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Sample records for cancer hela cells

  1. Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Ma, Jinshu; Wang, Fang; Hu, Jie; Cui, Ai; Wei, Chengguo; Yang, Qing; Li, Fan

    2013-02-01

    Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) staining showed that amygdalin-treated HeLa cells developed typical apoptotic changes. The development of apoptosis in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells were confirmed by double staining of amygdalin-treated HeLa cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) along with increase in caspase-3 activity in these cells. Further studies indicated that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated whereas proapoptotic Bax protein was upregulated in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells implying involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, amygdalin administration inhibited the growth of HeLa cell xenografts through a mechanism of apoptosis. The results in the present study suggest that amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer. PMID:23137229

  2. Effect of quercetin on radiosensitivity of human uterine cervix cancer HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the effects of Quercetin on radiosensitivity of human Uterine Cervix Cancer HeLa cells, MTT assay and clonogenic assay were performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of Quercetin on the cells. Clonogenic assay was used to observe its effects on the radiosensitivity of the cells. MTT result shows that the inhibition of Quercetin on the cells is in the dose-dependent and time-dependent. And the clonogenic assay result shows that the effect of Quercetin on HeLa cells can be divided into two parts, one for the inhibition of HeLa cells and another for the induction of HeLa cell death. The other clonogenic assay result also shows Quercetin can decrease clonogenic survival rate of HeLa cells exposed to X rays. The study shows Quercetin might enhance the radiosensitivity of the HeLa cell line. And it may provide a useful evaluation to combination of ionizing radiation and Quercetin for cancer patients. (authors)

  3. HIF-1 and NDRG2 contribute to hypoxia-induced radioresistance of cervical cancer Hela cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), the key mediator of hypoxia signaling pathways, has been shown involved in hypoxia-induced radioresistance. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study demonstrated that both hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride could increase the radioresistance of human cervical cancer Hela cells. Meanwhile, ectopic expression of HIF-1 could enhance the resistance of Hela cells to radiation, whereas knocking-down of HIF-1 could increase the sensitivity of Hela cells to radiation in the presence of hypoxia. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a new HIF-1 target gene identified in our lab, was found to be upregulated by hypoxia and radiation in a HIF-1-dependent manner. Overexpression of NDRG2 resulted in decreased sensitivity of Hela cells to radiation while silencing NDRG2 led to radiosensitization. Moreover, NDRG2 was proved to protect Hela cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and abolish radiation-induced upregulation of Bax. Taken together, these data suggest that both HIF-1 and NDRG2 contribute to hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance and that NDRG2 acts downstream of HIF-1 to promote radioresistance through suppressing radiation-induced Bax expression. It would be meaningful to further explore the clinical application potential of HIF-1 and NDRG2 blockade as radiosensitizer for tumor therapy.

  4. Cytotoxic Effects of Native and Recombinant Frutalin, a Plant Galactose-Binding Lectin, on HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lucília Domingues; José A. Teixeira; Ana Nicolau; Carla Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Frutalin is the ?-D-galactose-binding lectin isolated from breadfruit seeds. Frutalin was obtained from two different sources: native frutalin was purified from its natural origin, and recombinant frutalin was produced and purified from Pichia pastoris. This work aimed to study and compare the effect of native and recombinant frutalin on HeLa cervical cancer cells proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the interaction between frutalin and the HeLa cells was investigated by confocal microsc...

  5. Effects of Smac gene over-expression on radiotherapeutic sensitivity of cervical cancer cell line HeLa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effects of extrinsic Smac gene transfection and its over-expression on radiotherapeutic sensitivity of cervical cancer cells, in order to explore a novel strategy for ameliorating radiotherapy of cervical cancer. Methods: After Smac gene was transferred into cells of cervical cancer cell line HeLa, the subclone cells were obtained by persistent G418 selection. Cellular Smac gene expression was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. After treatment with X-ray irradiation, cellular growth activity in vitro was investigated by MTT colorimetry. Cellular apoptosis and its rate were determined by electron microscopy, Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide staining flow cytometry. Cellular Caspase-3 protein expression and its activity were assayed by Western blot and colorimetry. Results: RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that Smac mRNA and protein levels of HeLa/Smac cells, the selected subclone cells of cervical cancer cell line, were significantly higher than those of HeLa cells (P<0.01). After treated with 8 Gy X-ray irradiation, growth activity of HeLa/Smac cells reduced by 10.19%(P<0.01), as compared with that of HeLa cells. Partial HeLa/Smac cancer cells presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under electron microscope, with an apoptosis rate of 16.4%, which was significantly higher than that of HeLa cells(6.2%, P<0.01). Compared with HeLa cells, Caspase-3 expression level in HeLa/Smac was improved significantly ( in HeLa/Smac was improved significantly (P<0.01), while its activity was 3.42 times as much as that of HeLa cells (P<0.01). Conclusion: Stable transfection of extrinsic Smac gene and its over-expression in cervical cancer cell line could significantly enhance cellular caspase-3 expression and activity, ameliorate apoptosis-inducing effects of radiation on cancer cells, which would be a novel strategy to improve radiotherapeutic effects for cervical cancer. (authors)

  6. Curcumin-mediated decrease in the expression of nucleolar organizer regions in cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna; Adamczyk, Jagoda; Pajak, Justyna; Stoklosa, Sylwia; Kubis, Barbara; Pastuszek, Paulina; Slota, Ewa; Wnuk, Maciej

    2014-09-01

    Curcumin, the major yellow-orange pigment of turmeric derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is a highly pleiotropic molecule with the potential to modulate inflammation, oxidative stress, cell survival, cell secretion, homeostasis and proliferation. Curcumin, at relatively high concentrations, was repeatedly reported to be a potent inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells and thus considered a promising anticancer agent. In the present paper, the effects of low concentrations of curcumin on human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were studied. We found curcumin-mediated decrease in the cell number and viability, and increase in apoptotic events and superoxide level. In contrast to previously shown curcumin cytotoxicity toward different cervical cancer lines, we observed toxic effects when even as low as 1 ?M concentration of curcumin was used. Curcumin was not genotoxic to HeLa cells. Because argyrophilic nucleolar protein (AgNOR protein) expression is elevated in malignant cells compared to normal cells reflecting the rapidity of cancer cell proliferation, we evaluated curcumin-associated changes in size (area) and number of silver deposits. We showed curcumin-induced decrease in AgNOR protein pools, which may be mediated by global DNA hypermethylation observed after low concentration curcumin treatment. In summary, we have shown for the first time that curcumin at low micromolar range may be effective against HeLa cells, which may have implications for curcumin-based treatment of cervical cancer in humans. PMID:25308441

  7. Serum ferritin in patients with cancer: determination with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some malignant tissues and cell lines contain acidic isoferritins and it has been suggested that the assay of such isoferritins in serum may be of value in the diagnosis of malignancy. This paper describes a radioimmunoassay for acidic ferritin purified from HeLa cells. Examination of purified heart, kidney, liver and spleen ferritin showed that the assay was highly specific for acidic isoferritins. Ferritin concentrations have been measured with antibodies to HeLa cell and spleen ferritin in extracts of normal and tumour tissue. Although the tumours contained more HeLa type ferritin than the corresponding normal tissue the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was low. HeLa-type ferritin concentrations have been compared with values obtained with anti-spleen ferritin in over 1000 sera from normal subjects and patients with cancer and leukaemia. HeLa-type ferritin was not detected (<2 ?g/l) in most normal sera. Concentrations of up to 53 ?g/l were found in sera from patients with malignant disease but the HeLa/spleen type ferritin ratio was always very low. There appears to be little application for antibodies to HeLa cell or heart ferritin in the diagnosis or monitoring of cancer. (Auth.)

  8. The effects of ionizing radiation combined with autophagy inducers or inhibitors or inhibitors on human cervical cancer hela cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect the effects of ionizing radiation combined with autophagy inhibitors and inducers on the proliferation of human cervical cancer cell line. Methods: MTT and flowcytometry (FCM) were used to detect the surviving and proliferation of human cervical cancer cells,and analysis of the relationship of dose-effect and time-effect was made. Results: With the increase of irradiation doses (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy) and the elongation of irradiation time (24, 48 and 72 h), the inhibiting effect of ionizing radiation on the proliferation of human cervical cancer cells increased (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01). The inhibiting effect of 6 Gy combined with autophagy inducer rapamycin on the proliferation of Hela cells weakened (P< 0.05). The inhibiting effects of 6 Gy combined with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA on the cell proliferation were higher than those in 6 Gy group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Ionizing radiation combined with autophagy inducers can inhibit apoptosis in Hela cells, while the ionizing radiation combined with autophagy inhibitors can promote their apoptosis. (authors)

  9. Inotodiol inhabits proliferation and induces apoptosis through modulating expression of cyclinE, p27, bcl-2, and bax in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Yang, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Zhong; Yang, Ning-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used as an effective agent to treat various diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis and cancer. Inotodiol, an included triterpenoid shows significant anti-tumor effect. However, the mechanisms have not been well documented. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inotodiol on proliferation and apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of inotodiol. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferating ability, flow cytometry (FCM) was employed for cell cycle analysis and cell apoptosis, while expression of cyclinE, p27, bcl-2 and bax was detected by immunocytochemistry. Proliferation of HeLa cells was inhibited by inotodiolin a dose-dependent manner at 24h (r=0.9999, pcancer. PMID:24815470

  10. The Ability to Survive Mitosis in the Presence of Microtubule Poisons Differs Significantly Between Human Nontransformed (RPE-1) and Cancer (U2OS, HeLa) Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Daniela A; Rieder, Conly L

    2009-01-01

    We used live cell imaging to compare the fate of human nontransformed (RPE-1) and cancer (HeLa, U2OS) cells as they entered mitosis in nocodazole or taxol. In the same field, and in either drug, a cell in all lines could die in mitosis, exit mitosis and die within 10 h, or exit mitosis and survive ?10 h. Relative to RPE-1 cells, significantly fewer HeLa or U2OS cells survived mitosis or remained viable after mitosis: in nocodazole concentrations that inhibit spindle microtubule assembly, or...

  11. Role of PI3K/Akt/COX-2 pathway in the radiation resistance of human cervical cancer HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the role of PI3K/Akt/COX-2 pathway in the radiation resistance of human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Methods: The HeLa cells were cultured in vitro. Using Celecoxib in Hela cells or associated with LY294002 for 24 h, the cells were radiated by different doses of X-ray. The cell survival ratio was detected by clone formation. To calculate Dq , D0, SF2, SER, the cell survival curve was draw by one-hit multitarget model. The expression of pAkt, Akt, COX-2, Bad and pBad were detected by Western blot. The mRNA expression of COX-2 and Bad was detected by RT-PCR. Results: The Dq, D0, SF2 of Celecoxib or associated with LY294002 group was lower than those in radiation group. The pathway PI3K/Akt/COX-2 was activated by irradiation. Celecoxib inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt/COX-2 for multitarget. Conclusions: The activation of PI3K/Akt/COX-2 signal transduction resulted in resistance of radiosensitization in HeLa cell. It was indicated that inhibiting PI3K/Akt/COX-2 pathway could improve the radiosensitivity of human cervical cancer HeLa cells. (authors)

  12. Mechanical trapping of the nucleus on micropillared surfaces inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells but not cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kazuaki; Hamaji, Yumi; Sato, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takeo

    2015-07-16

    The interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix on a topographically patterned surface can result in changes in cell shape and many cellular functions. In the present study, we demonstrated the mechanical deformation and trapping of the intracellular nucleus using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfabricated substrates with an array of micropillars. We investigated the differential effects of nuclear deformation on the proliferation of healthy vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and cervical cancer HeLa cells. Both types of cell spread normally in the space between micropillars and completely invaded the extracellular microstructures, including parts of their cytoplasm and their nuclei. We found that the proliferation of SMCs but not HeLa cells was dramatically inhibited by cultivation on the micropillar substrates, even though remarkable deformation of nuclei was observed in both types of cells. Mechanical testing with an atomic force microscope and a detailed image analysis with confocal microscopy revealed that SMC nuclei had a thicker nuclear lamina and greater expression of lamin A/C than those of HeLa cells, which consequently increased the elastic modulus of the SMC nuclei and their nuclear mechanical resistance against extracellular microstructures. These results indicate that the inhibition of cell proliferation resulted from deformation of the mature lamin structures, which might be exposed to higher internal stress during nuclear deformation. This nuclear stress-induced inhibition of cell proliferation occurred rarely in cancer cells with deformable nuclei. PMID:26054426

  13. Pseudolaric acid B exerts antitumor activity via suppression of the Akt signaling pathway in HeLa cervical cancer cells.

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    Li, Mingqun; Hong, Li

    2015-08-01

    Pseudolaric acid B (PAB) is a diterpene acid isolated from the bark of the root and trunk of Pseudolarix kaempferi Gordon (Pinaceae), which has demonstrated cytotoxic effects against various types of cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the anticancer effects of PAB have remained to be elucidated. In the present study, the effects of PAB on the viability and apoptosis of HeLa cells were investigated by MTT assay, flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, Rhodamine 123 staining and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PAB had antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on HeLa cells. PAB markedly inhibited HeLa cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that PAB induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with PAB suppressed the expression of anti-apoptotic factor B cell lymphoma-2, and promoted the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bcl-2?associated X protein. In addition, PAB induced an increase in Caspase-3 activity and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that this apoptosis may be mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Furthermore, the results of western blot analysis indicated that PAB was able to reduce Akt phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting the Akt pathway. These results suggested that PAB inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, and that the anti-tumor effects of PAB were associated with inhibition of the Akt pathway. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PAB may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human cervical cancer. However, additional studies are required to investigate the underlying apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25891953

  14. Effects of Tatariside G Isolated from Fagopyrum tataricum Roots on Apoptosis in Human Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells

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    Yuan Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common female carcinoma. Current therapies are often unsatisfactory, especially for advanced stage patients. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of tatariside G (TG on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and the possible mechanism of action involved. An MTT assay was employed to evaluate cell viability. Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry (FCM assays were used to detect cell apoptosis. The protein expression of phosphorylated JNK, P38, ERK and Akt and cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 was evaluated by western blot analysis. Additionally, the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was measured by fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (FQ-RT-PCR. TG notably inhibited cell viability, enhanced the percentage of apoptotic cells, facilitated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK proteins and caspase-3 and caspase-9 cracking, downregulated the phosphorylation level of Akt, and increased the loss of MMP and the mRNA expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9. TG-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of the mitochondrial death pathway. TG may be an effective candidate for chemotherapy against cervical cancer.

  15. Physico-chemical characteristics of ZnO nanoparticles-based discs and toxic effect on human cervical cancer HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mahmud, Shahrom; Seeni, Azman; Kaus, Noor Haida Mohd.; Sendi, Rabab

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated physico-chemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs)-based discs and their toxicity on human cervical cancer HeLa cell lines. ZnO NPs (80 nm) were produced by the conventional ceramic processing method. FESEM analysis indicated dominant structure of nanorods with dimensions 100-500 nm in length, and 20-100 nm in diameter. The high content of ZnO nanorods in the discs probably played significant role in toxicity towards HeLa cells. Structural defects (oxygen vacancies and zinc/oxygen interstitials) were revealed by PL spectra peaks at 370-376 nm and 519-533 nm for the ZnO discs. The structural, optical and electrical properties of prepared sample have influenced the toxicological effects of ZnO discs towards HeLa cell lines via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), internalization, membrane damage, and eventually cell death. The larger surface to volume area of the ZnO nanorods, combined with defects, stimulated enhanced toxicity via ROS generation hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide anion. The preliminary results confirmed the ZnO-disc toxicity on HeLa cells was significantly associated with the unique physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs and to our knowledge, this is the first cellular study for treatment of HeLa cells with ZnO discs made from 80 nm ZnO particles.

  16. Inhibition of clathrin by pitstop 2 activates the spindle assembly checkpoint and induces cell death in dividing HeLa cancer cells

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    Smith Charlotte M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During metaphase clathrin stabilises the mitotic spindle kinetochore(K-fibres. Many anti-mitotic compounds target microtubule dynamics. Pitstop 2™ is the first small molecule inhibitor of clathrin terminal domain and inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We investigated its effects on a second function for clathrin in mitosis. Results Pitstop 2 did not impair clathrin recruitment to the spindle but disrupted its function once stationed there. Pitstop 2 trapped HeLa cells in metaphase through loss of mitotic spindle integrity and activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, phenocopying clathrin depletion and aurora A kinase inhibition. Conclusions Pitstop 2 is therefore a new tool for investigating clathrin spindle dynamics. Pitstop 2 reduced viability in dividing HeLa cells, without affecting dividing non-cancerous NIH3T3 cells, suggesting that clathrin is a possible novel anti-mitotic drug target.

  17. DYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF HELA AND CHANG CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Lzadian, N.; Sussman, H.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the evaluation of two human cell lines, Hela and Chang, abeuploidy and several marker chromosomes were found in both cells. The morphological characteristic of marker chromosomes of Chang cells was distinctly different from HeLa. Certain submetacentric marker chromosome was frequently present among 80% of marker chromosomes of Chang cells which distinguished this line from HeLa, which showed the various identifiable marker chromosomes. This evidence clearly established the different ...

  18. Requirement of T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase for TRAIL resistance of human HeLa cervical cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK) appears to be highly expressed in various cancer cells and to play an important role in maintaining proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism by which TOPK regulates growth of cancer cells remains elusive. Here we report that upregulated endogenous TOPK augments resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Stable knocking down of TOPK markedly increased TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of human HeLa cervical cancer cells, as compared with control cells. Caspase 8 or caspase 3 activities in response to TRAIL were greatly incremented in TOPK-depleted cells. Ablation of TOPK negatively regulated TRAIL-mediated NF-?B activity. Furthermore, expression of NF-?B-dependent genes, FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (c-IAP1), or X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) was reduced in TOPK-depleted cells. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that TOPK contributed to TRAIL resistance of cancer cells via NF-?B activity, suggesting that TOPK might be a potential molecular target for successful cancer therapy using TRAIL.

  19. Isolation of Melittin from Iranian Honey Bee Venom and Investigation of Its Effect on Proliferation of Cervical Cancer- HeLa Cell Line

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    K Pooshang Bagheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second prevalent cancer in developing countries and the sixth prevalent cancer in USA. Since conventional treatment methods are associated with detrimental side effects, searching for new drugs using natural ingredients is very important. Previous studies have shown that melittin (main component of honey bee venom has anticancer properties along with the effect on cell membrane and activation of apoptosis. In this study, inhibitory effects of melittin on the viability and proliferation of cervical cancer cell line (HeLa was investigated. Methods: Melittin was purified from honeybee venom using reversed-phase HPLC method. Then, biological activity of melittin was examined by hemolytic activity analysis on the red blood cells. In order to investigate whether melittin inhibits proliferation of HeLa cell, MTT assay was performed. HeLa cells were plated in a 96-well plate and treated with serially diluted concentrations of melittin for 12 and 24 hours. The viability of the cells was measured via MTT assay at 540nm. Results: Melittin showed a strong hemolytic activity (HD50=0.5 µg/ml which can be reduced by FBS(HD50=2 µg/ml. Results of MTT assay indicated that melittin shows cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells with IC50 = 1.2 ug/ml at 12h incubation period. Conclusion: In this study, biological activity of melittin and inhibitory effect of FBS on hemolysis were determined via hemolytic activity analysis. MTT assay indicated that melittin induced cytotoxic effects in a dose dependent manner on cervical cancer cells and it also revealed dependence on incubation time as well.

  20. DYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF HELA AND CHANG CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Lzadian

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of two human cell lines, Hela and Chang, abeuploidy and several marker chromosomes were found in both cells. The morphological characteristic of marker chromosomes of Chang cells was distinctly different from HeLa. Certain submetacentric marker chromosome was frequently present among 80% of marker chromosomes of Chang cells which distinguished this line from HeLa, which showed the various identifiable marker chromosomes. This evidence clearly established the different etiology of these two human cell lines.

  1. Alterations in gene promoter methylation and transcript expression induced by cisplatin in comparison to 5-Azacytidine in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines.

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    Sood, Swati; Srinivasan, Radhika

    2015-06-01

    Despite recent advances in treatment, cervical cancer still remains one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality among women worldwide including India. Chemoradiation treatment is the standard-of-care which involves administration of cisplatin, a radiosensitizer along with radiation. The epigenetic changes induced by cisplatin are not known and so we designed this in vitro experimental study. We evaluated the changes induced by cisplatin administration in gene promoter methylation and the transcript levels of set of 7 genes and compared it to the changes induced by 5-Azacytidine, a known demethylating agent in two cervical cancer cell lines: HeLa (adenocarcinoma derived) and SiHa (squamous cell carcinoma derived) cell lines. Overall, there was a pronounced cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effect of both the drugs alone and in combination for both the cell lines which was dose and time dependent. Cisplatin as well as 5-Azacytidine treatment affected gene promoter methylation status resulting in demethylation and re-expression of the genes under investigation which was more pronounced in case of SiHa cells as compared to HeLa cells. Further, both the drugs acted in synergism as evident from their combination treatment. Therefore, at the cellular level, cisplatin and 5-Azacytidine can induce epigenetic changes in gene promoter methylation with altered expression which can have implications for treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25772483

  2. Anti-proliferation and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of ganoderic acid Mk from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia in cervical cancer HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Jian-jiang; Li, Ying-bo; Liu, Ru-ming

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderic acid Mk (GA-Mk), a triterpenoid acid, was isolated from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum, and no biological activity of GA-Mk has ever been reported. In this work, we investigated the effect of GA-Mk on the cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa cells. The MTT results demonstrated that GA-Mk displayed interesting cytotoxicity toward various human cancer cell lines. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay showed that GA-Mk had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on proliferatio...

  3. The aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa induces cell cycle arrest in human cervical cancer cell lines SiHa (HPV-16 Positive) and apoptosis in HeLa (HPV-18 positive).

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    Choudhari, Amit S; Suryavanshi, Snehal A; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2013-01-01

    Natural products are being extensively explored for their potential to prevent as well as treat cancer due to their ability to target multiple molecular pathways. Ficus religiosa has been shown to exert diverse biological activities including apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. In the present study, we report the anti-neoplastic potential of aqueous extract of F. religiosa (FRaq) bark in human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. FRaq altered the growth kinetics of SiHa (HPV-16 positive) and HeLa (HPV-18 positive) cells in a dose-dependent manner. It blocked the cell cycle progression at G1/S phase in SiHa that was characterized by an increase in the expression of p53, p21 and pRb proteins with a simultaneous decrease in the expression of phospho Rb (ppRb) protein. On the other hand, in HeLa, FRaq induced apoptosis through an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) leading to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c and increase in the expression of caspase-3. Moreover, FRaq reduced the migration as well as invasion capability of both the cervical cancer cell lines accompanied with downregulation of MMP-2 and Her-2 expression. Interestingly, FRaq reduced the expression of viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 in both the cervical cancer cell lines. All these data suggest that F. religiosa could be explored for its chemopreventive potential in cervical cancer. PMID:23922932

  4. Irradiation And Papillomavirus E2 Proteins On Hela Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to relatively high doses ionizing radiation activates cellular responses that impair cell survival. These responses, for which the p53 protein plays a central role, form the basis for cancer radiotherapy. However, the efficacy of radiation treatments on cell killing is often reduced as a consequence of the frequent inactivation of the p53 protein in cancer cells. Loss of p53 protein is associated with later stages of most human tumors and resistance to anticancer agents. Carcinomas are frequent malignant tumors in humans. The majority of cervical carcinomas are etiologically linked to the presence of HPV virus (Human Papillomavirus). In carcinoma tumor cells, as well as in their derived-cell lines such as HeLa cells, the p53 protein is generally not detected due to its degradation by the product of the HPV-associated oncogenic E6 gene. Another characteristic of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells is the loss of the regulatory viral E2 gene expression as a consequence of viral DNA integration into the cellular genome. Reintroduction of E2 expression in HeLa cells reactivates p53, due to a negative effect on the expression of E6 protein, with a concomitant arrest of cell proliferation at the phase G1 of the cell cycle and delay in cell division via the repression of E2F-target genes. To elucidate whether reactivation of p53 would improve the cell killing effect of ionizing radiation in cancer cells, we studied the combined effects of radiation and E2 expression on the cell cycle distribution in HeLa cells

  5. The Aqueous Extract of Ficus religiosa Induces Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Cervical Cancer Cell Lines SiHa (HPV-16 Positive) and Apoptosis in HeLa (HPV-18 Positive)

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhari, Amit S; Suryavanshi , Snehal A; Kaul-Ghanekar, Ruchika

    2013-01-01

    Natural products are being extensively explored for their potential to prevent as well as treat cancer due to their ability to target multiple molecular pathways. Ficus religiosa has been shown to exert diverse biological activities including apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. In the present study, we report the anti-neoplastic potential of aqueous extract of F. religiosa (FRaq) bark in human cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. FRaq altered the growth kinetics of SiHa (HPV-16 posit...

  6. Photodynamic Effects of Pterin on HeLa Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denofrio, M. Paula; Lorente, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Pterins, heterocyclic compounds widespread in biological systems, participate in relevant biological processes and are able to act as photosensitizers. In the present study, we ascertained that 2-aminopteridin-4(3H)-one, abbreviated as Ptr, is readily incorporated into and ? or onto cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and that these cells die upon UV-A irradiation of Ptr. Cell death was assessed using two tests: (1) the Rhodamine 123 fluorescence assay for mitochondrial viability and (2) the Trypan Blue assay for membrane integrity. The data suggest that, for Ptr-dependent photoinitiated cell death, events related to mitochondrial failure precede those associated with the failure of the cell membrane.

  7. 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3-loaded magnetic human serum albumin nanospheres applied to HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Chen, Daozhen; Li, Mengfei; Miao, Fengqin; Liu, Peidang; Tang, Qiusha

    2014-01-01

    20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. However, due to its poor aqueous solubility and low oral bioavailability, the use of 20(s)-Rg3 is limited. This study aimed to explore a method of preparing nano-sized 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3 particle named 20(s)-ginsenoside Rg3-loaded magnetic human serum albumin nanospheres (20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP) to change dosage form to improve its aqueous solubility and bioavailability. 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP were prepared by the desolvation-crosslinking method. The character of 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP was detected. An antiproliferative effect and cell apoptosis rates of 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP on human cervical cancer cells were determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. TEM analysis showed that 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP were approximately spherical and uniform in size. Thermodynamic testing showed that the corresponding magnetic fluid of a specific concentration rosed to a steady temperature of 42-65?C. Iron content was approximately 3 mg/mL. Drug encapsulation efficiency was approximately 70%. The potential of 20(s)-Rg3/HSAMNP combined with magnetic hyperthermia therapy to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis was much more prominent than that of the other groups. A new dosage form of 20(s)-Rg3 was prepared, which effectively induced apoptosis in HeLa cervical cancer cells in vitro when combined with hyperthermia. PMID:25226895

  8. Effect of Quercetin on radio-sensitivity of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the mechanism of Quercetin on radio-sensitivity of human Uterine Cervix Cancer HeLa cells, HeLa cells were cultured in different concentrations of Quercetin and different doses of irradiation. The clonogenic assay was used to observe the cell survival rate. The repair of DNA double-strand breaks and effect of Quercetin combination of radiation on the cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The results show that the radio-sensitivity of Quercetin on HeLa cells was obvious and the unrepaired DSBs after irradiation increased, but did not decrease G2/M cell cycle arrest. From this it can be inferred that the effect on HeLa cell radio-sensitivity may be related to the inhibition of the repair of DNA double-strand breaks induced by Quercetin, but it dose not reveal a significant relation with the cell cycle and G2/M arrest. (authors)

  9. Biofabrication of Ag nanoparticles using Sterculia foetida L. seed extract and their toxic potential against mosquito vectors and HeLa cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-step and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of silver-(protein-lipid) nanoparticles (Ag-PL NPs) (core–shell) has been developed using the seed extract from wild Indian Almond tree, Sterculia foetida (L.) (Sterculiaceae). The reaction temperature played a major role in controlling the size and shell formation of NPs. The amount of NPs synthesized and qualitative characterization was done by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. TEM studies exhibited controlled dispersity of spherical shaped NPs with an average size of 6.9 ± 0.2 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed ‘fcc’ phase and crystallinity of the particles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to identify the protein–lipid (PL) bilayer that appears as a shell around the Ag core particles. The thermal stability of the Ag-PL NPs was examined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Further analysis was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), where the spectra provided evidence for the presence of proteins and lipid moieties ((2n-octylcycloprop-1-enyl)-octanoic acid (I)), and their role in synthesis and stabilization of Ag NPs. This is the first report of plant seed assisted synthesis of PL conjugated Ag NPs. These formed Ag-PL NPs showed potential mosquito larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. These Ag-PL NPs can also act as promising agents in cancer therapy. They exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HeLa cancer cell lines and a promising toxicity was observed in a dose dependent manner. Toxicity studies were further supported by the cellular DNA fragmentation in the Ag-PL NPs treated HeLa cells. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of protein-lipid conjugated Ag NPs using S. foetida L. seed extract. • S. foetida seed extract acted as good reducing and stabilizing agent for Ag NPs. • XPS and FTIR confirm the biomolecules associated with Ag NPs. • Synthesized Ag NPs showed potential biological activities

  10. Thymosin Beta-4, Actin-Sequestering Protein Regulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression via Hypoxia-Inducible Nitric Oxide Production in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yun-Kyoung; Lee, Jae-Wook; Moon, Eun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of neovascularization. Hypoxia inducible nitric oxide (NO) enhanced the expression of VEGF and thymosin beta-4 (T?4), actin sequestering protein. Here, we investigated whether NO-mediated VEGF expression could be regulated by T?4 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Hypoxia inducible NO production and VEGF expression were reduced by small interference (si) RNA of T?4. Hypoxia response element (HRE)-luciferase activity and VEGF expression were increased by the treatment with N-(?-D-Glucopyranosyl)-N2-acetyl-S-nitroso-D, L-penicillaminamide (SNAP-1), to generate NO, which was inhibited by the inhibition of T?4 expression with T?4-siRNA. In hypoxic condition, HRE-luciferase activity and VEGF expression were inhibited by the treatment with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), an inhibitor to nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is accompanied with a decrease in T?4 expression. VEGF expression inhibited by L-NMMA treatment was restored by the transfection with pCMV-T?4 plasmids for T?4 overexpression. Taken together, these results suggest that T?4 could be a regulator for the expression of VEGF via the maintenance of NOS activity. PMID:25593639

  11. Thymoquinone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Exhibited Cytotoxicity towards Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines (HeLa and SiHa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Keat; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Yap, Li Hua; Wan Nor Hafiza, Wan Abd Ghani; How, Chee Wun; Abdullah, Rasedee

    2015-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) has been shown to exhibit antitumor properties. Thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (TQ-NLC) was developed to improve the bioavailability and cytotoxicity of TQ. This study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic effects of TQ-NLC on breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa and SiHa). TQ-NLC was prepared by applying the hot high pressure homogenization technique. The mean particle size of TQ-NLC was 35.66 ± 0.1235?nm with a narrow polydispersity index (PDI) lower than 0.25. The zeta potential of TQ-NLC was greater than ?30?mV. Polysorbate 80 helps to increase the stability of TQ-NLC. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that TQ-NLC has a melting point of 56.73°C, which is lower than that of the bulk material. The encapsulation efficiency of TQ in TQ-NLC was 97.63 ± 0.1798% as determined by HPLC analysis. TQ-NLC exhibited antiproliferative activity towards all the cell lines in a dose-dependent manner which was most cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 cells. Cell shrinkage was noted following treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with TQ-NLC with an increase of apoptotic cell population (P < 0.05). TQ-NLC also induced cell cycle arrest. TQ-NLC was most cytotoxic towards MDA-MB-231 cells. It induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the cells. PMID:25632388

  12. Dietary Flavonoids Sensitize HeLa Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Król

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells. The combined treatment flavonoids with TRAIL might be promising as a chemoprevention and/or new therapy against malignant tumors. We examined the cytotoxic effect of dietary flavonoids in combination with TRAIL on HeLa cells. It was found that treatment with noncytotoxic concentration of some flavonoids significantly sensititizes to TRAIL induced death in HeLa cells. Our study demonstrated that flavone, apigenin and genistein markedly augmented TRAIL mediated cytotoxicity against HeLa, whereas kaempferol and quercetin produced no effect.

  13. Phorbol Esters from Jatropha Meal Triggered Apoptosis, Activated PKC-?, Caspase-3 Proteins and Down-Regulated the Proto-Oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs. The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC50 of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC50 concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-? and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun. These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.

  14. Resistance of cervical adenocarcinoma cells (HeLa) to venom from the scorpion Centruroides limpidus limpidus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José María Eloy, Contreras-Ortiz; Juan Carlos, Vázquez-Chagoyán; José Simón, Martínez-Castañeda; José Guillermo, Estrada-Franco; José Esteban, Aparicio-Burgos; Jorge, Acosta-Dibarrat; Alberto, Barbabosa-Pliego.

    2013-09-02

    Full Text Available Background : The venom of Centruroides limpidus limpidus (Cll) is a mixture of pharmacologically active principles. The most important of these are toxic proteins that interact both selectively and specifically with different cellular targets such as ion channels. Recently, anticancer properties o [...] f the venom from other scorpion species have been described. Studies in vitro have shown that scorpion venom induces cell death, inhibits proliferation and triggers the apoptotic pathway in different cancer cell lines. Herein, after treating human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells with Cll crude venom, their cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction were assessed. Results : Cll crude venom induced cell death in normal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. However, through viability assays, HeLa cells showed high survival rates after exposure to Cll venom. Also, Cll venom did not induce apoptosis after performing ethidium bromide/acridine orange assays, nor was there any evidence of chromatin condensation or DNA fragmentation. Conclusions : Crude Cll venom exposure was not detrimental to HeLa cell cultures. This may be partially attributable to the absence of specific HeLa cell membrane targets for molecules present in the venom of Centruroides limpidus limpidus. Although these results might discourage additional studies exploring the potential of Cll venom to treat human papilloma cervical cancer, further research is required to explore positive effects of crude Cll venom on other cancer cell lines.

  15. Antiproliferative effects of some medicinal plants on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells. The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 ?g/ml on HeLa cell lines was exhibited by Echinacea angustifolia. The extract of Salvia officinalis also showed a good cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines; the IC50 value was 70.41 ?g/ml. Melissa officinalis manifested a slightly weaker cytotoxic activity and an IC50 value of 122.22 ?g/ml. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34021 i br. 175011

  16. Electron beam radiation dosage fixation on HeLa cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. In the treatment of cancer radiation remains most frequently used important therapeutic model. The major drawback in radiotherapy is the development of radioresistant tumor cells, which will not effect by low dose radiation, one more important limitation is radiation induces normal tissue toxicity along with cancer cells. There is a need to find put solutions to these problems. HeLa is a cervical cancer cell line, which is epithelial cells of human cervix. Epithelial cells are known to be more radiosensitive than malignant tumors like gleoma (brain tumor). In our current study we exposed cultured HeLa cells to electron beam radiation to find out in vitro LD50 lethal dose and sublethal doses. Cultured HeLa cells were exposed to different doses of electron beam radiation 2 Gy, 4 Gy, 6 Gy, 8 Gy and 10 Gy. Cell viability was determined by MTI assay and Tryphan Blue assay, level of DNA damage was assessed using comet assay parameters. Our study revealed that as the radiation dose increased the number of viable cells decreased and percentage of DNA damage was increased. We conducted this study as a supportive study for our further assays. (author)

  17. In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of ?-chalcogen-substituted Michael-aldol Type Adducts Against Hela and RKO Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcindo A. Dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of biological studies using selenium and tellurium compounds, specially concern with cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity action of nine ?-chalcogen-substituted Michael-aldol-type adducts on HeLa and RKO cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was assessed by MTT assay and was performed in HeLa and RKO cell lines cultured in RPMI-1640 medium in (95% O2+5% CO2 at 37°C. The IC50 values demonstrated that all compounds presented cytotoxic effect in 17-100 ?M range. The compounds 1 and 5 presented cytotoxic effect in 17 -40 ?M range to HeLa cells. In RKO cells compounds 2-5, 7 and 8 presented cytotoxicity between 46 -58 ?M. Compound 1 presented cytotoxicity for HeLa cells similar to those found to etoposide (11.35±2.73 ?M; p>0.05 and none of the compounds presented this similarity for RKO cells. It is important to notice that the compounds presented cell line selectivity: compound 1 to HeLa and compounds 7 and 8 to RKO cells. The RKO cells were more sensitivity to tellurites, which were not effective to HeLa cells. In conclusion, the compound 1 presented promissory anticancer potential and the cytotoxic specificity of tellurides for RKO cells demonstrated that there is an important biological role based on this chemical element.

  18. Methanol extract from Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan induces apoptosis in HeLa cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tran Manh, Hung; Nguyen Hai, Dang; Nguyen Tien, Dat.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of extracts from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood against multiple cancer cell lines using an MTT cell viability assay. The cell death though induction of apoptosis was as indicated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 enzyme activation. RESULTS: A m [...] ethanol extract from C. sappan (MECS) showed cytotoxic activity against several of the cancer cell lines. The most potent activity exhibited by the MECS was against HeLa cells with an IC50value of 26.5?±?3.2 µg/mL. Treatment of HeLa cells with various MECS concentrations resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis, as indicated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 enzyme activation. CONCLUSION: This study is the first report of the anticancer properties of the heartwood of C. sappan native to Vietnam. Our findings demonstrate that C. sappan heartwood may have beneficial applications in the field of anticancer drug discovery.

  19. Antiproliferative effects of some medicinal plants on HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka; Tambur Z.; Bokonji? D.; Ivan?aji? S.; Stanojkovi? Tatjana; Grozdani? Nadja; Jurani? Zorica

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants maintain the health and vitality of individuals, and also have potential curative effect on various diseases, including cancer. In this study were investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of previously obtained ethanolic dry extracts of three different medicinal plants (Echinacea angustifolia, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis) on cell lines derived from human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa cells). The best cytotoxic activity (IC50 = 43.52 ?g/...

  20. Antiproliferative effects of Tanaceti partheni, Hypericum perforatum and propolis on HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanaceti partheni, Hypericum perforatum and propolis have been widely used for centuries and are well-documented medicinal plants and natural product. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of ethanolic dry extracts of two different medicinal plants (Tanaceti partheni and Hypericum perforatum and propolis on HeLa cells. The Tanaceti partheni extract exhibited mild cytotoxic activity. The IC50 was 153.71 ?g/mL. The extract of Hypericum perforatum did not show active cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 >200 ?g/mL. Regarding the antiproliferative effects of Hypericum perforatum, our results are not in correlation with the results of other authors, probably because different Hypericum species and different human cancer cell lines were used. The extract of propolis did not show active cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 1.08 ± 0.01 mg/mL. The weak antiproliferative effect of propolis on HeLa cells is either due to the use of a low concentration of propolis extracted in weakly polar solvents, or the use of propolis collected in the autumn. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34021 i br. 175011

  1. Wogonin and neobaicalein from Scutellaria litwinowii roots are apoptotic for HeLa cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zahra, Tayarani-Najarani; Javad, Asili; Heydar, Parsaee; Seyed Hadi, Mousavi; Naser Vadati, Mashhadian; Alireza, Mirzaee; Seyed Ahmad, Emami.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation on the CH2Cl2 fraction of the Scutellaria litwinowii Bornm. & Sint., Lamiaceace, root extract for the first time resulted in the isolation of wogonin, and neobaicalein. These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity towards HeLa cell lines and lymphocytes. Meanwhile, th [...] e role of apoptosis was explored in this toxicity. The cells were cultured in RPMI medium and incubated with different concentrations of isolated flavonoids. Cell viability was quantified by MTS assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry (sub-G1peak). Wogonin, and neobaicalein inhibited the growth of malignant cells in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 values of 46.62 and 79.34 µM were, respectively, found for neobaicalein and wogonin against HeLa cells after 48 h of treatment. Neobaicalein induced a sub-G1 peak in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells compared to control cells indicating that apoptotic cell death is involved in neobaicalein toxicity. Neobaicalein exerts cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects in HeLa cell lines and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment.

  2. EFFECTS OF PUROMYCIN ON THE NUCLEOPROTEINS OF THE HELA CELL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinski, G. P.; Love, R.

    1964-01-01

    The effects of several concentrations of puromycin on the nucleoproteins of HeLa cells grown in monolayers were studied by cytochemical and biochemical techniques. The earliest change at all concentrations of puromycin was a decrease in a granular form of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that is demonstrable in the normal HeLa cell by the toluidine blue-molybdate (TBM) stain. The other types of RNP revealed by the TBM method were unaltered although the cell volume decreased markedly. Treatment with high concentrations of the antimetabolite resulted in pre-prophase inhibition of mitotic division and led to production of inclusions containing RNP in the cytoplasm; lower concentrations resulted in metaphase arrest. Biochemical analyses confirmed the cytochemical observations and indicated that synthesis of RNA and protein was inhibited to the same extent. PMID:14206418

  3. Berberine alters epigenetic modifications, disrupts microtubule network, and modulates HPV-18 E6-E7 oncoproteins by targeting p53 in cervical cancer cell HeLa: a mechanistic study including molecular docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Santu Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Increased evidence of chemo-resistance, toxicity and carcinogenicity necessitates search for alternative approaches for determining next generation cancer therapeutics and targets. We therefore tested the efficacy of plant alkaloid berberine on human papilloma virus (HPV) -18 positive cervical cancer cell HeLa systematically-involving certain cellular, viral and epigenetic factors. We observed disruptions of microtubule network and changes in membrane topology due to berberine influx through confocal and atomic force microscopies (AFM). We examined nuclear uptake, internucleosomal DNA damages, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) alterations and cell migration assays to validate possible mode of cell death events. Analytical data on interactions of berberine with pBR322 through fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gel migration assay strengthen berberine?s biologically significant DNA binding abilities. We measured cellular uptake, DNA ploidy and DNA strand-breaks through fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). To elucidate epigenetic modifications, in support of DNA binding associated processes, if any, we conducted methylation-specific restriction enzyme (RE) assay, methylation specific-PCR (MSP) and expression studies of histone proteins. We also analyzed differential interactions and localization of cellular tumor suppressor p53 and viral oncoproteins HPV-18 E6-E7 through siRNA approach. We further made in-silico approaches to determine possible binding sites of berberine on histone proteins. Overall results indicated cellular uptake of berberine through cell membrane depolarization causing disruption of microtubule networks and its biological DNA binding abilities that probably contributed to epigenetic modifications. Results of modulation in p53 and viral oncoproteins HPV-18 E6-E7 by berberine further proved its potential as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cervical cancer. PMID:25448308

  4. Cloning of smac gene and its overexpression effects on radiosensitivity of HeLa cells to ?-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To clone smac gene and construct eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNA3.1/ smac. The smac gene was transfected into HeLa cells to explore the effects of over-expression of extrinsic smac gene on radiosensitivity to ?-rays of HeLa cells. Methods: The full-length smac gene was amplified from total RNA of HeLa cells by RTPCR. The RTPCR product was ligated with the vector pcDNA3.1 and sequenced. The correct pcDNA3.1/smac was transfected into HeLa cells. The expression of smac gene was tested by RTPCR and Western blot. The cellular growth inhibition rates were evaluated by MTT 48 horns after irradiation with different doses of ?-rays. Results: Recombinant eukaryocytic expression vector pcDNA3.1/smac was successfully constructed. RTPCR and Western blot results indicated that the expression of smac gene of HeLa/smac cells was significantly enhanced compared with the expression of smac gene of HeLa/pcDNA3.1 and HeLa cells. 48 hours after different doses of ?-ray irradiation was significantly higher in pcDNA3.1/smac transfected HeLa/smac cells than those of non-transfected HeLa cells or pcDNA3.1 transfected HeLa/pcDNA3.1 cells, inhabitation rates were 38.85%, 17.64% and 20.32%, respectively. Conclusions: smac gene was successfully cloned. Extrinsic smac gene over-expression could significantly enhance radiosensitivity to ?-ray of HeLa cells, which would herald a new approach to improve radiosensitivity of cervical cancer. (authors)thors)

  5. AFM-detected apoptotic changes in morphology and biophysical property caused by paclitaxel in Ishikawa and HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Cho, Chang Hoon; Park, Eun Kuk; Jung, Min-Hyung; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    The apoptosis of cancer cells is associated with changes in the important cell properties including morphology, surface roughness and stiffness. Therefore, the changes in morphology and biophysical properties can be a good way of evaluating the anticancer activity of a drug. This study examined the effect of paclitaxel on the properties of Ishikawa and HeLa cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the relationship between the changes in morphology and the biophysical properties and apoptosis was discussed. The viability and proliferation of the cells were analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method and a TUNEL assay to confirm cellular apoptosis due to a paclitaxel treatment. AFM observations clearly showed the apoptotic morphological and biophysical changes in Ishikawa and HeLa cells. After the paclitaxel treatment, the cell membrane was torn and holed, the surface roughness was increased, and the stiffness was decreased. These changes were observed more apparently after a 24 h treatment and in Ishikawa cells compared to HeLa cells. The MTT and TUNEL assays results revealed the Ishikawa cells to be more sensitive to paclitaxel than HeLa cells and definite apoptosis occurred after a 24 h treatment. These results showed good agreement with the AFM results. Therefore, research on the morphological and biophysical changes by AFM in cancer cells will help to evaluate the anticancer activities of the drugs. PMID:22272274

  6. AFM-Detected Apoptotic Changes in Morphology and Biophysical Property Caused by Paclitaxel in Ishikawa and HeLa Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Kuk; Jung, Min-Hyung; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2012-01-01

    The apoptosis of cancer cells is associated with changes in the important cell properties including morphology, surface roughness and stiffness. Therefore, the changes in morphology and biophysical properties can be a good way of evaluating the anticancer activity of a drug. This study examined the effect of paclitaxel on the properties of Ishikawa and HeLa cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the relationship between the changes in morphology and the biophysical properties and apoptosis was discussed. The viability and proliferation of the cells were analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method and a TUNEL assay to confirm cellular apoptosis due to a paclitaxel treatment. AFM observations clearly showed the apoptotic morphological and biophysical changes in Ishikawa and HeLa cells. After the paclitaxel treatment, the cell membrane was torn and holed, the surface roughness was increased, and the stiffness was decreased. These changes were observed more apparently after a 24 h treatment and in Ishikawa cells compared to HeLa cells. The MTT and TUNEL assays results revealed the Ishikawa cells to be more sensitive to paclitaxel than HeLa cells and definite apoptosis occurred after a 24 h treatment. These results showed good agreement with the AFM results. Therefore, research on the morphological and biophysical changes by AFM in cancer cells will help to evaluate the anticancer activities of the drugs. PMID:22272274

  7. Study on effect of artemisinin combined with 60Co ?-ray on DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Artemisinin combined with 60Co ?-ray on DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells of human cervical cancer. Methods: Cell growth kinetics was evaluated by MTT assay to determine the most appropriate drug concentration. Effects of Artemisinin combined with 60Co ?-ray on DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells were detected by single cell gel electrophoresis. Results: With the concentration increased during the effect of Artemisinin, the HeLa and SiHa cells had higher inhibition on cell proliferation. The SCGE showed that:the comet cell analysis indexes (the comet cells ratio, Tail Length, Olive Tail Moment and Tail DNA%) there was no statistic difference in between the artemisinin group and the control group (P>0.05). With radiation in the same dose, the comet cell analysis indexes of Hela cells treated with both artermisinin and exposed to radiation were higher than that only exposed to radiation group(P0.05). Conclusion: Artemisinin can not induce DNA damage in both HeLa and SiHa cells, but it can make irradiated HeLa cells DNA damage to be aggravated and enhance HeLa cells' radiation sensitivity. However, Artemisinin has no radiosensitizing effect on SiHa cells. (authors)

  8. Toona Sinensis and Moschus Decoction Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Hong; Zhang, Yifei; Fang, Zhijia; Huang, Zhiwei; You, Chongge; Shi, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Toona sinensis and Moschus are two herb materials used in traditional Chinese medicine, most commonly for their various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of three decoctions from Toona sinensis, Moschus, and Toona sinensis and Moschus in combination on cell growth in several normal and cancer cell lines by cell viability assay. The results showed that the combined decoction exhibited the strongest anticancer effects, compared to two single decoctions. The observations indicated that the combined decoction did not induce cell apoptosis and autophagy in HeLa cells by fluorescence microscopy. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the combined decoction arrested HeLa cell cycle progression in S-phase. After the decoction incubation, among 41 cell cycle related genes, eight were reduced, while five were increased in mRNA levels by real-time PCR assay. Western blotting showed that there were no apparent changes of protein levels of Cyclin E1, while P27 expression significantly declined and the levels of CDC7 and CDK7 obviously increased. The data suggest that the RB pathway is partially responsible for the decoction-induced S-phase cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. Therefore, the combined decoction may have therapeutic potential as an anticancer formula for certain cancers. PMID:24511319

  9. Outcome of Treatment of Human HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells With Roscovitine Strongly Depends on the Dosage and Cell Cycle Status Prior to the Treatment.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesierska-Gadek, J.; Borza, A.; Walzi, E.; Kryštof, Vladimír; Maurer, M.; Komina, O.; Wandl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 106, ?. 5 (2009), s. 937-955. ISSN 0730-2312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : APOPTOSIS * CELL CYCLE ARREST * CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.935, year: 2009

  10. Molekulêre kruiskommunikasie tussen apoptose en outofagie geïnduseer deur ‘n 2-metoksi?stradiol analoog (C19 in HeLa selle Molecular crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy induced by a 2-methoxyestradiol analogue (C19 in HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Theron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Servikale kanker is gerapporteer deur die Wêreld Gesondheids Organisasie as die mees algemene tipe kanker wat vroue in armer sosio-ekonomiese lande affekteer.Using a novel synthesised sulphamoylated 2-methoxyestradiol analogue, C19, two types of cell death, namely apoptosis and autophagy, were demonstrated in vitro when cervical cancer HeLa cells were exposed to this compound.

  11. Ascorbic acid: effects on ricin intoxicated HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of ricin was made to acertain if ascorbic acid had a specific effect on diphteria toxin or could it prevent the action of toxins from various sources with an activity different than that of diphteria. Ricin was isolated by suspending the defatted meal in double distilled water and adjusting to pH 3.8. The suspension was filtered, the precipitate collected and again dissolved in double distilled water. After saturation with ammonium sulfate, precipitate was collected by centrifugation. The concentration of ricin needed to inhibit at least 50% of the incorporation of (14C) alanine into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitable material was determined. HeLa cells are protected by using ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid or citric acid was added to the medium 30 min prior to the addition of toxic protein. The isolated ricin prevented the incorporation of (14C) alanine into TCA precipitate material in HeLa cells at levels of 11.5 to 0.00115 microgram of the toxin per ml of culture media. The addition of 100 microgram of ascorbic acid to the HeLa cell cultures 30 min prior to the addition of ricin completely prevented the inhibition of protein synthesis by ricin. Lesser amounts of ascorbic acid offered less protection. Although these data do not elucidate the mechanism of action of ascorbic acid, they show that in vitro ascorbic acid can prevent the action of this poisonous toxin. The data support the use of pharmacological doses of ascorbic acid in tharmacological doses of ascorbic acid in the treatment of various cases of poisoning. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Effects of depsidones from Hypogymnia physodes on HeLa cell viability and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovi?, I Z; Najman, S; Jovanovi?, O; Petrovi?, G; Najdanovi?, J; Vasiljevi?, P; Smelcerovi?, A

    2014-01-01

    The anti-proliferative activitiy of Hypogymnia physodes methanol extracts (ME) and its main constituents, physodalic acid (P1), physodic acid (P2), and 3-hydroxy physodic acid (P3), was tested on human cancer HeLa cell lines. Three lichen depsidones, P1, P2 and P3, were isolated from H. physodes ME using column chromatography and their structures were determined by UV, ESI TOF MS, 1H and 13C NMR. The content of P1, P2 and P3 in ME was determined using reversed-phase highperformance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. P1-3 represented even 70 % of the studied extract. The HeLa cells were incubated during 24 and 72 h in the presence of ME and depsidones P1, P2 and P3, at concentrations of 10-1000 ?g/ml. Compounds P2 and P3 showed higher activity than compound P1. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50, ?g/ml) of P1, P2, P3 and ME for 24-h incubation were 964, 171, 97 and 254 ?g/ml, respectively, while for 72-h incubation they were 283, 66, 63 and 68 ?g/ml. As far as we know, this is the first report on the effect of H. physodes ME and their depsidones on HeLa cells. PMID:24785112

  13. Growth inhibition of HeLa cell by internalization of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Tokyo

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    Asahina Izumi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical BCG immunotherapy is effective for preventing recurrence and progression in none muscle-invasive bladder cancer but the dosing schedule and duration of treatment remain empirical. The mechanisms by which intravesical BCG treatment mediates antitumor activity are currently poorly understood. Results HeLa cell infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG Tokyo which were different multiplicity of infection(MOI. Proliferation of HeLa cell reduced in a dose-dependent manner by live BCG. The cytoplasm of the HeLa cell showed variety lysosomal stages by internalized and interacted BCG. Conclusion Proliferated Live BCG secreted the protein and depressed the growth of tumor. The possibility for clinical introduction of BCG therapy for carcinoma reported with review of literature.

  14. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  15. From HeLa cell division to infectious diarrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hela S3 cells were grown in suspension both randomly and, synchronously using hydroxyurea which blocks cells at the G1/S interface. Cryosections were prepared, freeze-dried and analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. As cells moved into S and through M phases [Na] and [Cl] increased; both returned to normal levels upon re-entering G1 phase. The Na/K ratio was 1:1 in G1 phase. Infection of HeLa S3 cells in G1 phase with vaccinia virus resulted in no change in intracellular [Na]. Infection of neonatal mice with murine rotavirus was localized to villus tip enterocytes and gave rise to diarrhoea which was maximal at 72h post-infection (p.i.). Diarrhoea was preceded by ischemia of villi (18-42h p.i.) and villus shortening (maximal at 42h p.i.), and was also coincident with a dramatic regrowth of villi. At 48h p.i. a proliferative zone of electron lucent cells was observed in villus base regions. Cryosections of infected gut, taken before, during, and after infection, together with corresponding age-matched controls, were freeze-dried and analysed by X-ray microanalysis. At 48h p.i. electron lucent villus base cells were shown to be more hydrated, and, to contain higher levels of both Na and Cl and lower levels of P, S, K and Mg than corresponding control cells. These studies increase confidence in the use of X-ray microanalysis in studying biological systems, provide some insight into the process of cell division, and constitute the basis of a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion. of a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion.27 references

  16. From HeLa cell division to infectious diarrhoea

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    Stephen, J.; Osborne, M.P.; Spencer, A.J.; Warley, A. (Univ. of Birmingham (England))

    1990-09-01

    Hela S3 cells were grown in suspension both randomly and, synchronously using hydroxyurea which blocks cells at the G1/S interface. Cryosections were prepared, freeze-dried and analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. As cells moved into S and through M phases (Na) and (Cl) increased; both returned to normal levels upon re-entering G1 phase. The Na/K ratio was 1:1 in G1 phase. Infection of HeLa S3 cells in G1 phase with vaccinia virus resulted in no change in intracellular (Na). Infection of neonatal mice with murine rotavirus was localized to villus tip enterocytes and gave rise to diarrhoea which was maximal at 72h post-infection (p.i.). Diarrhoea was preceded by ischemia of villi (18-42h p.i.) and villus shortening (maximal at 42h p.i.), and was also coincident with a dramatic regrowth of villi. At 48h p.i. a proliferative zone of electron lucent cells was observed in villus base regions. Cryosections of infected gut, taken before, during, and after infection, together with corresponding age-matched controls, were freeze-dried and analysed by X-ray microanalysis. At 48h p.i. electron lucent villus base cells were shown to be more hydrated, and, to contain higher levels of both Na and Cl and lower levels of P, S, K and Mg than corresponding control cells. These studies increase confidence in the use of X-ray microanalysis in studying biological systems, provide some insight into the process of cell division, and constitute the basis of a new concept of diarrhoeal secretion.27 references.

  17. Potential antitumor agent from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Hu, Shu-Yuan; Luo, Du-Qiang; Zhu, Si-Yu; Zhou, Chuan-Qi

    2013-10-01

    4-(3',3'-Dimethylallyloxy)-5-methyl-6-methoxy-phthalide (DMMP) has previously been isolated from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae. Although the cytotoxic activities of DMMP have been reported, little is known concerning the molecular mechanism of its cytotoxic effect. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DMMP on the growth of several types of cancer cell lines and investigated the mechanism of its antiproliferative effect. DMMP caused the growth inhibition of human cancer lines HeLa, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, but had little antiproliferative effect on MRC5 normal lung cells. DMMP also significantly caused cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and upregulated the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIPI protein in the HeLa cells. Moreover DMMP was able to induce marked nuclear apoptotic morphology in HeLa cells. DMMP induced apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in the HeLa cells. Although the activated forms of caspase-9 and -3 in HeLa cells were detected, pretreatment with caspase inhibitors (Ac-DEVD-CHO and Z-VAD-FMK) failed to attenuate DMMP-induced cell death. In addition, protein levels of the p53 family members, p53 and p73, were upregulated, and DMMP significantly increased the mRNA expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family genes (PUMA, NOXA, Bax, Bad and Bim). HPV E6-E7 mRNA levels were reduced. In conclusion, DMMP demonstrates potential for use in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:23863966

  18. Proteomic analysis of effects by x-rays and heavy ion in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon ion therapy may be better against cancer than the effects of a photon beam. To investigate a biological advantage of carbon ion beam over X-rays, the radioresistant cell line HeLa cells were used. Radiation-induced changes in the biological processes were investigated post-irradiation at 1 h by a clinically relevant radiation dose (2 Gy X-ray and 2 Gy carbon beam). The differential expression proteins were collected for analysing biological effects. The radioresistant cell line Hela cells were used. In our study, the stable isotope labelling with amino acids (SILAC) method coupled with 2D-LC-LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometry was applied to identity and quantify the differentially expressed proteins after irradiation. The Western blotting experiment was used to validate the data. A total of 123 and 155 significantly changed proteins were evaluated with treatment of 2 Gy carbon and X-rays after radiation 1 h, respectively. These deregulated proteins were found to be mainly involved in several kinds of metabolism processes through Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The two groups perform different response to different types of irradiation. The radioresistance of the cancer cells treated with 2 Gy X-rays irradiation may be largely due to glycolysis enhancement, while the greater killing effect of 2 Gy carbon may be due to unchanged glycolysis and decreased amino acid metabolism

  19. AFM-Detected Apoptotic Changes in Morphology and Biophysical Property Caused by Paclitaxel in Ishikawa and HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Cho, Chang Hoon; Park, Eun Kuk; Jung, Min-hyung; Yoon, Kyung-sik; Park, Hun-kuk

    2012-01-01

    The apoptosis of cancer cells is associated with changes in the important cell properties including morphology, surface roughness and stiffness. Therefore, the changes in morphology and biophysical properties can be a good way of evaluating the anticancer activity of a drug. This study examined the effect of paclitaxel on the properties of Ishikawa and HeLa cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the relationship between the changes in morphology and the biophysical properties and apop...

  20. Multidrug-resistant hela cells overexpressing MRP1 exhibit sensitivity to cell killing by hyperthermia: Interactions with etoposide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the primary obstacles in cancer chemotherapy and often involves overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). Regional hyperthermia is undergoing clinical investigation in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This study evaluates whether hyperthermia can reverse MDR mediated by MRP1 in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. Methods and materials: Cytotoxicity of hyperthermia and/or etoposide was evaluated using sulforhodamine-B in HeLa cells overexpressing MRP1 and their drug-sensitive counterparts. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were quantified by spectrophotometry. GST isoenzymes were quantified by immunodetection. Caspase activation was evaluated by fluorometry and chromatin condensation by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258. Necrosis was determined using propidium iodide. Results: The major finding is that HeLa and HeLaMRP cells are both sensitive to cytotoxicity of hyperthermia (41-45 deg C). Hyperthermia induced activation of caspase 3 and chromatin condensation. Although total levels of cell killing were similar, there was a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in MDR cells. This could be explained by decreased glutathione and GPx in MDR cells. MDR cells also contained very low levels of GST and were resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia caused a modest d apoptosis. Hyperthermia caused a modest increase in etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa and HeLaMRP cells, which required appropriate heat-drug scheduling. Conclusions: Hyperthermia could be useful in eliminating MDR cells that overexpress MRP1

  1. Evaluation of the effects of paederus beetle extract and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells

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    Fariba Samani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Cervical cancer is a malignancy that is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women throughout the world. Paederus beetle (Paederus fuscipes extract (PBE, contains bioactive compounds such as pederine which has cytotoxic properties and blocks DNA and protein synthesis at very low concentrations. In this investigation we tried to determine the effects co-treatment with PBE and gamma irradiation on HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: The viability of the cells was measured by two methods: MTT and Colony assay. Results: We found that supplementing gamma irradiation therapy with PBE does not increase cell death and it might even interfere with its cytotoxicty at the concentrations below 0.1 ng/ml and the viability for irradiation vs irradiation + PBE was 37%: 60%.   Conclusion: This finding might be due to radioprotective effects of the very low doses of PBE against gamma radiation.

  2. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of Moringa oleifera Lam. callus and leaf extracts on Hela cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarain, Abbas; Asghari, Gholamreza; Ghassami, Erfaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are considerable attempts worldwide on herbal and traditional compounds to validate their use as anti-cancer drugs. Plants from Moringaceae family including Moringa oleifera possess several activities such as antitumor effect on tumor cell lines. In this study we sought to determine if callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera possess any cytotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Ethanol-water (70-30) extracts of callus and leaf of M. oleifera were prepared by maceration method. The amount of phenolic compounds of the extracts was determined by Folin Ciocalteu method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts against Hela tumor cells was carried out using MTT assay. Briefly, cells were seeded in microplates and different concentrations of the extract were added. Cells were incubated for 48 h and their viability was evaluated by addition of tetrazolium salt solution. After 3 h medium was aspirated, dimethyl sulfoxide was added and absorbance was determined at 540 nm with an ELISA plate reader. Cytotoxicity was considered when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. Results: Callus and leaf extracts of M. oleifera significantly decreased the viability of Hela cells in a concentration-dependent manner. However, leaf extract of M. oleifera were more potent than that of callus extract. Conclusion: As the content of phenolic compounds of leaf extract was higher than that of callus extract, it can be concluded that phenolic compounds are involved in the cytotoxicity of M. oleifera. PMID:25337524

  3. Terbium doped SnO2 nanoparticles as white emitters and SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 magnetic luminescent nanohybrids for hyperthermia application and biocompatibility with HeLa cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Laishram Priyobarta; Singh, Ningthoujam Premananda; Srivastava, Sri Krishna

    2015-03-24

    SnO2:5Tb (SnO2 doped with 5 at% Tb(3+)) nanoparticles were synthesised by a polyol method and their luminescence properties at different annealing temperatures were studied. Characterization of nanomaterials was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). XRD studies indicate that the prepared nanoparticles were of tetragonal structures. Upon Tb(3+) ion incorporation into SnO2, Sn(4+) changes to Sn(2+) and, on annealing again at higher temperature, Sn(2+) changes to Sn(4+). The prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape. Sn-O vibrations were found from the FTIR studies. In photoluminescence studies, the intensity of the emission peaks of Tb(3+) ions increases with the increase of annealing temperature, and emission spectra lie in the region of white emission in the CIE diagram. CCT calculations show that the SnO2:5Tb emission lies in cold white emission. Quantum yields up to 38% can be obtained for 900 °C annealed samples. SnO2:5Tb nanoparticles were well incorporated into the PVA polymer and such a material incorporated into the polymer can be used for display devices. The SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 nanohybrid was prepared and investigated for hyperthermia applications at different concentrations of the nanohybrid. This achieves a hyperthermia temperature (42 °C) under an AC magnetic field. The hybrid nanomaterial SnO2:5Tb/Fe3O4 was found to exhibit biocompatibility with HeLa cells (human cervical cancer cells) at concentrations up to 74% for 100 ?g L(-1). Also, this nanohybrid shows green emission and thus it will be helpful in tracing magnetic nanoparticles through optical imaging in vivo and in vitro application. PMID:25747103

  4. Anticancer activity of certain herbs and spices on the cervical epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Berrington; Namrita Lall

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum M...

  5. Effects of 3-AB on PARP expression of Hela cells and apoptosis and cell cycle progression of Hela cells after X-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of apoptosis and cell cycle progression of Hela cells after the poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase (PARP) was inhibited by its inhibitor 3-aminobenzamid (3-AB) and the mechanisms of PARP interaction with Hela cells damaged by irradiation. Methods: Hela cell line was used. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to examine the PARP expression of control and 3 AB groups at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 h alter administration with 5 mmol·L-1 3-AB. The percentage of apoptotic cells and cell cycle progression ol control, irradiation, 3-AB plus irradiation groups were measured with FCM at 2, 8, 12, 24 h after exposure to 2 Gy irradiation following administration with 5 mmol·L-1 3-AB. Results: The percentage of Hela cells with positive expression of PARP protein decreased after administration with 3-AB and there was significant difference between 3-AB plus irradiation group and control group (P2 cells in the 3-AB plus irradiation group were lower than those in the irradiation group (P22 arrest induced by irradiation. (authors)

  6. Cytotoxic effect and radiation enhancement of artemisinin in uterine cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effect of Artemisinin on cervical carcinoma cell line HeLa. Methods: In order to measure the optimized effective time, cytotoxic effect of Artemisinin on HeLa cell line was investigated with MTT assay. The radiosensitization effect of different doses and different treatment duration of Artemisinin on HeLa cell line were evaluated by MTT test, the SER is 1.17 and radiosensitizing effect was measured with multi-target single hit model through SER of HeLa cell. Cell cycles in different groups were calculated by flow cytometry. Results: The 50% inhibition concentration of Artemisinin interacted with HeLa cells for 24 h is 600.19 nmol/ml, and for 48 h is 160.71 nmol/ml. The HeLa cells'surival ratio is 93.51%, 91.87%, and 87.28% after adding Atemisinin of 110.69 nmol/ml and 1 Gy radiation exposure. There are three groups: the chemotherapy only group, the radiotherapy only group and the combination group. The result of the cell cycles showed that cells in G2/M period decreased in the combination group. Conclusion: Artemisinin has radiosensitization effect on cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, whichshows dose and time dependent. Artemisinin can inhibit the G2/M block by ionizing radiation. (authors)

  7. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

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    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 ?g/ml, 2.20 ?g/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  8. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs

  9. The Sensitivity of Hela Kyoto Cell Line Transfected with Sensor HyPer2 to Cisplatin

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    A.S. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to compare by means of MTT assay cytotoxic effect of cisplatin on the cells of HeLa Kyoto line and HeLa Kyoto line containing genetically-encoded sensor of hydrogen peroxide HyPer2 (HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 line, and using staining by trypan blue to identify the doses of cisplatin causing cell death at different exposure time. Materials and Methods. A HeLa Kyoto cell line of human cervical carcinoma and HeLa Kyota line transfected with the cytoplasmic sensor of hydrogen peroxide (HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 were used in the study. The analysis of cytotoxic and antiproliferative action of cisplatin in relation to the given cells was performed using MTT assay. Cell viability was determined after 24 h of incubation with the preparation at concentrations from 0 to 50 ?mol/L, then within the period from 0 to 24 h with an interval of 2 h at concentration of IC50; and also after 2, 4, 6, 8 h at concentrations from 9.3 to 833.3 ?mol/L a quantity of live and destructed cells was counted using staining by trypan blue. Results. After cisplatin expose the dose-response curves for cell viability of Hela Kyoto and HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 cell lines were built according to MTT assay data. It was established that concentration of IC50 corresponding to the dose causing a loss of viability of 50% of cells is 1.3 times lower for HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 compared to HeLa Kyoto. The results of staining by a vital agent trypan blue showed that inhibiting effects of cisplatin in concentration of IC50 by 24 h are mainly linked with the delay of cell division but not with their death. At concentrations up to 52 ?mol/L damage of the membranes does not occur during 8 h, and at superhigh concentrations — 416.7 ?mol/L — the damage is possible already 4 h after the exposure. Conclusion. Comparison of sensibility of the two cell lines to the effect of cisplatin showed that transfection of the cells with the fluorescent protein results in the increase of the sensitivity to cisplatin. When HeLa Kyoto–HyPer2 cells are exposed to the preparation at concentration of IC50 during 24 h, inhibition of cell division is observed; higher concentrations of the preparation cause increase of the number of dead cells and diminish the terms of their destruction.

  10. In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of ?-chalcogen-substituted Michael-aldol Type Adducts Against Hela and RKO Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos, Alcindo A.; Varotti, Fernando P.; Santos, Fabio V.; Sousa, Bruno A.; Ferreira, Leticia R.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of biological studies using selenium and tellurium compounds, specially concern with cancer therapy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity action of nine ?-chalcogen-substituted Michael-aldol-type adducts on HeLa and RKO cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effect was assessed by MTT assay and was performed in HeLa and RKO cell lines cultured in RPMI-1640 medium in (95% O2+5% CO2) at 37°C. The IC50 values demonstrated that all compounds presented cytotoxic ...

  11. Liquiritigenin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Vascularization in a Mouse Model of Hela Cells

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    Yuxin Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is one of the crucial steps in the transition of a tumor from a small, harmless cluster of mutated cells to a large, malignant growth, capable of spreading to other organs throughout the body. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis is thought to be as an anti-angiogenic target for cancer therapy. Liquiritigenin (LQ, a flavanone existing in Radix glycyrrhiza, shows extensive biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. In our studies, liquiritigenin effectively inhibited the growth of tumors xenografted in nude mice from human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells, and microvascular density (MVD of the tumor exposed to liquiritigenin was reduced in a dose dependent manner, especially in the high dose group. Moreover, the expression and secretion of VEGF were down-regulated by the drug in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, liquiritigenin can be further studied on cancer and other diseases associated with VEGF up-regulation.

  12. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  13. Methanolic extracts from brown seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis induce apoptosis in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dayanne Lopes; Telles, Cinthia Beatrice Silva; Costa, Mariana Santana Santos Pereira; Almeida-Lima, Jailma; Costa, Leandro Silva; Keesen, Tatjana Souza Lima; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta) collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa). All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC) and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM). In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma) cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity. PMID:25871374

  14. Optimizing A Lipocomplex-Based Gene Transfer Method into HeLa Cell Line

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    Alimohammad Asgharian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant steps in gene expression studies is transferring genes into cell cultures. Despite there are different methods for gene delivery such as viral and non-viral producers, some cationic lipid reagents have recently developed to transfect into mammalian cell lines. The main aim of this study was optimizing and improving lipocomplex based transient transfection procedures into HeLa cell line which is being used widely as a typical cell in biological studies.This study was an experimental research. In this work, pCMV: ?-Gal DNA plasmid was used as a reporter DNA for determining the rate of gene transfection into HeLa cells. To accomplish the highest gene delivery into HeLa cells, optimizing experiments were carried out in different volumes of FuGENE-HD, LipofectamineTM2000 and X-tremeGENE. Also, we investigated tranasfection efficiency in presence of various cell densities of HeLa cells. Then, transfection efficiency and cell toxicity were measured by beta gal staining and trypan blue methods, respectively.Using FuGENE-HD in volume of 4?l along with 105 HeLa cells, transfection efficiency was higher (43.66 ± 1.52% in comparison with the cationic lipids lipofectamineTM2000 and X-tremeGENE. In addition, the rate of cell toxicity in presence of FuGENE-HD was less than 5%.In summary, the cationic lipid FuGENE-HD indicates a suitable potential to transfer DNA into HeLa cells and it can be an efficient reagent for gene delivery for HeLa cells in vitro. Moreover, it is worth designing and optimizing gene transfer experiments for other cell lines with FuGENE-HD due to its low toxicity and high efficiency.

  15. FRAKSINASI PROTEIN KAPANG LAUT Xylaria psidii KT30 DAN SITOTOKSISITASNYA TERHADAP SEL HeLa [Fractionation of Proteins of Marine Fungus Xylaria psidii KT30 and their Cytotoxicity against HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Gebriella Inthe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common cause of death for Indonesian women after human breast cancer. One of the efforts of cancer treatment is the utilization of natural compounds. One of the microorganisms having the potential as anticancer agent is endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi from the marine habitat can be isolated from sea weeds, sea grasses, sponges, and mangroves. Xylaria psidii KT30, a marine fungus used in this study was isolated from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii. Xylaria psidii KT30 was cultivated in potato dextrose broth medium for nine days at room temperature 27-29°C in shaking condition. This study aimed to obtain protein fractions from X. psidii KT30 and determine their toxicity againt Chang and HeLa cells. The fractionation process was conducted using DEAE Sephadex A-50 column chromatography and the toxicity was determined by Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT. The metabolites excreted in the culture broth was extracted using 90% of ammonium sulphate. The extract was then tested for their toxicity against HeLa and Chang cells by Microculture Tetrazolium Technique (MTT assay.The results revealed that LC50 of the protein extract of X. psidii KT30 was 104.95 ppm and IC50 was 69.9 ppm. Based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI, this value showed moderate cytotoxicity against HeLa cells.

  16. Hyperthermia HeLa cell treatment with silica coated manganese oxide nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Villanueva, A; Alonso, JM; Rueda, T; Martínez, A; Crespo, P; Morales, MP; Fernandez, MA Gonzalez; Valdes, J; Rivero, G

    2009-01-01

    HeLa tumour cells incubated with ferromagnetic nanoparticles of manganese oxide perovskite La0.56(SrCa)0.22MnO3 were treated with a high frequency alternating magnetic field. The particles were previously coated with silica to improve their biocompatibility. The control assays made with HeLa tumour cells showed that cell survival and growth rate were not affected by the particle internalization in cells, or by the electromagnetic field on cells without nanoparticles. The application of an alternating electromagnetic field to cells incubated with this silica coated manganese oxide induced a significant cellular damage that finally lead to cell death by an apoptotic mechanism.

  17. Mechanism for alpha-MnO2 nanowire-induced cytotoxicity in Hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Tian, Xike; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Chao; Yang, Guangtao; Zhou, Xiaochong; Yao, Hanchao; Zhu, Zhihong; Xi, Zhuge; Yang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-Manganese dioxide (alpha-MnO2) nanowires are used as electrode materials to significantly enhance the performance of lithium batteries. In this study, we investigate the nanotoxicity of alpha-MnO2 nanowires toward Hela cells. The alpha-MnO2 nanowires, which were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal approach, can induce cytotoxicity dose-dependently in Hela cells. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depletion of glutathione (GSH) are also observed in the nanowire-treated cells. In addition, comet assays and cell nucleus morphology show that both DNA damage and cell apoptosis occur in the nanowires exposure group. Based on these results, a mechanism for alpha-MnO2 nanowire-induced cytotoxicity in Hela cells, which involves the accumulation of ROS, formation of oxidative stress, DNA oxidative damage and cell apoptosis, is proposed. This investigation may provide a fundamental insight to understand the nanotoxicity of wire-shaped nanomaterials. PMID:20352869

  18. Quantitative analysis with atomic force microscopy of cisplatin-induced morphological changes in HeLa and Ishikawa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Sook; Cho, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Kyung-Sik; Park, Hun-Kuk; Jung, Min-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Because the cell membrane is an important regulator of cell function, its morphological changes are important markers of cell apoptosis. These changes can differ for each cell type, and depend on the treatment conditions, including the drug, doses, and treatment time. To quantify morphological changes, HeLa and Ishikawa cells were investigated with atomic force microscopy. Both cells were treated with cisplatin (1 mM) for 24 hours. The viability and proliferation of the cells were analyzed with methylthiazol tetrazolium method. The proliferation rates of both cells treated with cisplatin decreased more than 50%. The morphological changes induced by cisplatin were dependent on the cell type, and the results were determined quantitatively. The surface of HeLa cells became rougher with cisplatin treatment, whereas cisplatin-treated Ishikawa cells were smoother than untreated cells. In both cases, cell height was decreased with cisplatin treatment. These results suggest that atomic force microscopy can be used to analyze anticancer drug activity in cancer cells. PMID:23123387

  19. Regulation of the cell cycle via mitochondrial gene expression and energy metabolism in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Weiwei; Ma, Mingxing; Yu, Min; Cui, Qinghua; Tan, Deyong

    2012-04-01

    Human cervical cancer HeLa cells have functional mitochondria. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial metabolism plays an essential role in tumor cell proliferation. Nevertheless, how cells coordinate mitochondrial dynamics and cell cycle progression remains to be clarified. To investigate the relationship between mitochondrial function and cell cycle regulation, the mitochondrial gene expression profile and cellular ATP levels were determined by cell cycle progress analysis in the present study. HeLa cells were synchronized in the G0/G1 phase by serum starvation, and re-entered cell cycle by restoring serum culture, time course experiment was performed to analyze the expression of mitochondrial transcription regulators and mitochondrial genes, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cellular ATP levels, and cell cycle progression. The results showed that when arrested G0/G1 cells were stimulated in serum-containing medium, the amount of DNA and the expression levels of both mRNA and proteins in mitochondria started to increase at 2 h time point, whereas the MMP and ATP level elevated at 4 h. Furthermore, the cyclin D1 expression began to increase at 4 h after serum triggered cell cycle. ATP synthesis inhibitor-oligomycin-treatment suppressed the cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 expression levels and blocked cell cycle progression. Taken together, our results suggested that increased mitochondrial gene expression levels, oxidative phosphorylation activation, and cellular ATP content increase are important events for triggering cell cycle. Finally, we demonstrated that mitochondrial gene expression levels and cellular ATP content are tightly regulated and might play a central role in regulating cell proliferation. PMID:22343378

  20. Adhesion and proliferation of HeLa and fibroblast cells on chemically-modified gold surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patricia A; Rocha, Cleidiane S; Baptista, Mauricio S

    2014-11-01

    The development of materials that allow proper functioning of cells on solid supports is directly relevant to the construction of living-cell biosensors. Both physical and chemical properties of the surfaces have been shown to be critical in this field. Our aim is to report correlations between chemical properties of surfaces and cell behavior by studying adhesion, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Neither fibroblasts nor HeLa cells adhered to a hydrophobic surface. Fibroblasts were able to attach and proliferate well on all other surfaces tested. In contrast, on some surfaces where HeLa cells adhered and were viable, proliferation decreased by half while on others proliferation was not affected. Proliferation was significantly correlated with the level of adsorption of serum proteins on the surface (quantified by surface plasmon resonance), but not with surface wettability (water contact angle). Interestingly, surfaces modified with COOH and HSO3 groups were the ones that favored most protein adsorption and allowed the best measures for HeLa cell proliferation. The decrease of HeLa cell proliferation on surfaces covered with poly-L-lysine (PL) was related with the profile of integrin expression. Compared to a polystyrene control surface, there was an increase in ?V and ?V?3 and a decrease in ?2 and ?3, indicating that migration rather than proliferation could be favored on PL functionalized surfaces. These results indicate that charge is more important than wettability to determine biocompatibility. PMID:25448718

  1. Toxicity of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Sk Tofajjen; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar, E-mail: dr.samirmukherjee@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Toxic effect of CdS NPs on the growth and cell division in E. coli was studied. • CdS NPs affected cell surface topology and cell division. • Downregulation of both FtsZ and FtsQ was observed due to NPs exposure. • CdS NPs affected HeLa cell morphology with fragmented nuclei. • All such effects might be due to elevated oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The present study endeavours to assess the toxic effect of synthesized CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Escherichia coli and HeLa cells. The CdS NPs were characterized by DLS, XRD, TEM and AFM studies and the average size of NPs was revealed as ?3 nm. On CdS NPs exposure bacterial cells changed morphological features to filamentous form and damage of the cell surface was found by AFM study. The expression of two conserved cell division components namely ftsZ and ftsQ in E. coli was decreased both at transcriptional and translational levels upon CdS NPs exposure. CdS NPs inhibited proper cell septum formation without affecting the nucleoid segregation. Viability of HeLa cells declined with increasing concentration of CdS NPs and the IC{sub 50} value was found to be 4 ?g/mL. NPs treated HeLa cells showed changed morphology with condensed and fragmented nuclei. Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found both in E. coli and HeLa cells on CdS NPs exposure. The inverse correlation between declined cell viabilities and elevated ROS level suggested that oxidative stress seems to be the key event by which NPs induce toxicity both in E. coli and HeLa cells.

  2. Toxicity of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles against Escherichia coli and HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Toxic effect of CdS NPs on the growth and cell division in E. coli was studied. • CdS NPs affected cell surface topology and cell division. • Downregulation of both FtsZ and FtsQ was observed due to NPs exposure. • CdS NPs affected HeLa cell morphology with fragmented nuclei. • All such effects might be due to elevated oxidative stress. -- Abstract: The present study endeavours to assess the toxic effect of synthesized CdS nanoparticles (NPs) on Escherichia coli and HeLa cells. The CdS NPs were characterized by DLS, XRD, TEM and AFM studies and the average size of NPs was revealed as ?3 nm. On CdS NPs exposure bacterial cells changed morphological features to filamentous form and damage of the cell surface was found by AFM study. The expression of two conserved cell division components namely ftsZ and ftsQ in E. coli was decreased both at transcriptional and translational levels upon CdS NPs exposure. CdS NPs inhibited proper cell septum formation without affecting the nucleoid segregation. Viability of HeLa cells declined with increasing concentration of CdS NPs and the IC50 value was found to be 4 ?g/mL. NPs treated HeLa cells showed changed morphology with condensed and fragmented nuclei. Increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was found both in E. coli and HeLa cells on CdS NPs exposure. The inverse correlation between declined cell viabilities and elevated ROS level suggested that oxidative stress seems to be the key event by which NPs induce toxicity both in E. coli and HeLa cells

  3. Dichloroacetate shifts the metabolism from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and exhibits synergistic growth inhibition with cisplatin in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Wang, Bing-Shun; Yu, De-Hong; Lu, Qin; Ma, Jian; Qi, Hong; Fang, Chao; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2011-02-01

    The unique bioenergetic feature of cancer, aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Reversing the glycolytic phenotype may trigger apoptosis in tumor cells. Recently, dichloroacetate (DCA) was proven to produce significant cytotoxic effects in certain tumor cells through this distinct mechanism. In this study, the effect of DCA on the metabolism of cervical cancer HeLa cells was explored and its synergistic growth inhibition with cisplatin was also evaluated. The intracellular changes in HeLa cells following DCA exposure were analyzed through cell viability, intracellular H2O2 and pH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), expression of apoptotic proteins and Kv1.5 channel, and intracellular-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). For the evaluation of combination chemotherapy, HeLa cells were treated with a combination of DCA and cisplatin at various concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by CCK-8 assay and the synergy of the two agents was evaluated using the R index method. DCA shifted the metabolism of HeLa cells from aerobic glycolysis to glucose oxidation as shown by the increased intracellular H2O2 and pH levels. The change of the metabolism modality led to a drop in MMP and the increase of apoptotic proteins (caspase 3 and 9). The increased Kv1.5 expression and decreased [Ca2+]i established a positive feedback loop that resulted in reduced tonic inhibition of caspases. Combination chemotherapy of DCA and cisplatin exhibited a significant synergy in inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa cells. The specific apoptotic mechanism of DCA as distinguished from the cisplatin may be partly responsible for the synergy and further in vivo study on combination chemotherapy of the two agents in cervical cancer xenografts in mice is warranted. PMID:21132264

  4. Synergistic Induction of Apoptosis by HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor and Histone Deacetylases Inhibitor in HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Yehua; Wang, Jian; Coselli, Joseph; Wang, Xing Li

    2007-01-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of cells, which could potentially be used as an anti-cancer therapy in addition to the designated applications. In the present study, we explored the possible synergistic pro-apoptotic effects and the underlying mechanisms when the two classes of inhibitors were combined. Exposure of HeLa cells to the combined treatment of mevastatin (an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase) and...

  5. p53-dependent Fas expression is critical for Ginsenoside Rh2 triggered caspase-8 activation in HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; LI, YANG; Chao SUN; Dan JIANG; Lin, Ying-Jia; Jin, Feng-Xie; Lee, Seung-Ki; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2014-01-01

    We have recently reported that Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) induces the activation of two initiator caspases, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in human cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of its death-inducing function remains unclear. Here we show that G-Rh2 stimulated the activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9 simultaneously in HeLa cells. Under G-Rh2 treatment, membrane death receptors Fas and TNFR1 are remarkably upregulated. However, the induced expression of Fas but not TNFR1 was contr...

  6. The de novo centriole assembly pathway in HeLa cells: cell cycle progression and centriole assembly/maturation

    OpenAIRE

    La Terra, Sabrina; English, Christopher N.; Hergert, Polla; Mcewen, Bruce F.; Sluder, Greenfield; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2005-01-01

    It has been reported that nontransformed mammalian cells become arrested during G1 in the absence of centrioles (Hinchcliffe, E., F. Miller, M. Cham, A. Khodjakov, and G. Sluder. 2001. Science. 291:1547–1550). Here, we show that removal of resident centrioles (by laser ablation or needle microsurgery) does not impede cell cycle progression in HeLa cells. HeLa cells born without centrosomes, later, assemble a variable number of centrioles de novo. Centriole assembly begins with the formation...

  7. p53-dependent Fas expression is critical for Ginsenoside Rh2 triggered caspase-8 activation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Li, Yang; Sun, Chao; Jiang, Dan; Lin, Ying-Jia; Jin, Feng-Xie; Lee, Seung-Ki; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2014-03-01

    We have recently reported that Ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) induces the activation of two initiator caspases, caspase-8 and caspase-9 in human cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism of its death-inducing function remains unclear. Here we show that G-Rh2 stimulated the activation of both caspase-8 and caspase-9 simultaneously in HeLa cells. Under G-Rh2 treatment, membrane death receptors Fas and TNFR1 are remarkably upregulated. However, the induced expression of Fas but not TNFR1 was contributed to the apoptosis process. Moreover, significant increases in Fas expression and caspase-8 activity temporally coincided with an increase in p53 expression in p53-non-mutated HeLa and SK-HEP-1 cells upon G-Rh2 treatment. In contrast, Fas expression and caspase-8 activity remained constant with G-Rh2 treatment in p53-mutated SW480 and PC-3 cells. In addition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 diminished G-Rh2-induced Fas expression and caspase-8 activation. These results indicated that G-Rh2-triggered extrinsic apoptosis relies on p53-mediated Fas over-expression. In the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, G-Rh2 induced strong and immediate translocation of cytosolic BAK and BAX to the mitochondria, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and subsequent caspase-9 activation both in HeLa and in SW480 cells. p53-mediated Fas expression and subsequent downstream caspase-8 activation as well as p53-independent caspase-9 activation all contribute to the activation of the downstream effector caspase-3/-7, leading to tumor cell death. Taken together, we suggest that G-Rh2 induces cancer cell apoptosis in a multi-path manner and is therefore a promising candidate for anti-tumor drug development. PMID:24622841

  8. Dose-rate effects on the cell cycle and survival of S3 HeLa and V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of continuous irradiation at different dose rates on the cell cycle and on cell survival were studied using synchronized S3 HeLa and V79 cells. The minimum dose rate necessary to stop cell division was found to be approximately 23 rad/hr for HeLa cells and 270 rad/hr for V79 cells. For dose rates that stop cell division, cells progress through G1 and S, with a small delay in the S phase, and are blocked in G2. Appreciable mitotic accumulation was observed for HeLa cells at dose rates which stopped cell division. By comparison, much less mitotic accumulation was observed for V79 cells over a range of dose rates from 37 to 270 rad/hr. Minimum mitotic delays for a variety of dose rates were determined for both cell lines. S3 HeLa cells are much more sensitive in this respect than V79 cells; however, it appeared that for higher dose rates the minimum mitotic delay in HeLa cells asymptotically approached a value of about 35 hr. In addition to the qualitative differences observed for the two cell lines in regard to mitotic accumulation, HeLa cells accumulated for prolonged periods in the presence of colcemid while V79 cells were blocked for only a few hours, HeLa cells show a dramatic effect of redistribution of cells into sensitive phases of the cell cycle during exposure, which was reflected in the survival curves at low dose rate. More cell killing per unit dose was observed at 37 than at 74 rad/hrhr

  9. Curcumin targeting the thioredoxin system elevates oxidative stress in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx), and NADPH, is ubiquitous in all cells and involved in many redox-dependent signaling pathways. Curcumin, a naturally occurring pigment that gives a specific yellow color in curry food, is consumed in normal diet up to 100 mg per day. This molecule has also been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Curcumin has numerous biological functions, and many of these functions are related to induction of oxidative stress. However, how curcumin elicits oxidative stress in cells is unclear. Our previous work has demonstrated the way by which curcumin interacts with recombinant TrxR1 and alters the antioxidant enzyme into a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in vitro. Herein we reported that curcumin can target the cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin system to eventually elevate oxidative stress in HeLa cells. Curcumin-modified TrxR1 dose-dependently and quantitatively transfers electrons from NADPH to oxygen with the production of ROS. Also, curcumin can drastically down-regulate Trx1 protein level as well as its enzyme activity in HeLa cells, which in turn remarkably decreases intracellular free thiols, shifting the intracellular redox balance to a more oxidative state, and subsequently induces DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, curcumin-pretreated HeLa cells are more sensitive to oxidative stress. Knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes HeLa cells to curcumin cytotoxicity, highlighting the physiological significance of targeting TrxR1 by curcumin. Taken together, our data disclose a previously unrecognized prooxidant mechanism of curcumin in cells, and provide a deep insight in understanding how curcumin works in vivo. -- Highlights: ? Curcumin induces oxidative stress by targeting the thioredoxin system. ? Curcumin-modified TrxR quantitatively oxidizes NADPH to generate ROS. ? Knockdown of TrxR1 augments curcumin's cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. ? Curcumin sensitizes HeLa cells to oxidative stress.

  10. Curcumin targeting the thioredoxin system elevates oxidative stress in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Wenqing; Zhang, Baoxin; Duan, Dongzhu [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Wu, Jincai [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Fang, Jianguo, E-mail: fangjg@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2012-08-01

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx), and NADPH, is ubiquitous in all cells and involved in many redox-dependent signaling pathways. Curcumin, a naturally occurring pigment that gives a specific yellow color in curry food, is consumed in normal diet up to 100 mg per day. This molecule has also been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Curcumin has numerous biological functions, and many of these functions are related to induction of oxidative stress. However, how curcumin elicits oxidative stress in cells is unclear. Our previous work has demonstrated the way by which curcumin interacts with recombinant TrxR1 and alters the antioxidant enzyme into a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator in vitro. Herein we reported that curcumin can target the cytosolic/nuclear thioredoxin system to eventually elevate oxidative stress in HeLa cells. Curcumin-modified TrxR1 dose-dependently and quantitatively transfers electrons from NADPH to oxygen with the production of ROS. Also, curcumin can drastically down-regulate Trx1 protein level as well as its enzyme activity in HeLa cells, which in turn remarkably decreases intracellular free thiols, shifting the intracellular redox balance to a more oxidative state, and subsequently induces DNA oxidative damage. Furthermore, curcumin-pretreated HeLa cells are more sensitive to oxidative stress. Knockdown of TrxR1 sensitizes HeLa cells to curcumin cytotoxicity, highlighting the physiological significance of targeting TrxR1 by curcumin. Taken together, our data disclose a previously unrecognized prooxidant mechanism of curcumin in cells, and provide a deep insight in understanding how curcumin works in vivo. -- Highlights: ? Curcumin induces oxidative stress by targeting the thioredoxin system. ? Curcumin-modified TrxR quantitatively oxidizes NADPH to generate ROS. ? Knockdown of TrxR1 augments curcumin's cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. ? Curcumin sensitizes HeLa cells to oxidative stress.

  11. Dynamic behavior of histone H1 microinjected into HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histone H1 was purified from bovine thymus and radiolabeled with tritium by reductive methylation or with 125I using chloramine-T. Red blood cell-mediated microinjection was then used to introduce the labeled H1 molecules into HeLa cells synchronized in S phase. The injected H1 molecules rapidly entered HeLa nuclei, and a number of tests indicate that their association with chromatin was equivalent to that of endogenous histone H1. The injected molecules copurified with HeLa cell nucleosomes, exhibited a half-life of ?100h, and were hyperphosphorylated at mitosis. When injected HeLa cells were fused with mouse 3T3 fibroblasts < 10% of the labeled H1 molecules migrated to mouse nuclei during the next 48 h. Despite their slow rate of migration between nuclei, the injected H1 molecules were evenly distributed on mouse and human genomes soon after mitosis of HeLa-3T3 heterokaryons. These results suggest that although most histone H1 molecules are stably associated with interphase chromatin, they undergo extensive redistribution after mitosis

  12. Study of photodynamic, sonodynamic and antioxidative influence on HeLa cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomankova, Katerina; Kolarova, Hana; Vachutka, Jaromir; Zapletalova, Jana; Hanakova, Adela; Kaplova, Eva

    2014-02-01

    Photodynamic treatment (PDT) in combination with sonodynamic treatment (SDT) can be used as suitable methods to treat malignant and benign diseases or combat resistant bacteria. Both methods affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, antioxidants are useful for cell protection against ROS. This work was aimed to study the effect of PDT and SDT treatments on the HeLa cell line using antioxidant Pronalen Sensitive Skin as a protection from free radicals in the cells. We evaluated the effect of sensitizer ClAlPcS2 using battery of in vitro methods, including MTT assay, kinetic production of ROS, mitochondrial membrane potential change, type of cell death and microscopic analysis. Ultrasound treatment was observed to increase the production of ROS, only in combination with PDT, particularly at higher concentrations of ClAlPcS2. The added antioxidant acts as protection against free radicals and has potential as a dietary supplement against aging or free radicals. The results of study suggested that ClAlPcS2 could be used as a potential photosensitizer for treatment of a specific type of cancers. PMID:24791413

  13. Radiosensitivity of Hela cells in various O2 concentrations and consideration of oxygen effect in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is the study of the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells in vitro in various oxygen concentrations and the consideration of the utilization of oxygen effect in radiation therapy, based on the data of HeLa cells and tumor oxygen tension. Survival curves of HeLa cells are found to be exponential as a function of radiation dose and the radiosensitivity is dependent on oxygen tension of culture medium. Relative radiosensitivity decreases remarkably at low level of oxygen, especially under 9 mmHg pO2. The utilization of oxygen effect in radiation may be useful in hyperbaric oxygen inhalation and not useful under local tissue hypoxia induced by tourniquet application. Reoxygenation occurs with shrinkage of tumor after irradiation and this phenomenon will diminish the value of hyperbaric oxygen in radiation therapy. (author)

  14. Antioxidant action and cytotoxicity on HeLa and NIH-3T3 cells of new quercetin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danihelová, Martina; Veverka, Miroslav; Sturdík, Ernest; Jantová, So?a

    2013-12-01

    Quercetin is a natural polyphenol with proven health beneficial activities. In this study 15 new quercetin derivatives were prepared with the aim to enhance their bioavailability. Modification of their physicochemical properties could herewith improve the action in cells. The prepared compounds were tested for their antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The ability to scavenge free radicals as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power of the new derivatives was not better than that of unmodified quercetin. But for acetylated esters a better cytotoxic activity was found on human cervical cancer cells HeLa than for the initial molecule. The best effect revealed chloronaphtoquinone quercetin (IC50=13.2 µM). For this compound comparable cytotoxic action on non-cancer murine fibroblast cells was detected (IC50=16.5 µM). The obtained results indicate that appropriate lipophilization of the quercetin molecule could improve its cytotoxic action in cells, probably due to its enhanced bioavailability. PMID:24678260

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes induce cytoskeleton modifications during HeLa cell invasion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cecília, Fernandes; Leonardo Rodrigues de, Andrade; Norma Windsor, Andrews; Renato Arruda, Mortara.

    1014-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been recently shown that Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes subvert a constitutive membrane repair mechanism to invade HeLa cells. Using a membrane extraction protocol and high-resolution microscopy, the HeLa cytoskeleton and T. cruzi parasites were imaged during the invasion process after 15 [...] min and 45 min. Parasites were initially found under cells and were later observed in the cytoplasm. At later stages, parasite-driven protrusions with parallel filaments were observed, with trypomastigotes at their tips. We conclude that T. cruzi trypomastigotes induce deformations of the cortical actin cytoskeleton shortly after invasion, leading to the formation of pseudopod-like structures.

  16. The Roles of Platelet GPIIb/IIIa and ?v?3 Integrins during HeLa Cells Adhesion, Migration, and Invasion to Monolayer Endothelium under Static and Dynamic Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiyao; Zhao, Fenglong; Gu, Wentian; Yang, Haishiu; Meng, Quoquan; Zhang, Yunxiang; Yang, Hong; Duan, Qi

    2009-01-01

    During their passage through the circulatory system, tumor cells undergo extensive interactions with various host cells including endothelial cells and platelets. Mechanisms mediating tumor cell adhesion, migration, and metastasis to vessel wall under flow condition are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of GPIIb/IIIa and ?v?3 integrins underlying the HeLa-endothelium interaction in static and dynamic flow conditions. HeLa cell migration and invasion were studied by using Millicell cell culture insert system. The numbers of transmigrated or invaded HeLa cells significantly increased by thrombin-activated platelets and reduced by eptifibatide, a platelet inhibitor. Meanwhile, RGDWE peptides, a specific inhibitor of ?v?3 integrin, also inhibited HeLa cell transmigration. Interestingly, the presence of endothelial cells had significant effect on HeLa cell migration regardless of static or cocultured flow condition. The adhesion capability of HeLa cells to endothelial monolayer was also significantly affected by GPIIb/IIIa and ?v?3 integrins. The arrested HeLa cells increased nearly 5-fold in the presence of thrombin-activated platelets at shear stress condition (1.84 dyn/cm2 exposure for 1 hour) than the control (static). Our findings showed that GPIIb/IIIa and ?v?3 integrins are important mediators in the pathology of cervical cancer and provide a molecular basis for the future therapy, and the efficient antitumor benefit should target multiple receptors on tumor cells and platelets. PMID:19888429

  17. Polypeptide Fraction from Arca subcrenata Induces Apoptosis and G2/M Phase Arrest in HeLa Cells via ROS-Mediated MAPKs Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianjing; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Ting; Song, Liyan; Zhu, Jianhua; Guo, Zhongyi; Cai, Jinghua; Yu, Rongmin

    2015-01-01

    Arca subcrenata is documented in the literature of marine Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, coded as P2, was demonstrated to possess significant antitumor activity in our previous study. However, the underlying mechanism remains undefined. The present study was carried out to investigate the underlying antitumor mechanism of P2 in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by MTT, FCM, LSCM, and western blot assays. The results revealed that P2 significantly induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. High level of ROS was provoked by P2, which was in turn responsible for induction of apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and JNK1/2, p38 MAPK pathways, as well as inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway, as evidenced by the abrogation of P2's effect on HeLa cells preincubated with the ROS scavenger NAC. P2 also was observed to display significant effect on G2/M phase arrest by downregulating the expression of cyclin B1/cdc2 complex and upregulating the expression of p21. These findings demonstrate that P2 induces apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells through ROS-mediated MAPKs pathways, suggesting that P2 would be worth investigating as a promising agent within the scope of marine drugs for treatment of cervical cancer.

  18. Apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by a new targeting photosensitizer-based PDT via a mitochondrial pathway and ER stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Donghong; Li, Lei; Li, Pengxi; Li, Yi; Chen, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a viable treatment for many cancers. To decrease the cutaneous photosensitivity induced by PDT, many attempts have been made to search for a targeting photosensitizer; however, few reports describe the molecular mechanism of PDT mediated by this type of targeting photosensitizer. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PDT induced by a new targeting photosensitizer (PS I), reported previously by us, on HeLa cells. Apoptosis is the primary mode of HeLa cell death in our system, and apoptosis occurs in a manner dependent on concentration, irradiation dose, and drug–light intervals. After endocytosis mediated by the folate receptor, PS I was primarily localized to the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HeLa cells. PS I PDT resulted in rapid increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Ca2+ concentration, both of which reached a peak nearly simultaneously at 15 minutes, followed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential at 30 minutes, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of Bax expression. Meanwhile, activation of caspase-3, -9, and -12, as well as induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), in HeLa cells after PS I PDT was also detected. These results suggest that apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by PS I PDT is not only triggered by ROS but is also regulated by Ca2+ overload. Mitochondria and the ER serve as the subcellular targets of PS I PDT, the effective activation of which is responsible for PS I PDT-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. PMID:25897245

  19. Inhibitory Effects and Underlying Mechanism of 7-Hydroxyflavone Phosphate Ester in HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting; Du, Jiang; Liu, Liguo; Chen, Xiaolan; Yang, Fang; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Chrysin and its phosphate ester have previously been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in Hela cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be characterized. In the present study, we therefore synthesized diethyl flavon-7-yl phosphate (FP, C19H19O6P) by a simplified Atheron-Todd reaction, and explored its anti-tumor characteristics and mechanisms. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were measured by MTS, flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucle...

  20. Neutron activation analysis of antimony in chromatin and nucleoids of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antimony seems to be cancerogenic in men. In the present investigations we tried to find out if Sb+++ are also bound to the cell nucleus. HeLa cells were incubated with SbCl3 and after a 18 h incubation time cells were lysed and crude chromatin isolated. In this preparation Sb was determined by neutron activation analysis. From the same cell culture nucleoids were prepared by ultracentrifugation and also Sb detected in these structures. 12 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Julie; Clausen, Casper Hyttel

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes in electrical properties compared with non-treated cells. We found that our microfluidic system was able to distinguish between treated and non-treated cells. Furthermore, we utilize a model for electrical impedance spectroscopy in order to perform a theoretical study to clarify our results. This study focuses on investigating the changes in the electrical properties of the cell membrane caused by the effect of paclitaxel. We observe good agreement between the model and the obtained results. This establishes the proof-of-concept for the application in cell drug therapy.

  2. [The distribution of chlorine e6 and its derivatives in HeLa cells studied using luminescence microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, G P; Zorina, T E; Arkatov, Iu M; Sarzhevskaia, M V; Cherenkevich, S N

    1989-09-01

    The influence of the chemical structure of porphyrin pigments on their accumulation and localization in HeLa cells has been examined by the scanning fluorescence microphotometry. It has been found that the replacement of carboxyl groups of chlorine e6 for methyl and amino groups has no influence on the pigment distributions in cells. All the pigments are bound by cell membrane structures. The chemical modification of chlorine e6 structure is essential for the ability of pigment to be accumulated by cells that can be used to increase the efficiency of cancer phototherapy. The charge and hydrophobic properties of pigment molecules are of great importance for accumulating porphyrin sensitizers by cells. PMID:2623769

  3. Oleuropein induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via a mitochondrial apoptotic cascade associated with activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Wu, Jibing; Yang, Xue; Yang, Jiaxi; Zhang, Yuxing; Du, Linfang

    2014-01-01

    Oleuropein could inhibit growth and/or induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigate how oleuropein strongly induces apoptotic cell death in HeLa human cervical carcinoma cells. Oleuropein induced HeLa cells apoptosis as demonstrated by induction of a sub-G(1) peak in flow cytometry and apoptosis-related morphological changes observed by fluorescence microscopy after being stained by Hoechst 33324. The results also showed that 150 - 200 ?M oleuropein–treated HeLa cells were arrested at the G(2)/M phase. Western blot analysis revealed that the phosphorylated ATF-2, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) protein, p53, p21, Bax, and cytochrome c protein in the cytoplasm significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner after treatment of oleuropein for 24 h. Additionally, increasing levels of Bax in response to JNK/SPAK signaling, which formed mitochondrial membrane channels, accounted for releasing of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3. SP600125 (20 ?M), a JNK(1/2) inhibitor, markedly suppressed the formation of apoptotic bodies and JNK activation induced by oleuropein at 200 ?M. Thus, oleuropein-induced apoptosis was activated by the JNK/SPAK signal pathway. The result shows that oleuropein holds promise as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of HeLa cells. PMID:25048019

  4. A phthalide derivative isolated from endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis photiniae induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human HeLa cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Chen; R.L., Yang.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available MP [4-(3?,3?-dimethylallyloxy)-5-methyl-6-methoxyphthalide] was obtained from liquid culture of Pestalotiopsis photiniae isolated from the Chinese Podocarpaceae plant Podocarpus macrophyllus. MP significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa tumor cell lines. After treatment with MP, characterist [...] ic apoptotic features such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in DAPI-stained HeLa cells. Flow cytometry showed that MP induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate protein and mRNA expression. MP caused significant cell cycle arrest by upregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 protein and p21CIP1 mRNA levels in HeLa cells. The expression of p73 protein was increased after treatment with various MP concentrations. mRNA expression of the cell cycle-related genes, p21CIP1 , p16INK4a and Gadd45?, was significantly upregulated and mRNA levels demonstrated significantly increased translation of p73, JunB, FKHR, and Bim. The results indicate that MP may be a potential treatment for cervical cancer.

  5. A phthalide derivative isolated from endophytic fungi Pestalotiopsis photiniae induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Yang, R L

    2013-08-01

    MP [4-(3',3'-dimethylallyloxy)-5-methyl-6-methoxyphthalide] was obtained from liquid culture of Pestalotiopsis photiniae isolated from the Chinese Podocarpaceae plant Podocarpus macrophyllus. MP significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa tumor cell lines. After treatment with MP, characteristic apoptotic features such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in DAPI-stained HeLa cells. Flow cytometry showed that MP induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate protein and mRNA expression. MP caused significant cell cycle arrest by upregulating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1) protein and p21(CIP1) mRNA levels in HeLa cells. The expression of p73 protein was increased after treatment with various MP concentrations. mRNA expression of the cell cycle-related genes, p21(CIP1), p16(INK4a) and Gadd45?, was significantly upregulated and mRNA levels demonstrated significantly increased translation of p73, JunB, FKHR, and Bim. The results indicate that MP may be a potential treatment for cervical cancer. PMID:23903687

  6. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa) Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrington, Danielle; Lall, Namrita

    2012-01-01

    Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary), Lavandula spica L. (Lavender), Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf), Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme), Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender), Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel), and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika). Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 3.48 ± 0.218??g/mL and 10.84 ± 0.125??g/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351?g and 1.09?g for McConnell's Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3'-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate) colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC(50) of 34.46 ± 0.48??g/mL and 126.3 ± 1.00??g/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1??g/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8??g/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining) and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare. PMID:22649474

  7. Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells is serum dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, V; De Anda, J; Meléndez-Zajgla, J

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of HeLa cells to different concentrations of the antineoplastic drug paclitaxel resulted in a loss of cell viability that was dependent on the concentration and time of exposure to the drug. This phenomenon was associated with the appearance of nuclear morphology typical of apoptosis and DNA breakage into a "ladder" pattern of discrete fragments of nucleosomal size. The induction of cell death was dependent on the serum concentration of the culture media, repressed by pretreatment with a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, and enhanced by increasing the cell proliferation with previous exposure to a cAMP-analog and a protein kinase-C (PKC) inducer. The proliferative index modifies the effect of taxol on HeLa cells, probably by means of a more rapid accumulation of cells in the G2/M cycle blockage point, although a direct participation of PKA and PKC should not be excluded. PMID:9062848

  8. A 1H spin echo NMR study of HeLa tumour cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorylcholine, phosphorylcreatine, lactate, glutathione, glycine and leucine were identified in living HeLa cells in the first study of this cell type by 1H spin echo NMR spectroscopy. The technique has the advantage that it is non-invasive, providing detailed structural information on individual species present in the cell matrix. It has been used in this case to study the rate of energy consumption following the activation of the glycolytic pathway with glucose. (Auth.)

  9. Translation of capped viral mRNAs in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L.

    1982-01-01

    HeLa cells doubly infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and poliovirus synthesize either more poliovirus proteins or more SFV late proteins depending on the time of super-infection with poliovirus. Under some conditions, the infected cells translate uncapped poliovirus mRNA and capped 26S mRNA from SFV simultaneously, even though host protein synthesis has been shut down. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) protein synthesis is depressed drastically when VSV-infected cells are super-infected ...

  10. The influence of hyperthermia on pH of lysosomes of cultured Hela cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa cells in the logarithmic phase of growth were heated up to 42-43 deg C in the SHF field for 10 min. Then, after 30. 60 and 120 min pH of lysosomes was determined by neutral red. In 30 min, pH of lysosomes of heated cells decreased down to 5.51+-0.1 against 5.87+-0.07 in intact cells; in 120 min it reached the initial level

  11. Depletion of nucleophosmin leads to distortion of nucleolar and nuclear structures in HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Mohammed abdullahel; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2008-01-01

    NPM (nucleophosmin; also known as B23) is an abundantly and ubiquitously expressed multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein, which is involved in numerous cellular processes, including ribosome biogenesis, protein chaperoning and centrosome duplication; however, the role of NPM in the cell cycle still remains unknown. In the present study, we show dynamic localization of NPM throughout the cell cycle of HeLa cells. Using a combination of RNAi (RNA interference) and three-dimensional microscop...

  12. Growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan HUA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the growth and apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by intense picosecond pulsed electric field(PEF in vitro.Methods HeLa cells cultured in vitro were divided into experimental group and control group(with or without intense picosecond PEF.With constant pulse width,frequency and voltage,the cells in experimental group were divided into 6 sub-groups according to the number of pulse(100,200,500,1000,1500,2000,the growth inhibition of HeLa cells by PEF and the dose-effect relationship were analyzed by MTT.Caspase 3 protein activity was detected in the cells in 500,1000 and 2000 sub-groups.Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was detected by rhodamine 123 staining with the cells in 2000 sub-groups.Results MTT assay demonstrated that intense picosecond PEF significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in dose-dependent manner.The survival rates of cells declined along with the increase in pulse number,and were 96.23%±0.76%,94.11%±2.42%,90.31%±1.77%,64.59%±1.59%,32.95%±0.73%,23.85%±2.38% and 100%,respectively,in 100,200,500,1000,1500,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.01.The Caspase 3 protein activity was significantly enhanced by intense picosecond PEF,and the absorbancy indexes(A were 0.174±0.012,0.232±0.017,0.365±0.016 and 0.122±0.011,respectively,in 500,1000,2000 sub-groups and control group(P < 0.05.The mitochondrial transmembrane potential of HeLa cells was significantly inhibited by intense picosecond PEF,and the fluorescence intensity in 2000 sub-group(76.66±13.38 was much lower than that in control group(155.81±2.33,P < 0.05.Conclusion Intense picosecond PEF may significantly inhibit the growth of HeLa cells,and induce cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

  13. Glycans coated silver nanoparticles induces autophagy and necrosis in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Mariano, Stefania; Dini, Luciana

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the induction of autophagy by two concentrations (2×103 or 2×104 NPs/cell) of 30 nm sized ?-D-Glucose- and ?-D-Glucose/Sucrose-coated silver NanoParticles (AgNPs-G and AgNPs-GS respectively) in HeLa cells treated for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hrs. Cell viability was assessed by Neutral Red (NR) test and morphological evaluation. In addition ROS generation (NBT test) and induction of apoptosis/necrosis (Annexin V/Propidium Iodide-Annexin V/PI staining) and autophagy (Monodansylcadaverine-MDC staining) were evaluated. Cytotoxicity, ROS generation and morphology changes depend on NPs type and amount, and incubation time. As a general result, AgNPs-G are more toxic than AgNPs-GS. Moreover, the lowest AgNPs-GS concentration is ineffective on cell viability and ROS generation. Only 10% and 25% of viable HeLa cells were found at the end of incubation time in the presence of higher amount of AgNPs - G and AgNPs-GS respectively and in parallel ROS generation is induced. To elucidate the type of cell death, Annexin V/PI and MDC staining was performed. Interestingly, irrespective of coating type and NPs amount the percentage of apoptotic cells (Annexin V+/PI-) is similar to viable HeLa cells. At contrary, we observed a NPs amount dependent autophagy and necrosis induction. In fact, the lower amount of NPs induces autophagy (MDC+/PI- cells) whereas the higher one induces necrosis (Annexin V+/PI+ cells). Our findings suggest that AgNPs-induced cytotoxicity depends on AgNPs amount and type and provide preliminary evidence of induction of autophagy in HeLa cells cultured in the presence of AgNPs.

  14. Changes in the sensitivity of HeLa cells after split doses of X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survival curves were compared for HeLa cells X-irradiated with single or fractionated doses, in an investigation into the possibility that resistance over and above that caused by trypsinization can be induced in HeLa cells by X-rays. Cells became more radioresistant in the 24 hour interval between doses, but cells given single doses 24 hours after, rather than immediately after trypsinization became similarly more resistant. Survival curves where cells were given a range of first doses followed at 24 hours by a standard test dose showed that survival after the second exposure decreased as the size of the first dose increased. Increased resistance to second doses of X-rays can be accounted for by the post-trypsinization increase in survival which occurs after single X-ray exposures. (U.K.)

  15. Transport of NaYF4:Er3+, Yb3+ up-converting nanoparticles into HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective, simple and practically useful method to incorporate fluorescent nanoparticles inside live biological cells was developed. The internalization time and concentration dependence of a frequently used liposomal transfection factor (Lipofectamine 2000) was studied. A user friendly, one-step technique to obtain water and organic solvent soluble Er3+ and Yb3+ doped NaYF4 nanoparticles coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone was obtained. Structural analysis of the nanoparticles confirmed the formation of nanocrystals of the desired sizes and spectral properties. The internalization of NaYF4 nanoparticles in HeLa cervical cancer cells was determined at different nanoparticle concentrations and for incubation periods from 3 to 24 h. The images revealed a redistribution of nanoparticles inside the cell, which increases with incubation time and concentration levels, and depends on the presence of the transfection factor. The study identifies, for the first time, factors responsible for an effective endocytosis of the up-converting nanoparticles to HeLa cells. Thus, the method could be applied to investigate a wide range of future ‘smart’ theranostic agents. Nanoparticles incorporated into the liposomes appear to be very promising fluorescent probes for imaging real-time cellular dynamics. (paper)

  16. Involvement of the Nrf2 pathway in the regulation of pterostilbene-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via ER stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Chen, Han-Yin; Liu, Bin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Among the various cancer cell lines, HeLa cells were found to be sensitive to pterostilbene (Pte), a compound that is enriched in small fruits such as grapes and berries. However, the mechanism involved in the cytotoxicity of Pte has not been fully characterized. Using biochemical and free radical biological experiments in vitro, we identified the pro-apoptotic profiles of Pte and evaluated the level of redox stress-triggered ER stress during HeLa cell apoptosis. The data showed a strong dose-response relationship between Pte exposure and the characteristics of HeLa apoptosis in terms of changes in apoptotic morphology, DNA fragmentation, and activated caspases in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. During drug exposure, alterations in the intracellular redox homeostasis that favor oxidation were necessary to cause ER stress-related apoptosis, as demonstrated by enzymatic and non-enzymatic redox modulators. A statistically significant and dose-dependent increase (P < 0.05) was found with regard to the unique expression levels of Nrf2/ARE downstream target genes in HeLa cells undergoing late apoptosis, levels that were restored with anti-oxidant application with the Pte treatment. Our research demonstrated that Pte trigged ER stress by redox homeostasis imbalance, which was negatively regulated by a following activation of Nrf2. PMID:25341683

  17. Changes in distribution of cell cycle phases and DNA content in HeLa S3 cell after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation and hyperthermia on the distribution in various phases and DNA content of HeLa S3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and an image analysis instrument. A marked increase in DNA content from 6.718 to 9.614(AU) in HeLa S3 cells after 6 Gy irradiation was seen to correspond with the changes in the distribution of various phases in G2 + M, from 22% to 52%. Meanwhile, the surviving fraction of HeLa S3 cells after 6 Gy irradiation was less than 1%. However, after heating at 44 deg C for 10 min, the amount of cells in G2 + M increased from 22.5% to 52.5% and the surviving fraction after hyperthermia was less than 2.65%. The changes in distribution of various phases after Ir-192 irradiation were similar to those seen after X-ray irradiation. The delay of G2 + M phase after treatment with 8 Gy plus heating at 44 deg C for 7 min in HeLa S3 cells was similar to that seen in the case of treatment with 8 Gy alone. As the surviving fraction accompanying the G2 + M delay after irradiation plus heat treatment was very low, we suggest that the changes of distribution in various phases of HeLa S3 cells after treatment might be used as a rapid indicator of serious injury

  18. Independent regulation by sodium butyrate of gonadotropin alpha gene expression and cell cycle progression in HeLa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Darnell, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Sodium butyrate alters the growth and gene expression of a variety of differentiating and neoplastic cell types. For example, addition of 5 mM butyrate to HeLa cells is reported to both induce gonadotropin alpha subunit biosynthesis and block cell cycling in G1. We have studied these two actions of butyrate on HeLa cells and found that they are regulated in distinct ways. The induction of alpha subunit synthesis was due to an increase in the rate of transcription of the alpha gene. Using sync...

  19. Lipophilic pro-oligonucleotides are rapidly and efficiently internalized in HeLa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Vivès, E; Aquila, C., dell'; Bologna, J C; Morvan, F; Rayner, B; Imbach, J L

    1999-01-01

    Model t-Bu-SATE pro-dodecathymidines labeled with fluorescein and exhibiting various lipophilicities were evaluated for their uptake by cells in culture. Pro-oligonucleotides with appropriate lipophilicity were found to permeate across the HeLa cell membrane much more extensively than the control phosphorothioate oligo or than the hydrophilic pro-oligos. Fluorescence patterns of internalization were consistent with a diffusion mechanism resulting in the appearance of a uniform cytoplasmic dis...

  20. Potentiation of radiation lethality in HeLa cells by mild hyperthermia and procaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, B. (Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York); Szechter, A.

    1981-11-01

    Increased radiation lethality was observed in HeLa cells when irradiation was followed by two hours of incubation at 41/sup o/C in the presence of 1 mM procaine hydrochloride. The increase of radiation lethality produced by this combination was significantly higher than that produced by hyperthermia alone. Two hours of incubation with procaine at 37/sup o/C had no effect on the survival of irradiation cells.

  1. Survival curves of and mathematical models Hela cells irradiated with ?-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival curve of HeLa cells irradiated with ?-rays was studied and the two mathematical models for fitting the cell survival curve were compared. The better fitting was estimated by comparing the least sum of squares of weighted deviation. The results were shown in two mathematics models. The value of D0 and Dq are 1.55 Gy and 1.11 Gy, respectively, and the value of n is 2.05

  2. Active RNA polymerase I is fixed within the nucleus of HeLa cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, P.; Cook, Pr; Jackson, Da

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated whether active RNA polymerase I, the enzyme responsible for transcribing ribosomal RNA, is immobilized by attachment to a large subnuclear structure in HeLa cells. As unphysiological salt concentrations induce artifacts, we have used isotonic conditions throughout the preparative and analytic procedures. Cells are encapsulated in agarose microbeads and lysed in Triton and a 'physiological' buffer; then soluble proteins and RNA diffuse out through the agarose pores to leav...

  3. A DNA-activated protein kinase from HeLa cell nuclei.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, T.; Vancurová, I; Sun, I; LOU, W.; DeLeon, S

    1990-01-01

    A DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) was purified from nuclei of HeLa cells. Activity was associated with a single high-molecular-mass (approximately-300,000 Da) polypeptide when analyzed by gel filtration, denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and Western immunoblotting using a monoclonal antibody that also inhibits enzyme activity. Nuclear localization was indicated by subcellular fractionation and confirmed by immunofluorescence on whole cells. Double-stranded DNA stimulated ph...

  4. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to observe the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles on human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cell line (HeLa). Nickel oxide precursors were synthesized by an nickel sulphate-excess urea reaction in boiling aqueous solution. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles (< 200 nm) were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy techniques. For cytotoxicity experiments, HeLa cells were incubated in 50-500 micro g/ml NiO for 2, 6, 12 and 16 hours. The viable cells were counted with a haemacytometer using light microscopy. The cytotoxicity was observed low in 50-200 micro g/ml concentration for 16 h, but high in 400-500 micro g/ml concentration for 2-6 h. HeLa cells cytoplasm membrane was lysed and detached from the well surface in 400 micro g/ml concentration NiO nanoparticles. Double staining and M30 immunostaining were performed to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in culture on the basis of apoptotic cell nuclei scores. The apoptotic effect was observed 20% for 16 h incubation. (authors)

  5. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles in cultured HeLa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa Tandogan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles on human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cell line (HeLa. Nickel oxide precursors were synthesized by an nickel sulphate-excess urea reaction in boiling aqueous solution. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles (<200 nm were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy techniques. For cytotoxicity experiments, HeLa cells were incubated in 50-500 Î?g/mL NiO for 2, 6, 12 and 16 hours. The viable cells were counted with a haemacytometer using light microscopy. The cytotoxicity was observed low in 50-200 Î?g/mL concentration for 16 h, but high in 400-500 Î?g/mL concentration for 2-6 h. HeLa cells' cytoplasm membrane was lysed and detached from the well surface in 400 Î?g/mL concentration NiO nanoparticles. Double staining and M30 immunostaining were performed to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in culture on the basis of apoptotic cell nuclei scores. The apoptotic effect was observed 20% for 16 h incubation.

  6. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles in cultured HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Ada

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to observe the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of nickel oxide nanoparticles on humancervix epithelioid carcinoma cell line (HeLa. Nickel oxide precursors were synthesized by an nickel sulphate-excess ureareaction in boiling aqueous solution. The synthesized NiO nanoparticles (<200 nm were investigated by X-ray diffractionanalysis and transmission electron microscopy techniques. For cytotoxicity experiments, HeLa cells were incubated in50-500 ?g/mL NiO for 2, 6, 12 and 16 hours. The viable cells were counted with a haemacytometer using light microscopy.The cytotoxicity was observed low in 50-200 ?g/mL concentration for 16 h, but high in 400-500 ?g/mL concentration for2-6 h. HeLa cells' cytoplasm membrane was lysed and detached from the well surface in 400 ?g/mL concentration NiOnanoparticles. Double staining and M30 immunostaining were performed to quantify the number of apoptotic cells in cultureon the basis of apoptotic cell nuclei scores. The apoptotic effect was observed 20% for 16 h incubation.

  7. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. II. Synergistic lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postirradiation treatment of HeLa S3 cells with 1 mM caffeine results in a marked diminution of the surviving fraction as scored by colony formation. The decrease is dose dependent; the effect of a 24-hour postirradiation treatment of a nonsynchronous population with caffeine is to change the terminal slope of the survival curve and its intercept. D0 is reduced from 130 to 60 rad; the extrapolation number is increased about twofold. The amount of postirradiation killing is maximal if cells are exposed to caffeine at a concentration of at least 1 mM for 8 hours; less than 10% of unirradiated cells are killed under these conditions. Dose-response curves were also obtained for synchronous cells at various phases of the cell cycle. Similar results were obtained at all cell ages, but the magnitude of the effect is age dependent. This age dependence was further explored in experiments in which mitotically collected cells were exposed to 300 or 500 rad doses at 2-hour intervals throughout the cell cycle. Treatment with caffeine for 24 hours after irradiation enchances the killing of cells late in the cycle more than cells in G1. The sensitivities of two other cell lines, CHO and EMT6, also were examined; both are substantially less sensitive to caffeine. The smaller cell-cycle dependence of CHO cells is qualitatively the same as that of HeLa cells

  8. Detection of Clostridium difficile toxin with McCoy cell monolayers and cell suspensions and comparison with HeLa cell assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Maniar, A. C.; Chubb, H.; Louie, T. J.; Williams, T. W.; Forsyth, W.; Wilt, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    McCoy cell monolayers were compared with HeLa cell monolayers for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin in 301 stool samples. Tests were positive (greater than or equal to 1/100 dilution) in 83 and 81 specimens tested with McCoy and HeLa cell monolayers, respectively. McCoy cell suspensions were compared with HeLa cell monolayers in 532 stool filtrates. Overall, 90 positive specimens were within one dilution and 432 filtrates were negative with either test, giving a correlation coeffic...

  9. Effect of different stress factors on IL-6 and leptin expression in HELA cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of three stress factors high glucose (HG), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the expression of culture supernatant IL-6 (IL-6) and leptin contents of HELA cell line. Methods: HELA cell culture models of severe inflammatory response syndrome were prepared with cultures treated with 50 mmol/L glucose (HG), 4 ?g/ ml LPS and 100 ?mol/L H2O2 respectively and supernatant contents of IL-6 and leptin were measured with RIA at 1h, 6h and 24h. Results: Generally speaking, the culture supernatant contents of IL-6 gradually increased and leptin contents gradually decreased with significant differences from those in cultures not treated with either stress factor at 6h and 12h (P<0.05). Conclusion: Leptin as a possible anti-inflammatory cytokine might plays an important protective role in severe inflammatory response. (authors)

  10. Antiproliferative effects of Tanaceti partheni, Hypericum perforatum and propolis on HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ceni?-Miloševi? Desanka; Tambur Zoran; Ivan?aji? S.; Stanojkovi? Tatjana; Grozdani? Na?a; Kuliši? Z.; Jurani? Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Tanaceti partheni, Hypericum perforatum and propolis have been widely used for centuries and are well-documented medicinal plants and natural product. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effects of water extracts of ethanolic dry extracts of two different medicinal plants (Tanaceti partheni and Hypericum perforatum) and propolis on HeLa cells. The Tanaceti partheni extract exhibited mild cytotoxic activity. The IC50 was 153.71 ?g/mL. The ex...

  11. Apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by a new targeting photosensitizer-based PDT via a mitochondrial pathway and ER stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li D

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Donghong Li,1 Lei Li,2 Pengxi Li,1 Yi Li,3 Xiangyun Chen1 1State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, The Second Department of Research Institute of Surgery, 2The First Department of Research Institute of Surgery, 3Cancer Center, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT is emerging as a viable treatment for many cancers. To decrease the cutaneous photosensitivity induced by PDT, many attempts have been made to search for a targeting photosensitizer; however, few reports describe the molecular mechanism of PDT mediated by this type of targeting photosensitizer. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of PDT induced by a new targeting photosensitizer (PS I, reported previously by us, on HeLa cells. Apoptosis is the primary mode of HeLa cell death in our system, and apoptosis occurs in a manner dependent on concentration, irradiation dose, and drug–light intervals. After endocytosis mediated by the folate receptor, PS I was primarily localized to the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of HeLa cells. PS I PDT resulted in rapid increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production and Ca2+ concentration, both of which reached a peak nearly simultaneously at 15 minutes, followed by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential at 30 minutes, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression, and upregulation of Bax expression. Meanwhile, activation of caspase-3, -9, and -12, as well as induction of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and glucose-regulated protein (GRP78, in HeLa cells after PS I PDT was also detected. These results suggest that apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by PS I PDT is not only triggered by ROS but is also regulated by Ca2+ overload. Mitochondria and the ER serve as the subcellular targets of PS I PDT, the effective activation of which is responsible for PS I PDT-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Keywords: folate-PEG-chlorin, folate receptor positive cells, cell death model, mechanism

  12. Repression of the Human Papillomavirus E6 Gene Initiates p53-Dependent, Telomerase-Independent Senescence and Apoptosis in HeLa Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Stacy M.; Defilippis, Rosa Anna; Manuelidis, Laertes; Dimaio, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Cervical cancer cells express high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 proteins. When both HPV oncogenes are repressed in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells, the dormant p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor pathways are activated, and the cells undergo senescence in the absence of apoptosis. When the E6 gene is repressed in cells that continue to express an E7 gene, the p53 pathway, but not the Rb pathway, is activated, and both senescence and apoptosis are triggered. To determine th...

  13. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca2+ dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  14. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Lan, Bei; Cao, Youjia [Key Laboratory of Microbial Functional Genomics of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Med-X Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-10-27

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca{sup 2+} dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  15. Laser stimulation can activate autophagy in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yisen; Lan, Bei; He, Hao; Hu, Minglie; Cao, Youjia; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-10-01

    For decades, lasers have been a daily tool in most biological research for fluorescent excitation by confocal or multiphoton microscopy. More than 20 years ago, cell photodamage caused by intense laser stimulation was noticed by generating reactive oxygen species, which was then thought as the main damage effect by photons. In this study, we show that laser stimulation can induce autophagy, an important cell lysosomal pathway responding to immune stimulation and starvation, without any biochemical treatment. Two different types of laser stimulations are found to be capable of activating autophagy: continuous scanning by continuous-wave visible lasers and a short-time flash of femtosecond laser irradiation. The autophagy generation is independent from wavelength, power, and scanning duration of the visible lasers. In contrast, the power of femtosecond laser is very critical to autophagy because the multiphoton excited Ca2+ dominates autophagy signaling. In general, we show here the different mechanisms of autophagy generation by such laser stimulation, which correspond to confocal microscopy and cell surgery, respectively. Those results can help further understanding of photodamage and autophagy signaling.

  16. The Effects of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl Retinamide on Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hela Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Han

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide (4HPR on the proliferation and apoptosis of Hela cells, the cell growth was observed by SRB test, colony-forming test and nude mice carcinogenic test. Morphologic changes of apoptosis were observed under microscopes and the normal, apoptotic and necrotic cells were identified by fluorescence staining. The biochemical features and percentage of apoptosis were performed by flow cytometry (FCM and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of SRB test, colony-forming test and nude mice carcinogenic test showed that 4HPR could inhibit the cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo (P<0.01. The apoptotic changes and apoptosis bodies could be observed under microscopes. The fluorescence staining revealed that 4HPR could induce the cells apoptosis, not necrosis. Typical DNA ladder appeared in 4HPR-treated cells and detected by FCM, the subdiploid nuclear peak appeared on the left of G1 peak and the apoptotic percentage was correlated with 4HPR in a dose and time dependent manner(P<0.01. All these results indicated that 4HPR could inhibit the proliferation of Hela cells and induce the cells apoptosis.

  17. Labeling of HeLa cells using ZrO2:Yb(3+)-Er(3+) nanoparticles with upconversion emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Fdez, Andrea; López-Luke, Tzarara; Oliva, Jorge; Vivero-Escoto, Juan; Gonzalez-Yebra, Ana Lilia; Rojas, Ruben A Rodriguez; Martínez-Pérez, Andrea; de la Rosa, Elder

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the synthesis, structural characterization, and optical properties of ZrO2:Yb(3+)-Er(3+) (2–1 mol%) nanocrystals. The nanoparticles were coated with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) and further modified with biomolecules, such as Biotin-Anti-rabbit (mouse IgG) and rabbit antibody-AntiKi-67, through a conjugation method. The conjugation was successfully confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The internalization of the conjugated nanoparticles in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells was followed by two-photon confocal microscopy. The ZrO2:Yb(3+)-Er(3+) nanocrystals exhibited strong red emission under 970-nm excitation. Moreover, the luminescence change due to the addition of APTES molecules and biomolecules on the nanocrystals was also studied. These results demonstrate that ZrO2:Yb(3+)-Er(3+) nanocrystals can be successfully functionalized with biomolecules to develop platforms for biolabeling and bioimaging. PMID:25879389

  18. Intracellular imaging of HeLa cells by non-functionalized NaYF4 : Er3+, Yb3+ upconverting nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetrone, Fiorenzo; Naccache, Rafik

    2010-01-01

    We report on the efficient incorporation of non-functionalized NaYF(4) : Er(3+), Yb(3+) nanoparticles inside HeLa live cancer cells by direct endocytosis. The efficient two-photon excited near-infrared-to-visible upconversion fluorescence of these nanoparticles is then used to obtain high-contrast intracellular fluorescence images of single cells. These images reveal a redistribution of the nanoparticles inside the cell as the incubation time increases. Thus, non-functionalized NaYF(4) : Er(3+), Yb(3+) nanoparticles emerge as very promising fluorescence probes for real-time imaging of cellular dynamics.

  19. Retroviral expression of human cystatin genes in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Crystal M; Kaur, Gagandeep; Keppler, Daniel; Lin, Athena W

    2015-01-01

    Retroviral gene transfer is a highly efficient and effective method of stably introducing genetic material into the genome of specific cell types. The process involves the transfection of retroviral expression vectors into a packaging cell line, the isolation of viral particles, and the infection of target cell lines. Compared to traditional gene transfer methods such as liposome-mediated transfection, retroviral gene transfer allows for stable gene expression in cell populations without the need for lengthy selection and cloning procedures. This is particularly helpful when studying gene products that have negative effect on cell growth and viability. Here, we describe the retroviral transfer of cystatin cDNAs using HEK293-derived Phoenix packaging cells and human HeLa cervical carcinoma cells as target cells. PMID:25348302

  20. Mitotic accumulation of HeLa cells during continuous irradiation. Observations using time-lapse cinemicrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of S3 HeLa cells to divide during continuous irradiation was studied using time-lapse cinemicrography. Cells were initially synchronized by mitotic selection, and the irradiation was started 2 hr later. For dose rates of approximately 35 rad/hr very few cells were able to divide during 60 hr of continuous irradiation, but many accumulated for prolonged periods in a rounded configuration. Parallel studies in which cells were harvested and fixed for microscopic examination showed that most of the rounded cells seen in the time-lapse films must have been cells which entered mitosis, attempting to divide, and not cells rounding and dying from an interphase configuration. After 50 to 60 hr of continuous irradiation the frequency of cells with micronuclei increased sharply. Mitotic accumulation during continuous irradiation was similar in some respects to that seen in the presence of colcemide

  1. Cytotoxic Activity of Three South Sulawesi Medicinal Plant Extracts Used in the Treatment of HeLa Cell Line: Jati Putih (Gmelina arborea Roxb.), Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk.) and Lakkalakka (Curculigo orchioides Gaerth)

    OpenAIRE

    LUKMAN M; RENY SYAHRUNI; MICHRUN NISA; AISYAH FATMAWATI

    2014-01-01

    Gmelina arborea Roxb, Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth, the three plants frequently used in South Sulawesi for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in cervical epithelial carcinoma. These extracts were assessed using HeLa cell cancer (Human cervix cancer) and doxorubicin was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (IC50). Cytotoxic activity was measured using MTT colorime...

  2. Deficit in DNA content relative to histones in X-irradiated HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA and histone content of HeLa S-3 cell cultures was measured by direct mass assays 21 hours after 1000 rad of X-irradiation, when the cells were arrested in G2 phase. The nuclear DNA content of such cultures was found to be deficient (73 per cent of control values). In contrast, the synthesis of nuclear histones persisted, and the total histone content was close to 100 per cent of control values. When synchronously-growing cultures were irradiated in mid-S phase and examined 3.5 hours later in G2 phase, both DNA and histone content were equal to control values. (author)

  3. The de novo centriole assembly pathway in HeLa cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terra, Sabrina; English, Christopher N.; Hergert, Polla; McEwen, Bruce F.; Sluder, Greenfield; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2005-01-01

    It has been reported that nontransformed mammalian cells become arrested during G1 in the absence of centrioles (Hinchcliffe, E., F. Miller, M. Cham, A. Khodjakov, and G. Sluder. 2001. Science. 291:1547–1550). Here, we show that removal of resident centrioles (by laser ablation or needle microsurgery) does not impede cell cycle progression in HeLa cells. HeLa cells born without centrosomes, later, assemble a variable number of centrioles de novo. Centriole assembly begins with the formation of small centrin aggregates that appear during the S phase. These, initially amorphous “precentrioles” become morphologically recognizable centrioles before mitosis. De novo–assembled centrioles mature (i.e., gain abilities to organize microtubules and replicate) in the next cell cycle. This maturation is not simply a time-dependent phenomenon, because de novo–formed centrioles do not mature if they are assembled in S phase–arrested cells. By selectively ablating only one centriole at a time, we find that the presence of a single centriole inhibits the assembly of additional centrioles, indicating that centrioles have an activity that suppresses the de novo pathway. PMID:15738265

  4. The regulation of human adrenomedullin (AM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) receptors on human epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) cells. The role of AM secretion in tumor cell sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimal, D; Drimal, J; Drimal, J

    2006-01-01

    The cytostatic cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and proliferative hormone adrenomedullin (AM) are abundantly expressed in human tumors. However, little is known about mechanism (s) through which TNF-alpha and AM exert their regulatory effects, especially in the regulation of proliferative activity in malignant cells. Also the role played by TNF-alpha in pathogenesis and treatment of cancer (targeted cancer therapy) remains less understood. The purpose of this study was therefore to characterize the significance of TNF-alpha induced apoptosis with down-regulation of plasma-membrane TNF-alpha receptors and up-regulation of AM receptors with increased production of human AM mRNA, i.e. mechanisms that subsequently control aberrant cellular proliferation in malignant cells. Cytotoxicity, and the whole cell ligand binding assays for TNF-alpha and AM receptors, and RIA-assays of AM production were accomplished in control experiments using pharmacologically pretreated HeLa cells. AM increased proliferation of HeLa cells and AM antagonist (Ala6,21)AM(22-52) significantly antagonized this increase. TNF-alpha inhibitor of cell growth actinomycin-D significantly increased cytotoxicity of TNF-alpha in HeLa cells. Hypoxia increased TNF-alpha production and increased surface-membrane [125I]AM binding. Tumor promotor PMA and histamine down-regulated specific binding of [125I]TNF- alpha on HeLa cells. Mitogenic peptide endothelin-1 increased and specific ET-1 antagonist BQ123 and significantly reduced AM binding. Production of AM in HeLa cells markedly increased after exposure to hypoxia >ET-1 >PMA. BAY11-7082 at concentrations that inhibited IkappaB phosphorylation and thus nuclear translocation and surface membrane TNF-alpha expression increased AM specific binding. Pretreatment of cells inhibitor of HMGCoA reductase inhibitor VULM1457 significantly increased the total number of specific [125I]AM binding sites on HeLa cells. These results suggest relative and contradictory TNF-alpha and AM surface-membrane receptor signaling in HeLa cells and findings reveal a novel proliferative mechanisms that control AM production and thus oncogenic signaling in cells. This implies that several putative inhibitors of TNF-alpha and AM signaling may be considered in oncology for treatment of tumors otherwise nonresponding to cytostatic therapy. PMID:16575470

  5. Rac1 GTPase-deficient HeLa cells present reduced DNA repair, proliferation, and survival under UV or gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinha, Gisele; Osaki, Juliana H; Magalhaes, Yuli T; Forti, Fabio Luis

    2015-06-01

    Rac1 GTPase controls essential cellular functions related to the cytoskeleton, such as motility and adhesion. Rac1 is overexpressed in many tumor cells, including breast cancers, where it is also involved in the proliferation and checkpoint control necessary for the cell's recovery after exposure to ionizing radiation. However, its role in DNA damage and repair remains obscure in other tumor cells and under different genotoxic conditions. Here, we compare HeLa cells with mutants exogenously expressing a dominant-negative Rac1 (HeLa-Rac1-N17) by their responses to DNA damage induced by gamma or UV radiation. In HeLa cells, these treatments led to increased levels of active Rac1 (Rac1-GTP) and of stress fibers, with a diminished ability to migrate compared to untreated cells. However, the reduction of Rac1-GTP in Rac1-N17-deficient clones resulted in much higher levels of polymerized stress fibers accompanied by a strong impairment of cell migration, even after both radiation treatments. With regard to proliferation and genomic stability, dominant-negative Rac1 cells were more sensitive to gamma and UV radiation, exhibiting reduced proliferation and survival consistent with increased DNA damage and delayed or reduced DNA repair observed in this Rac1-deficient clone. The DNA damage response, as indicated by pH2AX and pChk1 levels, was increased in HeLa cells but was not effectively triggered in the Rac1-N17 clone after radiation treatment, which is likely the main cause of DNA damage accumulation. These data suggest that Rac1 GTPase plays an important role in signaling and contributes to the sensitivity of cervical cancer cells under UV or gamma radiation treatments. PMID:25758356

  6. Metabolism of HeLa cells revealed through autofluorescence lifetime upon infection with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buryakina, Tatyana Yu.; Su, Pin-Tzu; Syu, Wan-Jr; Allen Chang, C.; Fan, Hsiu-Fang; Kao, Fu-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a sensitive technique in monitoring functional and conformational states of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD),main compounds participating in oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. The evolving of NADH's average autofluorescence lifetime during the 3 h after infection with enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or STS treatment has been observed. The ratio of the short and the long lifetime components' relative contributions of NADH increases with time, a fact indicating cellular metabolic activity, such as a decrease of oxidative phosphorylation over the course of infection, while opposite dynamics is observed in FAD. Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. The redox ratios for both EHEC-infected and STS-treated HeLa cells have been observed and these observations also indicate possible apoptosis induced by bacterial infection.

  7. Cytotoxic Activity of Three South Sulawesi Medicinal Plant Extracts Used in the Treatment of HeLa Cell Line: Jati Putih (Gmelina arborea Roxb., Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. and Lakkalakka (Curculigo orchioides Gaerth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUKMAN M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gmelina arborea Roxb, Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk and Curculigo orchioides Gaerth, the three plants frequently used in South Sulawesi for the treatment of cancerous diseases, have been selected to examine their action in cervical epithelial carcinoma. These extracts were assessed using HeLa cell cancer (Human cervix cancer and doxorubicin was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (IC50. Cytotoxic activity was measured using MTT colorimetric assay. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 113.61±0.12 ?g/mL, 174.90±1.22 ?g/mL and 126.05±2.43 ?g/mL for eGA, eGU and eCO on HeLa cell cancer, respectively and correlated with treatment of cancer.

  8. Examination of HeLa cell contamination of human cell lines derived from primary hepatomas using glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tokiwa, Takayoshi; Kusaka, Yasunori; Muraoka, Atsushi; Sato, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    Isozyme patterns of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in human cell lines derived from primary hepatomas were compared with those in HeLa cells. Some cell lines derived from primary hepatomas having type B G6PD showed one or two isozymes of LDH. On the other hand, HeLa cells having type A G6PD showed four LDH isozymes. These findings suggest that not only G6PD, but also LDH may be useful for the detection of HeLa cell contamination of a culture in some c...

  9. Fast repair of anoxic radiation damage in HeLa cells detected by antinucleoside antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of anoxia on x-ray damage in HeLa cells was studied by observing effects on nuclear immunoreactivity to antinucleoside antibodies and on the sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients of their DNA ''complexes''. The fraction of G1 HeLa cells which was immunoreactive to fluorescein labeled antinucleoside antibodies increased from control levels of 11% +- 3.5 S.E. to 71% +- 5.7 S.E. after 1000 rads in air. In anoxia 1000 rads increased this fraction to only 42% +- 3.1 S.E. After 1000 rads in air the return to normal GI levels of immunoreactivity required 90 min, but it required only 30 min after radiation in anoxia. If cells were held at 00C for 35 min before anoxic irradiation the rapid return to control levels of immunoreactivity during post-radiation incubation at 370C was not observed. Cold shock did not increase the proportion of cells initially made immunoreactive by 1000 rads in anoxia. Anoxia reduced the effect of 1000 rads on the sedimentation properties of the DNA complex. Cold shock prior to anoxic radiation retarded the faster reconstitution of the DNA complex otherwise observed after anoxic radiation

  10. Investigation of siRNA Nanoparticle Formation Using Mono-Cationic Detergents and Its Use in Gene Silencing in Human HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hideyoshi Harashima; Yuma Yamada; Ryosuke Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    The focus of recent research has been on the development of siRNA vectors to achieve an innovative gene therapy. Most of the conventional vectors are siRNA nanoparticles complexed with cationic polymers and liposomes, making it difficult to release siRNA. In this study, we report on the use of MCD, a quaternary ammonium salt detergent containing a long aliphatic chain (L-chain) as an siRNA complexation agent using human HeLa cells (a model cancer cell). We prepared siRNA nanoparticles using v...

  11. Negative pion depth-dose profile examined by means of HeLa cell survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa cells were irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature with negative pions from Nimrod at the Rutherford Laboratory and then assayed for survival of colony-forming ability. Complete dose-response curves were obtained from repeated determinations at fourteen different positions along the depth dose profile and survival curves fitted to the data by computer programme. A depth damage profile was thus established in terms of the final slopes of these curves. This confirmed the expected RBE value of the 1.9 at the ionisation peak. Although a value of unity was found in the main plateau region, the 'entrance' positions showed significantly higher values. (author)

  12. The effect of aclacinon on macromolecular syntheses in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of aclacinon (ACR, aclacinomycin A) on DNA and RNA syntheses in HeLa cells were examined by measuring incorporation of labeled precursors. The cells were treated with ACR at various concentrations for 2 or 24 hr, followed by the incubation with 3H-TdR (1 ?Ci/ml) or 3H-UR (2.5 ?Ci/ml) for 1 hr. The uptakes of 3H-TdR and 3H-UR immediately after the treatment with ACR for 2 hr were inhibited in proportion to the concentration of ACR. The drug proved to be a more potent inhibitor to the RNA synthesis than to the DNA synthesis. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration values (IC50) of ACR for 3H-TdR and 3H-UR uptake in HeLa RC-355 cells were 0.39 ?g/ml and 0.16 ?g/ml, respectively. The ratio of IC50 was calculated as about 2.4. The uptake of 3H-TdR and 3H-UR were significantly inhibited at lower concentrations when treated with ACR for 24 hr than when treated for 2 hr. In the experiments on the recovery of DNA and RNA syntheses, the uptakes of 3H-TdR were inhibited to about 70 % and 40 % of the control, respectively, by the ACR treatment at 0.2 ?g/ml and 0.5 ?g/ml for 2 hr, and the recovery of uptake was observed about 4 hr after the removal of ACR from the cultures. On the other hand, in cases of 24 hr exposure to ACR, DNA and RNA syntheses have remained low even 24 hr after the removal of ACR. After a log-phase culture of HeLa RC-355 ce log-phase culture of HeLa RC-355 cells was treated with ACR for 24 hr, the restraint of the growth by ACR was observed at the lowest concentration tested (0.05 ?g/ml) and almost completely at 0.2 ?g/ml of ACR. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Radiobiological studies of human hybrid cells (skin fibroblasts x HeLa) and their tumourigenic segregants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the survival characteristics following ?-irradiation of a human hybrid cell line (skin fibroblasts x HeLa), and its tumourigenic segregant, which indicate that transition from the non-tumourigenic to the tumourigenic state is associated with a decrease in the ability to accumulate and repair sublethal damage. Previous studies have demonstrated that this transition to the tumourigenic state is also associated with loss of specific chromosomes (one copy each of chromosomes 11 and 14). It is suggested that this loss of chromosomes may account for the change in radiosensitivity. (author)

  14. Inhibition of HeLa cell DNA topoisomerase I by ATP and phosphate.

    OpenAIRE

    Low, R. L.; Holden, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relaxation activity of DNA topoisomerase I from HeLa cell nuclei is strongly inhibited by a variety of purine nucleotides in the presence but not absence of 1 mM potassium phosphate. For ATP, 3-4 mM causes nearly complete inhibition. The 2'-and 3'-AMP isomer are active as well in the presence of 1 mM phosphate, but the 5'-AMP isomer and adenosine are inert. At 3 mM ATP, the titration curve for phosphate is sigmoidal with inhibition beginning abruptly at about 0.5 mM. The negatively-superc...

  15. Differential effect of procaine on irradiated mammalian cells in culture. [. gamma. rays; HeLa cells; V-79 Chinese hamster cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djordjevic, B.

    1979-05-01

    HeLa and V-79 Chinese hamster cells temporarily stored in ampoules were treated with the local anesthetic procaine. Postirradiation treatment increased lethality in HeLa cells depending on drug concentration, duration of treatment, and cell density, as measured by colony-forming ability upon plating. If present during irradiation only, procaine protected from irradiation. In V-79 cells, procaine potentiated radiation lethality only in freshly trypsinized cells. Procaine effect was thus cell type specific and most likely involved the cell membrane.

  16. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals Novel Insights into Mechanisms of Action of Long Noncoding RNA Hox Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Ying; Chen, Ying; Chen, Zhuo; Fleming, Joy; Gao, Ding; Bi, Lijun; Ge, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which have emerged in recent years as a new and crucial layer of gene regulators, regulate various biological processes such as carcinogenesis and metastasis. HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA), a lncRNA overexpressed in most human cancers, has been shown to be an oncogenic lncRNA. Here, we explored the role of HOTAIR in HeLa cells and searched for proteins regulated by HOTAIR. To understand the mechanism of action of HOTAIR from a systems perspective, we employed a quantitative proteomic strategy to systematically identify potential targets of HOTAIR. The expression of 170 proteins was significantly dys-regulated after inhibition of HOTAIR, implying that they could be potential targets of HOTAIR. Analysis of this data at the systems level revealed major changes in proteins involved in diverse cellular components, including the cytoskeleton and the respiratory chain. Further functional studies on vimentin (VIM), a key protein involved in the cytoskeleton, revealed that HOTAIR exerts its effects on migration and invasion of HeLa cells, at least in part, through the regulation of VIM expression. Inhibition of HOTAIR leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and ultrastructural alterations, suggesting a novel role of HOTAIR in maintaining mitochondrial function in cancer cells. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the function of HOTAIR in cancer cells. We expect that the methods used in this study will become an integral part of functional studies of lncRNAs. PMID:25762744

  17. Citotoxicidad en células hela de extractos de tres especies de plantas medicinales de Hidalgo, México / Cytotoxicity in hela cells from extracts of three medicinal plants species from Hidalgo, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.A., Villavicencio Nieto; B.E., Pérez Escandón; E., Mendoza Pérez; V., Maldonado Lagunas.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la citotoxicidad en cultivos de células HeLa de los extractos etanólicos de tres especies de plantas, Juniperus dep-peana, Solanum rostratum y Bidens odorata, que se utilizan tradicionalmente en dos regiones del estado de Hidalgo, México, para el tratamiento de heridas, úlceras, tumores y [...] cáncer de matriz. La citotoxicidad más elevada la presentó el extracto de J. deppeana (CI50 = 4.63 µg/ml), el cual fue separado por cromatografía en placa de gel de sílice y la fracción principal (Rf = 0.28 ) mostró actividad citotóxica (CI50 = 0.79 µg/ ml). Aunque menor, el extracto de S. rostratum también presentó citotoxicidad (CI50 = 127.5 µg/ml). B. odorata fue inactiva. Abstract in english Ethanolic extracts of three medicinal plants, Juniperus deppeana, Solanum rostratum and Bidens odorata, which are used in folk medicine in Hidalgo, Mexico, for the treatment of wounds, ulcers, tumors and cancer, were tested in a HeLa cell line to evaluate their cytotoxic activity. The highest cytoto [...] xicity was found in the extract of J. deppeana (IC = 4.63 µg/ml); hence, this extract was separated via chromatography on a silica gel plate, from which the main fraction (Rf = 0.28) showed strong cyto-toxic activity (IC50 = 0.79 µg/ml). Whereas the extract of S. rostratum also exhibited cytotoxicity (IC50 = 127.5 µg/ml), that of B. odorata was inactive.

  18. Changes in the protein-synthesizing system of HeLa cells in culture in the presence of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the state of the protein-synthesizing system of HeLa cells in culture in the presence of certain trace elements. The cytopathic action of zinc, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, and fluorine was studied in the presence of maximal allowable concentrations adopted for liquid media. Thirty minutes before the end of incubation with the elements to be studied, (H 3)-uridine or (H 3)-leucine was added to the cultures of HeLa cells. The autoradiographic data showed that variation in the integral parameters of cell function as the level of synthesis of total fast-labeled RNA and total protein in fact do take place during incubation of the HeLa cell culture with trace elements

  19. Theaflavins depolymerize microtubule network through tubulin binding and cause apoptosis of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Subhendu; Das, Amlan; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2011-03-01

    Here we studied the antiproliferative activity of theaflavins in cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by investigating their effects on cellular microtubules and purified goat brain tubulin. Theaflavins inhibited proliferation of HeLa cells with IC(50) value of 110 ± 2.1 ?g/mL (p = theaflavins act as microtubule depolymerizers. Theaflavins disrupted the microtubule network accompanied by alteration of cellular morphology and also decreased the polymeric tubulin mass of the cells. The polymerization of cold treated depolymerized microtubules in HeLa cells was prevented in the presence of theaflavins. In vitro polymerization of purified tubulin into microtubules was also inhibited by theaflavins with an IC(50) value of 78 ± 2.43 ?g/mL (P theaflavins. PMID:21323312

  20. Growth of human rhinovirus in H1-HeLa cell suspension culture and purification of virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai-Ming; Chen, Yin; Wang, Wensheng; Mosser, Anne

    2015-01-01

    HeLa cell culture is the most widely used system for in vitro studies of the basic biology of human rhinovirus (HRV). It is also useful for making sufficient quantities of virus for experiments that require highly concentrated and purified virus. This chapter describes the protocols for producing a large amount of HeLa cells in suspension culture, using these cells to grow a large quantity of virus of HeLa-adapted HRV-A and -B serotypes, and making highly concentrated virus stock and highly purified virions. These purified HRV virions are free of cellular components and suitable for experiments that are sensitive to cellular contaminations. PMID:25261306

  1. Immunolabeling and NIR-excited fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells by using NaYF(4):Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Mi, Cong-Cong; Wang, Wen-Xing; Liu, Cui-Hong; Wu, Ying-Fan; Xu, Zhang-Run; Mao, Chuan-Bin; Xu, Shu-Kun

    2009-06-23

    Upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles can convert a longer wavelength radiation (e.g., near-infrared light) into a shorter wavelength fluorescence (e.g., visible light) and thus have emerged as a new class of fluorescent probes for biomedical imaging. Rare-earth doped beta-NaYF(4):Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with strong UC fluorescence were synthesized in this work by using a solvothermal approach. The UCNPs were coated with a thin layer of SiO(2) to form core-shell nanoparticles via a typical Stober method, which were further modified with amino groups. After surface functionalization, the rabbit anti-CEA8 antibodies were covalently linked to the UCNPs to form the antibody-UCNP conjugates. The antibody-UCNP conjugates were used as fluorescent biolabels for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a cancer biomarker expressed on the surface of HeLa cells. The successful conjugation of antibody to the UCNPs was found to lead to the specific attachment of the UCNPs onto the surface of the HeLa cells, which further resulted in the bright green UC fluorescence from the UCNP-labeled cells under 980 nm near-infrared (NIR) excitation and enabled the fluorescent imaging and detection of the HeLa cells. These results indicate that the amino-functionalized UCNPs can be used as fluorescent probes in cell immunolabeling and imaging. Because the UCNPs can be excited with a NIR light to exhibit strong visible fluorescence and the NIR light is safe to the body and can penetrate tissue as deep as several inches, our work suggests that, with proper cell-targeting or tumor-homing peptides or proteins conjugated, the NaYF(4):Yb,Er UCNPs can find potential applications in the in vivo imaging, detection, and diagnosis of cancers. PMID:19476317

  2. Phosphorylation of Smac by Akt promotes the caspase-3 activation during etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chul-Ho; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kundu, Juthika; Park, Byoungduck

    2015-02-01

    The Akt, family of serine/threonine protein kinases functions as key regulators of multiple aspects of cell behavior, such as survival, proliferation, migration, and carcinogenesis. Notably, Akt exerts its anti-apoptotic effects through the phosphorylation of numerous substrates related with cell cycle, genome stability, and cancer development. In this report, nevertheless, we focused our view on the novel role of Akt which involves in a pro-apoptotic action by phosphorylating second mitochondria derived activator of caspases (Smac) protein during etoposide-induced apoptotic processes. Our data reveals that Akt could bind to and phosphorylate Smac at serine residue 67, which enhances the ability of Smac to interact with the cytosolic X-chromosome linked IAP (XIAP) protein. The cellular interaction of wild-type Smac with XIAP was enhanced with similar activation kinetics of Akt activity, while this interaction was markedly attenuated in cells expressing the phosphorylation-defective mutant S67A-Smac during etoposide-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we provide the evidence indicating that the phosphorylation of Smac at ser-67 markedly upregulates the caspase-3 activity by promoting the interaction of Smac with XIAP. Taken together, we propose that the phosphorylation of Smac by Akt might be a novel mechanism that involves in amplification of caspase cascade pathway during etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. PMID:24038446

  3. Toxicity and Genotoxicity in HeLa and E. coli Cells Caused by a Helium Plasma Needle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garcia-Alcantara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the toxic and genotoxic damages produced by a helium plasma needle upon HeLa and E. coli (OG100 and PQ30 cell cultures. For HeLa cells survival (MTT and microelectrophoresis comet assays were performed; meanwhile in E. coli, viable count and genotoxicity by the chromotest were evaluated. The outcomes indicate that the plasma exposures on HeLa cells undergo more toxicity and genotoxicity as treatment time increases. With respect to E. coli, plasma exposure generated toxicity, but no genotoxicity could be detected with this system. In the strain OG100, defective in a protection mechanism to oxidizing agents, there was a reduction in the survival of one order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain PQ30. It suggests that such reduction is due to the plasma by means of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS generated during atmospheric air interaction.

  4. Suppression of postmitochondrial signaling and delayed response to UV-induced nuclear apoptosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of postmitochondrial pathways by UV irradiation was examined using mouse lymphoma 3SB and human leukemic Jurkat cells and two human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7). Exposure of 3SB and Jurkat cells resulted in large amounts of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) being released into the cytosol, and a clear laddering pattern of DNA fragments was observed within 3 h of incubation after irradiation. Simultaneously, activation of caspase-9 and its downstream caspases was detected. HeLa and MCF-7 cells also showed extensive release of mitochondrial factors and caspase-9 activation at 4 to 6 h after exposure, but apoptotic nuclear changes appeared much later. Compared with 3SB and Jurkat cells, these carcinoma cell lines exhibited reduced activation of caspase-9-like proteolytic activity by UV radiation, and levels of caspase-3-like activity in HeLa cells were extremely low, similar to those in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that the delayed response to UV-induced nuclear apoptosis in HeLa cells is due to a reduced activation of the caspase cascade downstream of cytochrome c release and suppression of caspase-3 activity. (author)

  5. LyGDI expression in HeLa cells increased its sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In order to confirm whether LyGDI has apoptotic signal transduction function and can increase the apoptotic rate of radiation-induced cell death, the lyGDI and mutant D19lyGDI gene, which constructed with the pCDNA3. 1 His A, were transfected into no-endogenous lyGDI HeLa cells. Methods Transient expressions of lyGDI and D19lyGDI in HeLa cells were analyzed by Western blot using anti-mono antibody of LyGDI and Xpress tag. Cell apoptosis was assayed with Annexin V-FITC apoptosis kit. To select stable clone, the transferred HeLa cells had been maintained in G418 medium for 3 weeks, then a cell line, which stably expressed LyGDI and mutant D19lyGDI, was selected. The selected cell line was irradiated with 12 Gy 60Co y-rays. Caspase-3 activity of the cells was determined by Western blot and cell viability by clone-forming assay after 48 hours post-irradiation culture. Results: Western blot and Annexin V-FITC apoptotic analysis revealed that lyGDI and D19lyGDI transient expressions in HeLa cells induced apoptosis; Caspase-3 activity measurement and clone-forming assay showed that lyGDI increased sensitivity to radiation-induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions: lyGDI performs function in apoptosis signal transduction, its expression in HeLa cells can increase the sensitivity to radiation-induced cell apoptosis. (authors)

  6. Repair of radiation-induced DNA damage in thermotolerant and nonthermotolerant HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of heat exposure on the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage which inhibits the ability of nuclear DNA to undergo supercoiling changes was studied using the fluorescent halo assay in thermotolerant and nonthermotolerant (normal) cells. The assay utilizes an intercalating, fluorescent dye to unwind and rewind endogenous DNA supercoils. When HeLa cells are exposed to 17.3 Gy radiation the ability of DNA to be rewound into supercoils is completely inhibited. However, the ability of DNA to rewind is 70% restored by 30 min after irradiation. Both thermotolerant and normal cells exposed to 45 degrees C for 30 min prior to irradiation had a rewinding ability intermediate between control and unheated cells, but there was no restoration of rewinding ability up to 3 h postirradiation. Thus, when irradiation immediately followed heating, there was no difference between thermotolerant and normal cells. However, when various time intervals were imposed between heating and irradiation, a difference in the ability of the cells to recover from heat-induced alterations became apparent. In normal cells after 6 h of postheat incubation the cells' ability to restore DNA supercoiling was approximately the same as that of control cells, while in thermotolerant cells only 2 h was required to repair the ability to restore supercoiling at the same rate. The rate of repair of DNA remained correlated with relative nuclear protein content as measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate st measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate staining in both thermotolerant and normal cells, indicating a possible relationship between the two

  7. Radiation-induced thymine base damage and its excision repair in active and inactive chromatin of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of production and excision repair of 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type base (t') damage was determined in transcriptionally active and inactive chromatin of HeLa cells after exposure to 6.8 MeV electrons. It was observed that not only the yield but also rate of repair of t' products was greater in the active chromatin compared to the inactive chromatin of HeLa cells. The results strongly indicate that the conformation of chromatin is an important factor in determining the sensitivity to radiation damage and accessibility to enzymes required for repair of such damage. (author)

  8. 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tina Qing; Qu, Xin; Liu, Justin; Chen, Shaochen

    2014-02-01

    To understand the physical behavior and migration of cancer cells, a 3D in vitro micro-chip in hydrogel was created using 3D projection printing. The micro-chip has a honeycomb branched structure, aiming to mimic 3D vascular morphology to test, monitor, and analyze differences in the behavior of cancer cells (i.e. HeLa) vs. non-cancerous cell lines (i.e. 10 T1/2). The 3D Projection Printing system can fabricate complex structures in seconds from user-created designs. The fabricated microstructures have three different channel widths of 25, 45, and 120 microns wide to reflect a range of blood vessel diameters. HeLa and 10 T1/2 cells seeded within the micro-chip were then analyzed for morphology and cell migration speed. 10 T1/2 cells exhibited greater changes in morphology due to channel size width than HeLa cells; however, channel width had a limited effect on 10 T1/2 cell migration while HeLa cancer cell migration increased as channel width decreased. This physiologically relevant 3D cancer tissue model has the potential to be a powerful tool for future drug discoveries and cancer migration studies. PMID:24150602

  9. Evaluation of hela cell lineage response to ? radiation from Holmium-166 embedded in ceramic seeds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Sarmento, Valente; Ethel Mizrahy, Cuperschmid; Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de, Campos.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of ? radiation of Ho-166 embedded in ceramic seeds on HeLa cells. Methodology consisted in the production of ceramic seeds with holmium-165 by sol-gel route. Chemical and physical characterizations of the seeds were performed. Subsequently, nuclear characterization was [...] performed by gamma spectrometry. Experimental and theoretical activities were defined and initial dose rate were evaluated by MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee) methodology. The seeds were placed in confluent culture flasks and remained for six radionuclide half-lives. Biological results were represented by a clean 6 mm diameter area around the seed where the tumour cells were killed. The initial dose rate was 15.5 Gy. h-1. The maximum absorbed dose was 591.3 Gy. The features of the Ho-166 seeds suggested that such ceramic seeds were suitable for high dose rate brachytherapy.

  10. An evidence on G2/M arrest, DNA damage and caspase mediated apoptotic effect of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been synthesized using Podophyllum hexandrum L. • AuNPs induces the oxidative stress to cell death in human cervical carcinoma cells. • It activates the caspase-cascade to cellular death. • It is actively blocks G2/M phase of cell cycle. - Abstract: Current prospect of nanobiotechnology involves in the greener synthesis of nanostructured materials particularly noble metal nanoparticles for various biomedical applications. In this study, biologically (Podophyllum hexandrum L.) synthesized crystalline gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the size range between 5 and 35 nm were screened for its anticancereous potential against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). Stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture and conditions were optimized to attain stable nanoparticles with narrow size range. Different high throughput techniques like transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectroscopy were adopted for the physio-chemical characterization of AuNPs. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study revealed that the water soluble fractions present in the plant extract solely influences the reduction of AuNPs. Sublimely, synthesized AuNPs exhibits an effective in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Furthermore, it was evidenced that AuNPs treated cells are undergone apoptosis through the which subsequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby, this study proves that biogenic colloidal AuNPs can be developed as a promising drug candidature for human cervical cancer therapy

  11. An evidence on G2/M arrest, DNA damage and caspase mediated apoptotic effect of biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyaraj, M. [Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Arun, R. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Sathishkumar, G. [Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); MubarakAli, D. [Central Inter-Disciplinary Research Facility, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute Campus, Pondicherry 607402 (India); Rajesh, M.; Sivanandhan, G.; Kapildev, G.; Manickavasagam, M. [Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Thajuddin, N. [Department of Microbiology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Ganapathi, A., E-mail: aganapathi2007@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been synthesized using Podophyllum hexandrum L. • AuNPs induces the oxidative stress to cell death in human cervical carcinoma cells. • It activates the caspase-cascade to cellular death. • It is actively blocks G2/M phase of cell cycle. - Abstract: Current prospect of nanobiotechnology involves in the greener synthesis of nanostructured materials particularly noble metal nanoparticles for various biomedical applications. In this study, biologically (Podophyllum hexandrum L.) synthesized crystalline gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the size range between 5 and 35 nm were screened for its anticancereous potential against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). Stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture and conditions were optimized to attain stable nanoparticles with narrow size range. Different high throughput techniques like transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectroscopy were adopted for the physio-chemical characterization of AuNPs. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study revealed that the water soluble fractions present in the plant extract solely influences the reduction of AuNPs. Sublimely, synthesized AuNPs exhibits an effective in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Furthermore, it was evidenced that AuNPs treated cells are undergone apoptosis through the activation of caspase cascade which subsequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby, this study proves that biogenic colloidal AuNPs can be developed as a promising drug candidature for human cervical cancer therapy.

  12. Defective caspase-3 activation and caspase-independent apoptosis in UV-irradiated HeLa S3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following exposure to radiation, most hematopoietic cells show a typical morphological characteristic of apoptosis and die quickly before the next mitosis. In contrast, death of non-hematopoietic cells, such as human tumor cells and fibroblasts, occurs after one or several cell divisions. Recently, it has been reported that many tumor cell lines die in interphase 12 h or longer after irradiation with relatively high doses of UV or ionizing radiation. However, the relationship between delayed interphase cell death and apoptosis is not clear. In this study, we used two kinds of cells, mouse lymphoma 3SB and human leukemic Jurkat cells and two human carcinoma cell lines (HeLa S3 and MCF-7). When irradiated with UV, 3SB and Jurkat cells showed an extensive release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and exhibited a clear production of oligonucleosomal DNA fragments within 3 h of incubation after irradiation. Simultaneously, activation of caspase-9 and its downstream caspases was detected. In the case of HeLa S3 and MCF-7 cells, DNA fragmentation could be detected at 24 or 48 h of post-irradiation incubation, but relatively early release of cytochrome c was observed (within 6 h after exposure). Interestingly, UV-irradiated HeLa S3 cells exhibited extremely low levels of caspase-3 like activity, similar to those in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cells, suggesting that the inhibition of apoptosis in HeLa S3 cells occurs downstream of cytochrome c release. A similar cell m of cytochrome c release. A similar cell type-specific apoptosis was also observed when irradiated with ?-rays. To confirm the existence of caspase-independent apoptosis, we examined the effect of a caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, on the induction of DNA fragmentation by UV exposure, and found that Z-VAD-FMK completely blocked DNA fragmentation in 3SB and Jurkat cells but did not suppress the delayed production of oligonuclesomal DNA fragments in HeLa S3 and MCF-7 cells. These data indicate that the delayed form of apoptosis in HeLa S3 cells occurs in a caspase-independent pathway

  13. Analysis of replication foci and replication domains in HeLa cells during cell cycle.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ligasová, Anna; Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Raška, Ivan

    La Grande Motte : The Rockefeller University Press, 2005. P-099. [EMBO/FEBS Conference on Nuclear Structure and Dynamics. 24.09.2005-28.09.2005, La Grande Motte] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA304/03/1121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : HeLa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  14. Lethal Effects of Radiation and Platinum Analogues on Multicellular Spheroids of HeLa Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multicellul ar tumor spheroids of HeLa cells have been grown in a static culture system. Samples of spheroids were exposed for 2 h to graded concentration of sis-platinum and its analogue, carboplatin, and then response assayed by survival of clonogenic cells. The purpose of present experiment is to clarify the effectiveness of these platinum compounds and to evaluate intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells using spheroids of HeLa cells as an experimental in vitro model. Variations of the drug sensitivity of monolayers as well as spheroids were also evaluated in cell-survival curves. In cia-platinum concentration-survival cutie, there was a large shoulder extending as far as Cq=3.4 mM, after which there was exponential decrease in survival curve having a Co Value of 1,2 ?M in spheroids. While the Co for the spheroids was essentially no significant change, but Cq value was larger than that of monolayers. This suggest that the effect of cis-platinum is greater in the monolayer with actively proliferating cells than hypoxic one. In the carboplatin concentration-survival curves, the Co value of spheroids was 15.0 mM and the ratio with the Co from monolayer cell (32.5 mM) was 0.46, thus indicating that the spheroids had a greater sensitivity to carboplatin than monolayers. Therefore, the effect of carboplatin is mainly on the deeper layers of spheroids acting as hypoxic cell sensitizer. The enhanced effect was obtained for monolayer cells using combined X-ray and carboplatin lls using combined X-ray and carboplatin treatment 2 hours before irradiation. The result shown in isobologram analysis for the level of surviving fraction at 0.01 indicated that the effect of two agents was truly supra-additive. From this experimental data, carboplatin has excited much receipt interest as one of the most promising, since it is almost without nephrotoxicity and causes less gastrointestinal toxicity than cia-platinum. Interaction between carboplatin and radiation might play an important role for more effective local tumor control

  15. Soluble ephrin a1 is necessary for the growth of HeLa and SK-BR3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazowski Jessa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ephrin A1 (EFNA1 is a member of the A-type ephrin family of cell surface proteins that function as ligands for the A-type Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family. In malignancy, the precise role of EFNA1 and its preferred receptor, EPHA2, is controversial. Several studies have found that EFNA1 may suppress EPHA2-mediated oncogenesis, or enhance it, depending on cell type and context. However, little is known about the conditions that influence whether EFNA1 promotes or suppresses tumorigenicity. EFNA1 exists in a soluble form as well as a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI membrane attached form. We investigated whether the contradictory roles of EFNA1 in malignancy might in part be related to the existence of both soluble and membrane attached forms of EFNA1 and potential differences in the manner in which they interact with EPHA2. Results Using a RNAi strategy to reduce the expression of endogenous EFNA1 and EPHA2, we found that both EFNA1 and EPHA2 are required for growth of HeLa and SK-BR3 cells. The growth defects could be rescued by conditioned media from cells overexpressing soluble EFNA1. Interestingly, we found that overexpression of the membrane attached form of EFNA1 suppresses growth of HeLa cells in 3D but not 2D. Knockdown of endogenous EFNA1, or overexpression of full-length EFNA1, resulted in relocalization of EPHA2 from the cell surface to sites of cell-cell contact. Overexpression of soluble EFNA1 however resulted in more EPHA2 distributed on the cell surface, away from cell-cell contacts, and promoted the growth of HeLa cells. Conclusions We conclude that soluble EFNA1 is necessary for the transformation of HeLa and SK-BR3 cells and participates in the relocalization of EPHA2 away from sites of cell-cell contact during transformation.

  16. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles in living Hela cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xian; Wu, Jiazhen

    2012-01-01

    Efficient intracellular delivery of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and unraveling the mechanism underlying the intracellular delivery are essential for advancing the applications of AuNPs toward in vivo imaging and therapeutic interventions. We employed fluorescence microscopy to investigate the internalization mechanism of small-size AuNPs by living Hela cells. Herein, we found that the caveolae-mediated endocytosis was the dominant pathway for the intracellular delivery of small-size AuNPs. The intracellular delivery was suppressed when we depleted the cholesterol with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (M beta CD); in contrast, the sucrose that disrupts the formation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis did not block the endocytosis of AuNPs. Meanwhile, we examined the intracellular localization of AuNPs in endocytic vesicles by fluorescent colocalization. This work would provide a potential technique to study the intracellular delivery of small-size nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  17. HeLa-S3 Cell Growth Conditions in Serum-Free Medium and Adaptability for Proliferation in Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla A. El Shereef

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum-free cell culture methods are now routinely support mammalian cell growth, a practice adopted for ethical, scientific and safety concerns. The HeLa-S3 cell line is a subclone of the HeLa cell line that can grow in Serum-Free Medium (SFM as well as suspension cultures. In order to optimize its culturing conditions in SFM, the present study investigated the efficacy of insulin and L-glutamine additives as biotic factors as well as osmotic stress as abiotic factor, all affecting growth kinetics and metabolism. Insulin was used with different concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 mg L-1. It was found that cell growth is dependent on insulin up to a concentration of 25 mg L-1 at which maximum cell number as well as cell viability were achieved. Similarly, L-glutamine was used in the range of 3 to 8 mmol L-1 and was found optimum at 3 mmol L-1. However, osmotic stress using saline solution addition showed that osmolality in the range of 314 to 350 mOsm kg-1 is preferable to cells. The study also showed the successful sequential cell adaptation from adherent culture mode to suspension culture in which cells were able to grow in small clumps of spherical-shaped cells. Based on this cultivation strategy, HeLa-S3 cells were completely adapted to proliferate suspended in serum-free medium with sustained growth kinetics and physiological properties.

  18. Gallic acid reduces cell viability, proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, BING; HU, MENGCAI

    2013-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is present in plants worldwide, including Chinese medicinal herbs. Gallic acid has been shown to have cytotoxic effects in certain cancer cells, without damaging normal cells. The objective of the present study was to determine whether gallic acid is able to inhibit human cervical cancer cell viability, proliferation and invasion and suppress cervical cancer cell-mediated angiogenesis. Treatment of HeLa...

  19. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Shi Qinghua [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)], E-mail: qshi@ustc.edu.cn

    2008-11-10

    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents.

  20. The de novo centriole assembly pathway in HeLa cells: cell cycle progression and centriole assembly/maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Terra, Sabrina; English, Christopher N; Hergert, Polla; McEwen, Bruce F; Sluder, Greenfield; Khodjakov, Alexey

    2005-02-28

    It has been reported that nontransformed mammalian cells become arrested during G1 in the absence of centrioles (Hinchcliffe, E., F. Miller, M. Cham, A. Khodjakov, and G. Sluder. 2001. Science. 291:1547-1550). Here, we show that removal of resident centrioles (by laser ablation or needle microsurgery) does not impede cell cycle progression in HeLa cells. HeLa cells born without centrosomes, later, assemble a variable number of centrioles de novo. Centriole assembly begins with the formation of small centrin aggregates that appear during the S phase. These, initially amorphous "precentrioles" become morphologically recognizable centrioles before mitosis. De novo-assembled centrioles mature (i.e., gain abilities to organize microtubules and replicate) in the next cell cycle. This maturation is not simply a time-dependent phenomenon, because de novo-formed centrioles do not mature if they are assembled in S phase-arrested cells. By selectively ablating only one centriole at a time, we find that the presence of a single centriole inhibits the assembly of additional centrioles, indicating that centrioles have an activity that suppresses the de novo pathway. PMID:15738265

  1. Yeast CUP1 protects HeLa cells against copper-induced stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X.X., Xie; Y.F., Ma; Q.S., Wang; Z.L., Chen; R.R., Liao; Y.C., Pan.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. Yeast CUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to [...] determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study, CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P

  2. Yeast CUP1 protects HeLa cells against copper-induced stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    X.X., Xie; Y.F., Ma; Q.S., Wang; Z.L., Chen; R.R., Liao; Y.C., Pan.

    Full Text Available As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. Yeast CUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to [...] determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study, CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P

  3. Growth and cell kinetic changes of HeLa S-3 spheroids following hyperfractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimal design of the hyperfractionated radiotherapy requires basic radiobiological data such as the critical dose per fraction, number of fractions per day and total equivalent dose, to name a few. As a prelude to in vivo hyperfractionated irradiation, the authors carried out experiments to determine quantitative changes in the proliferation and cell kinetic parameters of multicellular spheroids after hyperfractionated irradiation. Experiments were carried out with HeLa S-3 spheroid growing in MEM culture media. Hyperfractionated irradiation schedules were 1.5 Gy/f, 2f/day and 1.0 Gy/f, 3 f/day. At intervals after irradiation, cell numbers, growth delays and cell cycle distribution of spheroids were determined. The kinetic data were obtained by the use of flow cytometry. The most pronounced changes in cell kinetic parameters were early G/sub 2/M block, proportional to single radiation dose up to 4.0 Gy. There was a corresponding depletion of G1 population as a function of time and dose. In contrast, the maximum accumulation of G/sub 2/M block was delayed as the dose per fraction decreased. The magnitude of the peak accumulation of G/sub 2/M following hyperfractionated irradiation was similar with that of single dose irradiation. Studies are in progress to compare the changes in cell number and growth delays with the kinetic data

  4. A novel dithiocarbamate derivative induces cell apoptosis through p53-dependent intrinsic pathway and suppresses the expression of the E6 oncogene of human papillomavirus 18 in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Qi, Hongxue; Li, Xiaobo; Hou, Xueling; Lu, Xueying; Xiao, Xiangwen

    2015-06-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) exhibit a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, however, their molecular mechanisms of antitumor have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have synthesized a series of novel dithiocarbamate derivatives. These DTCs were examined for cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines. In this study, one of dithiocarbamate (DTC1) with higher potential for HeLa cells was chosen to investigate molecular mechanisms for its anti-tumor activities. DTC1 could inhibit proliferation, and highly induce apoptosis in HeLa cells by activating caspase-3, -6 and -9; moreover, activities of caspase-3, -6 and -9 were inhibited by pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. Furthermore, DTC1 decreased the levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased expression of cytosol cytochrome c, Bak, Bax and p53 in a time-dependent manner but had no effect on the level of Rb. It was shown that DTC1 induced HeLa cells apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway as tested by the wild type p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-?. Additionally, the relative expression of E6 and E7 were evaluated in HPV18-positive (HeLa cells) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results firstly demonstrated that DTC1 suppressed both expression of E6 mRNA and E6 oncoprotein, but had no effect on the expression of E7 mRNA and protein in HPV18. Our results suggested that DTC1 may serve as novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of cervical cancer and potential anti-HPV virus candidates that merit further studies. PMID:25772545

  5. Cell proliferation and viability of HELA and HEP-2P neoplastic cultures in vitro treated with new polyphenolic or polysaccharidic biopreparations of vegetable and fungal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Rotinberg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro action of some new autochthonous polysaccharidic and polyphenolic biopreparations, specifically extracted from fungal and vegetable sources, upon the proliferation and viability of the HeLa and Hep-2p cancerous cells was investigated. The significant perturbation of the mitosis process of the tumoral cells, as well as the profound diminution of the cell viability of the neoplastic cell cultures argue the behaviour of some polysaccharidic and polyphenolic extracts as in vitro active cytostatic and cytotoxic agents. This primary characterization of some natural fungal or vegetable extracts as cytostatic and/or cytotoxic agents offers the informational background for the introduction of those biopreparations in the in vivo antitumoral screening program on different experimental tumoral systems.

  6. Influences on time course of apoptosis of HeLaS3 cells after irradiation with different doses X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of time course in apoptosis of HeLaS3 cells following irradiation with different doses X rays were observed. The percentages of apoptotic cells were examined by both flow cytometry (FCM) and image cytometry (ICM) after the cells were stained by prospidium iodine (PI) and Hoechst 33342 (HO). It was founded that the percentages of apoptotic cells increased after irradiation with 0.5-4.0 Gy X rays and the peak value emerged at the 12th hour after irradiation. In addition the values examined by both FCM and ICM were nearly same and the tendency was identical. So irradiation may induce apoptosis of HeLaS3 cell lines

  7. Radiosensitivity of polyamine-depleted HeLa cells and modulation by the aminothiol WR-1065

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of cultured HeLa cells was increased upon depletion of the natural cellular polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine through treatment of cultures with inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis. This increased radiosensitivity was manifested as a decrease in the D0 and by the absence of a shoulder in the survival curves. However, our previous studies have shown that the initial yield of X-ray-induced DNA damage did not appear to be elevated in polyamine-depleted cells. In addition, polyamine-depleted cells exhibited markedly altered X-ray-induced changes in the distribution of cells in the phases of the cell cycle characterized by increased time of onset and lengthened duration of G2-phase delay. Addition of polyamines to cultures for short periods prior to irradiation restored normal radioresistence and reversed the anomalous features of the G2-phase delay profile. Polyamine supplementation experiments as well as studies in which combinations of inhibitors were employed to modulate specific polyamine levels suggest that spermidine may play a primary role in governing cellular radioresponsiveness. The radioprotective aminothiol WR-1065 protected normal and polyamine-depleted cells to a proportionately similar extent (protection factor of 2.4 and 2.8, respectively) but had no apparent ability to restore the shoulder or alter the G2-phase delay markedly in polyamine-depleted cells. The findings reported hne-depleted cells. The findings reported here extend our previous observations that polyamine depletion results in a compromised ability to respond to X irradiation and suggest that a defect in repair and/or the G2-phase delay response may be the determining factors. 34 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Effect of X-irradiation of clonogenic HeLa cells on the genome mutation frequencies in their progenies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of clonogenic Hela cells with 100-350 R doses results in the increase of general frequency of genome mutations from (20.7+-0.4)x10-2 up to (24.8+-0.4)x10-2-(31.9+-0.3)x10-2 on a cell per a generation. The increase occurs mainly at the expense of hyperploid mutants, whereas frequency of appearance of cells with reduced number of chromosomes (hypoploids) does not change reliably. For Hela culture, used in experiments, a very high heterogeneity of cells on DNA content in interfase nuclei and a very high level of spontaneous frequency of genome mutation are characteristical, that should be taken into account during the analysis of obtained results

  9. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. ? PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. ? PABP depletion does not affect transcription. ? PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  10. Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in suspension cultured HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastick, S M; Nielsen, P J; McConkey, E H

    1977-04-29

    HeLa cell ribosomal protein S6, and the increase in its phosphorylation level that occurs after resuspending cells in fresh medium plus serum, were studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The maximum level of S6 phosphorylation occurs about 2 h after adding fresh medium and seum to cells that have been allowed to grow to high density; this results in an almost complete shift of the spot representing S6 in two-dimensional polacrylamide gels to a new location. Mixing experiments showed that the differences in the level of phosphorylation occur in vivo and are not an artifact of in vitro sample preparation. This method of stimulating S6 phosphorylation provides a convenient system for studying the functional significance of the phenomenon. Only one other ribosomal protein was detectably phosphorylated using [32P]-labeling and autoradiography of dried two-dimensional gels. The level of phosphorylation of this protein, L14, does not change after serum stimulation. PMID:876026

  11. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC ...

  12. Potentiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by co-treatment with KG-135, a quality-controlled standardized ginsenoside formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Hee; Choi, Joon-Seok; Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Jeong-Hill; Park, Byoung Duck; Cho, Seung Ju; Lee, Seung-Ki; Surh, Young-Joon

    2010-08-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that KG-135, a quality-controlled red ginseng-specific formulation containing approximately equal amounts of three major ginsenosides (Rk1, Rg3 and Rg5), down-regulated G1 cyclin-dependent kinase in HeLa cells. In the present work, we have found that KG-135 potentates cytotoxicity of etoposide by modulating apoptotic signaling. Co-treatment of etoposide and KG-135 markedly elevated the expression and phosphorylation at the serine 15 residue of p53 as well as the cellular levels of Bax and p21(Waf1/Cip1). The increased accumulation and phosphorylation of p53 (Ser15) were attenuated by treatment of cells with wortmannin, a pan-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor. Moreover, co-treatment of etoposide and KG-135 enhanced mitochondrial localization of Bax. Our results indicate that etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells can be potentiated in the presence of KG-135 through a mechanism that involves the stabilization of p53 and the stimulation of Bax- and p21-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. These findings suggest that KG-135 represents a useful candidate adjuvant for the treatment of cancers that could potentially minimize the adverse effects of current clinical chemotherapeutics. PMID:20226587

  13. Investigation of siRNA Nanoparticle Formation Using Mono-Cationic Detergents and Its Use in Gene Silencing in Human HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyoshi Harashima

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of recent research has been on the development of siRNA vectors to achieve an innovative gene therapy. Most of the conventional vectors are siRNA nanoparticles complexed with cationic polymers and liposomes, making it difficult to release siRNA. In this study, we report on the use of MCD, a quaternary ammonium salt detergent containing a long aliphatic chain (L-chain as an siRNA complexation agent using human HeLa cells (a model cancer cell. We prepared siRNA nanoparticles using various MCDs, and measured the diameters and zeta-potentials of the particles. The use of an MCD with a long L-chain resulted in the formation of a positively charged nanoparticle. In contrast, a negatively charged nanoparticle was formed when a MCD with a short L-chain was used. We next evaluated the gene silencing efficiency of the nanoparticles using HeLa cells expressing the luciferase protein. The results showed that the siRNA/MCD nanoparticles showed a higher gene silencing efficiency than Lipofectamine 2000. We also found that the efficiency of gene silencing is a function of the length of the alkyl chain in MCD and zeta-potential of the siRNA/MCD nanoparticles. Such information provides another viewpoint for designing siRNA vectors.

  14. Selective eradication of cancer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple system consisting of cultured HeLa (human cancer) and WI38 (normal human fetal lung) cells and the control cultures of the individual cells were set up to test and compare the effects of the cell cycle-active agents /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine (/sup 125/IUdR) and hydroxyurea (HU) on cell survival. The presence of cells and growth after treatment were used as a positive indication of survival. The experimental cultures were first seeded with WI38 cells and allowed to grow to confluency before adding 1.0 x 10/sup 5/ HeLa cells. After two days of treatment-free growth, the co-cultures were continuously treated with /sup 125/IUdR (0.5-2.0 ?Ci/ml, carrier free) or HU (1.0 x 10/sup -9/ and 1.0 x 10/sup -3/M). At the termination of treatment the co-cultures were split 3 to 1 and incubated for seven days. As expected, there was little or no detectable effect on the growth of WI38 cells treated with HU or /sup 125/IUdR while the cells were confluent. However, HeLa cells were reduced by 1.0 x 10/sup -3/M HU and were eradicated after all concentrations of /sup 125/IUdR

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, antioxidant activity and toxicity of Peumus boldus water extracts on HeLa and Caco-2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falé, P L; Amaral, F; Amorim Madeira, P J; Sousa Silva, M; Florêncio, M H; Frazão, F N; Serralheiro, M L M

    2012-08-01

    This work aimed to study the inhibition on acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), the antioxidant activity and the toxicity towards Caco-2 and HeLa cells of aqueous extracts of Peumus Boldus. An IC(50) value of 0.93 mg/mL, for AChE inhibition, and EC(50) of 18.7 ?g/mL, for the antioxidant activity, was determined. This activity can be attributed to glycosylated flavonoid derivatives detected, which were the main compounds, although boldine and other aporphine derivatives were also present. No changes in the chemical composition or the biochemical activities were found after gastrointestinal digestion. Toxicity of P. boldus decoction gave an IC(50) value 0.66 mg/mL for HeLa cells, which caused significant changes in the cell proteome profile. PMID:22617353

  16. Effect of guinea pig or monkey colonic mucus on Shigella aggregation and invasion of HeLa cells by Shigella flexneri 1b and 2a.

    OpenAIRE

    Dinari, G.; Hale, T. L.; Washington, O.; Formal, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of guinea pig and rhesus monkey colonic mucus preparations on Shigella aggregation and invasion of HeLa cell monolayers by Shigella flexneri serotype 1b, 2a, and 5 strains were investigated. Guinea pig mucus caused agglutination of S. flexneri serotype 1b but not of S. flexneri serotype 2a or 5. Guinea pig mucus also inhibited HeLa cell invasion by S. flexneri serotypes 1b and 2a. Monkey mucus neither agglutinated any Shigella strain nor inhibited HeLa cell invasion.

  17. Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on phosphatidylethanolamine metabolism in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potent tumor promoter, TPA, exerts its earliest effects at the plasma membrane. Recent findings have shown that TPA stimulates a phospholipase C-mediated turnover of phosphatidyl-choline in several different cell types. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether TPA elicits a similar effect on the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) pool of HeLa cells. Three different series of experiments were performed. First, in HeLa cells pulse-labeled with [3H]ethanolamine, TPA stimulated a 5-fold release of aqueous radiolabeled products into the extra-cellular medium after a 1-hour incubation. Second, when [3H]ethanolamine and TPA were added simultaneously to the cells, TPA stimulated a 2-fold incorporation of radiolabel into the cellular PE pool. In both the release and incorporation of [3H]ethanolamine, TPA had no significant effect on PE mass. Finally, when HeLa cells were incubated with exogenous 1-radyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-[3H]ethanolamine, TPA stimulated the formation of an aqueous radiolabeled product in the medium, which was identified as phosphoethanolamine. These results provide evidence that TPA stimulates a phospholipase C-mediated turnover of PE

  18. Organellar proteome analyses of ricin toxin-treated HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Li, Yunhu; Li, Hongyang; Liu, Wensen

    2014-09-16

    Apoptosis triggered by ricin toxin (RT) has previously been associated with certain cellular organellar compartments, but the diversity in the composition of the organellar proteins remains unclear. Here, we applied a shotgun proteomics strategy to examine the differential expression of proteins in the mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm of HeLa cells treated and not treated with RT. Data were combined with a global bioinformatics analysis and experimental confirmations. A total of 3107 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics predictors (Proteome Analyst, WoLF PSORT, TargetP, MitoPred, Nucleo, MultiLoc, and k-nearest neighbor) and a Bayesian model that integrated these predictors were used to predict the locations of 1349 distinct organellar proteins. Our data indicate that the Bayesian model was more efficient than the individual implementation of these predictors. Additionally, a Biomolecular Interaction Network (BIN) analysis was used to identify 149 BIN subnetworks. Our experimental confirmations indicate that certain apoptosis-related proteins (e.g. cytochrome c, enolase, lamin B, Bax, and Drp1) were found to be translocated and had variable expression levels. These results provide new insights for the systematic understanding of RT-induced apoptosis responses. PMID:25227225

  19. A homogeneous type II DNA topoisomerase from HeLa cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K G; Liu, L F; Englund, P T

    1981-09-10

    Using kinetoplast DNA networks as a substrate in a decatenation assay, we have purified to apparent homogeneity a type II DNA topoisomerase from HeLa cell nuclei. The most pure preparations contain a single polypeptide of 172,000 daltons as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the native protein, based on sedimentation and gel filtration analyses, is estimated to be 309,000. These results suggest that the enzyme is a dimer of 172,0090-dalton subunits. The enzyme is a type II topoisomerase as demonstrated by its ability to change the linking number of DNA circles in steps of two and to decatenate or unknot covalently closed DNA circles. No gyrase activity is detectable. ATP is required for the relaxation, decatenation, and unknotting of DNA, and a DNA-dependent ATPase activity is present in the most pure fractions. ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP in this properties to T4 DNA topoisomerase (Liu, L. F., Liu, C. C., and Alberts, B. M. (1979) Nature 281, 456-461). PMID:6267071

  20. Introduction of disease-related mitochondrial DNA deletions into HeLa cells lacking mitochondrial DNA results in mitochondrial dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, J.; Ohta, S.; Kikuchi, A.; Takemitsu, M.; Goto, Y.; Nonaka, I.

    1991-01-01

    Mutant mitochondrial DNA with large-scale deletions (delta-mtDNA) has been frequently observed in patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO), a subgroup of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. To exclude involvement of the nuclear genome in expression of the mitochondrial dysfunction characteristic of CPEO, we introduced the mtDNA of a CPEO patient into clonal mtDNA-less HeLa cells and isolated cybrid clones. Quantitation of delta-mtDNA in the cybrids revealed that de...

  1. Nuclear proteome analysis of benzo(a)pyrene-treated HeLa cells

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    Yan Chunlan; Chen Zhaojun; Li Huanrong; Zhang Guanglin [The First Affiliated Hospital, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Li Feng [The First Renmin Hospital, Houma, Shanxi 043000 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 (China); Department of Toxicology, Hangzhou Normal University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310036 (China)

    2012-03-01

    Previously, we employed a proteomics-based 2-D gel electrophoresis assay to show that exposure to 10 {mu}M benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) during a 24 h frame can lead to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing. To further expand our knowledge about the DNA damage response (DDR) induced by BaP, we investigated the nuclear protein expression profiles in HeLa cells treated with different concentrations of BaP (0.1, 1, and 10 {mu}M) using this proteomics-based 2-D gel electrophoresis assay. We found 125 differentially expressed proteins in BaP-treated cells compared to control cells. Among them, 79 (63.2%) were down-regulated, 46 (36.8%) were up-regulated; 8 showed changes in the 1 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M BaP-treated groups, 2 in the 0.1 {mu}M and 10 {mu}M BaP-treated groups, 4 in the 0.1 {mu}M and 1 {mu}M BaP-treated groups, and only one showed changes in all three groups. Fifty protein spots were chosen for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) identification, and of these, 39 were identified, including subunits of the 26S proteasome and Annexin A1. The functions of some identified proteins were further examined and the results showed that they might be involved in BaP-induced DDR. Taken together, these data indicate that proteomics is a valuable approach in the study of environmental chemical-host interactions, and the identified proteins could provide new leads for better understanding BaP-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.

  2. DNA of HeLa cells during caffeine-promoted recovery from X-ray induced G2 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progression of X-irradiated HeLa cells from G2 arrest through mitosis was promoted by 1mM caffeine. Caffeine promoted the return from abnormally high levels of radiation-induced immunoreactivity to antinucleoside antibodies, which indicates persistent DNA strand separation, to the low levels normally found in G2. With caffeine, the irradiated cells progressed through mitosis, producing daughter cells with the normal G1 content of DNA. Without caffeine, the DNA content of individual radiation-arrested cells retained G2 values and the abnormally high levels of immunoreactivity to antinucleoside antibodies. (author)

  3. Effects of DNA polymerase inhibitors on replicative and repair DNA synthesis in ultraviolet-irradiated HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphidicolin specifically inhibits eukaryotic DNA polymerase ?, while 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate (d2TTP) inhibits DNA polymerase ? and ? but not ?. 1-?-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine 5'-triphosphate (araCTP) inhibits both DNA polymerase ? and ? although to a different extent. Here we measured the effects of these inhibitors on repair DNA synthesis of U.V.-irradiated HeLa cells by two different methods. Firstly, aphidicolin, 1-?-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (araC, a precursor of araCTP) and 2',3'-dideoxythimidine (d2Thd, a precursor of d2TTP) were added directly to the culture medium. In this case, aphidicolin and araC strongly inhibited replicative DNA synthesis of HeLa cells, and they also inhibited repair synthesis after U.V.-irradiation but to a much lesser extent. In contrast, high concentrations of d2Thd inhibited repair DNA synthesis to a higher extent than replicative DNA synthesis. Secondly, the active form of inhibitor, d2TTP, was microinjected directly into cytoplasm or nuclei or U.V.-irradiated HeLa cells. Microinjection of d2TTP effectively inhibited repair synthesis. The microinjection of d2TTP, into either cytoplasm or nucleus, strongly inhibited replicative synthesis. These results might indicate that multiple DNA polymerases are involved in repair synthesis as well as in replicative synthesis

  4. Dose-rate effects in plateau-phase cultures of S3 HeLa and V79 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-rate effects on cell survival were studied for log-, fed plateau-, and unfed plateau-phase cultures of V79 and S3 HeLa cells. For log-phase cultures, repair, cell-cycle redistribution, and cell division during exposure can contribute to the overall dose-rate effect, but their relative contributions are difficult to determine. With plateau-phase cultures, the cell-cycle times are greatly lengthened, for those cells that are in cycle. Hence, the contribution to the overall dose-rate effect of cell-cycle redistribution and cell division during the exposure could be minimized using plateau-phase cultures. With respect to the acute dose-survival curves, there was a clear loss in effectiveness when the dose rate was lowered to 154 rad/hr for both fed and unfed plateau-phase HeLa and V79 cells. There was no further reduction in effectiveness per unit dose, however, when the dose rate was reduced to 55 rad/hr. Since there was virtually no cell division or cell-cycle redistribution, it may be that a limit to the repair-dependent dose-rate effect at 370C has been reached at a dose rate of 154 rad/hr

  5. Effect of combined treatment of HeLa S3 cells with radiation and etoposide on cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etoposide, a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, is an active cytotoxic agent. In this paper, radiation sensitivity of HeLa S3 cells was evaluated with and without etoposide. Exponentially growing monolayer cells were incubated with etoposide at 2.5 ?g/ml for 1 hour immediately after irradiation. The combination of radiation and etoposide showed a significant enhancement in cell killing as compared with radiation alone. The difference in surviving fraction is principally due to the decrease of the shoulder of the cell survival curve. When etoposide was combined with radiation at the different time intervals in exponentially growing cells, a significant enhancement of cell killing was found immediately before and after radiation, and at 6 hours after radiation. When plateau phase cells were incubated with etoposide at 2.5 ?g/ml for 1 hour immediately after radiation, no enhancement of cell killing was observed. These results are discussed in connection with the cellular repair and cell cycle kinetics. (author)

  6. B7-H4 downregulation induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances doxorubicin sensitivity via the cAMP/CREB/PGC1-? signaling pathway in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Kyu; Song, In-Sung; Lee, Sun Young; Jeong, Seung Hun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Heo, Hye Jin; Thu, Vu Thi; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Jeong, Dae Hun; Kim, Young Nam; Han, Jin

    2014-12-01

    B7-H4 is a B7 family coregulatory protein that inhibits T cell-mediated immunity. B7-H4 is overexpressed in various cancers; however, the functional role of B7-H4 in cancer metabolism is poorly understood. Because mitochondria play pivotal roles in development, proliferation, and death of cancer cells, we investigated molecular and functional alterations of mitochondria in B7-H4-depleted HeLa cells. In a human study, overexpression of B7-H4 was confirmed in the cervices of adenocarcinoma patients (n = 3) compared to noncancer patients (n = 3). In the cell line model, B7-H4 depletion was performed by transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA). B7-H4 depletion suppressed oxygen consumption rate, ATP production, and mitochondrial membrane potential and mass and increased reactive oxygen species production. In particular, electron transport complex III activity was significantly impaired in siB7-H4-treated cells. Coincidently, depletion of B7-H4 suppressed major mitochondrial regulators (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha [PGC1-?] and mitochondrial transcription factor A), a component of oxidative phosphorylation (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1), and an antiapoptosis protein (Bcl-XL). Mitochondrial dysfunction in siRNA-treated cells significantly augmented oxidative stress, which strongly activated the JNK/P38/caspase axis in the presence of doxorubicin, resulting in increased apoptotic cell death. Investigating the mechanism of B7-H4-mediated mitochondrial modulation, we found that B7-H4 depletion significantly downregulated the cAMP/cAMP response element-binding protein/PGC1-? signaling pathway. Based on these findings, we conclude that B7-H4 has a role in the regulation of mitochondrial function, which is closely related to cancer cell physiology and drug sensitivity. PMID:24658911

  7. Analysis of gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in response to overexpression or siRNA-mediated depletion of NASP

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    Alekseev Oleg

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NASP (Nuclear Autoantigenic Sperm Protein is a linker histone chaperone required for normal cell division. Changes in NASP expression significantly affect cell growth and development; loss of gene function results in embryonic lethality. However, the mechanism by which NASP exerts its effects in the cell cycle is not understood. To understand the pathways and networks that may involve NASP function, we evaluated gene expression in HeLa cells in which NASP was either overexpressed or depleted by siRNA. Methods Total RNA from HeLa cells overexpressing NASP or depleted of NASP by siRNA treatment was converted to cRNA with incorporation of Cy5-CTP (experimental samples, or Cy3-CTP (control samples. The labeled cRNA samples were hybridized to whole human genome microarrays (Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, Delaware, USA. Various gene expression analysis techniques were employed: Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM, Expression Analysis Systematic Explorer (EASE, and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA. Results From approximately 36 thousand genes present in a total human genome microarray, we identified a set of 47 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated genes as a result of NASP overexpression. Similarly we identified a set of 56 up-regulated and 71 down-regulated genes as a result of NASP siRNA treatment. Gene ontology, molecular network and canonical pathway analysis of NASP overexpression demonstrated that the most significant changes were in proteins participating in organismal injury, immune response, and cellular growth and cancer pathways (major "hubs": TNF, FOS, EGR1, NF?B, IRF7, STAT1, IL6. Depletion of NASP elicited the changed expression of proteins involved in DNA replication, repair and development, followed by reproductive system disease, and cancer and cell cycle pathways (major "hubs": E2F8, TP53, FGF, FSH, FST, hCG, NF?B, TRAF6. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that NASP belongs to a network of genes and gene functions that are critical for cell survival. We have confirmed the previously reported interactions between NASP and HSP90, HSP70, histone H1, histone H3, and TRAF6. Overexpression and depletion of NASP identified overlapping networks that included TNF as a core protein, confirming that both high and low levels of NASP are detrimental to cell cycle progression. Networks with cancer-related functions had the highest significance, however reproductive networks containing follistatin and FSH were also significantly affected, which confirmed NASP's important role in reproductive tissues. This study revealed that, despite some overlap, each response was associated with a unique gene signature and placed NASP in important cell regulatory networks.

  8. Control of placental alkaline phosphatase gene expression in HeLa cells: induction of synthesis by prednisolone and sodium butyrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa S3 cells produce an alkaline phosphatase indistinguishable from the enzyme from human term placenta. The phosphatase activity in these cells was induced by both prednisolone and sodium butyrate. Both agents stimulated de novo synthesis of the enzyme. The increase in phosphatase activity paralleled the increase in immunoactivity and biosynthesis of placental alkaline phosphatase. The fully processed phosphatase monomer in control, prednisolone-treated or butyrate-treated cells was a 64.5 K polypeptide, measured by both incorporation of L-[35S]methionine into enzyme protein and active-site labeling. The 64.5K polypeptide was formed by the incorporation of additional N-acetylneuraminic acid moieties to a precursor polypeptide of 61.5K. However, this biosynthetic pathway was identified only in butyrate-treated cells. In prednisolone-treated cells, the processing of 61.5K to 64.5K monomer was accelerated, and the presence of the 61.5 precursor could only be detected by either neuraminidase or monensin treatment. Phosphatase mRNA which comigrated with the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA of 2.7 kilobases was induced in the presence of either prednisolone or butyrate. Alkaline phosphatase mRNA is untreated HeLa S3 cells migrated slightly faster than the term placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Butyrate also induced a second still faster migrating alkaline phosphatase mRNA. Both prednisolone and butyrate increased the steady-statone and butyrate increased the steady-state levels of placental alkaline phosphatase mRNA. The data indicate that the increase in phosphatase mRNA by prednisolone and butyrate resulted in the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity and biosynthesis in HeLa S3 cells. Furthermore, both agents induced the expression of different alkaline phosphatase gene transcripts without altering its protein product

  9. Cell killing and division delay in asynchronous and synchronized HeLa cells irradiated with alpha particles or x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa cells irradiated with a single or two split doses of ? particles or X rays were observed with time-lapse photography or examined for their colony-forming ability. The cell cycle-dependent variation of cell killing and division delay were compared in synchronous and asynchronous cell populations. Cellular damage by ? particles was manifested in the form of cessation of division, or death, rather than partial division which was predominant for X irradiation. The pattern of cell killing with ? particles was similar to that found with X rays, in that high sensitivity was noted at or close to mitosis, while a resistant peak remained at late S but not in early G1. The pattern of division delay was similar for X rays and ? particles during G2-M, with a maximum delay at mid G2 and no delay past the transition point, but differed during G1-S. During this period, division delay increased with cell age, whereas it showed a broad peak at G1-S boundary and a trough at late S for X rays. However, such was not the case for ? particles

  10. Involvement of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the X-ray resistance of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated changes in the sub-cellular distribution of glycelaldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) after X-ray irradiation in HeLa cells. Twenty-four h after irradiation at 5Gy, nuclear GAPDH levels increased 2.6-fold, whereas total GAPDH levels increased only 1.2-fold. Knockdown of GAPDH using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to sensitization to X-ray-induced cell death. These results suggest that GAPDH plays a role in the radioresponse

  11. Development of electrochemical reporter assay using HeLa cells transfected with vector plasmids encoding various responsive elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiku, Hitoshi, E-mail: shiku@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takeda, Michiaki; Murata, Tatsuya [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Akiba, Uichi; Hamada, Fumio [Graduate School of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, 1-1 Tegata gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Matsue, Tomokazu, E-mail: matsue@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604 Aramaki-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2009-04-27

    Electrochemical assay using HeLa cell lines transfected with various plasmid vectors encoding SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase) as the reporter has been performed by using SECM (scanning electrochemical microscopy). The plasmid vector contains different responsive elements that include GRE (glucocorticoid response elements), CRE (cAMP responsive elements), or {kappa}B (binding site for NF{kappa}B (nuclear factor kappa B)) upstream of the SEAP sequence. The transfected HeLa cells were patterned on a culture dish in a 4 x 4 array of circles of diameter 300 {mu}m by using the PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) stencil technique. The cellular array was first exposed to 100 ng mL{sup -1} dexamethasone, 10 ng mL{sup -1} forskolin, or 100 ng mL{sup -1} TNF-{alpha} (tumor necrosis factor {alpha}) after which it was further cultured in an RPMI culture medium for 6 h. After incubation, the cellular array was soaked in a measuring solution containing 4.7 mM PAPP (p-aminophenylphosphate) at pH 9.5, following which electrochemical measurements were performed immediately within 40 min. The SECM method allows parallel evaluation of different cell lines transfected with pGRE-SEAP, pCRE-SEAP, and pNF{kappa}B-SEAP patterned on the same solid support for detection of the oxidation current of PAP (p-aminophenol) flux produced from only 300 HeLa cells in each stencil pattern. The results of the SECM method were highly sensitive as compared to those obtained from the conventional CL (chemiluminescence) protocol with at least 5 x 10{sup 4} cells per well.

  12. Relationship of ROS and NO in X-ray induced bystander effects in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulating evidence indicates that irradiated cells can release signals which induce a series of biological responses in non-exposed cells. This is known as irradiation-induced bystander effects. Both reactive oxygen species(ROS)and nitric oxide(NO) play important roles in bystander effects. In this study, we determined the relationship of ROS and NO in the signaling pathway of bystander effects. HeLa cells were treated with or without dimethy sulfoxide(DMSO) before X-ray irradiation, and micronuclei formation as well as cell proliferation rate was detected in both irradiated and bystander cells. In addition,we also detected inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS)expression and NO level in irradiated cells using Western blotting and DAF-FM DA fluorescent probe, respectively. Our results showed that micronuclei were induced in irradiated and bystander cells while DMSO treatment significantly suppressed the formation of micronuclei in both of them. We also found that when cells were irradiated their proliferation rate was suppressed while DMSO treatment eliminated this inhibition effect.In contrast, the cells received conditioned medium from irradiated cells proliferated more quickly than the cells received medium from non-irradiated cells while DMSO treatment reduced the difference. Finally, we found that irradiated cells had higher level of iNOS and NO compared to non-irradiated controls, whereas DMSO treatment decreased their levels. These results suggest that ROS is levels. These results suggest that ROS is the upstream signal of NO in X-ray induced bystander effects in HeLa cells. (authors)

  13. Adhesion of Escherichia coli to HeLa Cells Mediated by Trypanosoma cruzi Surface Glycoprotein-Derived Peptides Inserted in the Outer Membrane Protein LamB

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ca?tia M.; Favoreto, Si?lvio; Franco Da Silveira, Jose?; Yoshida, Nobuko; Castilho, Beatriz A.

    1999-01-01

    Peptides derived from the surface glycoprotein gp82 of Trypanosoma cruzi, previously implicated in the parasite’s invasion of host cells, were expressed as fusions to the protein LamB of Escherichia coli in a region known to be exposed on the cell surface. Bacteria expressing these proteins adhered to HeLa cells in a manner that mimics the pattern of parasite invasion of mammalian cells. Purified LamB fusion proteins were shown to bind to HeLa cells and to inhibit infection by T. cruzi, sup...

  14. Liquiritigenin Inhibits Tumor Growth and Vascularization in a Mouse Model of Hela Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuxin Liu; Sirou Xie; Yu Wang,; Kang Luo; Yang Wang; Yunqing Cai

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the crucial steps in the transition of a tumor from a small, harmless cluster of mutated cells to a large, malignant growth, capable of spreading to other organs throughout the body. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis is thought to be as an anti-angiogenic target for cancer therapy. Liquiritigenin (LQ), a flavanone existing in Radix glycyrrhiza, shows extensive biological activities, such as ant...

  15. Sulfated fucan from marine alga inhibits HeLa cells infection by HTLV-1 free particles: semi-quantitative analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria T. V., Romanos; Maria J., Andrada-Serpa; Paulo A. S., Mourão; Yocie, Yoneshigue-Valentin; Mariana S., Pereira; Norma, Santos; Marcia D., Wigg.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated fucan from Laminaria abyssalis marine alga prevented the interaction of HTLV-1 particles, purified from the MT-2 cell line, with HeLa cells. The infection obtained using a concentrated virus suspension was detected only by amplification of the newly synthesized HTLV-1 proviral cDNA by the [...] nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sulfated polysaccharide was not toxic to the cells at a concentration of 100 µg/mL and prevented infection by the viral particles when added to the cell monolayers. The proviral cDNA was only detected when the sulfated polysaccharide was added to the cells three hours post-infection, indicating that the inhibitory activity occurred in the initial stages of virus-cell interaction. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of a sulfated fucan from marine algae to inhibit virus transmission through free virus particles.

  16. Sulfated fucan from marine alga inhibits HeLa cells infection by HTLV-1 free particles: semi-quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. V. Romanos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A sulfated fucan from Laminaria abyssalis marine alga prevented the interaction of HTLV-1 particles, purified from the MT-2 cell line, with HeLa cells. The infection obtained using a concentrated virus suspension was detected only by amplification of the newly synthesized HTLV-1 proviral cDNA by the nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The sulfated polysaccharide was not toxic to the cells at a concentration of 100 µg/mL and prevented infection by the viral particles when added to the cell monolayers. The proviral cDNA was only detected when the sulfated polysaccharide was added to the cells three hours post-infection, indicating that the inhibitory activity occurred in the initial stages of virus-cell interaction. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the ability of a sulfated fucan from marine algae to inhibit virus transmission through free virus particles.

  17. Extended electrical model for impedance characterization of cultured HeLa cells in non-confluent state using ECIS electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; RoyChaudhuri, C

    2013-09-01

    Electric cell substrate impedance sensing has been widely used as a label free quantitative platform to study various cell biological processes and it is extremely essential to extract the parameters like the variation of the cell substrate spacing, changing projected area of the cell on the electrode and approximate cluster size during the non-confluent state to understand the mechanism of proliferation of the cells. The distributed analytical models developed so far to extract these parameters are applicable only under the conditions when the cells have become confluent. There are some lumped electrical models which have been reported for the non-confluent state but they do not provide correct estimate of the changing cell substrate spacing and the cell cluster size during growth. In this paper we develop extended distributed electrical models to characterize the impedance spectroscopy behavior of cultured HeLa cells in 200 Hz to 1 MHz range using eight well ECIS electrodes in the non-confluent state. The distributed model introduces some pseudo regularity in the arrangement of the non-confluent cells to extract the average ensemble of the significant parameters. The parameters extracted from the distributed model after 10 hours, 20 hours, and 30 hours of HeLa cell growth have been compared with the lumped circuit model and has been observed to fit the experimental data with a seven times improved fit quality factor. Further, the changing cell radius and cluster radius extracted at three different instants of time from the distributed analytical model have been found to match closely the microscopic observation in contrast to the lumped circuit model. PMID:23995584

  18. Effect of doxorubicin on cell survival and micronuclei formation in HeLa cells exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The present study was undertaken to obtain an insight into the combined effects of doxorubicin with radiation on the cell survival and micronuclei induction in HeLa cells. Material and Methods: HeLa S3 cells were allowed to grow till they reached plateau phase, inoculated with 10 ?g/ml doxorubicin hydrochloride and then exposed to 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Gy ?-radiation. Clonogenicity of cell was measured using the colony forming assay, micronuclei formation using the micronucleus assay. Results: The treatment of HeLa cells with doxorubicin (adriamycin) for 2 hours before exposure to different doses of ?-radiation resulted in a significant and dose-dependent decline in the cell survival and cell proliferation when compared to the PBS+irradiation group. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a dose-related manner in both the PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups. The pretreatment of HeLa cells with doxorubicin before irradiation to various doses of ?-rays resulted in a significant elevation in the frequency of micronuclei when compared with the concurrent PBS+irradiation group. The dose-response relationship for both PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups was linear. The correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was also determined for PBS or doxorubicin+irradiation group, where the clonogenicity of cells declined with the increase in micronuclei formation. The correlation between cell survical and micronation between cell survical and micronuclei induction was linear quadratic for both PBS+irradiation and doxorubicin+irradiation groups. Conclusion: From our study it can be concluded that combination treatment with doxorubicin and radiation increased the genotoxic effect of the either treatment given alone. (orig.)

  19. Generation of islet-like cell aggregates from human non-pancreatic cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Sureshbabu, Shalini Kashipathi; Shahani, Pradnya; Bhawna, Chandravanshi; Warrier, Sudha R; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    To explore a novel source for the derivation of islets, we examined the differentiation potential of human non-pancreatic cancer cell lines, HeLa (cervical carcinoma cell line) and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line). These cells were subjected to a serum-free, three-step sequential differentiation protocol which gave two distinct cell populations: single cells and cellular aggregates. Subsequent analysis confirmed their identity as pancreatic acinar cells and islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs), as evidenced by amylase secretion and diphenylthiocarbazone staining respectively. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunocytochemistry assessment of the ICAs revealed the expression of pancreatic specific markers Ngn-3, Glut-2, Pax-6 and Isl-1. These ICAs secreted insulin in response to glucose challenge, confirming their functionality. We propose that ICAs generated from HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines could form a promising in vitro platform of human islet equivalents (hIEQs) for diabetes research. PMID:25257585

  20. Mechanism of the radiosensitizing effect of low dose ionizing radiation in the HeLa cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitizing effect of preliminary irradiation (10 R) 2-3 min prior to applying the main dose of 490 R was studied on a HeLa cell culture. The overall dose, divided in this manner, was found to initially have the same stimulative effect as 10 R. The inhibitory action of the main dose showed only after 1.5-2.0 hr. The results on the radiosensitizing effect of preliminary irradiation with 10 R might be explained by the delayed action of a complex of adaptive responses. An examination of the dosage curve showed preliminary irradiation with 10 R to cause a decline in reparation processes

  1. Uracil DNa-glycosylase from HeLa cells: general properties, substrate specificity and effect of uracil analogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Krokan, H; Wittwer, C U

    1981-01-01

    Uracil-DNA glycosylase was partially purified from HeLa cells. Various substrates containing [3H]dUMP residues were prepared by nick-translation of calf thymus DNA. The standard substrate was double-stranded DNA with [3H]dUMP located internally in the chain. Compared to the release of uracil from this substrate, a 3-fold increase in the rate was seen with single-stranded DNA, and a 20-fold reduction in the rate was observed when the [3H]dUMP-residue was located at the 3'end. The rate of [3H]u...

  2. Intercellular Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells Expressing GFP-labeled Connexin 43, 32, or 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paemeleire, Koen; Martin, Patricia E. M.; Coleman, Sharon L.; Fogarty, Kevin E.; Carrington, Walter A.; Leybaert, Luc; Tuft, Richard A.; Evans, W. Howard; Sanderson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to obtain direct evidence for the involvement of gap junctions in the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves. Gap junction-deficient HeLa cells were transfected with plasmids encoding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the cytoplasmic carboxyl termini of connexin 43 (Cx43), 32 (Cx32), or 26 (Cx26). The subsequently expressed GFP-labeled gap junctions rendered the cells dye- and electrically coupled and were detected at the plasma membranes at points of contact between adjacent cells. To correlate the distribution of gap junctions with the changes in [Ca2+]i associated with Ca2+ waves and the distribution of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), cells were loaded with fluorescent Ca2+-sensitive (fluo-3 and fura-2) and ER membrane (ER-Tracker) dyes. Digital high-speed microscopy was used to collect a series of image slices from which the three-dimensional distribution of the gap junctions and ER were reconstructed. Subsequently, intercellular Ca2+ waves were induced in these cells by mechanical stimulation with or without extracellular apyrase, an ATP-degrading enzyme. In untransfected HeLa cells and in the absence of apyrase, cell-to-cell propagating [Ca2+]i changes were characterized by initiating Ca2+ puffs associated with the perinuclear ER. By contrast, in Cx–GFP-transfected cells and in the presence of apyrase, [Ca2+]i changes were propagated without initiating perinuclear Ca2+ puffs and were communicated between cells at the sites of the Cx–GFP gap junctions. The efficiency of Cx expression determined the extent of Ca2+ wave propagation. These results demonstrate that intercellular Ca2+ waves may be propagated simultaneously via an extracellular pathway and an intracellular pathway through gap junctions and that one form of communication may mask the other. PMID:10793154

  3. Cannabidiol Inhibits Cancer Cell Invasion Via Upregulation Of Tissue Inhibitor Of Matrix Metalloproteinases-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ramer, Robert; Merkord, Jutta; Rohde, Helga; Hinz, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although cannabinoids exhibit a broad variety of anticarcinogenic effects, their potential use in cancer therapy is limited by their psychoactive effects. Here we evaluated the impact of cannabidiol, a plant-derived non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on cancer cell invasion. Using Matrigel invasion assays we found a cannabidiol-driven impaired invasion of human cervical cancer (HeLa, C33A) and human lung cancer cells (A549) that was reversed by antagonists to both CB1 and CB2 r...

  4. Evaluation of biological activities of Physalis peruviana ethanol extracts and expression of Bcl-2 genes in HeLa cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Özgür, Çakir; Murat, Pekmez; Elif, Çepni; Bilgin, Candar; Kerem, Fidan.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Physalis species are used in folk medicine for phytotherapeutic properties. The extracts of medicinal plants are known to possess cytotoxic and chemopreventative compounds. In this study we investigated antibacterial, antioxidant, DNA damage preventative properties of Physalis peruviana (golden berr [...] y) on leaf and shoot ethanol extracts and their effects on cytotoxicity of HeLa cells and expression of apoptotic pathway genes. Among the tested bacteria for antibacterial activity, maximum inhibition zone was determined in Lactococcus lactis. The phenolic content was found higher in leaf extracts than shoot extracts. The antioxidant activity showed the highest TEAC values of the leaf (2 mg/mL) and the shoot (0.5 mg/mL) extracts as 0.291±0.04 and 0.192±0.015, respectively. In DNA damage prevention assay both leaf and shoot extracts, especially 30 and 20 µg/mL concentrations, exhibited significant protection against DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton reaction. Our results suggest that leaf and shoot extracts possess cytotoxic effect on HeLa cells when applied as 100 µg/mL concentration. Also mRNA expression analysis showed the alteration of antiapoptotic genes, so the results suggest that P. peruviana ethanol extracts induce apoptotic cell death and should be investigated for identification of active compounds and their mechanisms of action.

  5. NADH oxidase activity (NOX) and enlargement of HeLa cells oscillate with two different temperature-compensated period lengths of 22 and 24 minutes corresponding to different NOX forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Pogue, R.; Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    NOX proteins are cell surface-associated and growth-related hydroquinone (NADH) oxidases with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity. A defining characteristic of NOX proteins is that the two enzymatic activities alternate to generate a regular period length of about 24 min. HeLa cells exhibit at least two forms of NOX. One is tumor-associated (tNOX) and is inhibited by putative quinone site inhibitors (e.g., capsaicin or the antitumor sulfonylurea, LY181984). Another is constitutive (CNOX) and refractory to inhibition. The periodic alternation of activities and drug sensitivity of the NADH oxidase activity observed with intact HeLa cells was retained in isolated plasma membranes and with the solubilized and partially purified enzyme. At least two activities were present. One had a period length of 24 min and the other had a period length of 22 min. The lengths of both the 22 and the 24 min periods were temperature compensated (approximately the same when measured at 17, 27 or 37 degrees C) whereas the rate of NADH oxidation approximately doubled with each 10 degrees C rise in temperature. The rate of increase in cell area of HeLa cells when measured by video-enhanced light microscopy also exhibited a complex period of oscillations reflective of both 22 and 24 min period lengths. The findings demonstrate the presence of a novel oscillating NOX activity at the surface of cancer cells with a period length of 22 min in addition to the constitutive NOX of non-cancer cells and tissues with a period length of 24 min.

  6. Cleavage of Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4G by Exogenously Added Hybrid Proteins Containing Poliovirus 2Apro in HeLa Cells: Effects on Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa, Isabel; Carrasco, Luis

    1999-01-01

    Efficient cleavage of both forms of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G-1 and eIF4G-2) has been achieved in HeLa cells by incubation with hybrid proteins containing poliovirus 2Apro. Entry of these proteins into cells is promoted by adenovirus particles. Substantial levels of ongoing translation on preexisting cellular mRNAs still continue for several hours after eIF4G degradation. Treatment of control HeLa cells with hypertonic medium causes an inhibition of translation that is reversed u...

  7. In vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activities of Essential Oil from Moringa oleifera Seeds on HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, CACO-2 and L929 Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Sharaf-Eldin, Mahmoud A; Wadaan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is widely consumed in tropical and subtropical regions for their valuable nutritional and medicinal characteristics. Recently, extensive research has been conducted on leaf extracts of M. oleifera to evaluate their potential cytotoxic effects. However, with the exception of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, little information is present on the cytotoxic activity of the essential oil obtained from M. oleifera seeds. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to investigate the potential cytotoxic activity of seed essential oil obtained from M. oleifera on HeLa, HepG2, MCF-7, CACO-2 and L929 cell lines. The different cell lines were subjected to increasing oil concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 1 mg/mL for 24h, and the cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT assay. All treated cell lines showed a significant reduction in cell viability in response to the increasing oil concentration. Moreover, the reduction depended on the cell line as well as the oil concentration applied. Additionally, HeLa cells were the most affected cells followed by HepG2, MCF-7, L929 and CACO-2, where the percentages of cell toxicity recorded were 76.1, 65.1, 59.5, 57.0 and 49.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the IC50 values obtained for MCF-7, HeLa and HepG2 cells were 226.1, 422.8 and 751.9 ?g/mL, respectively. Conclusively, the present investigation provides preliminary results which suggest that seed essential oil from M. oleifera has potent cytotoxic activities against cancer cell lines. PMID:26107222

  8. Centrosomal localization of RhoGDI? and its relevance to mitotic processes in cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    JIANG, YONG-SHENG; MAEDA, MASAYO; OKAMOTO, MAYUMI; FUJII, MIKIKO; FUKUTOMI, RYUICHIRO; HORI, MASATO; TATSUKA, MASAAKI; OTA, TAKAHIDE

    2012-01-01

    Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs) are regulators of Rho family GTPases. RhoGDI? has been implicated in cancer progression, but its precise role remains unclear. We determined the subcellular localization of RhoGDI? and examined the effects of its overexpression and RNAi knockdown in cancer cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed that RhoGDI? localized to centrosomes in human cancer cells. In HeLa cells, exogenous GFP-tagged RhoGDI? localized to centrosomes and its overexpression...

  9. Initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in a membrane complex of infected HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vitro poliovirus RNA-synthesizing system derived from a crude membrance fraction of infected HeLa cells was used to analyze the mechanism of initiation of poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis. This system contains an activity that synthesizes the nucleotidyl proteins VPg-pU and VPg-pUpU. These molecules represent the 5'-terminal structure of nascent RNA molecules and of virion RNA. The membranous replication complex is also capable of synthesizing mucleotidyl proteins containing nine or more of the poliovirus 5'-proximal nucleotides as assayed by the formation of the RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide VPg-pUUAAAACAGp or by fingerprint analysis of the in vitro-synthesized 32P-RNA. Incubation of preformed VPg-pUpU with unlabeled nucleoside triphosphates resulted in the formation of VPg-pUUAAAACAGp. This reaction, which appeared to be an elongation of VPg-pUpU, was stimulated by the addition of a soluble fraction (S-10) obtained from uninfected HeLa cells. Preformed VPg-pU could be chased into VPg-pUpU in the presence of UTP. The data are consistent with a model that VPg-pU can function as a primer for poliovirus plus-strand RNA synthesis in the membranous replication complex and that the elongation reaction may be stimulated by a host cellular factor

  10. Phenethyl isothiocyanate sensitizes human cervical cancer cells to apoptosis induced by cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiantao; Govind, Sudha; Sajankila, Shyama P.; Mi, Lixin; Roy, Rabindra; Chung, Fung-lung

    2011-01-01

    Naturally-occurring chemopreventive agent phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), derived primarily from watercress, has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In this study, we examined the potential of PEITC in enhancing cisplatin-induced apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. HeLa cells were exposed to PEITC, cisplatin or both. Pretreatment of cells with PEITC strongly enhanced cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. PEITC activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases, in...

  11. Enhanced cellular uptake of albumin-based lyophilisomes when functionalized with cell-penetrating peptide TAT in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bracht, Etienne; Versteegden, Luuk R M; Stolle, Sarah; Verdurmen, Wouter P R; Woestenenk, Rob; Raavé, René; Hafmans, Theo; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Brock, Roland; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Daamen, Willeke F

    2014-01-01

    Lyophilisomes are a novel class of biodegradable proteinaceous nano/micrometer capsules with potential use as drug delivery carrier. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) including the TAT peptide have been successfully implemented for intracellular delivery of a broad variety of cargos including various nanoparticulate pharmaceutical carriers. In the present study, lyophilisomes were modified using CPPs in order to achieve enhanced cellular uptake. Lyophilisomes were prepared by a freezing, annealing, and lyophilization method and a cystein-elongated TAT peptide was conjugated to the lyophilisomes using a heterobifunctional linker. Fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) was utilized to acquire a lyophilisome population with a particle diameter smaller than 1000 nm. Cultured HeLa, OVCAR-3, Caco-2 and SKOV-3 cells were exposed to unmodified lyophilisomes and TAT-conjugated lyophilisomes and examined with FACS. HeLa cells were investigated in more detail using a trypan blue quenching assay, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. TAT-conjugation strongly increased binding and cellular uptake of lyophilisomes in a time-dependent manner in vitro, as assessed by FACS. These results were confirmed by confocal microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy indicated rapid cellular uptake of TAT-conjugated lyophilisomes via phagocytosis and/or macropinocytosis. In conclusion, TAT-peptides conjugated to albumin-based lyophilisomes are able to enhance cellular uptake of lyophilisomes in HeLa cells. PMID:25369131

  12. Colorectal cancer stem cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, TM; Mortensen, NJ

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The cancer stem cell hypothesis predicts that only a subpopulation of cells within a tumor is responsible for driving growth. If this hypothesis were true, it would have a significant impact on our current treatment of cancer because conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy target rapidly proliferating cells making up the bulk of the tumor, not specifically cancer stem cells. The aims of this review are to highlight the current evidence supporting the existence of cancer stem cells...

  13. Testicular Germ Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 90 percent of testicular cancer start in the germ cells, which are cells in the testicles and develop into sperm. This type of cancer is known as testicular germ cell cancer. Testicular germ cell cancer can be classified as either seminomas or nonseminomas, whose cells have different appearances under a microscope.1 Another difference is that nonseminomas typically grow and spread more quickly than seminomas.

  14. Role of arachidonic acid release in the G sub 2 delay induced by tumor promoter TPA in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzel, V.; Kaszkin, M.; Espe, U.; Richards, J.; Fuerstenberger, G. (German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (West Germany))

    1987-12-01

    The tumor promoter TPA{sup 2} (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) has been shown to exhibit a radiometric activity on the cell cycle of HeLa cells. The response includes a delay of cells in G{sub 2} phase. The relation between TPA-induced release of arachidonic acid (AA) and the inhibition in G{sub 2} phase was studied. Exogenous AA is shown to delay HeLa cells in G{sub 2} and to enhance the effectiveness of TPA in this respect. The inhibition of the TPA-induced AA liberation by fluocinolone acetonide, however, does not influence the TPA-effected G{sub 2} delay. The diacylglycerols 1,2-dioctanoyl-glycerol and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol delay HeLa cells in G{sub 2} but without major stimulation of AA liberation. On the basis of the data it is concluded that AA released from HeLa cells due to the action of TPA is not involved in the TPA-induced delay of cells in G{sub 2} phase.

  15. Secretion of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins from HeLa cells is dependent on expression of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and is regulated by lipid availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D A; Jamil, H; Sharp, D; Mullaney, D; Yao, Z; Gregg, R E; Wetterau, J

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate the role of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in lipoprotein assembly, MTP and apolipoprotein B-53 (apoB 53; the N-terminal 53% of apoB) were expressed in HeLa cells. The results showed that apoB-53 could be expressed in HeLa cells with or without expression of MTP. In contrast, efficient secretion of apoB-53 required expression of MTP. Ultracentrifugal density flotation analysis showed that apoB-53 was secreted predominantly as a particle with the density of high density lipoprotein. An essentially identical apoB-53 particle density distribution was obtained after transient expression of apoB-53 in McArdle RH-7777 rat hepatoma cells. The mass of apoB-53 secreted was greater, and the flotation density was lower, from cells fed lipid, suggesting that apoB secretion in HeLa cells was regulated by lipid availability, similar to what has been described for lipoprotein-producing cell lines. These results indicate that MTP is necessary and sufficient to direct the regulated secretion of apoB-53 in HeLa cells. Images PMID:8052632

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Attachment to HeLa CD4 Cells Is CD4 Independent and gp120 Dependent and Requires Cell Surface Heparans

    OpenAIRE

    Mondor, I.; Ugolini, S.; Sattentau, Qj

    1998-01-01

    The binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (Hx10) virions to two different cell lines was analyzed by using a novel assay based on the detection, by anti-HLA-DR-specific antibodies, of HLA-DR+ virus binding to HLA-DR- cells. Virion attachment to the CD4+-T-cell line A3.01 was highly CD4 dependent in that it was potently inhibited by CD4 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), and little virus binding to the CD4- sister A2.01 line was observed. By contrast, virion binding to HeLa cells e...

  17. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea S. Cruz

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amostras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6% que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo LutzThe sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, showed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%. Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and 1 of acrylic resin. The PVC (polyvinylchloride and polyethylene rarely showed positivity, while, the plastic, cotton and acrylic resin demonstrated cytotoxicity in about 5% of samples. We thus suggest the use of the RC-IAL and HeLa cell lines for continuation of this type of analysis at Adolfo Lutz Institute

  18. Detecção da citotoxicidade de materiais biocompatíveis nas linhagens celulares MRC-5, HeLa e RC-IAL / MRC-5, HeLa and RC-IAL cell lines sensitivity for detection of cytotoxicity of biocompatible materials

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurea S., Cruz; Cristina A., Figueiredo; Clélia H. O., Martinez; Luís F. de, Salles Gomes.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available A sensibilidade de uma linhagem celular diplóide e duas heteroplóides, para a detecção de citotoxicidade através do método de difusão em camada de ágar sobre culturas celulares, foi avaliada experimentalmente com solução de ácido ascórbico em diferentes concentrações e, na prática, frente a 562 amos [...] tras de 21 diferentes materiais industriais enviados para análise na Seção de Culturas Celulares do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. A linhagem celular heteroplóide designada RC-IAL apresentou, em relação às linhagens MRC-5 e HeLa, maior sensibilidade porque revelou a presença de efeito citotóxico nas menores concentrações utilizadas (10 e 25 ug/ml) do ácido ascórbico e apresentou maior diâmetro do halo citotóxico em 15 amostras e igual diâmetro em 16 das 43 amostras (7,6%) que resultaram positivas. Nas 43 amostras positivas, a linhagem MRC-5 não revelou citotoxicidade em 3 amostras de espuma e 1 de resina acrílica. O polivinilcloreto (PVC) e o polietileno, raramente revelaram positividade, enquanto plástico, algodão e resinas acrílicas revelaram citotoxicidade ao redor de 5%. Em vista dos resultados é discutida a proposta da utilização da linhagem RC-IAL e HeLa para a continuidade das futuras análises solicitadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz Abstract in english The sensitivity of diploid and heteroploid cell lines for detection of cytotoxicity using the agar diffusion method on cell culture, was tested with ascorbic acid solution of different concentrations. A total of 562 samples of 21 various materials were tested. The heteroploid cell line, RC-IAL, show [...] ed in relation to the MRC-5 and HeLa cell lines, greater sensitivity because it showed the presence of cytotoxic effect with the lowest concentration used (10 and 25ug/ml) of ascorbic acid and showed greater diameter of cytotoxic halo in 15 samples and equal diameter in 16 of the 43 positive samples (7.6%). Out of 43 positive samples, the MRC-5 line did not show cytotoxicity in 3 sponge samples and 1 of acrylic resin. The PVC (polyvinylchloride) and polyethylene rarely showed positivity, while, the plastic, cotton and acrylic resin demonstrated cytotoxicity in about 5% of samples. We thus suggest the use of the RC-IAL and HeLa cell lines for continuation of this type of analysis at Adolfo Lutz Institute

  19. Resveratrol analogue (E)-8-acetoxy-2-[2-(3,4-diacetoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-quinazoline induces G2/M cell cycle arrest through the activation of ATM/ATR in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Lee, Hwi-Ho; Shin, Ji-Sun; Shin, Dong-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Lee, Yong Sup; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2015-05-01

    Styrylquinazolines are synthetic analogues of resveratrol and have been suggested to cause anti-inflammatory activity by modulating prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of various styrylquinazoline derivatives and found that (E)-8-acetoxy-2-[2-(3,4-diacetoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-quinazoline (8-ADEQ) most potently inhibited the proliferation of the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Exploring the growth-inhibitory mechanisms of 8-ADEQ, we found that it causes a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase by DNA flow cytometric analysis, which was accompanied by upregulation of cyclin B1 expression and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (Cdk1) phosphorylation. In addition, we observed that 8-ADEQ causes phosphorylation of the cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) protein through the activation of checkpoint kinases 1 (Chk1) and Chk2, which in turn were activated via ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related (ATR) kinases in response to the DNA damage. Furthermore, ATM/ATR inhibitor caffeine, p53- or ATM/ATR-specific siRNA significantly attenuated 8-ADEQ-induced G2/M arrest. These results suggest that the 8-ADEQ inhibits the proliferation of human cervical cancer HeLa cells by DNA damage-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest. 8-ADEQ?induced G2/M arrest is mediated by the activation of both Chk1/2-Cdc25 and p53-p21CIP1/WAF1 via ATM/ATR pathway, and indicates that 8-ADEQ appears to have potential in the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25812484

  20. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA by down-regulation of deoxyguanosine kinase expression in non-proliferating HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purine deoxyribonucleotides required for mitochondrial DNA replication are either imported from the cytosol or derived from phosphorylation of deoxyadenosine or deoxyguanosine catalyzed by mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase (DGUOK). DGUOK deficiency has been linked to mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes suggesting an important role for this enzyme in dNTP supply. We have generated HeLa cell lines with 20-30% decreased levels of DGUOK mRNA by the expression of small interfering RNAs directed towards the DGUOK mRNA. The cells with decreased expression of the enzyme showed similar levels of mtDNA as control cells when grown exponentially in culture. However, mtDNA levels rapidly decreased in the cells when cell cycle arrest was induced by serum starvation. DNA incorporation of 9-?-D-arabino-furanosylguanine (araG) was lower in the cells with decreased deoxyguanosine kinase expression, but the total rate of araG phosphorylation was increased in the cells. The increase in araG phosphorylation was shown to be due to increased expression of deoxycytidine kinase. In summary, our findings show that DGUOK is required for mitochondrial DNA replication in resting cells and that small changes in expression of this enzyme may cause mitochondrial DNA depletion. Our data also suggest that alterations in the expression level of DGUOK may induce compensatory changes in the expression of other nucleoside kinases

  1. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  2. Specific proteins synthesized during the viral lytic cycle in vaccinia virus-infected HeLa cells: analysis by high-resolution, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, L.; Bravo, R.

    1986-01-01

    The proteins synthesized in vaccinia-infected HeLa cells have been analyzed at different times after infection by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Vaccinia-infected cells present up to 198 polypeptides (138 acidic, isoelectric focusing; 60 basic, nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) not detected in control cells. Cells infected in the presence of cycloheximide show 81 additional polypeptides after cycloheximide removal, resulting in a total estimate of 279 proteins induced af...

  3. Formation of products of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine type by ultraviolet light in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of products of the 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine-type (t/sup UV/) and cyclobutane-type pyrimidine photodimers (TT) and tritiated water (3H2O) by monochromatic light at 240, 265, 280, and 313 nm (6-nm half-band-width) was investigated in HeLa S-3 cells which were labeled in their DNA with [methyl-3H]thymine. The efficiency of the formation of all three products was maximal at 280 nm and dropped towards longer and shorter wavelengths. The efficiency of TT formation dropped more strongly towards longer and shorter wavelengths than the efficiency of t/sup UV/ formation (comparison at a dose of 5 x 103 J m-2). Total monomeric thymine ring saturation (t/sub sat/) was estimated from the t/sup UV/ data. It was calculated that 0.06 t/sub sat/ was formed for each TT at 280 nm, but 0.73 t/sub sat/ per TT at 313 nm. It follows that monomeric thymine ring saturation represents a minor photochemical reaction relative to pyrimidine dimerization in the far-ultraviolet but a major reaction in the near-ultraviolet. The formation of 3H2O by ultraviolet light from [methyl-3H] thymidine-labeled HeLa cells most likely indicates the attack of hydroxyl radicals on the cellular DNA; 5-methyleneuracil radicals formed as a consequence of the reaction may be important intermediates in ultraviolet-induced DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-linking

  4. Effect of Ureaplasma parvum co-incubation on Chlamydia trachomatis maturation in human epithelial HeLa cells treated with interferon-?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Junji; Nakamura, Shinji; Oguri, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a sexually transmitted disease. Ureaplasma parvum is commensal in the human genital tract, with a minimal contribution to urogenital infection. We have recently found that U. parvum has a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women. We therefore assessed the effect of U. parvum co-incubation on C. trachomatis maturation from reticulate bodies (RBs) to elementary bodies (EBs) in HeLa cells in the absence or presence of interferon (IFN)-?, which is a critical host defense factor. IFN-? stimulation of viable U. parvum significantly prompted chlamydial growth with an increase in infectious particles, EBs, in HeLa cells. IFN-? treatment of killed U. parvum had a similar effect on C. trachomatis maturation in HeLa cells. There was no change in expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cultures of viable or killed U. parvum. We concluded that U. parvum co-incubation by IFN-? helped C. trachomatis to mature from RBs to EBs in HeLa cells, independent of IDO expression. This suggests a novel survival strategy of C. trachomatis against IFN-? exposure, prompting secondary infection of the genital mucosa, with possible clinical implications. PMID:24855914

  5. Ginsenoside?Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Li-Dan; He, Tao; Du, Ting-Wei; Fan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Dian-Sen; Wang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside?Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside?Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA?damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT?3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside?Rg5 using a 3?(4,5?dimethylthiazol?2?yl)?2,5?diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside?Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of ?H2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside?Rg5 treatment compared with the C?33A, HT?3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside?Rg5 induced significant concentration? and time?dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside?Rg5 induced significant concentration?dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of ?H2AX?positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside?Rg5 caused DNA double?strands to break in a concentration?dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside?Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25355274

  6. RGDS-functionalized polyethylene glycol hydrogel-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles enhance specific intracellular uptake by HeLa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazli C

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Caner Nazli1, Tugba Ipek Ergenc2, Yasemin Yar1, Havva Yagci Acar1,3, Seda Kizilel1,21Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Koç University, 2Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Koç University, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Koç University, Istanbul, TurkeyAbstract: The objective of this study was to develop thin, biocompatible, and biofunctional hydrogel-coated small-sized nanoparticles that exhibit favorable stability, viability, and specific cellular uptake. This article reports the coating of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MIONPs with covalently cross-linked biofunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG hydrogel. Silanized MIONPs were derivatized with eosin Y, and the covalently cross-linked biofunctional PEG hydrogel coating was achieved via surface-initiated photopolymerization of PEG diacrylate in aqueous solution. The thickness of the PEG hydrogel coating, between 23 and 126 nm, was tuned with laser exposure time. PEG hydrogel-coated MIONPs were further functionalized with the fibronectin-derived arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (RGDS sequence, in order to achieve a biofunctional PEG hydrogel layer around the nanoparticles. RGDS-bound PEG hydrogel-coated MIONPs showed a 17-fold higher uptake by the human cervical cancer HeLa cell line than that of amine-coated MIONPs. This novel method allows for the coating of MIONPs with nano-thin biofunctional hydrogel layers that may prevent undesirable cell and protein adhesion and may allow for cellular uptake in target tissues in a specific manner. These findings indicate that the further biofunctional PEG hydrogel coating of MIONPs is a promising platform for enhanced specific cell targeting in biomedical imaging and cancer therapy.Keywords: PEG hydrogel, surface-initiated photopolymerization, nanoparticle encapsulation, agglomeration

  7. Celecoxib's radiosensitizing effects on three different human cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitivity enhancement of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitor, on three human cancer cell lines in vitro (the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549, the human cervical carcinoma cell lines HeLa and the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE). Methods: The subtoxic doses of celecoxib were chosen to do the radiosensitive experiment to A549 cells, HeLa cells and CNE cells. The three cells were divided into four groups: (1) the control (C); (2) the drug only (D); (3) the radiation only(R); (4) the radiation and drug (R + D). Celecoxib's radiosensitization on the three kinds of cells was measured by clongenic assay. Results: Celecoxib showed radiosensitizing effect on the three kinds of cells. The values of D0, Dq, SF2 and D0.01 of group R + D were significantly decreased in the group R. After A549 cell lines, HeLa cell lines, CNE cell lines were exposed to 30 ?mol/L celecoxib, SERD0 and SERDq were 1.26 and 1.34, 1.25 and 1.33, 1.24 and 1.32; respectively, in the group in which 50 ?mol/L celecoxib was used combined with radiation were 1.74 and 1.84, 1.36 and 1.47, 1.33 and 1.61. Conclusion: The subtoxic doses of celecoxib can enhance a concentration-dependent radiosensitivity of A549 cells, HeLa cells and CNE cells in vitro. Celecoxib may be widespread clinical used as a radiosensitizer. (authors)

  8. Multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of vaccinia H1-related (VHR) phosphatase decrease proliferation of cervix cancer cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shuangding; Vossius, Sofie; Rahmouni, Souad; Miletic, Ana V.; Vang, Torkel; Vazquez-rodriguez, Jesus; Cerignoli, Fabio; Arimura, Yutaka; Williams, Scott; Hayes, Tikva; Moutschen, Michel; Vasile, Stefan; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Mustelin, Tomas; Tautz, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Loss of VHR phosphatase causes cell cycle arrest in HeLa carcinoma cells, suggesting that VHR inhibition may be a useful approach to halt the growth of cancer cells. We recently reported that VHR is upregulated in several cervix cancer cell lines as well as in carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Here we report the development of multidentate small-molecule inhibitors of VHR that inhibit its enzymatic activity at nanomolar concentrations and exhibit antiproliferative effects on cervix cancer cel...

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Alters Iron-Regulatory Protein-1 Binding Capacity and Modulates Cellular Iron Homeostasis in HeLa-229 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vardhan, Harsh; Bhengraj, Apurb R.; Jha, Rajneesh; Singh Mittal, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the leading cause of diseases related to reproductive health and iron plays important role in chlamydial pathogenesis. Iron homeostasis in chlamydia-infected cells is not clear thus far. This study shows that expression of the transferrin receptor (TfR) is downregulated, whereas expression of the ferritin heavy chain is upregulated in CT-infected HeLa-229 cells. Expression of iron-regulatory protein (IRP)-1 predominates over IRP-2 in infected cells. In infected c...

  10. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon R. Pine; Blair Marshall; Lyuba Varticovski

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation p...

  11. Silencing cytokeratin 18 gene inhibits intracellular replication of Trypanosoma cruzi in HeLa cells but not binding and invasion of trypanosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Mello Samanta M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an obligatory intracellular parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, must invade and multiply within mammalian cells. Cytokeratin 18 (CK18 is among the host molecules that have been suggested as a mediator of important events during T. cruzi-host cell interaction. Based on that possibility, we addressed whether RNA interference (RNAi-mediated down regulation of the CK18 gene could interfere with the parasite life cycle in vitro. HeLa cells transiently transfected with CK18-RNAi had negligible levels of CK18 transcripts, and significantly reduced levels of CK18 protein expression as determined by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. Results CK18 negative or positive HeLa cells were invaded equally as well by trypomastigotes of different T. cruzi strains. Also, in CK18 negative or positive cells, parasites recruited host cells lysosomes and escaped from the parasitophorous vacuole equally as well. After that, the growth of amastigotes of the Y or CL-Brener strains, was drastically arrested in CK18 RNAi-treated cells. After 48 hours, the number of amastigotes was several times lower in CK18 RNAi-treated cells when compared to control cells. Simultaneous staining of parasites and CK18 showed that in HeLa cells infected with the Y strain both co-localize. Although the amastigote surface protein-2 contains the domain VTVXNVFLYNR previously described to bind to CK18, in several attempts, we failed to detect binding of a recombinant protein to CK-18. Conclusion The study demonstrates that silencing CK18 by transient RNAi, inhibits intracellular multiplication of the Y and CL strain of T. cruzi in HeLa cells, but not trypanosome binding and invasion.

  12. Breast cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    MatthewJNaylor

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to t...

  13. MODULATION OF SOME MEMBRANARY AND METABOLIC PROCESSES OF HeLa TUMORAL CELLS BY ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS OF LOW FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen Rotinberg; Vlad Artenie; Ion Neacsu; Elena Truta; Cosmin Mihai; Pincu Rotinberg

    2007-01-01

    The present paper represents the result of a study on the HeLa neoplastic cells’ membranary and metabolic reactivity to the action of non-ionizing electromagnetic field of continuous or discontinuous type. The in vitro shortlasting electromagnetic field exposure of the human tumoral cells has induced a significant modulation of the membrane Na + -K + -ATP-ase activity, comparatively with the control level. The same electromagnetic treatment has also conditioned an alteration of the control ...

  14. Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Wang, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as the unique subpopulation in the tumors that possess the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal as well as metastatic potential. Accumulating evidence in recent years strongly indicate the existence of cancer stem cells in solid tumors of a wide variety of organs. In this review, we will discuss the possible existence of a gastric cancer stem cell. Our recent data suggest that a subpopulation with a defined marker shows spheroid colony format...

  15. Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Velázquez, Marco A; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Richard G. Pestell

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24?/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy,...

  16. Phytate decreases oxidative damage caused by labile forms of iron in solution, blood plasma and in HeLa cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frederico A., Schleh; Orlando, Chiarelli-Neto; Mayara N., Fontes; Renato, Najjar; Breno P., Espósito.

    1036-10-01

    Full Text Available Fitato (PHYT, mio-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisfosfato) é um produto natural com forte efeito sobre a biodisponibilidade de minerais, especialmente o ferro. Neste trabalho, investigamos os efeitos antioxidantes do PHYT em modelos de transtornos de sobrecarga de ferro (ferro lábil plasmático e reserva [...] tório de ferro lábil). PHYT apresentou um efeito antioxidante considerável, com a vantagem de ser permeável às células e ser um constituinte normal da dieta humana. Nossos resultados sugerem que o PHYT pode auxiliar as defesas do organismo contra estresse induzido por sobrecarga de ferro. Abstract in english Phytate (PHYT, myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) is a natural product with strong effect on the bioavailability of minerals, especially iron. In this work, we investigated the antioxidant effects of PHYT on models of iron overload disorders (labile plasma iron and labile iron pool) both in [...] solution and in HeLa cells. PHYT has a considerable antioxidant effect, with the benefit of being cell permeant and a normal constituent of human diet. Our results suggest that PHYT may assist organism defenses against iron-overload stress.

  17. pEgr-sTRAIL transfer in combination with 60Co ? ray irradiation to induce the apoptosis on HeLa cells and activation of Caspase-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to approach the radiosensitivity of TRAIL expression controlled by Egr-1 promotor, the recombinant vector pEgr-sTRAIL was tranfected into HeLa cells, the early apoptosis and Caspase-3 activity were detected after different doses of 60Co ?-ray irradiation. The results showed that pEgr-sTRAIL transfected in combination with ?-ray irradiation could significantly induce the apoptosis of HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. The higher activity of Capase-3 was also found in pEgr-sTRAIL irradiated group by using western blotting and spectrophotometry. Our result demonstrated that the activity of Caspase-3, as the apoptosis executor, play an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis and the enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in transfected cells after irradiation can be controlled by radio-sensitive promoter Egr-1. (authors)

  18. Assay of anti-cancer drug sensitivity of cells from human tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of cells to incorporate labeled nucleic acid precursors into acid precipitable material was assessed. Hela-S3 cells were employed to avoid inherited variability and heterogenity of primary cultures of human tumors. Labeled nucleic acid precursors were used to detect the viability of cells. A logarithm of counts per minute of incorporated labeled precursors is in proportion to a logarithm of viable cell numbers. Multiplate was used to provide large numbers of replicate cultures. Monolayer Hela-S3 cells which were seeded 24 hours earlier were incubated for three hours with various concentrations of drugs. After removal of drugs, cells were cultured for one week. In this period, Hela-S3 cells with no drug treatment became almost confluent and mitoses occurred about four times. Labeled precursors were incubated for three hours, and incorporated 3H-thymidine was counted. A standard curve of incorporated labeled precursor counts and viable cell numbers was drawn for every assay. The density inhibition of labeled nucleic acid precursor incorporation can be checked and corrected with the standard curve, and viable cell numbers after drug exposure can be obtained from the standard curve. When percent survival is plotted against drug concentration, a sigmoid curve is obtained if the drug has dose dependent effect and then the 90% lethal dose (LD90) can be determined from the curve. LD90 was used as the index of anti-cancer LD90 was used as the index of anti-cancer drug sensitivity. If the drug has time dependent effect, percent survival of maximal inhibition was used as the index of drug sensitivity. (J.P.N.)

  19. Hsp105 family proteins suppress staurosporine-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsp105 (Hsp105? and Hsp105?), major heat shock proteins in mammalian cells, belong to a subgroup of the HSP70 family, HSP105/110. Previously, we have shown that Hsp105? has completely different effects on stress-induced apoptosis depending on cell type. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp105? regulates stress-induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we established HeLa cells that overexpress either Hsp105? or Hsp105? by removing doxycycline and examined how Hsp105 modifies staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptotic features such as the externalization of phosphatidylserine on the plasma membrane and nuclear morphological changes were induced by the treatment with STS, and the STS-induced apoptosis was suppressed by overexpression of Hsp105? or Hsp105?. In addition, we found that overexpression of Hsp105? or Hsp105? suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by preventing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which results in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, was also suppressed by the overexpression of Hsp105? or Hsp105?. Thus, it is suggested that Hsp105 suppresses the stress-induced apoptosis at its initial step, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

  20. A nucleic-acid hydrolyzing single chain antibody confers resistance to DNA virus infection in hela cells and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gunsup; Yu, Jaelim; Cho, Seungchan; Byun, Sung-June; Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Kwon, Myung-Hee; Lee, Sukchan

    2014-06-01

    Viral protein neutralizing antibodies have been developed but they are limited only to the targeted virus and are often susceptible to antigenic drift. Here, we present an alternative strategy for creating virus-resistant cells and animals by ectopic expression of a nucleic acid hydrolyzing catalytic 3D8 single chain variable fragment (scFv), which has both DNase and RNase activities. HeLa cells (SCH07072) [corrected] expressing 3D8 scFv acquired significant resistance to DNA viruses. Virus challenging with Herpes simplex virus (HSV) in 3D8 scFv transgenic cells and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay based on direct DNA cleavage analysis revealed that the induced resistance in HeLa cells was acquired by the nucleic acid hydrolyzing catalytic activity of 3D8 scFv. In addition, pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in WT C57BL/6 mice was lethal, whereas transgenic mice (STG90) that expressed high levels of 3D8 scFv mRNA in liver, muscle, and brain showed a 56% survival rate 5 days after PRV intramuscular infection. The antiviral effects against DNA viruses conferred by 3D8 scFv expression in HeLa cells as well as an in vivo mouse system can be attributed to the nuclease activity that inhibits viral genome DNA replication in the nucleus and/or viral mRNA translation in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrate that the nucleic-acid hydrolyzing activity of 3D8 scFv confers viral resistance to DNA viruses in vitro in HeLa cells and in an in vivo mouse system. PMID:24968358

  1. Synchronization of HeLa cell cultures by inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha with aphidicolin.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrali-Noy, G.; Spadari, S; Miller-Faurès, A; Miller, A O; Kruppa, J; Koch, G.

    1980-01-01

    Both the inhibitory effect of aphidicolin on the replicative alpha-polymerase and the reversibility of its action in vivo (Pedrali-Noy & Spadari, 1979, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88, 1194-2002) allow the synchronization of cells in culture. Aphidicolin prevents G1 cells from entering the DNA synthetic period, blocks cells in "S" phase, allows G2, M and G1 cells to continue the cell cycle and to accumulate at the G1/S border. Aphidicolin is a more useful reagent than hydroxyurea and thymid...

  2. Enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious progeny by cultivation of HeLa 229 cells treated with DEAE-dextran and cycloheximide.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabet, S F; Simmons, J; Caldwell, H D

    1984-01-01

    The effects of DEAE-dextran and cycloheximide on the infection of HeLa 229 cells with Chlamydia trachomatis serotype G were studied in terms of the number of cells infected and the yield of infectious progeny per infected cell. Pretreatment of the host cells with DEAE-dextran resulted in an increase in the number of infected cels but had no significant effect on the yield of infectious progeny per infected cell (burst size). In contrast, the addition of cycloheximide to the medium of infected...

  3. Loss of Protein Kinase PKR Expression in Human HeLa Cells Complements the Vaccinia Virus E3L Deletion Mutant Phenotype by Restoration of Viral Protein Synthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Samuel, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    The E3L proteins encoded by vaccinia virus bind double-stranded RNA and mediate interferon resistance, promote virus growth, and impair virus-mediated apoptosis. Among the cellular proteins implicated as targets of E3L is the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR). To test in human cells the role of PKR in conferring the E3L mutant phenotype, HeLa cells stably deficient in PKR generated by an RNA interference-silencing strategy were compared to parental and control knockdown cells following infection with either an E3L deletion mutant (?E3L) or wild-type (WT) virus. The growth yields of WT virus were comparable in PKR-sufficient and -deficient cells. By contrast, the single-cycle yield of ?E3L virus was increased by nearly 2 log10 in PKR-deficient cells over the impaired growth in PKR-sufficient cells. Furthermore, virus-induced apoptosis characteristic of the ?E3L mutant in PKR-sufficient cells was effectively abolished in PKR-deficient HeLa cells. The viral protein synthesis pattern was altered in ?E3L-infected PKR-sufficient cells, characterized by an inhibition of late viral protein expression, whereas in PKR-deficient cells, late protein accumulation was restored. Phosphorylation of both PKR and the ? subunit of protein synthesis initiation factor 2 (eIF-2?) was elevated severalfold in ?E3L-infected PKR-sufficient, but not PKR-deficient, cells. WT virus did not significantly increase PKR or eIF-2? phosphorylation in either PKR-sufficient or -deficient cells, both of which supported efficient WT viral protein production. Finally, apoptosis induced by infection of PKR-sufficient HeLa cells with ?E3L virus was blocked by a caspase antagonist, but mutant virus growth was not rescued, suggesting that translation inhibition rather than apoptosis activation is a principal factor limiting virus growth. PMID:17959656

  4. Mechanism of derivation of radioresistance in HeLa cell population after repeated x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioresistant strain (X-8-5) was obtained from HeLa-SC population X-irradiated repeatedly for five times with 800 rad. The mean lethal dose (D0) was 196 rad for X-8-5 cells, while it was 166 rad for control HeLa-SC cells. The fraction of cells containing an unusually long acrocentric chromosome (LA 2) exclusively increased with increasing number of irradiation of HeLa-SC population. A clonal strain with LA 2 marker was isolated from X-8-5 population and named RC-355. Since the RC-355 cells were more resistant (D0 = 220 rad)than parental X-8-5 cells (D0 = 196 rad), it was suggested that the cells with LA 2 were responsible for the radioresistance of X-8-5 population. The RC-355 cells were further subjected to the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes and it was observed that 18 types of specific markers (rm 1-17 and LA 2) were included in RC-355 cells in addition to 12 types of markers observed in most of HeLa-SC cells. Since the analysis of Q-banded karyotypes of RC-355 cells showed that RC-355 specific markers were not produced by radiation-induced rearrangements of HeLa-SC chromosomes, because twelve kinds of HeLa-SC markers were presented in RC-355 cells without any change, it was concluded that a small number of cells with LA 2 marker were originally presented in the control population and the relative fraction of them occupied increased after irradiation. (author)

  5. Prostate cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, SH; Frame, FM; Collins, AT

    2009-01-01

    Despite the discovery over 60 years ago by Huggins and Hodges 1 that prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation therapy, hormone-refractory prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. There is now mounting evidence that solid tumours originate from undifferentiated stem cell-like cells coexisting within a heterogeneous tumour mass that drive tumour formation, maintain tumour homeostasis and initiate metastases. This review focuses upon current evidence for prostate cancer stem c...

  6. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Potentials of Ganoderma lucidum and Curculigo pilosa on Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Line, HeLa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ayorinde Babatunde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many African natural products have been hypothesized to have phytochemicals that makes them effective anti-tumour agents. This research study looks at two out of the numerous hypothesized medicinal plants-Curculigo pilosa and Ganoderma lucidum. Caspase-3, Neutral red and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out on HeLa cell lines cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM in (95% O2 + 5% CO2 at 35°C. The apoptotic, cytotoxic capacities and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out on the medicinal plants. Both plant samples were extracted in both organic (mixture of ethanol and ethylacetate in the ratio 50:50 and aqueous solution (mixture of methanol and distilled water in the ratio 70:30. It was observed that both plant samples had apoptotic effects but below 50% of comparative levels with the exception of the aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum which could pass as an antitumour agent (showing apoptotic effect above 50%. Conclusively, the aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum proves to be suitable for the development of an antitumour agent as shown by its apoptotic effect reported in this study.

  7. The effect of 15 MeV electrons at different irradiation depth on the growth of HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of fast electrons at relative depth doses of 100% and 30% with energy doses of 100 to 400 rad and a dose rate of 200 rad/min on HeLa cells was analyzed. For the evaluation of the irradiation effect, the cell count of irradiated cultures compared with the cell count of not irradiated cultures 16 d after irradiation. The determination of the cell numbers and thus the determination of the counting multiplication rate of the cells was done by isolated cell nuclei with a counter tube and a counter chamber. Irradiation of the cells took place in the plateau phase of the growth curve. After irradiation with a relative depth dose of 100% as well as of 30%, a decrease of the cell number of the cultures can be observed on the 16th day. After irradiation with 200 rad in 100%-depth a survival rate of 72% is found and in 30% depth a survival rate of 60%. At 300 rad the values are 44% for 100% depth, and 30% for 30% depth. For 400 rad the survival rate is 11% at 100% depth and 5% at 30% depth. On the basis of the above-mentioned values the survival rate after irradiation with 30% relative depth dose at the energy doses 200, 300 and 400 rad is increasingly less in comparison with the irradiation with 100% relative depth dose. In the range of 200 to 400 the RBW of the 100% depth in comparison with the 30% depth is constant with a value of 0.88 +- 0.03. The determination of the cell count of a culture by counting isolated nuclei, which is a new method of assessing an irradiich is a new method of assessing an irradiation effect is discussed. The significance of this new criterion is compared with the known method of colony counting. The results are compared with results of other works using method of colony counting, and are discussed. (orig./MG)

  8. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Potentials of Ganoderma lucidum and Curculigo pilosa on Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma Cell Line, HeLa

    OpenAIRE

    James Ayorinde Babatunde; Odesanmi O. Selina; Samuel Titilola Aderonke; Tafida Mundi; Olubunmi A. Magbagbeola

    2013-01-01

    Many African natural products have been hypothesized to have phytochemicals that makes them effective anti-tumour agents. This research study looks at two out of the numerous hypothesized medicinal plants-Curculigo pilosa and Ganoderma lucidum. Caspase-3, Neutral red and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out on HeLa cell lines cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) in (95% O2 + 5% CO2) at 35°C. The apoptotic, cytotoxic capacities and DNA fragmentation assays were carried ...

  9. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on Cultured HeLa Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shaival Kamalaksha Rao; Ganesh Chandra Jagetia

    2006-01-01

    Extracts of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) have been shown to possess anti-tumor properties, but the mechanism of the anti-tumor function of TCE is poorly understood. This investigation elucidates the possible mechanism underlying the cytotoxic effects of dichlormethane extracts of TCE, after selecting optimal duration and concentration for treatment. HeLa cells were exposed to various concentrations of TCE, which has resulted in a concentration-dependent decline in the clonogenicity, glutathione...

  10. The Dynamin Chemical Inhibitor Dynasore Impairs Cholesterol Trafficking and Sterol-Sensitive Genes Transcription in Human HeLa Cells and Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Girard, Emmanuelle; Paul, Jean Louis; Fournier, Natalie; Beaune, Philippe; Johannes, Ludger; Lamaze, Christophe; Ve?die, Benoi?t

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular transport of cholesterol contributes to the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis by mechanisms that are yet poorly defined. In this study, we characterized the impact of dynasore, a recently described drug that specifically inhibits the enzymatic activity of dynamin, a GTPase regulating receptor endocytosis and cholesterol trafficking. Dynasore strongly inhibited the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in HeLa cells, and to a lower extent in human macrophages. In b...

  11. Adherence to HeLa cells, typing by killer toxins and susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida dubliniensis strains Adesão a células HeLa, tipagem pelas toxinas "killer" e sensibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismari Miranda da Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence capability to HeLa cells, the susceptibility to killer toxins and the in vitro susceptibility to antifungal agents (eTest? method - AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden of 9 Candida dubliniensis isolates recovered from HIV+ and AIDS patients. The adherence test was strongly positive for strain ATCC 777 and positive for all other strains. Typing by killer toxins revealed two different biotypes among the 9 isolates studied: 888 and 688. Only biotype 688 (ATCC 777 was susceptible to the K2 toxin. There was a significant inverse correlation between adherence and killer toxin susceptibility (r = -0.8525 - p = 0.0035. No strains presented resistance to fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole, flucytosine or amphotericin-B. With the exception of ATCC 777, all the other isolates presented similar behavior.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de cepas de Candida dubliniensis recuperadas de pacientes HIV+ e com AIDS por meio da pesquisa de capacidade de adesão a células HeLa, susceptibilidade a toxinas "Killer" e resistência in vitro a antifúngicos (eTest® AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia. O ensaio de adesão foi fortemente aderente para a amostra padrão ATCC 777, e aderente para os demais isolados. Os testes de tipagem das amostras frente às cepas-padr??o produtoras de toxinas "Killer" mostraram dois biótipos diferentes dos 9 isolados estudados: 888 e 688. Somente o biótipo 688 (ATCC 777 de C. dubliniensis foi sensível à toxina K2. Houve correlação inversa significativa entre adesão e sensibilidade a toxinas "killer" (r = -0,8525 - p = 0,0035. Em relação à pesquisa de resistência a antifúngicos, as amostras de C. dubliniensis foram sensíveis ao fluconazol, itraconazol, cetoconazol, voriconazol, à flucitosina e anfotericina B. Com exceção da amostra ATCC 777, todas as demais mostraram comportamento similar.

  12. Estrogenic Activity of Coumestrol, DDT, and TCDD in Human Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Ndebele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous estrogens have dramatic and differential effects on classical endocrine organ and proliferation. Xenoestrogens are environmental estrogens that have endocrine impact, acting as both estrogen agonists and antagonists, but whose effects are not well characterized. In this investigation we sought to delineate effects of xenoestrogens. Using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells as a model, the effects of representative xenoestrogens (Coumestrol-a phytoestrogen, tetrachlorodioxin (TCDD-a herbicide and DDT-a pesticide on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were examined. These xenoestrogens and estrogen inhibited the proliferation of Hela cells in a dose dependent manner from 20 to 120 nM suggesting, that 17-?-estrtadiol and xenoestrogens induced cytotoxic effects. Coumestrol produced accumulation of HeLa cells in G2/M phase, and subsequently induced apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in estrogen treated cells. These changes were associated with suppressed bcl-2 protein and augmented Cyclins A and D proteins. DDT and TCDD exposure did not induce apoptosis. These preliminary data taken together, suggest that xenoestrogens have direct, compound-specific effects on HeLa cells. This study further enhances our understanding of environmental modulation of cervical cancer.

  13. Targeting cyclin B1 inhibits proliferation and sensitizes breast cancer cells to taxol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebhardt Klaus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin B1, the regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1, is essential for the transition from G2 phase to mitosis. Cyclin B1 is very often found to be overexpressed in primary breast and cervical cancer cells as well as in cancer cell lines. Its expression is correlated with the malignancy of gynecological cancers. Methods In order to explore cyclin B1 as a potential target for gynecological cancer therapy, we studied the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA on different gynecological cancer cell lines by monitoring their proliferation rate, cell cycle profile, protein expression and activity, apoptosis induction and colony formation. Tumor formation in vivo was examined using mouse xenograft models. Results Downregulation of cyclin B1 inhibited proliferation of several breast and cervical cancer cell lines including MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231 and HeLa. After combining cyclin B1 siRNA with taxol, we observed an increased apoptotic rate accompanied by an enhanced antiproliferative effect in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, control HeLa cells were progressively growing, whereas the tumor growth of HeLa cells pre-treated with cyclin B1 siRNA was strongly inhibited in nude mice, indicating that cyclin B1 is indispensable for tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion Our data support the notion of cyclin B1 being essential for survival and proliferation of gynecological cancer cells. Concordantly, knockdown of cyclin B1 inhibits proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, targeting cyclin B1 sensitizes breast cancer cells to taxol, suggesting that specific cyclin B1 targeting is an attractive strategy for the combination with conventionally used agents in gynecological cancer therapy.

  14. Instant Response of Live HeLa Cells to Static Magnetic Field and Its Magnetic Adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Raja, Sufi O

    2014-01-01

    We report Static Magnetic Field (SMF) induced altered sub-cellular streaming, which retains even after withdrawal of the field. The observation is statistically validated by differential fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) studies in presence and absence of SMF, recovery rate being higher in presence of SMF. This instant magneto-sensing by live cells can be explained by inherent diamagnetic susceptibility of cells and alternatively by spin recombination, e.g., by the radical pair mechanism. These arguments are however insufficient to explain the retention of the SMF effect even after field withdrawal. Typically, a relaxation time scale at least of the order of minutes is observed. This long duration of the SMF effect can be explained postulating a field induced coherence that is followed by decoherence after the field withdrawal. A related observation is the emergence of enhanced magnetic susceptibility of cells after magnetic pre-incubation. This implies onset of a new spin equilibrium state a...

  15. Effects of combined X-radiation and UV-radiation on HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combined X-ray-UV irradiation was performed in nonsynchronized HeLa-cells. A pre-irradiation with UV-light, that reduced the survival rate to 42% and the following X-ray radiation yielded a similar dose-effect characteristic as with ordinary X-ray irradiation, only its shoulder was smaller. An additive radiation interaction with the cellular molecular structure was observed. A pre-irradiation with X-rays followed by step-wise UV-irradiation yielded a function similar to the UV-action curve but also with a narrower shoulder. A additive effect could be observed. One can conclude from this that in combined irradiation two interacting processes cause the death of the cells. The gene mutations caused by UV-light lead to cell death. X-rays however cause chromosome breaks, that in an unfavourable combination also lead to cell death. The DNA distorsion caused by the UV-light increases the possibility of misrepair. (orig.)

  16. [Influence of the number of inoculated parasites on the in vitro infestation of HeLa cells by the coccidia Besnoitia jellisoni Frenkel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadak, A; Frontier, S; Porchet, E

    1986-01-01

    The influence of the number of bradyzoites of the Coccidia Besnoitia inoculated in the culture medium of HeLa cells on their penetration rate was investigated. The intracellular penetration rate increased with the "size of inoculum", then seemed constant when a certain density is reached. Important densities of bradyzoites in the inoculum led to an unequal distribution of intracellular parasites among the cellular sheet. Multiple infective units in a same host cell did not occur randomly. It seems that some cells are more suitable than others to parasite invasion. PMID:3101572

  17. Transporter Molecules influence the Gene Expression in HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Waldeck, Ruediger Pipkorn, Bernhard Korn, Gabriele Mueller, Matthias Schick, Katalin Tóth, Manfred Wiessler, Bernd Didinger, Klaus Braun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Progresses in biology and pharmacology led to highly specific bioactive substances, but their poor bioavailability at the site of action is a result of their physico-chemical properties. Various design approaches for transport carrier molecules facilitating the cellular entry of bioactive substances could help to reach their molecular target in cells and tissues. The transfer efficacy and the subsequent pharmacological effects of the cargo molecules are well investigated, but the investigations of effects of the carrier molecules themselves on the target cells or tissues remain necessary. A special attention should be paid to the differential gene expression, particularly in the interpretation of the data achieved by highly specific active pharmaceutical products. After application of transmembrane transport peptides, particularly the pAnt and also the HIV-1 Tat, cells respond with a conspicuous altered gene expression of at least three genes. The PKN1 gene was induced and two genes (ZCD1 and BSG were slightly repressed. The genes and the chromosomes are described, the moderate differential gene expression graphed, and the ontology is listed.

  18. Photothermal therapy of cancer cells using novel hollow gold nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jing Han,1 Jinru Li,1 Wenfeng Jia,1 Liangming Yao,2 Xiaoqin Li,1 Long Jiang,1 Yong Tian21Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Noncoding RNA, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: This article presents a new strategy for fabricating large gold nanoflowers (AuNFs that exhibit high biological safety under visible light and very strong photothermal cytotoxicity to HeLa cells under irradiation with near-infrared (NIR light. This particular type of AuNF was constructed using vesicles produced from a multiamine head surfactant as a template followed by depositing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and growing their crystallites on the surface of vesicles. The localized surface plasmon-resonance spectrum of this type of AuNF can be easily modulated to the NIR region by controlling the size of the AuNFs. When the size of the AuNFs increased, biosafety under visible light improved and cytotoxicity increased under NIR irradiation. Experiments in vitro with HeLa cells and in vivo with small mice have been carried out, with promising results. The mechanism for this phenomenon is based on the hypothesis that it is difficult for larger AuNFs to enter the cell without NIR irradiation, but they enter the cell easily at the higher temperatures caused by NIR irradiation. We believe that these effects will exist in other types of noble metallic NPs and cancer cells. In addition, the affinity between AuNPs and functional biomolecules, such as aptamers and biomarkers, will make this type of AuNF a good recognition device in cancer diagnosis and therapy.Keywords: HeLa cells, endocytosis, cytotoxicity, AuNFs, NIR, cancer therapy

  19. Cell Biology and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health, has recently released this curriculum supplement as part of a series designed to "deepen students' awareness of the importance of basic research to advances in medicine and health," as well as foster critical thinking and an understanding of how scientific discoveries affect their own lives. The Web site offers five outstanding student activities (grades 9-12) regarding cancer and cell biology. Some of these activities have excellent multimedia features. For instance, the activity titled Cancer and the Cell Cycle presents cancer research findings as News Alert Videos from different historical eras, complete with actors in period costume. The Teacher's Guide is a wealth of cancer and cell biology information, resources, references, and more. It also includes detailed instructions on how to effectively implement the learning module. This is a great Web site even for the casual visitor not in the market for teaching material.

  20. Oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by TiO2 nanofibers in HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Kunga Mohan; Manjula, Chinnasamy

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly being used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The high aspect ratio of fibrous nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and TiO2 nanofibers (TiO2NFs), similar to the one used in this study makes them an attractive structural material and has attracted a lot of attention due to their possible negative health effects as suggested by their morphological similarities with asbestos. In the present study, therefore, toxicity of TiO2NFs was evaluated in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. The TEM and XRD analyses showed that TiO2NFs used in this study are pure with uniform diameter of around 200 nm, and their length to width aspect ratio ranged between 5 and 15. Exposure of HeLa cells to TiO2NFs induced significant cytotoxicity even at doses as low as 2 ?g/ml. The intracellular uptake of TiO2NFs in cells was shown by Alizarin Red S (ARS) labeled nanofibers. The mechanism of toxicity is mainly due to the induction of cellular oxidative stress, as revealed by elevated ROS levels, reduced antioxidant levels, and increased lipid peroxidation leading to apoptosis. The cell cycle analysis indicated G2/M cell cycle arrest in the cells exposed to TiO2NF. TiO2NFs treatment to HeLa cells resulted in increased expression of proapoptotic proteins Bax with an increase in cytosolic Cytochrome-C and inhibition of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Our results revealed the potential mechanism of cellular effects of TiO2NFs.

  1. Fast control of DNA replication in response to hypoxia and to inhibited protein synthesis in CCRF-CEM and HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, G; Riedinger, H J; Martin, P; Engelcke, M; Probst, H

    1999-12-01

    In order to elucidate whether data about the fast regulation of DNA replication in dependence on oxygen supply and on a functioning protein synthesis, previously elaborated with Ehrlich ascites cells, are valid for human cells too, we repeated key experiments with CCRF-CEM and HeLa cells. The most important techniques employed were DNA fibre autoradiography and alkaline sedimentation analyses of growing (pulse-labeled) daughter strand DNA. It was found that CCRF-CEM and HeLa cells responded to transient hypoxia and to transient inhibition of protein synthesis in an almost identical fashion. Scheduled replicon initiations were reversibly suppressed and the progress rates of replication forks, which were already active before the respective inhibitory conditions were established, were reversibly slowed down. The inclusion of the fork progress rate in the response differs from Ehrlich ascites cells, which respond only by suppressing initiation. Further circumstances of the fast oxygen dependent response, concerning the behaviour of ribonucleotide reductase and of the dNTP pools, revealed no significant differences among the three cell lines. The striking identity of the response of each of the cell lines to hypoxia and to inhibited protein synthesis prompts the suspicion that converging fast regulatory pathways act on the cellular replication machinery. The phenomena as such seem to be rather widespread among mammalian cells. PMID:10661864

  2. Cytotoxicity of Cyclodipeptides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Leads to Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rivera, Dolores; González, Omar; Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Bucio, José; Meza-Carmen, Víctor; Campos-García, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen of plants and animals, which produces virulence factors in order to infect or colonize its eukaryotic hosts. Cyclodipeptides (CDPs) produced by P. aeruginosa exhibit cytotoxic properties toward human tumor cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a CDP mix, comprised of cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Val), and cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) that were isolated from P. aeruginosa, on two human cancer cell lines. Our results demonstrated that the CDP mix promoted cell death in cultures of the HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma and Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.53 and 0.66?mg/mL, for HeLa and Caco-2 cells, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis, using annexin V and propidium iodide as apoptosis and necrosis indicators, respectively, clearly showed that HeLa and Caco-2 cells exhibited apoptotic characteristics when treated with the CDP mix at a concentration <0.001?mg/mL. IC50 values for apoptotic cells in HeLa and Caco-2 cells were 6.5?×?10?5 and 1.8?×?10?4?mg/mL, respectively. Our results indicate that an apoptotic pathway is involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation caused by the P. aeruginosa CDP mix. PMID:25821788

  3. DJ-1 mediates the resistance of cancer cells to dihydroartemisinin through reactive oxygen species removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Liao, Si-Da; Shi, Jia-Jie; Chang, Lin-Lin; Tong, Yun-Guang; Cao, Ji; Fu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Ying, Mei-Dan; Yang, Bo; He, Qiao-Jun; Lu, Jin-Jian

    2014-06-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), one of the main metabolites of artemisinin and its derivatives, presents anti-cancer potential in vitro and in vivo. To explore the mechanisms of resistance toward DHA, a DHA-resistant cell line, HeLa/DHA, was established with a resistance factor of 7.26 in vitro. Upon DHA treatment, apoptotic cells were significantly elicited in parental HeLa cells but minimally induced in HeLa/DHA cells. HeLa/DHA cells also displayed much less sensitivity to DHA-induced tumor suppression in cancer xenograft models than HeLa cells. Intriguingly, DHA-resistant cells did not display a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Based on a proteomic study employing LC-ESI-MS/MS together with pathway analysis, DJ-1 (PARK7) was found to be highly expressed in HeLa/DHA cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays confirmed the higher expression of DJ-1 in HeLa/DHA cells than in parental cells in both cell line and xenograft models. DJ-1 is translocated to the mitochondria of HeLa/DHA cells and oxidized, providing DJ-1 with stronger cytoprotection activity. Further study revealed that DJ-1 knockdown in HeLa/DHA cells abolished the observed resistance, whereas overexpression of DJ-1 endowed the parental HeLa cells with resistance toward DHA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also significantly induced by either DHA or hydrogen peroxide in HeLa cells but not in resistant HeLa/DHA cells. When the cells were pretreated with N-acetyl-l-cysteine, the effect of DJ-1 knockdown on sensitizing HeLa/DHA cells to DHA was significantly attenuated. In summary, our study suggests that overexpression and mitochondrial translocation of DJ-1 provides HeLa/DHA cells with resistance to DHA-induced ROS and apoptosis. PMID:24681255

  4. A modified computer-assisted colorimetric microtitre assay (MTT) to assess in vitro radiosensitivity of V79, CaSki, HeLa and WiDr cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eble, M.J.; Hensley, F.W.; Flentje, M.; Schlotz, A.; Wannnenmacher, M. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy)

    1994-02-01

    The non-clonogenic MTT assay, based on the reduction of a tetrazolium salt to a purple formazan precipitate by living cells, was modified and a new procedure of analysis proposed. X-ray survival curves were generated for V79, CaSki, WiDr and HeLa cells using the non-clonogenic and a standard clonogenic assay. The described assay is a feasible and reproducible technique for determination of cellular survival, which may be able to incorporate progression delay. The equivalence to a clonogenic survival assay could be proven. (author).

  5. Activation of a nonexpressed hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase allele in mutant H23 HeLa cells by agents that inhibit DNA methylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ivarie, R.; Morris, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    HeLA H23 cells are a mutant female human tumor cell line harboring defective hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT; IMP-pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8) as a result of a mutation that alters the isoelectric point of the enzyme (G. Milman, E. Lee, G. S. Changas, J. R. McLaughlin, and J. George, Jr., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:4589-4592, 1976). As shown by Milman et al. and confirmed by us here, rare HAT+ revertants arise spontaneously at 1.9 X 10(-8) frequency and...

  6. Spreading of HeLa cells on a collagen substratum requires a second messenger formed by the lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid released by collagen receptor clustering.

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, J S; Jacobson, B S

    1992-01-01

    HeLa cells attach to a variety of substrata but spread only on collagen or gelatin. Spreading is dependent on collagen-receptor upregulation, clustering, and binding to the cytoskeleton. This study examines whether second messengers are involved in initiating the spreading process on gelatin. The levels of cytosolic free calcium ([Ca++]i), cAMP, and cytoplasmic pH (pHi) do not change during cell attachment and spreading. However, a basal level of [Ca++]i and an alkaline pH(i) are required for...

  7. Accelerated onset of viral transcription in adenovirus-infected HeLa cells treated with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate.

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, T. H.; Milovanovic, Z. Z.; Babiss, L. E.; Fisher, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    When adenovirus type 5-infected HeLa cells were exposed to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, short pulse-labeling with [3H]uridine in vivo and [3H]UTP incorporation by isolated nuclei in vitro were both consistent with a decreased latent period before initiation by RNA polymerase at early viral promoters. Acceleration was not dependent upon concurrent protein synthesis and could not be attributed to rapid entry of virus into the cell nucleus. 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol...

  8. Heat shock protein 90 mediates the apoptosis and autophage in nicotinic-mycoepoxydiene-treated HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yifei; Xiao, Shuyan; Chen, Junjie; Wang, Miaomiao; Zheng, Zhonghui; Song, Siyang; Zhang, Lianru

    2015-06-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a fascinating target for cancer therapy due to its significant role in the crossroad of multiple signaling pathways associated with cell proliferation and regulation. Hsp90 inhibitors have the potential to be developed into anti-cancer drugs. Here, we identified nicotinic-mycoepoxydiene (NMD), a structurally novel compound as Hsp90 inhibitor to perform the anti-tumor activity. The compound selectively bound to the Hsp90 N-terminal domain, and degraded the Hsp90 client protein Akt. The degradation of Akt detained Bad in non-phosphorylation form. NMD-associated apoptosis was characterized by the formation of fragmented nuclei, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and the increased proportion of sub-G1 phase cells. Interestingly, the apoptosis was accompanied with autophagy, by exhibiting the increased expression of LC-3 and the decrease of lysosome pH value. Our findings provide a novel cellular mechanism by which Hsp90 inhibitor adjusts cell apoptosis and autophagy in vitro, suggesting that NMD not only has a potential to be developed into a novel anti-tumor pharmaceutical, but also exhibits a new mechanism in regulating cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy via Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:25948110

  9. Prostate cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate glandular formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative AR? status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade th...

  10. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. IV. Progression delays and enhanced cell killing at high caffeine concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of x-irradiated and unirradiated HeLa S3 cells to treatment with caffeine at concentrations between 1 and 10 nM has been examined with respect to both delay in progression through the cell generation cycle and enhancement of the expression of potentially lethal x-ray damage. Progression is delayed in a concentration-dependent fashion: the generation time is doubled at about 4 mM. The duration of G1 is lengthened, and the rate of DNA synthesis is reduced, although the kinetics are different in the two phases; the rate of DNA synthesis is usually unaffected at 1 or 2 mM, while there is no concentration threshold for the slowing of progression through G1. Progression through G2 appears to be unaffected by concentrations up to at least 10 mM. Killing of irradiated cells in G2 is somewhat greater after treatment with the higher caffeine concentrations than reported previously for 1 mM. Moreover, an additional mode of killing is observed in irradiated G1 cells which had been found previously to be only slightly affected by 1 mM caffeine; they suffer extensive killing at concentrations above 5 mM. The time-survival curves for irradiated, caffeine-treated G1 and G2 cells have characteristically different shapes. The dose-survival curves for cells treated with the higher caffeine concentrations display steeper terminal slopes and narrower shoulderss

  11. Effects of natural flavones on membrane properties and citotoxicity of HeLa cells / Efeitos de flavonas naturais em propriedades de membranas e em citotoxicidade de células HeLa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana, Herrerias; Alexandre A., Oliveira; Maurício L., Belem; Brás H., Oliveira; Eva G. S., Carnieri; Sílvia M. S. C., Cadena; Guilhermina R., Noleto; Glaucia R., Martinez; Maria B. M., Oliveira; Maria E. M., Rocha.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se eupafolina e hispidulina, flavonas extraídas do Eupatorium littorale Cabrera, Asteraceae, possuíam a capacidade de alterar propriedades das membranas biológicas e promover efeitos citotóxicos. Eupafolina (50-200 µM) reduziu em aproximadamente 30% a velocidade e [...] amplitude do inchamento mitocondrial induzido por valinomicina e 60-100% o inchamento mitocondrial dependente de substrato. Além disso, eupafolina na dose de 200 µM reduziu a transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial em 35% entretanto, a hispidulina não alterou este parâmetro em todas as doses testadas. A avaliação da transição de fase dos lipossomas de DMPC com a sonda DPH demonstrou que ambas as flavonas afetam a fase gel e fluida. Quando lipossomas de membranas mitocondriais e a sonda DPH-PA foram utilizados, houve aumento da polarização de fluorescência promovido pela hispidulina. Eupafolina e hispidulina, na dose de 100 µM, promoveram 40% de redução da viabilidade de células HeLa em 24 h. Nossos resultados sugerem que eupafolina e hispidulina têm efeitos citotóxicos que podem ser explicados em parte pelas alterações promovidas por estas flavonas sobre propriedades de membranas biológicas e sobre a bioenergética mitocondrial. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine whether eupafolin and hispidulin, flavones extracted from Eupatorium littorale Cabrera, Asteraceae, have the ability to change properties of biological membranes and promote cytotoxic effects. Eupafolin (50-200 µM) decreased approximately 30% the rate and total [...] amplitude of valinomycin induced swelling and 60-100% the energy-dependent mitochondrial swelling. Moreover, eupafolin (200 µM) reduced 35% the mitochondrial permeability transition, and hispidulin did not change this parameter in any of the doses tested. The evaluation of phase transition of DMPC liposomes with the probe DPH demonstrated that hispidulin and eupafolin affect gel and fluid phase. With mitochondrial membrane as model, hispidulin increased the polarization of fluorescence when used DPH-PA probe. Eupafolin and hispidulin (100 µM) promoted a reduction of 40% in cellular viability of HeLa cells in 24 h. Our results suggest that eupafolin and hispidulin have cytotoxic effects that can be explained, in part, by alterations promoted on biological membranes properties and mitochondrial bioenergetics.

  12. Effects of natural flavones on membrane properties and citotoxicity of HeLa cells Efeitos de flavonas naturais em propriedades de membranas e em citotoxicidade de células HeLa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Herrerias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether eupafolin and hispidulin, flavones extracted from Eupatorium littorale Cabrera, Asteraceae, have the ability to change properties of biological membranes and promote cytotoxic effects. Eupafolin (50-200 µM decreased approximately 30% the rate and total amplitude of valinomycin induced swelling and 60-100% the energy-dependent mitochondrial swelling. Moreover, eupafolin (200 µM reduced 35% the mitochondrial permeability transition, and hispidulin did not change this parameter in any of the doses tested. The evaluation of phase transition of DMPC liposomes with the probe DPH demonstrated that hispidulin and eupafolin affect gel and fluid phase. With mitochondrial membrane as model, hispidulin increased the polarization of fluorescence when used DPH-PA probe. Eupafolin and hispidulin (100 µM promoted a reduction of 40% in cellular viability of HeLa cells in 24 h. Our results suggest that eupafolin and hispidulin have cytotoxic effects that can be explained, in part, by alterations promoted on biological membranes properties and mitochondrial bioenergetics.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se eupafolina e hispidulina, flavonas extraídas do Eupatorium littorale Cabrera, Asteraceae, possuíam a capacidade de alterar propriedades das membranas biológicas e promover efeitos citotóxicos. Eupafolina (50-200 µM reduziu em aproximadamente 30% a velocidade e amplitude do inchamento mitocondrial induzido por valinomicina e 60-100% o inchamento mitocondrial dependente de substrato. Além disso, eupafolina na dose de 200 µM reduziu a transição de permeabilidade mitocondrial em 35% entretanto, a hispidulina não alterou este parâmetro em todas as doses testadas. A avaliação da transição de fase dos lipossomas de DMPC com a sonda DPH demonstrou que ambas as flavonas afetam a fase gel e fluida. Quando lipossomas de membranas mitocondriais e a sonda DPH-PA foram utilizados, houve aumento da polarização de fluorescência promovido pela hispidulina. Eupafolina e hispidulina, na dose de 100 µM, promoveram 40% de redução da viabilidade de células HeLa em 24 h. Nossos resultados sugerem que eupafolina e hispidulina têm efeitos citotóxicos que podem ser explicados em parte pelas alterações promovidas por estas flavonas sobre propriedades de membranas biológicas e sobre a bioenergética mitocondrial.

  13. Using HeLa cell stress response to introduce first year students to the scientific method, laboratory techniques, primary literature, and scientific writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resendes, Karen K

    2015-03-01

    Incorporating scientific literacy into inquiry driven research is one of the most effective mechanisms for developing an undergraduate student's strength in writing. Additionally, discovery-based laboratories help develop students who approach science as critical thinkers. Thus, a three-week laboratory module for an introductory cell and molecular biology course that couples inquiry-based experimental design with extensive scientific writing was designed at Westminster College to expose first year students to these concepts early in their undergraduate career. In the module students used scientific literature to design and then implement an experiment on the effect of cellular stress on protein expression in HeLa cells. In parallel the students developed a research paper in the style of the undergraduate journal BIOS to report their results. HeLa cells were used to integrate the research experience with the Westminster College "Next Chapter" first year program, in which the students explored the historical relevance of HeLa cells from a sociological perspective through reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. In this report I detail the design, delivery, student learning outcomes, and assessment of this module, and while this exercise was designed for an introductory course at a small primarily undergraduate institution, suggestions for modifications at larger universities or for upper division courses are included. Finally, based on student outcomes suggestions are provided for improving the module to enhance the link between teaching students skills in experimental design and execution with developing student skills in information literacy and writing. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(2):110-120, 2015. PMID:25726932

  14. Crude aqueous extracts of Pluchea indica (L. Less. inhibit proliferation and migration of cancer cells through induction of p53-dependent cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Jonathan J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluchea indica (L. Less. (Asteraceae is a perennial shrub plant with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant medicinal properties. However, the anti-cancer properties of its aqueous extracts have not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration, and pro-apoptotic properties of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root on human malignant glioma cancer cells and human cervical cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanism. Methods GBM8401 human glioma cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root and cancer cell proliferation and viability were measured by cell growth curves, trypan blue exclusions, and the tetrazolium reduction assay. Effects of the crude aqueous extracts on focus formation, migration, and apoptosis of cancer cells were studied as well. The molecular mechanism that contributed to the anti-cancer activities of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root was also examined using Western blotting analysis. Results Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root suppressed proliferation, viability, and migration of GBM8401 and HeLa cells. Treatment with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root for 48 hours resulted in a significant 75% and 70% inhibition on proliferation and viability of GBM8401 and HeLa cancer cells, respectively. Crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root inhibited focus formation and promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. It was found that phosphorylated-p53 and p21 were induced in GBM8401 and HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Expression of phosphorylated-AKT was decreased in HeLa cells treated with crude aqueous extracts of P. indica root. Conclusion The in vitro anti-cancer effects of crude aqueous extracts of P. indica leaf and root indicate that it has sufficient potential to warrant further examination and development as a new anti-cancer agent.

  15. Acylamido analogs of endocannabinoids selectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Sumner; Salmonsen, Rebecca

    2008-11-15

    A series of amide derivatives of long-chain fatty acids has been studied for their effects on the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. Fatty acids ranged from palmitic to higher polyunsaturated types containing 22 carbon atoms. The amino portions of the molecules included ammonia, ethanolamine, various amino acids and dopamine. Several cell lines were used as models and these included HTB-125 (normal human breast cells), HTB-126 (human breast cancer cells), HeLa (cervical cancer cells), WI-38 (human embryonic lung cells), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage tumor cells) and RBL-2H3 (rat basophilic leukemia cells). The HTB lines were obtained from the same donor, so, could be considered a matched pair, that is, normal control versus cancer cells and thus, provide a model for testing specificity of action for the acylamido analogs. While many compounds were efficacious in inhibiting the proliferation of various cell lines, only two analogs showed a high degree of specificity in the matched HTB cell lines. N-palmitoyl dopamine and N-palmitoyl tyrosine each demonstrated complete specificity of action at a concentration of 10muM and were highly efficacious in both cases. No clear structure-activity pattern could be derived from these studies since the intensity of the inhibitory action seemed to depend on three factors, namely, the fatty acid, the amine group and the cell type. PMID:18951802

  16. Cancer stem cells: implications for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Shaheenah; Austin, Laura; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2014-12-01

    The survival of patients with cancer has improved significantly, primarily because of multidisciplinary care, improved chemotherapeutic agents in both the adjuvant and metastatic settings, the introduction of targeted biologic agents, and the incorporation of palliative care services into the management scheme. However, despite these advances, a significant proportion of patients continue to experience recurrence after adjuvant treatment, and survival associated with stage IV solid tumors still remains low. A primary or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic and biologic agents is responsible for the failure of many of the agents used to treat patients with a malignancy. This can be explained by the presence of intratumoral heterogeneity and the molecular complexity of many cancers. Factors contributing to intratumoral heterogeneity include genetic mutations, interactions with the microenvironment-and the presence of cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells have been identified in a number of solid tumors, including breast cancer, brain tumors, lung cancer, colon cancer, and melanoma. Cancer stem cells have the capacity to self-renew, to give rise to progeny that are different from them, and to utilize common signaling pathways. Cancer stem cells may be the source of all the tumor cells present in a malignant tumor, the reason for the resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent used to treat the malignant tumor, and the source of cells that give rise to distant metastases. This review will focus on properties of cancer stem cells; will compare and contrast the cancer stem cell model with the clonal evolution model of tumorigenesis; will discuss the role of cancer stem cells in the development of resistance to chemotherapy; and will review the therapeutic implications and challenges of targeting cancer stem cells, with an assessment of the potential such an approach holds for improving outcomes for patients with cancer. PMID:25510809

  17. Stem Cells and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cell research has thrived over the last years due to their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Scientific breakthroughs in the field are immediately translated from the scientific journals to the mass media, which is not surprising as the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of stem cells is crucial for the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. In the Molecular Oncology Unit at Ciemat we work to unravel the role of cancer stem cells in tumour development, and to find new antitumor therapies. (Author)

  18. Linear energy transfer-dependent radiosensitivity of Burkitt lymphoma cells, with special references to human melanoma HMV, HeLa-S3, and L5178Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dependence of the survival curves of Burkitt lymphoma cells, which were featured by their small n(x-ray 1.1 rad, ?-ray 1.2 rad, neutrons 1.0 rad) or Dsub(q) values, on linear energy transfer (LET) obtained for different quality of radiation was revealed markedly in the change of D0 value (125, 165, 55) together with a small change in n value. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared with Dsub(q), n, and D37 (132, 190, 55) values of Burkitt lymphoma cells for high LET radiation was smaller than that of other cell lines. This finding supports the hypothesis that in Burkitt lymphoma cells the recovery capacity from sublethal damage (Dsub(q)) is so small even after low LET irradiation that LET does not modify the suppression of recovery. Similar survival curves with n value closely equal to 1 were obtained for four different mammalian cell lines (Burkitt lymphoma P3HR-1, human melanoma HMV, HeLa-S3, and L5178Y) after 2 MeV neutron irradiation. This fact may suggest that the radiation which has an LET value at which n value of the survival curve is to be 1 will be optimum for therapeutic purpose to the radioresistant tumors. (auth.)

  19. The infiltration and functional regulation of eosinophils induced by TSLP promote the proliferation of cervical cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Liu, Li-Bing; Shang, Wen-Qing; Chang, Kai-Kai; Meng, Yu-Han; Mei, Jie; Yu, Jia-Jun; Li, Da-Jin; Li, Ming-Qing

    2015-08-10

    Cervical cancer is often associated with eosinophil (EOS) infiltration, but the source and the role of EOS are still largely unknown. Our previous work has established that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) can stimulate the growth of cervical cancer cell in an autocrine manner. Here, we report that EOS infiltration of the lesion site increased gradually with the progression of cervical cancer. The increase in TSLP secretion in HeLa and SiHa cells induced by hypoxia led to a high level of chemokine CCL17 production by HeLa and SiHa cells, and recruited more EOS to the cancer lesion. In addition, TSLP derived from HeLa and SiHa cells promoted proliferation, up-regulated the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), and decreased the expression of CD80 and CD86 of EOS. Such educated EOS significantly promoted proliferation and restricted the apoptosis of cervical cancer cells, which was associated with the up-regulation of Ki-67, PCNA and Bcl-2, and the down-regulation of Fas and FasL in HeLa and SiHa cells. These results suggest that a high level of TSLP in cancer lesions mediated by hypoxia is an important regulator of the progression of cervical cancer by recruiting and licensing tumor-associated EOS to promote the growth of the cervical cancer cell itself. This provides a scientific basis on which potential therapeutic strategies could be targeted to cervical cancer, especially for patients with massive infiltrations of EOS. PMID:25979231

  20. Hiwi facilitates chemoresistance as a cancer stem cell marker in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Gao, Qing; Chen, Kunlun; Xue, Xiang; Li, Mu; Chen, Qian; Zhu, Gaixia; Gao, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Hiwi, also named PiwiL1, is a human homologue of the Piwi family which is associated with stem cells and is overexpressed in several types of cancers. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of Hiwi in cervical carcinogenesis. Immunochemical analysis showed a significantly higher frequency of Hiwi staining in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and cervical cancer tissues when comparing with the frequency in normal cervices. Particularly, Hiwi staining was restricted to basal cells of the normal cervix and was associated with the progression of cervical cancer and chemotherapy resistance. We further found that ectopic Hiwi increased the chemical resistance in SiHa cells, and silencing of Hiwi in HeLa cells decreased the cell viability. In addition, as a cancer stem cell marker, Hiwi promoted the tumorsphere formation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo and elevated the expression of several stem cell self-renewal-associated transcription factors, in spite of inhibited the proliferation. These results suggest that Hiwi may participate in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target molecule for cervical cancers. PMID:25119492

  1. Proposed cytotoxic mechanisms of the saffron carotenoids crocin and crocetin on cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Chan Bae; Lee, Pyung Cheon

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the cytotoxic activities of crocin and crocetin, 2 major carotenoids isolated from the stigma of Crocus sativus (saffron), on 5 human cancer cell lines and proposed their possible anticancer mechanisms. Crocetin, a glycosylated carotenoid, showed approximately 5- to 18-fold higher cytotoxicity than crocin, a carboxylic carotenoid (IC50 of 0.16-0.61 mmol/L for crocetin vs. 2.0-5.5 mmol/L for crocin). This suggests that structural differences account for the different efficacies between them. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis showed that crocetin induced a significant level of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HeLa cells, whereas crocin did not. This ROS induction supported the cytotoxicity of crocetin, but not of crocin. A significant activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was observed in both HeLa cells treated with crocin and crocetin: a 3.0-fold increase by 1 mmol/L crocetin and a 1.6-fold increase by 0.8 mmol/L crocin compared to the control. Furthermore, both crocetin and crocin reduced the protein expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), one of the targets for chemoprevention in cancer cells, by 34.2% and 10.5%, respectively, compared to the control in HeLa cells. These findings suggest that crocetin and crocin have different mechanisms for their observed cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. PMID:24697694

  2. PFKFB3 gene silencing decreases glycolysis, induces cell-cycle delay and inhibits anchorage-independent growth in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M N; Bartrons, R; Castaño, E; Perales, J C; Navarro-Sabaté, A; Manzano, A

    2006-05-29

    The high rate of glycolysis despite the presence of oxygen in tumor cells (Warburg effect) suggests an important role for this process in cell division. The glycolytic rate is dependent on the cellular concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), which, in turn, is controlled by the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFK-2). The ubiquitous PFK-2 isoenzyme (uPFK-2, alternatively named UBI2K5 or ACG) coded by the pfkfb3 gene is induced by different stimuli (serum, progesterone, insulin, hypoxia, etc.) and has the highest kinase/phosphatase activity ratio amongst all PFK-2 isoenzymes discovered to date, which is consistent with its role as a powerful activator of glycolysis. uPFK-2 is expressed in brain, placenta, transformed cells and proliferating cells. In the present work, we analyze the impact of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing of uPFK-2 on the inhibition of cell proliferation. HeLa cells treated with uPFK-2 siRNA showed a decrease in uPFK-2 RNA levels measured at 24h. uPFK-2 protein levels were severely depleted at 48-72h when compared with cells treated with an unrelated siRNA, correlating with decreased glycolytic activity, Fru-2,6-P2, lactate and ATP concentrations. These metabolic changes led to reduced viability, cell-cycle delay and an increase in the population of apoptotic cells. Moreover, uPFK-2 suppression inhibited anchorage-independent growth. The results obtained highlight the importance of uPFK-2 on the regulation of glycolysis, on cell viability and proliferation and also on anchorage-independent growth. These data underscore the potential for uPFK-2 as an effective tumor therapeutic target. PMID:16698023

  3. Design and fabrication of a microplatform for the proximity effect study of localized ELF-EMF on the growth of in vitro HeLa and PC-12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a platform technology with experimental results that show the scientists and biologists a way to rapidly investigate and analyze the biological effects of localized extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on living cells. The proximity effect of the localized ELF-EMF on living cells is revealed using the bio-compatible microplatform on which an on-glass inductive coil array, the source of the localized ELF-EMF in micro scale, is designed, fabricated and operated with a field strength of 1.2 ± 0.1 mT at 60 Hz for cell culturing study. After a 72 h ELF-EMF exposure, HeLa (human cervical cancer) and PC-12 (rat pheochromocytoma) cells exhibit about 18.4% and 12.9% cell proliferation rate reduction, respectively. Furthermore, according to the presented dynamic model, the reduction of the proliferation can be attributed to the interference of signal transduction processes due to the tangential currents induced around the cells

  4. Characterization of chrysin glucuronidation in UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells: elucidating the transporters responsible for efflux of glucuronide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Enxi; Wang, Huailing; Dong, Dong; Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

    2015-04-01

    Active transport of glucuronide out of cells is a critical process in elimination of drugs via the glucuronidation pathway. Here, HeLa cells were stably transfected with UGT1A1 and the contributions of BCRP and MRP family transporters to the cellular efflux of chrysin glucuronide (CG) were determined. The cDNA of UGT1A1 was introduced into HeLa cells using the lentiviral transfection method. The modified cells were functional in generation of the glucuronide from chrysin. Ko143 at 10-20 ?M (a dual inhibitor of BCRP and UGT1A1) caused a marked decrease (51.3%-59.7%, P MRP family transporters, whereas the role of BCRP was unclear. Furthermore, short hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of a target transporter led to a marked reduction in the excretion rate of CG (38.6% for BCRP, 39.3% for MRP1, 36.4% for MRP3, and 28.7% for MRP4; P MRP1, 36.7% for MRP3, and 28.7% for MRP4; P MRP1, MRP3, and MRP4 were significant contributors to excretion of CG. PMID:25595598

  5. Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelio Lorico; Eric Deutsch; Bo Lu; Shih-Hwa Chiou

    2012-01-01

    Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells within tumors with capabilities of self-renewal, differentiation, and tumorigenicity when transplanted into an animal host. A number of cell surface markers such as CD44, CD24, and CD133 are often used to identify and enrich CSCs. A regulatory network consisting of microRNAs and Wnt/?-catenin, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways controls the CSC properties. The clinical relevance of CSCs has been strengthened by emerging evidence,...

  6. The heat shock response in HeLa cells is accompanied by elevated expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, G. K.; Harding, M. A.; Calvet, J. P.; Adamson, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several known inducers of the heat shock response (heat stress, arsenite, and heavy metals) were shown to cause a significant elevation of c-fos mRNA in HeLa cells. Heat stress resulted in a time- and temperature-dependent prolonged elevation in the level of c-fos mRNA, which was accompanied by increased translation of c-fos protein and its appearance in the nucleus. Elevated expression of c-fos during heat stress was paralleled by induction of hsp 70 mRNA, while levels of c-myc and metalloth...

  7. Heat shock of HeLa cells inactivates a nuclear protein phosphatase specific for dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, M. F.; Marshall, N. F.; Nguyen, V. T.; Dahmus, G. K.; Bonnet, F.; Dahmus, M. E.; Bensaude, O.

    1999-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) subunit plays a key role in gene expression. Stresses such as heat shock result in marked changes in CTD phosphorylation as well as in major alterations in gene expression. CTD kinases and CTD phosphatase(s) contribute in mediating differential CTD phosphory-lation. We now report that heat shock of HeLa cells at temperatures as mild as 41 degreesC results in a decrease in CTD phosphatase activ...

  8. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fumitaka Takeshita; Tomohiro Fujiwara; Takahiro Ochiya; Makiko Ono; Ryou-u Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory is generally acknowledged as an important field of cancer research, not only as an academic matter but also as a crucial aspect of clinical practice. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cel...

  9. Colon Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Khalek, Feras J Abdul; Gallicano, G. Ian; Mishra, Lopa

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the United States. Aggressive research in the last decade has led to a wealth of information about this disease; for example, we now know that more than 80% of sporadic colon tumors contain mutations in the Wnt and TGF? signaling pathways. The latest avenue of research is revealing the existence of and role for the cancer stem cell (CSC) model, which promotes the idea that malignancies originate from a small fraction ...

  10. Cancer, stem cell misplacement and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The cell of origin of cancer as well as cancer stem cells is still a mystery. In a recent issue of JCMM, Wang et al. challenged the conventional somatic genetic mutation model of multi-stage carcinogenesis of breast cancer and proposed that ‘Invasive cancers are not necessary from preformed in situ tumours—an alternative way of carcinogenesis from misplaced stem cells’. If this stem cell misplacement theory could withstand future experimental evaluation, it may provide a paradigm shift in the...

  11. ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA GLABRA V. SEED OIL EXTRACT AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnasamy Arulvasu; Subramanian Vasantha suppriya; Gajendran Babu

    2012-01-01

    Screening of the seed oil extract from Pongamia glabra V. (Fabaceae) has been carried out for antiproliferative activity of cancer cells. The seed oil was extracted with methanol and then persuasive activity was tested on human cancer cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa. The cell growth inhibitory effects of seed oil extract was observed. The cell viability was assessed using trypan blue dye exclusion method and 3-(4, 5- Dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The IC50 value...

  12. Cytotoxicologic Studies of the Extracts of Iranian Juniperus Sabina and Platycladus Orientalis on Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafarian-Dehkordi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants, has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for anti-tumor effects. It has been reported that several conifers posses cytotoxic activities on some human tumor cell lines. Methods: In this study male and female branchlets or fruits of two different species of Iranian conifers were collected from the northern parts of Iran and identified. Hydroalcoholic extracts of them were prepared by perculation. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on three human tumor cell lines (Hela, KB, and MDA-MB-468 were determined. Different concentrations of extracts were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell survival was evaluated using MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity was considered when mor than 50% decrese was seen in cell survival. Results: Although the extracts from Platycladus orientalis significantly decreased Hela and MDA-MB-468 cell curvival, their effects were not considerable. Extracts from fruit and branchlets of male and female Juniperus sabina showed cytotoxic activities against Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that extracts of J. sabin have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Keywords: Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis, Cytotoxicity, MTT assay, Cancer cells.

  13. Fra-1 is downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and promotes cervical cancer cell apoptosis by p53 signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Songshu; Zhou, Yanhong; Yi, Wei; Luo, Guijuan; Jiang, Bin; Tian, Qi; Li, Yueran; Xue, Min

    2015-04-01

    Cervical cancer is a potentially preventable disease; however, it is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Cervical cancer is thought to develop through a multistep process involving virus, tumor suppressor genes, proto-oncogenes and immunological factors. It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary but insufficient to cause malignancy. At present, the etiology of cervical carcinoma remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the expression of FOS-like antigen-1 (Fra-1) gene was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting techniques. To uncover the effect of Fra-1 on cervical cancer, we tested and confirmed that Fra-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells by MMT assays in vitro. At the same time, overexpression of Fra-1 promoted apoptosis of HeLa cells. To explore the possible mechanism of Fra-1 in cervical cancer, we tested the expression levels of key molecules in p53 signaling pathway by western blotting technology. The results showed that p53 was downregulated in cervical cancer compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues, but MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) was upregulated in cervical cancer. In vitro, the p53 was upregulated and MDM2 was downregulated in HeLa cells with Fra-1 overexpression. In summary, our results suggested that Fra-1 expression is low in cervical cancer tissues and promotes apoptosis of cervical cancer cells by p53 signaling pathway. PMID:25651840

  14. The modulation of radiosensitivity by combined treatment of selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS 398 and EGF receptor blocker AG 1478 in HeLa cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective inhibition of multiple molecular targets may improve the antitumor activity of radiation. Two specific inhibitors of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were combined with radiation on the HeLa cell line. To investigate cooperative mechanism with selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker, in vitro experiments were done. Antitumor effect was obtained by growth inhibition and apoptosis analysis by annexin V-Flous method. Radiation modulation effects were determined by the clonogenic cell survival assay. Surviving fractions at 2 Gy (SF2) and dose enhancement radio at a surviving fraction of 0.25 were evaluated. To investigate the mechanism of the modulation of radiosensitivity, the cell cycle analyses were done by flow cytometry. The bcl-2 and bax expressions were analyzed by western blot. A cooperative effect were observed on the apoptosis of the HeLa cell line when combination of the two drugs, AG 1478 and NS 398 with radiation at the lowest doses, apoptosis of 22.70% compare with combination of the one drug with radiation, apoptosis of 8.49%. In cell cycle analysis, accumulation of cell on G0/G1 phase and decrement of S phase fraction was observed from 24 hours to 72 hours after treatment with radiation, AG 1478 and NS 398. The combination of NS 398 and AG 1478 enhanced radiosensitivity in a concentration-dependent manner in HeLa cells with dose enhancement ratios of 3.00 and SF2 of 0.12 but the combination of one drug with radiation was not enhanced radiosensitivity with dose enhancement ratios of 1.12 and SF2 of 0.68 (? = 0.005). The expression levels of bcl-2 and bax were reduced when combined with AG 1478 and NS 398. Our results indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitor and EGFR blocker combined with radiation have potential additive or cooperative effects on radiation treatment and may act through various mechanisms including direct inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, suppression of tumor cell cycle progression and inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins

  15. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal mixture LQ arrests FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells in G0/G1 phase in 2D plastic, 2.5D Matrigel®, and 3D Gelfoam® culture visualized with FUCCI imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Michael; Yano, Shuya; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    We used the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) to monitor cell cycle arrest after treatment of FUCCI-expressing HeLa cells (FUCCI-HeLa) with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal mixture LQ, previously shown to have anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activity in mouse models. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control. In 2D monolayer culture, the untreated control had approximately 45% of the cells in S/G2/M phase. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells (9 mg/ml) were mostly in the G0/G1 (>90%) after 72 hours. After treatment with paclitaxel (0.01 ?m), for 72 hours, 95% of the cells were in S/G2/M. In 2.5D Matrigel® culture, the colonies in the untreated control group had 40% of the cells in S/G2/M. LQ arrested the cells in G0/G1 after 72 hours. Paclitaxel arrested almost all the cells in S/G2/M after 72 hours. In 3D Gelfoam® culture, the untreated control culture had approximately 45% of cells in G2/M. In contrast, the LQ-treated cells were mostly in G0/G1 phase (>80%) after 72 hours treatment. Paclitaxel resulted in 90% of the cells arrested in S/G2/M after 72 hours. The present report suggests the non-toxic LQ has potential to maintain cancers in a quiescent state for long periods of time. PMID:25779660

  16. Cancer Stem Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Karl-Walter Jauch; Hendrik Seeliger; Hanno Niess; Qi Bao; Andrea Renner; Yue Zhao; Bruns, Christiane J.

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignant solid tumor well-known by early metastasis, local invasion, resistance to standard chemo- and radiotherapy and poor prognosis. Increasing evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is initiated and propagated by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we review the current research results regarding CSCs in pancreatic cancer and discuss the different markers identifying pancreatic CSCs. This review will focus on metastasis, microRNA regulation and anti-CSC t...

  17. PEG-PHB-glutaminase nanoparticle inhibits cancer cell proliferation in vitro through glutamine deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Deepak, Venkataraman; Nellaiah, Hariharan; Sundar, Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that L-glutaminase, a marine bacterial enzyme with a molecular weight of 37 kDa, inhibits cancer cell proliferation in vitro through glutamine deprivation. The concentration of the enzyme reducing the viability of HeLa cells to 50% was determined to be 12.5 ?g/mL; the function of L-glutaminase in controlling cell proliferation was further analysed by BrdU assays. To increase its stability and bioavailability, the enzyme was immobilized on polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanoparticles. A dented anatomy of the HeLa cells was observed under fluorescence and confocal microscopy when they were incubated with L-glutaminase and in glutamine-free medium, as also a 3-fold increase in caspase-3 activity was observed under the same conditions. Blebbed cytoplasm and shrunken nuclei were observed in treated cells under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the influence of the enzyme on cell cycle and DNA damage was evaluated using flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays. The results confirmed significant damage to the DNA of HeLa cells incubated with L-glutaminase and in glutamine-free medium. These studies attest to the significant role played by L-glutaminase against proliferation in cancer cells through glutamine deprivation. PMID:25424834

  18. Folate-conjugated polymer micelles for active targeting to cancer cells: preparation, in vitro evaluation of targeting ability and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain an active-targeting carrier to cancer cells, folate-conjugated stearic acid grafted chitosan oligosaccharide (Fa-CSOSA) was synthesized by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated coupling reaction. The substitution degree is 22.1%. The critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of Fa-CSOSA were 0.017 and 0.0074 mg ml-1 in distilled water and PBS (pH 7.4), respectively. The average volume size range of Fa-CSOSA micelles was 60-120 nm. The targeting ability of Fa-CSOSA micelles was investigated against two kinds of cell lines (A549 and Hela), which have different amounts of folate receptors in their surface. The results indicated that Fa-CSOSA micelles presented a targeting ability to the cells (Hela) with a higher expression of folate receptor during a short-time incubation (50 of Taxol (a clinical formulation containing PTX) on A549 and Hela cells was 7.0 and 11PTX) on A549 and Hela cells was 7.0 and 11.0 ?g ml-1, respectively. The cytotoxicity of PTX-loaded micelles was improved sharply (IC50 on A549: 0.32 ?g ml-1; IC50 on Hela: 0.268 ?g ml-1). This is attributed to the increased intracellular delivery of the drug. The Fa-CSOSA micelles that are presented may be a promising active-targeting carrier candidate via folate mediation

  19. Cancer stem cell subsets and their relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Yi-Fei; Yang Han; Chen Chong; Liu Hai-Guang; Zhang Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that cancer stem cells account for the initiation and progression of cancer. While many types of cancer stem cells with specific markers have been isolated and identified, a variety of differences among them began to be appreciated. Cancer stem cells are hierarchical populations that consist of precancerous stem cells, primary cancer stem cells, migrating cancer stem cells and chemoradioresistant cancer stem cells, playing different roles in cancer initiati...

  20. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sugahara, Takuya; Ohama, Yumi; Fukuda, Aya; Hayashi, Miho; Kawakubo, Akihiro; Kato, Keiichi

    2001-01-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the...

  1. Apoptosis is Induced in Cancer Cells via the Mitochondrial Pathway by the Novel Xylocydine-Derived Compound JRS-15

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Sun; Xiao-Xi Guo; Dan Zhu; Chuan Xiao; Xiao Bai; Yang Li; Zhuo Zhan; Xiang-Long Li; Zhi-Guang Song; Ying-Hua Jin

    2013-01-01

    The novel compound JRS-15 was obtained through the chemical modification of xylocydine. JRS-15 exhibited much stronger cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity than its parent compound in various cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in HeLa, HepG2, SK-HEP-1, PC-3M and A549 cells ranging from 12.42 to 28.25 µM. In addition, it is more potent for killing cancer than non-cancerous cells. Mechanistic studies showed that JRS-15 treatment arrested cell cycle at the G1/S phase, which further tri...

  2. Studies of the UVC-sensitivity of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic human cell hybrids (HeLa x skin fibroblasts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UVC-sensitivities of a non-tumorigenic and a tumorigenic human cell hybrid (HeLa x skin fibroblasts) are compared and contrasted. The tumorigenic cells differ from the non-tumorigenic cells in that they have lost one copy each of chromosomes 11 and 14. For exponentially growing cultures, the tumorigenic cells are considerably more resistant than the non-tumorigenic cells. For confluent cultures, the differential in photosensitivity is much less. Flow cytometric studies of cell cycle distributions of both exponentially growing and confluent cultures of these cells indicate that the differences in photosensitivity cannot be explained by differences in cell cycle distribution. Studies of the kinetics of potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) in confluent cultures of both cell lines indicate little or no recovery over the first 6h followed by an increase in survival over the next 12-24h. These data are consistent with previously published observations in human skin fibroblasts where the kinetics of PLDR reflected the kinetics of thymine dimer loss. The data are not consistent with 6-4 photoproducts being a potentially lethal lesion since such damage is rapidly repaired in human cells. (author)

  3. Regulated Necrosis in HeLa Cells Induced by ZnPc Photodynamic Treatment: A New Nuclear Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Soriano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a cancer treatment modality based on the administration of a photosensitizer (PS, which accumulates preferentially in tumor cells. Subsequent irradiation of the neoplastic area triggers a cascade of photochemical reactions that leads to the formation of highly reactive oxygen species responsible for cell inactivation. Photodynamic treatments in vitro are performed with the PS, zinc-phthalocyanine (ZnPc. The PS is near the plasma membrane during uptake and internalization. Inactivation clearly occurs by a necrotic process, manifested by nuclear pyknosis, negative TUNEL and Annexin V assays and non-relocation of cytochrome c. In contrast, by increasing the incubation time, ZnPc is accumulated in the Golgi apparatus and produces cell inactivation with characteristics of apoptosis and necrosis: TUNEL positive, relocated cytochrome c and negative Annexin V assay. This type of death produces a still undescribed granulated nuclear morphology, which is different from that of necrosis or apoptosis. This morphology is inhibited by necrostatin-1, a specific inhibitor of regulated necrosis.

  4. Cytotoxicity of Trichoderma spp. cultural filtrate against human cervical and breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Rahman, Atef Abd El-Mohsen; El-Shafei, Sally Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; Ivanova, Elena Vladimirovna; Fattakhova, Alfia Nurlimanovna; Pankova, Anna Victorovna; El-Shafei, Mohamed Abd El-Aziz; El-Morsi, El-Morsi Abu El-Fotouh; Alimova, Farida Kashifovna

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites with biological activity belonging to a variety of classes of chemical compounds. These fungi also are well known for their ability to produce a wide range of antibiotic substances and to parasitize other fungi. In search for new substances, which might act as anticancer agents, the overall objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma asperellum cultural filtrates against human cervical and breast cancer cell lines (HeLa and MCF-7 cells respectively). To achieve this objective, cells were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg/ ml of both T. harzianum cultural filtrate (ThCF) and T. asperellum cultural filtrate (TaCF) for 24h, then the cell viability and the cytotoxic responses were assessed by using trypan blue and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)- 2,5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Morphological changes in cells were investigated by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that ThCF and TaCF significantly reduce the cell viability, have cytotoxic effects and alter the cellular morphology of HeLa and MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. A concentration of 80 and 100mg/ml of ThCF resulted in a sharp decline in the cell viability percent of HeLa and MCF-7 respectively (25.2%, 26.5%) which was recorded by trypan blue assay. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of ThCF and TaCF in HeLa and MCF-7 were recorded as 16.6, 12.0, 19.6 and 0.70 mg/ml respectively by MTT assay. These results revealed that ThCF and TaCF have a substantial ability to reduce the viability and proliferation of human cervical and breast cancer cells. PMID:25227819

  5. Two galactomannan preparations from seeds from Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga): Complexation with oxovanadium(IV/V) and cytotoxicity on HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noleto, Guilhermina Rodrigues; Petkowicz, Carmen Lucia O; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho; Noseda, Miguel Daniel; Méndez-Sánchez, Stelia Carolina; Reicher, Fany; Oliveira, Maria Benigna M

    2009-05-01

    Two galactomannans, GALMAN-A and GALMAN-B, were isolated from seeds of Mimosa scabrella (bracatinga), with deactivation and exposure to native enzymes, respectively. They were treated with oxovanadium(IV) and oxovanadium(V), designated (VO(2+)/VO(3+)) to form GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) complexes, respectively. The potentiometric studies provided the binding constants for the complexes and the resulting complexed species were a function of pH. (51)V NMR spectra of GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) at pH 7.8 and at 30 degrees C indicated the occurrence of two types of complexes formed by oxovanadium ions and galactomannans. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) caused loss of HeLa cells viability at concentrations of 50-200microg/mL. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited low toxicity for 24h, although GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) was extremely toxic, since 50microg/mL was sufficient to decrease HeLa cell viability after 48h by 60%. GALMAN-A gave rise to a slight increase in cell proliferation after 48h at 100microg/mL, whereas GALMAN-B promoted a slight decrease at concentrations of 50-100microg/mL. GALMAN-A:VO(2+)/VO(3+) and GALMAN-B:VO(2+)/VO(3+) exhibited a significant decrease in cell proliferation after 48h, each reaching 60% inhibition at 5-10microg/mL. The complexes which caused this effect were at concentrations 10 times lower than the uncomplexed polymers. PMID:19230977

  6. Role of Activating Transcription Factor 3 on TAp73 Stability and Apoptosis in Paclitaxel-Treated Cervical Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Yeo Kyoung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Marie; Mo, Ji-Won; Song, Eun Hyeon; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Jo, Inho; Park, Sang Ick; Gao, Bin; Kwon, Yongil; Kim, Won-Ho

    2008-01-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) is a potent anticancer drug that has been found to be effective against several tumor types, including cervical cancer. However, the exact mechanism underlying the antitumor effects of paclitaxel is poorly understood. Here, paclitaxel induced the apoptosis of cervical cancer HeLa cells and correlated with the enhanced activation of caspase-3 and TAp73, which was strongly inhibited by TAp73? small interfering RNA (siRNA). In wild-type activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3...

  7. Down-regulation of Frizzled-7 expression inhibits migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Boya; Zhang, Siyang; Miao, Yuan; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Fang; Guo, Kejun

    2015-04-01

    Frizzled-7 (FZD7) has been demonstrated as a critical receptor of the Wnt signaling and involves in tumorigenesis and metastasis in many cancer types. However, limited information was found in cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of FZD7 in migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cervical cancer cells. HeLa and SiHa cervical carcinoma cell lines with FZD7 expression were chosen in this study. A short hairpin RNA (shRNA) construct targeting FZD7 mRNA was transfected into HeLa and SiHa cells, and the stably transfected cell lines were obtained through G418 screening. Functional experiments were further performed to assess whether FZD7 down-regulation affects the migration, invasion, and EMT of HeLa and SiHa cells. Our results revealed that down-regulation of FZD7 expression significantly inhibited cell invasion and migration, as well as decreased the expression and activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in both cell types. Additionally, FZD7 silencing resulted in down-regulation of mesenchymal markers including Vimentin and Snail while increased the levels of epithelial marker E-cadherin. We further found that decreased FZD7 expression inhibited the phosphorylation levels of JNK and c-jun in both HeLa and SiHa cells, as determined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Overall, our results indicate that shRNA-mediated knockdown of FZD7 inhibits invasion, metastasis, and EMT of cervical cancer cells. FZD7 may provide a promising therapeutic target in cervical cancer. PMID:25740178

  8. Cancer stem cells in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Regenbrecht, C; Welte, Y; Hugel, R; Trefzer, U; Losch, FO; Adjaye, J.; Walden, P.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in various malignancies led to the hypothesis that these cells have the exclusive ability of self-renewal, contribute to the plasticity of the tumours and may be the cause for ineffective cancer therapies. Several markers of melanoma stem cells have been described in recent studies including CD133, CD166, Nestin and BMI-1. Further studies are necessary to identify, better define and understand the origin and function of cancer stem cells. If confirmed t...

  9. Metastatic renal cell cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapy is the treatment of choice in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) at most institutions although a combination of cytokine therapy and targeted therapy still is being investigated. Morphological size-based criteria (RECIST) has failed in monitoring the effect of targeted therapy in patients with mRCC, as successful therapy often does not result in a decrease in tumour size. Modifications of size-based criteria and criteria based on computed tomography (CT) contra...

  10. A new prospect in cancer therapy: targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Min Zhu; Li-Hua Yuan; Ke-Feng Pu; Bing Dong; An-Xin Wang; Li-Sha Chen

    2012-01-01

    According to the cancer stem cell theory, cancers can be initiated by cancer stem cells. This makes cancer stem cells prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Eradicating cancer stem cells by efficient targeting agents may have the potential to cure cancer. In this review, we summarize recent breakthroughs that have improved our understanding of cancer stem cells, and we discuss the therapeutic strategy of targeting cancer stem cells, a promising future direction for cancer stem cell resea...

  11. Mapping and identification of HeLa cell proteins separated by immobilized pH-gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and construction of a two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis database.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, AC; Rossel Larsen, M

    1999-01-01

    The HeLa cell line, a human adenocarcinoma, is used in many research fields, since it can be infected with a wide range of viruses and intracellular bacteria. Therefore, the mapping of HeLa cell proteins is useful for the investigation of parasite host cell interactions. Because of the recent improvements of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradients (IPG) compared to isoelectric focusing with carrier ampholytes, a highly reproducible method for examining global changes in HeLa cell protein expression due to different stimuli is now available. Therefore, we have initiated the mapping of [35S]methionine/cysteine-labeled HeLa cell proteins with the 2-D PAGE (IPG)-system, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and N-terminal sequencing for protein identification. To date 21 proteins have been identified and mapped. In order to make these and future data accessible for interlaboratory comparison, we constructed a 2-D PAGE database on the World Wide Web.

  12. Centrosomal localization of RhoGDI? and its relevance to mitotic processes in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    JIANG, YONG-SHENG; MAEDA, MASAYO; OKAMOTO, MAYUMI; FUJII, MIKIKO; FUKUTOMI, RYUICHIRO; HORI, MASATO; TATSUKA, MASAAKI; OTA, TAKAHIDE

    2013-01-01

    Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitors (RhoGDIs) are regulators of Rho family GTPases. RhoGDI? has been implicated in cancer progression, but its precise role remains unclear. We determined the subcellular localization of RhoGDI? and examined the effects of its overexpression and RNAi knockdown in cancer cells. Immunofluorescence staining showed that RhoGDI? localized to centrosomes in human cancer cells. In HeLa cells, exogenous GFP-tagged RhoGDI? localized to centrosomes and its overexpression caused prolonged mitosis and aberrant cytokinesis in which the cell shape was distorted. RNAi knockdown of RhoGDI? led to increased incidence of monopolar spindle mitosis resulting in polyploid cells. These results suggest that RhoGDI? has mitotic functions, including regulation of cytokinesis and bipolar spindle formation. The dysregulated expression of RhoGDI? may contribute to cancer progression by disrupting these processes. PMID:23232495

  13. Identification of a factor in HeLa cells specific for an upstream transcriptional control sequence of an EIA-inducible adenovirus promoter and its relative abundance in infected and uninfected cells.

    OpenAIRE

    SivaRaman, L; Subramanian, S.; Thimmappaya, B

    1986-01-01

    Utilizing the gel electrophoresis/DNA binding assay, a factor specific for the upstream transcriptional control sequence of the EIA-inducible adenovirus EIIA-early promoter has been detected in HeLa cell nuclear extract. Analysis of linker-scanning mutants of the promoter by DNA binding assays and methylation-interference experiments show that the factor binds to the 17-nucleotide sequence 5' TGGAGATGACGTAGTTT 3' located between positions -66 and -82 upstream from the cap site. This sequence ...

  14. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. VII. Evidence that caffeine enhances expression of potentially lethal radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HeLa cells irradiated with 2 Gy of 220-kV X rays suffer a 60-70% loss of colony-forming ability which is increased to 90% by postirradiation treatment with 10 mM caffeine for 6 hr. The detailed postirradiation patterns of cell death and sister-cell fusion in such cultures and in cultures in which the colony-forming ability was brought to about the same level by treatment with a larger (4 Gy) X-ray dose alone or by longer (48 hr) treatment with 10 mM caffeine alone were recorded by time-lapse cinemicrography. Because the patterns of cell death and fusion differ radically in irradiated and in caffeine-treated cultures, the response of the additional cells killed by the combined treatment can be identified as X-ray induced rather than caffeine induced. The appearance of cultures after several days of incubation confirms the similarity of the post-treatment patterns of proliferation in cultures suffering enhanced killing to those occurring in cultures treated with larger doses of X rays alone. It is concluded that x rays do not sensitize cells to caffeine, but rather that caffeine enhanced the expression of potentially lethal radiation-induced damage

  15. Ovarian cancer: emerging concept on cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnusamy Moorthy P; Batra Surinder K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that the capacity of a tumor to grow and propagate is dependent on a small subset of cells within a tumor, termed cancer stem cells. In fact, cancer cells, like stem cells, can proliferate indefinitely through a dysregulated cellular self-renewal capacity. Cancer stem cells may originate due to the distribution into self-renewal and differentiation pathways occurring in multi-potential stem cells, tissue-specific stem cells, progenitor cells and cancer cell...

  16. Are cancer stem cells radioresistant?

    OpenAIRE

    Hittelman, Walter N; Liao, Yong; WANG Li; MILAS, LUKA

    2010-01-01

    Based on findings that cancer cell clonogens exhibit stem cell features, it has been suggested that cancer stem-like cells are relatively radioresistant owing to different intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including quiescence, activated radiation response mechanisms (e.g., enhanced DNA repair, upregulated cell cycle control mechanisms and increased free-radical scavengers) and a surrounding microenvironment that enhances cell survival mechanisms (e.g., hypoxia and interaction with stromal ele...

  17. Prostate stem cells and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitin, Alexander Y.; Matoso, A.; Roy-burman, P.

    2007-01-01

    Properties shared by neoplastic and stem cells indicate a possibility that somatic stem cells or transit-amplifying cells that have reacquired stem cell properties, particularly the ability for self-renewal, represent favorable targets for malignant transformation. In this review we discuss significance of the stem cell model for understanding prostate cancer pathogenesis and describe relevant studies in animals. It is proposed that dissemination of rare cancer stem ce...

  18. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis of cervical cancer cells via upregulation of RKIP and downregulation of bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Jie; Zhou, Lei; Cai, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer remains a challenge, especially in developing countries, which lack efficient screening programs. In recent years, artemisinin and its derivatives, such as dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which were traditionally used as anti-malarial agent, have been shown to inhibit tumor growth with low toxicity to normal cells. In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effect of DHA in cervical cancer. We evaluated the role of DHA on the expression of bcl-2 and Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), which is a suppressor of metastasis. The MTT assay was used to compare the proliferation of untreated and DHA-treated Hela and Caski cervical cancer cells. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentage of cells at each stage of the cell cycle in untreated and DHA-treated cells. We used RT-PCR and western blots to determine the expression of bcl-2 and RKIP mRNA and proteins. We evaluated the effect of DHA treatment in nude mice bearing Hela or Caski tumors. DHA-treated cells showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation and a significant increase in apoptosis. The expression of RKIP was significantly upregulated and the expression of bcl-2 was significantly downregulated in DHA-treated cells compared with control cells. DHA treatment caused (1) a significant inhibition of tumor growth and (2) a significant increase in the apoptotic index in nude mice bearing Hela or Caski tumors. Our data suggest that DHA inhibits cervical cancer growth via upregulation of RKIP and downregulation of bcl-2. PMID:24335512

  19. A functional drug delivery platform for targeting and imaging cancer cells based on Pluronic F127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Denghao; Tao, Liang; Zhao, Hongli; Yuan, Huihui; Lan, Minbo

    2015-06-01

    Functional polymeric micelles play an important role in the efficient delivery of therapeutic drugs into tumours. In this study, a functional drug delivery platform with ligands for targeting and fluorescent imaging was designed based on Pluronic F127 (PF127). Using folic acid (FA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to chemically conjugate with PF127, two functional polymers, Pluronic F127-FA (PF127-FA) and Pluronic F127-FITC (PF127-FITC), were synthesized. Solasodine-loaded micelles were then prepared via the thin-film hydration method. By employing A549 and HeLa cells, the results of in vitro cell assays performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry suggested that the proposed micelles could provide the desired specific targeting and fluorescent imaging functions. In addition, the results of in vitro cytotoxicity experiments showed that the growth inhibition rates of A549 and HeLa cells treated with solasodine-loaded micelles were remarkably higher than those of cells treated with free solasodine. Solasodine-loaded micelles exhibited a more distinct inhibitory effect against HeLa cells than against A549 cells. Thus, an effective drug delivery system for targeting and imaging cancer cells was developed. PMID:25780935

  20. Cancer Stem Cells in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Takeshita

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC theory is generally acknowledged as an important field of cancer research, not only as an academic matter but also as a crucial aspect of clinical practice. CSCs share a variety of biological properties with normal somatic stem cells in self-renewal, the propagation of differentiated progeny, the expression of specific cell markers and stem cell genes, and the utilization of common signaling pathways and the stem cell niche. However, CSCs differ from normal stem cells in their chemoresistance and their tumorigenic and metastatic activities. In this review, we focus on recent reports regarding the identification of CSC markers and the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes to understand the basic properties and molecular target of CSCs. In addition, we especially focus on the CSCs of breast cancer since the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy can lead to the enrichment of CSCs in patients with that disease. The identification of CSC markers and an improved understanding of the molecular mechanism of CSC phenotypes should lead to progress in cancer therapy and improved prognoses for patients with cancer.

  1. Dose-rate effects in synchronous mammalian cells in culture. II. A comparison of the life cycle of HeLa cells during continuous irradiation or multiple-dose fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life cycle of synchronized S3 HeLa cells was examined during continuous irradiation at a dose rate of approximately 37 rad/hr and during multiple dose fractionation schedules of the same average dose rate (total dose / overall time = average dose rate). For all regimes given at this dose rate the effects on the life cyclee were similar. Cells progressed through G1 and S without appreciable delay and experienced a minimum G2 delay of about 10 hr. Cells eventually entered mitosis but virtually none were able to complete a successful division

  2. Action of caffeine on x-irradiated HeLa cells. III. enhancement of x-ray-induced killing during G2 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of caffeine to enhance the expression of potentially lethal x-ray damage in HeLa S3 cells was examined as a function of the age of the cells in the generation cycle. Synchronous populations were irradiated at different times after mitotic collection and treated for various intervals with 1 mM caffeiene, which causes negligible killing of unirradiated cells. The response was thereby determined as a function of cell age at both the time of irradiation and the time of exposure to caffeine. The amount of cell killing depends strongly on when in the cycle caffeine is present and only weakly on when the cells are irradiated. If cells are irradiated in early G1, caffeine treatment enhances killing for 2 to 3 hr. No additional enhancement is observed until 16 to 17 hr postcollection, corresponding to G2; here they enter a second period of much greater sensitivity. Similarly, fluorodeoxyuridine resynchronized cells irradiated during S and treated with caffeine suffer no enhanced killing until they pass into this sensitive phase in G2, approximately 7 hr after release from the fluorodeoxyuridine block. The sensitive period appears to coincide with G2 arrest. The rate and extent of killing during this period are dependent upon the x-ray dose and the caffeine concentration. In the absence of caffeine, cells irradiated in G1 lose sensitivity to caffeine in about 9 hr; they do so faster in G2. It is concldo so faster in G2. It is concluded that the potentially lethal x-ray damage expressed on treatment with caffeine is retained for many hours in the presence of caffeine and is maximally manifested by G2-arrested cells

  3. Non-biased enrichment does not improve quantitative proteomic delineation of reovirus T3D-infected HeLa cell protein alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KevinM.Coombs

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based methods have allowed elucidation of alterations in complex proteomes, such as eukaryotic cells. Such studies have identified and measured relative abundances of thousands of host proteins after cells are infected with a virus. One of the potential limitations in such studies is that generally only the most abundant proteins are identified, leaving the deep richness of the cellular proteome largely unexplored. We differentially labeled HeLa cells with light and heavy stable isotopic forms of lysine and arginine (SILAC and infected cells with reovirus strain T3D. Cells were harvested at 24 hours post-infection. Heavy-labeled infected and light-labeled mock-infected cells were mixed together 1:1. Cells were then divided into cytosol and nuclear fractions and each fraction analyzed, both by standard 2D-HPLC/MS, and also after each fraction had been reacted with a random hexapeptide library (Proteominer® beads to attempt to enrich for low-abundance cellular proteins. A total of 2736 proteins were identified by 2 or more peptides at >99% confidence, of which 66 were significantly up-regulated and 67 were significantly down-regulated. Up-regulated proteins included those involved in antimicrobial and antiviral responses, GTPase activity, nucleotide binding, interferon signaling, and enzymes associated with energy generation. Down-regulated proteins included those involved in cell and biological adhesion, regulation of cell proliferation, structural molecule activity, and numerous molecular binding activities. Comparisons of the r2 correlations, degree of dataset overlap, and numbers of peptides detected suggest that non-biased enrichment approaches may not provide additional data to allow deeper quantitative and comparative mining of complex proteomes.

  4. On the Stem Cell Origin of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sell, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In each major theory of the origin of cancer—field theory, chemical carcinogenesis, infection, mutation, or epigenetic change—the tissue stem cell is involved in the generation of cancer. Although the cancer type is identified by the more highly differentiated cells in the cancer cell lineage or hierarchy (transit-amplifying cells), the property of malignancy and the molecular lesion of the cancer exist in the cancer stem cell. In the case of teratocarcinomas, normal germinal stem cells h...

  5. Cancer stem cells from colorectal cancer-derived cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, TM; Gandhi, SC; Wilding, JL; Muschel, R; Bodmer, WF

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the subpopulation of cells within a tumor that can self-renew, differentiate into multiple lineages, and drive tumor growth. Here we describe a two-pronged approach for the identification and characterization of CSCs from colorectal cancer cell lines, using a Matrigel-based differentiation assay, and cell surface markers CD44 and CD24. About 20 to 30% of cells from the SW1222 cell line form megacolonies in Matrigel that have complex 3D structures resembling coloni...

  6. Resveratrol interferes with AKT activity and triggers apoptosis in human uterine cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asselin Eric

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial cancer is the fourth most prominent cancer among all feminine cancers in the Western world. Resveratrol, a natural anti-oxidant found in red wine emerging as a novel anticancer agent, exerts antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity in various cancer cell types, but its effect on uterine cancer cells is poorly understood. At the molecular level, resveratrol has been reported to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX expression and/or activity; in endometrial cancer cells, COX-2 is overexpressed and confers cellular resistance to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to determine if resveratrol could exert anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity over uterine cancer cells upon inhibition of COX-2 expression and/or activity. Six different human uterine cancer cell lines were used as a model (HeLa, Hec-1A, KLE, RL95-2, Ishikawa and EN-1078D. Results and discussion High-dose of resveratrol triggered apoptosis in five out of six uterine cancer cell lines, as judged from Hoechst nuclear staining and effector caspase cleavage. In accordance, uterine cancer cell proliferation was decreased. Resveratrol also reduced cellular levels of the phosphorylated/active form of anti-apoptotic kinase AKT. Endogenous COX-2 protein levels were decreased, concomitant with a decrease in production of COX metabolites PGE2 and PGF2?, in each uterine cancer cell line expressing detectable levels of COX-1 and/or COX-2 in presence of resveratrol. Although COX expression was identified as a target of resveratrol in uterine cancer cells, inhibition of COX activity or exogenously added PGE2 did not modulate the effect of resveratrol on cellular proliferation. Conclusion High-dose of resveratrol exerts tumoricidal activity over uterine cancer cells and regulates COX expression. In these cells, resveratrol would not directly target COX activity, but possibly other enzymes involved in prostaglandin synthesis that act downstream of the COXs.

  7. Efecto fotocatalítico del TiO2-Au sobre células de cáncer de cuello uterino / Photocatalytic Effect of TiO2-Au on cells of cervical cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R. J., Camargo-Amado.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los fotocatalizadores han abierto las puertas a múltiples aplicaciones en ciencia y medicina, entre ellas el TiO2 en presencia de luz ultravioleta UV-A se está abriendo espacio en el futuro tratamiento de diferentes tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo se determinó el efecto fotocatalítico de los compue [...] sto TiO2 y TiO2-Au sobre células de cáncer de cuello uterino (HeLa) y células sanas de ovario de hámster chino (CHO). Se variaron las concentraciones de los compuestos, los tiempos de exposición a la luz UV-A y la presencia o ausencia de luz UV-A. Para cada caso se midió la citotoxicidad de los compuestos sobre las células HeLa y CHO a través de la prueba lactatodeshidrogenasa (LDH). El mayor porcentaje de citotoxicidad en células HeLa fue 43.2 %, mientras la citotoxicidad en células CHO fue negativa en todos los casos. Los compuestos no causan efecto citotóxico sobre la línea celular CHO Abstract in english Photocatalysts have opened the possibilities to many applications in science and medicine. The TiO2 in presence of ultraviolet UV-A is opening up space in the future treatment of various cancers. In this work we determined the effect of the composite photocatalytic TiO2 and TiO2-Au on cells of cervi [...] cal cancer (HeLa) and healthy cells of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Was varied compound concentration, the exposure time to UV-A and the presence or absence of UV-A. Was measured cytotoxicity of the compounds on HeLa and CHO cells with Lactatedeshydrogenase test (LDH). The highest cytotoxicity in HeLa cells was 43.2 %, while the cytotoxicity in CHO cells in all cases was negative. The compounds causes no cytotoxic effect on CHO cell lines

  8. Eradicating cancer cells: struggle with a chameleon

    OpenAIRE

    Di, Jiabo; Boer, Tjitske Duiveman-de; Carl G Figdor; Torensma, Ruurd

    2011-01-01

    Eradication of cancer stem cells to abrogate tumor growth is a new treatment modality. However, like normal cells cancer cells show plasticity. Differentiated tumor stem cells can acquire stem cell properties when they gain access to the stem cell niche. This indicates that eradicating of stem cells (emptying of the niche) alone will not lead to eradication of the tumor. Treatment should be directed to cancer stem cells ànd more mature cancer cells.

  9. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? H2O2 differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. ? H2O2 exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. ? H2O2 exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. ? p21Cip1 is likely dispensable when H2O2 induces senescence in normal cells. ? Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H2O2-induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H2O2 decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H2O2 increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H2O2-induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21Cip1/PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  10. Induction of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Banerjee, Ayan; Pathak, Suajta; Sharma, Chandresh; Singh, Neeta

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer in women and has a high mortality rate. Cisplatin, an antitumor agent, is generally used for its treatment. However, the administration of cisplatin is associated with side effects and intrinsic resistance. Morinda citrifolia (Noni), a natural plant product, has been shown to have anti-cancer properties. In this study, we used Noni, cisplatin, and the two in combination to study their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects in cervical cancer HeLa and SiHa cell lines. We demonstrate here, that Noni/Cisplatin by themselves and their combination were able to induce apoptosis in both these cell lines. Cisplatin showed slightly higher cell killing as compared to Noni and their combination showed additive effects. The observed apoptosis appeared to be mediated particularly through the up-regulation of p53 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins, as well as down- regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-XL proteins and survivin. Augmentation in the activity of caspase-9 and -3 was also observed, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis for both Noni and Cisplatin in HeLa and SiHa cell lines. PMID:23534730

  11. A peptide fraction from germinated soybean protein down-regulates PTTG1 and TOP2A mRNA expression, inducing apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Ramírez, María del Carmen; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva; Torres-Torres, Nimbe

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a peptide fraction, obtained from a germinated soybean protein hydrolysate, on the viability, apoptosis and cancer related gene expression in HeLa cells. Soybean was germinated for 0-6 days and proteins were isolated from the seeds. Protein isolates, without ethanol-soluble phytochemicals, were hydrolyzed with digestive enzymes and their effect on growth in HeLa cells was evaluated. The most active hydrolysate was separated by ultrafiltration into five peptide fractions. A >10 kDa fraction was the most active against cancer cells. This fraction down-regulated PTTG1 and TOP2A mRNA expression (two genes considered as therapeutic targets) and induced apoptosis in cancer cells activating the caspase cascade and causing DNA fragmentation. Germinated soy protein isolates could be a bioactive ingredient of functional food. PMID:22545419

  12. Metastatic renal cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Targeted therapy is the treatment of choice in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) at most institutions although a combination of cytokine therapy and targeted therapy still is being investigated. Morphological size-based criteria (RECIST) has failed in monitoring the effect of targeted therapy in patients with mRCC, as successful therapy often does not result in a decrease in tumour size. Modifications of size-based criteria and criteria based on computed tomography (CT) contrast enhancement has been introduced. Different imaging modalities that rely on characteristics other than size such as dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) ultrasonography, DCE CT, DCE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI, positron emission tomography and texture analysis seem to contribute with prognostic information, even at baseline scans, and can predict tumour response early after initiating therapy. No new standard for the imaging follow-up of targeted therapy in mRCC has been established.

  13. The Dynamin Chemical Inhibitor Dynasore Impairs Cholesterol Trafficking and Sterol-Sensitive Genes Transcription in Human HeLa Cells and Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Emmanuelle; Paul, Jean Louis; Fournier, Natalie; Beaune, Philippe; Johannes, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular transport of cholesterol contributes to the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis by mechanisms that are yet poorly defined. In this study, we characterized the impact of dynasore, a recently described drug that specifically inhibits the enzymatic activity of dynamin, a GTPase regulating receptor endocytosis and cholesterol trafficking. Dynasore strongly inhibited the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in HeLa cells, and to a lower extent in human macrophages. In both cell types, dynasore treatment led to the abnormal accumulation of LDL and free cholesterol (FC) within the endolysosomal network. The measure of cholesterol esters (CE) further showed that the delivery of regulatory cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was deficient. This resulted in the inhibition of the transcriptional control of the three major sterol-sensitive genes, sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-coenzymeA reductase (HMGCoAR), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). The sequestration of cholesterol in the endolysosomal compartment impaired both the active and passive cholesterol efflux in HMDM. Our data further illustrate the importance of membrane trafficking in cholesterol homeostasis and validate dynasore as a new pharmacological tool to study the intracellular transport of cholesterol. PMID:22205993

  14. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes: Sniping cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Inoda, Satoko; Morita, Rena; Kochin, Vitaly; Sato, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are characterized as a small population of cancer cells that have high tumor-initiating ability. CSCs/CICs are resistant to several cancer therapies, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancer. How can we eradicate CSCs/CICs? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) might be a promising answer.

  15. Non-Invasive Cell Tracking in Cancer and Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Cell-based therapy holds great promise for cancer treatment. The ability to non-invasively track the delivery of various therapeutic cells (e.g. T cells and stem cells) to the tumor site, and/or subsequent differentiation/proliferation of these cells, would allow better understanding of the mechanisms of cancer development and intervention. This brief review will summarize the various methods for non-invasive cell tracking in cancer and cancer therapy. In general, there are two approaches for...

  16. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics.

  17. Head and Neck Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, S; Nör, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Most cancers contain a small sub-population of cells that are endowed with self-renewal, multipotency, and a unique potential for tumor initiation. These properties are considered hallmarks of cancer stem cells. Here, we provide an overview of the field of cancer stem cells with a focus on head and neck cancers. Cancer stem cells are located in the invasive fronts of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) close to blood vessels (perivascular niche). Endothelial cell-initiated signalin...

  18. Effect of protein hydrolysates from germinated soybean on cancerous cells of the human cervix: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Escobedo, R; Robles-Ramírez, Maria Del Carmen; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Reza-Alemán, Rafael

    2009-12-01

    Consumption of soybeans can reduce the risk of different types of cancer. Little is known about the effect of germination on the anticancer properties of soya. This study was done to determine if germination improves the anticancer properties of soybean protein through generation of amino acids or bioactive peptides. Soybean was germinated for 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 days and proteins were isolated from the seeds. Isolates with and without ethanol-soluble phytochemicals were hydrolyzed with digestive enzymes and their effect on growth in HeLa and C-33 (epidermoid cervical carcinoma) and HaCaT (non-cancerous human keratinocytes) cells were evaluated with the Alamar Blue method. Germination induced degradation of the alpha and alpha' fractions of beta-conglycinin and acid fraction of glycinin, generating low molecular weight peptides. Degrees of hydrolysis ranged from 73-77%. Hydrolysates inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and C-33 at concentrations exceeding 1.25 mg/ml. Major inhibition was observed with the hydrolysate germinated for 2 days and containing ethanolsoluble phytochemicals (IC(50) 2.15 and 2.27 mg/ml for HeLa and C-33, respectively). Interestingly, hydrolysate cytoxicity for normal cells was minimal in comparison to cancer cells. PMID:19688264

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Lung Cancer Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  20. Therapeutic implications of colon cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eros Fabrizi, Simona di Martino, Federica Pelacchi, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in many industrialized countries and is characterized by a heterogenic pool of cells with distinct differentiation patterns. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support with regard to several solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, cancer can be considered a disease in which mutations ei...

  1. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    The physics of cancer is a relatively new emerging field of cancer research. In the last decade it has become a focus of biophysical research as well as becoming a novel focus for classical cancer research. This special section of Physical Biology focusing on invasive cancer cells and metastasis (physical oncology) will give greater insight into the different subfields where physical approaches are being applied to cancer research. This focus on the physical aspects of cancer is necessary because novel approaches in the field of genomics and proteomics have not altered the field of cancer research dramatically, due to the fact that few breakthroughs have been made. It is still not understood why some primary tumors metastasize and thus have a worse outcome compared to others that do not metastasize. As biophysicists, we and others suggest that the mechanical properties of the cancer cells, which possess the ability to transmigrate, are quite different compared to non-metastatic and non-invasive cancer cells. Furthermore, we hypothesize that these cancer cells undergo a selection process within the primary tumor that enables them to weaken their cell-cell adhesions and to alter their cell-matrix adhesions in order to be able to cross the outermost boundary of the primary tumor, as well as the surrounding basement membrane, and to invade the connective tissue. This prerequisite may also help the cancer cells to enter blood or lymph vessels, get transported with the vessel flow and form secondary tumors either within the vessel, directly on the endothelium, or in a different organ after crossing the endothelial lining a second time. This special section begins with a paper by Mark F Coughlin and Jeffrey J Fredberg on the changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology due to the metastatic capability of cancer cells from different cancer tissue types such as skin, bladder, prostate and kidney [1]. The hypothesis was that the metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine the cytoskeletal dynamics they chose magnetic twisting cytometry, where the spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads was measured, which is a measure for the cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. The group of Katarina Wolf measured the stiffness of the cell nucleus because it is the largest and stiffest organelle, which may hinder the migration of invasive tumor cells through dense connective tissue [2]. They combined atomic force confocal microscopy for measurement of bulk nuclear stiffness (the inverse of the compressibility) with simultaneous visualization of the cantilever-nucleus contact as well as monitoring of the cell's fate. The dynamics of tissue topology such as the mixing of compartments during cancer invasion and metastasis were theoretically analyzed by Lance L Munn [3]. In particular, he presented a mathematical model of tissue repair and tumor growth based on collective cell migration that simulates a wide range of tumor behaviors using correct tissue compartmentalization and connectivity. In the future, the topological analysis could be helpful for tumor diagnosis or monitoring tumor therapy. The group of Cynthia A Reinhart-King analyzed how the topological guidance of a 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities affects cell motility [4]. In particular, they mimicked the heterogeneities in density of the tumor stroma by preparing gels with an interface of high and low density collagen gels and investigated how this affects cell motility. The author's review paper details the effect of focal adhesion proteins such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) on cell motility and how this effect is driven by mechanical alterations of cells expressing FAK compared to cells with FAK knock-out [5]. In particular, it focused on mechanical properties regulated by FAK in comparison to the mechano-regulating protein vinculin. This article highlights that both focal adhesion proteins, vinculin and FAK synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as sti

  2. Zac1, an Sp1-like protein, regulates human p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression in HeLa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pei-Yao [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Shu-Ting; Chang, Yung-Lung [Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Wei-Shiang [Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Wei-Ming, E-mail: ades0431@ms38.hinet.net [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Dermatology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Shih-Ming, E-mail: shihming@ndmctsgh.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Biochemistry, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-12-10

    Zac1 functions as both a transcription factor and a transcriptional cofactor for p53, nuclear receptors (NRs) and NR coactivators. Zac1 might also act as a transcriptional repressor via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). The ability of Zac1 to interact directly with GC-specific elements indicates that Zac1 possibly binds to Sp1-responsive elements. In the present study, our data show that Zac1 is able to interact directly with the Sp1-responsive element in the p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene promoter and enhance the transactivation activity of Sp1 through direct physical interaction. Our data further demonstrate that Zac1 might enhance Sp1-specific promoter activity by interacting with the Sp1-responsive element, affecting the transactivation activity of Sp1 via a protein-protein interaction, or competing the HDAC1 protein away from the pre-existing Sp1/HDAC1 complex. Finally, the synergistic regulation of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} gene expression by Zac1 and Sp1 is mediated by endogenous p53 protein and p53-responsive elements in HeLa cells. Our work suggests that Zac1 might serve as an Sp1-like protein that directly interacts with the Sp1-responsive element to oligomerize with and/or to coactivate Sp1.

  3. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS). PMID:23365961

  4. Stable Knock-down of Efflux Transporters Leads to Reduced Glucuronidation in UGT1A1-Overexpressing HeLa Cells: The Evidence for Glucuronidation-Transport Interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Dong, Dong; Wang, Huailing; Ma, Zhiguo; Wang, Yifei; Wu, Baojian

    2015-04-01

    Efflux of glucuronide is facilitated by the membrane transporters including BCRP and MRPs. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of transporter expression on glucuronide efflux and cellular glucuronidation. Single efflux transporter (i.e., BCRP, MRP1, MRP3, or MRP4) was stably knocked-down in UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells. Knock-down of transporters was performed by stable transfection of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) using lentiviral vectors. Glucuronidation and glucuronide transport in the cells were characterized using three different aglycones (i.e., genistein, apigenin, and emodin) with distinct metabolic activities. BCRP knock-down resulted in significant reductions in excretion of glucuronides (42.9% for genistein glucuronide (GG), 21.1% for apigenin glucuronide (AG) , and 33.7% for emodin glucuronide (EG); p MRP transporter led to substantial decreases in excretion of GG (32.3% for MRP1, 36.7% for MRP3, and 36.6% for MRP4; p MRP1, 24.7% for MRP3, and 34.1% for MRP4; p MRP1, 32.3% for MRP3, and 31.1% for MRP4; p MRP1, 32.4% for MRP3, and 34.6% for MRP4; p < 0.001) was markedly suppressed. By contrast, silencing of MRPs did not cause any changes in either excretion of EG or cellular glucuronidation of emodin. In conclusion, cellular glucuronidation was significantly altered by decreasing expression of efflux transporters, revealing a strong interplay of glucuronidation with efflux transport. PMID:25741749

  5. Coordinate turnover of nuclear and cytoplasmic histone messenger RNA following inhibition of DNA replication of HeLa S3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have examined the metabolism of human H4 histone mRNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm of HeLa S3 cells following inhibition of DNA synthesis to address the extent to which histone mRNA stability in these cellular compartments is coupled to DNA replication. The nuclear and cytoplasmic levels of histone mRNAs encoded by the pF0108A human H4 histone gene were determined by S1 nuclease analysis using a 32P-labeled probe that could distinguish pF0108A transcripts from those of other members of the H4 histone multigene family. Hydroxyurea treatment resulted within 15 min in a 75% reduction in the level of histone H4 mRNA in the nucleus, which corresponds to the 85% decrease observed for H4 histone mRNA in the cytoplasm. The kinetics of nuclear and cytoplasmic H4 mRNA turnover following hydroxyurea treatment were also similar. Northern blot analysis using a 32P-labeled mitochondrial cytochrome b probe indicated that the association of cytoplasmic RNA with the nuclear fraction was less than 0.5%. Treatment of cells with a protein synthesis inhibitor resulted in a 1.3-fold increase in nuclear H4 histone mRNA levels and a 1.5-fold increase of H4 mRNA in the cytoplasm after 45 min. Together, these results indicate that nuclear and cytoplasmic H4 histone mRNAs respond similarly to metabolic perturbations that influence message stability and that mechanisms operative in the turnover of histone mRNAs in the nucleus and cytoplasm may be similarcleus and cytoplasm may be similar

  6. Q-banding analysis of long acrocentric chromosomes in HeLa cells newly appeared after x-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature and origin of unusually long acrocentric marker chromosomes were investigated in relation to radioresistance with the application of the quinacrine-banding method. In cells receiving 800 rad, there were five types of unusually long acrocentric markers, different in structure. Evidence presented seems to suggest that all the strains with the long acrocentric markers are not always radioresistant. (author)

  7. Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and preferentially kills cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chang W; Hyemi Lee; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Brent Williams; John Powers; Troy Dos Santos; Bo-Hwa Choi; Heon Joo Park

    2012-01-01

    The anti-cancer effects of metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation were studied with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and FSaII mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of metformin caused significant clonogenic death in cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer stem cells relative to non-cancer stem cells. Metformin increased the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, ...

  8. Proteasome-dependent degradation of cytochromes P450 2E1 and 2B1 expressed in tetracycline-regulated HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) expressed in tetracycline (Tc)-inducible HeLa cell lines was characterized. A steady-state pulse-chase analysis was used to determine a half-life of 3.8 h for CYP2E1 while the half-life of CYP2B1 was 2.3-fold greater in the same cell line. In contrast, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase which is constitutively expressed in Tc-HeLa cells had a half-life of about 30 h. Lactacystin and other selective proteasome inhibitors including N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal (MG132) and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norvalinal (MG115) significantly inhibited both CYP2E1 and CYP2B1 degradation. The turnover of CYP2E1 was slightly inhibited by calpain inhibitors while CYP2B1 turnover was not altered. Inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis had no effect on the degradation of either protein. Treatment of cells with brefeldin A did not alter the degradation of either P450 which suggested the degradation occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Even in the presence of proteasome inhibitors high molecular weight ubiquitin conjugates were not observed. Mutagenesis of two putative ubiquitination sites (Lys 317 and 324) did not alter the degradation of CYP2E1. The role of ubiquitination in the degradation of CYP2E1 was also examined in a Chinese hamster mutant cell line E36ts20 that contains a thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1). The turnover itin-activating enzyme (E1). The turnover of CYP2E1 was not significantly different at the nonpermissive temperature in the ts20 when compared to the control E36 cells. Furthermore, the addition of the hsp90 inhibitors geldanamycin, herbimycin, and radicicol had no effect on the turnover of CYP2E1, differentiating the degradation of CYP2E1 from other substrates for proteasome-dependent degradation

  9. Targeting Metabolism to Induce Cell Death in Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Pecqueur; Lisa Oliver; Kristell Oizel; Lisenn Lalier; François M. Vallette

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal metabolism and the evasion of apoptosis are considered hallmarks of cancers. Accumulating evidence shows that cancer stem cells are key drivers of tumor formation, progression, and recurrence. A successful therapy must therefore eliminate these cells known to be highly resistant to apoptosis. In this paper, we describe the metabolic changes as well as the mechanisms of resistance to apoptosis occurring in cancer cells and cancer stem cells, underlying the connection between these two...

  10. Targeting SPARC by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference inhibits cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, a calcium-binding matricellular glycoprotein, is implicated in the progressions of some cancers. However, no information has been available to date regarding the function of SPARC in cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis. Methods In this study, we isolated and established high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones from human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa by the limited dilution method. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were performed to investigate SPARC mRNA and protein expressions in high invasive subclones and low invasive subclones. Then lentivirus vector with SPARC shRNA was constructed and infected the highly invasive subclones. Real-time q-RT-PCR, Western Blot and ICC were also performed to investigate the changes of SPARC expression after viral infection. In functional assays, effects of SPARC knockdown on the biological behaviors of cervical cancer cells were investigated. The mechanisms of SPARC in cervical cancer proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were also researched. Results SPARC was over-expressed in the highly invasive subclones compared with the low invasive subclones. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppressed cervical cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/G0 phase through the p53/p21 pathway, also caused cell apoptosis accompanied by the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and inhibited cell invasion and metastasis accompanied by down-regulated MMP2 and MMP9 expressions and up-regulated E-cadherin expression. Conclusion SPARC is related to the invasive phenotype of cervical cancer cells. Knockdown of SPARC significantly suppresses cervical cancer cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis and inhibits cell invasion and metastasis. SPARC as a promoter improves cervical cancer cell growth and metastasis.

  11. Antioxidant action and cytotoxicity on HeLa and NIH-3T3 cells of new quercetin derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Danihelová, Martina; Veverka, Miroslav; Šturdík, Ernest; Jantová, So?a

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin is a natural polyphenol with proven health beneficial activities. In this study 15 new quercetin derivatives were prepared with the aim to enhance their bioavailability. Modification of their physicochemical properties could herewith improve the action in cells. The prepared compounds were tested for their antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. The ability to scavenge free radicals as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power of the new derivatives was not better than that of unmodifie...

  12. Alteration of cell cycle progression by Sindbis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ruirong; Saito, Kengo; Isegawa, Naohisa; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-10

    We examined the impact of Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on cell cycle progression in a cancer cell line, HeLa, and a non-cancerous cell line, Vero. Cell cycle analyses showed that SINV infection is able to alter the cell cycle progression in both HeLa and Vero cells, but differently, especially during the early stage of infection. SINV infection affected the expression of several cell cycle regulators (CDK4, CDK6, cyclin E, p21, cyclin A and cyclin B) in HeLa cells and caused HeLa cells to accumulate in S phase during the early stage of infection. Monitoring SINV replication in HeLa and Vero cells expressing cell cycle indicators revealed that SINV which infected HeLa cells during G1 phase preferred to proliferate during S/G2 phase, and the average time interval for viral replication was significantly shorter in both HeLa and Vero cells infected during G1 phase than in cells infected during S/G2 phase. PMID:25976675

  13. MI1 – derivative of maleimide inhibits cell cycle progression in tumor cells of epithelial origin

    OpenAIRE

    Garmanchuk L. V.; Denis E. O.; Nikulina V. V.; Dzhus O. I.; Skachkova O. V.; Ribalchenko V. K.; Ostapchenko L. I.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. MI1 is a promising maleimide derivative, which exhibits antiproliferative effect on different cells. The aim of present study was to investigate influence of MI1 on the cell cycle of cancer cells and its cytotoxity. Methods. The proliferative activity and viability of human cancer cell lines (colorectal adenocarcinoma – Colo-205; breast cancer – MCF-7; cervix cancer HeLa) obtained with MTT-test and cell counts were performed using a tripan blue dye. Distribution of cell cycle phases ...

  14. N-Pyridineium-2-yl Darrow Red analogue: unique near-infrared lysosome-biomarker for the detection of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan-Dan; Liu, Wu; Sun, Ru; Fan, Chen; Xu, Yu-Jie; Ge, Jian-Feng

    2015-02-01

    The lysosome-targetable OFF-ON type pH sensor that does not emit at pH = 4.0 is adopted for the selective detection of cancer cells, and the acidity difference of lysosomes in cancer and normal cells is verified. Three pH probes based on Darrow Red derivatives were designed and prepared that were demonstrated to be lysosome-specific biomarkers with inducible emission at 580-850 nm by the comparable in cellular imaging assays using HeLa, KB, and V79 cells. Of these, a pyridineium-2-yl Darrow Red analogue with a pKa of 2.4 was found to be a lysosome tracker for cancer cells, it is a unique pH sensor for the optical identification and distinction of cancer cells from normal cells and has potential application as a fluorescent biomaker of cancer cells in in vitro assays. PMID:25569205

  15. Dependence of the rate of DNA synthesis in x-irradiated HeLa S3 cells on dose and time after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After irradiation of randomly dividing cultures of HeLa S3 cells with 220-kV x rays, the rate of DNA synthesis, measured by pulsed incorporation of labeled thymidine, falls nearly exponentially with time (t/sub 1/2/ approximately 1.3 hr), in a dose-independent fashion. The fall is less rapid than that observed after addition of inhibitors of protein synthesis. With doses up to 8 krad, the rate reaches a minimum and begins to increase after 1-3 hr, the minima occurring at lower values and at slightly later times with increasing dose. The increase appears to be roughly linear for about 6 hr, with the slope an inverse function of dose in the range 1-8 krad. About 7-9 hr after the completion of irradiation, the rate again falls, although no more than 10 percent of the cells die sooner than 14 hr after irradiation with 8 krad (and later with smaller doses). Fluorodeoxyuridine-mediated delay in expression of the depression, described previously for doses up to 1 krad, occurs also at higher doses. During the period when the rate per culture rises, the rate in the individual cells, measured autoradiographically, appears to increase also, i.e., the rise presumably does not merely reflect populational shifts. The initial descending portion of the rate curve can be at least partially separated from the ascending portion by administering the total dose in suitably spaced fractions. If interpreted in terms of the model that attributes the initial depression in rate of synthesis toinitial depression in rate of synthesis to a temporary absence of replicon initiation, the results indicate that initiation is halted by an x-ray dose smaller than 1 krad; that it begins again after a dose-dependent delay amounting to about 0.7 hr after 1 krad and 1.5 hr after 7 krad; and that once begun, the rate of synthesis increases in a dose-dependent fashion. The second depression might derive from synchronization and/or from the imminence of cell death

  16. Asymmetric cancer cell division regulated by AKT

    OpenAIRE

    Dey-guha, Ipsita; Wolfer, Anita; Yeh, Albert C.; G Albeck, John; Darp, Revati; Leon, Eduardo; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Wittner, Ben S.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Human tumors often contain slowly proliferating cancer cells that resist treatment, but we do not know precisely how these cells arise. We show that rapidly proliferating cancer cells can divide asymmetrically to produce slowly proliferating “G0-like” progeny that are enriched following chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Asymmetric cancer cell division results from asymmetric suppression of AKT/PKB kinase signaling in one daughter cell during telophase of mitosis. Moreover, inhibitio...

  17. IKK?/NF-?B mediated the low doses of bisphenol A induced migration of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Shuai, Han-Lin; Guan, Bao-Zhang; Luo, Xin; Yan, Rui-Ling

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is considered as the second most common female malignant disease. There is an urgent need to illustrate risk factors which can trigger the motility of cervical cancer cells. Our present study revealed that nanomolar concentration of bisphenol A (BPA) significantly promoted the in vitro migration and invasion of cervical cancer HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A cells. Further, BPA treatment increased the expression of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and fibronectin (FN) in both HeLa and SiHa cells, while did not obviously change the expression of MMP-2, vimentin (Vim) or N-Cadherin (N-Cad). BAY 11-7082, the inhibitor of NF-?B, significantly abolished BPA induced up regulation of FN and MMP-9 in cervical cancer cells. While the inhibitors of PKA (H89), ERK1/2 (PD 98059), EGFR (AG1478), or PI3K/Akt (LY294002) had no effect on the expression of either FN or MMP-9. BPA treatment rapidly increased the phosphorylation of both I?B? and p65, stimulated nuclear translocation, and up regulated the promoter activities of NF-?B. The BPA induced up regulation of MMP-9 and FN and activation of NF-?B were mediated by phosphorylation of IKK? via PKC signals. Collectively, our study found for the first time that BPA stimulated the cervical cancer migration via IKK-?/NF-?B signals. PMID:25797437

  18. The Implications of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjing Jiang; Jianhua Peng; Yue Zhang; Cho, William C. S.; Kunlin Jin

    2012-01-01

    Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are universally recognized as the most effective anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances directed towards elucidating molecular mechanisms and developing clinical trials, cancer still remains a major public health issue. Recent studies have showed that cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subpopulation of tumor cells, can generate bulk populations of nontumorigenic cancer cell progeny through the self-renewal and differentiation processes. As CS...

  19. Lethality of PAK3 and SGK2 shRNAs to Human Papillomavirus Positive Cervical Cancer Cells Is Independent of PAK3 and SGK2 Knockdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nannan; Ding, Bo; Agler, Michele; Cockett, Mark; McPhee, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    The p21-activated kinase 3 (PAK3) and the serum and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 2 (SGK2) have been previously proposed as essential kinases for human papillomavirus positive (HPV+) cervical cancer cell survival. This was established using a shRNA knockdown approach. To validate PAK3 and SGK2 as potential targets for HPV+ cervical cancer therapy, the relationship between shRNA-induced phenotypes in HPV+ cervical cancer cells and PAK3 or SGK2 knockdown was carefully examined. We observed that the phenotypes of HPV+ cervical cancer cells induced by various PAK3 and SGK2 shRNAs could not be rescued by complement expression of respective cDNA constructs. A knockdown-deficient PAK3 shRNA with a single mismatch was sufficient to inhibit HeLa cell growth to a similar extent as wild-type PAK3 shRNA. The HPV+ cervical cancer cells were also susceptible to several non-human target shRNAs. The discrepancy between PAK3 and SGK2 shRNA-induced apoptosis and gene expression knockdown, as well as cell death stimulation, suggested that these shRNAs killed HeLa cells through different pathways that may not be target-specific. These data demonstrated that HPV+ cervical cancer cell death was not associated with RNAi-induced PAK3 and SGK2 knockdown but likely through off-target effects. PMID:25615606

  20. Artichoke compound cynarin differentially affects the survival, growth and stress response of normal, immortalized and cancerous human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gezer, Ceren; Yücecan, Sevinç

    2015-01-01

    Cynarin (CYN) is the main derivative of caffeoylquinic acid, found in leaves and heads of artichoke. Potential health-beneficial effects of CYN include as being choloretic-cholesterol lowering, hepatoprotective, anti-atherosclerotic, and antioxidative. We have tested the effects of various doses of CYN on the proliferative potential, survival, morphology, and stress response (SR) markers haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) in normal human skin fibroblasts (FSF-1), telomerase-immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (hTERT-MSC) and cervical cancer cells, HeLa. Effects of CYN on cell proliferation and morphology were dose- and cell type-dependent, with 500 µM CYN as the upper limit for all cell types. While the growth and proliferation of cells decreased after exposure to 75 µM CYN for 3 days, overall survival of FSF-1 and hTERT-MSC was higher than that of HeLa cells. Furthermore, CYN induced oxidative SR marker HO-1 in both fibroblasts and stem cells in a biphasic manner, but a slight inductionof HSP70 was observed only in the stem cells. Thus, CYN may be useful as a protection against the growth and survival of potentially cancerous cells and may promote longevity of normal cells by induction of SR proteins. Further advanced researches related with CYN and artichoke are recommended.

  1. Cervical cancer cell lines expressing NKG2D-ligands are able to down-modulate the NKG2D receptor on NKL cells with functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimenez-Perez Miriam I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer represents the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Natural killer (NK cells play an important role in the defense against viruses, intracellular bacteria and tumors. NKG2D, an activating receptor on NK cells, recognizes MHC class I chain-related molecules, such as MICA/B and members of the ULBP/RAET1 family. Tumor-derived soluble NKG2D-ligands have been shown to down-modulate the expression of NKG2D on NK cells. In addition to the down-modulation induced by soluble NKG2D-ligands, it has recently been described that persistent cell-cell contact can also down-modulate NKG2D expression. The goal of this study was to determine whether the NKG2D receptor is down-modulated by cell-cell contact with cervical cancer cells and whether this down-modulation might be associated with changes in NK cell activity. Results We demonstrate that NKG2D expressed on NKL cells is down-modulated by direct cell contact with cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, SiHa, and C33A, but not with non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT. Moreover, this down-modulation had functional implications. We found expression of NKG2D-ligands in all cervical cancer cell lines, but the patterns of ligand distribution were different in each cell line. Cervical cancer cell lines co-cultured with NKL cells or fresh NK cells induced a marked diminution of NKG2D expression on NKL cells. Additionally, the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells against K562 targets was compromised after co-culture with HeLa and SiHa cells, while co-culture with C33A increased the cytotoxic activity of the NKL cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that differential expression of NKG2D-ligands in cervical cancer cell lines might be associated with the down-modulation of NKG2D, as well as with changes in the cytotoxic activity of NKL cells after cell-cell contact with the tumor cells.

  2. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a thin, fibrous layer known as Gerota’s fascia . The kidneys’ main job is to filter the ... type of cell present. Other types of kidney cancers Other types of kidney cancers include transitional cell ...

  3. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  4. What makes cancer stem cell markers different?

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Since the cancer stem cell concept has been widely accepted, several strategies have been proposed to attack cancer stem cells (CSC). Accordingly, stem cell markers are now preferred therapeutic targets. However, the problem of tumor specificity has not disappeared but shifted to another question: how can cancer stem cells be distinguished from normal stem cells, or more specifically, how do CSC markers differ from normal stem cell markers? A hypothesis is proposed which might help to solve t...

  5. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk ... day and for how long you have smoked. Being around the smoke ...

  6. Cancer cell detection and therapeutics using peroxidase-active nanohybrid of gold nanoparticle-loaded mesoporous silica-coated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Swarup Kumar; Mandal, Amal Kumar; Nguyen, Kim Truc; Borah, Parijat; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-05-13

    Development of efficient artificial enzymes is an emerging field in nanobiotechnology, since these artificial enzymes could overcome serious disadvantages of natural enzymes. In this work, a new nanostructured hybrid was developed as a mimetic enzyme for in vitro detection and therapeutic treatment of cancer cells. The hybrid (GSF@AuNPs) was prepared by the immobilization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on mesoporous silica-coated nanosized reduced graphene oxide conjugated with folic acid, a cancer cell-targeting ligand. The GSF@AuNPs hybrid showed unprecedented peroxidase-like activity, monitored by catalytic oxidation of a typical peroxidase substrate, 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), in the presence of H2O2. On basis of this peroxidase activity, the hybrid was utilized as a selective, quantitative, and fast colorimetric detection probe for cancer cells. Finally, the hybrid as a mimetic enzyme was employed for H2O2- and ascorbic acid (AA)-mediated therapeutics of cancer cells. In vitro experiments using human cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) exhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species (OH(•) radical) in the presence of peroxidase-mimic GSF@AuNPs with either exogenous H2O2 or endogenous H2O2 generated from AA, leading to an enhanced cytotoxicity to HeLa cells. In the case of normal cells (human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells), the treatment with the hybrid and H2O2 or AA showed no obvious damage, proving selective killing effect of the hybrid to cancer cells. PMID:25909624

  7. Human cancer cells exhibit in vitro individual receptiveness towards different mistletoe extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöpfl-Sidler, F; Viviani, A; Rist, L; Hensel, A

    2005-06-01

    In vitro cytotoxic effects of three aqueous mistletoe extracts on cell physiology against different human tumor cell lines and primary cancer cells were investigated in order to compare the receptiveness of different cancer cells against different mistletoe products. Therefore cell proliferation (BrdU-incorporation assay), mitochondrial activity (MTT-testing) and necrotic cell toxicity (LDH assay) were assayed over serial dilutions of the test products. Data obtained with HELA-S3, MOLT-4, MFM-223, COR-L51, KPL-1 and VM-CUB1 tumor cell lines and Iscador M (20 mg/ml), Iscador Q (20 mg/ml) and Abnobaviscum Fraxini -2 (20 mg/ml) indicated significant growth-inhibition of all cell lines, but also different cell susceptibilities against the different extracts. These variations were not only monitored on established cell lines but also on primary mamma carcinoma cells from surgical resectates. Concerning cell proliferation and mitochondrial activity Abnobaviscum Fraxini exhibits stronger inhibitory effects compared to products from the Iscador series. In case the evaluation was standardized on the active contents of VAA-I within the different products, the Iscador extracts possess higher cytotoxic activity. Pure viscotoxins and mistletoe lectins exhibited less effects than the extracts. The simultaneous presence of pure mistletoe lectins and mistletoe polysaccharides diminished the VAA-mediated cytotoxic effects. The presence of fetal calf serum (FCS) in cultivation media during in vitro testing diminished the cytotoxic effects of mistletoe extracts. It was shown that in vivo application of mistletoe preparations led to the formation of antibodies against unknown compounds of the extracts, diminishing the cytotoxic effect. PMID:15997835

  8. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Estrela, Jose M.; Salvador Mena; Ortega, Angel L.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-?-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor i...

  9. The relationship of cancer stem cells in urological cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pokrywczy?ska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies are ongoing to identify and isolate cancer stem cells from cancers of genito-urinary tracts. Better understanding of their role in prostate, urothelial and kidney cancer origin, growth and progression opens new pathways in development of more effective treatment methods. However there are still many issues before advances in this field can be introduced for clinical application. This review addresses current achievements in cancer stem cells research in uro-oncology.

  10. Do cancer cells undergo phenotypic switching? The case for imperfect cancer stem cell markers

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Zapperi; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2013-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in vivo and in vitro relies on specific surface markers that should allow to sort cancer cells in phenotypically distinct subpopulations. Experiments report that sorted cancer cell populations after some time tend to express again all the original markers, leading to the hypothesis of phenotypic switching, according to which cancer cells can transform stochastically into cancer stem cells. Here we explore an alternative explanation bas...

  11. RNA interference of argininosuccinate synthetase restores sensitivity to recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI in resistant cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Hao-Hsin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of cancer cells to recombinant arginine deiminase (rADI depends on expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (AS, a rate-limiting enzyme in synthesis of arginine from citrulline. To understand the efficiency of RNA interfering of AS in sensitizing the resistant cancer cells to rADI, the down regulation of AS transiently and permanently were performed in vitro, respectively. Methods We studied the use of down-regulation of this enzyme by RNA interference in three human cancer cell lines (A375, HeLa, and MCF-7 as a way to restore sensitivity to rADI in resistant cells. The expression of AS at levels of mRNA and protein was determined to understand the effect of RNA interference. Cell viability, cell cycle, and possible mechanism of the restore sensitivity of AS RNA interference in rADI treated cancer cells were evaluated. Results AS DNA was present in all cancer cell lines studied, however, the expression of this enzyme at the mRNA and protein level was different. In two rADI-resistant cell lines, one with endogenous AS expression (MCF-7 cells and one with induced AS expression (HeLa cells, AS small interference RNA (siRNA inhibited 37-46% of the expression of AS in MCF-7 cells. ASsiRNA did not affect cell viability in MCF-7 which may be due to the certain amount of residual AS protein. In contrast, ASsiRNA down-regulated almost all AS expression in HeLa cells and caused cell death after rADI treatment. Permanently down-regulated AS expression by short hairpin RNA (shRNA made MCF-7 cells become sensitive to rADI via the inhibition of 4E-BP1-regulated mTOR signaling pathway. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that rADI-resistance can be altered via AS RNA interference. Although transient enzyme down-regulation (siRNA did not affect cell viability in MCF-7 cells, permanent down-regulation (shRNA overcame the problem of rADI-resistance due to the more efficiency in AS silencing.

  12. Extinction models for cancer stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sehl, Mary; Zhou, Hua; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Lange, Kenneth L.

    2011-01-01

    Cells with stem cell-like properties are now viewed as initiating and sustaining many cancers. This suggests that cancer can be cured by driving these cancer stem cells to extinction. The problem with this strategy is that ordinary stem cells are apt to be killed in the process. This paper sets bounds on the killing differential (difference between death rates of cancer stem cells and normal stem cells) that must exist for the survival of an adequate number of normal stem cells. Our main tool...

  13. Stem cells and cancer: a deadly mix.

    OpenAIRE

    Alison, MR; Murphy, G.; Leedham, S

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells and cancer are inextricably linked; the process of carcinogenesis initially affects normal stem cells or their closely related progenitors and then, at some point, neoplastic stem cells are generated that propagate and ultimately maintain the process. Many, if not all, cancers contain a minority population of self-renewing stem cells, "cancer stem cells", that are entirely responsible for sustaining the tumour and for giving rise to proliferating but progressively differentiating c...

  14. Microarray analysis of DNA damage repair gene expression profiles in cervical cancer cells radioresistant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen-Zhou

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to obtain stable radioresistant sub-lines from the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa by prolonged exposure to 252Cf neutron and X-rays. Radioresistance mechanisms were investigated in the resulting cells using microarray analysis of DNA damage repair genes. Methods HeLa cells were treated with fractionated 252Cf neutron and X-rays, with a cumulative dose of 75 Gy each, over 8 months, yielding the sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR. Radioresistant characteristics were detected by clone formation assay, ultrastructural observations, cell doubling time, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis assay. Gene expression patterns of the radioresistant sub-lines were studied through microarray analysis and verified by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Results The radioresistant sub-lines HeLaNR and HeLaXR were more radioresisitant to 252Cf neutron and X-rays than parental HeLa cells by detecting their radioresistant characteristics, respectively. Compared to HeLa cells, the expression of 24 genes was significantly altered by at least 2-fold in HeLaNR cells. Of these, 19 genes were up-regulated and 5 down-regulated. In HeLaXR cells, 41 genes were significantly altered by at least 2-fold; 38 genes were up-regulated and 3 down-regulated. Conclusions Chronic exposure of cells to ionizing radiation induces adaptive responses that enhance tolerance of ionizing radiation and allow investigations of cellular radioresistance mechanisms. The insights gained into the molecular mechanisms activated by these "radioresistance" genes will lead to new therapeutic targets for cervical cancer.

  15. PRR11 is a novel gene implicated in cell cycle progression and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Xie, Mengyu; Lan, Huan; Zhang, Ying; Long, Yinjiang; Weng, Huali; Li, Dan; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Huifang; Niu, Yulong; Yang, Zhengmei; Zhang, Chundong; Song, Fangzhou; Bu, Youquan

    2013-03-01

    Identification and functional analysis of novel potential cancer-associated genes is of great importance for developing diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment and management. In the present study, we isolated and identified a novel gene, proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11), implicated in both cell cycle progression and lung cancer. Our results showed that PRR11 was periodically expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner, and RNAi-mediated silencing of PRR11 caused significant S phase arrest as well as growth retardation in HeLa cells. Moreover, PRR11 was overexpressed at both mRNA and protein levels in lung cancer tissues as compared with normal lung tissues. Large scale in silico analysis of clinical microarray datasets also indicated that high expression of PRR11 was significantly associated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. RNAi-mediated silencing of PRR11 caused S phase arrest, suppressed cellular proliferation, colony formation ability in lung cancer cells and inhibited tumorigenic potential in nude mice. Knockdown of PRR11 also inhibited cell migration and invasion ability in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, microarray analysis revealed that PRR11 knockdown caused the dysregulation of multiple critical pathways and various important genes involved in cell cycle, tumorigenesis and metastasis (e.g. CCNA1, RRM1, MAP4K4 and EPB41L3). Taken together, our results strongly demonstrated that this newly identified gene, PRR11, had a critical role in both cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis, and might serve as a novel potential target in the diagnosis and/or treatment of human lung cancer. PMID:23246489

  16. Egyptian herbal tea infusions' antioxidants and their antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elansary, Hosam O; Mahmoud, Eman A

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant, antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against different human cancer cells were investigated in local and recently introduced plants of Mentha sp., Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) and Origanum majorana L. (OML). ROL exhibited the highest antioxidant activities (IC50 8.4 ± 0.2 ?g/mL) followed by OML and mint species such as Mentha suaveolens 'apple mint' and Mentha longifolia L. exhibiting moderate antioxidant activities. HPLC analysis of leaf extract revealed that rosmarinic acid is the main component followed by caffeic acid. Herbal leaf extracts varied in their proliferation inhibition and cytotoxicity against HeLa, MCF-7 and Jurkat cancer cells in a dose-dependent matter. The highest antiproliferative inhibition and cytotoxic activity were detected in ROL and OML followed by mint. Local herbs might have a potential role as anticancer natural medicines in addition to their high antioxidant activities due to the presence of different phenolics in their aqueous tea extracts. PMID:25141946

  17. Ectoenzyme switches the surface of magnetic nanoparticles for selective binding of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Xu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    Enzymatic switch, such as phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins, is the most important mechanism for cellular signal transductions. Inspired by Nature and encouraged by our recent unexpected observation of the dephosphorylation of d-tyrosine phosphate-contain small peptides, we modify the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) with d-tyrosine phosphate that is a substrate of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our studies find that ALP is able to remove the phosphate groups from the magnetic nanoparticles. Most importantly, placental alkaline phosphatase (ALPP), an ectoenzyme that locates on cell surface with catalytic domains outside the plasma membrane and is overexpressed on many cancer cells, dephosphorylate the d-tyrosine phosphates on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticle and enable the magnetic nanoparticles to adhere selectively to the cancer cells, such as HeLa cells. Unlikely commonly used antibodies, the selectivity of the magnetic nanoparticles to cancer cells originates from the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by ALPP. The use of enzymatic reaction to modulate the surface of various nanostructures may lead to a general method to broadly target cancer cells without relying on specific ligand-receptor interactions (e.g., antibodies). This work, thus, illustrates a fundamentally new concept to allow cells to actively engineer the surface of colloids materials, such as magnetic nanoparticles, for various applications. PMID:25586118

  18. Wide-field imaging and flow cytometric analysis of cancer cells in blood by fluorescent nanodiamond labeling and time gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yuen Yung; Su, Long-Jyun; Chen, Oliver Yenjyh; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2014-07-01

    Nanodiamonds containing high density ensembles of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV-) centers are promising fluorescent biomarkers due to their excellent photostability and biocompatibility. The NV- centers in the particles have a fluorescence lifetime of up to 20 ns, which distinctly differs from those (cell and tissue autofluorescence, making it possible to achieve background-free detection in vivo by time gating. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) as optical labels for wide-field time-gated fluorescence imaging and flow cytometric analysis of cancer cells with a nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) as the detector. The combined technique has allowed us to acquire fluorescence images of FND-labeled HeLa cells in whole blood covered with a chicken breast of ~0.1-mm thickness at the single cell level, and to detect individual FND-labeled HeLa cells in blood flowing through a microfluidic device at a frame rate of 23 Hz, as well as to locate and trace FND-labeled lung cancer cells in the blood vessels of a mouse ear. It opens a new window for real-time imaging and tracking of transplanted cells (such as stem cells) in vivo.

  19. The effect of troglitazone on thermal sensitivity in uterine cervix cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troglitazone (TRO), a PPAR-? agonist, can reduce heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and increase the antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which might affect thermal sensitivity. Here, we investigated whether TRO modifies thermal sensitivity in uterine cervical cancer cells, which is most commonly treated by hyperthermia (HT). HeLa cells were treated with 5?M TRO for 24 hours before HT at 42 .deg. C for 1 hour. Cell survival was analyzed by clonogenic assay. The expression of HSPs was analyzed by Western blot. SOD and catalase activity was measured and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydroethidium. The decreased cell survival by HT was increased by preincubation with TRO before HT. Expression of HSP 70 was increased by HT however, it was not decreased by preincubation with TRO before HT. The decreased Bcl-2 expression by HT was increased by preincubation with TRO. SOD and catalase activity was increased by 1.2 and 1.3 times, respectively with TRO. Increased ROS by HT was decreased by preincubation with TRO. TRO decreases thermal sensitivity through increased SOD and catalase activity, as well as scavenging ROS in HeLa cells.

  20. Cancer Stem Cells in Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Trapasso S; Allegra E

    2011-01-01

    Eugenia Allegra, Serena TrapassoOtolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal), giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differe...

  1. Cancer Stem Cells Converted from Pluripotent Stem Cells and the Cancerous Niche

    OpenAIRE

    T. Kasai; Chen, L.; Mizutani, AZ; Kudoh, T.; Murakami, H.; Fu, L; Seno, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the cancer stem cells are considered to be significantly responsible for growth, metastasis, invasion and recurrence of all cancer. Cancer stem cells are typically characterized by continuous proliferation and self-renewal as well as by differentiation potential, while stem cells are considered to differentiate into tissue- specific phenotype of mature cells under the influence of micro-environment. Cancer stem cells should be traced to the stem cells under the influence of a micro-...

  2. The study on the effect of artesunate on the radio-sensitivity of human cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of artesunate on radio-sensitivity of human cervical cancer cells in vitro. The human cervical cancer cells HeLa and Siha were used as the experimental cells. MTT assay was used to determine the most appropriate drug concentration in the subsequent experiment, and the effect of human cervical cancer cells treated with artesunate and irradiation of 60Co ?-rays was studied by using conventional chromosomal aberration analysis and cytokinesis block method (CB method). The results show that when the concentration of artesunate in this experiment was 2.0 ?mol/L for HeLa cell and 4.0 ?mol/L for Siha cell respectively, the chromosome aberration, micronuclei cell and micronuclei rates of HeLa cells treated with artesunate were more serious than that of the only irradiation, but there is almost no change with Siha cells. (authors)

  3. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  4. Differential effects of class I isoform histone deacetylase depletion and enzymatic inhibition by belinostat or valproic acid in HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejligbjerg, Marielle; Grauslund, Morten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of gene expression, balanced by histone acetyl transferases and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) induce growth arrest and cell death in transformed cells, and are currently in many clinical cancer trials. The transcriptional response to HDACi is complex, as is the response to HDAC isoform knockdown (KD). Here, we describe for the first time in a human cancer cell line, a transcriptional comparison of treatment by two structurally unrelated HDACi; belinostat and valproic acid with the KD of HDAC1, 2 and 3 isoforms. RESULTS: HDAC KD showed anti-proliferative effects, although to a lesser extent than HDACi treatment. Moreover, we found a 2-fold increased resistance of HDAC1 knockdown cells to belinostat, suggesting this isoenzyme as a selective target. While both HDACi treatment and individual class I HDAC KD produce significant transcriptional effects, three-times higher for HDACi, the gene-expression profiles of class I HDAC KD compared with that obtained by HDACi treatment exhibited less than 4% of altered genes in common between the two modes of inhibition. Further, cell-specific effects of HDAC KD are evident by comparison with a recent study in a different cell line. CONCLUSION: The increased resistance to belinostat in response to HDAC1 depletion indicates the possibility of using this isoform as a predictive biomarker of response to HDACi treatment. Further, the transcriptional response to chemical inhibition of HDACs is very different from that of KD of individual class I HDAC isoforms. These data suggest that the anti-tumor effect of HDACi is indeed linked to class I inhibition, but may be more complex than simply targeting individual HDAC enzymes.

  5. Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related to Cancer Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients CAM for Health Professionals Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ...

  6. Sensitization of cervix cancer cells to Adriamycin by Pentoxifylline induces an increase in apoptosis and decrease senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahagun-Flores Jose E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotherapeutic drugs like Adriamycin (ADR induces apoptosis or senescence in cancer cells but these cells often develop resistance and generate responses of short duration or complete failure. The methylxantine drug Pentoxifylline (PTX used routinely in the clinics setting for circulatory diseases has been recently described to have antitumor properties. We evaluated whether pretreatment with PTX modifies apoptosis and senescence induced by ADR in cervix cancer cells. Methods HeLa (HPV 18+, SiHa (HPV 16+ cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control were treated with PTX, ADR or PTX + ADR. The cellular toxicity of PTX and survival fraction were determinated by WST-1 and clonogenic assay respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and ADR efflux rate were measured by flow cytometry, senescence by microscopy. I?B? and DNA fragmentation were determinated by ELISA. Proapoptotic, antiapoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/E7 mRNA expression, were detected by time real RT-PCR. p53 protein levels were assayed by Western blot. Results PTX is toxic (WST-1, affects survival (clonogenic assay and induces apoptosis in cervix cancer cells. Additionally, the combination of this drug with ADR diminished the survival fraction and significantly increased apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cervix cancer cells. Treatments were less effective in HaCaT cells. We found caspase participation in the induction of apoptosis by PTX, ADR or its combination. Surprisingly, in spite of the antitumor activity displayed by PTX, our results indicate that methylxantine, per se does not induce senescence; however it inhibits senescence induced by ADR and at the same time increases apoptosis. PTX elevates I?B? levels. Such sensitization is achieved through the up-regulation of proapoptotic factors such as caspase and bcl family gene expression. PTX and PTX + ADR also decrease E6 and E7 expression in SiHa cells, but not in HeLa cells. p53 was detected only in SiHa cells treated with ADR. Conclusion PTX is a good inducer of apoptosis but does not induce senescence. Furthermore, PTX reduced the ADR-induced senescence and increased apoptosis in cervix cancer cells.

  7. The Effects of Anti-Hcg Monoclonal Antibodies on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirshahi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cancer cell lines express human choriogonadotropin (hCG, its subunits and derivatives, regardless of their origin and type. It appears that hCG is a common phenotype in human cancer cell lines. In this research, the effects of hCG targeting monoclonal antibodies (7D9, T18H7 and T8B12 on human cancer cell lines were evaluated. Methods: Monoclonal antibody secreting hybridomas were proliferated and injected intraperitoneally to Balb/C mice after treatment with pristine. Two weeks later, ascites fluid was collected. Purification of aforementioned antibodies from ascites fluid was performed using G-protein affinity followed by ion exchange chromatography. SDS-PAGE and ELISA confirmed the structure and functional integrity of the purified antibodies, respectively. Two human cancer cell lines "Hela" and "MDA" were treated by the purified antibodies. Three days later, different wells were imaged and the cells counted. Results: SDS-PAGE gel (None-reducing indicated consistency of band migration patterns with control antibodies. ELISA test using hCG antigens indicated that the produced antibodies could detect hCG antigens. Cell lines were cultured and treated with different concentrations of each antibody. Counting and imaging different wells of treated plates, indicated that 7D9 antibody had a more significant (P<0.01 cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than the control cells. Conclusion: HCG targeting monoclonal antibodies can be used for targeted cancer therapy, as human cancer cells express hCG gene. 7D9 antibody that exhibits protease activity is a proper candidate for this purpose, as it possesses both antagonistic and enzymatic properties.

  8. NuMA and nuclear lamins are cleaved during viral infection - inhibition of caspase activity prevents cleavage and rescues HeLa cells from measles virus-induced but not from rhinovirus 1B-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear matrix is a structural framework of important nuclear processes. We studied the effect of two different types of viral infections on nuclear matrix. HeLa cells were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV 1B) or measles virus (MV), and Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus protein (NuMA) and lamins A/C and B were used as markers for internal nuclear matrix and peripheral nuclear lamina, respectively. We show that NuMA, lamins, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 are cleaved during viral infection in a virus family-specific manner suggesting that these viruses activate different sets of proteases. Morphologically, NuMA was excluded from the condensed chromatin, lamins showed a folded distribution, and both proteins finally remained around the nuclear fragments. A general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) prevented the nuclear disintegration and the cleavage of the proteins studied. Interestingly, z-VAD-FMK rescued MV-infected but not HRV 1B-infected cells from cell death. These results show for the first time that NuMA and lamins are specific target proteins during virus-induced programmed cell death

  9. Effect of collagen and collagen peptides from bluefin tuna abdominal skin on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Kawamura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effect of collagen and collagen peptides from bluefin tuna abdominal skin on cancer cells. Collagens were extracted from bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientails abdominal, mackerel, and carp skin. The calf and salmon collagen were used reagent grade as a standard samples. The main protein band pattern produced by SDS-PAGE of all collagen samples consisted of two chains and one chain. For collagen peptides samples, bluefin tuna ab-dominal skin collagen and salmon skin collagen were hydrolyzed by trypsin. Among samples, salmon, mackerel, carp collagen, and their collagen peptides did not significantly reduce relative cell growth. However, the bluefin tuna abdominal skin collagen dramatically reduced HepG2 and HeLa cell growth by over 50% relative in a concentration-dependent manner when added to cells seeded 96-well plates. This suggests the collagen adding time was mightily important for effect of the collagen.

  10. Mitotic Control of Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Venere, Monica; Miller, Tyler E.; Jeremy N. Rich

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are self-renewing, tumorigenic cells at the apex of tumor hierarchies, and postulated to be quiescent in many tumor types. This issue of Cancer Discovery highlights a study that links the presentation of kinetochores within mitosis to an essential requirement for BUB1B/BubR1, broadening our understanding of the cell-cycle machinery in cancer stem cells.

  11. Stemness is Derived from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    RishengMa; SimonBonnefond

    2014-01-01

    Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and exa...

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application in HeLa Cells of an NIR Light Responsive Doxorubicin Delivery System Based on NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, Paulino; Oton-Fernandez, Olalla; Mendez-Gonzalez, Diego; Díaz, J Fernando; Lopez-Cabarcos, Enrique; Barasoain, Isabel; Rubio-Retama, Jorge

    2015-07-15

    Herein, we present a phototriggered drug delivery system based on light responsive nanoparticles, which is able to release doxorubicin upon NIR light illumination. The proposed system is based on upconversion fluorescence nanoparticles of ?-NaYF4:Yb,Tm@SiO2-PEG with a mean diameter of 52 ± 2.5 nm that absorb the NIR light and emit UV light. The UV radiation causes the degradation of photodegradable ortho-nitrobenzyl alcohol derivates, which are attached on one side to the surface of the nanoparticles and on the other to doxorubicin. This degradation triggers the doxorubicin release. This drug delivery system has been tested "in vitro" with HeLa cells. The results of this study demonstrated that this system caused negligible cytotoxicity when they were not illuminated with NIR light. In contrast, under NIR light illumination, the HeLa cell viability was conspicuously reduced. These results demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system to control the release of doxorubicin via an external NIR light stimulus. PMID:26094748

  13. Interaction of celecoxib with different anti-cancer drugs is antagonistic in breast but not in other cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, is being investigated for enhancement of chemotherapy efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study investigates the ability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to sensitize cells from different origins to several chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of the drug's mechanism of action and sequence of administration are also investigated. The sensitivity, cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage of five different cancer cell lines (HeLa, HCT116, HepG2, MCF7 and U251) to 5-FU, cisplatin, doxorubicin and etoposide ± celecoxib following different incubation schedules were analyzed. We found antagonism between celecoxib and the four drugs in the breast cancer cells MCF7 following all incubation schedules and between celecoxib and doxorubicin in all cell lines except for two combinations in HCT116 cells. Celecoxib with the other three drugs in the remaining four cell lines resulted in variable interactions. Mechanistic investigations revealed that celecoxib exerts different molecular effects in different cells. In some lines, it abrogates the drug-induced G2/M arrest enhancing pre-mature entry into mitosis with damaged DNA thus increasing apoptosis and resulting in synergism. In other cells, it enhances drug-induced G2/M arrest allowing time to repair drug-induced DNA damage before entry into mitosis and decreasing cell death resulting in antagonism. In some synergistic combinations, celecoxib-induced abrogation of G2/M arrest was not assced abrogation of G2/M arrest was not associated with apoptosis but permanent arrest in G1 phase. These results, if confirmed in-vivo, indicate that celecoxib is not a suitable chemosensitizer for breast cancer or with doxorubicin for other cancers. Moreover, combination of celecoxib with other drugs should be tailored to the tumor type, drug and administration schedule. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Celecoxib may enhance effects of anticancer drugs. ? Its combination with four drugs was tested in five cancer cell lines. ? It antagonized the effects of the four drugs in the breast cancer cell line MCF7. ? Doxorubicin's cytotoxic effects were antagonized by celecoxib in four cell lines. ? Cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA damage explain the different interactive effects.

  14. Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintusorn Hansakul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. P.B. (Yaa paak khwaai and Eleusine indica (L. Gaerth. (Yaa teen-ka have long been used in traditional Thai medicine because of their diuretic, anti-inflamatory, and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of the hexane and butanolic extracts of these two grass species. All the grass extracts exhibited selective growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer (A549 and cervical cancer (HeLa cells relative to normal human lung MRC-5 fibroblasts with IC50 values in a range of 202 to 845 mg/ml. Apparently, HeLa cellswere more sensitive to the extracts than A549 cells. Moreover, all the extracts induced lethality in both cancer cell lines atconcentrations close to 1,000 mg/ml, indicating their selective cytotoxicity effects. ELISA assay showed that only the hexaneextract of D. aegyptium (L. P.B. and E. indica (L. Gaerth. significantly increased the apoptotic level in extract-treatedA549 cells. However, DNA ladder assay detected classic DNA ladder patterns, a characteristic feature of apoptosis, in both cancer cell lines treated with all the extracts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicatethat the cytotoxic activity of the grass extracts against lung and cervical cancer cells is mediated through the induction ofapoptosis.

  15. Anticancer potential of Conium maculatum extract against cancer cells in vitro: Drug-DNA interaction and its ability to induce apoptosis through ROS generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Jesmin; Panigrahi, Ashis Kumar; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Conium maculatum extract is used as a traditional medicine for cervix carcinoma including homeopathy. However, no systematic work has so far been carried out to test its anti-cancer potential against cervix cancer cells in vitro. Thus, in this study, we investigated whether ethanolic extract of conium is capable of inducing cytotoxicity in different normal and cancer cell lines including an elaborate study in HeLa cells. Materials and Methods: Conium's effects on cell cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis, if any, were analyzed through flow cytometry. Whether Conium could damage DNA and induce morphological changes were also determined microscopically. Expression of different proteins related to cell death and survival was critically studied by western blotting and ELISA methods. If Conium could interact directly with DNA was also determined by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Results: Conium treatment reduced cell viability and colony formation at 48 h and inhibited cell proliferation, arresting cell cycle at sub-G stage. Conium treatment lead to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 24 h, increase in MMP depolarization, morphological changes and DNA damage in HeLa cells along with externalization of phosphatidyl serine at 48 hours. While cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation led HeLa cells toward apoptosis, down-regulation of Akt and NFkB inhibited cellular proliferation, indicating the signaling pathway to be mediated via the mitochondria-mediated caspase-3-dependent pathway. CD-spectroscopy revealed that Conium interacted with DNA molecule. Conclusion: Overall results validate anti-cancer potential of Conium and provide support for its use in traditional systems of medicine. PMID:25298670

  16. Cancer stem cell markers in common cancers - therapeutic implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klonisch, Thomas; Wiechec, Emilia

    2008-01-01

    Rapid advance in the cancer stem cell field warrants optimism for the development of more reliable cancer therapies within the next 2-3 decades. Below, we characterize and compare the specific markers that are present on stem cells, cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSC) in selected tissues (colon, breast, liver, pancreas, and prostate). It is becomingevident that successful cancer therapies have to eradicate CSC. Thus, strategies aimed at efficient targeting of CSC are becoming vital for monitoring the progress of cancer therapy and evaluating new therapeutic approaches. Therefore, the last part of the review discusses future directions of this intriguing new research field in the context of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  17. Asymmetric cancer cell division regulated by AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey-Guha, Ipsita; Wolfer, Anita; Yeh, Albert C; G Albeck, John; Darp, Revati; Leon, Eduardo; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Wittner, Ben S; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2011-08-01

    Human tumors often contain slowly proliferating cancer cells that resist treatment, but we do not know precisely how these cells arise. We show that rapidly proliferating cancer cells can divide asymmetrically to produce slowly proliferating "G0-like" progeny that are enriched following chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. Asymmetric cancer cell division results from asymmetric suppression of AKT/PKB kinase signaling in one daughter cell during telophase of mitosis. Moreover, inhibition of AKT signaling with small-molecule drugs can induce asymmetric cancer cell division and the production of slow proliferators. Cancer cells therefore appear to continuously flux between symmetric and asymmetric division depending on the precise state of their AKT signaling network. This model may have significant implications for understanding how tumors grow, evade treatment, and recur. PMID:21757645

  18. Honeybee venom possesses anticancer and antiviral effects by differential inhibition of HPV E6 and E7 expression on cervical cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Chaturvedi, Pankaj Kumar; Chun, Sung Nam; Lee, Yang Gu; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2015-04-01

    Bee venom (BV) therapy is a type of alternative medical treatment used to treat various diseases in oriental medicine. The mechanisms underlying the effects of BV remain poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of BV on cervical carcinoma cell lines (CaSki, HeLa, C33A and TC-1). BV treatments resulted in a more significant suppression of cell growth in HPV 16-infected cells (CaSki) and a lesser suppression in HPV 18-infected cells (HeLa). However, less suppression was observed in HPV-negative C33A cells. In 10 µg/ml BV-treated CaSki cells, the mRNA expression and protein levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 were significantly decreased by BV, while HPV18 E6 and E7 mRNA expression levels were not significantly altered by 10 µg/ml BV-treated HeLa cells. The antitumor effects of BV were in accordance with in vitro data, in restricting tumor growth in vivo and were much more effective on the suppression of tumor growth. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 were decreased by BV in TC-1 tumors. These findings demonstrated the antiviral effects of BV in HPV-infected cervical cancer cells and the anticancer effects of BV in HPV16 E6/E7-expressed TC-1 tumors. Collectively, BV plays a differential role in suppressing HPV16-infected cells (CaSki cells) and HPV18-infected cells (HeLa cells) by the downregulation of E6/E7 protein of HPV16/18. PMID:25633640

  19. Targeting the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell

    OpenAIRE

    Qin Ling; Siclari Valerie A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common type of solid bone cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in pediatric patients. Many patients are not cured by the current osteosarcoma therapy consisting of combination chemotherapy along with surgery and thus new treatments are urgently needed. In the last decade, cancer stem cells have been identified in many tumors such as leukemia, brain, breast, head and neck, colon, skin, pancreatic, and prostate cancers and these cells are...

  20. Anti-TROP2 conjugated hollow gold nanospheres as a novel nanostructure for targeted photothermal destruction of cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Tian, Jiguang; Chen, Zhaolong; Liang, Ying; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Si; Li, Huihui; Zhan, Jinhua; Yang, Xingsheng

    2014-08-29

    Photothermal ablation (PTA) is a promising avenue in the area of cancer therapeutics that destroys tumor cells through conversion of near-infrared (NIR) laser light to heat. Hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) are one of the few materials that are capable of converting light to heat and have been previously used for photothermal ablation studies. Selective delivery of functional nanoparticles to the tumor site is considered as an effective therapeutic approach. In this paper, we demonstrated the anti-cancer potential of HGNs. HGNs were conjugated with monoclonal antibody (anti-TROP2) in order to target cervical cancer cells (HeLa) that contain abundant trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) on the cell surface. The efficient uptake and intracellular location of these functionalized HGNs were studied through application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity induced by PTA was measured using CCK-8 assay. HeLa cells incubated with naked HGNs (0.3-3 nmol L(-1)) within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. Under laser irradiation at suitable power, anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs achieved significant tumor cell growth inhibition in comparison to the effects of non-specific PEGylated HGNs (P < 0.05). ?H2AX assay results revealed higher occurrences of DNA-DSBs with anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs plus laser radiation as compared to treatment with laser alone. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the amount of cell apoptosis was increased after laser irradiation with anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs (P < 0.05). Anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. Our study results confirmed that anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs can selectively destroy cervical cancer cells through inducing its apoptosis and DNA damages. We propose that HGNs have the potentials to mediate targeted cancer treatment. PMID:25102337

  1. Anti-TROP2 conjugated hollow gold nanospheres as a novel nanostructure for targeted photothermal destruction of cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Tian, Jiguang; Chen, Zhaolong; Liang, Ying; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Si; Li, Huihui; Zhan, Jinhua; Yang, Xingsheng

    2014-08-01

    Photothermal ablation (PTA) is a promising avenue in the area of cancer therapeutics that destroys tumor cells through conversion of near-infrared (NIR) laser light to heat. Hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs) are one of the few materials that are capable of converting light to heat and have been previously used for photothermal ablation studies. Selective delivery of functional nanoparticles to the tumor site is considered as an effective therapeutic approach. In this paper, we demonstrated the anti-cancer potential of HGNs. HGNs were conjugated with monoclonal antibody (anti-TROP2) in order to target cervical cancer cells (HeLa) that contain abundant trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (TROP2) on the cell surface. The efficient uptake and intracellular location of these functionalized HGNs were studied through application of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytotoxicity induced by PTA was measured using CCK-8 assay. HeLa cells incubated with naked HGNs (0.3-3 nmol L-1) within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. Under laser irradiation at suitable power, anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs achieved significant tumor cell growth inhibition in comparison to the effects of non-specific PEGylated HGNs (P < 0.05). ?H2AX assay results revealed higher occurrences of DNA-DSBs with anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs plus laser radiation as compared to treatment with laser alone. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the amount of cell apoptosis was increased after laser irradiation with anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs (P < 0.05). Anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs resulted in down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression. Our study results confirmed that anti-TROP2 conjugated HGNs can selectively destroy cervical cancer cells through inducing its apoptosis and DNA damages. We propose that HGNs have the potentials to mediate targeted cancer treatment.

  2. How cell death shapes cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, V; Erlacher, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis has been established as a mechanism of anti-cancer defense. Members of the BCL-2 family are critical mediators of apoptotic cell death in health and disease, often found to be deregulated in cancer and believed to lead to the survival of malignant clones. However, over the years, a number of studies pointed out that a model in which cell death resistance unambiguously acts as a barrier against malignant disease might be too simple. This is based on paradoxical observations made in tumor patients as well as mouse models indicating that apoptosis can indeed drive tumor formation, at least under certain circumstances. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that apoptosis can promote proliferation critically needed to compensate for cell loss, for example, upon therapy, and to restore tissue homeostasis. However, this, at the same time, can promote tumor development by allowing expansion of selected clones. Usually, tissue resident stem/progenitor cells are a major source for repopulation, some of them potentially carrying (age-, injury- or therapy-induced) genetic aberrations deleterious for the host. Thereby, apoptosis might drive genomic instability by facilitating the emergence of pathologic clones during phases of proliferation and subsequent replication stress-associated DNA damage. Tumorigenesis initiated by repeated cell attrition and repopulation, as confirmed in different genetic models, has parallels in human cancers, exemplified in therapy-induced secondary malignancies and myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with congenital bone marrow failure syndromes. Here, we aim to review evidence in support of the oncogenic role of stress-induced apoptosis. PMID:25741600

  3. In vitro antiproliferative effect and induction of apoptosis by Retama monosperma L. extract in human cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghoub, N; Benbacer, L; El Btaouri, H; Ait Benhassou, H; Terryn, C; Attaleb, M; Madoulet, C; Benjouad, A; El Mzibri, M; Morjani, H; Amzazi, S

    2011-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of different extracts obtained from Retama monosperma L. was investigated on human SiHa and HeLa cervical cancer cell lines using a MTT colorimetric assay. The Retama monosperma L. dichloromethane fraction (Rm-DF) was the most active extract, exhibiting a significant cytotoxic activity on both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, after 72 h of treatment. IC50 values obtained were 14.57 ± 4.15 ?g/ml and 21.33 ± 7.88 ?g/ml, for SiHa and HeLa cell lines respectively. The morphological features assessment of apoptosis in Rm-DF-treated cells showed a condensation of chromatin and apoptotic bodies, accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and an increase in reactive oxygen species in both cell lines. The induction of apoptosis was further confirmed by Western blotting pro-caspase 3, Bcl2 and PARP; caspase 3 activity assay; and Annexin V labelling. Analysis of Rm-DF by CG/MS revealed the presence of five known quinolizidine alkaloids as well as, sparteine (10,97%), L-methyl cytisine (9.11%), 17-oxosparteine (3.49%), lupanine (0.93%) and anagyrine (39.63%). This study shows that Retama monosperma L. extract exhibits a potential anticancer activity against cervical cancer cell lines in vitro through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which may involve a mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:22000488

  4. Inhibition of dynamin by dynole 34-2 induces cell death following cytokinesis failure in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chircop, Megan; Perera, Swetha; Mariana, Anna; Lau, Hui; Ma, Maggie P C; Gilbert, Jayne; Jones, Nigel C; Gordon, Christopher P; Young, Kelly A; Morokoff, Andrew; Sakoff, Jennette; O'Brien, Terence J; McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J

    2011-09-01

    Inhibitors of mitotic proteins such as Aurora kinase and polo-like kinase have shown promise in preclinical or early clinical development for cancer treatment. We have reported that the MiTMAB class of dynamin small molecule inhibitors are new antimitotic agents with a novel mechanism of action, blocking cytokinesis. Here, we examined 5 of the most potent of a new series of dynamin GTPase inhibitors called dynoles. They all induced cytokinesis failure at the point of abscission, consistent with inhibition of dynamin while not affecting other cell cycle stages. All 5 dynoles inhibited cell proliferation (MTT and colony formation assays) in 11 cancer cell lines. The most potent GTPase inhibitor, dynole 34-2, also induced apoptosis, as revealed by cell blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and PARP cleavage. Cell death was induced specifically following cytokinesis failure, suggesting that dynole 34-2 selectively targets dividing cells. Dividing HeLa cells were more sensitive to the antiproliferative properties of all 5 dynoles compared with nondividing cells, and nontumorigenic fibroblasts were less sensitive to cell death induced by dynole 34-2. Thus, the dynoles are a second class of dynamin GTPase inhibitors, with dynole 34-2 as the lead compound, that are novel antimitotic compounds acting specifically at the abscission stage. PMID:21750222

  5. Characterizing cancer cells with cancer stem cell-like features in 293T human embryonic kidney cells

    OpenAIRE

    Buchholz Thomas A; Lacerda Lara; Xu Wei; Robertson Fredika; Ueno Naoto T; Lucci Anthony; Landis Melissa D; Rodriguez Angel A; Li Li(State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China); Cohen Evan; Gao Hui; Krishnamurthy Savitri; Zhang Xiaomei; Debeb Bisrat G; Cristofanilli Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the first suggestion of prospectively identifiable cancer stem cells in solid tumors, efforts have been made to characterize reported cancer stem cell surrogates in existing cancer cell lines, and cell lines rich with these surrogates have been used to screen for cancer stem cell targeted agents. Although 293T cells were derived from human embryonic kidney, transplantation of these cells into the mammary fat pad yields aggressive tumors that self-renew as evidenced b...

  6. Study of the mechanism of bystander effect of KDR-CDglyTK system mediated by adenovirus for the treatment of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Li; Yanping, Li; Zonghai, Huang; Fei, Chen; Zhou, Li; Jinlong, Yu

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between cellular gap junction and bystander effect in gastric cancer SCG7901 cell killing by adenovirus-mediated KDR-CDglyTK system. SCG7901 and HeLa cells were transfected (MOI-100) with recombinant adenovirus carrying fusion gene. Transfection efficiency/fusion gene mRNA expression were determined; intercellular communications in the presence of apigenin were measured by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Transfected/non-transfected cells were mixed at 5:95/10:90% ratios, respectively, incubated for 24 h with/without apigenin, and for 72 h with GCV and 5-FU. Cell survival was determined by MTT method. The transfected SCG7901/HeLa cells expressed GFP. Fluorescence intensity in SCG7901 cells decreased after photobleaching but recovered over time. Fluorescence intensity in HeLa cells also decreased after photobleaching with no recovery. Following apigenin treatment, fluorescence intensity differed between SCG7901 and HeLa cells. Survival rates of SCG7901 cells differed among prodrug, apigenin, and prodrug + apigenin groups compared with controls, but no significant difference was observed for HeLa cells. We concluded that the intercellular communication in SCG7901 cells related with the gap junctions, while there was no such communication in HeLa cells. The bystander killing effect related with the intercellular gap junctions and was increased by apigenin with no such effect seen in HeLa cells. PMID:23605100

  7. The Implications of Cancer Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Jiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are universally recognized as the most effective anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances directed towards elucidating molecular mechanisms and developing clinical trials, cancer still remains a major public health issue. Recent studies have showed that cancer stem cells (CSCs, a small subpopulation of tumor cells, can generate bulk populations of nontumorigenic cancer cell progeny through the self-renewal and differentiation processes. As CSCs are proposed to persist in tumors as a distinct population and cause relapse and metastasis by giving rise to new tumors, development of CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies holds new hope for improving survival and quality of life in patients with cancer. Therapeutic innovations will emerge from a better understanding of the biology and environment of CSCs, which, however, are largely unexplored. This review summarizes the characteristics, evidences and development of CSCs, as well as implications and challenges for cancer treatment.

  8. Modulation of Cyclins, p53 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Breast Cancer Cell Lines by 4-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenoxybenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Han Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in cancer therapy and early detection, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females worldwide. The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor activity of a novel compound, 4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenoxybenzoic acid (TMPBA and its mechanism of action, in breast cancer. Results indicated the relatively high sensitivity of human breast cancer cell-7 and MDA-468 cells towards TMPBA with IC50 values of 5.9 and 7.9 µM, respectively compared to hepatocarcinoma cell line Huh-7, hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, and cervical cancer cell line Hela cells. Mechanistically, TMPBA induced apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells as indicated by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI nuclear staining, cell cycle analysis and the activation of caspase-3. Western blot analysis revealed the ability of TMPBA to target pathways mediated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and p53, of which the concerted action underlined its antitumor efficacy. In addition, TMPBA induced alteration of cyclin proteins’ expression and consequently modulated the cell cycle. Taken together, the current study underscores evidence that TMPBA induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells via the modulation of cyclins and p53 expression as well as the modulation of AMPK and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling. These findings support TMPBA’s clinical promise as a potential candidate for breast cancer therapy.

  9. Dielectrophoretic separation of colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Fang; Yang, Xiaoming; Jiang, Hong; Bulkhaults, Phillip; Wood, Patricia; Hrushesky, William; Wang, Guiren

    2010-01-01

    Separation of colorectal cancer cells from other biological materials is important for stool-based diagnosis of colorectal cancer. In this paper, we use conventional dielectrophoresis in a microfluidic chip to manipulate and isolate HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. It is noticed that at a particular alternating current frequency band, the HCT116 cells are clearly deflected to a side channel from the main channel after the electric activation of an electrode pair. This motion caused by negative...

  10. Targeting phosphodiesterase 3B enhances cisplatin sensitivity in human cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported that human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines refractory to cis-diaminedichloro-platinum II (cisplatin [CDDP]) had significant upregulation of the phosphodiesterase 3B gene (PDE3B), suggesting that inhibiting PDE3B suppresses CDDP resistance. shRNA-mediated PDE3B depletion in CDDP-resistant cells derived from SCC cells and Hela cells and induced CDDP sensitivity and inhibited tumor growth with elevated cyclic GMP induction resulting in upregulation of the multidrug-resistant molecule, but this did not occur in the 5-fluorouracil-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, the antitumor growth effect of the combination of a PDE3B inhibitor (cilostazol) and CDDP in vivo was also greater than with either cilostazol or CDDP alone, with a significant increase in the number of apoptotic and cell growth-suppressive cancer cells in CDDP-resistance cell lines. Our results provided novel information on which to base further mechanistic studies of CDDP sensitization by inhibiting PDE3B in human cancer cells and for developing strategies to improve outcomes with concurrent chemotherapy

  11. Mast cells, angiogenesis and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico; Crivellato, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) were first described by Paul Ehrlich 1 in his doctoral thesis. MCs have long been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic reactions and certain protective responses to parasites. As most tumors contain inflammatory cell infiltrates, which often include plentiful MCs, the question as to the possible contribution of MCs to tumor development has progressively been emerging. In this chapter, the specific involvement of MCs in tumor biology and tumor fate will be considered, with particular emphasis on the capacity of these cells to stimulate tumor growth by promoting angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Data from experimental carcinogenesis and from different tumor settings in human pathology will be summarized. Information to be presented will suggest that MCs may serve as a novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. PMID:21713661

  12. Effect of sun ginseng potentiation on epirubicin and paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingjia; Jiang, Dan; Li, Yang; Han, Xinye; Yu, Di; Park, Jeong Hill; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Sun ginseng (SG), a specific formulation of quality-controlled red ginseng, contains approximately equal amounts of three major ginsenosides (RK1, Rg3, and Rg5), which reportedly has antitumor-promoting activities in animal models. Methods MTT assay was used to assess whether SG can potentiate the anticancer activity of epirubicin or paclitaxel in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, human colon cancer SW111C cells, and SW480 cells; apoptosis status was analyzed by annexin V-FITC and PI and analyzed by flow cytometry; and apoptosis pathway was studied by analysis of caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation, mitochondrial accumulation of Bax and Bak, and cytochrome c release. Results SG remarkably enhances cancer cell death induced by epirubicin or paclitaxel in human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells, human colon cancer SW111C cells, and SW480 cells. Results of the mechanism study highlighted the cooperation between SG and epirubicin or paclitaxel in activating caspase-3 and -9 but not caspase-8. Moreover, SG significantly increased the mitochondrial accumulation of both Bax and Bak triggered by epirubicin or paclitaxel as well as the subsequent release of cytochrome c in the targeted cells. Conclusion SG significantly potentiated the anticancer activities of epirubicin and paclitaxel in a synergistic manner. These effects were associated with the increased mitochondrial accumulation of both Bax and Bak that led to an enhanced cytochrome c release, caspase-9/-3 activation, and apoptosis. Treating cancer cells by combining epirubicin and paclitaxel with SG may prove to be a novel strategy for enhancing the efficacy of the two drug types. PMID:25535473

  13. Endocytosis and membrane potential are required for HeLa cell uptake of R.I.-CKTat9, a retro inverso Tat cell penetrating peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Jin, Yongjiu; Plummer, Mark R.; Pooyan, Shahriar; Gunaseelan, Simi; Sinko, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can enter many types of cells and have become useful tools for introducing a variety of cargo such as exogenous peptides, proteins, and nucleic acids into cultured cells in vitro. Tat CPPs derived from the HIV-1 Tat protein are the most widely used among the arginine-rich CPPs. Even though CPPs hold considerable promise for drug delivery, poor biological stability and high in vivo clearance may limit their effectiveness for delivering cargo. Therefore, we util...

  14. UCLA study finds radiation treatment transforms breast cancer cells into cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer stem cells are thought to be the sole source of tumor recurrence and are known to be resistant to radiation therapy and don't respond well to chemotherapy. Now, researchers with the UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center report for the first time that radiation treatment – despite killing half of all tumor cells during every treatment – transforms other cancer cells into treatment-resistant breast cancer stem cells.

  15. Role of stem cells in cancer therapy and cancer stem cells: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sales Kevin; Chaib Boussad; Sagar Jayesh; Winslet Marc; Seifalian Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Abstract For over 30 years, stem cells have been used in the replenishment of blood and immune systems damaged by the cancer cells or during treatment of cancer by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Apart from their use in the immuno-reconstitution, the stem cells have been reported to contribute in the tissue regeneration and as delivery vehicles in the cancer treatments. The recent concept of 'cancer stem cells' has directed scientific communities towards a different wide new area of research fi...

  16. Population genetics of cancer cell clones: possible implications of cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Naugler Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The population dynamics of the various clones of cancer cells existing within a tumour is complex and still poorly understood. Cancer cell clones can be conceptualized as sympatric asexual species, and as such, the application of theoretical population genetics as it pertains to asexual species may provide additional insights. Results The number of generations of tumour cells within a cancer has been estimated at a minimum of 40, but high cancer cell mortality rates sugges...

  17. Role of stem cells in cancer therapy and cancer stem cells: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Kevin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For over 30 years, stem cells have been used in the replenishment of blood and immune systems damaged by the cancer cells or during treatment of cancer by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Apart from their use in the immuno-reconstitution, the stem cells have been reported to contribute in the tissue regeneration and as delivery vehicles in the cancer treatments. The recent concept of 'cancer stem cells' has directed scientific communities towards a different wide new area of research field and possible potential future treatment modalities for the cancer. Aim of this review is primarily focus on the recent developments in the use of the stem cells in the cancer treatments, then to discuss the cancer stem cells, now considered as backbone in the development of the cancer; and their role in carcinogenesis and their implications in the development of possible new cancer treatment options in future.

  18. Cell type-specific anti-cancer properties of valproic acid: independent effects on HDAC activity and Erk1/2 phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Bock Elisabeth; Berezin Vladimir; Lepekhin Eugene A; Skladchikova Galina; Gotfryd Kamil; Walmod Peter S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (VPA) has attracted attention as an anti-cancer agent. Methods The present study investigated effects of VPA exposure on histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition, cell growth, cell speed, and the degree of Erk1/2 phosphorylation in 10 cell lines (BT4C, BT4Cn, U87MG, N2a, PC12-E2, CSML0, CSML100, HeLa, L929, Swiss 3T3). Results VPA induced significant histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in most of the cell lines, but the degree of inhibi...

  19. TERRA Expression Levels Do Not Correlate With Telomere Length and Radiation Sensitivity in Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElenaGiulotto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian telomeres are transcribed into long non-coding telomeric RNA molecules (TERRA that seem to play a role in the maintenance of telomere stability. In human cells, CpG island promoters drive TERRA transcription and are regulated by methylation. It was suggested that the amount of TERRA may be related to telomere length. To test this hypothesis we measured telomere length and TERRA levels in single clones isolated from five human cell lines: HeLa (cervical carcinoma, BRC-230 (breast cancer, AKG and GK2 (gastric cancers and GM847 (SV40 immortalized skin fibroblasts. We observed great clonal heterogeneity both in TRF (Terminal Restriction Fragment length and in TERRA levels. However, these two parameters did not correlate with each other. Moreover, cell survival to ?-rays did not show a significant variation among the clones, suggesting that, in this cellular system, the intra-population variability in telomere length and TERRA levels does not influence sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This conclusion was supported by the observation that in a cell line in which telomeres were greatly elongated by the ectopic expression of telomerase, TERRA expression levels and radiation sensitivity were similar to the parental HeLa cell line.

  20. miR-196a targets netrin 4 and regulates cell proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [Department of Pathology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng 252000 (China); Zheng, Fangxia [Department of Radiotherapy, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng 252000 (China); Yu, Gang [Department for Disease Control, Tumor Hospital of Liaocheng, Liaocheng 252000 (China); Yin, Yanhua, E-mail: yinyanhuablk@163.com [Department of Pathology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng 252000 (China); Lu, Qingyang [Department of Pathology, Liaocheng People’s Hospital, Liaocheng 252000 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •miR-196a was overexpressed in cervical cancer tissue compared to normal tissue. •miR-196a expression elevated proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells. •miR-196a inhibited NTN4 expression by binding 3?-UTR region of NTN4 mRNA. •NTN4 inversely correlated with miR-196a expression in cervical tissue and cell line. •NTN4 expression was low in cervical cancer tissue compared to normal tissue. -- Abstract: Recent research has uncovered tumor-suppressive and oncogenic potential of miR-196a in various tumors. However, the expression and mechanism of its function in cervical cancer remains unclear. In this study, we assess relative expression of miR-196a in cervical premalignant lesions, cervical cancer tissues, and four cancer cell lines using quantitative real-time PCR. CaSki and HeLa cells were treated with miR-196a inhibitors, mimics, or pCDNA/miR-196a to investigate the role of miR-196a in cancer cell proliferation and migration. We demonstrated that miR-196a was overexpressed in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2–3 and cervical cancer tissue. Moreover, its expression contributes to the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells, whereas inhibiting its expression led to a reduction in proliferation and migration. Five candidate targets of miR-196a chosen by computational prediction and Cervical Cancer Gene Database search were measured for their mRNA in both miR-196a-overexpressing and -depleted cancer cells. Only netrin 4 (NTN4) expression displayed an inverse association with miR-196a. Fluorescent reporter assays revealed that miR-196a inhibited NTN4 expression by targeting one binding site in the 3?-untranslated region (3?-UTR) of NTN4 mRNA. Furthermore, qPCR and Western blot assays verified NTN4 expression was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal controls, and in vivo mRNA level of NTN4 inversely correlated with miR-196a expression. In summary, our findings provide new insights about the functional role of miR-196a in cervical carcinogenesis and suggested a potential use of miR-196a for clinical diagnosis and as a therapeutic target.

  1. [Cancer stem cells and the niches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Yuya

    2015-05-01

    The fate of stem cells is tightly controlled by specialized microenvironments (niches). Cell cycle quiescence is a key behavior of stem cells, which protects them from being exhausted by exogenous insults. Since the discovery of cancer stem cells, which are quiescent and thus resistant to anti-cancer therapy, there has been considerable interest regarding whether or not there are distinct niches for quiescent and expanding cancer cells, respectively. In our recent study using whole-mount immunofluorescence imaging techniques, we found that arteriolar niches promote hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) dormancy and that the NG2+ peri-arteriolar niche cells themselves are quiescent, suggesting that bone marrow arterioles comprise a specialized microenvironment that promotes quiescence of both HSCs and niche cells. In this review, we will argue about the advance of our knowledge on normal stem cell niches and the roles of microenvironments in cancer. PMID:25985624

  2. Epigenetic targeting of ovarian cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinu; Cardenas, Horacio; Fang, Fang; Condello, Salvatore; Taverna, Pietro; Segar, Matthew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Emerging results indicate that cancer stem-like cells contribute to chemoresistance and poor clinical outcomes in many cancers, including ovarian cancer. As epigenetic regulators play a major role in the control of normal stem cell differentiation, epigenetics may offer a useful arena to develop strategies to target cancer stem-like cells. Epigenetic aberrations, especially DNA methylation, silence tumor-suppressor and differentiation-associated genes that regulate the survival of ovarian cancer stem-like cells (OCSC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that DNA-hypomethylating agents may be able to reset OCSC toward a differentiated phenotype by evaluating the effects of the new DNA methytransferase inhibitor SGI-110 on OCSC phenotype, as defined by expression of the cancer stem-like marker aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). We demonstrated that ALDH(+) ovarian cancer cells possess multiple stem cell characteristics, were highly chemoresistant, and were enriched in xenografts residual after platinum therapy. Low-dose SGI-110 reduced the stem-like properties of ALDH(+) cells, including their tumor-initiating capacity, resensitized these OCSCs to platinum, and induced reexpression of differentiation-associated genes. Maintenance treatment with SGI-110 after carboplatin inhibited OCSC growth, causing global tumor hypomethylation and decreased tumor progression. Our work offers preclinical evidence that epigenome-targeting strategies have the potential to delay tumor progression by reprogramming residual cancer stem-like cells. Furthermore, the results suggest that SGI-110 might be administered in combination with platinum to prevent the development of recurrent and chemoresistant ovarian cancer. PMID:25035395

  3. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in 95-D lung cancer cells by drimartol A from hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Dan-Dan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Drimartol A (DA), a sesquiterpene courmarin ether, was isolated from the cultured hairy roots of A. annua for the first time, and no biological activity of DA has ever been reported. In this work, DA was shown to possess interesting cytotoxic activities against the human tumor cell lines of HO8910 (ovary), 95-D (lung), QGY (liver) and HeLa (cervix) by MTT assay, whose IC50 values were ranged within 17.94-22.3 ?M for 24h. Given that treatment of lung cancer is a priority of our interest, indu...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... another part of the body, it is called metastasis . Cancer cells break away from where they began ( ... non-small cell lung cancer spreads to the brain, the cancer cells in the brain are actually ...

  5. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the white blood cells as well as the cancer. Other causes of a low white blood cell count include: Crohn's disease Infections, such as tuberculosis (TB) or certain viruses like HIV Lupus (also ...

  6. Cancer Stem Cells in Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Jing Wang; Malkoski, Stephen P.; Doyel Mitra

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common malignancy world-wide, however the survival rate has not improved for the past 20 years. In recent years, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis has gained ground in several malignancies and there is mounting evidence suggesting CSCs mediate tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. However, the CSC theory is also challenged at least in certain types of cancer. Here we review the progress of CSC studies in HNC, which suggest tha...

  7. Targeting the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteosarcoma is the most common type of solid bone cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in pediatric patients. Many patients are not cured by the current osteosarcoma therapy consisting of combination chemotherapy along with surgery and thus new treatments are urgently needed. In the last decade, cancer stem cells have been identified in many tumors such as leukemia, brain, breast, head and neck, colon, skin, pancreatic, and prostate cancers and these cells are proposed to play major roles in drug resistance, tumor recurrence, and metastasis. Recent studies have shown evidence that osteosarcoma also possesses cancer stem cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the osteosarcoma cancer stem cell including the methods used for its isolation, its properties, and its potential as a new target for osteosarcoma treatment.

  8. Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapasso S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eugenia Allegra, Serena TrapassoOtolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs, also called "cells that start the tumor," represent in themselves one of the most topical and controversial issues in the field of cancer research. Tumor stem cells are able to self-propagate in vitro (self-renewal, giving rise both to other tumor stem cells and most advanced cells in the line of differentiation (asymmetric division. A final characteristic is tumorigenicity, a fundamental property, which outlines the tumor stem cell as the only cell able to initiate the formation of a tumor when implanted in immune-deficient mice. The hypothesis of a hierarchical organization of tumor cells dates back more than 40 years, but only in 1997, thanks to the work of John Dick and Dominique Bonnet, was there the formal proof of such an organization in acute myeloid leukemia. Following this, many other research groups were able to isolate CSCs, by appropriate selection markers, in various malignancies, such as breast, brain, colon, pancreas, and liver cancers and in melanoma. To date, however, it is not possible to isolate stem cells from all types of neoplasia, particularly in solid tumors. From a therapeutic point of view, the concept of tumor stem cells implies a complete revision of conventional antineoplastic treatment. Conventional cytotoxic agents are designed to target actively proliferating cells. In the majority of cases, this is not sufficient to eliminate the CSCs, which thanks to their reduced proliferative activity and/or the presence of proteins capable of extruding chemotherapeutics from the cell are not targeted. Therefore, the theory of cancer stem cells can pose new paradigms in terms of cancer treatment. Potential approaches, even in the very early experimental stages, relate to the selective inhibition of pathways connected with self-renewal, or more specifically based on the presence of specific surface markers for selective cytotoxic agent vehicles. Finally, some research groups are trying to induce these cells to differentiate, thus making them easier to remove. For all these reasons, we have collected existing literature on head and neck cancer stem cells that correlate the biological characteristics of this subpopulation of cancer cells with the clinical behavior of tumors.Keywords: head and neck cancer, cancer stem cells, tumor markers

  9. Encapsulated stem cells for cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells have inherent tumor?trophic migratory properties and can serve as vehicles for delivering effective, targeted therapy to isolated tumors and metastatic disease, making them promising anti?cancer agents. Encapsulation of therapeutically engineered stem cells in hydrogels has been utilized to provide a physical barrier to protect the cells from hostile extrinsic factors and significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of transplanted stem cells in different models of cancer. This r...

  10. VP2 capsid domain of the H-1 parvovirus determines susceptibility of human cancer cells to H-1 viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, I-R; Kaowinn, S; Song, J; Kim, S; Koh, S S; Kang, H-Y; Ha, N-C; Lee, K H; Jun, H-S; Chung, Y-H

    2015-05-01

    Although H-1 parvovirus is used as an antitumor agent, not much is known about the relationship between its specific tropism and oncolytic activity. We hypothesize that VP2, a major capsid protein of H-1 virus, determines H-1-specific tropism. To assess this, we constructed chimeric H-1 viruses expressing Kilham rat virus (KRV) capsid proteins, in their complete or partial forms. Chimeric H-1 viruses (CH1, CH2 and CH3) containing the whole KRV VP2 domain could not induce cytolysis in HeLa, A549 and Panc-1 cells. However, the other chimeric H-1 viruses (CH4 and CH5) expressing a partial KRV VP2 domain induced cytolysis. Additionally, the significant cytopathic effect caused by CH4 and CH5 infection in HeLa cells resulted from preferential viral amplification via DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Modeling of VP2 capsid protein showed that two variable regions (VRs) (VR0 and VR2) of H-1 VP2 protein protrude outward, because of the insertion of extra amino-acid residues, as compared with those of KRV VP2 protein. This might explain the precedence of H-1 VP2 protein over KRV in determining oncolytic activity in human cancer cells. Taking these results together, we propose that the VP2 protein of oncolytic H-1 parvovirus determines its specific tropism in human cancer cells. PMID:25857359

  11. Cancer stem cells in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathia, Justin D; Mack, Stephen C; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Valentim, Claudia L L; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-06-15

    Tissues with defined cellular hierarchies in development and homeostasis give rise to tumors with cellular hierarchies, suggesting that tumors recapitulate specific tissues and mimic their origins. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor and contains self-renewing, tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) that contribute to tumor initiation and therapeutic resistance. As normal stem and progenitor cells participate in tissue development and repair, these developmental programs re-emerge in CSCs to support the development and progressive growth of tumors. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that govern CSCs has informed the development of novel targeted therapeutics for GBM and other brain cancers. CSCs are not self-autonomous units; rather, they function within an ecological system, both actively remodeling the microenvironment and receiving critical maintenance cues from their niches. To fulfill the future goal of developing novel therapies to collapse CSC dynamics, drawing parallels to other normal and pathological states that are highly interactive with their microenvironments and that use developmental signaling pathways will be beneficial. PMID:26109046

  12. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Wei YUE; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Qing NIE; Chen, Hexin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and sup...

  13. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carcinoma. Smoking increases the risk of small cell lung cancer. Smoking cigarettes , pipes , or cigars is the most common cause ... be at risk. Risk factors for small cell lung cancer include: Smoking cigarettes, pipes, or cigars now or in the past. ...

  14. Cancer Stem Cells: Controversial or Just Misunderstood?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Craig T.

    2009-01-01

    While a broad range of expertise has recently come to bear on the intriguing topic of “cancer stem cells,” the overall relevance of stem cells as they relate to cancer remains in dispute. In this commentary, underlying points of contention are described with the aim of defining focal points for discussion and future consideration.

  15. Microfluidic Approaches for Cancer Cell Separation: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Osman Saeed; Rui Li; Yulin Deng

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the recent developments in microfluidic technologies for in vitro cancer diagnosis. We summarize the working principles and experimental results of microfluidic platforms for cancer cell detection, and separation based on magnetic activated micro-sorting, and differences in cellular biophysics (e.g., cell size and dielectrophoresis (DEP)).

  16. Identification of cytoskeleton-associated proteins essential for lysosomal stability and survival of human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth-Pedersen, Line; Aits, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Microtubule-disturbing drugs inhibit lysosomal trafficking and induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization followed by cathepsin-dependent cell death. To identify specific trafficking-related proteins that control cell survival and lysosomal stability, we screened a molecular motor siRNA library in human MCF7 breast cancer cells. SiRNAs targeting four kinesins (KIF11/Eg5, KIF20A, KIF21A, KIF25), myosin 1G (MYO1G), myosin heavy chain 1 (MYH1) and tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) were identified as effective inducers of non-apoptotic cell death. The cell death induced by KIF11, KIF21A, KIF25, MYH1 or TPM2 siRNAs was preceded by lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and all identified siRNAs induced several changes in the endo-lysosomal compartment, i.e. increased lysosomal volume (KIF11, KIF20A, KIF25, MYO1G, MYH1), increased cysteine cathepsin activity (KIF20A, KIF25), altered lysosomal localization (KIF25, MYH1, TPM2), increased dextran accumulation (KIF20A), or reduced autophagic flux (MYO1G, MYH1). Importantly, all sevensiRNAs also killed human cervix cancer (HeLa) and osteosarcoma (U-2-OS) cells and sensitized cancer cells to other lysosome-destabilizing treatments, i.e. photo-oxidation, siramesine, etoposide or cisplatin. Similarly to KIF11 siRNA, the KIF11 inhibitor monastrol induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and sensitized several cancer cell lines to siramesine. While KIF11 inhibitors are under clinical development as mitotic blockers, our data reveal a new function for KIF11 in controlling lysosomal stability and introduce six other molecular motors as putative cancer drug targets.

  17. Do cancer cells undergo phenotypic switching? The case for imperfect cancer stem cell markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2012-06-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in vivo and in vitro relies on specific surface markers that should allow to sort cancer cells in phenotypically distinct subpopulations. Experiments report that sorted cancer cell populations after some time tend to express again all the original markers, leading to the hypothesis of phenotypic switching, according to which cancer cells can transform stochastically into cancer stem cells. Here we explore an alternative explanation based on the hypothesis that markers are not perfect and are thus unable to identify all cancer stem cells. Our analysis is based on a mathematical model for cancer cell proliferation that takes into account phenotypic switching, imperfect markers and error in the sorting process. Our conclusion is that the observation of reversible expression of surface markers after sorting does not provide sufficient evidence in support of phenotypic switching.

  18. Molecular basis for the differential use of glucose and glutamine in cell proliferation as revealed by synchronized HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sergio L; Palacios-Callender, Miriam; Frakich, Nanci; Carcamo, Saul; Kovacs, Istvan; Tudzarova, Slavica; Moncada, Salvador

    2011-12-27

    During cell division, the activation of glycolysis is tightly regulated by the action of two ubiquitin ligases, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C-Cdh1) and SKP1/CUL-1/F-box protein-?-transducin repeat-containing protein (SCF-?-TrCP), which control the transient appearance and metabolic activity of the glycolysis-promoting enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3). We now demonstrate that the breakdown of PFKFB3 during S phase occurs specifically via a distinct residue (S(273)) within the conserved recognition site for SCF-?-TrCP. Glutaminase 1 (GLS1), the first enzyme in glutaminolysis, is also targeted for destruction by APC/C-Cdh1 and, like PFKFB3, accumulates after the activity of this ubiquitin ligase decreases in mid-to-late G1. However, our results show that GLS1 differs from PFKFB3 in that its recognition by APC/C-Cdh1 requires the presence of both a Lys-Glu-Asn box (KEN box) and a destruction box (D box) rather than a KEN box alone. Furthermore, GLS1 is not a substrate for SCF-?-TrCP and is not degraded until cells progress from S to G2/M. The presence of PFKFB3 and GLS1 coincides with increases in generation of lactate and in utilization of glutamine, respectively. The contrasting posttranslational regulation of PFKFB3 and GLS1, which we have verified by studies of ubiquitination and protein stability, suggests the different roles of glucose and glutamine at distinct stages in the cell cycle. Indeed, experiments in which synchronized cells were deprived of either of these substrates show that both glucose and glutamine are required for progression through the restriction point in mid-to-late G1, whereas glutamine is the only substrate essential for the progression through S phase into cell division. PMID:22106309

  19. Cancer Stem Cells and Side Population Cells in Breast Cancer and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W.J. Lennard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In breast cancer it is never the primary tumour that is fatal; instead it is the development of metastatic disease which is the major cause of cancer related mortality. There is accumulating evidence that suggests that Cancer Stem Cells (CSC may play a role in breast cancer development and progression. Breast cancer stem cell populations, including side population cells (SP, have been shown to be primitive stem cell-like populations, being long-lived, self-renewing and highly proliferative. SP cells are identified using dual wavelength flow cytometry combined with Hoechst 33342 dye efflux, this ability is due to expression of one or more members of the ABC transporter family. They have increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and apoptotic stimuli and have increased migratory potential above that of the bulk tumour cells making them strong candidates for the metastatic spread of breast cancer. Treatment of nearly all cancers usually involves one first-line agent known to be a substrate of an ABC transporter thereby increasing the risk of developing drug resistant tumours. At present there is no marker available to identify SP cells using immunohistochemistry on breast cancer patient samples. If SP cells do play a role in breast cancer progression/Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC, combining chemotherapy with ABC inhibitors may be able to destroy both the cells making up the bulk tumour and the cancer stem cell population thus preventing the risk of drug resistant disease, recurrence or metastasis.

  20. Therapeutic implications of colon cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Fabrizi, Simona di Martino, Federica Pelacchi, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in many industrialized countries and is characterized by a heterogenic pool of cells with distinct differentiation patterns. Recently, the concept that cancer might arise from a rare population of cells with stem cell-like properties has received support with regard to several solid tumors, including colorectal cancer. According to the cancer stem cell hypothesis, cancer can be considered a disease in which mutations either convert normal stem cells into aberrant counterparts or cause a more differentiated cell to revert toward a stem cell-like behaviour; either way these cells are thought to be responsible for tumor generation and propagation. The statement that only a subset of cells drives tumor formation has major implications for the development of new targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the tumor stem cell population. This review will focus on the biology of normal and malignant colonic stem cells, which might contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for tumor development and resistance to therapy.

  1. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, T; Ohama, Y; Fukuda, A; Hayashi, M; Kawakubo, A; Kato, K

    2001-07-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the cell surface of Colo201 cells in the sugar chain dependent manner. This means that the binding of ESA to the cell surface is specific for mannose-rich sugar chains recognized by ESA. The binding of ESA to the cell surface of Colo201 cells was slightly suppressed by the high concentrations of serum because of the competition with serum components possessing the mannose-rich sugar chain motifs. On the other hand, a lipid vesicle is a very useful microcapsule constructed by multilamellar structure,and adopted as drug or gene carrier. ESA was immobilized on the surface of the lipid vesicles to apply the lipid vesicles to cancer specific drug delivery system. ESA-immobilized lipid vesicles were effectively bound to cancer cell lines compared with plane vesicles. PMID:19003319

  2. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1 ligand, Jagged-1, and this was complemented by radiation induced Notch-1 activation. Studies also linked hypoxia and BCSC renewal through Epo signaling. Treatment with rhEpo induced an increase in BCSC's, which again was due to rhEpo induced Jagged-1 expression and subsequent Notch-1 activation. This thesis suggests that radiation and rhEpo induce Jagged-1 expression in non-stem cells, which then induce Notch-1 activation in adjacent stem cells, and results in symmetric cancer stem cell self-renewal.

  3. Molecular basis for the differential use of glucose and glutamine in cell proliferation as revealed by synchronized HeLa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, S. L.; Palacios-Callender, M.; Frakich, N.; Carcamo, S.; Kovacs, I.; Tudzarova, S.; Moncada, S.

    2011-01-01

    During cell division, the activation of glycolysis is tightly regulated by the action of two ubiquitin ligases, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-Cdh1 (APC/C-Cdh1) and SKP1/CUL-1/F-box protein-?-transducin repeat-containing protein (SCF-?-TrCP), which control the transient appearance and metabolic activity of the glycolysis-promoting enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, isoform 3 (PFKFB3). We now demonstrate that the breakdown of PFKFB3 during S phase occurs speci...

  4. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression via human papillomavirus oncogene E7 in HPV-18-positive cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Cui, Jinquan

    2015-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection induces chronic and precancerous lesions and results in invasive cervical cancer. Human telomerase as well as inflammatory and angiogenic factors such as telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could play a role in regulating HPV-induced cervical cancer. This study investigated underlying molecular events in HPV-induced HPV-positive cervical cancer through hTERT and VEGF in vitro. Expressions of hTERT, a rate-limiting subunit of telomerase, and VEGF mRNA and proteins were, respectively, assessed by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and TRAP-ELISA in HPV-positive tissue samples and cervical cancer cell lines. To assess hTERT and VEGF secretion, hTERT overexpression and knockdown were conducted in HPV-18-positive Hela cells by hTERT cDNA and shRNA transfection, respectively. Then, the effect of HPV E6 and E7 on VEGF expressions was assessed in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data have shown that VEGF expression levels are associated with hTERT expressions and telomerase activity in HPV-positive cervical cancer tissues and cells. Knockdown of hTERT expression down-regulated VEGF expressions, whereas overexpression of hTERT up-regulated VEGF expressions in HPV-18-positive Hela cells. Furthermore, HPV E7 oncoprotein was necessary for hTERT to up-regulate VEGF expressions in HPV-negative cervical cancer cells. Data from this current study indicate that HPV oncoproteins up-regulated hTERT and telomerase activity and in turn promoted VEGF expressions, which could be a key mechanism for HPV-induced cervical cancer development and progression. PMID:26067630

  5. Cancer stem cells as targets for cancer therapy: selected cancers as examples

    OpenAIRE

    Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Paranjothy, Ted; Wiechec, Emilia; POCAR, PAOLA; Mustafa, Tarek; Seifert, Anja; Zahl, Christian; Luis Gerlach, Klaus; Biermann, Katharina; Steger, Klaus; HOANG-VU, CUONG; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Los, Marek Jan

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that cancer constitutes a group of diseases involving altered stem-cell maturation/differentiation and the disturbance of regenerative processes. The observed malignant transformation is merely a symptom of normal differentiation processes gone astray rather than the primary event. This review focuses on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in three common but also relatively under-investigated cancers: head and neck, ovarian, and testicular cancer. For did...

  6. Dendrimeric anticancer prodrugs for targeted delivery of ursolic acid to folate receptor-expressing cancer cells: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Li, Zhihong; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaoqun; You, Jiali; Mo, Fan; Jin, Biyu; Chen, Jianzhong; Shao, Jingwei; Chen, Haijun; Jia, Lee

    2015-04-01

    The anticancer efficacy of ursolic acid (UA) was limited by poor water solubility, non-specific tumor distribution, and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) conjugated with UA and folic acid (FA) as novel dendrimeric prodrugs were designed and successfully synthesized by a concise one-pot synthetic approach. Both FA and UA were covalently conjugated to the surface of PAMAM through acid-labile ester bonds and the covalently linked UA could be hydrolysed either in acidic (pH 5.4) or in neutral (pH 7.4) PBS solution. The cellular uptake study indicated that the presence of FA enhanced uptake of the dendrimeric prodrugs in folate receptor (FR) over-expressing Hela cells. The enhanced cellular uptake could be due to the electrostatic absorptive endocytosis and FR-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, for HepG2 cells, a FR-negative cell line, FA conjugation on the surface of the dendrimer showed no effect on the cellular uptake. In MTT assay and cell cycle analysis, FA-modified dendrimeric prodrugs showed significantly enhanced toxicity than non-FA-modified ones in Hela cells. These results suggested that FA-modified dendrimeric UA prodrugs have the potential for targeted delivery of UA into cancer cells to improve its anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:25638419

  7. Differential expression of the TFIIIB subunits Brf1 and Brf2 in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veras Ingrid

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA polymerase (pol III transcription is specifically elevated in a variety of cancers and is a target of regulation by a variety of tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Accurate initiation by RNA pol III is dependent on TFIIIB. In higher eukaryotes, two forms of TFIIIB have been characterized. TFIIIB required for proper initiation from gene internal RNA pol III promoters is comprised of TBP, Bdp1, and Brf1. Proper initiation from gene external RNA pol III promoters requires TBP, Bdp1, and Brf2. We hypothesized that deregulation of RNA polymerase III transcription in cancer may be a consequence of altered TFIIIB expression Results Here, we report: (1 the TFIIIB subunits Brf1 and Brf2 are differentially expressed in a variety of cancer cell lines: (2 the Brf1 and Brf2 promoters differ in activity in cancer cell lines, and (3 VAI transcription is universally elevated, as compared to U6, in breast, prostate and cervical cancer cells. Conclusion Deregulation of TFIIIB-mediated transcription may be an important step in tumor development. We demonstrate that Brf1 and Brf2 mRNA are differentially expressed in a variety of cancer cells and that the Brf2 promoter is more active than the Brf1 promoter in all cell lines tested. We also demonstrate, that Brf1-dependent VAI transcription was significantly higher than the Brf2-dependent U6 snRNA transcription in all cancer cell lines tested. The data presented suggest that Brf2 protein expression levels correlate with U6 promoter activity in the breast, cervical and prostate cell lines tested. Interestingly, the Brf1 protein levels did not vary considerably in HeLa, MCF-7 and DU-145 cells, yet Brf1 mRNA expression varied considerably in breast, prostate and cervical cancer cell lines tested. Thus, Brf1 promoter activity and Brf1 protein expression levels did not correlate well with Brf1-dependent transcription levels. Taken together, we reason that deregulation of Brf1 and Brf2 expression could be a key mechanism responsible for the observed deregulation of RNA pol III transcription in cancer cells.

  8. The enriched fraction of Elephantopus scaber Triggers apoptosis and inhibits multi-drug resistance transporters in human epithelial cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeran, Asmy Appadath; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Rao, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. Elephantopus scaber (Asteraceae) (ES) is widely used in Indian traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments including cancer. Objective: To investigate anticancer effects of ES in human epithelial cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of ES (ES-ET) and its fractions, such as ES Petroleum ether fraction (ES-PET), ES Dichloromethane fraction (ES DCM), n Butyl alcohol fraction (ES-BT), and ES-Rest (ES-R) were assessed in human epithelial cancer cell lines using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay and Hoechst 33342 assays were used to gauge induction of apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis and micronuclei assay were used to assess cell cycle specific pharmacological effects and drug induced genotoxicty. Further, the ability of ES to inhibit multi drug resistant (MDR) transporters (ABC-B1 and ABC-G2) was determined by Rhodamine (Rho) and Mitoxantrone (MXR) efflux assays. Results: The enriched fraction of ES (ES DCM) possessed dose-dependent potent cytotoxicity in human epithelial cancer cells. Further, treatment of cancer cells (HeLa, A549, MCF-7, and Caco-2) with ES DCM showed hall mark properties of apoptosis (membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation etc.). Similarly, ES DCM caused enhanced sub G0 content and micronuclei formation indicating the induction of apoptosis and drug induced genotoxicity in cancer cells, respectively. Interestingly, ES DCM inhibited MDR transporters (ABC B1 and ABC G2) in cancer cells. Conclusion: The enriched fraction of ES imparted cytotoxic effects, triggered apoptosis, induced genotoxicity, and inhibited MDR transporters in human epithelial cancer cells. Thus, ES appears to be potential anticancer agent. PMID:25829763

  9. Selective transfection with osmotically active sorbitol modified PEI nanoparticles for enhanced anti-cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim Cuc Thi; Muthiah, Muthunarayanan; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Kalash, R Santhosh; Cho, Chong-Su; Park, Hansoo; Lee, Il-Kwon; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Park, In-Kyu; Cho, Kyung A

    2014-07-01

    Polysorbitol-mediated transporter (PSMT) has been previously shown to achieve high transfection efficiency with minimal cytotoxicity. Polysorbitol backbone possesses osmotic properties and leads to enhanced cellular uptake. The PSMT/pDNA nanoparticles were prepared and the particle size, surface charge of the nanoparticles was determined for the study. PSMT delivers genes into cells by the caveolae mediated endocytic pathway. Caveolae expression is usually altered in transformed cancer cells. Transfection through the caveolae may help PSMT to selectively transfect cancer cells rather than normal cells. Transfection of the luciferase gene by PSMT was tested in various cell types including cancer cell lines, primary cells, and immortalized cells. Luciferase transgene expression mediated by PSMT was remarkably increased in HeLa cells compared to expression using the control carrier Lipofectamine. Moreover, the toxicity of PSMT was comparable to the control carrier (Lipofectamine) in the same cells. Selective transfection of cancer cells using PSMT was further confirmed by co-culture of cancer and normal cells, which showed that transgene expression was pre-dominantly achieved in cancer cells. A functional p53 gene was also delivered into HeLa cells using PSMT and the selective transgene expression of p53 protein in cancer cells was analyzed through western blotting and confocal microscopy. HeLa cells transfected with PSMT/p53 plasmid nanoparticles showed cellular damage and apoptosis, which was confirmed through propidium iodide staining. PMID:24880989

  10. PTEN, Stem Cells, and Cancer Stem Cells*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Reginald; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Like normal stem cells, “cancer stem cells” have the capacity for indefinite proliferation and generation of new cancerous tissues through self-renewal and differentiation. Among the major intracellular signaling pathways, WNT, SHH, and NOTCH are known to be important in regulating normal stem cell activities, and their alterations are associated with tumorigenesis. It has become clear recently that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is also critical for stem cell...

  11. The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in gamma-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of postirradiation holding at 22 degrees C on cell growth, progression of cells through the cell cycle, and the repair of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially neoplastic transforming damage in ?-irradiated HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells has been examined. Cell growth and cell cycle progression were essentially stopped at this reduced temperature. Cell survival was dramatically reduced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C, as opposed to 37 degrees C, after 7.5 Gy ? radiation delivered at a rate of 2 Gy/min. Return of the cells to 37 degrees C for 6 h after holding at 22 degrees C did not result in increased survival. A similar effect was obtained when the cells were held at 22 degrees C between split-dose irradiation of log-phase cultures where no increase in survival was observed over a split-dose interval of 4 h. In this case a partial increase in survival was observed upon returning the cells to 37 degrees C for 3 h after holding at 22 degrees C for the first 3 h of the split-dose interval. Neoplastic transformation frequency was not enhanced by holding confluent cultures for 6 h at 22 degrees C after 7.5 Gy ? radiation. This is consistent with previous observations that misrepair of potentially neoplastic transforming damage already occurs at 37 degrees C. The overall results are interpreted in terms of the reduced temperature favoring misrepair, rather than inhibition of repair, of sublethal, potentially lethal anir, of sublethal, potentially lethal and potentially transforming radiation damage. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Every Single Cell Clones from Cancer Cell Lines Growing Tumors In Vivo May Not Invalidate the Cancer Stem Cell Concept

    OpenAIRE

    LI, FENGZHI

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of our research on the tumorigenic ability of single cell clones isolated from an aggressive murine breast cancer cell line in a matched allografting mouse model. Tumor formation is basically dependent on the cell numbers injected per location. We argue that in vivo tumor formation from single cell clones, isolated in vitro from cancer cell lines, may not provide conclusive evidence to disprove the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory without additional data.

  13. Differential binding of cAMP-responsive-element (CRE)-binding protein-1 and activating transcription factor-2 to a CRE-like element in the human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene promoter correlates with opposite regulation of t-PA by phorbol ester in HT-1080 and HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M; Medcalf, R L

    1996-05-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator gene (t-PA) is induced by the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), in HeLa cells. Previous studies in transfected HeLa cells identified two cis-acting regulatory elements within the t-PA gene promoter responsible for both constitutive and PMA-inducible expression. One element differs from the consensus cAMP response element (CRE) by a single nucleotide substitution (referred to in this report as t-PACRE) and another which bears similarity to the AP-2 recognition sequence. In HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells, t-PA mRNA levels are expressed at higher constitutive levels and are suppressed by PMA. Nuclear run-on transcription experiments indicate that PMA-mediated suppression of t-PA in these cells is associated with a decrease in t-PA gene template activity. We designed experiments to determine whether nuclear t-PACRE or AP-2-like binding proteins were differentially expressed in HeLa and HT-1080 cells and, accordingly, if these could be correlated with the opposite effect of PMA on t-PA expression. Band shift analyses indicated that the migration profiles of HeLa and HT-1080 nuclear proteins interacting with the AP-2-like site were indistinguishable; however, those produced with the t-PACRE binding site were qualitatively and quantitatively distinct. The distribution of t-PACRE binding proteins in these cells was investigated in a supershift assay using specific antibodies against members of the fos/jun and CRE-binding protein (CREB)/activating transcription factor (ATF) families. In HT-1080 cells, CREB-1 was the most prominent t-PACRE-binding activity detected and was greatly increased in cells treated with PMA. In contrast, CREB-1 activity was absent in HeLa cells, but antibodies specific for ATF-2 produced a marked supershifted complex which was unaffected by PMA treatment. Since CREB-1 can repress transcription of other target genes (including c-jun) via association with identical cis-acting CRE-like sequences, we suggest that the mechanism for the transcriptional down-regulation of t-PA by PMA in HT-1080 cells requires CREB-1 binding to the t-PACRE while ATF-2, by associating with the same site, plays a role in PMA-mediated induction of t-PA in HeLa cells. PMID:8647095

  14. An experimental and theoretical approach to the study of the photoacoustic signal produced by cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pérez Solano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive spectral absorption characteristics of cancer cells make photoacoustic techniques useful for detection in vitro and in vivo. Here we report on our evaluation of the photoacoustic signal produced by a series of monolayers of different cell lines in vitro. Only the melanoma cell line HS936 produced a detectable photoacoustic signal in which amplitude was dependent on the number of cells. This finding appears to be related to the amount of melanin available in these cells. Other cell lines (i.e. HL60, SK-Mel-1, T47D, Hela, HT29 and PC12 exhibited values similar to a precursor of melanin (tyrosinase, but failed to produce sufficient melanin to generate a photoacoustic signal that could be distinguished from background noise. To better understand this phenomenon, we determined a formula for the time-domain photoacoustic wave equation for a monolayer of cells in a non-viscous fluid on the thermoelastic regime. The theoretical results showed that the amplitude and profile of the photoacoustic signal generated by a cell monolayer depended upon the number and distribution of the cells and the location of the point of detection. These findings help to provide a better understanding of the factors involved in the generation of a photoacoustic signal produced by different cells in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes and differences in these cells lines utilizing FTIR spectroscopy. We have used the chemometrical and statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the spectral differences. We have been able to identify certain bands in the spectra which are so-called biomarkers for two types of cell lines, three groups for the 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell line (5637A, 5637B and 5637C), and another one for the HeLa human cervix carcinoma cell line. The vibrational modes can be assigned to specific bands involving characteristic motions of the protein backbone. This work shows that infrared vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy can be used as a useful tool in medical diagnostics that provides in principle additional information and detail to that which can be obtained/provided from conventional histological studies, and more conventional mass spectroscopic and NMR techniques. The use of high level vibrational spectroscopic simulations, in addition to the chemometric and statistical tools of PCA, linear and quadratic discriminant analysis, and artificial networks methods that are good at finding correlations, but provide little if any physical, chemical and biochemical insight into the nature of the changes at a molecular level, is also strongly advocated and helpful to gain more physical, chemical and biological insight. Hence the combination of vibrational spectroscopic simulations and experimental vibrational absorption spectroscopy and imaging are advocated for future developments in this field.

  16. Nonlinear Growth Kinetics of Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Implications for Cancer Stem Cell Targeted Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Johnson, Sara; Liu, Shou; Kanojia, Deepak; Yue, Wei; Singn, Udai; Wang, Qian; Wang, Qi; Nie, Qing; Chen, Hexin

    2013-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in primary breast cancer tissues and cell lines. The CSC population varies widely among cancerous tissues and cell lines, and is often associated with aggressive breast cancers. Despite of intensive research, how the CSC population is regulated within a tumor is still not well understood so far. In this paper, we present a mathematical model to explore the growth kinetics of CSC population both in vitro and in vivo. Our mathematical models and supporting experiments suggest that there exist non-linear growth kinetics of CSCs and negative feedback mechanisms to control the balance between the population of CSCs and that of non-stem cancer cells. The model predictions can help us explain a few long-standing questions in the field of cancer stem cell research, and can be potentially used to predict the efficicacy of anti-cancer therapy.

  17. Chemoresistant colorectal cancer cells and cancer stem cells mediate growth and survival of bystander cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, D; Zimmerman, L J; Pierobon, M; Petricoin, E; Tozzi, F; Parikh, A; Fan, F; Dallas, N; Xia, L; Gaur, P; Samuel, S; Liebler, D C; Ellis, L M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) mediate chemoresistance, but interestingly, only a small percentage of cells in a resistant tumour are CSCs; this suggests that non-CSCs survive by other means. We hypothesised that chemoresistant colorectal cancer (CRC) cells generate soluble factors that enhance survival of chemonaive tumour cells. Methods: Chemoresistant CRC cells were generated by serial passage in oxaliplatin (Ox cells). Conditioned media (CM) was collected from parental and oxaliplatin-resistant (OxR) cells. CRC cells were treated with CM and growth and survival were assessed. Tumour growth rates were determined in nude mice after cells were treated with CM. Mass spectrometry (MS) identified proteins in CM. Reverse phase protein microarray assays determined signalling effects of CM in parental cells. Results: Oxaliplatin-resistant CM increased survival of chemo-naive cells. CSC CM also increased growth of parental cells. Parental and OxR mixed tumours grew larger than tumours composed of parental or OxR cells alone. Mass spectrometry detected unique survival-promoting factors in OxR CM compared with parental CM. Cells treated with OxR CM demonstrated early phosphorylation of EGFR and MEK1, with later upregulation of total Akt .We identified progranulin as a potential mediator of chemoresistance. Conclusion: Chemoresistant tumour cells and CSCs may promote resistance through soluble factors that mediate survival in otherwise chemosensitive tumour cells. PMID:22045189

  18. Role of the Microenvironment in Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Pasquier; Arash Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent progresses in cancer therapy and increased knowledge in cancer biology, ovarian cancer remains a challenging condition. Among the latest concepts developed in cancer biology, cancer stem cells and the role of microenvironment in tumor progression seem to be related. Indeed, cancer stem cells have been described in several solid tumors including ovarian cancers. These particular cells have the ability to self-renew and reconstitute a heterogeneous tumor. They are characterized b...

  19. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  20. Stem Cells and Cancer; Celulas madre y cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segrelles, C.; Paraminio, J. M.; Lorz, C.

    2014-04-01

    Stem cell research has thrived over the last years due to their therapeutic and regenerative potential. Scientific breakthroughs in the field are immediately translated from the scientific journals to the mass media, which is not surprising as the characterisation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of stem cells is crucial for the treatment of degenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. In the Molecular Oncology Unit at Ciemat we work to unravel the role of cancer stem cells in tumour development, and to find