Sample records for canadian dairy cows

  1. The use of negative binomial modelling in a longitudinal study of gastrointestinal parasite burdens in Canadian dairy cows

    Nødtvedt, Ane; Dohoo, Ian; Sanchez, Javier; Conboy, Gary; DesCôteaux, Luc; Keefe, Greg; Leslie, Ken; Campbell, John


    The epidemiology of bovine gastrointestinal nematodes was investigated through a 1-year (October 1999 to September 2000) longitudinal study in 38 Canadian dairy herds from 4 different provinces (Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Ontario, Saskatchewan). For each herd, fecal egg counts from 8 randomly selected animals were performed on a monthly or quarterly basis. Larval cultures were performed once, to determine the species breakdown of the parasites. All producers were interviewed regarding herd...

  2. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based on the...

  3. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Stevan Stankovski


    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  4. Continuous lactation in dairy cows

    Madsen, Torben Gosvig; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Andersen, Jens Bech;


    milk yield higher than 45 kg/d were studied in 28 Holstein dairy cows managed without bovine somatotropin. Performance and metabolic parameters were followed in late gestation and in the following early lactation. Fourteen cows were milked continuously throughout late gestation, and another 14 dairy...... lactating mammary epithelial cells, nor to systemic endocrine changes. This suggests that lowered mammary nutrient uptake must have been associated with reduced mammary blood flow, metabolic activity, or both, most likely as a result of disturbed lactogenesis I prepartum or lactogenesis II postpartum...... triggered by as yet unknown local mechanisms. Milk protein content was elevated by 0.4 percentage units in the continuously milked cows. The underlying reason is unknown, but given the current pricing system for milk, it deserves to be further investigated....

  5. Applying Dairy Cow Behavior in Management Practice

    YUAN Kai; LIU Zongping; WANG Zongyuan


    Applying dairy cow behavior in management practice is an effective way of improving cow health, welfare and performance. This paper first reviewed daily time budget and normal patterns of dairy cow behavior, and then discussed the influence of major management conditions and practices (such as competitive environments, stocking density, grouping strategies) on cow's feeding, lying and social behavior. Finally, new findings of using feeding behavior to predict disorders in transition period were addressed. It was suggested that dairy researchers and farmers should take advantage of related knowledge of dairy cow behavior to improve dairy cow health and welfare. More research is required to further study dairy cow behavior so as to better apply it in practical management and meet the needs of production.

  6. Immunosuppression - postpartum diseases of dairy cows

    Joksimović-Todorović M.; Davidović V.


    Periparturient period in dairy cows is accompanied by numerous physiological, metabolic and nutritive changes. The way in which they occur and develop have a great influence on lactation performances, subclinical and clinical postparturient diseases and reproductive disorders, thus affecting the profitability as well. During periparturient period dairy cows may subject to the immune system function disorders. This immunosuppression leads to increased number...

  7. Body temperature in early postpartum dairy cows.

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Voigtsberger, R; Bonk, S; Heuwieser, W


    A strategy widely adopted in the modern dairy industry is the introduction of postpartum health monitoring programs by trained farm personnel. Within these fresh cow protocols, various parameters (e.g., rectal temperature, attitude, milk production, uterine discharge, ketones) are evaluated during the first 5 to 14 days in milk (DIMs) to diagnose relevant diseases. It is well documented that 14% to 66% of healthy cows exhibit at least one temperature of 39.5 °C or greater within the first 10 DIM. Although widely adopted, data on diagnostic performance of body temperature (BT) measurement to diagnose infectious diseases (e.g., metritis, mastitis) are lacking. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify possible factors associated with BT in postpartum dairy cows. A study was conducted on a commercial dairy farm including 251 cows. In a total of 217 cows, a vaginal temperature logger was inserted from DIM 2 to 10, whereas 34 cows did not receive a temperature logger as control. Temperature loggers measured vaginal temperature every 10 minutes. Rectal temperature was measured twice daily in all cows. On DIM 2, 5, and 10, cows underwent a clinical examination. Body temperature was influenced by various parameters. Primiparous cows had 0.2 °C higher BT than multiparous cows. Multiparous cows that calved during June and July had higher BT than those that calved in May. In primiparous cows, this effect was only evident from DIM 7 to 10. Furthermore, abnormal calving conditions (i.e., assisted calving, dead calf, retained placenta, twins) affected BT in cows. This effect was more pronounced in multiparous cows. Abnormal vaginal discharge did increase BT in primiparous and multiparous cows. Primiparous cows suffering from hyperketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrat ≥ 1.4 mmol/L) had higher BT than those not affected. In multiparous cows, there was no association between hyperketonemia and BT. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that BT is influenced

  8. Genetic control of dairy cow reproduction

    Moore, Stephen


    The decline in dairy cow reproductive performance compromised the productivity and profitability of dairy production worldwide. The phenotypic performance of lactating cows with similar proportions of Holstein genes, similar genetic merit for milk production traits, but either good (Fert+) or poor (Fert-) genetic merit for fertility traits managed in a standardised environment was compared. The objective of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms contributing to suboptimal re...

  9. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Vidić Branka M.; Boboš Stanko F.


    Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection i...

  10. Canadian media representations of mad cow disease.

    Boyd, Amanda D; Jardine, Cynthia G; Driedger, S Michelle


    A Canadian case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease" was confirmed in May, 2003. An in-depth content analysis of newspaper articles was conducted to understand the portrayal of BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the Canadian media. Articles in the "first 10 days" following the initial discovery of a cow with BSE in Canada on May 20, 2003, were examined based on the premise that these initial stories provide the major frames that dominate news media reporting of the same issue over time and multiple occurrences. Subsequent confirmed Canadian cases were similarly analyzed to determine if coverage changed in these later media articles. The results include a prominence of economic articles, de-emphasis of health aspects, and anchoring the Canadian outbreak to that of Britain's crisis. The variation in media representations between those in Canada and those documented in Britain are explored in this study. PMID:19697246

  11. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*


    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  12. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F


    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  13. Oral calcium supplementation in peripartum dairy cows.

    Oetzel, Garrett R


    Hypocalcemia in dairy cattle around parturition can be manifest as clinical milk fever or subclinical hypocalcemia. Subclinical hypocalcemia has the greatest economic effect because it affects a much higher proportion of cows. Oral calcium supplements are used to mitigate the effects of both forms of hypocalcemia. Oral calcium supplements are appropriate for cows displaying early clinical signs of hypocalcemia and prophylactically to lessen the negative impacts of hypocalcemia. PMID:23809900

  14. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  15. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold


    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a...... supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter...... calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course...

  16. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    Monteny, G.J.


    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing systems, and evaluation of emission levels in a farming system approach. A mechanistic simulation model for the ammonia emission from dairy cow houses was developed to facilitate this.An ammonia p...

  17. Nutrition and fertility in dairy cow

    Rossi, Federico


    Nutrition has an important impact on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle. Energy is the major nutrient required by adult cattle and inadequate energy intake has a detrimental impact on reproductive activity of bovine. Cows under negative energy balance have extended periods of anovulation. Postpartum anestrus, as well as infertility, is magnified by losses of body condition during the early postpartum period. Resumption of ovulatory cycles is associated with energy balance, but s...

  18. Personality and production in dairy cows

    Hedlund, Louise


    Variation in animal personality, in other words, behavioural responses consistent within individuals over time and/or across contexts, is predicted to be related to life-history traits, such as growth rate and investment in reproduction. How this translates into relationships between personality and milk production in dairy cows is however scarcely investigated and previous studies are showing contradicting results. To further investigate this relationship, individual consistencies in behavio...

  19. Chronic Copper Toxicity in a Dairy Cow

    Blakley, B R; Berezowski, J. A.; Schiefer, H B; Armstrong, K. R.


    A three year old Holstein dairy cow fed a ration containing a copper supplement died of chronic copper poisoning. The concentration of copper in the liver was 331 ppm (wet weight). The typical lesions of chronic copper toxicity including icterus, hepatic fibrosis and hemoglobinemic nephrosis were found at necropsy. The chronic copper toxicity was not considered to be a herd problem since the liver copper concentration in a slaughtered cull animal and blood samples taken from five animals in t...

  20. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J


    . The increased milk yield observed in experiment 1 was not observed in experiment 2. Adding 8% of MB to lactating cow diets had a mixed effect on DMI and milk production. Milk component yields and milk quality were not affected. Feeding this level of MB presents a hemolytic danger to lactating dairy cows. PMID:21605775

  1. Biomarkers and mechanisms of natural disease resistance in dairy cows

    Altena, van S.E.C.


    The aim of this thesis was to define and test biomarkers for disease resistance in dairy cows and to determine the underlying mechanism in natural disease resistance. The health status of the cows is an important issue in dairy farming. Due to the mandatory reduction in the use of antibiotics, alter

  2. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    Monteny, G.J.


    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low emission housing

  3. Evaluation of the change of serum copper and zinc concentrations of dairy cows with subclinical ketosis.

    Zhang, Zhigang; Liu, Guowen; Li, Xiaobing; Gao, Li; Guo, Changming; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Zhe


    Ketosis in dairy cows can lead to poor reproductive success and decreased milk production. Since the serum concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are closely associated with the health status of cows, we investigated whether serum concentrations of Cu and Zn differed in dairy cows with subclinical ketosis and healthy dairy cows. Blood samples of 19 healthy dairy cows and 15 subclinically ketotic dairy cows were collected from three farms, and the concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), Cu, and Zn were determined. Subclinically ketotic dairy cows had significantly higher BHBA and NEFA levels (p dairy cows. Likewise, serum concentrations of Zn were significantly decreased (p dairy cows with subclinical ketosis. There was no significant difference observed for serum Cu concentration between healthy and subclinically ketotic dairy cows. This study suggests that a decreased serum Zn concentration could be a cause of decreased reproductive performance in subclinically ketotic dairy cows. PMID:20101474

  4. Exercise of tied dairy cows during the winter

    Loberg, Jenny


    The aim was to investigate whether tied dairy cows have a motivation to move per se when exercised during winter and whether they prefer to be outdoors or indoors when exercising. In the first experiment tied dairy cows were observed when exercised outdoors every day, twice a week or once a week. In the second experiment the preference of tied dairy cows for being indoors or outdoors during exercise was tested in two types of preference tests. Cows exercised at longer intervals walked and tro...

  5. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter;


    -recorded on 5 consecutive days, d −2 to +2 after challenge when the cows were not disturbed by humans. The behavior of the animals was compared among all days. Infection with E. coli altered the behavior of the dairy cows. Time spent feeding was lower in the initial 24 h after infection compared with that on......The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening...

  6. Comparative cervical cytology and conception rate in postpartum dairy cows

    Rahim Ahmadi, Mohammad; NAZIFI, Saeed; Reza Ghaisari, Hamid


    During the early postpartum period, multiple bacterial species invade the uterus of cows. Phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells is a primary mechanism involved in the elimination of bacteria and improvement of conception rate. Therefore, a relationship could exist between endometrial cytology and conception rate of postpartum dairy cows. In this study 50 postpartum healthy Holstein Frisian dairy cows were selected. They had a normal parturition history and had no mucopurulent discharge from...

  7. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005). Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed...

  8. Epidemiological studies of reproductive performance indicators in Swedish dairy cows

    Löf, Emma


    Reproductive efficiency in dairy cows is a key factor for milk producers, and numerous studies have identified impaired reproductive performance as a major cause of reduced production efficiency in the dairy industry. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge of factors affecting the reproductive performance indicators currently used by herd advisory services and to find other, possibly more efficient, ways to measure reproductive performance in dairy cows. The studies include...

  9. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard;


    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... behaviour of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was observed at pasture for6 heach day between morning and afternoon milking for a total of24 h. Lying (l), standing (s) and walking (w) behaviours were recorded pre, during and post-elimination. Sequences of 3–6 changes in these behaviours were recorded if expressed...... observed events (uppercase letters denote behaviour during defaecation). In all recorded events, 383 stood and 54 walked whilst defaecating (P

  10. Carbon footprint of Canadian dairy products: calculations and issues.

    Vergé, X P C; Maxime, D; Dyer, J A; Desjardins, R L; Arcand, Y; Vanderzaag, A


    The Canadian dairy sector is a major industry with about 1 million cows. This industry emits about 20% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the main livestock sectors (beef, dairy, swine, and poultry). In 2006, the Canadian dairy herd produced about 7.7 Mt of raw milk, resulting in about 4.4 Mt of dairy products (notably 64% fluid milk and 12% cheese). An integrated cradle-to-gate model (field to processing plant) has been developed to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of 11 Canadian dairy products. The on-farm part of the model is the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES). It considers all GHG emissions associated with livestock production but, for this study, it was run for the dairy sector specifically. Off-farm GHG emissions were estimated using the Canadian Food Carbon Footprint calculator, (cafoo)(2)-milk. It considers GHG emissions from the farm gate to the exit gate of the processing plants. The CF of the raw milk has been found lower in western provinces [0.93 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/L of milk] than in eastern provinces (1.12 kg of CO2e/L of milk) because of differences in climate conditions and dairy herd management. Most of the CF estimates of dairy products ranged between 1 and 3 kg of CO2e/kg of product. Three products were, however, significantly higher: cheese (5.3 kg of CO2e/kg), butter (7.3 kg of CO2e/kg), and milk powder (10.1 kg of CO2e/kg). The CF results depend on the milk volume needed, the co-product allocation process (based on milk solids content), and the amount of energy used to manufacture each product. The GHG emissions per kilogram of protein ranged from 13 to 40 kg of CO2e. Two products had higher values: cream and sour cream, at 83 and 78 kg of CO2e/kg, respectively. Finally, the highest CF value was for butter, at about 730 kg of CO2e/kg. This extremely high value is due to the fact that the intensity indicator per kilogram of product is high and that butter is almost exclusively

  11. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    Sørensen Jan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality risk in Danish dairy cows has more than doubled since 1990 (from 2% in 1990 to 5% in 2005. Until now, registrations about dead cows in the Danish Cattle Database have not included information about whether the cow died unassisted or was euthanized. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5–10 years ago. Conclusion The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers, become lower. This might have positive impacts on animal welfare as more seriously ill cows are euthanized in the herds and not put through a period of suffering associated with disease and treatment or transported to a slaughterhouse in poor condition.

  12. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Højsgaard, Søren; Munksgaard, Lene

    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using methods from statistical change detection. The activity of the cows was measured by a necklace attached sensor. Statistical properties of the activity measure were investigated. Using data sets from 17 cows, diurnal activity variations...... were identified for the ensemble and for the individual cows. A diurnal filter was adapted to remove the daily variation of the individual. Change detection algorithms were designed for the actual probability densities, which were Rayleigh distributed with individual parameters for each cow. A...... generalized likelihood ratio algorithm was derived for the compensated activity signal and detection algorithm was tested on 2323 days of activity, which contained 42 oestruses on 12 cows in total. The application of statistical change detection methods is a new approach for detecting oestrus in dairy cows...

  13. Leptospira interrogans serotype hardjo in dairy cows

    Vidić Branka M.


    Full Text Available Data on L. hardjo infection of dairy cows in the world pint out its important role in the occurrence of health and economic problem. L. interrogans serotype hardjo has been described as the cause of miscarriages, stillbirts, or the birhs of poorly vital calves, agalactia, mastitis, and low fertility in cows. Two L. hardjo genotypes have been identified in cows, namely, hardjopraitno and hardjobovis. Serological investigations have established a drastic increase in this leptospiral infection in cows. L. hardjo has become adapted to cattle as the primary host, so that an infection is maintained in herds and becomes deeply rooted because of the permanent presence of the source of infection. It was believed that sheep were accidental hosts, but the latest research suggest that they are yet another, transitory, host for maintining this leptospira serotype. L. hardjo is also important from the aspect of human health, especially of persons who are professionally exposed to this infection. L. hardjo infection is detected using serological tests and by proving the presence of leptospira. The medicine of choice in the therapy of leptospiral infections is streptomycin (DSM. Therapy using oxytetracyclines for clinical mastitis was also proven effective. Treatment is most successful in the early stage of the disease. A single dose of streptomycin administered in infected herds reduces the duration period of leptospira excretion through urine, thus preventing the spread of infection thorugh contaminated urine. The basic components of the plan to contain leptospira are the following: serological investigations, sanitary-higiene measures, the elimination of animals which excrete leptospira through urine, therapy, vaccination, quarantine.

  14. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Ioana Cristina Andronie; Monica Pârvu; Viorel Andronie; Violeta Simion


    The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following ...

  15. Ketosis in dairy cows: etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment

    van der Drift, S.G.A.


    Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that mainly occurs during the negative energy balance in early-lactation dairy cows. It is characterized by elevated concentrations of ketone bodies in blood (hyperketonemia), urine, and milk. The thesis of Saskia van der Drift covers investigations on etiologic factors, monitoring, treatment and genetics of dairy cow ketosis. Firstly, the role of the mobilization of muscle protein around parturition in the etiology of ketosis was studied. For that purpose, a m...

  16. Enriching the diet of dairy cows natural zeolite

    Svetlana Dejatkina; Ekaterina Goryacheva; Vladimir Kozlov; Mihail Dejatkin


    Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.

  17. Enriching the diet of dairy cows natural zeolite

    Svetlana Dejatkina


    Full Text Available Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.

  18. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    Jensen, Margit Bak


    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...

  19. Rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues in Swedish dairy cows

    Hultgren, Jan; Svensson, Catarina; Pehrsson, Mats


    Associations between replacement heifer rearing conditions and lifetime milk revenues were studied throughout the productive life of Swedish dairy cows. Data were collected from 2127 cows, mainly Swedish Reds and Swedish Holsteins, representing all female animals born during 1998 in 110 herds and followed until May 2006. Lifetime net milk revenues were calculated for each cow based on the length of productive life, lifetime milk production, a fixed milk price of 0.3 €/kg ECM, a...

  20. Dairy cows seek isolation at calving and when ill.

    Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    Dairy cows are typically gregarious, but isolate themselves in the hours before calving when kept on pasture. Self-isolation is also a common behavior of ill animals. The objectives of this study were to determine if dairy cows would (1) isolate to calve when housed indoors in an individual maternity pen and (2) continue to isolate when ill after calving. We selected individuals from a pool of 79 multiparous Holstein dairy cows based on inclusion criteria created to address each objective. Cows were moved from a group pen to 1 of 10 adjacent maternity pens. Half of these individual pens were partially covered with plywood, creating a secluded corner as well as a window that provided visual access to the group pen. The other individual pens were uncovered on all sides. For our first objective, we selected 39 cows that were moved into the maternity pens >8h before calving (partially covered: n=19; uncovered: n=20). For our second objective, we selected 18 cows housed in the partially covered pens: 9 cows with high rectal temperature after calving and signs of an infectious disease (mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, or some combination), and 9 healthy cows paired with ill cows based on the amount of time they spent in the maternity pen before calving. Ten-minute scan sampling was used to record the location and lying time from 6h before to 72 h after calving. Individual feed intake was measured after calving. Binomial tests were used to determine if cows in both pen types were more likely to calve in the corner or window side of the pen. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used to determine if cows used the corner more as calving approached and if ill cows spent more time lying or more time in the corner compared with healthy cows in the 72 h after calving. Cows in the uncovered pens were equally likely to calve on both sides of the pen (10 vs. 10), but 79% of cows in the partially covered pens calved on the corner side of the pen (15 vs. 4). Cows in the partially covered pens

  1. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Michael Krauß


    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  2. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  3. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    Knaus, Wilhelm


    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  4. Welfare assessment for dairy cows in loose stalls

    Hristov Slavča


    Full Text Available In this paper, welfare assessment using the methodology of the Welfare quality ® assessment protocol for cattle (2009 was performed for dairy cows maintained in the loose system of rearing on three dairy farms. This methodology includes quantitative measurements and qualitative evaluation of certain welfare parameters, criteria and principles of welfare, as well as assessment of the overall welfare of dairy cows. The results showed that the overall level of dairy cow welfare was acceptable on two farms, and was good on one. On two farms, the state of the cows’ social behavior expression was unacceptable. Furthermore, on all three farms, the expression of other types of cow behavior was not acceptable. At one farm, it was determined that the result for the absence of prolonged thirst was unacceptable. Based on these results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to improve the quality of cow welfare on these farms. The applied methodology provides a multidimensional insight into the quality of cow welfare in the loose system.

  5. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Gabriele Mattachini


    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  6. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    Sepúlveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 ± 0.54 vs. 8.4 ± 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 ± 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 ± 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days

  7. Contemporary aspects in assessment of protein needs in dairy cows

    Grubić Goran


    Full Text Available The aim of meeting protein needs in dairy cows is to provide sufficient degradable proteins, which are optimally used in the rumen, to provide the required level of productivity with a minimal amount of crude protein in the diet. The new concept, shown in this paper, which expresses protein value as metabolic, enables better protein balancing in dairy cows than before. The nutritive value of metabolic protein in dairy cows depends on essential amino acid composition of protein and their contribution to total essential amino acids. The improvement of protein utilization efficiency has practical implications. The reason for this is to decrease feeding costs per kilogram of milk or milk protein, the need for more efficient production, higher milk protein yield and to allow other nutrients in the diet to prove their influence on the increase of production.

  8. Lowering ruminally degradable protein in lacatating dairy cow diets

    Cyriac, Joby


    Lactating dairy cows convert 25 to 35% of intake N to milk N, and a part of the remaining N ends up in the environment, causing pollution. Dairy cows absorb amino acids available in the small intestine supplied mainly by digestion of microbial protein and ruminally undegraded feed protein (RUP). Ruminally degradable feed protein (RDP) is the major supplier of N for microbial protein synthesis. Most of the excess RDP will be degraded to ammonia and eliminated as urea in urine. Thus, avoiding e...

  9. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    J.A.A. Pires


    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  10. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    D. Chandrasekaran; Venkatesan, P; K. G. Tirumurugaan; A. P. Nambi; P. S. Thirunavukkarasu; Kumanan, K.; Vairamuthu, S.; Mr. S. Ramesh


    Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119), Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104) and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA...

  11. Systemic modelling of ruminant female performance. Application to dairy cows.

    Martin, Olivier


    This work concerns the building of a dairy cow model. The whole model is composed of three dynamic, mechanistic and deterministic models corresponding to three different levels of representation of the cow. Each model has a specific functionality. These models, respectively teleonomic, energetic and metabolic are linked through a hierarchical structure. The teleonomic model consists in a representation of the animal seen as a living organism ensuring its own survival and the continuation of i...

  12. Genetic improvement of dairy cow reproductive performance.

    Berglund, B


    The welfare of cow along with profitability in production are important issues in sustainable animal breeding programmes. Along with an intense/intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance has declined in many countries, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship. The largely unchanged genetic trend in female fertility and calving traits for Scandinavian Red breeds shows that it is possible to avoid deterioration in these traits if they are properly considered in the breeding programme. Today's breeding is international with a global selection and extensive use of the best bulls. The Nordic countries have traditionally recorded and performed genetic evaluation for a broad range of functional traits including reproduction. In recent years many other countries have also implemented genetic evaluation for these traits. Thus, the relative emphasis of dairy cattle breeding objectives has gradually shifted from production to functional traits such as reproduction. Improved ways of recording traits, e.g. physiological measures, early indicator traits, assisted reproductive techniques and increased knowledge of genes and their regulation may improve the genetic selection strategies and have large impact on present and future genetic evaluation programmes. Extensive data bases with phenotypic recordings of traits for individuals and their pedigree are a prerequisite. Quantitative trait loci have been associated to the reproductive complex. Most important traits, including reproduction traits are regulated by a multitude of genes and environmental factors in a complex relationship, however. Genomic selection might therefore be important in future breeding programmes. Information on single nucleotide polymorphism has already been introduced in the selection programmes of some countries. PMID:18638109

  13. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Fabio Abeni; Giuseppe Bertoni


    The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se,...

  14. Herd-level risk factors for infection with bovine leukemia virus in Canadian dairy herds.

    Nekouei, Omid; VanLeeuwen, John; Sanchez, Javier; Kelton, David; Tiwari, Ashwani; Keefe, Greg


    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an economically important infection of dairy cattle worldwide, which is caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV). The prevalence of infection in Canadian dairy herds is high and continues to increase; however, there has not been a national program to control BLV. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify potentially important risk factors for BLV infection on Canadian dairy herds, which is a prerequisite to developing an effective control program. During 1998-2003, based on a stratified two-stage random sampling process, 315 dairy farms from seven provinces of Canada were selected. Within each farm, 9-45 cows were bled and tested with a commercial serum ELISA kit for BLV antibodies. A comprehensive questionnaire, targeting potentially important herd-level management indicators, was successfully administered in 272 herds. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was fit to the resulting data to assess the potential associations between BLV seropositivity and a variety of herd-level factors. Seventy-eight percent of the herds were identified as BLV-positive (had one or more test positive animals). In the negative-binomial part of the final ZINB model, herds with clinical cases of leukosis during the 12 months prior to sampling, as well as herds which purchased animals with unknown BLV infection status in the last five years, had a significantly larger proportion of BLV positive animals. Based on a significant interaction between two of the risk factors, changing gloves between cows during pregnancy examination was not statistically associated with lower proportion of infected cows compared with not changing gloves, in the western Canadian provinces. In the logistic part of the model, herds from eastern Canadian provinces and those not purchasing cows in the last five years had increased odds of being free from BLV. The high prevalence of infection across Canada should be addressed through the development and

  15. Short communication: Preference for flavored concentrate premixes by dairy cows.

    Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Weeks, H L; Faugeron, J; Hristov, A N


    Flavor preferences may be used to stimulate feed intake in dairy cows, which may improve use of robotic milking systems and increase feed intake of sick cows. A cafeteria-design experiment was used to determine if dairy cows have flavor preferences. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows averaging 197±32d in milk, 1.9±0.8 lactations, 27.8±4.2kg/d of dry matter intake, and 41.5±7.4kg/d of milk yield were involved in the experiment. Cows were offered 7 flavored concentrate premixes (FCP) and 1 control premix. The FCP flavors were anise, fenugreek, honey, orange, thyme, molasses, and vanilla; the absence of flavor, neutral, acted as a control. The inclusion rate of the flavors in FCP was 250 to 300g/t on an as-is basis. Cows were not adapted to the flavors before the experiment. Cows were housed in a tiestall barn and offered, on each day, 4 different FCP (1kg each) in plastic bins placed in front of each cow. The experiment lasted 6 consecutive days. Each FCP was presented to each cow once every 2d, 2h after the morning feeding. Flavors and position of the bins in front of the cows were randomized. As a result, each flavor was presented to each cow 3 times during the experiment, at 3 different bin locations. Each cow had access to the FCP for 5min from the time they started eating. Eating time and amount eaten were recorded. The vanilla and fenugreek FCP were consumed the most, at 408 and 371g/5-min offering, respectively, whereas the orange and anise FCP were consumed the least, at 264 and 239g/5-min offering, respectively. Similarly, cows spent the most time eating the vanilla and fenugreek FCP at 99 and 75 s/offering, respectively, and the least amount of time eating the orange and anise FCP at 49 and 50 s/offering, respectively. We detected an effect of bin position: the 2 center FCP were consumed more than the outer 2 FCP. Flavor had no effect on consumption rate. In conclusion, relative to the control, concentrate intake was not affected by flavor, but dairy cows


    Deng, Xiaohui; Barry J. Barnett; Vedenov, Dmitry V.; Joe W. West


    Heat stress is associated with reduced milk production in dairy cows. Insurance instruments based on an index of ambient temperature and relative humidity measured at Macon, Georgia and Tallahassee, Florida are shown to reduce net revenue risk for a representative farm in south-central Georgia.

  17. The high-producing dairy cow and its reproductive performance

    Dobson, H; Smith, Rf; Royal, Md;


    There is evidence that the reproductive performance of dairy cows has declined as milk yields have increased over the last 40 years. Identifying the precise cause(s) of this problem may provide focused solutions. Intensive genetic selection for very high yields has reduced fertility, due mainly to...

  18. Skin injuries on the body and thigh of dairy cows

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Gröhn, Y.T.; Thysen, Iver


    An epidemiological study was conducted in 18 dairy herds with the objective to characterize those groups of cows where skin injuries to the body and thighs occurred most frequently. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. The epidemiologic patterns were different in first and l...

  19. Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian


    The review is based on a compiled data set from studies quantifying liver release of glucose concomitant with uptake of amino acids (AA) and other glucogenic precursors in periparturient dairy cows. It has become dogma that AAs are significant contributors to liver gluconeogenesis in early...

  20. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.


    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy.

  1. Nitrogen and amino acid metabolism in dairy cows

    Tamminga, S.


    For the process of milk production, the dairy cow requires nutrients of which energy supplying nutrients and protein or amino acid supplying nutrients are the most important. Amino acid supplying nutrients have to be absorbed from the small intestine and the research reported in this thesis mainly c

  2. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows

    Fecal samples were collected from 30 dairy cows on the same farm beginning at 1 week of age and continuing for 2 years. Samples were collected weekly from 1 wk to 8 wks of age, bi-weekly from 2 mo to 6 mo of age and monthly thereafter. The samples were concentrated and cleaned of fecal debris on a...

  3. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows

    Nymann, A K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Larsen, Torben; Emanuelson, U


    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated...... indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive...... days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days...

  4. Plasma exosome profiles from dairy cows with divergent fertility phenotypes.

    Mitchell, M D; Scholz-Romero, K; Reed, S; Peiris, H N; Koh, Y Q; Meier, S; Walker, C G; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Rice, G; Salomon, C


    Cell-to-cell communication in physiological and pathological conditions may be influenced by neighboring cells, distant tissues, or local environmental factors. Exosomes are specific subsets of extracellular vesicles that internalize and deliver their content to near and distant sites. Exosomes may play a role in the maternal-embryo crosstalk vital for the recognition and maintenance of a pregnancy; however, their role in dairy cow reproduction has not been established. This study aimed to characterize the exosome profile in the plasma of 2 strains of dairy cow with divergent fertility phenotypes. Plasma was obtained and characterized on the basis of genetic ancestry as fertile (FERT; 92% North American genetics, North American Holstein-Friesian strain, n=8). Exosomes were isolated by differential and buoyant density centrifugation and characterized by size distribution (nanoparticle tracking analysis, NanoSight NS500, NanoSight Ltd., Amesbury, UK), the presence of CD63 (Western blot), and their morphology (electron microscopy). The total number of exosomes was determined by quantifying the immunoreactive CD63 (ExoELISA kit, System Biosciences), and the protein content established by mass spectrometry. Enriched exosome fractions were identified as cup-shape vesicles with diameters around 100 nm and positive for the CD63 marker. The concentration of exosomes was 50% greater in FERT cows. Mass spectrometry identified 104 and 117 proteins in FERT and SUBFERT cows, of which 23 and 36 were unique, respectively. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for proteins involved in immunomodulatory processes and cell-to-cell communication. Although the role of exosomes in dairy cow reproduction remains to be elucidated, their quantification and content in models with divergent fertility phenotypes could provide novel information to support both physiological and genetic approaches to improving dairy cow fertility. PMID:27372594

  5. Effects of percutaneous needle liver biopsy on dairy cow behaviour

    Mølgaard, Lene; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke;


    In cattle, percutaneous needle liver biopsy is used for scientific examination of liver metabolism. The impact of the biopsy procedure is, however, poorly investigated. Our aim was to examine the behaviour of dairy cows during and after liver biopsy. Data were collected from 18 dry cows....... Percutaneous needle liver biopsies (after administration of local anaesthesia (2% Procaine)) and blood samples were taken during restraining. During the control treatment, animals were restrained and blood sampled. During the biopsy procedure, cows showed increased restlessness (P = 0.008), frequency of head...... behavioural changes for up to 19 h – and particularly for behaviour previously associated with pain. Even though the exact welfare impact of percutaneous needle liver biopsies in cows is not known, and the magnitude of the behavioural changes was limited, pain always has negative effects on animal welfare...

  6. Fatal mastitis of dairy cows: a retrospective study.

    Hazlett, M.J.; Little, P B; Maxie, M G; Barnum, D. A.


    The necropsy records of dairy cows with mastitis were reviewed from the provincial veterinary laboratory in Guelph (44 cases of mastitis in nine years) and from the Ontario Veterinary College (168 cases in 14 years). Mastitis was considered to be the primary cause of death in 167 of 212 cows (79%). Of these 167 cases of mastitis, Escherichia coli was involved in 107 (64%), Klebsiella sp. in 12 (7%) and Staphylococcus aureus in 11 (7%). Bacteriology was not reported in 22 cases. Coliform masti...

  7. On-farm cow mortality in Swedish dairy herds

    Alvåsen, Karin


    A high rate of on-farm cow mortality (i.e. unassisted death and euthanasia) is both a financial concern and an important animal welfare issue. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate the development of mortality in Swedish dairy herds and to identify characteristics associated with on-farm mortality at cow and herd levels. In paper I, two analyses were performed using data from the cattle database with the objective of identifying risk factors at the herd level: one multiple-year ...

  8. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J


    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  9. Serum thyroid hormone evaluation during transition periods in dairy cows

    Fiore, E.; Piccione, G.; Gianesella, M.; V. Praticò; Vazzana,I; S. Dara; Morgante, M


    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were selected from a high-producing dairy farm in northeastern Italy: 16 in second lactation (L2), 10 in third lactation (L3) and 9 in fourth lactation (L4). Blood sampling was carried out 7 ± 5 days before calving (Pre/C) and 7 ± 5 days after calving (Post/C). Serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were assessed. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed statistically significant effects...

  10. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran; Oscar Balocchi; Fernando Wittwer; Rubén Pulido


    Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA) offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, an...

  11. Performance and design of an alternative housing system for dairy cows

    Leso, Lorenzo


    Housing can deeply affect the welfare of dairy cows and consequently their performance. Actually, free stall barns (FS) represent the most widespread housing system in intensive dairy farms. However, recent findings showed that this system can severely compromise animal welfare, especially as regards feet and leg health. Cultivated pack barns (CPB), known in many countries as compost barns, are relatively new housing option for dairy cows that seems to offer improved cow com...

  12. Modelling and simulation of cow locomotion for dynamic weighing in modern dairy farming

    Cveticanin, Dragan


    The body mass of a dairy cow is an important parameter that influences the selection of optimal nutrition regime and tracks the health condition of the animal. Consequently, the monitoring of dairy cow body mass is of great importance. The objective of precision livestock farming is to obtain body weight data for each animal using automatic walk-through weighing platform (dynamic weighing). In this work three independent methods for body mass recognition of dynamically weighed dairy cows are ...

  13. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows.

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo


    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  14. A review of the impact of housing on dairy cow behaviour, health and welfare

    Phillips, C.J.C.; Beerda, B.; Knierim, U.; Waiblinger, S.; Lidfors, L.; Krohn, C.C.; Canali, E.; Valk, H.; Veissier, I.; Hopster, H.


    Housing dairy cows offers the possibility to control many aspects of their lives, including accurate rationing, which is especially important for high yielding cows, and rapid health care. In addition, some parasitic diseases are largely controlled by removing cows from pasture. However, housing cow

  15. Morphological and milkability breed differences of dairy cows

    Tina Bobić


    Full Text Available Anatomical characteristics of dairy cattle are not equal for all breeds, meaning that the morphological traits of udder and teats could favor an individual performance or a determined breed. Changes in teat tissue after machine milking occur because of the negative influence of the vacuum and mechanical forces of the teat cup liner. Duration and performance of machine milking also depend on the udder and teat conformation and milkability traits of cows. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in morphological characteristics of Simmental and Holstein cows before and after machine milking, as well as to elaborate the differences in some of milkability traits of the cows during process of milking. A correlation (from -0.30 to 0.37 was determined between exterior and interior traits of teats and the performance of milkability traits. In both cow breeds, statistically significant difference (p<0.0001 was found between the pre- and post-milking values in all investigated traits, with exception of teat end width. Holstein cows had significantly (p<0.001 higher amount of milk per milking, maximum and average milk flow, while cows of the Simmental breed had longer milking time duration, but without statistical significance. In comparison to Holstein breed, results of internal morphological traits of teats showed that cows of Simmental breed had longer teat canals and wider teat ends for both front and rear teats. Holstein breed compared to Simmental had thinner teats wall, but wider teat cistern. If compared to pre-milking stage, differences in teat cistern width and teat wall thickness that occur after milking were more expressed in the Holstein breed than in Simmental. Simmental cows had significantly (p<0.05 longer and wider rear teats. Future research should focus on proving the differences in changes of teat tissue due to milking between different groups of cows, as depending on the milk flow. Ultrasound method of recording can be

  16. Are modern dairy cows suffering from modern diseases?

    De Koster, Jenne; Opsomer, Geert


    Overconditioning at calving is one of the most important risk factors for modern dairy cows to develop diverse health problems during the transition period. Currently, the metabolic syndrome gains much attention in human medicine. Research shows that the adipose tissue itself plays a crucial role in the increased susceptibility of obese people to a range of health problems, with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus as the most important problems. The purpose of the present pape...

  17. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh


    This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culli...

  18. Overview of progesterone profiles in dairy cows

    Blavy, P.; Derks, M.; Martin, O.; Höglund, Johanna; Friggens, N.C.


    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the variability in shape and features of all progesterone profiles during oestrus cycles in cows, and to create templates for cycle shapes and features as a base for further research. Milk progesterone data from 1418 oestrus cycles, coming...

  19. Frequency of some acropodium diseases in dairy cows in Serbia

    Milosavljević P.


    Full Text Available The research included 520 dairy cows on 64 mini-farms in mountainous Serbian areas, with the goal to acquire an insight on acropodium diseases frequency in dairy cows, as well as distribution of hoof alterations. In 56.25% of farms, animals were kept tied in the stable, while 43.75% were grazing regularly or occasionally. Only 10.94% of farms were free of hoof acropodium alterations. Extremely bad hygienic conditions were noted in 18.75% of farms, where 74.01% of animals had acropodium lesions. Based on clinical analysis of 520 dairy cows, 388 of them were diagnosed with acropodium alternations: overgrown hooves (in 21.91% of animals, shoe-like hooves (7.22%, scissors-like (17.27% and spiral hooves (8.76%. Wounded acropodium skin was diagnosed in 1.8%, interdigital phlegmon in 9.02%, aseptic pododermatitis in 3.61%, digital dermatitis in 4.89%, interdigital dermatitis in 3.09%, hoof ulcer in 3.35%, interdigital blister in 4.89%, hollow hoof wall in 6.18%, horn wall rupture in 0.51%, heel abscess in 3.09%, tendovaginitis in 3.85% and crown joint displacement in 0.26% of animals. We found no pathological lesions of the acropodium in 132 animals (25.38%.


    A. Thalib


    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cow productivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairy cows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Control fed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%, Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet + probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurements were conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methane production. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improved FCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and total solid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%; 11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination of CRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combination of CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. Probiotic Noterae improved milk quality.




    Full Text Available The etological observation was provided on a dairy herd (65 Czech Fleckvieh and 51 Holstein cows on a low-input mountain farm during the pasture season (April – October 2008. The milking was provided two-times a day in the stalls. The 24-hours observations were made four-times: in June, July, September and October, in 10- minutes intervals. The cows spent 25 to 38 % of a day on average by feeding and 18 to 22 % on average by moving (stalls – pasture movements took about half of this period. The resting time consisting of chewing was found unsufficient and took 29 % to 40 % of a day on average. Better comfort of cows given by an improved milking technology and a more effective grazing management connected with longer time spent by resting is suggested to achieve higher milk yields on the farm.

  2. Post-partum reproductive performance of the Icelandic dairy cow

    The aim of the studies was to monitor the reproductive performance of Icelandic dairy cow herds with and without histories of fertility problems under normal farming conditions. Artificial inseminations and calvings were recorded, pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal palpation, and progesterone concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in sequential samples of milk. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals and the concentrations of glucose, urea, calcium and magnesium were determined. Clinical ketosis and low glucose were found in one third of the cows on problem farms. The mean time of first post-partum ovulation was 49 days for cows with ketosis, compared with 34 days for cows free of ketosis. Cows in the normal herds ovulated considerably later than is reported for many other breeds of dairy cows; however, the time of first post-partum AI, the time of conception and the conception rate were similar to those reported for other breeds. The effects of season and herd were statistically significant for the time of first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception; the effect of area was highly significant for the time of ovulation. Progesterone profiles showed that over 50% of the first post-partum ovarian cycles were short and had low progesterone concentrations. Season had significant effects on the length of the interval from calving to first post-partum ovulation, AI and conception, on the conception rate to first AI and consequently on the number of AIs per conception, and on the blood levels of glucose, urea and calcium. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Factors associated with early cyclicity in postpartum dairy cows.

    Vercouteren, M M A A; Bittar, J H J; Pinedo, P J; Risco, C A; Santos, J E P; Vieira-Neto, A; Galvão, K N


    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with resumption of ovarian cyclicity within 21 days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. Cows (n=768) from 2 herds in north Florida had their ovaries scanned at 17±3, 21±3, and 24±3 DIM. Cows that had a corpus luteum ≥20mm at 17±3 or at 21±3 DIM or that had a corpus luteum metritis, mastitis, digestive problems, lameness, body weight loss, dry period length, and average daily milk yield. Body condition was scored at 17±3 DIM. Multivariable mixed logistic regression analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Variables with P≤0.2 were considered in each model. Herd was included as a random variable. Three models were constructed: model 1 included all cows, model 2 included only cows from dairy 1 that had daily body weights available, and model 3 included only multiparous cows with a previous dry period length recorded. In model 1, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall rather than in the winter or spring, being multiparous rather than primiparous, and not having metabolic or digestive problems. In model 2, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were calving in the summer and fall, not having metritis or digestive problems and not losing >28 kg of BW within 14 DIM. In model 3, variables associated with greater cyclicity by 21±3 DIM were absence of metabolic problems and dry period ≤76 d. In summary, cyclicity by 21±3 DIM was negatively associated with calving in winter or spring, primiparity, metritis, metabolic or digestive problems, loss of >28 kg of body weight, and a dry period >76d. Strategies preventing extended dry period length and loss of BW, together with reductions in the incidence of metritis as well as metabolic and digestive problems should improve early cyclicity postpartum. PMID:25465552

  4. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Abdul Wahid Haron; Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah; Abdulnasir Tijjani; Yusuf Abba; Lawan Adamu; Konto Mohammed; Aisyah Munira Mohammed Amir; Mohammad Abubakar Sadiq; Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila


    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20) and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=1...

  5. Influence of intramammary infection of a single gland in dairy cows on the cow's milk quality.

    Bezman, Dror; Lemberskiy-Kuzin, Liubov; Katz, Gil; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel


    Intramammary infection (IMI), comprises a group of costly diseases affecting dairy animals worldwide. Many dairy parlours are equipped with on-line computerised data acquisition systems designed to detect IMI. However, the data collected is related to the cow level, therefore the contribution of infected glands to the recorded parameters may be over estimated. The present study aimed at evaluating the influence of single gland IMI by different bacteria species on the cow's overall milk quality. A total of 130 cows were tested 239 times; 79 cows were tested once and the others were examined 2-8 times. All of the analysed data refer to the number of tests performed, taking into account the repeated testing of the same cows. Of the cows tested ~50% were free of infection in all 4 glands and the others were infected in one gland with different coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus dysgalactiae, or were post infected with Escherichia coli (PIEc), i.e., free of bacterial infection at the time of sampling but 1-2 months after clinical infection by E. coli. Overall, infection with bacteria had significant effects on somatic cell count (SCC) and lactose concentration. Examining each bacterium reveals that the major influence on those parameters was the sharp decrease in lactose in the PIEc and curd firmness in PIEc and Strep. Individual gland milk production decreased ~20% in Strep. dysgalactiae- and ~50% in PIEc-infected glands with respect to glands with no bacterial findings. Significant differences were found in lactose, SCC, rennet clotting time and curd firmness in the milk of infected glands and among those, these parameters were significantly higher in Strep. dysgalactiae and PIEc than in CNS infected cows. The current results using quarter-milking reinforces the importance of accurate IMI detection in relation to economic and welfare factors, and moreover, emphasises the need for technical sensing and constant reporting to the farmer about changes

  6. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K


    Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. PMID:26857982

  7. Mechanisms underlying reduced fertility in anovular dairy cows.

    Santos, J E P; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S


    Resumption of ovulation after parturition is a coordinated process that involves recoupling of the GH/insulin-like growth factor 1 axis in the liver, increase in follicular development and steroidogenesis, and removal of negative feedback from estradiol in the hypothalamus. Infectious diseases and metabolic disorders associated with extensive negative energy balance during early lactation disrupt this pathway and delay first ovulation postpartum. Extended periods of anovulation postpartum exert long-lasting effects on fertility in dairy cows including the lack of spontaneous estrus, reduced pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and increased risk of pregnancy loss. Concentrations of progesterone in anovular cows subjected to synchronized programs for AI are insufficient to optimize follicular maturation, oocyte competence, and subsequent fertility to AI. Ovulation of first wave follicles, which develop under low concentrations of progesterone, reduces embryo quality in the first week after fertilization and P/AI in dairy cows. Although the specific mechanisms by which anovulation and low concentrations of progesterone impair oocyte quality have not been defined, studies with persistent follicles support the involvement of premature resumption of meiosis and degradation of maternal RNA. Suboptimal concentrations of progesterone before ovulation also increase the synthesis of PGF2α in response to oxytocin during the subsequent estrous cycle, which explains the greater incidence of short luteal phases after the first AI postpartum in anovular cows compared with estrous cyclic herd mates. It is suggested that increased spontaneous luteolysis early in the estrous cycle is one of the mechanisms that contributes to early embryonic losses in anovular cows. Anovulation also leads to major shifts in gene expression in elongated conceptuses during preimplantation stages of pregnancy. Transcripts involved with control of energy metabolism and DNA repair were

  8. Assessment of visceral pain associated with metritis in dairy cows.

    Stojkov, J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Marchant-Forde, J N; Weary, D M


    Metritis is a common disease in dairy cattle, but to our knowledge, no work has assessed pain associated with this disease. Tissue palpation is commonly used to assess pain in human and veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate visceral pain responses during rectal palpation, with and without uterine palpation, in healthy cows and in cows diagnosed with metritis. A total of 49 Holstein dairy cows (mean ± standard deviation parity of 2.8±1.8) were subjected to systematic health checks every 3 d after parturition for 21 d, scoring for vaginal discharge (0 to 4); 13 cows showed a discharge score ≥2 during at least 1 health check and were classified as metritic, whereas 29 cows were classified as healthy and showed no sign of this or any other disease (including mastitis and lameness). Back arch and heart rate variability before examination and during palpation were recorded using video and heart rate monitors. Back arch (cm(2)) on the day of diagnosis was greater in metritic versus healthy cows (1,034±72 vs. 612±48cm(2)), and greater during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (869±45 vs. 777±45cm(2)). Heart rate frequency domain analysis showed that the low-frequency portion was higher in cows with metritis versus healthy cows (16.5±1.2 vs. 12.9±1.0). Time domain analysis showed that the standard deviation between normal to normal interbeat intervals and the root mean square of successive differences both decreased during rectal palpation with uterine palpation versus rectal palpation without uterine palpation (1.9±0.1 vs. 2.5±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1, respectively). Together, these results indicate that the inflammation associated with metritis is painful, and that the pain response can be detected during rectal palpation with and without uterine palpation. Rectal palpation with uterine palpation appears to be more aversive than rectal palpation without uterine palpation

  9. Digestible NDF is selectively retained in the rumen of dairy cows compared to indigestible NDF

    Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben


    Data was compiled from four experiments (60 observations) with fistulated dairy cows. Different forages were fed ad libitum as the only feed or supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate.......Data was compiled from four experiments (60 observations) with fistulated dairy cows. Different forages were fed ad libitum as the only feed or supplemented with a fixed amount of concentrate....

  10. Relationship between somatic cell count status and subsequent clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy cows

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Lupindu, A.M.; Schaik, van G.; Frankena, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Nielen, M.


    High composite somatic cell counts (CSCC) in dairy cows may develop into clinical mastitis (CM), suggesting that prevention or intervention of high CSCC may prevent CM later in lactation. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between high CSCC in dairy cows and the first subse

  11. Liver protein expression in dairy cows with high liver triglycerides in early lactation

    Sejersen, Henrik; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Larsen, Torben;


    the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with a low or high liver TG content. The liver proteome analysis indicated that a high liver TG content in early lactation dairy cows is associated with increased oxidation of saturated fatty acids, oxidative stress, and urea synthesis and...

  12. Behaviour of Dairy Cows, Useful Indicator in Assessing Animal Welfare

    Ioana Cristina Andronie


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to establish the manner in which the flooring type may influence the welfare levelsin dairy cows by assessment of laminitis incidence and animals’ behaviour. 42 dairy cows were grouped based on theshelter floor surface: concrete with straw bedding, asphalted concrete with straw bedding and concrete plus shavings.The behaviour was assessed through direct observation and laminitis incidence was established by numericalassessment of locomotion prior or following milking.The results have indicated an increase of laminitis incidence by 15-25 % in B and C lot and was absent in A lot. Thelarge number of diseases was recorded on concrete floors with shavings bedding (53%. The behavioural displays ofthe cows suffering from laminitis were different from the healthy ones, as their resting behaviour outside the stallswas more prevalent (17.6% compared to 8.8% while the feeding behaviour was less present (10.1% compared to14.7%. Likewise, the socializing behaviour was more active in these animals, compared to the healthycows.

  13. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago


    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  14. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T;


    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been...... studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...

  15. Short communication: Influence of subclinical endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Mónica Barrio; Marcos Vigo; Luis A. Quintela; Juan J. Becerra; Pedro J. García-Herradón; Daniel Martínez-Bello; Francisco I. Fernandez-Sanchez; Alberto Prieto; Juan Cainzos; Ana I. Peña


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of subclinical endometritis (SE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Ninety-four dairy cows of parity 1 to 8, distributed in 25 herds, were examined once between 30 and 45 days in milk using transrectal palpation, vaginoscopy and ultrasonography. A cytological sample of the endometrium was taken only from cows with an apparent healthy uterus (n=65). Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hyd...

  16. Reactions of dairy cows during the operation of a robotic slat cleaner

    Anna Stülpner


    Full Text Available During manure removal, robotic slat cleaners move in close proximity to dairy cows. The present study investigated the influence of a robotic cleaner on the animals by video recording and analysing their reactions. As most important influence factors concerning individual animal reactions, the small proportion of 8 % of marked reactions by cows to the slat robot as well as the actual distance between the cows and the slat robot, indicated a good adaption of dairy cows to the equipment. Observation of the complete herd of cows demonstrated that animals increased their movement from lying area to feeding area while the robotic slat cleaner was operating.

  17. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows

    Alvåsen, K.; Jansson Mörk, M.; Dohoo, I. R.;


    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on......). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow...

  18. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

    Marjan Janžekovič


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  19. Supplementation of prepartum dairy cows with β-carotene.

    Oliveira, R C; Guerreiro, B M; Morais Junior, N N; Araujo, R L; Pereira, R A N; Pereira, M N


    The prepartum supplementation of dairy cows with β-carotene was evaluated. Cows were blocked by parity and expected calving date and assigned to a treatment: β-carotene (1.2 g/cow per d) or control (no supplementation). The same total mixed ration batch was offered to all cows, and β-carotene was top dressed to individual cows once per day. The data set contained 283 Holsteins that received a treatment for >14 d (29.1±6.9 d). Frequency distributions were analyzed with the GENMOD procedure of SAS using logistic regression for binomial data. Continuous variables were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. Within parity, nonparametric estimates of the survivor function for reproductive variables were computed using the product-limit method of the Kaplan-Meier method with the LIFETEST procedure of SAS. Plasma β-carotene concentration before supplementation was similar between supplemented and nonsupplemented cows (2.99µg/mL) and peaked at 3.26±0.175µg/mL on d -15±2.4 precalving for supplemented cows (2.62±0.168µg/mL for control). Colostrum density, milk yield, and milk composition were similar between treatments. β-Carotene tended to increase milk protein content from 2.90 to 2.96% and to decrease the proportion of primiparous cows with a milk fat to protein ratio >1.5 from 22.6 to 6.4%. The proportion of primiparous and multiparous cows with difficult calving, metritis, progesterone >1 ng/mL at 21 d and at 42 d in lactation, % conception at first service, and % pregnancy at 90 and 150 d in lactation were similar between treatments. A trend for decreased incidence of somatic cell count >200,000 cells/mL was present in multiparous cows supplemented with β-carotene (38.9% vs. 28.1%). β-Carotene was associated with a reduction in the proportion of multiparous cows with retained placenta 12 h postpartum from 29.9 to 21.7%; time of placenta release was 392 min (340 to 440) for β-carotene and 490 min (395 to 540) for control (median and 95% confidence

  20. Studies on quantity and composition of dairy cow excreta

    After feeding a lactating dairy cow a day ration completely enriched with 15N, the quantities of feces and urine were registered over a period of ten days and put into proportion to the animal mass. The fecal dry matter was put into proportion to the dry matter of the fodder by means of 15N analysis the N excretion with the excreta was determined concerning quantity and time. Selected feces and urine charges were used to produce a slurry model. The content of nutritive elements of the initial components and of the organic fertilizer are discussed. (author)

  1. Main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows

    Fabio Abeni


    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to summarise the main causes of poor welfare in intensively reared dairy cows. Intensive farming systems are considered, both from a structural and a managerial point of view, for their constraints that may limit animal welfare: possible physical activity; acceptable interactions with humans and other animals; feeding and watering, protection from climate, parasites, and diseases. The dairy farms managed according to the organic rules do not always guarantee, per se, better welfare conditions; organic or low input dairy farming needs to consider the right interaction among cattle breed and herd management, focusing on the actual quality of feedstuffs meet face cow requirements. The considered structural aspects evidence how special care must be given to the rest area (straw yard or cubicle; to the floors that should be not too hard or abrasive and not slippery; to the cubicle bedding material to ensure hygiene, softness, and dryness; to the feeding (and watering area to reduce conflicts; to a microclimate control system, to avoid heat stress during summer time. The importance of proper management for animal welfare is evidenced for buildings and equipment, to have clean and comfortable stables and well functioning milking machines; nutritive and storage quality of feeds; diet suitability (energy, protein, physically efficient fibre, buffers etc., in the different phases of a dairy cow’s life (dry period, close-up, transition, and lactation; feed distribution (frequency and time, and 24h availability. Special attention has to be paid to the social aspects, regarding both animal competition (stocking density, group size, and human/animal interactions (methods of management and manipulation. The interaction between welfare and health requires special attention. Poor welfare can cause immune depression, thus increasing the risk of disease. In turn, any disease that causes an inflammatory response may determine depression

  2. Extended lactation may improve cow health and productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emission from organic dairy cows

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels


    The concept of extended lactation is supposed to improve cow health and productivity and at the same time reduce greenhouse emission from high-yielding organic dairy cows in a product perspective. This effect is achieved through fewer calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which then reduces the annual herd requirement for feed. We believe that the average milk yield per feeding day – days lactating plus days dry – per cow will be unchanged. However, this requi...

  3. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül


    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  4. Effect of Biosaf in dairy buffalo cows

    M. Larbier


    Full Text Available Biosaf is a thermostable live yeast concentrate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain Sc47. The trial was carried out on 35 buffalo cows subdivided in 3 groups: Group A (Control with farm standard diet; Group B (with the same diet, added with 6g Biosaf/day; Group C (with the same diet, added with 60g Biosaf/day. The trial started within the first month from calving (1st month of lactation up to the 8th month of lactation. The mean values for milk production during 8 months of trial are 8.95, 8.95 and 8.91 liters/d, respectively in Group A, B and C, without significant differences among groups. The protein percentage increased in groups receiving Biosaf. The effect was significant (P<0.05 in Group B and C at the 4th, 5th and 8th month of lactation in comparison to Control Group and in Group B at 4th month of lactation in comparison to Control Group: this indicates that Biosaf integration really increases milk protein and consequently mozzarella yield.

  5. Changes in serum copper and zinc levels in peripartum healthy and subclinically hypocalcemic dairy cows.

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhe; Li, Xiaobing; Zhao, Baoyu; Liu, Guowen


    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of serum copper and zinc in subclinically hypocalcemic peripartum dairy cows in comparison to healthy animals. Blood samples were taken from 219 multiparous Holstein cows near parturition (from 4 weeks prepartum to 4 weeks postpartum) and 51 cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. The results showed that the serum copper concentration increased gradually at 1 week prepartum and remained high for the first 4 weeks postpartum in the healthy periparturient dairy cows. The serum zinc concentration reached a nadir at 1 week postpartum and subsequently increased gradually to baseline. The serum zinc concentration was significantly decreased (Pcows with subclinical hypocalcemia compared with healthy cows. There was no significant difference in the serum copper concentration between cows with subclinical hypocalcemia and healthy cows. These data demonstrate that the concentrations of copper and zinc in serum change dramatically during the peripartum period in dairy cows, which is a tremendous challenge for the body and for the maintenance of dairy cow health. The present study further suggests that a decreased serum zinc concentration could be a cause of decreased productive performance and increased susceptibility to other diseases due to immunosuppression in dairy cows with subclinical hypocalcemia. Additionally, this decreased zinc concentration may be involved in the pathogenesis of subclinical hypocalcemia. PMID:24859816

  6. Differences in the Fecal Concentrations and Genetic Diversities of Campylobacter jejuni Populations among Individual Cows in Two Dairy Herds

    Rapp, Delphine; Ross, Colleen M.; Pleydell, Eve J.; Muirhead, Richard W.


    Dairy cows have been identified as common carriers of Campylobacter jejuni, which causes many of the human gastroenteritis cases reported worldwide. To design on-farm management practices that control the human infection sourced from dairy cows, the first step is to acquire an understanding of the excretion patterns of the cow reservoir. We monitored the same 35 cows from two dairy farms for C. jejuni excretion fortnightly for up to 12 months. The objective was to examine the concentration of...

  7. Behavioral changes in freestall-housed dairy cows with naturally occurring clinical mastitis

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner; Herskin, Mette S


    was evident in the mastitic dairy cows and local clinical signs in the udder as well as behavioral changes persisted beyond the 3 d of antibiotic treatment. In the days before diagnosis and treatment, feed intake was reduced compared with the control animals. Although reduced by the antibiotic......Dairy cows exhibit classic signs of sickness behavior during mastitis. However, knowledge about the consequences of naturally occurring mastitis in freestall-housed dairy cows, milked in automatic milking systems, is lacking. The aim of the present study was to describe the behavior of dairy cows...... after diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of mastitis. In the days before and after antibiotic treatment, the milking behavior, feeding, and activity were examined in 30 mastitic and 30 control Danish Holstein-Friesian cows kept in freestalls and milked by an automatic milking system. Sickness behavior...

  8. Metagenomic assessment of the functional potential of the rumen microbiome in Holstein dairy cows.

    Pitta, Dipti W; Indugu, Nagaraju; Kumar, Sanjay; Vecchiarelli, Bonnie; Sinha, Rohini; Baker, Linda D; Bhukya, Bhima; Ferguson, James D


    The microbial ecology of the rumen microbiome is influenced by the diet and the physiological status of the dairy cow and can have tremendous influence on the yield and components of milk. There are significant differences in milk yields between first and subsequent lactations of dairy cows, but information on how the rumen microbiome changes as the dairy cow gets older has received little attention. We characterized the rumen microbiome of the dairy cow for phylogeny and functional pathways by lactation group and stage of lactation using a metagenomics approach. Our findings revealed that the rumen microbiome was dominated by Bacteroidetes (70%), Firmicutes (15-20%) and Proteobacteria (7%). The abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were independently influenced by diet and lactation. Bacteroidetes contributed to a majority of the metabolic functions in first lactation dairy cows while the contribution from Firmicutes and Proteobacteria increased incrementally in second and third lactation dairy cows. We found that nearly 70% of the CAZymes were oligosaccharide breaking enzymes which reflect the higher starch and fermentable sugars in the diet. The results of this study suggest that the rumen microbiome continues to evolve as the dairy cow advances in lactations and these changes may have a significant role in milk production. PMID:26700882

  9. Milk residues and performance of lactating dairy cows administered high doses of monensin

    Bagg, Randal; Vessie, Gordon H.; Dick, C. Paul; Duffield, Todd; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff J


    Milk residues and performance were evaluated in lactating cows that were fed up to 10 times the recommended dose of monensin. Following an acclimatization period of 14 d, during which cows were fed a standard lactating cow total mixed ration containing 24 ppm monensin, 18 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped according to the level of feed intake and then randomly assigned within each group to 1 of 3 challenge rations delivering 72, 144, and 240 ppm monensin. Outcome measurements include...

  10. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    González, R N; Cullor, J S; Jasper, D. E.; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M N


    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical c...

  11. Prevalence of mastitis in dairy cows from smallholder farms in Zimbabwe

    Davies M. Pfukenyi; Masimba Ndengu; Gift Matope; Simbarashe Katsande


    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sub-clinical and clinical mastitis and the associated factors in cows from selected smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe. Physical examinations were conducted on all lactating cows for evidence of signs of clinical mastitis. Composite milk samples were collected from all lactating cows for bacterial culture and somatic cell counting. Cows were categorised as clinical if they exhibited clinical features of mastitis, or sub-cli...

  12. Thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows in pasture

    da Silva, Roberto Gomes; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; de Morais, Débora Andréia E. Façanha


    The goal of the present paper was to assess a method for estimating the thermal radiation absorbed by dairy cows (0.875 Holstein-0.125 Guzerath) on pasture. A field test was conducted with 472 crossbred dairy cows in three locations of a tropical region. The following environmental data were collected: air temperature, partial vapour pressure, wind speed, black globe temperature, ground surface temperature and solar radiation. Average total radiation absorbed by animals was calculated as {R_{abs}} = 640.0 ± 3.1 W.{m^{ - 2}} . Absorbed short-wave radiation (solar direct, diffuse and reflected) averaged 297.9 ± 2.7 W m-2; long wave (from the sky and from terrestrial surfaces) averaged 342.1 ± 1.5 W m-2. It was suggested that a new environmental measurement, the effective radiant heat load (ERHL), could be used to assess the effective mean radiant temperature ( {T_{mr}^* } ) . Average T_{mr}^* was 101.4 ± 1.2°C, in contrast to the usual mean radiant temperature, {T_{mr}} = 65.1 ± 0.5° C . Estimates of T_{mr}^* were considered as more reliable than those of T mr in evaluating the thermal environment in the open field, because T mr is almost totally associated only with long wave radiation.

  13. Reproductive tract inflammatory disease in postpartum dairy cows.

    LeBlanc, S J


    Up to half of dairy cows are affected by at least one of metritis, purulent vaginal discharge, endometritis or cervicitis in the postpartum period. These conditions result from inadequate immune response to bacterial infection (failure to clear pathogenic bacteria from the uterus) or persistent inflammation that impairs rather than enhances reproductive function. The degree of mobilization of fat and how effectively it is used as a metabolic fuel is well recognized as a risk factor for metabolic and infectious disease. Release of non-esterified fatty acids has direct effects on liver and immune function but also produces pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6), which contribute to systemic inflammation and to insulin resistance. Therefore, reproductive tract inflammatory disease may be a function of both local and systemic inflammatory stimuli and regulation as well as regulation of fat metabolism. Better understanding of variables associated with insulin resistance and inflammatory regulation in the liver and adipose tissue may lead to improvement of reproductive tract health. This paper reviews factors that may contribute to postpartum reproductive tract inflammatory diseases in dairy cows and their inter-relationships, impacts and treatment. PMID:24679404


    Cyril Hrncar


    Full Text Available When evaluating milk performance indicators, we mainly focused on dairy cows of the Holstein breed and its cross-breeds. Within the Holstein breed and its cross-breeds we evaluated 68 dairy cows, which produced on average 6447.63 kg of milk, 272.42 kg of fat, 210.73 kg of proteins and 307.79 kg of lactose. By means of a device LACTOSCAN 90 we defined basic milk components in our samples in laboratory conditions on the basis of set working procedures. Average fat content in our samples stood at 3.87 g/100 g. Average proteins content in our samples stood at 3.36 g/100 g. Average lactose content stood at 4.96 g/100 g. When assessing milk technological qualities we determined the average milk acidity value in our samples, which was 5.85 oSH. The average thermostability value of the tested samples was 2.75. In the milk cheeseability test the shortest time needed for sample precipitation was detected in samples No. 4 (42 s.,   No. 13 (185 s. and No.11 (190 s..    doi:10.5219/93

  15. Effects of main reproductive and health problems on the performance of dairy cows: a review

    N. Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh


    Full Text Available This review focuses on the potential effects of twinning, dystocia, stillbirth, abortion, retained placenta and metritis on the productive and reproductive performances in dairy cattle. These are diverse disorders that are similar in that they all can result in impaired performance of dairy cows. Reproductive problems occur frequently in lactating dairy cows and can dramatically affect reproductive efficiency in a dairy herd. Poor reproductive performance is a major cause of involuntary culling and therefore reduces the opportunity for voluntary culling and has a negative influence on the subsequent productivity of a dairy herd. Reproductive performance is influenced by the interactive effect of environment, management, health, and genetic factors. In addition, diseases mainly affect dairy cow productivity by decreasing reproductive efficiency, shortening the expected length of productive life and by lowering milk production. Deciding whether to breed, treat, or cull dairy cows showing one or more of these problems is a challenge for both veterinarians and dairy producers. In addition, there is considerable debate among dairy scientists and bovine practitioners regarding the economic impact of these problems in a dairy operation and the most effective management or therapeutic intervention for treating them. Because of this controversy, dairy managers should focus on prevention and control of risk factors associated with each problem rather than on prescriptive therapeutic interventions.

  16. Fluoride Concentration in Water, Cow Milk and Cow Urine from Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kiambu- Kenya

    Kiambu district is situated in central part of Kenya. most of the available land is suitable for agricultural use. majority of the farmers are small scale or subsistence farmers and they are involve in a variety of livestock activities e.g. dairy production, pig production and others in combination or as separate operations. excessive fluoride ingestion can cause specific dental and skeletal lesions and in severe cases adversely influence the health and productivity performance of domestic animals.therefore a study was designed to investigate the levels of flouride in urine, milk and water samples from small scale dairy farms in Kiambu. Water, cow urine and milk samples were collected in clean plastic containers from 84 small scale farms belonging to 6 dairy farmers co-operative societies (DFCs). The DFCs in this study were Kiambaa, Lari, Nderi, Kikuyu, Chania and Limuru. The fluoride concentration in water milk and urine were analysed using the potentiometric method of fluoride ion specific electrode. overall urine contained the highest fluoride concentration while milk contained the lowest fluoride levels. Fluoride levels in water, milk and urine were significantly different, (P>0.05). The mean fluoride concentration in water from all societies was 0.29 ppm while the mean fluoride concentration in milk 0.05 ppm. urine samples had the highest fluoride concentration, (1.5 ppm). The cooperative specific mean fluoride concentrations arranged in descending order were as follow: Nderi (2.8 ppm), Kikuyu (2.4 ppm), Kiambaa(1.9 ppm), Chania (1.6 ppm), Limuru (1.3 ppm) and Lari (1.0 ppm). The maximum fluoride concentration encountered in water in this study was 3.4 ppm, however adverse productivity has been reported in dairy animals consuming as low as 2.15 ppm in drinking water. The mean milk production in in kilograms per day per cow ranged from 2.5 to 6.9 when all six dairy co-operative societies were taken into consideration. this is far below the expected production

  17. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    A.M. Pulimeno


    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  18. Preliminary survey of the administration of pgf2α in postpartum dairy cows

    Fejzo Selami; Griseld Selami


    This preliminary study was conducted to obtain a first view of the role of PGF2α on placenta expulsion, prevention of postpartum uterine infections, and fertility in dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows, 3 to 6 years of age, from a commercial dairy farm near Permet’s district were selected for this study. Cows were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: Ten cows were administered intramuscularly with 2 ml PGF2α (Estrumate®) 2 hours after parturition, and the treatment was repeated with th...

  19. Immunological aspects of metritis in dairy cows: a review.

    Pantaleo, Marianna; Rizzo, Annalisa; D'Onghia, Giovanni; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Roncetti, Maria; Piccinno, Mariagrazia; Mutinati, Maddalena; Terlizzi, Michele Roberto; Sciorsci, Raffaele Luigi


    This paper reviews puerperal metritis in the cow, particularly the complex and multi-factorial pathogenesis characterized by an altered cross-talk among infectious agents, endocrine and immune systems. Uterine infections impair fertility and is one of the main causes of economic losses in dairy production. The early postpartum is a period characterized by an increased exposition to infectious agents and the disruption of the metabolic homeostasis, leading to endocrine and immunologic disorders. Dysregulation of uterine defence mechanisms results in the development of metritis. Because there is a complex interaction between infectious, endocrine and immune factors during metritis, there is need to use safer and cheaper drugs which are able to strengthen the anti-infective actions of the routine therapies. PMID:24867621

  20. Effects of antibiotic treatment of nonlactating dairy cows on antibiotic resistance patterns of bovine mastitis pathogens.

    Berghash, S R; Davidson, J. N.; Armstrong, J. C.; Dunny, G M


    Antibiotic resistance patterns of the major groups of bovine mastitis pathogens (Streptococcus agalactiae, other streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were examined by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 different antibiotics against bacterial isolates from dairy cattle. The bacterial strains were obtained from milk samples from each cow in 21 New York state dairy herd surveys. In 12 herd surveys (high antibiotic-use group), all 365 cows...

  1. Monitoring of qualitative parameters of milk from dairy cows fed algae

    Dědinová, Lenka


    The subject of this research was to determine the possible influence of adding green algae Chlorella sp. to the diet of dairy cows and evaluate the subsequent effects on milk quality. Algae contain high levels of protein, essential fatty acids, and a number of important vitamins and minerals, to improve and enrich the diet of dairy cows with subsequent benefits to the quality of milk. Continuing cost increases of feedstuffs directly affects the selling price of the milk produced, which is ...

  2. Production performance of dairy cows after the dietary addition of clinoptilolite

    Luisa Casini; Davide Creston; Paolo Bosi


    Clays are frequently proposed for the addition to dairy cattle diets to reduce the transfer of mycotoxins in milk. This study  examined the effect of the addition of Clinoptilolite to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk com-  position. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows (average lactation length: 142 d) were blocked according to milk production,  parity, and days of lactation for assignment to one of two dietary treatments: control diet; control diet + ...


    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar


    The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB) namely sodium (Na), potassium (K) and chloride (Cl) have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the...

  4. Cholesterol metabolism, transport, and hepatic regulation in dairy cows during transition and early lactation

    Kessler, Evelyne; Gross, Josef Johann; Bruckmaier, Rupert; Albrecht, Christiane


    The transition from the nonlactating to the lactating state represents a critical period for dairy cow lipid metabolism because body reserves have to be mobilized to meet the increasing energy requirements for the initiation of milk production. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview on cholesterol homeostasis in transition dairy cows by assessing in parallel plasma, milk, and hepatic tissue for key factors of cholesterol metabolism, transport, and regulation. Blood ...

  5. Influence of yeast, probiotics and enzymes in rations on dairy cows performances during transition

    Sretenović Ljiljana; Petrović Milan P.; Aleksić S.; Pantelić Vlada; Katić V.; Bogdanović V.; Beskorovajni R.


    The main goal of this paper was to investigate the influence of some additives included into high yielding dairy cows rations to overcome the problems in early lactation. These substances directly affect the productive performances of dairy cows as well as udder health. The commercial name of investigated preparation is 'YEASTURE' and it is composed of live yeast cultures selected from three strains Saccharomyces cerevisisiae in combination with probiotic bacteria an...

  6. Low protein degr adability and precision protein feeding improve nitrogen efficiency of dairy cows

    Cutullic, Erwan; Delaby, Luc; Edouard, Nadège; Faverdin, Philippe


    The low efficiency of nitrogen (N) intake in dairy cows can increase feed costs and ammonia emissions. At the rumen level, decreasing degradable N to improve the urea reuse in microbial protein synthesis, can increase N efficiency (Neff=Nmilk/Nintake). Moreover, at the animal level, the metabolisable protein (MP) efficiency varies greatly between dairy cows. Applying precision feeding, with adjustment of the diet according to individual observations, could increase this MPeff. The...

  7. Selenium and Antioxidant Status in Dairy Cows at Different Stages of Lactation.

    Gong, Jian; Xiao, Min


    Thirty-five multiparous Holstein cows averaging 550 ± 50 kg of body weight and in 2 to 4 parity were divided into three groups according to lactation stage (group A: nine cows from 4 to 1 weeks prepartum; group B: 11 cows from 1 to 30 days postpartum; group C: 15 cows from 30 to 100 days postpartum). Selenium concentration, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity, and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were determined to evaluate selenium and antioxidant status in dairy cows at different stages of lactation. The results showed that mean serum selenium concentration, MDA level, and GSH-Px activity of cows in early lactation increased significantly (P cows in the dry period and peak lactation. Conversely, serum TrxR activity and TAS declined during this period (P period, thus placing the cows at a greater risk of oxidative stress. The significant decrease in TrxR activity that is accompanied with a decrease in TAS during early lactation suggests that dairy cows have low antioxidant defense in this period and TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in transition dairy cows. PMID:26384688

  8. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Mitrov Dine


    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  9. Stereotypical behaviour at high yielding dairy cows farms - "tongue rolling"

    Prodanović Radiša


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine if there was a connection between stereotypical behaviour of high yielding dairy cows breeds and values of biochemical blood parameters. The investigation was carried out in august at loose-housing type of farms, in 30 heads of cattle from four groups: drying (15 to 7 days before calving, puerperium (up to 40 days after calving, early lactation (up to 120 days after calving and late lactation (200 to 300 days after calving. Assessment of stereotypical behaviour (tongue rolling was carried out by the method of careful observation of all the tested animals 2 to 4 hours after morning feeding. Blood samples were taken by puncture of jugular vein from 8 cows out of each animal group. In these blood samples there was determined the concentration of glucose, beta hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA, total protein (TP, albumin, urea, total bilirubin (TBI, Ca, P, and Mg as well as AST and ALT activities. During the period up to 40 days after calving (puerperium, behavioral disorder in the form of „tongue rolling“ was found out in 4 out of 30 observed animals (13.33%. Average concentrations of all the tested blood parameters during the drying period as well as in early and late lactation were within physiological values for cattle. During puerperium there were found significantly lower values of glycaemia, proteinemia, albuminemia, uremia and magnesiemia in regard to antepartal values (p<0.05, where the values of glycaemia and magnesiemia were below the physiological limit. A the same time, in this group of cows the values of TBI and AST activities were higher than physiological values. Frequent appearance of „tongue rolling“ phenomenon only among cows in the group with deviation of biochemical parameters values, points out to a possible connection between the stereotypical behaviour and biochemical composition of blood. It seems that hypomagnesiemia could be a significant etiopathogenetic factor causing the

  10. Role of nutrition in ethiopathogenesis of health disturbances of dairy cows in periparturient period

    Sinovec Zlatan J.


    Full Text Available The goals of high producing dairy cow nutrition are to provide good health and condition of animals, normal 300-day long lactation, more lactation cycle during exploitation, maximal amount of milk yield with optimal chemical contents, as well as bringing healthy and vital veal once a year. Nutrients metabolism disturbances in dairy cows mostly expressed in periparturient period due to higher demands needed for fetus growth and development, as well as for requirements for lactation. Energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows mostly appeared as kethosis complicated with liver fatty acid accumulation that firstly caused fatty infiltration and later fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. Besides energy, in this period changes of mineral status are very common as consequences of higher mineral deposition in skeleton of fetus, and secretion via milk by beginning of the lactation. Mineral metabolism disorder in dairy cows, firstly calcium, mostly appeared as paresis and paralysis. Dairy cows peripartal metabolic disturbances are very dependent and caused among themselves commonly leading to mutual appearance. That’s why the meal for high producing dairy cow in periparturient period have to be optimal balanced not only according to amount of some nutrients, but their relationship, as well as their influences on metabolic pathways and homeostasis.

  11. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran


    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  12. Digital dermatitis of the accessory digits of dairy cows

    Celso A. Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This report characterizes the digital dermatitis (DD lesions in the accessory digits of dairy cows and presents data on the applied therapy. Fifteen Holstein cattle with DD affecting the accessory digits of the hindlimbs from four dairy farms with previous history of DD were evaluated. Lesions were excised, the wounds were sutured, and a topical application of oxytetracycline powder covered by bandaging was associated with a single parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline IM (20mg/kg. Tissue samples were obtained for histopathology and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM. Lesions from all the animals were recuperated 15 days after surgical procedure. Overal, most DD lesions were papillomatous epidermal projections or wartlike verrucous lesions. Histopathologically, samples revealed hyperplasia of epidermis with hyperkeratosis, several mitoses in the stratum basale and elongated rete ridges in the superficial and middle dermis. TEM revealed long, thin spirochete-like bacteria. Morphologic features of lesions and its response to therapy were comparable to those described for DD.


    A. Thalib


    Full Text Available An experiment on the use of Complete Rumen Modifier (CRM to improve dairy cowproductivity and to mitigate enteric methane production has been conducted. Sixteen lactating dairycows were distributed into 4 groups by using compelete randomized design (CRD. Group I (Controlfed by basal diet consisted of elephant grass and concentrate 7.5 kg/hd/dy (CP 16% and TDN 70%,Group II (Pro. Woodii fed by basal diet + probiotic Woodii, Group III (Pro.Noterae fed by basal diet +probiotic Noterae; Group IV (CRM-Noterae fed by basal diet + CRM + Pro.Noterae. Measurementswere conducted on body weight gain, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, milk and methaneproduction. Results showed that CRM-Noterae increased ADG by 72% (1.29 vs 0.75 kg and improvedFCR (9.2 vs 15.6. Probiotic noterae as single treatment or combined with CRM increased fat and totalsolid content of milk from 3.18% and 10.58% in control group to become 3.91%; 11.31% and 3.55%;11.02%, respectively. The lowest methane production was recorded in Group IV. The combination ofCRM and Noterae reduced percentage of methane production by 14%. It is concluded that combinationof CRM and Noterae can improve dairy cow performance and decrease methane production. ProbioticNoterae improved milk quality.

  14. Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy cows: incidence and costs

    Perez-Cabal, M. A.; Yaici, S.; Alenda, R.


    Clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy herds has been studied. Since April 2005 up to December 2006, in 25 Spanish herds 1,054 cases registered were available. Aims were to determine mastitis incidence and factors of risk, to analyze whether yield production has been affected, and to quantify mastitis costs along 2006. The 25% lactations were infected at least once with average recurrence of 1.64. Descriptive analysis showed that 29% of cases occurred within the first month after calving. Primiparous showed higher mastitis frequency at early and late lactation while in multiparous cases number was progressively decreasing since the first month. Multiparous were statistically more liable to mastitis than primiparous. Mastitis did not show effect on yield production. Mastitis costs included treatment products and discarded milk. Individual daily production at each case onset was estimated by using monthly official milking records. An average mastitis case cost was 73.93, cheaper in primiparous than in multiparous because of lower milk production. Average discarded milk represented 74% of total cost per case. Mastitis costs were 117 per infected cow and lactation. Then, annual economic losses due to mastitis were 3,190 per average herd, showing the concern of producers on selecting resistant animals as well as the importance of the implementation of systematic recording for clinical mastitis in Spanish dairy farms. Additional key words: genetic selection, udder health. (Author) 28 refs.

  15. Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows

    Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were...

  16. Risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Swedish dairy cows.

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Dohoo, I R; Sandgren, C Hallén; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U


    Dairy cow mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) has increased, worldwide and in Sweden. On-farm mortality indicates suboptimal herd health or welfare and causes financial loss for the dairy producer. The objective of this study was to identify cow-level risk factors associated with on-farm cow mortality. Cows with at least one calving between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2009 from herds enrolled in the Swedish official milk recording scheme with >40 cow-years were included. Each cow was followed from the day of calving until she calved again or left the herd (died, slaughtered or sold). The effects of potential risk factors on on-farm cow mortality were analysed using a Weibull proportional hazard model with a gamma distributed frailty effect common to cows within herd. The event of interest (failure) was euthanasia or unassisted death. An observation was right censored if the cow was slaughtered, sold, calved again or had an on-going lactation at 500 days after calving. The lactations were split into seasons (January to April, May to August and September to December) and at 30 and 100 days in milk in order to evaluate seasonal effects and the effect of disease in different lactation stages. Primiparous and multiparous cows were analysed separately. The highest hazards for both primiparous and multiparous cows were found for traumatic events and diseases, both in the lactation stage in which the cow died and in the preceding stage. The hazard was higher in early lactation and lower in 2nd parity compared to higher parities. Increased age at first calving (for primiparous cows), calving between January and April, dystocia and stillbirth also increased the mortality hazard. Differences were also found between breeds, between milk production parameters at first test milking and between management types. The results from this study show the importance of good management and preventive health actions, especially around calving, to avoid mortality in dairy cows. PMID

  17. Nitrogen fertiliser value of digested dairy cow slurry, its liquid and solid fractions, and of dairy cow slurry

    Daniele Cavalli


    Full Text Available An understanding of crop availability of livestock slurry nitrogen (N is necessary to maximise crop N use efficiency and to minimise environmental losses. Results from field and laboratory incubation experiments suggest that first-year crop availability of slurry N comes mainly from its ammonium fraction because net mineralisation of organic N is often negligible in the short term. A two-year field experiment during 2011 and 2012 in northern Italy was undertaken with several aims: to estimate the N fertiliser value of raw dairy cow slurry, digested dairy cow slurry, and the liquid and solid fractions of the digested slurry, and to verify if applied ammonium recovery was similar both among slurries and between slurries and inorganic N fertiliser (ammonium sulphate. Different fertilisers were applied before silage maize cultivation followed by an unfertilised Italian ryegrass crop. The results showed that ammonium recovery was significantly higher in mineral-fertilised (75% versus slurry-fertilised (30% treatments, except in digested slurry (65%. This indicates that ammonium applied with organic materials is less efficient than when applied with mineral fertiliser. For the digested slurry and its liquid fraction, most of the applied ammonium was available to the maize during its application year (55% due to a low carbon (C/organic N ratio. The apparent N recovery of the raw slurry and digested slurry solid fraction increased substantially between the first (-1.4% and second (20% years, as these materials had high C/organic N ratios; they likely immobilised N for several months post application, producing residual effects during the Italian ryegrass and next maize crops.

  18. Factors contributing to immunosuppression in the dairy cow during the periparturient period

    Ingvartsen, Klaus L; Moyes, Kasey M.


    The transition from late gestation to early lactation results in dramatic physiological changes including metabolic changes and immunosuppression in the dairy cow. As a result, cows are at a high risk for disease during this time. Evidence supporting a link between metabolic status and naturally occurring immunosuppression is growing. This review focuses on the impacts of metabolic status, and the metabolites that characterize it, on the immune response of cows during the transition period. G...

  19. Blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis

    Rajesh Rathore; Vinod Kumar Gupta; Ricky Jhambh; Umesh Dimri


    Aim: To evaluate blood antioxidant profile and lipid peroxides in dairy cows with clinical mastitis. Materials and Methods: Twelve cases of clinical mastitis in cross-bred cows were selected based on physical examination of udder and milk, California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Count (SCC) and confirmation by bacteriological examination of milk and requisite biochemical tests. Twelve lactating cows showing negative CMT reaction and SCC <2x105 cells/ml were considered as healthy contr...

  20. Phenotypic Relationships between Lactation persistency and Common Health Disorders in Dairy Cows

    Appuhamy, Jayasooriya Arachchige Don Ranga Niroshan


    Lactation persistency is defined as the ability of a cow to maintain production at a higher level after peak yield. Hypothetically, more persistent cows are less susceptible to health and reproductive disorders. The objective of this research was to investigate the phenotypic relationships of common health disorders in dairy cows to lactation persistency. The relationships with peak yield and days in milk (DIM) at peak yield were also studied. Two separate investigations (Study 1 and Study 2)...

  1. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Guanshi Zhang; Dagnachew Hailemariam; Elda Dervishi; Qilan Deng; Goldansaz, Seyed A.; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.


    Simple Summary Lameness is prevalent in dairy cows and early diagnosis and timely treatment of the disease can lower animal suffering, improve recovery rate, increase longevity, and minimize cow loss. However, there are no indications of disease until it appears clinically, and presently the only approach to deal with the sick cow is intensive treatment or culling. The results suggest that lameness affected serum concentrations of the several parameters related to innate immunity and carbohyd...

  2. New insights into body condition score and its association with fatty liver in holstein dairy cows

    Šamanc H.; Kirovski Danijela; Jovanović M.; Vujanac I.; Bojković-Kovačević Slavica; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila; Prodanović R.; Stajković Silvana


    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between body condition and fatty liver in high-yielding dairy cows. One hundred dry Holstein cows were selected. Cows were scored once for body condition during the dry period, puerperium and month 2 of lactation, according to the system provided by Elanco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. Body condition loss was determined as marked if loss was over 0.7 points between two consecutive phases of cycles and o...

  3. Assessment of dairy cow energy status using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Kirovski Danijela; Šamanc Horea; Prodanović Radiša


    One of the ways to make an assessment of the energy status of cows in lactation is to consider the results obtained from the evaluation of the concentrations of organic milk components. The advantages of this method are that the taking of milk samples is not stressful for the cow and that it is also possible to use the results of milk examinations carried out by dairy plants within regular control. A bulk milk sample from all individual cows can be used, or...

  4. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda

    Blaise Iraguha


    Full Text Available In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski® Mastitis Detector was used to detect sub clinical mastitis in individual cows based on milk electrical conductivity changes. Risk factors for mastitis that were evaluated included teat-end condition, cow dirtiness, breed, parity, age and stage of lactation. Relationships of these factors with mastitis status were determined using Chi-square analysis, and relative importance as causes of mastitis was assessed using logistic regression. Samples from 16 sub clinical mastitis positive dairy cows were analysed to identify causative micro-organisms using Dairy Quality Control Inspection analytical kits. Sub clinical mastitis prevalence was 52% across the farms. It was higher with increases in, amongst other risk factors, teat-end damage severity, cow dirtiness, and level of pure dairy breed genetics. The risk factors considered accounted for 62% of mastitis prevalence; teat-end condition alone accounted for 30%. Most of the mastitis cases (87.5% were caused by coliform bacteria. Considering that farmers are upgrading their local Ankole cows to cross-breed dairy cows that are more susceptible to mastitis, results from this study indicate the need to dip the teats of cows in sanitisers, improve cow hygiene, and introduce mastitis prevention and control programmes.

  5. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Somkuwar A.P.1; Kadam A.S2; Shiva Kumar3 and Radhakrishna P. M3


    The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage). The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day), Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow) and control. The stud...

  6. Effect of Parenteral Antioxidant Supplementation During the Dry Period on Postpartum Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows

    Abuelo, A.; Alves‐Nores, V.; Hernandez, J.; Muiño, R.; J.L. BENEDITO; C. CASTILLO


    Background Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. Hypothesis Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. Animals Ten late‐pregnant Holstein cows entering ...


    Louis Dionissopoulos; Ousama AlZahal; Michael Alexander Steele; James Clyde Matthews; Brian William McBride


    To understand how the capacity for fat metabolism (uptake, synthesis, modification) changes in rumen epithelia immediately before and after onset of lactation in dairy cows, rumen fluid Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) concentrations and mRNA expression profiles of rumen epithelia was determined in twelve Holstein dairy cows at three weeks prior to calving (wk -3, n = 12), one week post calving (week +1, n = 12) and six weeks (week +6, n = 12) after calving. The diet was modified from a dry cow ...

  8. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season.

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain


    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers' grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID

  9. Association of rumination time with subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J


    The objective of this study was to characterize the relationship between rumination and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A study was conducted on 4 commercial dairy farms in eastern Ontario, Canada. A total of 339 Holstein dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) were monitored for rumination activity and SCK from 14 d before calving until 28 d after calving. Rumination was recorded daily using an automated monitoring system. A blood sample was taken from the coccygeal vein of each cow for measurement of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) once weekly throughout the 6-wk observation period. Cows with BHB ≥1.2mmol/L in any of the 4 postpartum samples were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were also recorded. Cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy cows (HLT) that had no SCK or any other recorded health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least one health issue other than SCK (HLT+; n=50); cows with SCK (hyperketonemia; HYK) with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or cows (HYK+) that had SCK and one or more other health problems (n=53). Daily rumination time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT and HYK and HYK+. From 2 wk before calving (wk -2) to 4 wk after calving (wk +4), there was no difference in rumination time (409±9.8min/d) among HLT, HYK, and HYK+ cows in their first lactation. Multiparous cows in HLT spent an average of 459±11.3min/d ruminating from wk -2 to wk +4. Multiparous HYK cows ruminated 25±12.8min/d less than HLT cows, whereas HYK+ cows ruminated 44±15.6min/d less than HLT cows. The largest differences in rumination time between HLT and HYK+ cows were seen during wk -1, +1, and +2, when HYK+ cows ruminated 48±17.2, 73±16.0, and 65±19.4min/d less than HLT cows, respectively. In multiparous cows, increased odds of HYK were associated with greater milk yield in the previous lactation, greater loss of

  10. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding

    Baudracco, Javier; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Holmes, Colin; Comeron, Eduardo; MacDonald, Kevin; Barry, Tom; Friggens, Nicolas Charles


    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from threepreviously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model thatpredicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS).Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitio...

  11. Molecular characterisation of the uterine microbiome of dairy cows suffering from endometritis, metritis, and pyometra

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby

    Postpartum uterine disease is a problem in dairy herds. Approximately 90% of dairy cows experience postpartum bacterial contamination of the uterus. Most of the cows are able to clear the infection within 8 weeks in the process of involution, but up to 20% of the cows develop metritis, which is...... infection throughout the uterine wall; and in some herds, 30-50% of cows develop endometritis, which is infection in the inner lining of the uterus. Pyometra is a related postpartum uterine disease, which is thought to occur when a cow with endometritis ovulates, and the cervix closes. The diseases are...... the mucosal layer of the uterus, the endometrium. It was hypothesised that pathogenic bacteria in the uterus initially adhere to the endometrium to cause disease, and that the chance of identifying pathogens is higher in examinations of endometrial biopsies than in uterine flush samples. In order to...

  12. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness

    Guanshi Zhang


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during −8, −4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs by time (week interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at −8 and −4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future.

  13. Alterations of Innate Immunity Reactants in Transition Dairy Cows before Clinical Signs of Lameness.

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Deng, Qilan; Goldansaz, Seyed A; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metabolic and innate immunity alterations in the blood of transition dairy cows before, during, and after diagnosis of lameness during periparturient period. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vain once per week before morning feeding from 100 multiparous Holstein dairy cows during -8, -4, disease diagnosis, and +4 weeks (wks) relative to parturition. Six healthy cows (CON) and six cows that showed clinical signs of lameness were selected for intensive serum analyses. Concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured in serum by ELISA or colorimetric methods. Health status, DMI, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk composition also were monitored for each cow during the whole experimental period. Results showed that cows affected by lameness had greater concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA in the serum vs. CON cows. Concentrations of TNF tended to be greater in cows with lameness compared with CON. In addition, there was a health status (Hs) by time (week) interaction for IL-1, TNF, and Hp in lameness cows vs. CON ones. Enhanced serum concentrations of lactate, IL-6, and SAA at -8 and -4 wks before parturition were different in cows with lameness as compared with those of the CON group. The disease was also associated with lowered overall milk production and DMI as well as milk fat and fat-to-protein ratio. In conclusion, cows affected postpartum by lameness had alterations in several serum variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate metabolism that give insights into the etiopathogenesis of the disease and might serve to monitor health status of transition dairy cows in the near future. PMID:26479383

  14. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Félix Gonzalez


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  15. Pattern of antibiotic resistant mastitis in dairy cows

    D. Chandrasekaran


    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of drug resistant mastitis and their pattern of antibiotic resistance in dairy cows from Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: Isolation and identification of resistant pathogens were performed from acute clinical mastitis samples. Based on culture, isolation and sensitivity tests, cows with resistant mastitis were grouped as; Group I: Escherichia coli (n=119, Group II: Staphylococcus aureus (n=104 and Group III: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal aureus (MRSA (n=12. The isolates were tested using agar disc diffusion method for their antimicrobial susceptibility and modified resazurin assay microdilution technique for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to 8 antimicrobial drugs. The organisms were also confirmed for their identity by performing PCR on the bacterial pellet targeting the specific genes such as 16s-23s rRNA, mecA and blaZ respectively for the resistant pathogens and also confirmed by sequencing. Results: Antibiotic resistant mastitis was detected in 235 out of 401 cows accounting to 56.1%. The predominant resistant causative pathogen was E. coli (50.64% followed by S. aureus (44.25% and MRSA (5.11%. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test and MIC breakpoints, E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA organisms showed more sensitivity to enrofloxacin, amoxicillin + sulbactam, gentamicin and ceftriaxone and had highest resistant to penicillin followed by amoxicillin, oxytetracycline and methicillin. E. coli and S. aureus isolates were found to be resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobials, whereas most of the MRSA isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant i.e resistance to 3 or more of antimicrobials. Out of 235 milk samples, the specific target gene 16s-23s rRNA (E. coli , 16s-23s rRNA (S. aureus and MRSA (mecA and blaZ could be amplified from 119, 104 and 12 isolates with a percentage positivity of 50.64 (119/235, 89.64 (104/116 and 10.34 (12/116 respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in

  16. Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows.

    Berman, A


    Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature-humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evaporative heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects also are not accounted for in the THI. The Holstein dairy cow is the primary target of heat stress relief, followed by feedlot cattle. Heat stress may be estimated for a variety of conditions by thermal balance models. The models consist of animal-specific data (BW, metabolic heat production, tissue and coat insulation, skin water loss, coat depth, and minimal and maximal tidal volumes) and of general heat exchange equations. A thermal balance simulation model was modified to adapt it for Holstein cows by using Holstein data for the animal characteristics in the model, and was validated by comparing its outputs to experimental data. Model outputs include radiant, convective, skin evaporative, respiratory heat loss and rate of change of body temperature. Effects of milk production (35 and 45 kg/d), hair coat depth (3 and 6 mm), air temperature (20 to 45 degrees C), air velocity (0.2 to 2.0 m/s), air humidity (0.8 to 3.9 kPa), and exposed body surface (100, 75, and 50%) on thermal balance outputs were examined. Environmental conditions at which respiratory heat loss attained approximately 50% of its maximal value were defined as thresholds for intermediate heat stress. Air velocity increased and humidity significantly decreased threshold temperatures, particularly at higher coat depth. The effect of air velocity was amplified at high humidity. Increasing milk production from 35 to 45 kg/d decreased threshold temperature by 5 degrees C. In the lying cow, the lower air velocity in the proximity of body surface and the smaller exposed surface markedly decrease threshold

  17. Use of metabolic profiles and body condition scoring for the assessment of energy status of dairy cows

    Prodanović R.; Sladojević Ž.; Kirovski D.; Vujanac I.; Ivetić V.; Savić B.; Kureljušić B.; Stevančević M.


    The aim of this study was to assess the significance of body condition scoring and metabolic profile test for estimation of energy status of healthy high-yielding dairy cows. Twenty one healthy cows (primiparous and secundiparous) were divided into three groups: dry cows, early puerperal cows and early lactating cows. Cow’s energy status was estimated by the analysis of blood samples for beta-hydroxybutirate (BHBA) and glucose. Additionally, urea, total bil...

  18. Prepartum supplementation of selenium and vitamin E to dairy cows: assessment of selenium and reproductive performance

    Hidiroglou, M.; McAllister, A.J.; Williams, C.J.


    Incidence of retained placenta in dairy cows was evaluated in 627 parturitions. The herd was divided prepartum into three groups: (1) control, no treatment (n = 217 cows); (2) cows injected intramuscularly (n = 190) 21 to 10 d prior parturition with 45 mg Se and 2040 IU of vitamin E; and (3) cows intraruminally administered (n = 220) with two 30-g pellets containing 10% elemental selenium 2 mo prior to expected calving. Incidence of retained placenta (22.1%) was not reduced by Se in combination with vitamin E injection or intraruminal Se pellet nor were other measures of reproduction improved for cows fed a prepartum diet adequate in Se. At parturition the blood plasma Se concentrations were higher in treated postpartum with Se than in untreated cows. No difference in blood plasma Se was observed at parturition between cows with or without placenta retention. Cows dosed intraruminally with Se had a significant increase in milk Se, but this was to small to be a danger to human health. The present results on placenta retention suggest that this disorder is not a Se responsive disease in the dairy cow.

  19. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C


    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation. PMID:26805964

  20. Seasonal and parity effects on ghrelin levels throughout the estrous cycle in dairy cows.

    Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Elbaz, Michal; Kaim, Moshe; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran


    In dairy cows, heat stress depresses appetite, leading to decreased food intake, a negative energy balance, and modifies ghrelin levels. Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide with two major forms: acylated, with an O-n-octanoylated serine in position 3, and nonacylated. To date, the effect of heat stress and estrous cycle on ghrelin secretion in dairy cows has not been studied. We characterized ghrelin secretion during the estrous cycle in each, the winter and the summer seasons. We further examined the effects of parity on ghrelin secretion. Blood was collected from 10 primiparous or multiparous Israeli-Holstein dairy cows throughout the estrous cycle, in both, the hot and cold seasons. The levels of acylated and total ghrelin were measured in the blood samples. We found that both acylated and total ghrelin levels during heat stress were lower than their respective levels in the winter in both, primiparous and multiparous cows. No differences in acylated and total ghrelin levels were found between primiparous and multiparous cows in both seasons. We further found that in multiparous but not primiparous cows acylated ghrelin secretion oscillated during the estrous cycle in both seasons. Its levels peaked on the last days of the first follicular wave and on the days before and during ovulation. Interestingly, we found that elevated acylated ghrelin levels correlated with conception success and increased total ghrelin levels were associated with successful conception from first insemination. Our data is the first to demonstrate seasonal variation in ghrelin secretion. This study provides evidence for the yet unfamiliar link between heat stress, ghrelin and fertility. Increased circulating acylated ghrelin may contribute to improved fertility in dairy cows. It further raises the possibility of a link between ghrelin levels and successful inseminations. Further research is required to determine the effects of ghrelin on dairy cow performance. PMID:27288640

  1. Role of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements in mastitis in dairy cows

    Feng Li Yang


    Full Text Available Mastitis is associated with release of free radicals, increased total oxidant capacity and decreased total antioxidants capacity in milk. Antioxidant vitamins and minerals protect the body from free radicals either by directly scavenging free radicals or by inhibiting the activity of oxidizing enzymes. The supplementation of mastitic dairy cows with antioxidant vitamins as vitamin A (VA and β-carotene (BC, vitamin C (VC, vitamin E (VE, and antioxidant minerals as selenium (Se, Zinc (Zn and copper (Cu is very important to help the animal recover early. The aim of this review was to discuss the oxidative stress in dairy cows’ mastitis, and the roles of VA and BC, VC, VE, Se, Zn, and Cu in mastitis of dairy cows. Before deciding to supplement dairy cow rations with the levels of vitamins and minerals, dairy farmers should have their animal feeds tested and their rations evaluated by a competent dairy cow nutritionist and a trustworthy laboratory to be sure what levels of supplementation may be warranted. While inadequate intake and absorption of certain nutrients may result in a weakened immune system and perhaps more mastitis during the lactation period, unjustified supplementation can be expensive and lead to other animal health problems.

  2. Short communication: Association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows.

    Kaufman, E I; LeBlanc, S J; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J


    The objective of this study was to characterize the association of lying behavior and subclinical ketosis (SCK) in transition dairy cows. A total of 339 dairy cows (107 primiparous and 232 multiparous) on 4 commercial dairy farms were monitored for lying behavior and SCK from 14d before calving until 28 d after calving. Lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and average lying bout length were measured using automated data loggers 24h/d. Cows were tested for SCK 1×/wk by taking a blood sample and analyzing for β-hydroxybutyrate; cows with β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.2mmol/L postpartum were considered to have SCK. Cases of retained placenta, metritis, milk fever, or mastitis during the study period were recorded and cows were categorized into 1 of 4 groups: healthy (HLT) cows had no SCK or any other health problem (n=139); cows treated for at least 1 health issue other than SCK (n=50); SCK (HYK) cows with no other health problems during transition (n=97); or subclinically ketotic plus (HYK+) cows that had SCK and 1 or more other health problems (n=53). Daily lying time was summarized by week and comparisons were made between HLT, HYK, and HYK+, respectively. We found no difference among health categories in lying time, bout frequency, or bout length fromwk -2 towk +4 relative to calving for first-lactation cows. Differences in lying time for multiparous cows were seen inwk +1, when HYK+ cows spent 92±24.0 min/d more time lying down than HLT cows, and duringwk +3 and +4 when HYK cows spent 44±16.7 and 41±18.9 min/d, respectively, more time lying down than HLT cows. Increased odds of HYK+ were found to be associated with higher parity, longer dry period, and greater stall stocking density inwk -1 and longer lying time duringwk +1. When comparing HYK to HLT cows, the same variables were associated with odds of SCK; however, lying time was not retained in the final model. These results suggest that monitoring lying time may contribute to identifying multiparous cows

  3. Association between disease occurrence and fertility of dairy cows in three geographic regions of Chile.

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Paudyal, S; Krauss, R; Arias, F; Lopez, H; Luco, A; Vergara, C F


    The objective was to analyze the association between disease occurrence during early lactation and reproductive performance and survival of dairy cows in high-producing herds, under different management practices in three geographic regions of Chile. Data included 30,757 lactation records of cows calving from January 2013 to June 2014 in three different locations: Central (C) area (n = 6198 cows in eight herds), Central-South (CS) area(n = 17,234 cows in 12 herds), and South (S) area (n = 7325 cows in six herds). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA, considering cow as the experimental unit. Covariables offered to the models included parity number, season of calving, cow and herd relative milk yield, geographic location, and management system. Average milk yield (305 ME) per cow were 12,091, 11,783, and 6852 kg for C, CS, and S regions, respectively. Time from calving to first service and time to conception were consistently greater for cows with at least one disease event within 50 days in milk (DIM), for cows that were reported lame, or for cows that had mastitis or metritis. The odds (95% confidence interval) of pregnancy at 150 DIM (P150) and the odds of survival until 150 DIM (S150) for cows that had at least one disease event within 50 DIM were 0.84 (0.79-0.91) times the odds of pregnancy and 0.25 (0.22-0.28) times the odds of survival for healthy cows. The odds of P150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 1.56 (1.36-1.80) and 1.16 (1.04-1.30) times the odds of P150 for cows in the S area. The odds of S150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 0.48 (0.37-0.62) and 0.54 (0.42-0.67) times the odds of S150 for cows in the S area. These data suggested that cow health status and geographic location are significantly associated with reproductive performance and survival in this population of Chilean dairy cows. PMID:27059394

  4. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind;


    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from a...... questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared to a...... zero-grazing herd having automatic milking system. In traditional milking system, mortality was reduced to 75% in grazing compared to zero-grazing herds. Within the grazing herds, the risk of mortality decreased with increasing number of hours on pasture during the season. Free access between barn and...

  5. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G


    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID:24315325

  6. Factors associated with occurrence and recovery of nonambulatory dairy cows in the United States.

    Green, A L; Lombard, J E; Garber, L P; Wagner, B A; Hill, G W


    The primary objective of this study was to compare characteristics of US dairy operations that had one or more nonambulatory cows (unable to rise for any period of time) (cases) with operations that had no nonambulatory cows (controls) during 2004. A secondary objective was to describe factors associated with recovery of the last nonambulatory cow on the operation during 2004. Case dairy operations (n = 1,822) more often fed a total mixed ration [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0; confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.4], produced more than 9,090 kg of milk (OR = 2.8; CI: 1.8-4.5), and were more likely to be of medium to large herd size (100 or more head of adult cows, OR = 3.7; CI: 2.2-6.2) compared with control dairies (n = 151). Compared with operations where the predominant flooring surface on which lactating cows stood or walked in winter was pasture, operations where pasture was not the predominant surface were at increased risk of having nonambulatory cows (OR = 4.7; CI: 2.2-10.2). Cows nonambulatory for less than 24 h were more likely to recover compared with cows nonambulatory for 24 h or more (OR = 3.0; CI: 2.0-4.4). Cows that received calcium, phosphorus, or potassium while non-ambulatory were more likely to recover (OR = 3.6; CI: 2.1-6.1) than cattle that did not receive these treatments. Cattle that were not repositioned periodically were more likely to recover (OR = 2.1; CI: 1.4-3.1), as were cattle that were not treated by a veterinarian before becoming nonambulatory (OR = 1.9; CI: 1.1-3.3). These findings are consistent with prolonged recumbency and prior history of health issues, respectively. Nonambulatory cattle with hypocalcemia were more likely to recover (OR = 6.0; CI: 3.4-10.7) compared with nonambulatory cows with all other causes of a nonambulatory condition (analyzed collectively as a single variable but including cancer, clinical mastitis, digestive conditions, metabolic imbalances, neurological problems, respiratory disease, other, unknown). The results

  7. Factors associated with ovarian structures and intrauterine fluid in the postpartum period in dairy cows.

    López-Helguera, I; Colazo, M G; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F


    The objective was to examine risk factors for the interval to resumption of ovarian cyclicity (ROC), multiple ovulations (MCL), ovarian follicular cysts (OC), and presence of intrauterine fluid (IUF) at 22 to 28 [visit (V) 1] and 36 to 42 (V2) days in milk (DIM) in dairy cows. The study was conducted retrospectively by evaluating records from 1,155 Holstein cows from 3 herds. Ovaries and uteri were examined at V1 and V2 by transrectal ultrasonography to determine ovarian structures and IUF. Based on the odds ratio, multiparous cows were more likely to have ROC at V1 by a factor of 1.79 compared with primiparous cows. The likelihood of ROC at V1 was lower in cows with higher milk production, in cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) or cows with IUF at V1 by factors of 0.98 (for each kg of milk increased), 0.52, and 0.61, respectively. Based on the odds ratio, cows diagnosed with IUF at V2 were 2.85 times more likely to have attained ROC at V2. Multiparous cows and cows that delivered twins were 2.73 and 2.16 times, respectively, more likely to have MCL at V1, whereas cows with RFM were 0.38 times less likely to have MCL at V1. The likelihood of MCL at V2 was higher in cows with MCL and OC at V1 by factors of 2.67 and 1.91, respectively. Multiparous cows were 8.51 times more likely to have OC at V1 than primiparous cows. Higher producing cows were more likely to have OC at V2 by a factor of 1.04 compared with lower producing cows. Parity, stillbirth, RFM, and ROC at V1 were all identified as risk factors for IUF at V1. Cows with RFM and delivering twins were more likely to be diagnosed with IUF at V2 by a factor of 3.43 and 4.07, respectively. In summary, parity, twinning, RFM, metritis, IUF, and milk production were all associated with altered ovarian structures, and the presence of IUF was related to parity, twinning, RFM, and ROC in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:26947303

  8. Metabolic Profile and Inflammatory Responses in Dairy Cows with Left Displaced Abomasum Kept under Small-Scaled Farm Conditions

    Fenja Klevenhusen; Elke Humer; Barbara Metzler-Zebeli; Leopold Podstatzky-Lichtenstein; Thomas Wittek; Qendrim Zebeli


    Simple Summary This research established an association between lactation number and milk production and metabolic and inflammatory responses in high-producing dairy cows affected by left abomasal displacement in small-scaled dairy farms. The study showed metabolic alterations, liver damage, and inflammation in the sick cows, which were further exacerbated with increasing lactation number and milk yield of the cows. Abstract Left displaced abomasum (LDA) is a severe metabolic disease of cattl...

  9. Effects of Linseed Oil or Whole Linseed Supplementation on Performance and Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Meeprom, Chayapol; Mirattanaphrai, Rattakorn


    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of linseed oil or whole linseed supplementation on performance and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows. Thirty six Holstein Friesian crossbred lactating dairy cows were blocked by milking days first and then stratified random balanced for milk yields and body weight into three groups of 12 cows each. The treatments consisted of basal ration (53:47; forage:concentrate ratio, on a dry matter [DM] basis, respectively) suppl...

  10. Phosphorus homeostasis in dairy cows with abomasal displacement or abomasal volvulus.

    Grünberg, Walter; Constable, Peter; Schröder, Ulf; Staufenbiel, Rudolf; Morin, Dawn; Rohn, Marina


    Abnormal phosphorus homeostasis occurs in dairy cows with an abomasal displacement or volvulus. The goal of this study was to identify potential mechanisms for hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia in cows with a left displaced abomasum (LDA), right displaced abomasum (RDA), or abomasal volvulus (AV). Accordingly, the results of preoperative clinicopathologic analyses for 1,368 dairy cows with an LDA (n = 1,189), RDA, or AV (n = 179) (data set 1) and for 44 cows with an AV (data set 2) were retrieved. Laboratory values were compared by Student's t-tests, and correlation and regression analyses were performed. Thirty-four percent of the animals from data set 1 (463/1,368) were hypophosphatemic (serum phosphorus concentration ([Pi]) 2.3 mmol/L). Serum [Pi] was significantly lower (P cattle with an RDA or AV appears to result from dehydration and decreased renal blood flow. PMID:16355687

  11. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width, and...... body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  12. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows.

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R


    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. PMID:27158130

  13. Fibrinogen and ceruloplasmin in plasma and milk from dairy cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis.

    Tabrizi, A Davasaz; Batavani, R A; Rezaei, S Asri; Ahmadi, M


    The potential using of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) in the assessment of mammary gland health was studied by examining the levels of Fibrinogen (Fb) and Ceruloplasmin (Cp) in plasma and milk from dairy cows with different grades of mastitis. Plasma samples were taken from jugular vein and milk samples were collected from quarters of cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis, as well as healthy controls. California Mastitis Test (CMT) were performed on each udder quarter of cows for detection of CMT2+ and CMT3+ quarters. CMT (0) and culture negative cases were considered healthy cows. Clinical mastitis, was graded as mild (clots in milk) or moderate (clots in milk and visible signs of inflammation in the mammary gland/s). The concentrations of Fb in the plasma of the cows with subclinical and clinical mastitis were higher than in the plasma of the healthy cows (p0.05), but differences between clinical and healthy groups were significant (pmastitis were higher than in the milk of the healthy cows (pmastitis in dairy cows. PMID:18817128

  14. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T;


    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were ...

  15. Effects of a ruminally protected B vitamin supplement on milk yield and composition of lactating dairy cows

    Lordelo, M.M.; Sacadura, F.C.; Robinson, P H; Evans, E.


    It is not clear if B vitamins supplied to the small intestine of dairy cows from dietary and rumen microbial sources are provided in sufficient quantity to maximize animal performance. Our objective was to determine effects of adding a ruminally protected B vitamin blend supplement, containing biotin, folic acid, pantothenic acid and pyridoxine, to the diet of high producing dairy cows on their productivity. Two dairy facilities located in California (USA) were used, one with mid ...

  16. Sub-clinical mastitis prevalent in dairy cows in Chittagong district of Bangladesh: detection by different screening tests

    Mukti Barua; Mohammad Abdul Matin Prodhan; Kamrul Islam; Sharmin Chowdhury; Md. Hasanuzzaman; Mohammed Ashif Imtiaz; Goutam Buddha Das


    Aim: Mastitis is recognized as one of the most costly health disorder affecting dairy cows. An epidemiological study was carried out at some selected farms in Chittagong district of Bangladesh to determine the prevalence and risk factors of sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) in dairy cows. Materials and Methods: For conducting the study, some dairy farms of Chittagong were selected from urban and periurban areas by stratified random sampling. A total of 444 quarter samples of 111 (56 from commerc...

  17. Conjugated Linoleic Acid and dairy cows: metabolism, reproduction and products quality

    Esposito, Giulia


    The aim of this dissertation was to evaluate in dairy cows the effects of the supplementation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, as natural feed (pasture) or as additive (CLA rumen protected), on quality of dairy products and on cow metabolism and reproduction. In the first experiment three farms of the Alta Irpina area, (Campania region, Italy) were surveyed focusing on three main features 1.00 2.00 3.00 In the farms surveyed, cows’ requirements were seldom met due to the poor q...

  18. Minerals to dairy cows with focus on calcium and magnesium balance

    Kronqvist, Cecilia


    Both clinical and subclinical deficiency of calcium and magnesium may cause problems in dairy cows. Clinical hypocalcaemia most commonly occurs at calving and onset of lactation and is associated with milk fever, while clinical hypomagnesaemia occurs under certain dietary conditions. Factors affecting the calcium and magnesium status in dairy cows were examined in this thesis. The effect of dietary magnesium (0.19 and 0.43 % of dry matter) and potassium (1.9, 2.8, and 3.7 % of dry matter)...

  19. Effect of summer grazing on welfare of dairy cows reared in mountain tie-stall barns

    Simonetta Dovier; Edi Piasentier; Mirco Corazzin; Stefano Bovolenta


    Traditional mountain farms have an important economic, social and environmental role. The Alps management system for dairy cows consists of animals kept indoors from autumn to spring, mostly in tie-stalls, and moved to mountain pasture in summer. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of mountain summer grazing on the welfare of dairy cows housed in tie-stall barns. Twenty-four farms were considered. In twelve of them, animals were reared in tie-stalls and moved to mountain pasture for...


    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar


    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  1. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Volden, H.; Randby, Å.; Aaes, O.; Mehlqvist, M.

    The objective of the Norfor structure system was to establish a model for prediction of eating- (EI), ruminating- (RI) and total chewing index (CI) for feeds and total rations fed to dairy cows. The model was predicted from a Meta analysis of more than 100 published experiments including results on...... minutes per kg of total DMI is considered to ensure a sufficient intake of physically effective fibre in order to ensure good ruminal fibre digestion and to prevent a low rumen pH, digestive disorders and a low milk fat content in high-yielding dairy cows....

  2. Studies on test-day and lactation milk, fat and protein yield of dairy cows.

    Wilmink, J.B.M.


    Data of milk recording provides the basis to control herd management and genetic improvement of cows. Different management guides can be presented to dairy farmers. Breeding values are predicted for 305-day yields in order to select bulls and cows. However, breeding values should be predicted as early as practicable, so as to increase genetic progress and minimize prediction bias by selection.To calculate mangement guides and predict breeding values, adjustment of individual milk, fat and pro...

  3. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Antônio Ferraz Porto Junior


    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding...

  4. Sleep in dairy cows recorded with a non-invasive EEG technique

    Ternman, Emma; HÀnninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti; AgenÀs, Sigrid; Peetz Nielsen, Per


    Sufficient sleep time is important for both an adequate metabolic system and the immune function. Sleep in animals is often estimated by behavioural observations, or recorded on restrained animals with invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) techniques, which might affect sleep patterns. Earlier studies on sleep in cows showed that they sleep about 4 h per day and drowse almost twice the time. The aim of this study was to record and differentiate between vigilance states in dairy cows using a non...

  5. A method for describing disease patterns during the life span of dairy cows

    Faye, Bernard; Boulme, R; Lescourret, Francoise; Coulon, Jean Baptiste


    This study presents some guidelines for describing the health status of dairy cows over their entire life span. It aims to define some types of health-paths (trajectories) described in terms of disease patterns (at the lactation level) and related to cow characteristics (breed, production potential) and farms. The data were collected over a 20-year period on three experimental farms. Eight diseases were analysed: clinical mastitis, lameness, placental retention, foot rot, digestive disorders,...

  6. A novel twist to uterine torsion and abomasal displacement in dairy cows

    Beltman, Marijke Eileen


    Every bovine practitioner is acutely aware of the increased risk of the occurrence of ‘transition cow disease’ in dairy cows during their transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. Changes in management during this time can result in a multitude of problems including those associated with metabolic and energy imbalances, as well as infection of the uterus and mammary gland (Mulligan et al., 2006 and LeBlanc, 2008). The periparturient period can thus be quite a precarious phase in term...

  7. Use of Bovine Somatotropin in the Management of Transition Dairy Cows

    GÜLAY, Mehmet Şükrü; HATİPOĞLU, Fatma Şefika


    The major objectives of an efficient dairy farm operation include a successful lactation period, high milk yield relative to the feed costs, reproductive competence, and finally the returning of the cow to the body condition score (BCS) that existed before lactation so she will be prepared for another lactation. In cows a milk yield response to bovine somatotropin (bST) treatments at 60 d after parturition has been well studied and fully documented. Milk production response to bST occurs bec...

  8. Blood plasma lipidome profile of dairy cows during the transition period

    Imhasly, S; Bieli, C.; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Nyström, L; Ruetten, M; Gerspach, Christian


    BACKGROUND: The transition period of dairy cows, around parturition and the onset of lactation, involves endocrine and metabolic changes to compensate for an increased energy requirement aggravated by reduced feed intake. Transition cows adjust to the resulting negative energy balance with the mobilization of lipids from the adipose tissues yielding increased blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies like β-hydroxybutyrate. RESULTS: To study the biochemical adaptations u...

  9. Blood plasma lipidome profile of dairy cows during the transition period

    Imhasly, S; Bieli, C.; Naegeli, H; Nyström, L; Ruetten, M; Gerspach, C


    Background The transition period of dairy cows, around parturition and the onset of lactation, involves endocrine and metabolic changes to compensate for an increased energy requirement aggravated by reduced feed intake. Transition cows adjust to the resulting negative energy balance with the mobilization of lipids from the adipose tissues yielding increased blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids and ketone bodies like β-hydroxybutyrate. Results To study the biochemical adaptations underl...

  10. Breeding and management of dairy cows to increase profit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Bell, M.J .


    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm profit and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG; expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, CO2-eq.) for dairy cows in Northern Ireland, and also in the whole of the UK. An average cow was modelled for each population of animals, using average values from milk recording records. Previous work developed a dynamic model, to include nutrient partitioning to allow investigation of GHG abatement options over an ...

  11. Use of animal based measures for the assessment of dairy cow welfare ANIBAM

    Nielsen , Bodil Højlund; Angelucci, Alessandra; Scalvenzi , Alessandra; Forkman, Björn; Fusi , Francesca; Tuyttens, Frank; Houe, Hans; Blokhuis, Harry; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rothmann, Janne; Matthews, Lindsay; Mounier, Luc; Bertocchi, Luigi; Richard, Marie Madeleine; Donati, Matteo


    The overall aim of the project was to evaluate the use of routinely collected animal based measures (ABMs) for an evaluatio n of the overall animal welfare in dairy cow herds. ABMs being able to detect worst adverse effects in relation to animal welfare were identified based on the existing literature and expert opinion. The validity and robustness of these ABMs were evaluated and cow mortality, somatic cell count and lameness were selected for further study. A number of fac...

  12. Effect of puerperal metritis on reproductive and productive performance in dairy cows in Argentina.

    Piccardi, M; Romero, G; Veneranda, G; Castello, E; Romero, D; Balzarini, M; Bó, G A


    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows with and without puerperal metritis and to evaluate the effectiveness of using a long-acting ceftiofur preparation. Dairy cows in one dairy farm, calving from July 2009 to January 2010, were examined between 3 and 14 days postpartum and classified on the basis of vaginal discharge into three groups: cows with normal discharge (control; C); cows with a bloody mucus purulent or pathologic nonfetid discharge (PnFD), and cows with bloody mucopurulent or purulent fetid discharge (PFD). Cows in C and PnFD groups were not treated, whereas those in the PFD group were randomly allocated to receive 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur subcutaneously behind the ear (PFD-T) or remain untreated (PFD-No T). From the 640 cows examined, 58.2% formed the C group, 13.4% formed the PnFD group, and 28.4% formed the PFD group. Survival curves differed between cows in the C group and PFD-No T group (P = 0.0013) and between PFD-No T versus PFD-T group (P = 0.0006). Survival curves of PnFD were intermediate and did not differ from those in the C group (P = 0.2) and PFD-T group (P = 0.1) but tended to be different from the PFD-No T group (P = 0.056). The postpartum interval to achieve a 25% pregnancy rate was 72 days for cows in the C group, 73 days for the PFD-T group, 83 days for PnFD group, and 95 days for the PFD-No T group. The chance of pregnancy in a cow in the C group was 1.98 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.08) and in cows in the PFD-T group was 2.16 times higher (95% confidence interval = 1.37, 3.50) than that in the PFD-No T group. Finally, the chance of pregnancy in cows in the PnFD group tended to be higher (P = 0.08) than that in the PFD-No T group but did not differ from the other two groups. Cumulative 305-day milk production was higher (P metritis affects the reproductive and productive performance of dairy cows and the treatment with ceftiofur was effective in

  13. Identification of predictive biomarkers of disease state in transition dairy cows.

    Hailemariam, D; Mandal, R; Saleem, F; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S; Ametaj, B N


    In dairy cows, periparturient disease states, such as metritis, mastitis, and laminitis, are leading to increasingly significant economic losses for the dairy industry. Treatments for these pathologies are often expensive, ineffective, or not cost-efficient, leading to production losses, high veterinary bills, or early culling of the cows. Early diagnosis or detection of these conditions before they manifest themselves could lower their incidence, level of morbidity, and the associated economic losses. In an effort to identify predictive biomarkers for postpartum or periparturient disease states in dairy cows, we undertook a cross-sectional and longitudinal metabolomics study to look at plasma metabolite levels of dairy cows during the transition period, before and after becoming ill with postpartum diseases. Specifically we employed a targeted quantitative metabolomics approach that uses direct flow injection mass spectrometry to track the metabolite changes in 120 different plasma metabolites. Blood plasma samples were collected from 12 dairy cows at 4 time points during the transition period (-4 and -1 wk before and 1 and 4 wk after parturition). Out of the 12 cows studied, 6 developed multiple periparturient disorders in the postcalving period, whereas the other 6 remained healthy during the entire experimental period. Multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis) revealed a clear separation between healthy controls and diseased cows at all 4 time points. This analysis allowed us to identify several metabolites most responsible for separating the 2 groups, especially before parturition and the start of any postpartum disease. Three metabolites, carnitine, propionyl carnitine, and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C14:0, were significantly elevated in diseased cows as compared with healthy controls as early as 4 wk before parturition, whereas 2 metabolites, phosphatidylcholine acyl-alkyl C42:4 and

  14. Oriental theileriosis in dairy cows causes a significant milk production loss

    Perera, Piyumali K.; Robin B Gasser; Firestone, Simon M.; Garry A Anderson; Malmo, Jakob; Davis, Gerry; Beggs, David S; Jabbar, Abdul


    Background Oriental theileriosis is a tick-borne, protozoan disease of cattle caused by members of the Theileria orientalis-complex. Recent outbreaks of this disease in eastern Australia have caused major concerns to the dairy and beef farming communities, but there are no published studies of the economic impact of this disease. On a farm in Victoria, Australia, we assessed whether oriental theileriosis has an impact on milk production and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Methods Bloo...

  15. Bovine mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors in dairy cows in Nyagatare District, Rwanda

    Blaise Iraguha; Humphrey Hamudikuwanda; Borden Mushonga


    In response to farmer requests after milk from their herds was rejected by processors due to poor quality, a study was carried out from April to October 2011 to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis, associated risk factors and causative micro-organisms. Samples were collected from 195 dairy cows on 23 randomly selected dairy farms delivering milk to Isangano, Kirebe and Nyagatare milk collection centres in Nyagatare District, Rwanda. The Draminski® Mastitis Detector was used to d...

  16. Sensitivity analysis of a mechanistic model for the ammonia emission of dairy cow houses

    Snoek, J W; Ogink, N.W.M.; Stigter, J.D.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.


    Emission of ammonia (NH3) from animal husbandry, and specially from the dairy sector, contributes significantly to acidification and eutrophication, and affects sensitive natural areas. In the nineties Monteny (1998) introduced a mechanistic model to understand and predict the NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses. Although a limited sensitivity analysis was carried out, we still lack information that essential for further development of the model. Our aim is that the model can predict ...

  17. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed alfalfa silage or perennial ryegrass silage.

    Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K; Casler, M D


    The nutrient contents of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are reasonably similar. Despite similarities, the lactation performance of dairy cows fed perennial ryegrass has not been compared with the lactation performance of dairy cows fed alfalfa. The present study was implemented to compare the performance of lactating cows fed alfalfa or perennial ryegrass silage. Alfalfa and perennial ryegrass were harvested at late bud and boot stages of maturity, respectively, and ensiled in separate 4.9- x 18.3-m concrete silos. The experimental silages were supplemented with a concentrate mix at 31.1% of dietary dry matter and fed to 18 multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation in a crossover experimental design with 28-d periods. Digestibility and rate of passage of experimental diets were also measured using rare earth markers. The perennial ryegrass contained 3.0 percentage units more neutral detergent fiber than did alfalfa, but in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was 8.8 percentage units higher for perennial ryegrass. In vitro digestibility of dry matter was also higher for perennial ryegrass. Cows fed alfalfa silage produced more milk (31.8 kg/d) than did cows fed perennial ryegrass silage (30.2 kg/d). Cows fed perennial ryegrass silage ate less feed (2.2 kg/d) than did cows fed alfalfa. Because dry matter intake was lower, diet digestibilities were higher, and rate of passage was slower, for cows consuming perennial ryegrass. Based on laboratory evaluations, perennial ryegrass silage has high nutritional quality, but performance of lactating cows indicated that the forage was suboptimal for supporting high milk production when compared with alfalfa. The perennial ryegrass silage was suboptimal because it did not stimulate high amounts of dry matter intake in lactating cows. PMID:9493091

  18. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L


    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  19. Relationship between individual-cow udder health status in early lactation and dairy cow characteristics in Brittany, France

    Faye, Bernard; Perochon, Laurent; Dorr, Nelly; Gasqui, Patrick


    Data from a 4-year ecopathological survey involving 47 dairy farms in Brittany (France) were used to determine the individual animal characteristics associated with the udder health profiles of clinical and subclinical mastitis, and the presence of minor or major pathogens in milk during early lactation. Herd effect was taken into account and a within-herd analysis using factorial correspondence analysis and a decomposition of chi-square distance was performed. In primiparous cows, the main a...

  20. Pulmonary structure and function in adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field.

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; Baird, J D; McDonell, W. N.


    Pulmonary function tests were performed on seven adult dairy cows with an expanded lung field (ExLF) and the results were compared to the values from seven cows with normal lung fields. The cows with ExLF had an increased functional residual capacity (FRC) and end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the multiple-breath N2 washout (FETN2,fb), and an abnormal distribution of ventilation. The measurements of ventilation and gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics did not differ between th...

  1. Effect of calcified seaweed application on grazing preference by dairy cows

    Younie, David; Blanke, Bettina


    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. An experiment was carried out to determine whether the application of calcified seaweed improved the preference of organic dairy cows for pasture. Two treatments were applied in May 2001; calcified seaweed applied at 625kg/ha (C+) or no application (C-). The number of cows grazing within individual plots was recorded in July and August 2001. A significantly higher number of cows were recorded in C+ plots than in C- plots. T...

  2. A proteomic-based characterization of liver metabolism in dairy cows and young pigs

    Sejersen, Henrik

    This thesis deals with studies on liver metabolism in cows and pigs. Proteome analysis was used to quantify a large number of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. In cows, the objective was to characterize differences in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with low or high...... total bilirubin are potential biomarkers. In pigs, the objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents to a high-fat diet and to diet restriction-induced weight loss. Our results show that the liver response to a high-fat diet and to diet...

  3. Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lindqvist, Hanna;


    Use of synthetic feed additives, including synthetic vitamin D3 (D3) in the feed for cows and other ruminants, is not consistent with the international principles of organic farming. If dairy farmers wish to produce in accordance with the organic principles, production animals would be left with...... only their endogenous production of D3 from summer sunlight as a source of D3. To examine the impact of supplemental synthetic D3 from the feed on the D3 status of dairy cattle in organic production in Nordic countries, 20 high-yielding dairy cows and 30 dairy steers were divided into two groups: one...

  4. The Behavioural Manifestations of Dairy Cows in Relation to the Management System Feeding Regime

    Miloslav Šoch


    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to obtain data and formulate knowledge about the behavioural manifestations of dairy cows in relation to the management system of feeding regime on the farm, where Holstein cows are bred. The observations took place on the 13 and 14 August, 2014, when the cows were observed for 24 hours continuously. The ethogram records were recorded after 1 minute and physical activity of cows, periods of rest, ruminating, eating, drinking, defecation, urination and comfort and social behaviour. Cows are herded for milking 3 times a day. It was found  that within 24 hours dairy cows spend on average 10 hours by lying, 8 hours by ruminating, 20 minutes by drinking, 6 hours by eating, they defecate 14 times, urinate 6 times and walk about 430 meters. They are also scratching, licking each other and tail swiping (comfort behaviour within 24 hours. The observations of the responses to serving food indicate that cows actively react to the passage of the food vehicle, not the passage of a piling-up tractor.

  5. Fluctuation of neutrophil counts around parturition in Holstein dairy cows with and without retained placenta.

    Moretti, Pierangelo; Probo, Monica; Cantoni, Andrea; Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia


    Retained placenta (RP) is often diagnosed in high-yielding dairy cows and can negatively affect reproductive performances. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hematological and biochemical profile of cows with RP before and immediately after parturition, with particular emphasis on neutrophil counts, since a previous study demonstrated the presence of peripheral neutropenia in dairy cows with RP sampled a few days after parturition. Results from 12 Holstein cows affected by RP and from 17 clinically healthy controls sampled one week pre-partum, within 12h after calving and between 48 and 72h after parturition were compared between groups and over time. Compared with controls, cows with RP had lower lymphocyte counts before parturition, lower leukocyte and neutrophil counts at parturition, lower monocyte counts at all times, and higher β-hydroxybutyrate before and after parturition. Erythroid and biochemical parameters were similar over time in both groups, whereas RP cows did not show the increase of neutrophil counts that occurs in controls at parturition. Hence, the finding of a lower neutrophil count in a routinely hemogram performed at parturition could be used as an alarm signal suggesting to monitor the affected animals. Moreover, although the underlying pathogenetic mechanism should be better investigated, the present study describes for the first time the association between altered blood leukocyte concentrations at parturition in RP compared to control cows. PMID:27473997

  6. Evaluation of tea tree oil for controlling Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cows.

    Pazinatto Boito, Jhonatan; Santos, Roberto C; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Raffin, Renata; Machado, Gustavo; Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S


    Our research aimed to test the effects of Melaleuca alternifolia oil (pure and in nanocapsules) in the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in dairy cattle. For this purpose, the in vivo studies used 15 cows distributed in three different groups with the same number of animals. Five cows remained untreated (Group A), representing the control group; other five cows were sprayed with TTO (at 5%) in its pure form (Group B); and five cows were sprayed with nanocapsules of TTO (at 0.75%) (Group C). On days 1 and 4 post-treatments (PT), all cows had their ticks counted. On day 1 PT, two ticks from each cow were collected to evaluate the effect of the treatment on ticḱs reproduction (in vitro assays). The pure form of TTO caused a significant reduction (P0.05). Treatment with TTO in nanocapsules (Group C) interfered with R. microplus reproduction, leading to lower oviposition by female ticks and hatchability (34.5% of efficacy). On the other hand, TTO oil (Group B) did not interfere on ticḱs reproduction, i.e. showed higher hatchability than the control group. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that pure TTO has an acaricidal effect in dairy cows, in addition to an effect on ticḱs reproduction when used its nanocapsulated form. PMID:27369577

  7. The effect of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on uterine involution in dairy cows evaluated by sonomicrometry.

    Heppelmann, Maike; Krach, Karoline; Krueger, Lars; Benz, Philipp; Herzog, Kathrin; Piechotta, Marion; Hoedemaker, Martina; Bollwein, Heinrich


    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of metritis and subclinical hypocalcemia on reduction of uterine size in dairy cows using ultrasonography and sonomicrometry. Four piezoelectric crystals were implanted via laparotomy into the myometrium of the pregnant uterine horn of 12 pluriparous Holstein Friesian cows 3 weeks before the calculated calving date. Sonometric measurements were conducted daily from 2 days before parturition (= Day 0) until Day 14 after calving and then every other day until Day 28. Distances between adjacent crystals were expressed in relation to reference values obtained before calving. The diameter of the formerly pregnant uterine horn was measured using transrectal B-Mode sonography starting on Day 10. Cows were retrospectively divided into the following groups: cows without metritis (M-; n = 7), cows with metritis (M+; n = 5), cows with normocalcemia (SH-; Ca > 2.0 mmol/l on Days 1 to 3; n = 5) and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia (SH+; Ca Metritis did not affect (P > 0.05) sonometric measurements, but the diameter of the formerly pregnant horn was larger (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 15 and 21 in M+ cows than in M‒ cows. Reduction in uterine length in hypocalcemic cows was delayed (P ≤ 0.05) between Days 8 and 21 compared with normocalcemic cows, but the uterine horn diameter was not related to calcium status. In conclusion, both diseases affected reduction of uterine size until Day 28. Cows with metritis had a larger uterine diameter, possibly attributable to accumulation of lochia, and cows with subclinical hypocalcemia had delayed reduction of uterine length, presumably related to reduction of myometrial contractility. PMID:26400127

  8. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels


    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption of...... fewer bull calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG...

  9. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L


    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFIdifferences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (Pdifferences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization. PMID:26936644

  10. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows using Automata Modelling and Diagnosis Techniques

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Caponetti, Fabio; Blanke, Mogens;


    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using automata-based modelling and diagnosis. Measuring lying/standing behaviour of the cows by a sensor attached to the cows hindleg, lying/standing behaviour is modelled as a stochastic automaton. The paper introduces a cow's lying......-balance as a biologically inspired quantity describing how much the cow has been resting for a preceding period. A dynamic lying-balance model is identified from real data and the lying balance is used as input, together with lying/standing sensor measurements. Using different automata models for oestrus and...... non-oestrus conditions, with state transition probability densities identified from observations, diagnosis theory for stochastic automata is employed to obtain diagnoses of oestrus. The oestrus cases are detected using consistency based diagnosis on real data....

  11. Herd-level risk factors associated with cow mortality in Swedish dairy herds

    Alvåsen, Karin; Jansson Mörk, Marie; Hallén Sandgren , Charlotte; Thomsen, Peter T; Emanuelson, Ulf


    An increase in on-farm mortality (euthanasia and death) in dairy herds has been reported in several countries in the last decade. This does not only imply possible problems with animal welfare, but it also causes economic losses to the farmer. The objective of this study was to evaluate time trends in on-farm dairy cow mortality in Sweden and identify potential herd-level risk factors. Data was retrieved on all Swedish dairy herds enrolled in the milk recording scheme between 2002 and 2010. H...

  12. (1)H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Plasma Metabolic Profiling of Dairy Cows with Fatty Liver.

    Xu, Chuang; Sun, Ling-Wei; Xia, Cheng; Zhang, Hong-You; Zheng, Jia-San; Wang, Jun-Song


    Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder of dairy cows during the transition period. Historically, the diagnosis of fatty liver has involved liver biopsy, biochemical or histological examination of liver specimens, and ultrasonographic imaging of the liver. However, more convenient and noninvasive methods would be beneficial for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. The plasma metabolic profiles of dairy cows with fatty liver and normal (control) cows were investigated to identify new biomarkers using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. Compared with the control group, the primary differences in the fatty liver group included increases in β-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, glycine, valine, trimethylamine-N-oxide, citrulline, and isobutyrate, and decreases in alanine, asparagine, glucose, γ-aminobutyric acid glycerol, and creatinine. This analysis revealed a global profile of endogenous metabolites, which may present potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of fatty liver in dairy cows. PMID:26732447

  13. Individual and combined effects of anovulation and cytological endometritis on the reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Vieira-Neto, A; Gilbert, R O; Butler, W R; Santos, J E P; Ribeiro, E S; Vercouteren, M M; Bruno, R G; Bittar, J H J; Galvão, K N


    The objective was to evaluate the individual and combined effect of anovulation and cytological endometritis (CTE) on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. A total of 1,569 cows from 3 data sets were used. In data set 1, 403 Holstein cows from 5 dairies in New York were used. In data set 2, 750 Holstein cows from 2 dairies, one in Florida and one in California were used. In data set 3, 416 dairy cows, 165 Holsteins, 36 Jerseys, and 215 Holstein-Jersey crossbreeds from a grazing dairy in Florida were used. Cyclicity and CTE was determined at 35±3 (data set 2) or 49±3 d in milk (data sets 1 and 3). A variable (VarCycCTE) containing all 4 possible permutations between cyclicity (cyclic = Cyc; anovular = Anov) and CTE (present = CTE; absent = Healthy) was created. In the combined data set (sets 1, 2, and 3), pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) diagnosed at 30 to 38 d after first AI was affected by VarCycCTE, with AnovCTE cows having decreased P/AI compared with CycHealthy cows (21.3 vs. 46.7%), whereas AnovHealthy (37.9%) and CycCTE cows (36.0%) had intermediate P/AI. Pregnancy per artificial insemination for the individual data sets and for pregnancy diagnosed at 63 to 74 d after artificial insemination followed a similar pattern. Pregnancy loss was not affected by VarCycCTE. Hazard of pregnancy up to 300 d in milk was affected by VarCycCTE in the combined data sets 1 and 2, with AnovCTE [hazard ratio (HR)=0.55], AnovHealthy cows (HR=0.71), and CycCTE (HR=0.8) having decreased hazard of pregnancy compared with CycHealthy cows. Median days open were 200, 159, 145, and 121 for AnovCTE, AnovHealthy, CycCTE, and CycHealthy, respectively. Hazard of pregnancy for the individual data sets followed a similar pattern. In summary, both anovulation and CTE were negatively associated with reproductive performance and, when combined, they had an additive negative effect. PMID:24996269

  14. Preliminary survey of the administration of pgf2α in postpartum dairy cows

    Fejzo Selami


    Full Text Available This preliminary study was conducted to obtain a first view of the role of PGF2α on placenta expulsion, prevention of postpartum uterine infections, and fertility in dairy cows. Twenty Holstein cows, 3 to 6 years of age, from a commercial dairy farm near Permet’s district were selected for this study. Cows were randomly allocated in two experimental groups: Ten cows were administered intramuscularly with 2 ml PGF2α (Estrumate® 2 hours after parturition, and the treatment was repeated with the same dose at 8 hours after the first treatment. Ten other cows were treated with physiological solution 2ml via intramuscular and kept in the experiment as a control group to contrast the treatment. Results showed that expulsion of placenta occurred earlier in the experimental group cows (13±2.4 hours after parturition, compared with the control ones (19±4.1 hours postpartum. Three cows in the control group developed signs of endometritis postpartum; one cow of the experimental group was diagnosed with endometritis. Results also indicated a difference between two groups concerning the days open 92± 12.4 days for the experimental group versus 128±9.6 days for control cows as well as in the index of insemination (1.2 doses of sperm for the experimental group versus 1.6 doses for the control group. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary study indicate that the use of PGF2α early after parturition may prevent placenta retention with positive effects on the prevention of uterine infections and improvement of the fertility in cows.

  15. Prediction of the methane conversion factor (Ym) for dairy cows on the basis of national farm data

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Brask, Maike;


    -corrected milk and dietary composition. In total, 183 observations were compiled, including 41 rations from 10 experiments with Holstein dairy cows where methane emission was measured by means of indirect calorimetry using the same experimental equipment. Two models were developed; one using dry matter intake...... conversion factor (Ym,%of gross energy) for dairy cows on the basis of data obtained from a range of our respiration studies, and, subsequently, to use this model to predict Ym for Holstein and Jersey cows on the basis of compiled average national farm data on dry matter intake, yield of energy...... effect in any model. On the basis of compiled data from practical Danish farms, the predicted Ym for dairy cows was 6.02% and 5.98% of gross energy intake for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively, in the model with dry matter intake and 6.13% and 6.00% for Holstein and Jersey cows, respectively...

  16. Insulin Signaling in Liver and Adipose Tissues in Periparturient Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid

    Kinoshita, Asako; Kenéz, Ákos; Locher, Lena; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna


    The glucose homeostasis in dairy cattle is very well controlled, in line with the metabolic adaptation during the periparturient period. Former studies showed that nicotinic acid (NA) lowered plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity in dairy cows. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the expression of proteins involved in hepatic and adipose insulin signaling and protein expression of hepatic glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) were affected by dietary NA and dietary concentrate intake in periparturient dairy cows. Twenty pluriparous German Holstein cows were fed with the same diet from about 21 days before the expected calving date (d-21) to calving. After calving, cows were randomly assigned in 4 groups and fed with diets different in concentrate proportion (“HC” with 60:40% or “LC” with 30:70% concentrate-to-roughage ratio) and supplemented with NA (24 g/day) (NA) or without (CON) until d21. Biopsy samples were taken from the liver, subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal (RPAT) adipose tissues at d-21 and d21. Protein expression of insulin signaling molecules (insulin receptor (INSR), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ)) and hepatic GLUT2 was measured by Western Blotting. The ratio of protein expression at d21/at d-21 was calculated and statistically evaluated for the effects of time and diet. Cows in HC had significantly higher dietary energy intake than cows in LC. In RPAT a decrease in PI3K and PKCζ expression was found in all groups, irrespectively of diet. In the liver, the GLUT2 expression was significantly lower in cows in NA compared with cows in CON. In conclusion, insulin signaling might be decreased in RPAT over time without any effect of diet. NA was able to modulate hepatic GLUT2 expression, but its physiological role is unclear. PMID:26766039

  17. Dairy cow preferences for soft or hard flooring when standing or walking.

    Telezhenko, E; Lidfors, L; Bergsten, C


    Concrete is the most commonly used alley flooring in confined dairy herds because of its qualities of construction and ease of cleaning. Nevertheless, the hardness, abrasiveness, and slipperiness of concrete floors have adverse effects on animal well-being and health, and yielding rubber flooring is becoming popular as a way of improving the flooring conditions on walkways. The aim of this study was to investigate preferences of dairy cows for rubber compared with concrete flooring under the conditions of a commercial dairy farm. The study was conducted in an organic dairy herd with free-stall housing. Floor preference was tested on groups of standing cows in a 120-m2 holding pen before milking, and 1 yr later on a 12- x 3-m walkway. The holding pen and the walkway were divided lengthwise into 2 identical sections. Two types of solid rubber mats (soft and extra soft) were tested against solid concrete in the holding pen. Slatted and solid rubber mats were tested against slatted concrete in the walkway. Each floor type was tested over 4 d on the left side and 4 d on the right side of the holding pen and the walkway, respectively. Concrete flooring on both sides of the sections was tested as a control before the testing of different section materials. All observations of the distribution of cows in the sections were made from video recordings captured in association with the afternoon milking. The number of cows on each section was recorded approximately every 7 min in the holding pen, and continuously on the walkway. A significantly higher proportion of cows stood on the side with the soft and extra soft rubber mats (65.1 +/- 2.7 and 69.3 +/- 2.6%, respectively, mean +/- SEM) compared with the control distribution when only the solid concrete was available (50.9 +/- 3.9%). A significantly higher proportion of nonlame cows walked exclusively on the side with the slatted (64.5 +/- 5.4%, d 4) or solid rubber mats (68.2 +/- 5.1%, d 4) compared with controls (28.9 +/- 4

  18. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino


    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P cows (prevalence, 4.1%). Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P cows (24.8 ± 0.2 L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. PMID:26542136

  19. Flunixin urine residues in culled dairy cows and its relevance to food safety and environmental concerns

    Flunixin is a US-FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; it is prominent due to violative meat residues detected by the US-FSIS in dairy cows. The effects of route of administration (2.2 mg/kg) and endotoxin challenge on flunixin elimination and residues were investigated. High urinary ...

  20. Evaluation of enteric methane prediction equations for dairy cows used in whole farm models

    Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.


    The importance of evaluating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy cows within the whole farm setting is being realized as more important than evaluating these emissions in isolation. Current whole farm models aimed at evaluating GHG emissions make use of simple regression equations to predict e

  1. Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.


    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds

  2. Association of leptin gene polymorphisms with serum leptin concentration in dairy cows

    Liefers, S.C.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Chilliard, C.; Delavaud, C.; Gerritsen, R.; Lende, van der T.


    Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes, and its expression is regulated by body fatness and energy balance. This study describes the association of four leptin gene polymorphisms in dairy cows (R4C, A59V, RFLP1, and BM1500) with circulating leptin concentrations during the periparturient period.

  3. Metabolic changes in early lactation and impaired reproductive performance in dairy cows.

    Jorritsma, R.; Wensing, T.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.


    This review addresses the suggestion that the decline in dairy reproductive performance, as increasingly observed these days, may be due to a hampered process of metabolic adaptation in early lactating cows. In our opinion, adaptation to the negative energy balance is a gradual process. Because almo

  4. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in dairy cows, 1990-2008

    Bannink, A.


    The Dutch protocol for the national inventory estimates the methane emission of the average Dutch dairy cow based on a Tier 3 approach. A dynamic, mechanistic model is used to represent the enteric fermentation processes, using annual national statistics on feed intake and feed composition as model

  5. Cultivar effects of perennial ryegrass on herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    Smit, H.J.


    Perennial ryegrass is the most abundant grass species in temperate climates. An increased herbage intake of dairy cows by breeding new cultivars could have a large potential impact on agriculture. The effects of cultivars on sward structure, nutritive value, physical characteristics and disease resi

  6. Substantial differences between organ and muscle specific tracer incorporation rates in a lactating dairy cow

    Burd, N.A.; Hamer, H.M.; Pennings, B.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Senden, J.M.G.; Gijsen, A.; Loon, van L.J.C.


    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One

  7. Potential for reduction of methane emissions from dairy cows

    Johannes, Maike; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter;


    , while fibre and sugar enhance methane emissions. Fat can be regarded as the most promising feed additive at the moment. At AU, respiration chambers have been installed to enable methane measurements from dairy cows combined with digestibility trials, and at present studies are being conducted concerning...

  8. Nutrient fluxes in splanchnic tissue in dairy cows: Influence of grass quality

    Visser, de H.; Valk, H.; Klop, A.; Meulen, van der J.; Bakker, J.G.M.; Huntington, G.B.


    A crossover design was used to investigate the effects of high (450 kg of N/ha) or low (150 kg of N/ha) N fertilization of ryegrass on fermentation and nutrient fluxes in splanchnic tissue of dairy cows fed those grasses. Grass that was fertilized with the high amount of N contained more N and less

  9. Changes of soil microbiome due to repeated addition of manure from oxytetracycline-treated dairy cow

    Elhottová, Dana; Kyselková, Martina; Bradley, R.; Schmitt, H.; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Allard, N.; Havlíčková, Petra

    Copenhagen: International Society for Microbial Ecology, 2012. s. 15-16. [International Symposium on Microbial Ecology - ISME 14 /14./. 19.08.2012-24.08.2012, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : soil microbiome * oxytetracycline-treated dairy cow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Protein biomarker-based screening for detection of recombinant bovine somatotropin abuse in dairy cows

    Ludwig, S.K.J.


    Recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) is a 22 kDa proteohormone, which can be used to increase milk production in dairy cows. It has been marketed since 1994 and while its use in food production is approved in several countries, such as the US, it is banned in the EU since 2000. To enforce the ban

  11. Effects of feed in the dry period on fertility of dairy cows post partum

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Meijer, G.A.L.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Wensing, T.


    It has been hypothesized that the decrease in fertility of dairy cows is related to the increase in milk yield and associated with fatty liver and increased vulnerability for both infection and metabolic diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this complex of health and reproductive problems an

  12. Spleen tyrosine kinase regulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation in mammary glands of dairy cows.

    Hou, Xiaoming; Lin, Lin; Xing, Weinan; Yang, Yang; Duan, Xiaoyu; Li, Qingzhang; Gao, Xuejun; Lin, Ye


    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that has been considered a hematopoietic cell-specific signal transducer involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the role of SYK in normal mammary gland is still poorly understood. Here we show that SYK is expressed in mammary glands of dairy cows. Expression of SYK was higher in dry period mammary tissues than in lactating mammary tissues. Knockdown and overexpression of SYK affected dairy cow mammary epithelial cell proliferation as well as the expression of signal molecules involved in proliferation, including protein kinase B (PKB, also known as AKT1), p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that SYK increased the transcriptional activity of the AKT1 promoter, and cis-elements within the AKT1 promoter region from -439 to -84 bp mediated this regulation. These results suggest that SYK affects mammary epithelial cell proliferation by activating AKT1 at the transcriptional level in mammary glands of dairy cows, which is important for the mammary remodeling process in dry cows as well as for increasing persistency of lactation in lactating cows. PMID:26947307

  13. Interactions between negative energy balance, metabolic diseases, uterine health and immune response in transition dairy cows.

    Esposito, Giulia; Irons, Pete C; Webb, Edward C; Chapwanya, Aspinas


    The biological cycles of milk production and reproduction determine dairying profitability thus making management decisions dynamic and time-dependent. Diseases also negatively impact on net earnings of a dairy enterprise. Transition cows in particular face the challenge of negative energy balance (NEB) and/or disproportional energy metabolism (fatty liver, ketosis, subacute, acute ruminal acidosis); disturbed mineral utilization (milk fever, sub-clinical hypocalcemia); and perturbed immune function (retained placenta, metritis, mastitis). Consequently NEB and reduced dry matter intake are aggravated. The combined effects of all these challenges are reduced fertility and milk production resulting in diminishing profits. Risk factors such as NEB, inflammation and impairment of the immune response are highly cause-and-effect related. Thus, managing cows during the transition period should be geared toward reducing NEB or feeding specially formulated diets to improve immunity. Given that all cows experience a reduced feed intake and body condition, infection and inflammation of the uterus after calving, there is a need for further research on the immunology of transition dairy cows. Integrative approaches at the molecular, cellular and animal level may unravel the complex interactions between disturbed metabolism and immune function that predispose cows to periparturient diseases. PMID:24378117

  14. Incidence of subclinical endometritis and its effects on reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows.

    Carneiro, Luisa Cunha; Ferreira, Adolfo Firmo; Padua, Mariana; Saut, João Paulo; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Dos Santos, Ricarda Maria


    In dairy cattle, uterine infections are not life threatening and often unavoidable; however, they reduce fertility and increase the production costs of properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of subclinical endometritis from 32 to 70 days in milk (DIM) and its effects on the reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows. Lactating cows (Holstein/Gir; n = 172), with no history of retained placenta, without clinical signs of uterine infection were used. The body condition score (BCS) was evaluated on a scale from 1 to 5. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate uterine lining and ovarian activity, while vaginal mucus was analyzed by gloved hand. The diagnosis of subclinical endometritis was performed by endometrial cytobrush technique. The samples were collected, stained, and examined microscopically; positive cases for subclinical endometritis were considered with the presence of ≥5 % of neutrophils. Later, the cows were submitted to conventional artificial insemination or timed artificial insemination. The incidence of subclinical endometritis in the herd was 26 %, and this was not affected by the season of calving, presence of corpus luteum, DIM, and parity. Cows with a BCS ≤2.50 had a higher incidence of subclinical endometritis. The conception rate to first insemination and pregnancy rate at 150 days postpartum were not influenced by the presence of subclinical endometritis in crossbred dairy cows. PMID:25187026

  15. Mycoplasmal mastitis in dairy cows in the Moghan region of Ardabil State, Iran : short communication

    C. Ghazaei


    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are an important and economically significant cause of mastitis in dairy cows in various parts of the world. The organisms are highly contagious, with the main reservoir of infection originating from cows with subclinical mastitis. In 1998 the 1st cases of bovine mastitis due to Mycoplasma bovis were diagnosed in Ardabil State, Iran. An investigation was carried out with the aim of establishing the extent of mycoplasma infections in dairy cows in Ardabil State. Milk samples obtained from 80 cows with clinical mastitis were cultured in the laboratory for the presence of mycoplasmas. Similarly, 48 bulk-tank milk samples were examined for the presence of mycoplasmas. A modified Hayflick broth was used to isolate the mycoplasmas and an immunoperoxidase test used for the species identification of the isolates. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from 39 (48.75 % of the clinical mastitis samples and from 48 of the bulk-tank milk samples tested. This indicated that mycoplasma udder infections were more prevalent in dairy cows in Ardabil State than previously thought.

  16. Is it Beneficial to Inseminate Cow Early after Calving in smallholder Dairy Herds?

    Insemination of cows after calving is often more prolonged than recommended by the extension service in the smallholder dairy herds. The rationale behind the practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate through simulation, the potential benefits of implementing early insemination of cows after calving as recommended by the extension. The simulation was based on a reference herd reflecting an average performing smallholder dairy herd in the Kiambu peri-urban area. Data inputs displaying collapsed lactation curve were obtained from the National Dairy Development Project reports. The study used a dynamic stochastic model designed for on-farm decision support in dairying which can be modified to farm specific situation. Simulations was performed till steady state was derived reflecting the reproductive and productivity which corresponds with the estimated input and output variable of the reference herd. This form the basic situation in which insemination is on 165 days after calving. This resulted in 465 days calving interval (CI), and on annual basis 2355 kg milk per cow, 2.7 calvings, 25.8% culling rates giving gross margins of Ksh. 14,933 per cow. Compare to the basic situation, inseminating cows on day 105 after calving (60 days earlier) improved the annual gross margins per cow by Ksh 1060. The improved gross margins resulted from Shortened CI by 41 days, increased annual calvings in the herd by 0.1, increased milk production by 74 kg per cow annually and reduce culling rate by 4.8% annually. The resultant effect of these did offset the increased costs of feeding which was Ksh 473 and 11 per cow annually for the concentrates and Napier, respectively. The results showed that early insemination has potential economic benefits to smallholders. Implementing early insemination decisions need consider the investment feeding. The study showed that it is difficult to get a replacement heifer at the present level of reproductive performance in

  17. Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

    A. Balicka-Ramisz


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine selenium (Se concentration in the blood serum of dairy cows and to establish its influence on the level of production and reproduction traits. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on the farm located in Western Pomerania - Poland and involved 120 cows, which were selected using the analog method on the basis of their physiological state, lactation number, milk yield, age, and genotype. The following indices were analyzed in individual groups: Calving interval, gestation interval, insemination index, standstill of placenta. Se concentration in the blood serum was determined with the spectrofluorometric method. Results: The mean serum Se concentration was in cows 0.038 μg/ml. The use of Se preparations has raised fertility, which was documented statistically. Conclusion: The study revealed that the problem of Se deficiency is still present in some dairy cattle herds in Western Pomerania - Poland.

  18. Ruminal Methanogen Community in Dairy Cows Fed Agricultural Residues of Corn Stover, Rapeseed, and Cottonseed Meals.

    Wang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Shengguo; Wang, Xingwen; Zhang, Yangdong; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi


    The purpose was to reveal changes in the methanogen community in the rumen of dairy cows fed agricultural residues of corn stover, rapeseed, and cottonseed meals, compared with alfalfa hay or soybean meal. Analysis was based on cloning and sequencing the methyl coenzyme M reductase α-subunit gene of ruminal methanogens. Results revealed that predicted methane production was increased while population of ruminal methanogens was not significantly affected when cows were fed diets containing various amounts of agricultural residues. Richness and diversity of methanogen community were markedly increased by addition of agricultural residues. The dominant ruminal methanogens shared by all experimental groups belonged to rumen cluster C, accounting for 71% of total, followed by the order Methanobacteriales (29%). Alterations of ruminal methanogen community and prevalence of particular species occurred in response to fed agricultural residue rations, suggesting the possibility of regulating target methanogens to control methane production by dairy cows fed agricultural residues. PMID:27322573

  19. Concentration of antioxidants in two muscles of mature dairy cows from Azores.

    Roseiro, L C; Santos, C; Gonçalves, H; Moniz, C; Afonso, I; Tavares, M; da Ponte, D J B


    This study evaluated the concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, creatine, carnosine, anserine and coenzyme Q10 in Longissimus dorsi (Ld) and Gluteus medius (Gm) muscles of culled dairy cows and the impact of age, production status before slaughter (dry-off vs lactating) and carcass weight on them. The effects of applying a finishing feeding regimen before slaughter were also examined. Gm muscle presented higher levels (P0.05). The finishing feeding promoted higher mean concentrations of anserine and creatine but lower carnosine values (P>0.05) than directly slaughtered dry-off cows. The variation between muscles and from animal-to-animal makes it difficult to exactly define the antioxidant status of the dairy cow's meat. PMID:24211545

  20. Epidemiological Studies on Subclinical Mastitis in Dairy cows in Assiut Governorate

    Ahmed Abdel-Rady

    Full Text Available In this investigation, some epidemiological studies were run on subclinical mastitis for totally 350 dairy cows of different breeds, ages and distributed in different villages in Assiut governorate, Assiut, Egypt, along a whole year (during the period from June 2006 till July 2007 through field screening surveys by using of the California mastitis test (CMT for each quarter milk sample followed by bacteriological examination to identify the major causative agents of intramammary infection (IMI. The dairy cows were differed from the breed point of view as 230 Holstein Friesian breed and 120 native breed. Also, they were differed from the age point of view as a group of 95 cows aged from 2 to 4 years old and another group of 255 cow aged from 5 to 8 years old. All dairy cows were apparently healthy with clinically sound udder secreting apparently normal milk. All the cows lived nearly under the same conditions of breeding from the habitat, hygiene and feeding systems. The obtained results revealed that 67 cows (19.14% had 80 infected quarters (5.71%. It was found that the most frequently major causative agents isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli from the positive CMT samples with prevalence 52.5, 31.25 and 16.25%, respectively. With studying the breed factor, it was found Friesian breed was sensitive towards infection (20.43% at the cow level and 6.09% at the quarter level than of native breed (16.67% at the cow level and 5% at the quarter level. It was also noticed that the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in hot weather as during summer (9.14% at the cow level and 2.64% at the quarter level and during spring (4.86% at the cow level and 1.36% at the quarter level was higher than in cold weather as during winter (2% at the cow level and 0.64% at the quarter level and during autumn (3.14% at the cow level and 1.07% at the quarter level. In relation to age susceptibility, 5-8 years old cows (15.43% at

  1. Relationship between Escherichia coli virulence factors and postpartum metritis in dairy cows.

    Kassé, F N; Fairbrother, J M; Dubuc, J


    The objectives of this study were to report the prevalence of Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows before the onset of postpartum metritis (PPM) and to quantify their association with subsequent occurrence of PPM, to quantify the association between the presence of genes encoding E. coli virulence factors (VF) and PPM, and to determine the accuracy of using early postpartum uterine bacteriology results (bacteria and VF) to identify cows at risk of PPM. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 3 commercial dairy farms. Uterine swabs were collected from 371 Holstein dairy cows (3 commercial herds) at 1 to 7d in milk and submitted to the laboratory for identification of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and E. coli VF. A total of 40 VF were tested using the radioactive probe hybridization method. Postpartum metritis was defined as the presence of a fetid watery red-brown uterine discharge, associated with fever (rectal temperature >39.5°C), and systemic signs of illness (dullness, reduced appetite, and milk production). Surveillance of PPM was done by trained farmers blinded to laboratory results and cows were followed until 21d in milk. Statistical analyses were conducted using 2×2 tables and mixed logistical regression models. Prevalences of E. coli, T. pyogenes, and PPM were 42, 34, and 15%, respectively. A total of 32 VF were found in E. coli isolates. Most prevalent VF were extraintestinal pathogenic genes such as fimH (89%), hlyE (87%), and iss (70%). Cows positive for intrauterine E. coli were 3.2 times more likely to have subsequent PPM compared with bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF hra1 in their uterus were 2.7 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for hra1 and 5.9 times more likely than bacteriologically negative cows. Cows with VF kpsMTII in their uterus were 3.2 times more likely to have PPM than cows positive for E. coli and negative for kpsMTII and 6.2 times more likely

  2. Effect of heat stress on body temperature in healthy early postpartum dairy cows.

    Burfeind, O; Suthar, V S; Heuwieser, W


    Measurement of body temperature is the most common method for an early diagnosis of sick cows in fresh cow protocols currently used on dairy farms. Thresholds for fever range from 39.4 °C to 39.7 °C. Several studies attempted to describe normal temperature ranges for healthy dairy cows in the early puerperium. However, the definition of a healthy cow is variable within these studies. It is challenging to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows because body temperature is usually included in the definition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify factors that influence body temperature in healthy dairy cows early postpartum and to determine normal temperature ranges for healthy cows that calved in a moderate (temperature humidity index: 59.8 ± 3.8) and a hot period (temperature humidity index: 74.1 ± 4.4), respectively, excluding body temperature from the definition of the health status. Furthermore, the prevalence of fever was calculated for both periods separately. A subset of 17 (moderate period) and 15 cows (hot period) were used for analysis. To ensure their uterine health only cows with a serum haptoglobin concentration ≤ 1.1 g/L were included in the analysis. Therefore, body temperature could be excluded from the definition. A vaginal temperature logger that measured vaginal temperature every 10 min was inserted from Day 2 to 10 after parturition. Additionally rectal temperature was measured twice daily. Day in milk (2 to 10), period (moderate and hot), and time of day had an effect on rectal and vaginal temperature. The prevalence of fever (≥ 39.5 °C) was 7.4% and 28.1% for rectal temperature in the moderate and hot period, respectively. For vaginal temperature (07.00 to 11.00 h) it was 10% and 33%, respectively, considering the same threshold and period. This study demonstrates that body temperature in the early puerperium is influenced by several factors (day in milk, climate, time of day). Therefore, these factors

  3. The Mad Cow Disease Trade Ban and Changes in the U.S. and Canadian Cull Cow Markets: A DAG Analysis

    Stockton, Matthew C.; Feuz, Dillon M.


    A directed a cyclical graph (DAG) methodology was used to discover changes in price relationships among cull cow markets in the U.S. and Canada resulting from the trade ban initiated by the discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, also called mad cow disease), in a Canadian cow in 2003. Comparison of the pre- and post-ban DAGs supports the hypothesis that large structural changes in the flow of cull cow market information has occurred with significant changes both within and betwee...




    Full Text Available In this work were analysed samples of blood from 314 dairy cows Slovak spotted breed by the method of starch gel electrophoresis. The aim was to identify the biochemical polymorphic markers in blood plasma and in extract of erythrocytes. The polymorphism of hemoglobin (AA+AB+BB, amylasa (AA+AB+BB, transferrin (AA+AD1+AD2+AE+D1D1+D1E, albumin (AA+AB+BB and postalbumin (AA+AB+AC+BB+BC+CC were proved. File of dairy cows was divided to fi ve groups by age. The fi rst group create of dairy cows in age 25-48 months, second 49-72 months, third 73-96 months, fourth 97-120 months and the last over 121 months. According to evaluation of heterozygotes genotypes were detect decrease into of AB genotype in polymorphism of hemoglobin from primary 46.8 % (25-48 month to 11.1 % in the last age group of dairy cows up 121-th months. Heterozygotic combinations in transferrin locus (AD1+AD2+AE+D1E genotypes culminated from the beginning 14.2 % to 38.9 % at the fi rst group and last one. The postalbumin polymorphism had the high rate of heterozygotes because of AB+AC+BC genotypes. Rate of heterozygous genotypes AB in the polymorphism system amylasa variance between 15.4 - 23.7 %. Heterozygotic genotypes AB in albumin locus was according to our analyse at dairy cows in the fi rst evaluated of age group 52.9 %, second one only in fi fth groups at intervals 71.8 - 75.0 %. Among tested heterozygotes (AB genotype and homozygotes (AA+BB genotypes we found the signifi cant differences only in albumin locus 2,18+ (+P≤0,05.

  5. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P


    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; Pmilk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  6. A validation of technologies monitoring dairy cow feeding, ruminating, and lying behaviors.

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Tsai, I C; Wadsworth, B A; Bewley, J M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate commercially available precision dairy technologies against direct visual observations of feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors. Primiparous (n=24) and multiparous (n=24) lactating Holstein dairy cattle (mean ± standard deviation; 223.4±117.8 d in milk, producing 29.2±8.2kg of milk/d) were fitted with 6 different triaxial accelerometer technologies evaluating cow behaviors at or before freshening. The AfiAct Pedometer Plus (Afimilk, Kibbutz Afikim, Israel) was used to monitor lying time. The CowManager SensOor (Agis, Harmelen, Netherlands) monitored rumination and feeding time. The HOBO Data Logger (HOBO Pendant G Acceleration Data Logger, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) monitored lying time. The CowAlert IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., Edinburgh, Scotland) monitored lying time. The Smartbow (Smartbow GmbH, Jutogasse, Austria) monitored rumination time. The Track A Cow (ENGS, Rosh Pina, Israel) monitored lying time and time spent around feeding areas for the calculation of feeding time. Over 8 d, 6 cows per day were visually observed for feeding, rumination, and lying behaviors for 2 h after morning and evening milking. The time of day was recorded when each behavior began and ended. These times were used to generate the length of time behaviors were visually observed. Pearson correlations (r; calculated using the CORR procedure of SAS Version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC), and concordance correlations (CCC; calculated using the epiR package of R version 3.1.0, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) evaluated association between visual observations and technology-recorded behaviors. Visually recorded feeding behaviors were moderately correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0.88, CCC=0.82) and Track A Cow (r=0.93, CCC=0.79) monitors. Visually recorded rumination behaviors were strongly correlated with the Smartbow (r=0.97, CCC=0.96), and weakly correlated with the CowManager SensOor (r=0

  7. Invited review: Environmental enrichment of dairy cows and calves in indoor housing.

    Mandel, R; Whay, H R; Klement, E; Nicol, C J


    In recent years, an increasing number of farmers are choosing to keep their cows indoors throughout the year. Indoor housing of cows allows farmers to provide high-yielding individuals with a nutritionally balanced diet fit for their needs, and it has important welfare benefits for both cows and their calves, such as protection from predators, parasites, and exposure to extreme weather conditions. However, it also confronts cows and calves with a wide range of environmental challenges. These include abiotic environmental sources of stress (e.g., exposure to loud and aversive sound) and confinement-specific stressors (e.g., restricted movement and maintenance in abnormal social groups). Cows and calves that live indoors are also faced with the challenge of occupying long periods with a limited range of possible behavioral patterns. Environmental enrichment can improve biological functioning (measured as increased lifetime reproductive success, increased inclusive fitness, or a correlate of these such as improved health), help animals to cope with stressors in their surroundings, reduce frustration, increase the fulfillment of behavioral needs, and promote more positive affective states. Here, we review recent findings on the effect of social, occupational, physical, sensory, and nutritional enrichment on dairy cows and calves, and we assess the appropriateness and practicality of implementing different enrichment practices on commercial dairy farms. Some of the enrichment methods reviewed here may also be applied to those more extensive cattle-raising systems, where similar challenges occur. PMID:26774729

  8. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene;


    mobilization period especially within multiparous cows. The different results obtained in response to early and late reduction of ration energy concentration suggest that transition from mobilization to deposition conditions is a reversible process only as long as cows are not fully adapted to deposition......Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...... in response to feeding the MR2 strategies. Early reduction (MR2-E strategy) caused a significant longer duration of the total period of mobilization compared to late reduction (MR2-L) within multiparous DR and DH cows. It indicates that early reduction of ration energy concentration forced these cows...

  9. Elevation of circulating serotonin improves calcium dynamics in the peripartum dairy cow.

    Weaver, Samantha R; Prichard, Austin P; Endres, Elizabeth L; Newhouse, Stefanie A; Peters, Tonia L; Crump, Peter M; Akins, Matthew S; Crenshaw, Thomas D; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Hernandez, Laura L


    Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum. Milk was collected daily during the postpartum period. Feed intake and milk yield were unaffected by 5-HTP infusion postpartum. Cows infused with 5-HTP had elevated circulating serotonin concentrations prepartum. Infusion with 5-HTP induced a transient hypocalcemia in Jersey cows prepartum, but not in any other treatment. Holstein cows infused with saline had the highest milk calcium on the day of and day after parturition. Postpartum, circulating total calcium tended to be elevated, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) concentrations were elevated in Holstein cows infused with 5-HTP. Overall, Jerseys had higher urine DPD concentrations postpartum when compared with Holsteins. Taken together, these data warrant further investigation of the potential therapeutic benefit of 5-HTP administration prepartum for prevention of hypocalcemia. Further research should focus on delineation of mechanisms associated with 5-HTP infusion that control calcium homeostasis during the peripartum period in Holstein and Jersey cows. PMID:27390301


    C. GAVAN


    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the effects of the oral administration of propylene glycol and calcium propionate on performance of dairy cows. Treatments were 10 l water (control, 10 l water+300 ml propylene glycol (GP and 10 l water+500 g calcium propionate (CP. Animals were mainly of Holstein breeds and were fed and managed in a commercial setting. The cows were divided randomly into an experimental group, n=24 (n=12 with PG and n=12 with CP and a control group, n=11. Cows received the assigned treatment within 10 hours of calving and 24 hours after calving. Health events were recorded during calving and for the first 21 days in milk (DIM. Health examinations were performed on cows that appeared not well. The cows were milked three times daily and milk production was recorded electronically. Milk solid content and somatic cell score were determinate from three consecutive milking weekly till 20 DIM and than monthly till 110 DIM. Retained placenta, hypocalcaemia, displaced abomasums, ketosis and metritis were low in treatment groups (with PG and CP. The cows receiving PG had 2.8 Kg/day grater milk production than control group. The cows receiving CP had 1.7 kg/day grater milk production than control group. Prophylactic administration of PG and CP drenches to Holstein cows may be justified by potentially higher milk yields and reduced health complications.