) species. Candida albicans (37.2%) was the most common species isolated from HIV(+) patients with OPC and its frequency was significantly higher than that of other Candida species (P<0.05). Candida glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. guilliermondii and C. norvegensis were also identified. Forty percent of the patients had angular cheilitis as the most frequent clinical variant. The mean CD4(+) cell counts were 154.5 cells/?L, with a range of 8 to 611 cells/?L. Thirty percent patients had a CD4(+) cell count between 101 and 200 cells/?L (28.7% of total yeasts isolated). Yeast and bacteria counts did not differ statistically among HIV(+) patients' subgroups with different levels of CD4(+) cells counts. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that yeasts of the genus Candida were isolated at a comparable rate from the oral cavity of HIV(+) patients and there was no significant difference of the variables CD4(+) cell count and yeast counts. The findings of this study would be helpful in any further study, which, if done prospectively on a large cohort, can be confirmatory.

Sharifzadeh A; Khosravi AR; Shokri H; Asadi Jamnani F; Hajiabdolbaghi M; Ashrafi Tamami I

2013-06-01

356

Immune deviation in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: correlation with iron deficiency anemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) has been controversially linked to IL-4 production in previous studies. A predominant Th1 response leads to resistance against recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), whereas a Th2 response exacerbates the disease. Objective: To investigate the possible effect of iron deficiency on the host's susceptibility to RVVC as a result of the Th1/Th2 cytokine polarization. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of 92 women in 4 groups based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria: RVVC+IDA+ group consisted of 23 women with RVVC and IDA; RVVC+ IDA- group consisted of 23 women with RVVC without IDA; RVVC-IDA+ group consisted of 23 women without RVVC and with IDA and RVVC- IDA- group consisted of 23 healthy women. The iron parameters and key cytokines (IFN-?, IL-10, IL-12, IL-4) were measured in blood samples. Results: Comparison of IL-4 production between RVVC+ IDA+ (12.2 ± 1.3 pg/ml) and RVVC+ IDA- (2.4 ± 4.0 pg/ml) groups (p=0.044), between RVVC- IDA+ (14.6 ± 1.7 pg/ml) and RVVC- IDA- (1.28 ± 3.6 pg/ml) groups (p=0.006), between RVVC- IDA+ (14.6 ± 1.7 pg/ml) and RVVC+ IDA-) 2.4 ± 4.0 pg/ml) groups (p=0.009) and also between RVVC+ IDA+ and RVVC- IDA- (1.28 ± 3.6 pg/ml) groups (p=0.03) showed significant differences. We found a significant positive correlation between IL-4 and total iron binding capacity (TIBC, p=0.046) and between serum IL-10 and Hb levels (p=0.041) in the RVVC+ IDA- group. There was also a significant negative correlation between serum IL-4 and levels of serum iron (SI, p=0.041) in the RVVC- IDA- group. Conclusion: It seems that IDA determines the balance between and the intensity of Th1 and Th2 arms of the immune response and leads to a deviation toward Th2 response which could contribute to recurrence of candidiasis.

Naderi N; Etaati Z; Rezvani Joibari M; Sobhani SA; Hosseni Tashnizi S

2013-06-01

357

A pseudo-randomised clinical trial of in situ gels of fluconazole for the treatment of oropharngeal candidiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oropharyngeal candidasis is a common opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum antifungal activity including a wide variety of candida species. Aim of the present investigation was to formulate and find out the relative efficacy of in situ gels of fluconazole. Method The in situ gels were prepared using polymers which exhibited sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters, such as ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.5% w/v) along with sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (0.35%w/v). The study design was bicenter, 'pseudo-randomised, single blind trial conducted in Mangalore., India, which includes 15 HIV positive patients, 15 patients with partial or completes dentures, and 15 patients who were treated with (active control) fluconazole tablets 100 mg/day for 14 days. Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at clinical evaluations on day 3, 7, 14, 18, 21, 35, and 42. Semiquantitative microbiological cultures of oral swabs were also obtained on same days. Results All patients had mycological documented oropharyngeal candidiasis and were treated with fluconazole (0.5%w/v) in situ gels for 14 days Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at different predetermined time intervals along with semi quantitative culture of oral swabs. The clinical response rate showed 97% cure after 14 days in the treated with in situ gel. In comparison, the control group treated with fluconazole tablets showed 85% improvement in symptoms of oral candidiasis. The patients suffering from HIV infection showed relapse in oral candidiasis at the end of 21 days. The patients having oral candidiasis due to partial or complete dentures showed complete recovery and were free from signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis. Conclusions The in situ gel formulation of fluconazole was well tolerated with no severe adverse reaction and offers a better alternative to tablet formulation in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidasis. Trial registration Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN90634047

Nairy Harish M; Charyulu Narayana R; Shetty Veena A; Prabhakara Prabhu

2011-01-01

358

A pseudo-randomised clinical trial of in situ gels of fluconazole for the treatment of oropharngeal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal candidasis is a common opportunistic infection seen in immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum antifungal activity including a wide variety of candida species. Aim of the present investigation was to formulate and find out the relative efficacy of in situ gels of fluconazole. METHOD: The in situ gels were prepared using polymers which exhibited sol-to-gel phase transition due to change in specific physico-chemical parameters, such as ion triggered system using gellan gum (0.5% w/v) along with sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (0.35%w/v). The study design was bicenter, 'pseudo-randomised, single blind trial conducted in Mangalore., India, which includes 15 HIV positive patients, 15 patients with partial or completes dentures, and 15 patients who were treated with (active control) fluconazole tablets 100 mg/day for 14 days. Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at clinical evaluations on day 3, 7, 14, 18, 21, 35, and 42. Semiquantitative microbiological cultures of oral swabs were also obtained on same days. RESULTS: All patients had mycological documented oropharyngeal candidiasis and were treated with fluconazole (0.5%w/v) in situ gels for 14 days Severity of disease was scored clinically before treatment and at different predetermined time intervals along with semi quantitative culture of oral swabs. The clinical response rate showed 97% cure after 14 days in the treated with in situ gel. In comparison, the control group treated with fluconazole tablets showed 85% improvement in symptoms of oral candidiasis. The patients suffering from HIV infection showed relapse in oral candidiasis at the end of 21 days. The patients having oral candidiasis due to partial or complete dentures showed complete recovery and were free from signs and symptoms of oral candidiasis. CONCLUSIONS: The in situ gel formulation of fluconazole was well tolerated with no severe adverse reaction and offers a better alternative to tablet formulation in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidasis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trails ISRCTN90634047.

Nairy HM; Charyulu NR; Shetty VA; Prabhakara P

2011-01-01

359

Valor predictivo de la candidiasis oral como marcador de evolución a SIDA/ Predictive value of oral candidiasis as a marker of progression to AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar la validez de la candidiasis oral (CO) como marcador clínico de evolución en los pacientes infectados por el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana. Diseño del estudio: En 1992, se efectuó una exploración oral a un colectivo de 200 pacientes infectados por VIH, con una edad media de 36,8±7 años (rango 25-46 años) para establecer el diagnóstico de CO. Se registraron las variables edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad, conducta de rie (more) sgo, número de linfocitos CD4/µL, estadio clínico y tratamiento antirretroviral. De los 200 pacientes del grupo de estudio, 157 no cumplían criterios de SIDA en el momento de la exploración basal y a éstos se les efectuó un seguimiento semestral hasta que cumplieron dichos criterios, concluyendo el estudio al final de 2001. Resultados: De los 157 pacientes seleccionados, 71 (45,2%) no presentaron CO y de éstos el 28,7% evolucionó a SIDA durante el período de seguimiento. De los 86 (54,8%) pacientes con CO, el 48,2% evolucionó a SIDA (RR=2,71). Al trasladar el origen del estudio al año 1997 cuando se inició la administración de la terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE), no se observaron diferencias en el porcentaje de pacientes que evolucionaron a SIDA en relación a la existencia o no de CO en la exploración basal. El análisis multivariante demostró que la asociación de la variable de exposición CO con la evolución a SIDA no alcanzó un valor predictivo. Conclusiones: El valor pronóstico a largo plazo de la CO, no se ha determinado en pacientes que reciben terapia antirretroviral de alta eficacia (TAAE). La recuperación inmunológica y la disminución de enfermedades oportunistas observadas tras la administración de TAAE, hacen que muchos pacientes que alcanzaron la condición de SIDA no cumplan en la actualidad dichos criterios, lo que obliga a renovar la propia definición del síndrome para poder evaluar marcadores de pronóstico. Abstract in english Objective: To determine the validity of oral candidiasis (OC) as a clinical marker of progression in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Study design: In 1992, an oral examination was carried out on a group of 200 HIV-infected patients with a mean age of 36.8 ± 7 years (range 25-46 years) to establish the diagnosis of OC. The following variables were recorded: age, sex, duration of the disease, risk behaviour, CD4 lymphocyte count, clinical stage and an (more) tiretroviral treatment. Of the 200 patients in the group evaluated, 157 did not fulfil the criteria for AIDS at the time of the baseline examination; these patients constitute the study group and underwent 6-monthly follow-up until they fulfilled these criteria. The study was concluded at the end of 2001. Results: Of the 157 patients selected, 71 (45.2%) did not present OC and, of these, 28.7% progressed to AIDS during the follow-up period. Of the 86 (54.8%) patients with OC, 48.2% progressed to AIDS (RR= 2.71). If the start date of the study was taken as 1997, when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced, no differences were found in the percentage of patients who progressed to AIDS with respect to the presence or absence of OC at the baseline examination. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the association of the presence of OC with progression to AIDS did not reach a predictive value. Conclusions: The long-term prognostic value of OC has not been established in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The immunological recovery and the reduction in the number of opportunistic diseases observed after the administration of HAART means that many patients who developed AIDS do not currently satisfy these criteria, making a review of the definition of the syndrome itself a necessity in order to be able to evaluate prognostic markers.

Fernández Feijoo, Javier; Diz Dios, Pedro; Otero Cepeda, Xosé Luis; Limeres Posse, Jacobo; la Fuente Aguado, Javier de; Ocampo Hermida, Antonio

2005-02-01

360

Calendula officinalis L. en el tratamiento tópico de la candidiasis vaginal recurrente  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La candidiasis vaginal recurrente (CVR) es una enfermedad con una elevada prevalencia y los fitofármacos constituyen una opción en su tratamiento. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el efecto terapéutico y la seguridad de la Calendula officinalis L. por vía tópica en el tratamiento de la CVR. De 127 mujeres, 46 pacientes se seleccionaron aleatoriamente y se trataron con tintura de "calendula" 20%. La "calendula" se aplicó tres veces a la semana, en días alternos, durante dos semanas. Las pacientes fueron evaluadas al inicio del estudio, a los 21 y a los 30 días. La edad promedio fue de 23.7± 5.2 años y el 95.2% de las mujeres eran sexualmente activas. Al inicio del estudio, 85.7% presentó secreción vaginal abundante, pero a medida que el tratamiento progreso disminuyó el número de pacientes con leucorrea. Al inicio, la mayoría de las pacientes (83.3%) presentó prurito, luego disminuyó significativamente. Se observó una reducción en el número de pacientes con cultivo vaginal positivo a los 21 días; sólo 7 pacientes (16.7%) tuvieron cultivos positivos. La mayoría de las pacientes evolucionaron hacia la curación y no se reportaron efectos adversos. Se concluye que la Calendula officinalis L constituye una opción terapéutica en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.

Pedro Miguel MILIÁN VÁZQUEZ; Julia Madeline SEIFE RODRÍGUEZ; Roberto MORALES OJEDA; Lidia VÁZQUEZ MONTERO; Carlos MARTÍN ÁLVAREZ; Maira QUIROS ENRÍQUEZ

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Economic evaluation of micafungin versus caspofungin for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Micafungin demonstrated non-inferiority to caspofungin as definitive therapy for candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (IC) in a major randomised clinical trial. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate if micafungin is a cost-saving option compared with caspofungin for treating candidaemia and IC. METHODS: A decision analytical model was constructed to capture downstream consequences of using either agent as initial therapy for candidaemia and IC. The main outcomes were treatment success and treatment failure (i.e. death, mycological persistence, emergent infection, clinical failure but microbiological success). Outcome probabilities and treatment pathways were derived from the literature. Cost inputs were from the latest Australian resources, and resource use was estimated by expert panel. The analysis was from the Australian hospital perspective. Sensitivity analyses using Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. RESULTS: Micafungin (AU$52?816) was associated with a lower total cost than caspofungin (AU$52?976), with a net cost-saving of $160 per patient. This was primarily due to the lower cost associated with alternative antifungal treatment in the micafungin arm. Hospitalisation was the main cost-driver for both arms. The model outcome was most sensitive to the proportion of treatment success in the micafungin arm. Uncertainty analysis demonstrated that micafungin had a 58% chance of being cost-saving compared with caspofungin. CONCLUSIONS: Micafungin was cost-equivalent to caspofungin in treating candidaemia and IC, with variation in drug acquisition cost the critical factor.

Neoh CF; Liew D; Slavin MA; Marriott D; Chen SC; Morrissey O; Stewart K; Kong DC

2013-06-01

362

Curcumin-mediated photodynamic inactivation of Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro investigations of curcumin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) are encouraging, but there is a lack of reliable in vivo evidence of its efficacy. This study describes the photoinactivation of Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidiasis, using curcumin as a photosensitizer. Forty immunosuppressed mice were orally inoculated with C. albicans and after five days, they received topical curcumin (20, 40 and 80 ?M) and illumination with LED light. The use of curcumin or light alone were also investigated. Positive control animals did not receive any treatment and negative control animals were not inoculated with C. albicans. The number of surviving yeast cells was determined and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (? = 0.05). Histological evaluation of the presence of yeast and inflammatory reaction was also conducted. All exposures to curcumin with LED light caused a significant reduction in C. albicans viability after PDT, but the use of 80 ?M curcumin associated with light was able to induce the highest log10 reduction in colony counts (4 logs). It was concluded that curcumin-mediated PDT proved to be effective for in vivo inactivation of C. albicans without harming the host tissue of mice. PMID:22934533

Dovigo, Lívia Nordi; Carmello, Juliana Cabrini; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

2012-08-31

363

Improved efficacy of fluconazole against candidiasis using bio-based microemulsion technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen that causes systemic and superficial infections in most immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole, a synthetic triazole antifungal agent, is the most prescribed drug used in treating this pathogen. But because of its poor solubilization in water and the emergence of resistant strains against this antimycotic drug, we aimed at devising a unique microemulsion drug delivery system for fluconazole against candidiasis. A clear oil-in-water microemulsion system, consisting of clove oil as oil phase, Tween 20 as surfactant, and water as aqueous phase was developed using a ternary phase diagram. Physicochemical characterization was done to understand the internal physicochemical state. The bulk drug, fluconazole, that measured several microns in length was reduced to a 10-65 nm range with no means of high-energy methods as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The very small and uniform spherical structure of the drug-loaded microemulsion system could be of high impact to the biological system as the efficacy of fluconazole is greatly improved when compared with its conventional bulk form. The optimized microemulsion exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity at a minimum concentration (8 µg/ml) of fluconazole as examined by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Thus, our report discloses an excellent oral drug delivery system.

Nirmala MJ; Mukherjee A; Chandrasekaran N

2013-07-01

364

Improved efficacy of fluconazole against candidiasis using bio-based microemulsion technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen that causes systemic and superficial infections in most immunocompromised patients. Fluconazole, a synthetic triazole antifungal agent, is the most prescribed drug used in treating this pathogen. But because of its poor solubilization in water and the emergence of resistant strains against this antimycotic drug, we aimed at devising a unique microemulsion drug delivery system for fluconazole against candidiasis. A clear oil-in-water microemulsion system, consisting of clove oil as oil phase, Tween 20 as surfactant, and water as aqueous phase was developed using a ternary phase diagram. Physicochemical characterization was done to understand the internal physicochemical state. The bulk drug, fluconazole, that measured several microns in length was reduced to a 10-65 nm range with no means of high-energy methods as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The very small and uniform spherical structure of the drug-loaded microemulsion system could be of high impact to the biological system as the efficacy of fluconazole is greatly improved when compared with its conventional bulk form. The optimized microemulsion exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity at a minimum concentration (8 µg/ml) of fluconazole as examined by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Thus, our report discloses an excellent oral drug delivery system. PMID:23586695

Nirmala, M Joyce; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N

2013-07-31

365

In vivo activity of sertaconazole in experimental candidiasis in the mouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antifungal activity of sertaconazole (SZ), 1-(2-[(7-chlorobenzo[b]thien-3-yl)methoxyl]- 2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl)-1H-imidazole, has been assessed in vivo in comparison with miconazole (MZ) in a murine vaginal candidiasis model. Mice (eight per group) were maintained in oestrus by subcutaneous injection of oestradiol benzoate (25 mg/kg) 5 days before and 2 days after inoculation intravaginally with 5 x 10(4) blastospores of C. albicans (strain No. 17) in 0.05 ml. Animals were treated with 0.03 ml of the appropriate 2% cream formulation 1 h after infection (single dose regimen) or on days 3, 4 and 5 post-infection (three-dose regimen). The efficacy was measured in each test group by Sabouraud agar plate count of vaginal specimens and expressed as % reduction in the number of yeast cells with regard to the control group (infected and untreated). The two treatments indicated a significant reduction (according to the non-parametric method of Mann-Whitney) (p greater than 0.05) for both SZ (97.9% and 93.6%) and MZ (77.5% and 76.9%) groups. When the values from SZ and MZ were compared, SZ proved more active than MZ in the single dose regimen.

Palacin C; Sacristán A; Ortiz JA

1990-01-01

366

In vivo activity of sertaconazole in experimental candidiasis in the mouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antifungal activity of sertaconazole (SZ), 1-(2-[(7-chlorobenzo[b]thien-3-yl)methoxyl]- 2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl)-1H-imidazole, has been assessed in vivo in comparison with miconazole (MZ) in a murine vaginal candidiasis model. Mice (eight per group) were maintained in oestrus by subcutaneous injection of oestradiol benzoate (25 mg/kg) 5 days before and 2 days after inoculation intravaginally with 5 x 10(4) blastospores of C. albicans (strain No. 17) in 0.05 ml. Animals were treated with 0.03 ml of the appropriate 2% cream formulation 1 h after infection (single dose regimen) or on days 3, 4 and 5 post-infection (three-dose regimen). The efficacy was measured in each test group by Sabouraud agar plate count of vaginal specimens and expressed as % reduction in the number of yeast cells with regard to the control group (infected and untreated). The two treatments indicated a significant reduction (according to the non-parametric method of Mann-Whitney) (p greater than 0.05) for both SZ (97.9% and 93.6%) and MZ (77.5% and 76.9%) groups. When the values from SZ and MZ were compared, SZ proved more active than MZ in the single dose regimen. PMID:2100249

Palacin, C; Sacristán, A; Ortiz, J A

1990-01-01

367

Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model.

De Bernardis F; Santoni G; Boccanera M; Lucciarini R; Arancia S; Sandini S; Amantini C; Cassone A

2010-06-01

368

IL-22 and IDO1 affect immunity and tolerance to murine and human vaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to tolerate Candida albicans, a human commensal of the gastrointestinal tract and vagina, implicates that host defense mechanisms of resistance and tolerance cooperate to limit fungal burden and inflammation at the different body sites. We evaluated resistance and tolerance to the fungus in experimental and human vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) as well as in recurrent VVC (RVVC). Resistance and tolerance mechanisms were both activated in murine VVC, involving IL-22 and IL-10-producing regulatory T cells, respectively, with a major contribution by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). IDO1 was responsible for the production of tolerogenic kynurenines, such that replacement therapy with kynurenines restored immunoprotection to VVC. In humans, two functional genetic variants in IL22 and IDO1 genes were found to be associated with heightened resistance to RVVC, and they correlated with increased local expression of IL-22, IDO1 and kynurenines. Thus, IL-22 and IDO1 are crucial in balancing resistance with tolerance to Candida, their deficiencies are risk factors for RVVC, and targeting tolerance via therapeutic kynurenines may benefit patients with RVVC.

De Luca A; Carvalho A; Cunha C; Iannitti RG; Pitzurra L; Giovannini G; Mencacci A; Bartolommei L; Moretti S; Massi-Benedetti C; Fuchs D; De Bernardis F; Puccetti P; Romani L

2013-07-01

369

Bee-honey and yogurt: a novel mixture for treating patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis during pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and mycological cure rates of a novel mixture consisting of Bee-honey and yogurt compared to local antifungal agents for treating patients with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective comparative study which included 129 patients with VVC during pregnancy. The participants were allocated into study group (n = 82) who received a mixture of Bee-honey and yogurt vaginally and control group (n = 47) who received local anti-fungal agents. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the clinical and mycological cure rates and the side-effects of both modes of therapy. RESULTS: The clinical cure rate was significantly higher in the study than the control group (87.8 vs. 72.3%, respectively) while the mycological cure rate was higher in the control than the study group (91.5 vs. 76.9%, respectively). Both types of therapy were favorably tolerated by most of the patients. Side effects were reported only in 24.3 and 29.7% of patients in group I and II, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mixture of Bee-honey and yogurt produced a high clinical cure rate and a reasonable mycological cure rate. It can be used as a complementary or an alternative to antifungal agents especially in patients with VVC during pregnancy.

Abdelmonem AM; Rasheed SM; Mohamed AS

2012-02-01

370

Bee-honey and yogurt: a novel mixture for treating patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis during pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and mycological cure rates of a novel mixture consisting of Bee-honey and yogurt compared to local antifungal agents for treating patients with vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (VVC) during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective comparative study which included 129 patients with VVC during pregnancy. The participants were allocated into study group (n = 82) who received a mixture of Bee-honey and yogurt vaginally and control group (n = 47) who received local anti-fungal agents. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the clinical and mycological cure rates and the side-effects of both modes of therapy. RESULTS: The clinical cure rate was significantly higher in the study than the control group (87.8 vs. 72.3%, respectively) while the mycological cure rate was higher in the control than the study group (91.5 vs. 76.9%, respectively). Both types of therapy were favorably tolerated by most of the patients. Side effects were reported only in 24.3 and 29.7% of patients in group I and II, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mixture of Bee-honey and yogurt produced a high clinical cure rate and a reasonable mycological cure rate. It can be used as a complementary or an alternative to antifungal agents especially in patients with VVC during pregnancy. PMID:22314434

Abdelmonem, Allam M; Rasheed, Salah M; Mohamed, Abeer Sh

2012-02-01

371

Dectin-1 isoforms contribute to distinct Th1/Th17 cell activation in mucosal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The recognition of ?-glucans by dectin-1 has been shown to mediate cell activation, cytokine production and a variety of antifungal responses. Here, we report that the functional activity of dectin-1 in mucosal immunity to Candida albicans is influenced by the genetic background of the host. Dectin-1 was required for the proper control of gastrointestinal and vaginal candidiasis in C57BL/6, but not BALB/c mice; in fact, the latter showed increased resistance in the absence of dectin-1. The susceptibility of dectin-1-deficient C57BL/6 mice to infection was associated with defects in IL-17A and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent IL-22 production and in adaptive Th1 responses. In contrast, the resistance of dectin-1-deficient BALB/c mice was associated with increased IL-17A and IL-22 production and the skewing towards Th1/Treg immune responses that provide immunological memory. Disparate canonical/noncanonical NF-?B signaling pathways downstream of dectin-1 were activated in the two different mouse strains. Thus, the net activity of dectin-1 in antifungal mucosal immunity is dependent on the host's genetic background, which affects both the innate cytokine production and the adaptive Th1/Th17 cell activation upon dectin-1 signaling.

Carvalho A; Giovannini G; De Luca A; D'Angelo C; Casagrande A; Iannitti RG; Ricci G; Cunha C; Romani L

2012-05-01

372

An ACT1 Mutation Selectively Abolishes Interleukin-17 Responses in Humans with Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with inborn errors of interleukin-17F (IL-17F) or IL-17RA display chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We report a biallelic missense mutation (T536I) in the adaptor molecule ACT1 in two siblings with CMC. The mutation, located in the SEFIR domain, abolished the homotypic interaction of ACT1 with IL-17 receptors, with no effect on homodimerization. The patients' fibroblasts failed to respond to IL-17A and IL-17F, and their T cells to IL-17E. By contrast, healthy individuals homozygous for the common variant D10N, located in the ACT1 tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-interacting domain and previously associated with psoriasis, had impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17 cytokines. SEFIR-independent interactions of ACT1 with other proteins, such as CD40, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and HSP90, were not affected by the T536I mutation. Overall, human IL-17A and IL-17F depend on ACT1 to mediate protective mucocutaneous immunity. Moreover, other ACT1-dependent IL-17 cytokines seem to be largely redundant in host defense. PMID:24120361

Boisson, Bertrand; Wang, Chenhui; Pedergnana, Vincent; Wu, Ling; Cypowyj, Sophie; Rybojad, Michel; Belkadi, Aziz; Picard, Capucine; Abel, Laurent; Fieschi, Claire; Puel, Anne; Li, Xiaoxia; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

2013-10-10

373

Autoimmunity and cystatin SA1 deficiency behind chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients with the monogenic disease autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APSI) develop autoimmunity against multiple endocrine organs and suffer from chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), a paradoxical complication with an unknown mechanism. We report here that saliva from APSI patients with CMC is defective in inhibiting growth of Candida albicans in vitro and show reduced levels of a salivary protein identified as cystatin SA1. In contrast, APSI patients without CMC express salivary cystatin SA1 and can inhibit C. albicans to the same extent as healthy controls. We evaluated the anti-fungal activity of cystatin SA1 and found that synthesized full length cystatin SA1 efficiently inhibits growth of C. albicans in vitro. Moreover, APSI patients exhibit salivary IgA autoantibodies recognizing myosin-9, a protein expressed in the salivary glands, thus linking autoimmunity to cystatin SA1 deficiency and CMC. This data suggests an autoimmune mechanism behind CMC in APSI and provides rationale for evaluating cystatin SA1 in antifungal therapy.

Lindh E; Brännström J; Jones P; Wermeling F; Hässler S; Betterle C; Garty BZ; Stridsberg M; Herrmann B; Karlsson MC; Winqvist O

2013-05-01

374

Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive thermoresponsive systems containing propolis for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work describes the preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive thermoresponsive systems consisted of poloxamer 407 (P407), Carbopol® 934P (C934P), and propolis to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Systems were obtained with different percentages of P407 and C934P to deliver propolis, a potent drug against VVC. Temperature of gelation, hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness, mucoadhesion, rheology (continuous flow and oscillatory), in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Increasing the polymer content or temperature and the drug presence significantly increased mechanical properties of formulations. These exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy. In most samples, increasing the C934P content significantly changed the oscillatory rheological properties. Formulations showed thermoresponsive behavior, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 34°C-37°C. Propolis release from formulations was controlled by phenomenon of relaxation of polymer chains or displayed anomalous behavior, dependent of concentration of each polymer. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of preparations was evaluated against microorganisms of vaginal importance (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), displaying activity against all yeast tested. The data obtained for these systems indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of VVC and suggest they are worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:23334938

Pereira, Raphaela Regina de Araújo; Ribeiro Godoy, Janine Silva; Stivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; Bruschi, Marcos Luciano

2013-01-18

375

Associations with asymptomatic colonization with candida in women reporting past vaginal candidiasis: an observational study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Asymptomatic vaginal colonization with Candida species is a known risk factor for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Taking known risk factors for symptomatic VVC, the authors sought to identify factors associated with asymptomatic colonization. STUDY DESIGN: As part of a randomized controlled trial which compared vaginal candidal colony counts in women taking garlic tablets or placebo, 192 asymptomatic women collected a baseline screening swab for Candida species. Eligibility for this study included at least one self-reported episode of VVC in the previous 12 months and age 18-50 years. Known risk factors for VVC were compared in women colonized with candida and those without colonization. RESULTS: 37% of asymptomatic women who self-reported VVC in the previous 12 months were colonized with vaginal Candida species. Using multivariate analysis, two factors were associated with asymptomatic colonization: a current sexual partner (P=0.02) and being born outside of Australia (P=0.05). Use of oral contraceptives was not statistically significant (P=0.27). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical relevance of asymptomatic colonization with vaginal yeast and its link to episodes of VVC warrants further investigation.

Watson CJ; Fairley CK; Grando D; Garland SM; Myers SP; Pirotta M

2013-07-01

376

Antifungal Activity of Brazilian Propolis Microparticles against Yeasts Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Propolis, a resinous compound produced by Apis mellifera L. bees, is known to possess a variety of biological activities and is applied in the therapy of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity of propolis ethanol extract (PE) and propolis microparticles (PMs) obtained from a sample of Brazilian propolis against clinical yeast isolates of importance in the vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). PE was used to prepare the microparticles. Yeast isolates (n = 89), obtained from vaginal exudates of patients with VVC, were exposed to the PE and the PMs. Moreover, the main antifungal drugs used in the treatment of VVC (Fluconazole, Voriconazole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole and Amphotericin B) were also tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined according to the standard broth microdilution method. Some Candida albicans isolates showed resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs and Amphotericin B. Non-C. albicans isolates showed more resistance and dose-dependent susceptibility for the azolic drugs than C. albicans. However, all of them were sensitive or dose-dependent susceptible for Amphotericin B. All yeasts were inhibited by PE and PMs, with small variation, independent of the species of yeast. The overall results provided important information for the potential application of PMs in the therapy of VVC and the possible prevention of the occurrence of new symptomatic episodes.

Dota KF; Consolaro ME; Svidzinski TI; Bruschi ML

2011-01-01

377

MRI confirms loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disseminated candidiasis primarily targets the kidneys and brain in mice and humans. Damage to these critical organs leads to the high mortality associated with such infections, and invasion across the blood-brain barrier can result in fungal meningoencephalitis. Candida albicans can penetrate a brain endothelial cell barrier in vitro through transcellular migration, but this mechanism has not been confirmed in vivo. MRI using the extracellular vascular contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid demonstrated that integrity of the blood-brain barrier is lost during C. albicans invasion. Intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to provide the first real-time demonstration of C. albicans colonizing the living brain, where both yeast and filamentous forms of the pathogen were found. Furthermore, we adapted a previously described method utilizing MRI to monitor inflammatory cell recruitment into infected tissues in mice. Macrophages and other phagocytes were visualized in kidney and brain by the administration of ultrasmall iron oxide particles. In addition to obtaining new insights into the passage of C. albicans across the brain microvasculature, these imaging methods provide useful tools to study further the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections, to define the roles of Candida virulence genes in kidney versus brain infection and to assess new therapeutic measures for drug development. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Navarathna DH; Munasinghe J; Lizak MJ; Nayak D; McGavern DB; Roberts DD

2013-09-01

378

Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model. PMID:20402794

De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

2010-03-08

379

Monoclonal antibody 3H8: a useful tool in the diagnosis of candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a previous series of experiments six mAbs were obtained against cell wall extracts of Candida albicans ATCC 26555. After several studies only one of them, designated 3H8, has been used to produce a commercial kit for the rapid diagnosis of candidiasis, Bichro-latex albicans (Fomouze Diagnostics). The present study involved the generation and characterization of this mAb as an immunoglobulin G1 which recognizes mannoproteins of high molecular mass present in the C. albicans cell wall. ELISA assays showed that the presence of the epitope recognized by mAb 3H8 was similar in both yeast and mycelial cell walls of C. albicans, in contrast to the epitope for mAb 1B12, which is mainly expressed in the yeast cell wall. The 3H8 epitope was located at the external surface in C. albicans ATCC 26555, whereas it is partially cryptic in the cell wall in other C. albicans strains. No reaction was observed with other Candida species. Immunohistochemical studies using this antibody demonstrated that it specifically recognized C. albicans in tissue, detecting mycelial forms and, to a lesser extent, blastospores, suggesting that it is also a valuable tool in the evaluation of fungal infections in paraffin-embedded tissue, particularly when identification is required. PMID:10217504

Marcilla, A; Monteagudo, C; Mormeneo, S; Sentandreu, R

1999-03-01

380

Monoclonal antibody 3H8: a useful tool in the diagnosis of candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a previous series of experiments six mAbs were obtained against cell wall extracts of Candida albicans ATCC 26555. After several studies only one of them, designated 3H8, has been used to produce a commercial kit for the rapid diagnosis of candidiasis, Bichro-latex albicans (Fomouze Diagnostics). The present study involved the generation and characterization of this mAb as an immunoglobulin G1 which recognizes mannoproteins of high molecular mass present in the C. albicans cell wall. ELISA assays showed that the presence of the epitope recognized by mAb 3H8 was similar in both yeast and mycelial cell walls of C. albicans, in contrast to the epitope for mAb 1B12, which is mainly expressed in the yeast cell wall. The 3H8 epitope was located at the external surface in C. albicans ATCC 26555, whereas it is partially cryptic in the cell wall in other C. albicans strains. No reaction was observed with other Candida species. Immunohistochemical studies using this antibody demonstrated that it specifically recognized C. albicans in tissue, detecting mycelial forms and, to a lesser extent, blastospores, suggesting that it is also a valuable tool in the evaluation of fungal infections in paraffin-embedded tissue, particularly when identification is required.

Marcilla A; Monteagudo C; Mormeneo S; Sentandreu R

1999-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive thermoresponsive systems containing propolis for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work describes the preparation and characterization of mucoadhesive thermoresponsive systems consisted of poloxamer 407 (P407), Carbopol® 934P (C934P), and propolis to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Systems were obtained with different percentages of P407 and C934P to deliver propolis, a potent drug against VVC. Temperature of gelation, hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, elasticity, cohesiveness, mucoadhesion, rheology (continuous flow and oscillatory), in vitro drug release, and antimicrobial activity were evaluated. Increasing the polymer content or temperature and the drug presence significantly increased mechanical properties of formulations. These exhibited pseudoplastic flow and low degrees of thixotropy. In most samples, increasing the C934P content significantly changed the oscillatory rheological properties. Formulations showed thermoresponsive behavior, existing as a liquid at room temperature and gel at 34°C-37°C. Propolis release from formulations was controlled by phenomenon of relaxation of polymer chains or displayed anomalous behavior, dependent of concentration of each polymer. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of preparations was evaluated against microorganisms of vaginal importance (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), displaying activity against all yeast tested. The data obtained for these systems indicate a potentially useful role in the treatment of VVC and suggest they are worthy of clinical evaluation.

Pereira RR; Ribeiro Godoy JS; Stivalet Svidzinski TI; Bruschi ML

2013-04-01

382

High intrafamilial variability in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy- candidiasis-ectodermal-dystrophy syndrome (APECED) is a monogenic disease whose phenotype may reveal wide heterogeneity. The reasons of this variability still remain obscure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two APECED siblings with identical genotype and extremely different phenotype were compared with regard to exposure to infectious triggers, autoantibodies' profile, mechanisms of peripheral tolerance, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype. The following infectious markers were evaluated: rubella, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma, varicella zoster virus, parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus, and parainfluenza virus. APECED-related autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence or complement fixation or enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay or radioimmunoassay. Resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis was evaluated on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) activated with phytohemoagglutinin, the number of TCD4+CD25+ regulatory cells (Treg) was evaluated through flow-cytometry and natural killer (NK) activity through Wallac method. Perforin (PRF1) was amplified by PCR and sequenced. RESULTS: No difference was observed between the siblings in common infectious triggers, extent of Fas-induced apoptosis, NK-cell activity and PRF1 sequence, the number of Tregs and HLA haplotypes. CONCLUSION: Although APECED is a monogenic disease, its expressivity may be extremely different even in the same family. This variability cannot be explained by common triggering infectious agents or functional alterations of mechanisms governing peripheral tolerance.

Capalbo D; Fusco A; Aloj G; Improda N; Vitiello L; Dianzani U; Betterle C; Salerno M; Pignata C

2012-01-01

383

MRI confirms loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disseminated candidiasis primarily targets the kidneys and brain in mice and humans. Damage to these critical organs leads to the high mortality associated with such infections, and invasion across the blood-brain barrier can result in fungal meningoencephalitis. Candida albicans can penetrate a brain endothelial cell barrier in vitro through transcellular migration, but this mechanism has not been confirmed in vivo. MRI using the extracellular vascular contrast agent gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid demonstrated that integrity of the blood-brain barrier is lost during C. albicans invasion. Intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy was used to provide the first real-time demonstration of C. albicans colonizing the living brain, where both yeast and filamentous forms of the pathogen were found. Furthermore, we adapted a previously described method utilizing MRI to monitor inflammatory cell recruitment into infected tissues in mice. Macrophages and other phagocytes were visualized in kidney and brain by the administration of ultrasmall iron oxide particles. In addition to obtaining new insights into the passage of C. albicans across the brain microvasculature, these imaging methods provide useful tools to study further the pathogenesis of C. albicans infections, to define the roles of Candida virulence genes in kidney versus brain infection and to assess new therapeutic measures for drug development. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:23606437

Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Lizak, Martin J; Nayak, Debasis; McGavern, Dorian B; Roberts, David D

2013-04-22

384

Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Gels with Propolis (EPP-AF) in Preclinical Treatment of Candidiasis Vulvovaginal Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second cause of vaginal infection in the USA. Clinical treatment of C. albicans infections is routinely performed with polyenes and azole derivatives. However, these drugs are responsible for undesirable side effects and toxicity. In addition, C. albicans azole and echinocandin resistance has been described. Propolis is a bee product traditionally used due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and other properties. Therefore, the present work aimed to evaluate different propolis presentations in order to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. The methodologies involved antifungal evaluation, chemical analysis, and the effects of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of propolis based gels. The obtained results demonstrated the fungicide action of propolis extracts against all three morphotypes (yeast, pseudohyphae, and hyphae) studied. The highest level of fungal cytotoxicity was reached at 6–8 hours of propolis cell incubation. Among the based gel formulations developed, the rheological and mucoadhesive results suggest that propolis based carbopol (CP1%) and chitosan gels were the most pseudoplastic ones. CP1% was the most mucoadhesive preparation, and all of them presented low thixotropy. Results of in vivo efficacy demonstrated that propolis based gels present antifungal action similar to clotrimazole cream, suggesting that future clinical studies should be performed.

de Castro, Patricia Alves; Fortes, Vanessa Silveira; Bom, Vinicius Pedro; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Marquele-Oliveira, Franciane; Pedrazzi, Vinicius; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

2013-01-01

385

Prevalence and treatment management of oropharyngeal candidiasis in cancer patients: results of the French CANDIDOSCOPE study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. RESULTS: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%] in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). CONCLUSION: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

Gligorov J; Bastit L; Gervais H; Henni M; Kahila W; Lepille D; Luporsi E; Sasso G; Varette C; Azria D

2011-06-01