Sample records for camshafts

  1. Fracture analysis of chilled cast iron camshaft

    Li Ping; Li Fengjun; Cai Anke; Wei Bokang


    The fracture of a camshaft made of chilled cast iron, installed in a home-made Fukang car, happened only after running over a distance of 6,200 km. The fractured camshaft was received to conduct a series of failure analyses using visual inspection, SEM observation of fracture section, microstructure analysis, chemical composition analysis and hardness examination and so on, while those of CKD camshaft made by Citroen Company in France was also simultaneously analyzed to compare the difference between them. The results showed that the fracture of the camshaft mainly results from white section in macrostructure and Ledeburite in microstructure; the crack in the fractured camshaft should be recognized to initiate at the boundary of coarser needle-like carbide and matrix, and then propagate through the transverse section. At the same time, the casting defects such as dendritic shrinkage, accumulated inclusion and initiated crack and abnormal external force might stimulate the fracture of camshaft as well. Based on failure analysis, some measures have been employed, and as a result, the fracture of home-made camshafts has been effectively prevented.

  2. Development of an assembled camshaft by mechanical bonding

    Nakamura, Yoshikatsu; Egami, Yasuyoshi; Shimizu, Koichi


    Design of valve train systems for recent automotive diesel engines trends towards four-valve and roller-follower type. Accordingly, camshafts to be used in these engines are required to ensure higher contact pressure due to rolling contact which is accompanied by occasional sliding. This paper describes composite type assembled camshafts which have successfully been developed with excellent results of light weight, reduced cost and superior durability.


    Firza Utama Sjarifudin


    Full Text Available Adaptation is essential to manage the problem of climate change. In order to meet the challenge, this paper proposes an adaptive building envelope system that can optimize its configuration by responding environmental changes to achieve new levels of sustainable performance and energy efficiency. Most current adaptive building envelope uses kinetic techniques make its formation transformable. However, the use of kinetic components such as a large amount of interactive motorized system that requires electrical power may also cause further decrease the building energy efficiency. This paper proposes a camshaft mechanism system for adaptive building envelope that uses less motors, controllers, and sensors. This system uses pre-programmed analysis data of daily solar radiation changes to parametrically drive the number of rotation phase and length of nose (Lobe Lift that generates the shape of camshaft. The camshaft then controls the values of opening and closing of the building envelope components. The advantages of this system are less energy consumption, less maintenance and lower cost since it uses fewer motors, controllers and wiring. In conclusion, this paper has developed a prototypical tool that facilitates a new approach to energy-efficient kinetic buildings.

  4. Camshaft with roller bearings to reduce mechanical losses; Waelzgelagerte Nockenwelle zur Reduzierung von Reibungsverlusten

    Artur, Christophe; Lemaitre, Fabrice [Timken Europe, Colmar (France); Schneider, Falk; Kreisig, Michael [Mahle Ventiltrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Reducing frictional losses in combustion engine and power train applications is imperative to achieve future CO-2 emissions targets. Mahle and Timken have combined their expertise to develop new camshaft technology which could positively contribute to this industry effort. This paper describes the content and the results of this joint work and highlights the potential benefits of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  5. Design Methodology of Camshaft Driven Charge Valves for Pneumatic Engine Starts

    Moser Michael M.


    Full Text Available Idling losses constitute a significant amount of the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. Therefore, shutting down the engine during idling phases can improve its overall efficiency. For driver acceptance a fast restart of the engine must be guaranteed. A fast engine start can be performed using a powerful electric starter and an appropriate battery which are found in hybrid electric vehicles, for example. However, these devices involve additional cost and weight. An alternative method is to use a tank with pressurized air that can be injected directly into the cylinders to start the engine pneumatically. In this paper, pneumatic engine starts using camshaft driven charge valves are discussed. A general methodology for an air-optimal charge valve design is presented which can deal with various requirements. The proposed design methodology is based on a process model representing pneumatic engine operation. A design example for a two-cylinder engine is shown, and the resulting optimized pneumatic start is experimentally verified on a test bench engine. The engine’s idling speed of 1200 rpm can be reached within 350 ms for an initial pressure in the air tank of 10 bar. A detailed system analysis highlights the characteristics of the optimal design found.

  6. FE-simulation of the Presta joining process for assembled camshafts - local widening of shafts through rolling

    Scherzer, R.; Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.


    Considerable weight benefits and the option to combine various steel alloys of the single parts are the major advantages of assembled over conventional camshafts. The Presta joining process is the leading manufacturing method of assembled camshafts in the global market. The process is divided into two substeps. At first, the outer diameter of the shaft is widened with a profile oriented orthogonal to the shaft axis at the intended cam seat. At this position the shaft is subsequently joined with a cam with an internal profile oriented parallel to the shaft axis. As a result, these perpendicular profiles form a tight fit due to plastic deformations. Consequently the simulation of the manufacturing process has to start with the simulation of the rolling of the shaft. The resulting profile requested in this step is axisymmetric, but the arrangement of tools is not. Thus a three-dimensional model is required, which is presented in this work. Furthermore, the infeed of the rolling tool is unknown and controlled by the stiffness of the holders of the rolling tool. This work shows the modeling of this behavior. To predict realistic results for the underlying process, the use of precise material models is essential in order to take several hardening mechanisms into account. However, the use of complex material models implies additional effort, which is shown in this work.

  7. System Design and Analysis of a Directly Air-Assisted Turbocharged SI Engine with Camshaft Driven Valves

    Lino Guzzella


    Full Text Available The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start.

  8. Torsional vibrations in camshaft drives: A new procedure for evaluating the dynamic deviation of positions in rotary systems. Ein neues Verfahren zur Messung und Bewertung der dynamischen Positionsdifferenz in rotierenden Systemen

    Heintzen, D.; Krohm, H.; Schilly, H.


    During the optimization of variable valve timing systems by AFT Atlas Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH (Werdohl), the mobile data acquisition and analyzing system 'TMG TYPE 1' was devloped with a special package of evaluation software onboard. The concept was drawn up in close cooperation with the automotive and supplier's industry. The results delivered by this system permit a broader perspective of the vibration phenomena. New critical areas of engine operation are made evident by regarding the actual deviation of the camshaft position related to the angle position determined by the crankshaft. The theoretical camshaft position is calculated by using degree signals from an encoder attached to the crankshaft. The results are then compared to the real momentary position given by a camshaft encoder. (orig.).

  9. 高速精密磨削汽车凸轮轴的加工技术%On the Technique of High-Speed-and-Precision Grinding Processing Mobile Camshafts



    Camshaft is one of the key components of the Engine,and its contour accuracy has a direct impact on performance and life of the engine.Processing camshafts by the technique of high-speed-and-precision grinding can meet our satisfaction for high speed,efficiency and precision.Stable quality level can bring good economic returns.%凸轮轴是发动机的关键零部件之一,其轮廓精度直接影响到发动机的性能和寿命。采用高速精密磨削方法和工艺加工凸轮轴可以满足高速、高效、高精度的加工要求。稳定凸轮轴的加工质量,可望取得良好的经济效益。

  10. Failure analysis on surface wear of 20CrMnTi steel camshaft%20 CrMnTi钢凸轮轴表面磨损失效分析

    焦丽; 葛保红; 张燕明; 徐向阳; 孙思东


    Wear cause of the 20CrMnTi steel monoblock pump camshaft was analyzed by means of macroscopic examination, lubricating oil property test, chemical compositions analysis, mechanical property test, metallographic examination and microhardness test.The results show that the main reason for the surface wear of the camshaft is attributed to the hard and brittle blocky and network carbide in the surface layer which reduces the contact fatigue strength of the camshaft journals and increases the probability of the spalling along grain boundary. Secondly, the secondary quenched martensite after grinding leads to the crack and brittle spalling on the basis of the structure defects.The spalled particles are play intensive abrasion role and lead to the early wear failure of the monoblock pump camshaft.%采用宏观检验、润滑油油品性能测试、化学成分分析、力学性能测试、金相检验和显微硬度测试等手段对20CrMnTi钢单体泵凸轮轴表面磨损失效的原因进行了分析。结果表明,造成该凸轮轴表面磨损的主要原因是,凸轮轴表层组织中硬而脆的块状及网状碳化物降低了轴颈表面的接触疲劳强度,加大了其沿晶剥落的可能性。其次,磨削二次淬火马氏体的出现,在迭加了上述组织缺陷的基础上,产生了裂纹和脆性剥落。剥落的颗粒成为磨粒参与磨削,导致凸轮轴早期磨损失效。

  11. Bearing and retention apparatus for a camshaft phase change device

    Danieli, O.G.


    This patent describes a phase change device. It comprises: an output member, in input member, bearing means supporting the input member for rotation on the output member, an advancing member received between the input and output member and being operative upon axial movement thereof to effect limited relative rotation between the input and output member, drum means engaged with the advancing member to effect the axial movement of the advancing member when a retarding force is applied to the drum means, and actuating means operable to apply the retarding force. This patent describes improvement in the bearing means. It comprises a first peripheral groove formed in the input member, a second peripheral groove formed in the output member, and a plurality of balls received in the first and second grooves.

  12. Design Methodology of Camshaft Driven Charge Valves for Pneumatic Engine Starts

    Moser Michael M.; Voser Christoph; Onder Christopher H.; Guzzella Lino


    Idling losses constitute a significant amount of the fuel consumption of internal combustion engines. Therefore, shutting down the engine during idling phases can improve its overall efficiency. For driver acceptance a fast restart of the engine must be guaranteed. A fast engine start can be performed using a powerful electric starter and an appropriate battery which are found in hybrid electric vehicles, for example. However, these devices involve additional cost and weight. An alternative m...

  13. Production of near-finished components by casting, illustrated by the example of a camshaft. Final reports of the partners of the motor car industry; Endnah-Guss am Beispiel Kurbelwelle (EGK). Abschlussbericht der Partnerschaft der Automobilindustrie

    Heck [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)


    The extensive content of investigations required a dynamic procedure of the project, charactericed by simultaneousness of partial investigations. So, intensive investigation was executed on the partial processes which are very important for automotive production lines: Casting, machining of main and pin bearings, strengthening of radius and finishing of bearing surfaces. The decrease of production contents was forced, resulting in proposals to avoid drilling of oil channels, only premachining of main and pin bearings by CBN-grinding and to avoid undercut radius. The investigations concerning grinding by CBN took the largest volume, yielding recommendations for the layout of the extremely shortened processing chain and pointing out the possible cost reductions. During establishing and operating of the shortened production line ecological improvements beside the reduction in raw material and energy appear in outlines as a result of reduced load of the environment by critical residue from cooling lubrication material. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der weitgespannte Untersuchungsinhalt erforderte den Ansatz einer dynamisierten Projektabwicklung, die durch die Gleichzeitigkeit der Teiluntersuchungen gekennzeichnet war. Als bedeutend fuer die Automobilindustrie wurden die Prozessschritte Giessen, Haupt- und Hublagerbearbeitung, Lagerradienverfestigen und Lagerfinishen naeher untersucht. Besonderer Wert wurde auf das Reduzieren jeglicher Fertigungsinhalte gelegt, woraus sich Vorschlaege zum Entfall des Bohrens der Oelkanaele, zum Vorbearbeiten der Haupt- und Hublager nur durch Schleifen mit CBN-Schneidstoff, zum Entfall des Radieneinstechens und des Haertens ergaben. Die Untersuchungen zum Schleifen mit CBN nahmen den groessten Rahmen ein, woraus Empfehlungen zur Auslegung der so verkuerzten Prozesskette gegeben und die moeglichen Kostenreduktionen genannt wurden. Oekologische Verbesserungen zeichnen sich neben der Einsparung an Rohstoff- und Energieaufwand bei Herstellung und Betrieb der verkuerzten Prozesskette durch die verminderte Belastung der Umwelt infolge Sondermuell aus Kuehl-Schmierstoffen ab. (orig.)

  14. 双顶置凸轮轴正时齿形带传动系统的设计研究%The Design and Study of Synchronous Belt Drives For Double Overhead Camshaft

    裴梅香; 郑国璋



  15. Flow coefficient measurements for an engine cylinder head under transient flow conditions with continuous valve lift change

    Daesan Oh


    Full Text Available A flow coefficient measurement system which is operated under an unsteady intake flow condition in the intake port of a diesel engine cylinder head was developed. In order to determine the actual engine intake flow condition, the valve lift of the intake valve, whose rod is in contact with the camshaft, is varied continuously by rotating the camshaft directly. While varying the rotation speed of the camshaft, the flow coefficients were calculated by measuring various sensor signals, in this case the surge tank pressure, differential pressure in the flow meter, the valve lift when synchronized with the camshaft angle position, and the intake air temperature. The measurement of the flow coefficient was automated using a DAQ board and a computer. The flow coefficients change with the valve lift, and the effects of inertia of the intake flow on the flow coefficients are identified. The mean flow coefficients are obtained by integrating flow coefficients over the camshaft angle position.

  16. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon coatings for friction reduction of the valve train in internal combustion engines

    Götze, Andreas; Makowski, Stefan; Kunze, Tim; Hübner, Matthias; Zellbeck, Hans; Weihnacht, Volker; Leson, Andreas; Beyer, Eckhard; Joswig, Jan-Ole; Seifert, Gotthard; Abrasonis, Gintautas; Posselt, Matthias; Fassbender, Jürgen; Möller, Wolfhard; Gemming, Sibylle


    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) is studied as a tribological coating for the valve train's exhaust camshaft of a combustion engine. The coated camshafts were installed in a non-fired engine, tested in a computerized component test bench under practice-relevant conditions and analyzed for their frictional behavior. A notable reduction of the valve train's drive torque on the test bench is demonstrated. Namely, on a roller cam system with ta-C-coated camshaft the reduction is about 15% in a...

  17. Simpler valve for reciprocating engines

    Akkerman, J. W.


    Simpler design eliminating camshafts, cams, and mechanical springs should improve reliability of hydrazine powered reciprocating engines. Valve is expected to improve efficiency, and reduce weight of engines in range up to 50 horsepower.

  18. Analysis of Impact of Chosen Parameters on the Wear of Camshft

    Burdzik R.


    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis of the reasons for excessive wear of the camshafts system components based on models developed to describe the impact of selected material, technological and operational factors. The subject of the research was wear of camshaft cams studied in accordance with results of operation tests. Based on the said tests, the dependence of wear intensity of cams from their angular position was established. The respective calculation results enabled the function of cam fallibility to be determined.

  19. A New Type of Continuously Variable Displacement Mechanism Used for Hydraulic Motors

    LI Yong; SHI Guang-lin; CHEN Zhao-neng


    A continuously variable displacement mechanism, which is composed of a hydraulic control valve with mechanical-positional feedback to camshaft, was designed for changing the displacement of traditional camshaft connecting-rod low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motor continuously. The new type of continuously variable displacement mechanism is simple and easy to be made. The structure and principle of a continuously variable displacement mechanism was introduced. The mathematic model of the continuously variable displacement mechanism was set up and its static and dynamic characteristics were analyzed with the help of computer simulation. It can be seen that the cam ring on camshaft of the traditional LSHT hydraulic motor can stop at any position between minimum and maximum eccentricity, according to an input fluid pressure signal. And it can also stay anywhere stably through self-adjusting. Besides, it can work stabilized when load impact or oil leakage exists.


    Krešimir Osman


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of the MOTORI 2004 computing tool that calculates the distance, speed and acceleration of a car engine valve train’s oscillating mass m, which is reduced to the valve axis. Distance diagrams, speed and accelerations are provided in dependence on the camshaft twist angle at a constant rotational speed in several consecutive revolutions. The computing tool implements a mathematical description and numerical solution for the motion of mass m of a valve gear dynamic model. Valve lift h is given numerically using a series of equidistant points in the period of one camshaft revolution. The variabilities of camshaft rotation and spring thread vibration as a result of cam lift harmonic excitation. The computing solutions were tested at valve opening points and in imaginary extreme operating conditions (soft/hard spring, low/high damping, low/high rotational speed and increased clearance.

  1. Motorcycle Repair.

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  2. Modeling and Investigation of Electromechanical Valve Train Actuator at simulated Pressure conditions

    Habib, Tufail

    In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about investig......In an electromechanical valve actuated engine, the valves are driven by solenoid-type actuators and cam-shaft is eliminated. Control of each valve provides flexibility in valve timings over all engine conditions and achieves the benefits of variable valve timing(VVT). This paper is about...... investigation of Electro-mechanical actuator at simulated pressure conditions for a single cylinder engine. For this purpose, a scaled down actuator with reduced armature lift and high stiffness springs are being used. Experiments are conducted to measure valve release timings, transition times and contact...

  3. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Jimil M. Shah


    Full Text Available Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required in the valve timing diagram was designed in Pro-e software and was cut on a wire cut machine. The cam and camshaft were manufactured separately and then assembled.

  4. Timing belts - development milestones and innovations; Meilensteine und Innovationen der Zahnriemenentwicklung

    Schulte, H. [ContiTech Antriebssysteme GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Modern Timing Belts made of high temperature resistant elastomers for camshaft drives are designed for engine lifetime. Timing Belt drives gained in Europe 75% market share because of their advantages. The Belt drives generate up to 25% less friction than chain drives and create significantly lower noise levels. The new generation of Timing Belts are manufactured using: - special fibre glass types to transmit high forces with very high length stability - reinforced and Teflon treated fabrics to reduce friction and noise -high temperature resistant HNBR Elastomer to cover the temperature range (-40 C to +150 C) New belt drive developments are using Oval sprocket technology to eliminate unwanted vibrations and to reduce drive forces by 35%. Oil resistant Belts can substitute oil lubricated chains used for oil pump and camshaft drives to reduce the friction and noise level of the chain drives. (orig.)

  5. Diagnostic for two-mode variable valve activation device

    Fedewa, Andrew M


    A method is provided for diagnosing a multi-mode valve train device which selectively provides high lift and low lift to a combustion valve of an internal combustion engine having a camshaft phaser actuated by an electric motor. The method includes applying a variable electric current to the electric motor to achieve a desired camshaft phaser operational mode and commanding the multi-mode valve train device to a desired valve train device operational mode selected from a high lift mode and a low lift mode. The method also includes monitoring the variable electric current and calculating a first characteristic of the parameter. The method also includes comparing the calculated first characteristic against a predetermined value of the first characteristic measured when the multi-mode valve train device is known to be in the desired valve train device operational mode.

  6. Neural control of fast nonlinear systems - Application to a turbocharged SI engine with VCT

    COLIN, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Corde, Gilles


    Nowadays, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of Spark Ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators (throttle, Turbo Wastegate and Variable Camshaft Timing (VCT)) is needed for engine torque control. This work proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: Inter...

  7. Potential of valve train variability in passenger car diesel engines; Potenziale eines variablen Ventiltriebs beim PKW-Dieselmotor

    Schneider, Simon; Genieser, Patric; Birke, Stiev; Buecker, Christian [Mahle International GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Zentrale Vorausentwicklung


    Variable valve control systems are state-of-the-art technology in today's gasoline engines, although their application in diesel engines has also become the focus of recent studies. These systems offer one possibility of resolving the conflict of objectives between a further reduction in engine-out emissions and an improvement in fuel efficiency. Mahle has examined their potentials on the basis of the Cam-in-Cam variable camshaft for the intake valves. (orig.)

  8. Miniaturised cylinder head production by rapid prototyping

    Melo, Rodrigo; Monteiro, A. Caetano; Martins, Jorge; Coene, Stijn; Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J


    This work shows the development of the design and manufacturing of a very small engine, namely its head. The engine works under the 4-stroke cycle, therefore having a very complex cylinder head, housing the camshaft, valves and its auxiliaries (seats, guides, springs), spark plug, inlet and exhaust passages and a coolant chamber. The geometries, both inner and outer are highly intricate which makes the production of such a part a very difficult job. In addition, when the engine is...

  9. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB) of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Yanuandri Putrasari; Haznan Abimanyu; Achmad Praptijanto; Arifin Nur; Yan Irawan; Sabar Pangihutan Simanungkalit


    The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI), 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC), single overhead camshaft (SOHC), and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A) was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried...

  10. A study of fluid flow and combustion with variable valve timing

    Soederberg, F.


    The effects of variable valve timing (VVT) were examined by in-cylinder Laser Doppler Velocimetry flow measurements and heat-release calculations. A single-cylinder Volvo B5254 engine was used for all experiments and the valve timing was altered by phasing or exchanging the camshaft. Special cam lobes were developed for simulation of throttle-less operation. With the standard double camshaft, a tumbling flow was generated and with valve deactivation, a swirling flow was generated. The turbulence was increased with valve deactivation. This increased the combustion rate making lean burn possible. The standard camshaft with inlet valve deactivation and late cam phasing had a faster combustion at {lambda} = 1.8 than the standard camshaft with normal cam phasing at {lambda} = 1.0. Early and late inlet valve closing was used for enabling throttle-less operation. Early inlet valve closing (EIVC) generated a very slow tumble with low turbulence. Late inlet valve closing generated both very high and low turbulence. The net indicated efficiency was improved with up to 10%. Some reduction was observed for the gross indicated efficiency, due to a too large reduction in effective compression ratio. A very stable combustion was obtained for EIVC with gasoline, possibly due to a sheering flow over the inlet valves resulting in improved fuel-air preparation. Wavelet analysis was used for dividing LDV flow measurements into time and frequency resolved information. The technique rendered the same flow results as the moving window technique, but with a separation of the turbulence into different frequencies. The choice of wavelet was shown not to be crucial. The frequency resolved turbulence was studied for tumble and swirl. A tumbling flow had a larger transfer of energy from low frequency turbulence into high frequency turbulence than a swirling flow. This is caused by the tumble breakdown. A correlation against heat-release indicated that high frequency turbulence have a larger

  11. Design Alteration of Motor-Cycle Engine Cam for Pneumatic Operation

    Jimil M. Shah; Akash B. Pandey; Ujjwell Y. Trivedi


    Power produced by pressurized gases/air has been used in many applications since decades. The power produced by that means is pollution free too. Hence substitution of petrol/diesel in engines with compressed air will be a step towards pollution free engine. The 4-stroke IC engine is to be converted into a 2-stroke pneumatic engine. Various design changes in camshaft design were carried out. The valve timing diagram was derived for the same. The cam profile of a double lobed cam as required i...

  12. Influence of Hot Plasma Pressure on Global Structure of Saturn's Magnetodisk

    Achilleos, N; Arridge, C S; Sergis, N; Wilson, R J; Thomsen, M F; Coates, A J


    Using a model of force balance in Saturn's disk-like magnetosphere, we show that variations in hot plasma pressure can change the magnetic field configuration. This effect changes (i) the location of the magnetopause, even at fixed solar wind dynamic pressure, and (ii) the magnetic mapping between ionosphere and disk. The model uses equatorial observations as a boundary condition-we test its predictions over a wide latitude range by comparison with a Cassini high-inclination orbit of magnetic field and hot plasma pressure data. We find reasonable agreement over time scales larger than the period of Saturn kilometric radiation (also known as the camshaft period).


    LI Yong; SHI Guanglin; CHEN Zhaoneng


    Pressure-flow analytical formulas of lubrication film of slipper pairs on camshaft connecting rod type low speed high torque (LSHT) hydraulic motors are put forward. The bottom surface of slipper pairs is rectangle, and the effect of squeeze flow and pressure differential flow is considered. The dynamic process of lubrication film formation through squeezing is numerically studied by computer simulation. Effects of supply pressure, initial lubrication film thickness, velocity damping coefficient, loading impact and gravity, etc are studied. Advantages of novel slipper pairs with large oil cavity area are pointed out.

  14. The new Toyota variable valve timing and lift system

    Shimizu, K.; Fuwa, N.; Yoshihara, Y. [Toyota Motor Corporation (Japan); Hori, K. [Toyota Boshoku Corporation (Japan)


    A continuously variable valve timing (duration and phase) and lift system was developed. This system was applied to the valvetrain of a new 2.0L L4 engine (3ZRFAE) for the Japanese market. The system has rocker arms, which allow continuously variable timing and lift, situated between a conventional roller-rocker arm and the camshaft, an electromotor actuator to drive it and a phase mechanism for intake and exhaust camshafts (Dual VVT-i). The rocking center of the rocker arm is stationary, and the axial linear motion of a helical spline changes the initial phase of the rocker arm which varies the timing and lift. The linear motion mechanism uses an original planetary roller screw and is driven by a brushless motor with a built-in electric control unit. Since the rocking center and the linear motion helical spline center coincide, a compact cylinder head design was possible, and the cylinder head is a common design with a conventional engine. Since the ECU controls intake valve duration and timing, a fuel economy gain of maximum 10% (depending on driving condition) is obtained by reducing light to medium load pumping losses. Also intake efficiency was maximized throughout the speed range, resulting in a power gain of 10%. Further, HC emissions were reduced due to increased air speed at low valve lift. (orig.)

  15. Prediction of useful casting structure applying Cellular Automaton method

    Z. Ignaszak


    Full Text Available The results of simulation investigations of primary casting’s structure made of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using the Calcosoft system with CAFE 3D (Cellular Automaton Finite Element module are presented. CAFE 3-D module let to predict the structure formation of complete castings indicating the spatial distribution of columnar and equiaxed grains. That simplified model concerns only hypoeutectic phase. Simulation investigations of structure concern the useful casting of camshaft which solidified in high-insulation mould with properly chills distribution. These conditions let to apply the expedient locally different simplified the grains blocs geometry which are called by the authors as pseudo-crystals. The mechanical properties in selected cross-sections of casing are estimated.

  16. Neural control of fast nonlinear systems--application to a turbocharged SI engine with VCT.

    Colin, Guillaume; Chamaillard, Yann; Bloch, Gérard; Corde, Gilles


    Today, (engine) downsizing using turbocharging appears as a major way in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of spark ignition (SI) engines. In this context, an efficient control of the air actuators [throttle, turbo wastegate, and variable camshaft timing (VCT)] is needed for engine torque control. This paper proposes a nonlinear model-based control scheme which combines separate, but coordinated, control modules. Theses modules are based on different control strategies: internal model control (IMC), model predictive control (MPC), and optimal control. It is shown how neural models can be used at different levels and included in the control modules to replace physical models, which are too complex to be online embedded, or to estimate nonmeasured variables. The results obtained from two different test benches show the real-time applicability and good control performance of the proposed methods. PMID:17668664

  17. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    Isermann, Rolf


    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  18. Superfluid stirling refrigerator: A new method for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    We have invented and built a new type of cryocooler, which we call the superfluid Stirling refrigerator (SSR). The first prototype reached 0.6 K from a starting temperature of 1.2 K. The working fluid of the SSR is the 3He solute in a superfluid 3He--4He solution. At low temperatures, the superfluid 4He is in its quantum ground state, and therefore is thermodynamically inert, while the 3He solute has the thermodynamic properties of a dense ideal gas. Thus, in principle, any refrigeration cycle that can use an ideal gas can also use the 3He solute as working fluid. In our SSR prototype, bellows-sealed superleak pistons driven by a room-temperature camshaft work on the 3He solute. Ultimately, we anticipate elimination of moving parts by analogy with pulse-tube refrigeration. 15 refs., 6 figs

  19. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  20. Application of radionuclide techniques to study the wear behaviour of peripherally treated and coated components

    Technically and economically important machinery components (helical gear wheels, camshafts, rams, valve rockers) were to be optimized with regard to their wear behaviour under operation-oriented load conditions, and the process parameters required both for peripheral layer heating and surface coating were to be determined. Based on earlier experiments, the treatment parameters and the basic materials were varied. The layer structure was studied, characterized and correlated wi the wear behaviour. The wearing parts were activated in the reactor by thermal neutrons, or in the cyclotron by charged particles. By labelling various parts by means of different radioisotopes, up to three components may be measured at the same time in practice, provided that the circumstances are favourable. (BBR)

  1. Stepper motor drive for on load tapchanger in electric locomotive

    Aruna Kumar, G.V.D.; Kumar, S.; Mishra, P.; Wadhonkar, N.K. [Indian Railway Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Nasik (India)


    Indian Railways have a fleet of 2,200 electrical locomotives running on 25 KV ac traction. An on-load tap changer is used to select voltage for speed control of dc traction motor. A four stroke reciprocating type air motor is used presently to drive the tap changer (GR). Complex gear and camshaft mechanism is used to move tap changer and to generate various logic signals for safe loco operation. The annual failure rate for tap changer and its drive is of the order of 20%. A microprocessor controlled stepper motor drive has been designed and constructed to drive the on-load tap changer. A current controlled chopper is used to drive the motor and control logic has been generated through an optimum hardware and software combination. The assembly has been tested on a prototype tap changer in the laboratory.

  2. Vehicular engine design

    Hoag, Kevin


    This book provides an introduction to the design and mechanical development of reciprocating piston engines for vehicular applications. Beginning from the determination of required displacement and performance, coverage moves into engine configuration and architecture. Critical layout dimensions and design trade-offs are then presented for pistons, crankshafts, engine blocks, camshafts, valves, and manifolds.  Coverage continues with material strength and casting process selection for the cylinder block and cylinder heads. Each major engine component and sub-system is then taken up in turn, from lubrication system, to cooling system, to intake and exhaust systems, to NVH. For this second edition latest findings and design practices are included, with the addition of over sixty new pictures and many new equations.

  3. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos,


    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  4. 乘用车发动机结构与参数特征%Structural and Parameters Characteristic of Passenger Car Engines



    Based on the statistic analysis of the current products in the world, the statistic relation between vehicle length and engine displacement, cylinder bore size and displacement, cylinder bore size and engine structure, engine stroke and cylinder bore, compression ratio and engine displacement. The arrangement characteristic of camshaft and valve is outline. It is indicated in the paper that the layout of double overhead camshaft enjoys absolutely advantage for engine with any structural style; multi -point port inject engine is the main engine for vehicle models on the current market, however direction injection and supercharging is the future development trend. Engine performance feature and the current level are introduced in the paper.%通过对世界上现有产品进行统计分析,阐述了车长与发动机排量、发动机缸径尺寸与排量、发动机缸径尺寸与发动机结构形式、发动机行程与缸径、发动机压缩比和发动机排量的统计关系.简述了凸轮轴与气门的布置特征.指出,对于任何结构型式的发动机,采用双顶置凸轮轴的布置特征占绝对优势;多点气道喷射发动机是现在市场车型的主流,但直喷加增压是技术发展方向.概述了发动机的性能特征及目前水平.

  5. The Design of a Fining Boring Machine for Three Kinds of Holes on the WD12 Cylinder%WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床的设计

    韩海群; 李春燕


    为保证缸体曲轴孔、凸轮轴孔和惰轮孔的加工精度,设计了WD12气缸体三轴孔精镗机床,确定了单面卧式总体方案、加工示意图和电气动作循环表.曲轴孔和凸轮轴孔均是多档间断的长孔,其精度要求高.为提高镗杆的刚度,除尽量加粗镗杆、设置中间支承外,选择德国玛帕生产的直线镗杆和浮动接头及美国GATCO生产的滚动导向套保证精度.采用"一面两销"的定位方案和液压夹紧机构.并对镗模安装提出了具体的要求.设备经十个月的研制,得到用户的认可.%To ensure the accuracy of three kinds of holes of crankshaft, camshaft and idlers, a triaxial fine boring machine for the WD12 cylinder is designed. The singleside horizontal boring is determined which include the overall program machining sketch chart and electrical action cycle table The holes of crankshaft and camshaft are long with intermittent gap and high precision To improve the rigidity of boring bars,some methods are applied. They include making the boring bar thicker, adding the intermediate support,choosing the line boring bars and floating holders of Mapa, and selecting the precision rotary bushings of GATCO. Put to use the fixing scheme of "one plane and two pins" and hydraulic clamping facility and make a specific request of installation requirements of the boring mold in the machine. After ten months of research, the boring machine get user's acceptance

  6. FemtoSpeX: a versatile optical pump-soft X-ray probe facility with 100 fs X-ray pulses of variable polarization.

    Holldack, Karsten; Bahrdt, Johannes; Balzer, Andreas; Bovensiepen, Uwe; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Erko, Alexei; Eschenlohr, Andrea; Follath, Rolf; Firsov, Alexander; Frentrup, Winfried; Le Guyader, Loïc; Kachel, Torsten; Kuske, Peter; Mitzner, Rolf; Müller, Roland; Pontius, Niko; Quast, Torsten; Radu, Ilie; Schmidt, Jan Simon; Schüssler-Langeheine, Christian; Sperling, Mike; Stamm, Christian; Trabant, Christoph; Föhlisch, Alexander


    Here the major upgrades of the femtoslicing facility at BESSY II (Khan et al., 2006) are reviewed, giving a tutorial on how elliptical-polarized ultrashort soft X-ray pulses from electron storage rings are generated at high repetition rates. Employing a 6 kHz femtosecond-laser system consisting of two amplifiers that are seeded by one Ti:Sa oscillator, the total average flux of photons of 100 fs duration (FWHM) has been increased by a factor of 120 to up to 10(6) photons s(-1) (0.1% bandwidth)(-1) on the sample in the range from 250 to 1400 eV. Thanks to a new beamline design, a factor of 20 enhanced flux and improvements of the stability together with the top-up mode of the accelerator have been achieved. The previously unavoidable problem of increased picosecond-background at higher repetition rates, caused by `halo' photons, has also been solved by hopping between different `camshaft' bunches in a dedicated fill pattern (`3+1 camshaft fill') of the storage ring. In addition to an increased X-ray performance at variable (linear and elliptical) polarization, the sample excitation in pump-probe experiments has been considerably extended using an optical parametric amplifier that supports the range from the near-UV to the far-IR regime. Dedicated endstations covering ultrafast magnetism experiments based on time-resolved X-ray circular dichroism have been either upgraded or, in the case of time-resolved resonant soft X-ray diffraction and reflection, newly constructed and adapted to femtoslicing requirements. Experiments at low temperatures down to 6 K and magnetic fields up to 0.5 T are supported. The FemtoSpeX facility is now operated as a 24 h user facility enabling a new class of experiments in ultrafast magnetism and in the field of transient phenomena and phase transitions in solids. PMID:25177998


    侯跃谦; 李冠楠; 谭庆昌


    In this paper, we discuss the engineering applications and the detection model of structural parts measurement using machine vi -sion, and propose a method to detect the size of the structural parts based on binocular vision .We use the improved solution of cameras ’ in-ternal and external parameters to calibrate the effective focal length of the single camera , and estimate the fundamental matrix by using an op-timised method in which the distance between the pixel coordinate and the corresponding epipolar line is the objective function .Through the singular value decomposition of essential matrix , rotation matrix and translation vector between two cameras are obtained .Under laboratory conditions , the space distance between two adjacent cams on same camshaft of a light vehicle is conducted practical measurement .The results show that the measurement method is able to achieve the accuracy requirement of monitoring the cam spacing in composite camshaft .%对结构件视觉测量的工程应用、检测模型进行讨论,提出一种双目视觉检测结构件空间尺寸的方法。应用改进的求解摄像机内外参数的方法对单摄像机有效焦距进行标定,应用以像素坐标到对应的极线距离为目标函数的优化方法对基本矩阵进行了估算,通过对本质矩阵的奇异值分解得到两个摄像机之间的旋转矩阵和平移向量。实验室条件下对轻型车凸轮轴凸轮间距空间尺寸进行了实际测量,结果表明,测量方法能够达到监测组合式凸轮轴凸轮间距的要求。

  8. Investigation of the Swirl Effect on Engine Using Designed Swirl Adapter

    Mohiuddin AKM


    Full Text Available Swirl is the rotational flow of charge within the cylinder about its axis. The engine used in this investigation is a basic Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC which has a capacity of 1597 cc and installed with a total of 16 valves developed by Malaysian car manufacturer PROTON. The swirl adapter is placed inside the intake port of the Engine. The Adapter angle is set to 30o to force the charge to bounce off the wall of the port to create swirl. The objective of this paper is to find the effect of swirl on the engine and to compare it with the normal turbulence mixing process. The swirl effect analysis is done by using the GT-SUITE which has a standard swirl flow embedded in the software. The effect is simulated on the GT-SUITE and it is found that the swirl affects the engine in reducing the fuel consumption and increasing the volumetric efficiency. The experimental result shows that the effect of swirl increases the power as well as torque in the idle and cruising speed conditions in comparison with normal turbulence. But it decreases rapidly in the acceleration speed. This happens due to the inability of the swirl adapter to generate swirl at higher wind flow velocity during the higher throttle opening condition.ABSTRAK: Pusar merupakan aliran putaran cas melingkungi silinder pada paksinya. Enjin yang digunakan untuk penyelidikan ini merupakan Enjin Aci Sesondol Stas Kembar (Double Overhead Camshaft (DOHC asas, yang mempunyai kapasiti 1597 cc. Ia dipasangkan dengan 16 injap yang dibangunkan oleh pembuat kereta Malaysia, PROTON. Penyesuai pusar diletakkan di dalam masukan liang enjin. Sudut penyesuai di tetapkan pada 30o untuk memaksa cas supaya melantun kepada dinding liang agar membentuk pusaran. Tujuan tesis ini ditulis adalah untuk mendapatkan kesan pusar ke atas enjin dan membandingkannya dengan proses percampuran gelora normal. Analisis kesan pusaran dilakukan dengan menggunakan GT-SUITE yang mempunyai aliran pusar yang telah dipiawaikan di

  9. 基于虚拟仪器的车载电子电气测试平台设计%Design of Automotive Electrical and Electronic Test Platform Based on Virtual Instrument

    蔡永祥; 王子龙; 彭杨


    The hardware system is based on PXI modular and customized board,the software system uses LabVIEW.Dynamic controls of H&H,TOELLNER,programmable variable resistor board and programmable CAN fault injection board are developed.According to the requirements,the interface of user management is designed.The crankshaft camshaft sensor signal,the wheel speed sensor signal and the vehicle speed sensor signal are simulated.Automated and semi-automated testing of electrical and electronic system is realized.%车载电子电气测试平台硬件系统采用PXI模块化板卡与特制信号模拟板卡,软件系统采用LabVIEW模块化软件.集成开发了H&H电源、TOELLNER电源、程控可变电阻模拟板卡与程控CAN故障注入板卡的动态控制;依据测试需求开发了用户管理界面;模拟了曲轴凸轮轴传感器信号、轮速传感器信号及车速传感器信号;实现了车载电子电气系统测试的自动化与半自动化.

  10. DOE Backup Power Working Group Best Practices Handbook for Maintenance and Operation of Engine Generators, Volume II

    Gross, R.E.


    The lubricating oil system provides a means to introduce a lubricant in the form of a film to reduce friction and wear between surfaces that bear against each other as they move.1 The oil film which is established also cools the parts by carrying generated heat away from hot surfaces, cleans and carries dirt or metal wear particles to the filter media, and helps seal the piston to the cylinder during combustion. Most systems are pressure lubricated and distribute oil under pressure to bearings, gears, and power assemblies. Lubricating oil usually reaches main, connecting rod, and camshaft bearings through drilled passages in the cylinder block and crankshaft or through piping and common manifolds.Many parts rely on oil for cooling, so if the lube oil system fails to perform its function the engine will overheat. Metal to metal surfaces not separated by a thin film of oil rapidly build up frictional heat. As the metals reach their melting point, they tend to weld together in spots or streaks. Lube oil system failures can cause significant damage to an engine in a short period of time. Proper maintenance and operation of the lubricating oil system is essential if your engine is to accomplish its mission.

  11. Experimental Investigation of 2nd Generation Bioethanol Derived from Empty-fruit-bunch (EFB of Oil-palm on Performance and Exhaust Emission of SI Engine

    Yanuandri Putrasari


    Full Text Available The experimental investigation of 2nd generation bioethanol derived from EFB of oil-palm blended with gasoline for 10, 20, 25% by volume and pure gasoline were conducted on performance and exhaust emission tests of SI engine. A four stroke, four cylinders, programmed fuel injection (PGMFI, 16 valves variable valve timing and electronic lift control (VTEC, single overhead camshaft (SOHC, and 1,497 cm3 SI engine (Honda/L15A was used in this investigation. Engine performance test was carried out for brake torque, power, and fuel consumption. The exhaust emission was analyzed for carbon monoxide (CO and hydrocarbon (HC. The engine was operated on speed range from1,500 until 4,500 rev/min with 85% throttle opening position. The results showed that the highest brake torque of bioethanol blends achieved by 10% bioethanol content at 3,000 to 4,500 rpm, the brake power was greater than pure gasoline at 3,500 to 4,500 rpm for 10% bioethanol, and bioethanol-gasoline blends of 10 and 20% resulted greater bsfc than pure gasoline at low speed from 1,500 to 3,500 rpm. The trend of CO and HC emissions tended to decrease when the engine speed increased.

  12. 汽车发动机


    [ 篇名 ] Automated tuning of an engine management unit for an automotive engine,[ 篇名 ] Automotive Signal Fault Diagnostics-Part I: Signal Fault Analysis, Signal Segmentation, Feature Extraction and Quasi-Optimal Feature Selection,[ 篇名 ] Automotive tribology overview of current advances and challenges for the future,[ 篇名 ] Camshaft roller chain drive With reduced meshing impact noise levels,[ 篇名] Combating Automotive Engine Valve Recession,[ 篇名 ] Comparison of reliability enhancement tests for electronic equipment,[ 篇名 ] Competitive surface interactions of critical additives with piston ring/cylinder linear components under lubricated breaking-in conditions,[ 篇名 ] Component-based distributed control systems for automotive manufacturing machinery developed under the foresight vehicle program,[ 篇名 ] Compression ratio influence on maximum load of a natural gas-fueled HCCI engine,[ 篇名 ] Computerized analysis of fuel systems performance dynamics,[ 篇名 ] Concepts for the control of boost pressure and EGR-rate for a heavy duty engine,[ 篇名 ] Condition monitoring for a car engine using higher order time frequency method,[ 篇名 ] Design and evaluation of the ELEVATE two-stroke automotive engine,[ 篇名 ] Development of a cheep creep resistant Mg-Al-Zn-Si-base alloy,[ 篇名 ] Development of a nozzle-fouling test for additive rating in heavy-duty DI diesel engines。

  13. Design of Synchronous Belt Drive System for 469Q Gasoline Engine%469Q汽油机正时传动系统的设计研究

    张志香; 苏铁熊; 郑国璋


    根据469Q汽油机双顶置凸轮轴配气机构的特点,进行了正时传动系统的布置,给出了正时传动系统各个环节的设计计算过程、所用的经验数据及应遵循的原则,并提出了一种正时标记方法,设计了发动机正时传动系统的防护装置,提出了各阶段设计应注意的问题.试验表明,汽油机性能稳定,正时传动系统设计可靠.%Based on the admission gear of double overhead camshafts of 469Q gasoline engine, the synchronous belt drive system is ananged. The design calculation process, experience data and principle to be followed in various stages are given. A method used to be timing marking is put forward. Besides, the protective device of synchronous belt driving system is designed. The matters that need attention in the each design phase are emphasized. The test shows that the performance of 469Q gasoline engine is stabilization and the synchronous belt drive system is credibility.

  14. Design and study of synchronous toothed belt drive system for 4100Q gasoline engine%4100Q汽油机同步齿形带传动系统的设计

    张志香; 苏铁熊; 郑国璋


    根据4100Q汽油机双项置凸轮轴配气机构及机油泵同步传动的特点,考虑了同步带的横向振动,进行了同步带传动系统的布置,给出了同步带传动系统各个环节的设计计算过程和所用的经验数据.提出了一种正时标记方法及与带轮啮合的同步带外侧表面和同步带防护罩壳内侧之间最小距离的计算方法,利用此方法设计了同步带传动系统防护装置.%Based on the features as the double overhead camshafts valve mechanism and the synchronous drive of oil pump of 4100Q gasoline engine, by considering the transverse vibration of synchronous belts, the synchronous belts drive system was configured.The design calculation process and empirical data at various links of synchronous belts drive system were given.A timing mark method as well as the calculation method for minimum distance between synchronous belt side face of the pulley mesh and inside of the synchronous belt protective enclosure was put forward.The protective device of synchronous belt driving system was designed by using this method.

  15. Control of fast non linear systems - application to a turbo charged SI engine with variable valve timing; controle des systemes rapides non lineaires - application au moteur a allumage commande turbocompresse a distribution variable

    Colin, G.


    Spark ignition engine control has become a major issue for the compliance with emissions legislation while ensuring driving comfort. Engine down-sizing is one of the promising ways to reduce fuel consumption and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions. Combining several existing technologies such as supercharging and variable valve actuation, down-sizing is a typical example of the problems encountered in Spark Ignited (SI) engine control: nonlinear systems with saturation of actuators; numerous major physical phenomena not measurable; limited computing time; control objectives (consumption, pollution, performance) often competing. A methodology of modelling and model-based control (internal model and predictive control) for these systems is also proposed and applied to the air path of the down-sized engine. Models, physicals and generics, are built to estimate in-cylinder air mass, residual burned gases mass and air scavenged mass from the intake to the exhaust. The complete and generic engine torque control architecture for the turbo-charged SI engine with variable cam-shaft timing was tested in simulation and experimentally (on engine and vehicle). These tests show that new possibilities are offered in order to decrease pollutant emissions and optimize engine efficiency. (author)


    Kolarik, Robert V. II; Shattuck, Charles W.; Copper, Anthony P.


    This Low Friction (High Efficiency Roller Bearing) Engine (LFE) report presents the work done by The Timken Company to conduct a technology demonstration of the benefits of replacing hydrodynamic bearings with roller bearings in the crankshaft and camshaft assemblies of an internal combustion engine for the purpose of collecting data sufficient to prove merit. The engines in the present study have been more extensively converted to roller bearings than any previous studies (40 needle roller bearings per engine) to gain understanding of the full potential of application of bearing technology. The project plan called for comparative testing of a production vehicle which was already respected for having demonstrated low engine friction levels with a rollerized version of that engine. Testing was to include industry standard tests for friction, emissions and fuel efficiency conducted on instrumented dynamometers. Additional tests for fuel efficiency, cold start resistance and other measures of performance were to be made in the actual vehicle. Comparative measurements of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH), were planned, although any work to mitigate the suspected higher NVH level in the rollerized engine was beyond the scope of this project. Timken selected the Toyota Avalon with a 3.5L V-6 engine as the test vehicle. In an attempt to minimize cost and fabrication time, a ‘made-from’ approach was proposed in which as many parts as possible would be used or modified from production parts to create the rollerized engine. Timken commissioned its test partner, FEV Engine Technology, to do a feasibility study in which they confirmed that using such an approach was possible to meet the required dimensional restrictions and tolerances. In designing the roller bearing systems for the crank and cam trains, Timken utilized as many production engine parts as possible. The crankshafts were produced from production line forgings, which use Timken steel, modified with special

  17. Modification and performance evaluation of a mono-valve engine

    Behrens, Justin W.

    A four-stroke engine utilizing one tappet valve for both the intake and exhaust gas exchange processes has been built and evaluated. The engine operates under its own power, but has a reduced power capacity than the conventional 2-valve engine. The reduction in power is traced to higher than expected amounts of exhaust gases flowing back into the intake system. Design changes to the cylinder head will fix the back flow problems, but the future capacity of mono-valve engine technology cannot be estimated. The back flow of exhaust gases increases the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and deteriorates combustion. Intake pressure data shows the mono-valve engine requires an advanced intake valve closing (IVC) time to prevent back flow of charge air. A single actuation camshaft with advanced IVC was tested in the mono-valve engine, and was found to improve exhaust scavenging at TDC and nearly eliminated all charge air back flow at IVC. The optimum IVC timing is shown to be approximately 30 crank angle degrees after BDC. The mono-valve cylinder head utilizes a rotary valve positioned above the tappet valve. The open spaces inside the rotary valveand between the rotary valve and tappet valve represent a common volume that needs to be reduced in order to reduce the base EGR rate. Multiple rotary valve configurations were tested, and the size of the common volume was found to have no effect on back flow but a direct effect on the EGR rate and engine performance. The position of the rotary valve with respect to crank angle has a direct effect on the scavenging process. Optimum scavenging occurs when the intake port is opened just after TDC.

  18. A New, Highly Improved Two-Cycle Engine

    Wiesen, Bernard


    The figure presents a cross-sectional view of a supercharged, variable-compression, two-cycle, internal-combustion engine that offers significant advantages over prior such engines. The improvements are embodied in a combination of design changes that contribute synergistically to improvements in performance and economy. Although the combination of design changes and the principles underlying them are complex, one of the main effects of the changes on the overall engine design is reduced (relative to prior two-cycle designs) mechanical complexity, which translates directly to reduced manufacturing cost and increased reliability. Other benefits include increases in the efficiency of both scavenging and supercharging. The improvements retain the simplicity and other advantages of two-cycle engines while affording increases in volumetric efficiency and performance across a wide range of operating conditions that, heretofore have been accessible to four-cycle engines but not to conventionally scavenged two-cycle ones, thereby increasing the range of usefulness of the two-cycle engine into all areas now dominated by the four-cycle engine. The design changes and benefits are too numerous to describe here in detail, but it is possible to summarize the major improvements: Reciprocating Shuttle Inlet Valve The entire reciprocating shuttle inlet valve and its operating gear is constructed as a single member. The shuttle valve is actuated in a lost-motion arrangement in which, at the ends of its stroke, projections on the shuttle valve come to rest against abutments at the ends of grooves in a piston skirt. This shuttle-valve design obviates the customary complex valve mechanism, actuated from an engine crankshaft or camshaft, yet it is effective with every type of two-cycle engine, from small high-speed single cylinder model engines, to large low-speed multiple cylinder engines.

  19. Los batanes hidráulicos de la cuenca del Guadalquivir a fines de la Edad Media. Explotación y equipamiento técnico

    Cordóba de la Llave, Ricardo


    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a technological analysis of the waterpowered fulling mills working in the Guadalquivir basin in the Late Middle Ages. After briefl y reviewing the process of fulling woollen cloth, this paper focuses on the discussion about the origin and spread of fulling mills in Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. It then describes the features of their architecture and it looks at the places where they were located on the most important rivers of the basin. The main chapter is devoted to studying how they worked, analyzing the systems used for making better use of water-power (dams, channels, vertical water wheels and camshafts and the various components or pieces of machinery (castle, beams, triphammers, stack. The study ends with a brief refl ection on the technology used in the mills.

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto el análisis tecnológico de los batanes hidráulicos que funcionaron en la cuenca del Guadalquivir a fi nes de la Edad Media. Tras repasar brevemente el proceso de abatanado de los paños de lana, el artículo se centra en la discusión acerca del origen y difusión del batán hidráulico en Europa y en la Península Ibérica. A continuación se describen los rasgos de su arquitectura y se exponen los lugares donde se ubicaron en los ríos más importantes de la cuenca. El capítulo principal es el dedicado a estudiar su funcionamiento, analizando los sistemas empleados para el aprovechamiento de la energía hidráulica (presas, canales, ruedas hidráulicas y árbol de levas y los diversos componentes o piezas de la maquinaria (castillo, astiles, mazos, pila. Una breve refl exión sobre la pervivencia a lo largo de los siglos de la tecnología utilizada en los batanes cierra el trabajo.

  20. The new L4 gasoline engines with VALVEMATIC system

    Harada, Jun; Yamada, Tetsu; Watanabe, Kenji [Toyota Motor Corporation, Aichi (Japan)


    Reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions is one of the major responsibilities of car manufacturers. It is an especially urgent task to develop new technologies with a simple, compact and widely applicable mechanism which can be used for middle class engines of mass volume production category. Toyota has developed a continuously variable valve timing and lift control system called 'VALVEMATIC'. By implementing this system fuel consumption can be improved by using smaller valve lift during low and middle engine loads (reduction of pumping loss by closing the intake valve earlier). The system consists of a special rocker arm which realizes continuously variable valve timing and lift. It is located between a conventional roller-rocker arm and the camshaft. An electrically actuated motor is used to control the lift and valve opening duration, while a hydraulically controlled variable valve timing mechanism (VVT-i) is also applied on both intake and exhaust cam shafts. The newly developed actuator contains Toyota's original planetary roller screw unit translating rotary movement of the motor into linear actuation. Thanks to the alignment of rocking center and actuator drive direction, a compact design has been achieved. In 2007, VALVEMATIC has been introduced into the Japanese market on a 2.0L engine (3ZR-FAE), which has the largest displacement of the ZR series. The engine employs a cam housing structure with valve train system separated from the cylinder head. The structure realized a high ratio of part commonization with the conventional engine, and an easy mounting of the VALVEMATIC-system by changing only the cam housing assembly. The engine achieved 5-10% fuel consumption improvement and good drivability by using a newly developed cooperative control of VALVEMATIC, VVT-i and the throttle valve. Maximum power also improved by approximately 11kW thanks to the maximized volumetric efficiency using VALVEMATIC. Furthermore, exhaust emissions were improved due to

  1. 高速立方氮化硼砂轮与绿色制造%High speed CBN grinding wheel and the green manufacturing

    杨威; 刘将先; 王帅; 李学文; 李学仁; 李世华


    In this study the vitrified bond CBN wheels are compared with the conventional corundum wheels in the grinding of automotive engine camshaft and crankshaft The results show that the durability of the high speed vitrified bond CBN wheels is 100 times that of the conventional corundum wheels and its service life is 44 4 times that of the conventional corundum wheels but the raw material consumption is only 1 5 6 When in the same amounts preparation the abrasive consumption of using corundum wheels is more than 400 times that of the high speed vitrified bond CBN wheels When the conventional corundum wheels are replaced by the high speed vitrified bond CBN wheels it would improve production efficiency more than 30% and save more than 60% production cost The high speed grinding wheel is an environment-protection products with high precision high efficiency low production costs less environment pollution which make it be a sharp weapon for realizing the target of green process.%以磨削加工汽车发动机凸轮轴、曲轴为例,对陶瓷 CBN 砂轮与普通刚玉砂轮进行了加工效果对比。结果表明:高速陶瓷 CBN 砂轮的耐用度是普通陶瓷刚玉砂轮的100倍,寿命是普通砂轮的的44.4倍,而原材料消耗仅为其1/56;加工相同的工件数量,使用刚玉砂轮进行加工,磨料消耗是高速CBN砂轮的400余倍;采用高速陶瓷CBN砂轮代替刚玉砂轮可提高生产效率30%以上,综合生产成本比刚玉砂轮磨削降低60%。高速CBN砂轮具有高效率、高精度、低磨削成本,低环境污染的技术优势,其代表了当今世界磨具产品发展的一个主要方向,是实现绿色加工目标的有效手段。

  2. 基于肤色识别的人机交互方法在游戏中的应用研究%Research on Human-Computer Interaction Methods in Game Application Based on Skin Color Recognition

    闫玉宝; 夏露; 侯宪锋


    利用计算机视觉技术实现游戏人机交互来提高游戏的娱乐性,是当前国内外应用研究的热点.文中提出了采用肤色检测技术应用于游戏交互的方法.通过摄像头对肤色进行采样,再利用统计方法对皮肤颜色进行分析建立肤色模型;采用背景差分阈值分割法和Camshift算法进行手势跟踪监测,获取手的位置;将手的位置作为信号传递给游戏角色,从而控制游戏.在VC ++6.0下,使用OpenCV和OpenGL开源库,构建了普通摄像头视觉游戏实验平台,通过手势的运动轨迹控制粒子系统喷射方向.实验结果表明,通过肤色进行手势跟踪监测,进而控制游戏角色运动,具有很好的实时性和交互性.%The game human-computer interaction is fulfilled by making use of computer vision technology to improve the game entertainment. It is a current research hotspot at home and abroad. This paper puts forward the method that the skin detection technology is applied to game interaction. Skin detection technology is applied in human-computer interaction in this paper. Skin color is sampled through the camera, and skin color model is established by making use of statistical methods for analysis of skin color. In order to reduce the influence of the background color recognition, the RGB model translates into HSV model. It takes advantage of the background difference threshold segmentation method and Camshaft algorithm for hand tracking monitoring to get the position of the hand. So as to control the game, the position of handle as a signal is transmitted to characters. And in VC+ + 6. 0, it uses open source library OpenCV and gestures OpenGL to build a common experimental platform game camera vision, with gestures trajectory controlling particle system injection. The experimental result shows that making use of the skin color tracking and monitoring gesture to control game character movement has very good real-time and interactivity.


    A. A. Sukhotsky


    Full Text Available The paper describes development of the methodology for optimization of parameters for an additional operating force mechanism in a device for pneumo-centrifugal machining of glass balls. Specific feature in manufacturing glass balls for micro-optics in accordance with technological process for obtaining ball-shaped workpieces is grinding and polishing of spherical surface in a free state. In this case component billets of future balls are made in the form of cubes and the billets are given preliminary a form of ball with the help of rough grinding. An advanced method for obtaining ball-shaped work-pieces from brittle materials is a pneumocentrifugal machining. This method presupposes an application of two conic rings with abrasive working surfaces which are set coaxially with large diameters to each other and the billets are rolled along these rings. Rotation of the billets is conveyed by means of pressure medium.The present devices for pneumo-centrifugal machining are suitable for obtaining balls up to 6 mm. Machining of the work-pieces with full spherical surfaces and large diameter is non-productive due to impossibility to ensure a sufficient force on the billet in the working zone. For this reason the paper proposes a modified device where an additional force on the machined billet is created by upper working disc that is making a reciprocating motion along an axis of abrasive conic rings. The motion is realized with the help of a cylindrical camshaft mechanism in the form of a ring with a profile working end face and the purpose of present paper is to optimize parameters of the proposed device.The paper presents expressions for calculation of constitutive parameters of the additional operating force mechanism including parameters of loading element motion, main dimensions of the additional operating force mechanism and parameters of a profile element in the additional operating force mechanism.Investigation method is a mathematical

  4. Evaluation of Process Capability in Gas Carburizing Process to Achieve Quality through Limit Design Concept

    K. Palaniradja; N. Alagumurthi; V. Soundararajan


    Steel is the most important metallic material used in industry. This is because of the versatility of its engineering properties under different conditions. In one condition it can be very mild, soft and suitable for any forming operation. In another condition the same steel can be very hard and strong. This versatility is made possible by the different heat treatments that the steel can be subject to. One such treatment is Gas carburizing. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of low carbon steels. In this method the surface composition of the steel changes by diffusion of carbon and or nitrogen and result in hard outer surface with good wear resistance properties. A striking feature of Gas Carburizing process is that in this process the original toughness and ductility remains unaffected even after heat treatment. 3% nickel chromium case hardened low carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications such as rack and pinion, gears, camshaft, valve rocker shafts and axles which requires high fatigue resistance. Fatigue behaviour of case carburized parts depends to a great extent on the correct combination of Hardness Penetration Depth (HPD) and the magnitude of hardness at the surface and beneath the surface with low size and shape distortion. In order to reduce the manufacturing costs in terms of material consumption and elimination of the number of processing steps, the effect of Gas carburizing parameters on the fatigue behaviour should already be considered in the parameter design stage. Therefore it is of importance to optimize the gas carburizing process variables to attain quality products with respect to hardness and case depth. In the present paper, the evaluation of process capability was carried out through a Limit Design Concept called orthogonal array design of experiment. To optimize the process variables the influence of several parameters (Holding time,Carbon potential, Furnace temperature and Quench

  5. A tool for Load Modeling in Induction Hardening Equipment Driven by Power Semiconductor Systems

    Kelvin effect (Skin effect) is used in surface hardening produced by induction heating of gears, camforms, camshafts and other work pieces of fairly complex geometries.The induction heating equipment for surface hardening of metals and alloys (using LF or medium frequencies in the jargon of induction heating) is composed by a coil or coil assembly and a power semiconductor driving system up to 50kHz. The load seen by the driving system is equivalent to a transformer. The primary corresponds to the excitation coil or coil assembly, and the work piece corresponds to a short-circuited secondary. To asses the electrical load it is necessary to determine the variations in skin depth from place to place due to local curvature effects in the work piece, and its variations in space and time due to variations in conductivity and magnetic properties coupled with thermal effects. In these and others technical applications of Kelvin effect it is often necessary to be able to relate local skin depths with local curvatures of the surface of electrically conductive bodies.The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, derive a closed form analytical formula that relates the local skin depth with the local mean curvature and the well known skin depth for a flat conductive body. The limits of applicability of this formula are discussed. The predicted skin depths are compared with available experimental results obtained in the framework of surface hardening processes. Second, apply the above mentioned formula to describe the electrical load of the induction heating equipment in the conditions used for surface hardening. In the choice or design of an induction heating system the parameters of the intended process (depth of Kelvin effect, temperatures to be reached and duration of the heating process, amongst others) put restrictions over the coils and the power driving system. To determine the best shape and size of induction coils or coil assemblies, the complex thermal and

  6. Pneumatic-Combustion Hybrid Engine: A Study of the Effect of the Valvetrain Sophistication on Pneumatic Modes Moteur hybride pneumatique: une étude de l’effet de la complexité de la distribution sur les modes pneumatiques

    Brejaud P.


    Full Text Available Although internal combustion engines display high overall maximum global efficiencies, this potential cannot be fully exploited in automotive applications: in real conditions, the average engine load (and thus efficiency is quite low and the kinetic energy during a braking phase is lost. This work presents a hybrid pneumatic-combustion engine and the associated thermodynamic cycles, which is able to store and recover energy in the form of compressed air. The study focuses on the two major pneumatic modes: pneumatic pump mode and pneumatic motor mode. For each of them, three valvetrain technologies are considered: 4-stroke mode, 4-stroke mode with one camshaft disengaged, and 2-stroke fully variable. The concept can be adapted to SI or CI engines. In any case the valvetrain technology is the key to best fuel economy. A kinematic model of the charging valve’s actuator is introduced, and implemented in a quasi dimensional model of the pneumatic-combustion hybrid engine. Simulation results are presented for each pneumatic mode, for each valvetrain technology, in order to determine the best valve train configuration, and to show the impact of the kinematic valve actuator on the performance of the engine The tradeoffs between valvetrain sophistication and fuel economy will be presented for each case. Bien que le rendement total d’un moteur à combustion interne soit élevé, ce potentiel ne peut être pleinement exploité sur une automobile : dans les conditions réelles d’utilisation, la charge moteur moyenne (et donc le rendement est souvent faible. De plus, l’énergie cinétique en phase de freinage est totalement dissipée sous forme de chaleur. Cet article présente un concept de moteur hybride pneumatique, et les cycles thermodynamiques associés, capable de stocker de l’énergie (et de la réutiliser sous forme d’air comprimé. Le concept est adaptable au moteur à allumage commandé aussi bien qu’au moteur à allumage par

  7. High-Compression-Ratio; Atkinson-Cycle Engine Using Low-Pressure Direct Injection and Pneumatic-Electronic Valve Actuation Enabled by Ionization Current and Foward-Backward Mass Air Flow Sensor Feedback

    Harold Schock; Farhad Jaberi; Ahmed Naguib; Guoming Zhu; David Hung


    they are opened. As a result of this effort, we have devised a new design and have filed for a patent on a method of control which is believed to overcome this problem. The engine we have been working with originally had a single camshaft which controlled both the intake and exhaust valves. Single cycle lift and timing control was demonstrated with this system. (3) Large eddy simulations and KIVA based simulations were used in conjunction with flow visualizations in an optical engine to study fuel air mixing. During this effort we have devised a metric for quantifying fuel distribution and it is described in several of our papers. (4) A control system has been developed to enable us to test the benefits of the various technologies. This system used is based on Opal-RT hardware and is being used in a current DOE sponsored program.

  8. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl


    has consisted of both modeling and single cylinder engine experiments to quantify DIGN performance. The air handling systems of natural gas engines dissipate a percentage of available energy as a result of both flow losses and turbomachinery inefficiencies. An analytical study was initiated to increase compressor efficiency by employing a 2-stage inter-cooled compressor. Caterpillar also studied a turbo-compound system that employs a power turbine to recover energy from the exhaust gases for improved engine efficiency. Several other component and system investigations were undertaken during the final phase of the program to reach the ultimate ARES goals. An intake valve actuation system was developed and tested to improve engine efficiency, durability and load acceptance. Analytical modeling and materials testing were performed to evaluate the performance of steel pistons and compacted graphite iron cylinder head. Effort was made to improve the detonation sensing system by studying and comparing the performance of different pressure sensors. To reduce unburned hydrocarbon emissions, different camshafts were designed and built to investigate the effect of exhaust valve opening timing and value overlap. 1-D & 3-D coupled simulation was used to study intake and exhaust manifold dynamics with the goal of reducing load in-balance between cylinders. Selective catalytic reduction with on-board reductant generation to reduce NOx emissions was also engine tested. An effective mean to successfully deploy ARES technologies into the energy markets is to deploy demonstration projects in the field. In 2010, NETL and Caterpillar agreed to include a new “opportunity fuel” deliverable and two field demonstrations in the ARES program. An Organic Rankine Cycle system was designed with production intent incorporating lessons learned from the Phase II demonstration. Unfortunately, business conditions caused Caterpillar to cancel this demonstration in 2011. Nonetheless, Caterpillar