Sample records for camping

  1. Lesbian camp: An unearthing.

    Nielsen, Elly-Jean


    Camp-a sensibility, a style, and a form of artistic self-expression-is an elusive concept said to be in the eye of the beholder. To refute Susan Sontag's ( 1966 ) claims that camp is apolitical and not especially homosexual, a number of recent scholarly works have been geared toward revealing camp's fundamental gayness. With the odd footnote aside, lesbian camp has been collapsed into the category of gay male camp, if not eclipsed entirely. Despite the negligible efforts made to legitimize lesbian camp, there are numerous salient cultural examples one might draw on to illustrate, typify, and substantiate a lesbian camp sensibility. I lay the ground work for this scholarly exercise by outlining various definitions and critiques of camp, and by discussing its history and application to queer theory. Then, to unveil lesbian camp, three non-mutually exclusive categories are discussed: classic, erotic, and radical. By gathering various strands of inquiry, and various textual examples (e.g., photography, artistic performances, and literary tropes), this article attempts to reach a more inclusive and nuanced understanding of lesbian camp. PMID:26701773

  2. Recreation Summer Camps 2016

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here: to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  3. Registration Summer Camp 2016


    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at CERN Staff Association

  4. Camp Joy: Embracing Diversity.

    Krehbiel, Amy


    Camp Joy (Ohio) offers a racially integrated program to disadvantaged inner-city foster children. To attract quality minority staff, the camp recruits through former campers, word of mouth, a leader-in-training program, job and internship fairs, and networking with nearby colleges and social agencies. Staff training and the intrinsic rewards of…

  5. Scrum Code Camps

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente


    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven...

  6. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Renville, Gary


    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  7. VisionCamp

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Løwe Nielsen, Suna


    . Baseret på forløbet VisionCamp 2008, der satte eksplicit fokus på at kombinere fagfeltet "supply chain management" og kreativitet, illustrerer artiklen camp-metodens relevans og peger på centrale del-elementer i entreprenante kompetencer (kreative kompetencer, teknisk/faglige kompetencer og relationelle...

  8. CDC Disease Detective Camp


    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  9. Rehabilitating camp cities : community driven planning for urbanised refugee camps

    Misselwitz, Philipp


    Focussing on Palestine refugee camps in the Near East, this dissertation aims to shed light on the potential relevance of urban planning to refugee camp environments worldwide. In particular, there is a focus on the role architects and urban planners can play in facilitating participatory planning processes as well as providing guidance and expertise in the development of a spatial vision for Camp Cities. Part I - The Urbanisation of Refugee Camps as a Global Challenge The first part o...

  10. CCI: A Worldwide Camping Community.

    Fawver, Gary Keith


    Describes the efforts of Christian Camping International (CCI), an alliance of Christian camping associations from Australia, Canada, the Far East, Latin America, New Zealand, United States, South Africa, Japan, and Brazil. The purpose of CCI is to help develop effective Christian camps, conferences, and retreat ministries. (LP)

  11. Running Boot Camp

    Toporek, Chuck


    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  12. A Summer Camp


    正This summer,I had some special days.I joined Dongzhou International Educational Exchange Summer Camp. First,I will tell you about our foreign teachers,they are Shrina and Rebecca. They are friendly and beautiful.They are students at Oxford University. We talked about many things:famous people,subjects in England,different jobs, our deal days,western star signs,what can we say in a restaurant and so on.

  13. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S


    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator. PMID:27021671

  14. A Camp in the Desert

    Heise, Aaron Kent


    A house is pulled apart into its separate rooms and joined in the out-of-doors. This collection of rooms is recognized as a camp. This move is in agreement with the site of the house, which is the foothills of the Rincon Mountains, twenty miles east of Tucson, Arizona, and bordering along Saguaro National Monument. The collection of structures that make up the buildings of the camp are joined by a path that encircles the camp, and also describes the active life of the camp. The design o...

  15. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    Nursery School


    Reminder Registration for the CERN Staff Association Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old More information on the website: The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at

  16. Summer Camp, July 2016

    Staff Association


    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  17. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Durall, John K.


    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  18. Explaining the Value of Camp.

    Chenery, Mary Faeth


    Overviews the philosophy and theory of camp experiences and discusses the special benefits of camps, including experiences that can lead to significant life-changing outcomes, sound educational goals, a sense of psychological and physical safety, and helping children to deal with social problems such as the degradation of the environment and human…

  19. Comparison of work motivation in camp supervisors and camp counselors in Greek private camps

    George Costa


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study sought to better understand the work motivators that led camp supervisors and counselors to accept their job. Second, the study sought to better understand the ranking and rating of 20 work motivators from supervisors and camp counselors. Responders to the research questionnaire (n=121 were camp supervisory staff and counselors, age 15-55, working in seven private camps in Greece. Two instruments were used to collect data. The first instrument collected demographic data while the second instrument focused on ranking and rating 20 work motivators. The study suggested that Herzberg's theory (Motivator / Hygiene does not apply on a full scale. The results suggested that supervisory staff indicated good working conditions, meeting other people and carrying out personal growth are important. In addition, they don't like travel and don't consider working in a camp, as a stable job. The camp counselors want to have fun in their job and the opportunity to work with youth. They also don't consider working in a camp, as a stable job and they don't accept the responsibility in proportion to their position.

  20. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    Nursery School


    Registration for the CERN SA Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old From March 14 to 25 for children already enrolled in CERN SA EVE and School From April 4 to 15 for the children of CERN members of the personnel (MP) From April 18 for other children More information on the website: The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at

  1. Camp for Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Fegan-Bohm, Kelly; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; DeSalvo, Daniel; Gunn, Sheila; Hilliard, Marisa


    Camps for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have grown in size and scope since they first emerged in the 1920s. Anecdotal evidence suggests that attending camp with other youth with T1D is beneficial, largely attributed to sharing fun, active experiences and removing the isolation of living with diabetes. However, few studies have evaluated the psychosocial and medical impacts of T1D camp attendance during and after camp sessions. In addition, T1D camps have been a setting for numerous studies on a variety of T1D-related research questions not related to camp itself, such as testing novel diabetes management technologies in an active, non-laboratory setting. This paper reviews the evidence of psychosocial and medical outcomes associated with T1D camp attendance across the globe, provides an overview of other research conducted at camp, and offers recommendations for future research conducted at T1D camp. PMID:27292106

  2. 36 CFR 13.1208 - Lake Camp.


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Camp. 13.1208 Section 13... § 13.1208 Lake Camp. Leaving a boat, trailer, or vehicle unattended for more than 72 hours at the facilities associated with the Lake Camp launching ramp is prohibited without authorization from...

  3. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett


    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  4. Applications of Research to Camping.

    Henderson, Karla A.


    Considers contributions of basic/theoretical, applied/practical, and marketing research to the field of camping. Outlines research concerns: application of qualitative methods, practical application of marketing research, effective research dissemination, and focus on longitudinal studies using larger samples. Affirms role of research to document…

  5. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    Peterson, Michael


    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  6. AVTC Hosts TechnoCamp

    Miner, Brenda


    The Area Vo-Tech Center (AVTC) in Russellville, Arkansas, recently hosted its first TechnoCamp to encourage enrollment based on the aptitude and interest level of the students enrolling in the various programs. The center currently offers student enrollment in auto technology, computer engineering, cosmetology, construction technology, drafting…

  7. Is juvenile boot camp policy effective

    Kübra Gültekin


    Full Text Available Militaristic boot camps became very popular in the U.S. in the early 1990’s as an alternative to traditional prisons and probation. Less recidivism and less cost were the shibboleths of correctional boot camps. The boot camps are believed to reduce the number of repeat offenders and to lower operational costs. The rehabilitation programs and aftercare activities are thought to bring ongoing changes in inmates’ behaviors. Therefore, boot camps are strongly supported by politicians and the public. Tax dollars are spent to operate the boot camps. However, despite the fact that only two decades have passed since the existence of juvenile boot camps, numerous studies have declared that juvenile boot camp prisons are ineffective in reducing future offenses of inmates, operational costs, and in continually changing the behaviors of young offenders.

  8. Huijia School Summer Camp Program


    As an open and international educational institution, Beijing Huijia Private School is located in Changping, a scenic district in Beijing's northern suburb. In order to strengthen international cultural exchanges, promote the study of Chinese language and the spread of Chinese culture, and make the world know more about China, Huijia School regularly organizes various summer camps for students of different ages every year. Until now, we have already successfully received more than 1,000 students from hom...

  9. Camping: A Tool for Relationship Maintenance?

    Morrow, Rosie; Rodriguez, Alison; King, Nigel


    Purpose - Purpose: To investigate individuals’ lived experience of camping, and to explore the effects of camping on relationships. Design/methodology/approach - Design: The research adopted a descriptive phenomenological approach (Langdridge, 2007). Guided interviews were carried out with four participants, recalling their most memorable camping experience, with the aid of photographs to elicit memories. Analysis followed Colaizzi’s (1978) seven stage analysis and findings were discussed...

  10. College Camp Fairs: Tips for Hosts, Directors, and Students.

    Gaskill, Paul L.; Campbell, Don


    Camp fairs are held on college campuses to recruit students for summer camp positions. Provides marketing and promotion strategies, recruiting suggestions for camp directors, tips for students helping to organize the fair, and suggestions for students who want to secure a summer camp position. Includes a sample camp fair evaluation. (LP)

  11. L'Europe des camps

    Belguendouz, Abdelkrim; Bietlot, Mathieu; Bigo, Didier; Fischer, Nicolas; GARCIA CASTRO, Antonia; Intrand, Caroline; migreurop,; Perrouty, Pierre-Arnaud; Ragazzi, Francesco; Rodier, Claire; Teule, Catherine; VALLUY1, Jérôme


    Les pays occidentaux développent une culture politique de séparation et d'opposition entre ceux qui peuvent circuler librement dans le monde et ceux pour qui cela est interdit. Elle porte d'ailleurs un nom : le visa Schengen. Cela se traduit par la prolifération de camps d'exilés, où sont enfermés de force des hommes venus en Europe pour y trouver refuge, et par la subordination de pays voisins réduits à la fonction répressive de gardien des frontières... The countries of the European Union, ...

  12. Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.

    Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda


    Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

  13. Teenagers and Risk-Taking at Camp.

    Woods, Ann


    Teen risk-taking is normal, healthy developmental behavior. Teens act out their fantasies--good and bad--at camp because it is a safe place away from parents. Signs of unhealthy risk-taking, camp staff responses, and how the September 11 tragedy might affect risk-taking are discussed. Sidebars describe tips for understanding adolescent behavior…

  14. Children with Cancer: Positive Benefits of Camp.

    Winfree, Christy; Williams, Richard; Powell, Gwynn M.


    A relatively new method of helping pediatric cancer patients cope with their illness is specially designed summer camps. Camp helps children with cancer address psychological effects of the disease, bodily changes, and self-concept, and helps parents and siblings cope. Sidebars present resources and tips on incorporating children with cancer into…

  15. Dealing with World Issues in Camp.

    Kujawa, Charles


    Discusses dealing with global issues in the camp setting in a way that broadens young people's world views. Topics include the educational advantages of the camp setting, desired outcomes for campers, guidelines for staff, and program ideas for dealing with issues such as environmental awareness, racism, and economic justice. (JHZ)

  16. Day Camp Manual: Staff. Book II.

    Babcock, William

    Book II of a 5-book day camp manual focuses on staff selection and training. Following the philosophy that developing an effective staff is the responsibility of the camp director, the book contains major sections on staff recruitment (sources of staff, problems, selection procedures, job descriptions, personnel practices); guidelines for job…

  17. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda


    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  18. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    Nursery School


    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  19. "It's not Just Camp!": Understanding the Meaning of Children's Cancer Camps for Children and Families.

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J


    The purpose of this philosophical hermeneutic inquiry was to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Six childhood cancer families and 5 cancer camp counselors were interviewed, in order to bring understanding to this topic. Findings from this research revealed that camp means different things for different families, and that much is at play in the cancer camp experience: the healing and developmental power of play, finding acceptance and fit, grief as something to live with versus "get over," storytelling as a means of reshaping and understanding traumatic experiences, and the solidarity of the community as one that creates intense, healing bonds. Children's cancer camps, we conclude, should be considered a necessity, versus a luxury, and could even be thought of as a psychosocial intervention for some children and families. Barriers such as structure of funding and access to resources are present and likely due to the separateness of camps from hospital programs. PMID:25643975

  20. (Compendium of State Laws and Regulations for Youth Camps).

    Brookhiser, Judy, Comp.; van der Smissen, Betty, Comp.

    State laws and regulations applicable to youth camp operations provided by state agencies are organized in this Compendium under ten major headings; personnel; program safety; personal health, first aid, and medical services; site and facilities; sanitation; food service; transportation; primitive camping and out-of-camp trips; day camping; and…

  1. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat


    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  2. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  3. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are ...

  4. A specialized program for children with developmental disabilities within a "typical" overnight summer camp: Camp Ramah's Tikvah Program.

    Blas, Howard I


    The Tikvah Program is an overnight camping program at Camp Ramah in New England that serves campers with a range of developmental disabilities. The program has evolved over its 37-year history and includes a camping program, vocational training program, and inclusion program. Select graduates are hired by the camp for summer employment. The Tikvah Program offers a model for serving campers with special needs within a larger "typical" summer camp. Although serving the needs of such campers offers unique challenges, the presence of such a program in a regular summer camp offers tremendous opportunities and benefits for campers with special needs and more typically developing campers. PMID:17823062

  5. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  6. The Effect of a Camp Experience on Self Esteem.

    Dorian, Alexia Eve

    Two groups of American adolescents of Greek descent (12-15 year olds N=90 and 16-18 year olds N=166) at an Orthodox Christian Camp in Greece responded to the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (1965). Campers took the test on the first day of camp (pretest) and then two weeks later at the camp's conclusion (posttest). All subjects showed a significant…

  7. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.


    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  8. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled...

  9. 7 CFR 502.6 - Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. 502.6..., MARYLAND § 502.6 Hunting, fishing, camping, horseback riding. The use of BARC grounds for any form of hunting, fishing, camping, or horseback riding is prohibited. Further, the use of these grounds...

  10. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson


    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  11. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.


    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  12. The Gold Mining Camp: A Simulation Game.

    Stoltman, Joseph P.; Keach, Everett T., Jr.

    This economics simulation game complements the third grade Gold Mining Unit developed by Project Social Studies at the University of Minnesota. The simulation is designed for three purposes: 1) to reinforce the prior learning which occurs in the gold mining camp unit; 2) to involve eight-year-olds in the process of solving simulated economic…

  13. The Perspective of Camping Tourism in Romania

    Andreea Marin-Pantelescu


    Full Text Available The tourists, who dream of a perfect holiday, with long term positive effects, find in camping a form of tourism that diminishes the impact of urban environment, and increase the chances of return to nature in a green place without stress and technology. Nowadays, the quests for technological detoxification methods are at high level and the customers are willing to pay a price for these services. The perspective of camping tourism in Romania represents an economic study regarding the supply and the demand of the camping services in our country and the future evolution of these particular services. The camping services evolution will be forecast using the linear trend statistical method in order to see the number of the tourist willing to use and enjoy the nature, the fresh air and the self-services regarding the accommodation, food and beverage or transportation. The impact of the paper discovery will provide better understanding of a tourism market steadily increasing and producing added value for all the stakeholders involved in the tourism sector.

  14. Camp Crisis Management: Responding to New Challenges.

    Evans, Will


    Camps should have crisis management plans. Steps to formulating a plan include involving appropriate off-site agencies, identifying potential threats, gathering resources, crafting an appropriate response, training via role-playing, managing incoming and outgoing information, and writing it down. Sidebars present resources, successful response…

  15. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra


    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended. PMID:20644489

  16. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Zuraidah Binti Ali


    Full Text Available Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a total of thirty seven undergraduates who enrolled in a Communication Boot Camp at Janda Baik, Pahang. Results show that Communication Boot Camp is a successful strategy to groom public speakers with a positive correlation between camp success and camp objectives, particularly in reducing shyness, motivating participants to become public speakers and discovering their talent and skills. In short, the study adds to the promise of zest and delight in public speaking.

  17. Xerophthalmia clinics in rural eye camps.

    Desai, N C; Desai, S; Desai, R


    Even though the primary prevention of many eye diseases can be effectively incorporated into the existing pattern of rural eye camps, efforts in this direction are restrained and insubstantial. We describe our technique and experience in the prevention of xerophthalmia by organising a distinct entity called a xerophthalmia clinic in our eye camps. The clinic consists of an Ophthalmologist or an Ophthalmic assistant who will exclusively examine children who come to the eye camp. This is perhaps, the first report on rural xerophthalmia clinics, in ophthalmic literature. Over a seven year period from 1984 to 1990 we have conducted 71 xerophthalmia clinics amongst the ninty eye camps organised. A total of 11,370 children were examined in the xerophthalmia clinic out of which 18.9% were afflicted with the disease. Therapeutic doses of Vitamin A were administered on the spot to the afflicted and prophylactic doses were administered to the rest. Intensive health education efforts are made through clinics to effectuate change in dietry habits towards consumption of locally grown DGLV (Dark Green Leafy Vegetables) like Anthenum, chenopodium and Amaranthus. A bipronged offensive consisting of mega-dosing and health education is, for the present and the foreseeable future, the best strategy to combat xerophthalmia in this desert region. A year by year breakdown of prevalence rates in the present study shows that in years of severe drought the prevalence of xerophthalmia increases three fold over the non-drought or mild drought years, thereby demonstrating that drought is a substantial risk factor in developing countries leading to vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. PMID:1452416

  18. Core Concepts: Orthopedic Intern Curriculum Boot Camp.

    Seeley, Mark A; Kazarian, Erick; King, Brandon; Biermann, Janet S; Carpenter, James E; Caird, Michelle S; Irwin, Todd A


    Orthopedic surgical interns must gain a broad array of clinical skills in a short time. However, recent changes in health care have limited resident-patient exposures. With the reported success of simulation training in the surgical literature, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) and Residency Review Committee for Orthopaedic Surgery have required that surgical simulation training be a component of the intern curricula in orthopedic surgical residencies. This study examined the short-term effectiveness of an orthopedic "intern boot camp" covering 7 of 17 simulation training concept modules published by the ABOS. Eight orthopedic post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents (study group) completed a structured 3-month curriculum and were compared with 7 post-graduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents (comparison group) who had just completed their orthopedic surgical internship. Seven core skills were assessed using both task-specific and global rating scales. The PGY-1 residents demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all 7 modules with respect to their task-specific pre-test scores: sterile technique (P=.001), wound closure (Pcasting and splinting (P<.001), arthrocentesis (P=.01), basics of internal fixation (P<.001), and compartment syndrome evaluation (P=.004). After the camp, PGY-1 and -2 scores in task-specific measures were not significantly different. A 3-month simulation-based boot camp instituted early in orthopedic internship elevated a variety of clinical skills to levels exhibited by PGY-2 residents. PMID:26730688

  19. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Cédric eBOULARAN; Céline eGALES


    Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefl...

  20. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline


    Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefl...

  1. Concentration Camp Rituals: Narratives of Former Bosnian Detainees

    Basic, Goran


    In the German camps during the Second World War, the aim was to kill from a distance, and the camps were highly efficient in their operations. Previous studies have thus analyzed the industrialized killing and the victims' survival strategies. Researchers have emphasized the importance of narratives but they have not focused on narratives about camp rituals, or analyzed post-war interviews as a continued resistance and defense of one’s self. This article tries to fill this gap by analyzin...

  2. Communication Boot Camp: Discover the Speaker in You!

    Zuraidah Binti Ali; Noor Hafiza Binti Nor Azmi; Alicia a/p Phillip; Mohd Zin bin Mokhtar


    Learning can take place almost anywhere, and this is especially true for our undergraduates who wish to become public speakers. Besides university course and public speaking workshops on campus grounds, undergraduates are now looking for a different learning environment – communication boot camps!! This study presents a compilation of learners’ experience, fun-filled activities, insightful feedback and memorable boot camp moments as captured in camp photos and feedback surveys. It involves a ...

  3. Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle.

    Wikman-Coffelt, J; Sievers, R; Coffelt, R J; Parmley, W W


    Oscillations of cAMP with the cardiac cycle were demonstrated in the rat heart using a stimulator-triggered rapid freeze-clamp to decrease the temperature of the heart from 37 degrees C to -80 degrees C in 5 msec (20,000 degrees/sec) at a predetermined phase of the cardiac cycle. The nucleotide, cAMP, oscillated 60% with the cardiac cycle during normal working conditions, the higher cAMP value occurring during systole. PMID:6301471

  4. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection.

    Boularan, Cédric; Gales, Céline


    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors' signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability. PMID:26483685

  5. Yoga camp in Ayurvedgrams of Chhattisgarh

    Raghavendra Madhu; Nilesh Jain


    The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG) conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yo...

  6. Complexities of speech in Palestinian refugee camps

    Hawker, Nancy


    This paper is a report on work in progress. I have recently finished my fieldwork in three refugee camps in the West Bank: Shuafat RC, which is in the Jerusalem Municipal Area, Dheisheh RC, which is in the Bethlehem Governorate, and Tulkarem RC, which is in the north of the West Bank near the Green Line. I have been recording the speech of respondents in these locations to find out whether contact with Hebrew speakers is effecting language variation and change in spoken Palestinian Arabic. So...

  7. Creating a Healthy Camp Community: A Nurse's Role.

    Lishner, Kris Miller; Bruya, Margaret Auld

    This book provides an organized, systematic overview of the basic aspects of health program management, nursing practice, and human relations issues in camp nursing. A foremost assumption is that health care in most camps needs improvement. Good health is dependent upon interventions involving social, environmental, and lifestyle factors that…

  8. 14 CFR 91.1417 - CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report.


    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1417 CAMP: Mechanical interruption summary report. Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must mail or deliver, before the end of the 10th day... and engine and aircraft on which it was installed. Propeller featherings for training,...

  9. Students Become Scientists at Science Skills Boot Camp | Poster

    At the 2016 Science Skills Boot Camp (SSBC), a one-day training program designed for NIH summer interns with little or no prior research experience, students gathered to learn about basic research and laboratory skills. The boot camp provided a unique opportunity for interns to expand their knowledge of simple bench techniques, scientific papers, and ways to communicate their research.

  10. "Don't Laugh at Me" Coming to Camps.

    Coleman, Marla


    Describes a multimedia resource developed for camps by the American Camping Association and Peter Yarrow, of Peter, Paul, and Mary, to help children express and manage their emotions, cooperate and appreciate the individual strengths that each child brings to a group, celebrate diversity, and practice negotiating and resolving conflict creatively.…

  11. Recidivism among Arkansas Boot Camp Graduates after 12 Months.

    Toombs, Nancy J.; Benda, Brent B.; Corwyn, Robert Flynn


    Examines recidivism among 792 graduates of Arkansas' only boot camp. Results indicate that the primary predictors of recidivism were the type of offenses (drugs vs. others), race, and infractions while in boot camp. However, none of the predictors accounted for more than minor proportions of the variance in recidivism. (RJM)

  12. Making STEM Fun: How to Organize a STEM Camp

    Davis, Kimberly E. Bryant; Hardin, Stacey E.


    The work from the University of Central Florida's STEM summer camp (sponsored by Workforce Central Florida) is shared. The camps targeted low-SES schools with a high percentage of students on free and reduced lunch as well as high percentages of students with. Students were given preassessments and postassessments to gauge their knowledge of and…

  13. Residential Grief Camps: An Initial Phenomenological Study of Staff Perspectives

    Brown, Tiffany B.; Kimball, Thomas G.


    Research has focused primarily on the impact of death on family functioning and the stages and tasks of grief, though little attention has been given to grief camps or the experiences of those who work there. This study explored the experiences of staff at a four-day overnight children's grief camp. Eight participants reported their experience of…

  14. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  15. How Did a Science Camp Affect Children's Conceptions of Science?

    Metin, Duygu; Leblebicioglu, Gulsen


    Science explores nature and the most authentic way of introducing science is creating learning environments in the nature and let children make their own discoveries in the nature as real scientists. Science camps would be an opportunity for this kind of science education. This study introduces a science camp and reports findings regarding its…

  16. Camping under Western Stars: Joan Crawford in "Johnny Guitar."

    Robertson, Pamela


    Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian and "butch-femme"…

  17. Vision, Leadership, and Change: The Case of Ramah Summer Camps

    Reimer, Joseph


    In his retrospective essay, Seymour Fox (1997) identified "vision" as the essential element that shaped the Ramah camp system. I will take a critical look at Fox's main claims: (1) A particular model of vision was essential to the development of Camp Ramah; and (2) That model of vision should guide contemporary Jewish educators in creating Jewish…

  18. Architecture of Stalin’s Prison Camps in Yakutia

    Nikolai Kradin


    Full Text Available Based on archive and field studies, the article considers architecture of prison camp facilities built on the territory of Yakutia during Stalin’s terror. With the help of field studies, measurements and photofixation we have revealed compositional, planning and design features of bridges and prison camp facilities and analyzed their location.

  19. Summer Camp Experiences: Parental Perceptions of Youth Development Outcomes

    Henderson, Karla A.; Whitaker, Leslie Scheuler; Bialeschki, M. Deborah; Scanlin, Margery M.; Thurber, Christopher


    Every summer more than 10 million children attend day or resident (sleep-over) camps sponsored by churches, not-for-profit youth agencies, and independent operators. This study explored the outcomes of a 1-week or longer camp experience from the perspective of parents. A national sample of almost 2,300 parents responded to pre-, post-, and…

  20. Crisis Management: How to Handle a Salmonella Outbreak at Camp.

    Becker, William A.; Popkin, Rodger


    Details events of six days during Salmonella outbreak at camp in North Carolina. Explains how camp handled 280 sick campers and staff, well campers, news media, and parents. Based on an epidemiologic survey of food eaten, it was suspected that the culprit of the outbreak was a meat item. Offers suggestions for crisis management in the camp…

  1. 14 CFR 91.1423 - CAMP: Maintenance organization.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Maintenance organization. 91.1423... Operations Program Management § 91.1423 CAMP: Maintenance organization. (a) Each program manager who... the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each...

  2. Turning Neighbors into Friends: The Los Angeles Camp Experience.

    Jenya, Judith


    A camp for Los Angeles (California) children traumatized by war, community violence, and hatred gives them time to heal and feel safe. The camp's theme of reconciliation and nonviolence is expressed by an all-volunteer staff through community, teamwork, and cooperation. Nature's diversity is used to show how diverse groups can interact, thrive,…

  3. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal


    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  4. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    Panagiota Papageorgiou


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

  5. How to run a sports camp – legally speaking

    Steven Monk


    Full Text Available Camps are a great way to keep kids active throughout the summer and to make money for the program sponsoring them. Planning is needed for a sports camp to be safe for both the camp personnel and the athletes, and to minimize legal negligence.  Having a risk management plan in place is important to insure that everyone is aware of the risks of participating. Background checks on camp personnel help ensure the camp leaders and coaches do not have a criminal background.  It is important to inspect the facilities/equipment to make sure they are safe to use.  Athletic trainers help with injuries that may occur with participation.  Supervisors make sure that everyone is accounted for and camp rules help the campers behave in an appropriate manner.  When planning activities, it is important to look at the skill level of the athletes. If all of these areas are covered, camps should be legally protected if an issue were to arise.

  6. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Alexander eFroese


    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  7. FRET measurements of intracellular cAMP concentrations and cAMP analog permeability in intact cells.

    Börner, Sebastian; Schwede, Frank; Schlipp, Angela; Berisha, Filip; Calebiro, Davide; Lohse, Martin J; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O


    Real-time measurements of second messengers in living cells, such as cAMP, are usually performed by ratiometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging. However, correct calibration of FRET ratios, accurate calculations of absolute cAMP levels and actual permeabilities of different cAMP analogs have been challenging. Here we present a protocol that allows precise measurements of cAMP concentrations and kinetics by expressing FRET-based cAMP sensors in cells and modulating them with an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase activity and a cell-permeable cAMP analog that fully inhibits and activates the sensors, respectively. Using this protocol, we observed different basal cAMP levels in primary mouse cardiomyocytes, thyroid cells and in 293A cells. The protocol can be generally applied for calibration of second messenger or metabolite concentrations measured by FRET, and for studying kinetics and pharmacological properties of their membrane-permeable analogs. The complete procedure, including cell preparation and FRET measurements, takes 3-6 d. PMID:21412271

  8. It's a Small World, after All: A Look at Camp around the World.

    Nicodemus, Teresa


    Camping in Malaysia, New Zealand, England, Brazil, and the United States is compared. The basic function of camp, providing a safe place for fun and discovery, seems universal. Differences discussed include camping seasons, family participation, recreational versus educational emphasis, the competitive nature of for-profit camps, and risk…

  9. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main...

  10. Conditions that alter intracellular cAMP levels affect expression of the cAMP phosphodiesterase gene in Dictyostelium.

    Riley, B B; Barclay, S L


    We examined expression of the Dictyostelium cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene under conditions that alter intracellular cAMP levels during in vitro differentiation of wild-type strain V12M2 and a sporogenous derivative, HB200. In control cultures, cellular PDE activity peaked at 6 hr and declined by 8 hr, while secreted PDE activity continued to increase through 8 hr. Lowering intracellular cAMP levels with caffeine or progesterone increased cellular and secreted PDE activities 2-fold, increa...

  11. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Cédric eBOULARAN


    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  12. The Physics of Quidditch Summer Camp: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Hammer, Donna; Uher, Tim

    The University of Maryland Physics Department has developed an innovative summer camp program that takes an interdisciplinary approach to engaging and teaching physics. The Physics of Quidditch Camp uniquely sits at the intersection of physics, sports, and literature, utilizing the real-life sport of quidditch adapted from the Harry Potter novels to stimulate critical thinking about real laws of physics and leaps of imagination, while actively engaging students in learning the sport and discussing the literature. Throughout the camp, middle school participants become immersed in fun physics experiments and exciting physical activities, which aim to build and enhance skills in problem-solving, analytical thinking, and teamwork. This camp has pioneered new ways of teaching physics to pre-college students, successfully engaged middle school students in learning physics, and grown a large demand for such activities.

  13. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    Ringby, Betina

    professionals. New learning methods are required to develop new skills. Health students must develop skills that enable them to create, develop and take action upon new services in new or existing organizations. Aim To investigate if CAMP as a learning method can contribute to didactic development in health...... education to support students in gaining innovative and entrepreneurial skills. Participants A total of 33 physiotherapist students each participated in one of three CAMPS of 48, 24 or 12 hours in an elective module named “Sport, innovation and entrepreneurship”. Methods The project was based on case...... Progression Model’ served as background theory. Evaluation Three different camps were evaluated by students in 2012 and 2013. A written individual evaluation form was filled in at the end of CAMP one; two and three. Data consisted of descriptive questionnaires with open answer alternatives. Evaluations were...

  14. Building a Successful Middle School Outreach Effort: Microscopy Camp

    Penn, Lee R.; Flynn, Leslie; Johnson, Page


    Microscopy Camp program is designed to introduce acceptable representations of crystalline particles and their atomic structure to twelve-year-old middle school students at a developmental and educational stage.

  15. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy


    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  16. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca


    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked lear...

  17. Inside the tent: Community and government in refugee camps

    Bulley, Dan


    Refugee camps are increasingly managed through a liberal rationality of government similar to that of many industrialized societies, with security mechanisms being used to optimize the life of particular refugee populations. This governmentality has encompassed programmes introduced by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and various non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to build and empower communities through the spatial technology of the camp. The present article argue...

  18. Science and technology camp for girls. Final report


    This document reports on the success of Pacific University`s camp held during the summers of 1992 and 1993; ultimate goal of this summer day camp was to increase the number of women in technical and scientific fields. Some experimentation was done with the age groups (7th and 8th grade girls). The curriculum was biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics/computer science. Laboratory work and field trips were emphasized, along with socialization.

  19. Klambi Lurik Compang-Camping: Sebuah Komposisi Karawitan



    Full Text Available Klambi Lurik Compang-Camping Karawitan Composition. This article discusses the creation process ofKlambi Lurik Compang Camping karawitan composition. This composition is inspired by Jineman Klambi Lurik,penned by Wasiran –a traditional artist and teaching staff in Karawitan study programme in ISI Yogyakarta. Thisjineman is favoured by both laypeople and karawitan traditional artists. This composition consists of eight parts,united as one full composition. The creation methods are exploration, improvisation, and shaping.

  20. Social Meaning of Culture in a Stalinist Prison Camp

    Aimar Ventsel


    Full Text Available The Stalinist prison camp system – popularly known as the Gulag archipelago – existed for a relatively short period (from 1931–1960 and became world famous as a synonym for terror, humiliation and human suffering. This article focuses on the social significance of culture in one of the biggest Stalinist prison camp – Karlag in Central Kazakhstan. The first part of the article gives an overview of the institutions of culture in prison camps and their activities. It also gives an overview of unofficial cultural activities and the consequences of being engaged in the unsanctioned creation of art. In the second part of the paper, the social significance of culture in Stalinist prison camps is discussed. Official and non-official art were not separate and existed in symbiosis: people crossed the border between these spheres. Moreover, the camp administration recognised the material value of art produced in the camp and began to organise the production of pictures or handicrafts in order to sell them outside the camp. Nevertheless, both official and unofficial cultures had a deep social meaning for the people. Producing unsanctioned paintings and other objects of artistry can be seen as an act of resistance, producing sanctioned art helped the artists to create their own social and mental space and distance themselves from the everyday grind of the camp. In general, culture and its institutions in the prison failed to fulfill their original purpose – instead of re-educating and changing inmates, culture helped to maintain human dignity and integrity.

  1. Students' Perceptions of the Long-Term Impact of Attending a "CSI Science Camp"

    Yanowitz, Karen L.


    A science summer camp is a popular type of informal science experience for youth. While there is no one model of a science camp, these experiences typically allow for more focused and in-depth exploration of different science domains and are usually hands-on and participatory. The goal of this research was to examine the impact of a short science camp program approximately 1 year after students attended the camp. Overall, the results revealed that attending a 2-day forensic science camp had a positive and continuing influence on the participants. Students' science self-efficacy increased immediately after attending the camp and remained higher than pre-camp levels approximately 1 year later. Students were able to articulate why they believed the camp had a long-term impact on their lives. Furthermore, participants attributed a higher level of engaging in additional informal STEM-related activities during the academic year as a result of attending the camp.

  2. Characterization of the binding of cAMP and cGMP to the CRP*598 mutant of the E. coli cAMP receptor protein.

    Ren, Y. L.; Garges, S; Adhya, S; Krakow, J. S.


    Wild type cAMP receptor protein (CRP) activates in vitro lac transcription only in the presence of cAMP. In contrast the mutant CRP*598 (Arg-142 to His, Ala-144 to Thr) can activate lac transcription in the absence of cyclic nucleotide or at concentrations of cAMP below that required by CRP. To further characterize the properties of CRP*598, the binding of cAMP and cGMP to CRP and CRP*598 has been determined. The intrinsic binding constant (K) values obtained for cAMP binding are: CRP, 1.9 x ...

  3. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Yan Xu


    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  4. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp


    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  5. Science Camp - lystigt eller lærerigt

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Albrechtsen, Thomas S. R.


    I oplægget vil vi undersøge fænomenet Science Camps nærmere ved at fortælle om dets historiske udvikling og ikke mindst lægge op til en diskussion af en definition. Derudover vil vi præsentere en case, hvor der med udgangspunkt i et aktuelt ph.d.-projekt er blevet undersøgt, hvad deltagerne får ud...... af at deltage i en science camp: Kan man både vække begejstring og medvirke til læring?...

  6. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca


    Full Text Available This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked learning ideas. The experience opens new perspectives for the design of technology training workshops and for the development of lifelong learning experiences.

  7. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  8. Promoting independence in adolescent paraplegics: a 2-week "camping" experience.

    Bodzioch, J; Roach, J W; Schkade, J


    In the summer of 1982, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (Dallas, TX, U.S.A.) sponsored a camp for paraplegic adolescents. Six patients, three boys and three girls 14-17 years of age, participated in a 2-week program that was designed to improve their self-esteem, independence, and eventual employability. In their pre- and postcamp psychological evaluations, the campers demonstrated improvement in social skills and self-concept testing as compared with the scores of a matched control group, although this improvement did not reach statistical significance. We believe the camp was immensely successful, an opinion that was shared by both the campers and their parents. PMID:3514667

  9. 77 FR 25952 - Oregon Army National Guard, Camp Rilea, Clatsop County, OR; Danger Zone


    ... boundaries of the Camp. If a vessel is detected in the danger zone, a cease fire will be called on all active weapons ranges and Camp Rilea will attempt to contact the vessel using marine VHF radio. Cease fire...

  10. Seafloor Science and Remotely Operated Vehicle (SSROV) Day Camp: A Week-Long, Hands-On STEM Summer Camp

    Wheat, C. G.; Fournier, T.; Monahan, K.; Paul, C.


    RETINA (Robotic Exploration Technologies IN Astrobiology) has developed a program geared towards stimulating our youth with innovative and relevant hands-on learning modules under a STEM umbrella. Given the breadth of potential science and engineering topics that excite children, the RETINA Program focuses on interactive participation in the design and development of simple robotic and sensor systems, providing a range of challenges to engage students through project-based learning (PBL). Thus, young students experience scientific discovery through the use and understanding of technology. This groundwork serves as the foundation for SSROV Camp, a week-long, summer day camp for 6th-8th grade students. The camp is centered on the sensors and platforms that guide seafloor exploration and discovery and builds upon the notion that transformative discoveries in the deep sea result from either sampling new environments or making new measurements with sensors adapted to this extreme environment. These technical and scientific needs are folded into the curriculum. Each of the first four days of the camp includes four team-based, hands-on technical challenges, communication among peer groups, and competition. The fifth day includes additional activities, culminating in camper-led presentations to describe a planned mission based on a given geologic setting. Presentations include hypotheses, operational requirements and expected data products. SSROV Camp was initiated last summer for three sessions, two in Monterey, CA and one in Oxford, MS. Campers from both regions grasped key elements of the program, based on written responses to questions before and after the camp. On average, 32% of the pre-test questions were answered correctly compared with 80% of the post-test questions. Additional confirmation of gains in campers' knowledge, skills, and critical thinking on environmental issues and engineering problems were apparent during the "jeopardy" competition, nightly homework

  11. Residential summer camp: a new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion

    Ventura, Alison K.; Garst, Barry A


    Background Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of ...

  12. Synergies in Marketing Management in Camping Tourism on the Slovenian Adriatic Coast

    Bojnec, Štefan; Drakulić, Martina


    Purpose - The purpose is to investigate synergies in marketing management in camping tourism to properly understand the perceived client behaviour. Design/methodology/approach - Camping tourism is investigated by using secondary data and the perceived client behaviour by using the primary collected evidence from the interviews and surveys. Findings - The popularity of camping tourism in Slovenia is increasing among foreign tourists. Camping tourism is more significant in accommodation capacit...

  13. An Exploration of Developed Forest Camping Experiences and Meanings in the Mount Rogers National Recreation Area

    Garst, Barry Austin


    Developed forest camping has received little attention in the recreation research since the late 1960s and early 1970s. Changes in socio-demographics, technology, and the publicâ s expectations for amenities over the past forty years suggested that the nature of the developed camping experience may have changed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand the modern developed forest camping experience and associated meanings and the influence of technology on developed forest camping...

  14. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Mareng, Chuei D.


    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  15. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel


    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  16. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg


    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  17. Strengthening Families: Exploring the Impacts of Family Camp Experiences on Family Functioning and Parenting

    Garst, Barry A.; Baughman, Sarah; Franz, Nancy K.; Seidel, Richard W.


    Research suggests that family camp experiences can enhance family relationships. Families often participate in family camp experiences for a vacation, as part of a therapeutic and/or intervention strategy, or to gain general enrichment or engagement. To better understand the impacts of family camp experiences on family functioning, a mixed-methods…

  18. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Baden, Amanda L.


    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  19. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    Jansen, B.J.


    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorical

  20. 76 FR 64 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars


    ... Guidelines for Clean, Safe, and Sanitary Railroad Provided Camp Cars (1990 Guidelines), 55 FR 30892, July 27... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... is proposing to create regulations prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp...

  1. 76 FR 67073 - Safety and Health Requirements Related to Camp Cars


    ... Camp Cars AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... prescribing minimum safety and health requirements for camp cars that a railroad provides as sleeping quarters... hazardous material, of a camp car that is occupied exclusively by individuals employed to maintain...


    An acute gastrointestinal illness affected 213 (52%) of 407 campers and 64 (52%) of 121 staff attending a boy's camp in the Catoctin Mountains of Maryland during the summer of 1981. Nausea was the predominant symptom for ill campers and staff (73%), but more staff members experie...

  3. Criticality for Global Citizenship in Korean English Immersion Camps

    Ahn, So-Yeon


    Given a heavy social, ideological pressure for parents to pursue better English education for their children in the globalized world, short-term English immersion camp programs have emerged as an educational option in South Korea, promoted as environments for intercultural communication between native English-speaking teachers and local Korean…

  4. Vietnamese in America, Part Four: Life in the Refugee Camps

    Liu, William T.; Murata, Alice K.


    The experiences of Vietnamese refugees in transitional camps in the summer and fall of 1975 are described in this paper. The data show that the mental health needs of the refugees were not taken seriously and that it was assumed that assimilation would be problem-free. (Author/AM)

  5. 14 CFR 91.1415 - CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Mechanical reliability reports. 91.1415 Section 91.1415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... certificate (including a supplemental type certificate), a Parts Manufacturer Approval, or a...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1441 - CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records.


    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1441 CAMP: Transfer of maintenance records. When a U.S... aircraft in the management specifications, the program manager must transfer to the purchaser, at the time of the sale, the following records of that aircraft, in plain language form or in coded form...

  7. Gender Differences in the Perceived Severity of Boot Camp

    Wood, Peter B.; May, David C.; Grasmick, Harold G.


    We analyze survey data from 181 male and 224 female inmates serving brief prison terms for nonviolent offenses to examine offenders' perceptions of the severity of boot camp compared to prison. Building on the limited work in this area, we present reasons those offenders feel are important to both avoid and participate in alternative sanctions.…

  8. Hiring Counselors: Steps to Finding Good Camp Staff.

    Brockman, Robert A.


    Describes favorable practices for hiring outdoor summer camp counselors. Offers tips for looking at resumes and applications. Describes interview process and suggests interview questions for understanding applicants' motivation, maturity, and sense of responsibility. Emphasizes counselor as campers' teacher, leader, friend, and role model. (TES)

  9. Phun Physics 4 Phemales: Physics Camp for High School Girls

    Kwon, Chuhee; Gu, Jiyeong; Henriquez, Laura


    The department of Physics and Astronomy with the department of Science Education at California State University, Long Beach hosted summer program of ``Phun Physics 4 Phemales (PP4P)'' during summer 2012 and summer 2013 with the support from APS public outreach program. PP4P summer camp was hosted along with a two-week summer science camp, Young Scientists Camp, which has been institutionalized for the last 14 years since 1999. More than 2,500 3rd -8th grade students and 250 teachers have participated in the program. PP4P program provided the tools and support that female high school students need to pursue careers in physics and/or science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) field. This girls-only camp created connections among the girls and built confidence. In addition PP4P program introduced students to key principles in physics by a hands-on lab environment and demonstrated the real-world social impact of physics. In summer 2012, high school girls worked on physics experimental project on electronics and in summer 2013 they worked on the mechanics. I would share our experience in this program and the impact on the female high school students. This work was supported by 2012 Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants from American Physical Society.

  10. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa


    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  11. Meeting the Special Dietary Needs of All Camp Guests.

    Spain, Viki Kappel


    More and more people are making personal or doctor-advised dietary changes, and camp kitchen staff must be happy and willing to provide alternative foods. Reasons for being a vegetarian, vegetarian foods, nutrition concerns in the vegetarian diet, and tips for preparing meatless dishes are discussed. Sidebars present indepth information on special…

  12. 29 CFR 1910.142 - Temporary labor camps.


    ... facilities shall be spaced not closer than 36 inches both laterally and end to end, and shall be elevated at... inches both laterally and end to end. The minimum clear space between the lower and upper bunk shall be... such installations. If a camp is used during cold weather, adequate heating equipment shall be...

  13. Modeling for water penetration into narrow gap in CAMP code

    An analytical code, CAMP, is being developed at JAERI for thermo-fluiddynamics of a molten core in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Models for the water penetration into narrow gaps based on the flooding of a two-phase flow have been recently incorporated in CAMP code. The in-vessel debris coolability experiments performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), where an Al2O3 melt was poured into a water-filled lower head experimental vessel and the interfacial gap between the solidified Al2O3 and the vessel was supposed to form, were analyzed with CAMP code. It was found that temperature histories at the vessel outer surface were qualitatively reproduced using the water penetration model. The analysis also implied that an appropriate flooding correlation are needed to increase the predictability of CAMP code and that the steam generation in the interfacial gap, which largely influences on the flooding, was dominated by thermal radiation from the surface of the solidified Al2O3 to the penetrating water. (author)

  14. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Allen, Robert Ross


    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  15. Participant Perspectives on the ESO Astronomy Camp Programme

    Olivotto, C.; Cenadelli, D.; Gamal, M.; Grossmann, D.; Teller, L. A. I.; Marta, A. S.; Matoni, C. L.; Taillard, A.


    This article describes the experience of attending the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Astronomy Camp from the perspective of its participants - students aged between 16 and 18 years old from around the world. The students shared a week together during the winter of 2014 in the Alpine village of Saint-Barthelemy, Italy. The camp was organised by ESO in collaboration with Sterrenlab and the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley and offered a rich programme of astronomy and leisure activities. This article focuses on the concept of astronomy camps, and their role as a unique tool to complement formal classroom education, rather than on the astronomy activities and the scientific programme. Thus, it is not an academic review of the implemented methodologies, but rather a reflection on the overall experience. The article was brought together from collaborative accounts by some of the participants who were asked to reflect on the experience. The participants who contributed to this article represent the diversity of the ESO Astronomy Camp's alumni community.

  16. Credit-based livelihood interventions in a Zambian refugee camp

    Jane Travis


    Full Text Available Establishing community credit facilities has become an important developmental tool for building livelihood strategies. In the refugee camps where the British NGO Christian Outreach Relief andDevelopment (CORD has worked, programmes have provided credit in the form of cash, agricultural inputs or livestock.

  17. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter–gatherer cooperation


    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter–gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter–gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter–gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter–gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions. PMID:27493770

  18. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp


    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei


    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P interpersonal skills and communication (3.04 vs 3.53, P = 0.001), and practice-based learning (2.65 vs 3.41, P = 0.001). There was an improvement in confidence level for both home institution graduates (2.89 vs 3.53, P = 0.022) and other graduates (2.74 vs 3.34, P < 0.001). Similarly, participants from general surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P < 0.001) reported significant improvement in confidence. General surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns. PMID:27099061

  20. Using Science Camps to Develop Understandings about Scientific Inquiry--Taiwanese Students in a U.S. Summer Science Camp

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Bartos, Stephen; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.


    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of middle and high school students from Asian countries participating in U.S.-based summer experiences (Perlez & Gao, 2013). Although summer science camps have been shown to improve students' attitudes and interests related to science and science learning (Bhattacharyya, Mead &…

  1. Multiple Facets of cAMP Signalling and Physiological Impact: cAMP Compartmentalization in the Lung

    Martina Schmidt


    Full Text Available Therapies involving elevation of the endogenous suppressor cyclic AMP (cAMP are currently used in the treatment of several chronic inflammatory disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Characteristics of COPD are airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling, processes encompassed by increased airway smooth muscle mass, epithelial changes, goblet cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia. In addition to inflammatory cells, airway smooth muscle cells and (myofibroblasts, epithelial cells underpin a variety of key responses in the airways such as inflammatory cytokine release, airway remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and airway barrier function. Cigarette smoke, being next to environmental pollution the main cause of COPD, is believed to cause epithelial hyperpermeability by disrupting the barrier function. Here we will focus on the most recent progress on compartmentalized signalling by cAMP. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, cAMP-specific phospho-diesterases (PDEs maintain compartmentalized cAMP signalling. Intriguingly, spatially discrete cAMP-sensing signalling complexes seem also to involve distinct members of the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP superfamily and IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein (IQGAPs. In this review, we will highlight the interaction between cAMP and the epithelial barrier to retain proper lung function and to alleviate COPD symptoms and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Future studies should include the development of cAMP-sensing multiprotein complex specific disruptors and/or stabilizers to orchestrate cellular functions. Compartmentalized cAMP signalling regulates important cellular processes in the lung and may serve as a therapeutic target.

  2. Musik in Konzentrationslagern The Role of Music in Concentration Camps

    Gabriele Knapp


    Full Text Available Die Holocaust-Forschung hat sich jahrzehntelang vorwiegend mit den Verbrechen in den Konzentrationslagern beschäftigt, während Fragen nach dem „Alltag“ der Häftlinge und ihren Strategien des Überlebens nebensächlich erschienen. Untersuchungen zum (ÜberLeben im KZ können aber gerade die Brutalität des Systems deutlich machen. So war Musik ein integraler Bestandteil des Lageralltags und diente keineswegs nur der Erbauung der Häftlinge, sondern bedeutete für sie häufig eine zusätzliche Tortur, wie Forschungsarbeiten für die Zeit von 1939 bis 1945 bereits belegt haben. Inwieweit dies für die frühen Lager von 1933 bis 1936 zutraf, untersucht Guido Fackler in seiner Studie. Darüber hinaus versucht er, musikalische Kontinuitätslinien von den frühen Lagern bis in die späte Phase (1937–1945 zu zeichnen. Eine Gesamtdarstellung zu KZ-Musik von 1933 bis 1945 konnte dem Autor indes nicht gelingen, wenn er auch einzelne Zusammenhänge zwischen musikalischen Phänomenen in unterschiedlichen Lagern aufzeigt. Facklers Buch lässt sich eher als Quellensammlung für Musik in unterschiedlichsten Konzentrationslagern verstehen und gebrauchen – wenn auch fast ausschließlich begrenzt auf Männerlager.In the past decades, Holocaust studies have focused on researching the annihilating structures of concentration camps, while the study of the inmates’ everyday lives and their strategies for survival was not included in this field of work. However, studying aspects of daily life and survival in the concentration camps can serve to truly bring out the brutality of the Holocaust. Music, for example, was an integral part of everyday life in the camps and did not solely serve to entertain the inmates, but also represented an additional form of torture for them, as previous studies for the time period between 1939 and 1945 have documented. Fackler’s study investigates the extent to which this was the case in the early concentration camps between

  3. [Dental practice in the camps of the Third Reich].

    Riaud, Xavier


    In the Concentration Camps, the Nazis made a mixing of National Socialism ideology, anti-Semitism and war effort. After the arrival of trains in the camps the Nazis selected the weakest inmates for the gas chambers, as far as they considered them to be "useless mouths". The heathly grownups were kept for productive use. However a person suffering from bad tooth was not profitable. Thus some inmate dentists were in position to give dental cares to a few prisoners as they had been allowed by the Nazis to work in precarious circumstances. On the 23rd of September 1940 Himmler ordered to pull out the dental gold from the alive prisoners or at their exit of gas chambers. The decree was reinforced on the 23rd December 1942. The product of gold became a mean to support war effort. On the other hand few dental experiments have been performed by the SS doctors. PMID:12959116

  4. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    Rob Gallagher


    Full Text Available Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing this subculture as an example of how fans transform the texts they put to use, the article also addresses its implications for our understanding of fandom today, at a time when the proliferation of quantitative analysis techniques is transforming the production and consumption of games. Such techniques, I argue, threaten to compromise the contingency and ambiguity on which camp thrives, instead fostering the kinds of cynical calculation Sedgwick associates with kitsch.


    Antony R.


    Full Text Available The study was intended to assess the results of soft tissue release and bony corrective surgery in patients of moderate to severe deformed rigid club foot (CTEV and neglected clubfoot (CTEV at free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study 50 patients were included with 70% male and 30% female with 4 - 16 years of age grou p and 70% unilateral and 30% bilateral foot involvement. Patients were admitted and operated in different free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state over the period of 36 months (1 may 2004 to 30 th April 2007. Improvement in functional ability and locomotion of all operated patients were assessed by physical and clinical examination. RESULTS : All patients who were operated in our study showed significant improvement in functional ability and locomotion after surgery. All patients were maintaining f unctional ability at follow up duration of 12 months (1 year. 75% patients were walking normally, 10% cases were walking with internal rotation of leg and 5% cases were walking with midtarsal varus foot with AFO with medial bar support. CONCLUSION : Our st udy showed and established that excellent results can be obtained in congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV patients by soft tissue release with bony corrective surgery. The team work of devoted surgeons, paramedical and rehabilitation staff in whole durati on of camps to achieve the goal. With an aim to help more number of CTEV cases by surgery, our team has started doing surgeries in small institutions, and organize charity camps to help poor patients and mankind even in small clinics

  6. Collaborative Tools Used to Organize a Library Camp Unconference

    Crossett, Laura; Kraus, Joseph; Lawson, Steve


    From July to October, 2008, Laura Crossett, Joseph Kraus and Steve Lawson organized the Library Camp of the West ( This was an unconference that took place on October 10, 2008 at the University of Denver. The authors used many technology tools to organize the event, such as email, wikis, blogs, two tools from Google, the Doodle scheduling Website, Flickr and more. This article will explain how they used those tools to prepare for the unconference.

  7. Bore-hole survey at Camp Century, 1989

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gundestrup, NS.; Hansen, BL.; kelty, J.


    A combination of the directional surveys of the Camp Century borehole from 1966, 1967, 1969 and 1989 has revealed a deformation pattern similar to that measured at Dye-3, South Greenland and Byrd Station, Antarctica showing high deformation rate for Wisconsin ice. Compared to the Dye-3 profile, t...... deformation shows the same pattern even in details. The surface velocity obtained by integrating the bore hole deformation is in agreement with that obtained from satellite measurements Udgivelsesdato: jan...

  8. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    Baye, Peter R.


    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  9. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.


    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  10. Camp Pendleton Saves 91% in Parking Lot Lighting



    Case study describes how Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base replaced high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures in one parking lot with high-efficiency induction fixtures for 91% savings in energy use and $5,700 in cost savings annually. This parking lot is estimated to have a simple payback of 2.9 years. Sitewide up-grades yielded annual savings of 1 million kWh.

  11. Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.


    A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.

  12. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Camélique Olivier


    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  13. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac) : A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J.; Maarsingh, Harm


    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and g

  14. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Otsuki Takeshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  15. A Computational Modeling and Simulation Approach to Investigate Mechanisms of Subcellular cAMP Compartmentation.

    Pei-Chi Yang


    Full Text Available Subcellular compartmentation of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP has been widely proposed as a mechanism to explain unique receptor-dependent functional responses. How exactly compartmentation is achieved, however, has remained a mystery for more than 40 years. In this study, we developed computational and mathematical models to represent a subcellular sarcomeric space in a cardiac myocyte with varying detail. We then used these models to predict the contributions of various mechanisms that establish subcellular cAMP microdomains. We used the models to test the hypothesis that phosphodiesterases act as functional barriers to diffusion, creating discrete cAMP signaling domains. We also used the models to predict the effect of a range of experimentally measured diffusion rates on cAMP compartmentation. Finally, we modeled the anatomical structures in a cardiac myocyte diad, to predict the effects of anatomical diffusion barriers on cAMP compartmentation. When we incorporated experimentally informed model parameters to reconstruct an in silico subcellular sarcomeric space with spatially distinct cAMP production sites linked to caveloar domains, the models predict that under realistic conditions phosphodiesterases alone were insufficient to generate significant cAMP gradients. This prediction persisted even when combined with slow cAMP diffusion. When we additionally considered the effects of anatomic barriers to diffusion that are expected in the cardiac myocyte dyadic space, cAMP compartmentation did occur, but only when diffusion was slow. Our model simulations suggest that additional mechanisms likely contribute to cAMP gradients occurring in submicroscopic domains. The difference between the physiological and pathological effects resulting from the production of cAMP may be a function of appropriate compartmentation of cAMP signaling. Therefore, understanding the contribution of factors that are responsible for coordinating the spatial and

  16. A Computational Modeling and Simulation Approach to Investigate Mechanisms of Subcellular cAMP Compartmentation.

    Yang, Pei-Chi; Boras, Britton W; Jeng, Mao-Tsuen; Docken, Steffen S; Lewis, Timothy J; McCulloch, Andrew D; Harvey, Robert D; Clancy, Colleen E


    Subcellular compartmentation of the ubiquitous second messenger cAMP has been widely proposed as a mechanism to explain unique receptor-dependent functional responses. How exactly compartmentation is achieved, however, has remained a mystery for more than 40 years. In this study, we developed computational and mathematical models to represent a subcellular sarcomeric space in a cardiac myocyte with varying detail. We then used these models to predict the contributions of various mechanisms that establish subcellular cAMP microdomains. We used the models to test the hypothesis that phosphodiesterases act as functional barriers to diffusion, creating discrete cAMP signaling domains. We also used the models to predict the effect of a range of experimentally measured diffusion rates on cAMP compartmentation. Finally, we modeled the anatomical structures in a cardiac myocyte diad, to predict the effects of anatomical diffusion barriers on cAMP compartmentation. When we incorporated experimentally informed model parameters to reconstruct an in silico subcellular sarcomeric space with spatially distinct cAMP production sites linked to caveloar domains, the models predict that under realistic conditions phosphodiesterases alone were insufficient to generate significant cAMP gradients. This prediction persisted even when combined with slow cAMP diffusion. When we additionally considered the effects of anatomic barriers to diffusion that are expected in the cardiac myocyte dyadic space, cAMP compartmentation did occur, but only when diffusion was slow. Our model simulations suggest that additional mechanisms likely contribute to cAMP gradients occurring in submicroscopic domains. The difference between the physiological and pathological effects resulting from the production of cAMP may be a function of appropriate compartmentation of cAMP signaling. Therefore, understanding the contribution of factors that are responsible for coordinating the spatial and temporal

  17. cAMP biosensors applied in molecular pharmacological studies of G protein-coupled receptors

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans


    end-point assays for quantifying GPCR-mediated changes in intracellular cAMP levels exist. More recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensors that can quantify intracellular cAMP levels in real time have been developed. These FRET-based cAMP biosensors have been used...... primarily in single cell FRET microscopy to monitor and visualize changes in cAMP upon GPCR activation. Here, a similar cAMP biosensor with a more efficient mCerulean/mCitrine FRET pair is described for use in the 384-well plate format. After cloning and expression in HEK293 cells, the biosensor is...... characterized in the 384-well plate format and used for measuring the signaling of the G(s)-coupled ß(2)-adrenergic receptor. The procedures described may be applied for other FRET-based biosensors in terms of characterization and conversion to the 384-well plate format....

  18. WEBSITE AS A MARKETING TOOL IN TOURISM : Website Design for Svanen Camping Site

    Paudel, Binaya


    The aim of this thesis was to a give little introduction into modern marketing tools in tourism, such as, websites, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Google Plus, and to modify the existing website of Svanen camping, Pietarsaari/ Jakobstad attractively. The Svanen camping is run during the summer by Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences (COU) since 2004. It is owned by the town of Pietarsaari. The camping is managed by Centria – Research and Development. Jennie Elfving, who is a re...

  19. The effectiveness of an American science camp for Taiwanese high school students

    Kuo, Pi-Chu

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of an American science camp for Taiwanese high school students in terms of student attitudes toward science; (2) to understand the factors that affect student attitudes toward science in the American science camp. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed to answer my research questions: (1) How did the influence of the abroad science camp differ from the local one in terms of student attitudes toward science? (2) How did gender, grade level, and personality affect student attitudes toward science in the abroad science camp? An Attitudes toward Science Inventory was used in this study to measure student attitudes. The results of factor analysis suggested that the attitudes measured in this study include five common factors: science as school subjects (SC), science in society (SS), value of science (VS), science in laboratory (SL), and nature of science (NS). Significant improvements were found in SS, VS, and NS after the experiences of the abroad science camp. In the local science camp, only NS was non-significant comparing before and after the camp. The results from the comparisons between the two science camps show that different program designs have different impacts on student attitudes toward science. Furthermore, whether the science camps are designed based on learning theory or not, and regardless of how much time the campers spend in science-related activities during science camps, science camps can motivate students' interests in learning science. The results of mixed-design ANOVA for gender, grade level, and personality suggest that most of these personal factors did not significantly affect student attitudes. However, extraversion/introversion and sensing/intuition had impacts on the persuasibility of the abroad science camp.

  20. Modeling Soil Loss to Determine Water Erosion Risk at Camp Williams National Guard Base, Utah

    Bartsch, Kevin P.


    Soil erosion was assessed at Camp Williams National Guard Base by creating an erosion risk classification map and comparing the erosion impact of disturbance regimes on different hillslopes. Soil erosion does not appear to be a problem for most of Camp Williams. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation was applied using GIS to create a soil erosion risk map for the entire Camp Williams facility. The map indicated where problem areas occurred and showed relative erosion risk, but its lack o...

  1. cAMP Level Modulates Scleral Collagen Remodeling, a Critical Step in the Development of Myopia

    Tao, Yijin; Pan, Miaozhen; Liu, Shufeng; Fang, Fang; Lu, Runxia; Lu, Chanyi; Zheng, Min; An, Jianhong; Xu, Hongjia; Zhao, Fuxin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian


    The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs). Form-deprived myopia (FDM) was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and ...

  2. Algae blooms and their consequences on camping tourism destinations: The case of Öland, Sweden

    Foghagen, Christer


    In Sweden camping tourism holds the position as one of the largest niches within the tourism accommodation sector. The camping sector represents more than 17 million or 35% of commercial overnight stays in total. On the island of Öland which is located in Kalmar county, and in Kalmar county itself, the camping sector represents more than 1.75 million or 65% of the annual overnight stays which positions Kalmar and Öland as the second largest camping region in Sweden. However, tourism businesse...


    Murad Lesmana


    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  4. "cAMP sponge": a buffer for cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate.

    Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIbeta of protein kinase A (PKA. Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named "cAMP sponge" was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. CONCLUSIONS: This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events.

  5. Classification of MEC with the ALLTEM at Camp Stanley, Texas

    Asch, T.; Moulton, C.; Smith, D.V.


    The ALLTEM is a multi-axis electromagnetic induction system designed for unexploded ordnance UXO applications. It uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation and provides good late-time signal-to-noise ratio SNR especially for ferrous targets. Multi-axis transmitter Tx and receiver Rx systems such as ALLTEM provide a richer data set from which to invert for the target parameters required to distinguish between clutter and UXO. Inversions of field data acquired between 2006 and 2010 over the Army's UXO Standardized Test sites at the Yuma Proving Ground YPG in Arizona and at the Aberdeen Proving Ground APG in Maryland have produced reasonable and generally repeatable results for many UXO items buried at different orientations and depths. In February-March 2011 ALLTEM data was acquired at two locations on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity CSSA just north of San Antonio, Texas. Camp Stanley is used to store munitions as well as test, fire, and overhaul munitions components. Site B-20 is an open burn/open detonation OBOD area and Site B-27 consists of narrow trenches blasted into limestone containing buried range and munitions debris and possibly MEC. The processing, analysis, and classification techniques developed at the controlled environments of YPG and APG have been applied to these two "live" sites at Camp Stanley. ALLTEM data analysis includes both classical numerical inversion of data from each anomaly and clustering of the raw data by means of a self-organizing map SOM via generalized neural network algorithms. Final classification consists of an integration of both the numerical and SOM results. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup;


    exits via basolateral AQP3 and AQP4. Upon long-term stimulation with AVP or during thirst, expression levels of both AQP2 and AQP3 are increased; however, there is so far no evidence for short-term AVP regulation of AQP3 or AQP4. To facilitate the increase in transepithelial water transport, AQP3 may be.......05)]. Immunoelectron microscopy showed no obvious difference in AQP3-EGFP expression levels or localization in the plasma membrane upon forskolin stimulation. Thus AQP3-EGFP diffusion is altered upon increased cAMP, which may correspond to basolateral adaptations in response to the increased apical water readsorption...

  7. Genetically-encoded tools for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems.

    Valeriy M Paramonov


    Full Text Available Intracellular 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is one of the principal second messengers downstream of a manifold of signal transduction pathways, including the ones triggered by G protein-coupled receptors. Not surprisingly, biochemical assays for cAMP have been instrumental for basic research and drug discovery for decades, providing insights into cellular physiology and guiding pharmaceutical industry. However, despite impressive track record, the majority of conventional biochemical tools for cAMP probing share the same fundamental shortcoming - all the measurements require sample disruption for cAMP liberation. This common bottleneck, together with inherently low spatial resolution of measurements (as cAMP is typically analyzed in lysates of thousands of cells, underpin the ensuing limitations of the conventional cAMP assays: 1 genuine kinetic measurements of cAMP levels over time in a single given sample are unfeasible; 2 inability to obtain precise information on cAMP spatial distribution and transfer at subcellular levels, let alone the attempts to pinpoint dynamic interactions of cAMP and its effectors. At the same time, tremendous progress in synthetic biology over the recent years culminated in drastic refinement of our toolbox, allowing us not only to bypass the limitations of conventional assays, but to put intracellular cAMP life-span under tight control – something, that seemed scarcely attainable before. In this review article we discuss the main classes of modern genetically-encoded tools tailored for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems. We examine the capabilities and weaknesses of these different tools in the context of their operational characteristics and applicability to various experimental set-ups involving living cells, providing the guidance for rational selection of the best tools for particular needs.

  8. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  9. cAMP signaling in cortisol-producing adrenal adenoma.

    Calebiro, Davide; Di Dalmazi, Guido; Bathon, Kerstin; Ronchi, Cristina L; Beuschlein, Felix


    The cAMP signaling pathway is one of the major players in the regulation of growth and hormonal secretion in adrenocortical cells. Although its role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with Cushing's syndrome has been clarified, a clear involvement of the cAMP signaling pathway and of one of its major downstream effectors, the protein kinase A (PKA), in sporadic adrenocortical adenomas remained elusive until recently. During the last year, a report by our group and three additional independent groups showed that somatic mutations of PRKACA, the gene coding for the catalytic subunit α of PKA, are a common genetic alteration in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal adenomas, occurring in 35-65% of the patients. In vitro studies revealed that those mutations are able to disrupt the association between catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA, leading to a cAMP-independent activity of the enzyme. Despite somatic PRKACA mutations being a common finding in patients with clinically manifest Cushing's syndrome, the pathogenesis of adrenocortical adenomas associated with subclinical hypercortisolism seems to rely on a different molecular background. In this review, the role of cAMP/PKA signaling in the regulation of adrenocortical cell function and its alterations in cortisol-producing adrenocortical adenomas will be summarized, with particular focus on recent developments. PMID:26139209

  10. Photovoltaic Technology of Electricity Generation for Desert Camping

    Shafiqur Rehman


    Full Text Available This study presents a case study on the utilization of global solar radiation data on horizontal surface to perform economical feasibility of using Photovoltaic (PV panels with battery backup to meet a small load for a camping site in Saudi Arabia. The analysis considers three scenarios with daily average energy demands of: (i full load, (ii 75% load and (iii half load with annual peak load of 3.84, 3.06 and 2.27 kW, respectively. Each of these loads is further studied economically to investigate the effect of battery storage for 1 to 5 days. The study also compares the cost of electricity generation in $/kWh from PV system and diesel generating systems. The lower mean temperature (~20°C and high intensity of radiation (~ 6.3 kWh m2/day in Abha make it a promising site for the usage of PV systems for desert camping. Analysis of the data indicates that the battery storage capacity cost plays an important role in the overall cost of the PV system. The economical indicators suggest that larger PV systems be preferred over the smaller ones with minimal storage option. The energy generation cost analysis indicated that the diesel generating cost was found to be 29, 56 and 116% higher than the PV system for full, 75% and half load systems, respectively.

  11. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.


    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  12. Interpreting Camp to Parents: A Better Way to Observe--Record--Report. An Occasional Paper.

    Shopper, Moisy


    Camps offer a unique opportunity to inform parents of the psychological workings of their child through information based on a large repertoire of situations. Camps can be interpreted to parents as a better way to observe, record, and report how their children: (1) reacted to "on-hand contact"; (2) accepted duties and responsibility; (3) improved…

  13. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Tanaka, Akiko


    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  14. Which Social Emotional Competencies Are Enhanced at a Social Emotional Learning Camp?

    Ee, Jessie; Ong, Chew Wei


    Research studies have shown that educational programmes such as camps and field trips can develop affective and social relationships through personal exposure to outdoor experiences among students. This study will illustrate the outcome of a social emotional learning camp organized for 93 Secondary Two students (mean age 14.1) in Singapore. Both…

  15. The Efficacy of Mammography Boot Camp to Improve the Performance of Radiologists

    Lee, Eun Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Kwan [National Cancer Control Institute, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Me [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Nami [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the efficacy of a mammography boot camp (MBC) to improve radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in Korea. Between January and July of 2013, 141 radiologists were invited to a 3-day educational program composed of lectures and group practice readings using 250 digital mammography cases. The radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms were evaluated using a pre- and post-camp test set of 25 cases validated prior to the camp by experienced breast radiologists. Factors affecting the radiologists' performance, including age, type of attending institution, and type of test set cases, were analyzed. The average scores of the pre- and post-camp tests were 56.0 ± 12.2 and 78.3 ± 9.2, respectively (p < 0.001). The post-camp test scores were higher than the pre-camp test scores for all age groups and all types of attending institutions (p < 0.001). The rate of incorrect answers in the post-camp test decreased compared to the pre-camp test for all suspicious cases, but not for negative cases (p > 0.05). The MBC improves radiologists' performance in interpreting mammograms irrespective of age and type of attending institution. Improved interpretation is observed for suspicious cases, but not for negative cases.

  16. 78 FR 55671 - Hospital Care and Medical Services for Camp Lejeune Veterans


    ... hospital care and medical services. As discussed in a separate notice (78 FR 39832, July 2, 2013), we are... their service at Camp Lejeune. Section 102 of Public Law 112-154 requires VA to provide hospital care... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO78 Hospital Care and Medical Services for Camp Lejeune Veterans...

  17. Camp Thunderbird: Taking Flight with Dance and Physical Education for Special Populations

    Keglon, Johnnye


    This article describes the Dallas-based Camp Thunderbird, an enrichment program that brought together minority students in special education and students from general education for a summer of physical activity and the arts. Among the camp participants were students who functioned at a high level in the areas of autism spectrum disorders, mental…

  18. Strategies for Developing a University-Sponsored Youth Sports Summer Camp

    Walsh, David


    During the summer, universities have the ability to offer on-campus camps that serve the health, physical activity, and educational needs of youths. However, the tasks, responsibilities, time, and knowledge needed to run a camp can be overwhelming. This article describes the administrative components of the lessons learned from the development of…

  19. The modulation of cell surface cAMP receptors from Dictyostelium disscoideum by ammonium sulfate

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van


    Dictyostelium discoideum cells contain a heterogeneous population of cell surface cAMP receptors with components possessing different affinities (Kd between 15 and 450 nM) and different off-rates of the cAMP-receptor complex (t½ between 0.7 and 150 s). The association of cAMP to the receptor and the

  20. Camper learning and friendship at pediatric oncology camps in North America.

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Amylon, Michael D; Briery, Brandon G; Shea-Perry, Marci; Kelsey, Kathleen P; Lam, Gary W; Körver, Sarah


    Children with cancer and their families often attend specialized camps (therapeutic recreation) through their cancer treatment journey, yet little is known about the effects of these camps. A qualitative cohort study was used to assess learning and friendship development by campers attending one of four pediatric oncology summer camps during 2010 in North America. Standardized perceived change questionnaires developed by the American Camp Association were administered following camp attendance. Five-hundred and eighteen campers were enrolled: 120 (age 6-9 years) and 398 (age 10 and older). The largest positive response from the younger campers was observed for the question, "At camp did you learn to look forward to trying new activities?" For the older campers' survey, the items "Becoming better at enjoying being with my friends," "Becoming better at helping my friends have a good time when they are with me," and "Becoming better at getting to know more things about my friends" were perceived to increase the most for the majority of campers compared to other questions. Items for which older campers most often perceived little change were "Becoming better at choosing people who would be good friends to be with" and "Becoming better at understanding friends' emotions." Camp helps children learn new activities as well as enjoy good times with friends. Dealing with one's own mistakes and understanding others' emotions are areas for improvement. Ultimately it is hoped that these skills gained at camp will help build coping and resiliency for children/siblings affected by pediatric cancers. PMID:24364990

  1. Alexander Pechersky Testifies: an Open Page of Sobibor Death Camp History

    Lev S. Simkin


    Full Text Available Here, the author introduces the interrogation of the witness Alexander Aronovich Pechersky, the leader of the German death camp Sobibor Revolt during the World War II. Special attention is attached to the daily life of the death camp. The picture of revolt preparation was completed

  2. Science Camps in Europe--Collaboration with Companies and School, Implications and Results on Scientific Literacy

    Lindner, M.; Kubat, C.


    The paper informs on the characteristics of a Comenius Network of seven organizations, who are collaborating in exchanging best practice on science camps. This exchange includes evaluation results on more science camps of European organizations, which will deliver information on organization, collaboration with companies, pedagogical aspects, as…

  3. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin


    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  4. Dimensions of Flow in Academic and Social Activities among Summer Music Camp participants

    Diaz, Frank M.; Silveira, Jason M.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of flow experiences among high school music students attending a two-week summer instrumental music camp. Specifically, the study sought to determine if: (1) students do indeed experience flow in summer camp settings; (2) what activities are conducive to flow; (3) what is the relationship…

  5. Student-Designed Mapping Project as Part of a Geology Field Camp

    Kelley, Daniel F.; Sumrall, Jeanne L.; Sumrall, Jonathan B.


    During the summer of 2012, the Louisiana State University (LSU) field camp program was affected by close proximity to the large Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado Springs, CO, as well as by a fire incident on the field camp property. A mapping exercise was created that incorporated spatial data acquired on the LSU property to investigate research…

  6. Camp Read-a-Rama® and Fully-Engaged Literacy Learning: Implications for LIS Education

    Copeland, Clayton A.; Martin, Michelle H.


    Literacy and literacy skill development remain critical concerns in the U.S. "Two of every three students in the U.S. do not have the necessary reading proficiencies to successfully complete grade-level work" (Allington, 2011). Camp Read-a-Rama, a summer day camp in South Carolina for 4- to 11-year-olds, creates innovative programming…

  7. A summer blender camp: modeling, rendering, and animation for high school students.

    Bailey, Mike; Law, Cathy


    At Camp Blender, high-school students of varying backgrounds learned how to use the Blender software package to create computer graphics content. In a postclass survey, most of them indicated that the camp affected how they thought about their career path. PMID:24808169

  8. The progressive nature of concentration camp syndrome in former prisoners of Nazi concentration camps--Not just history, but the important issue of contemporary medicine.

    Jabłoński, Robert; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Leszek, Jerzy; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard


    Constant stress, slave labor, tortures, and starvation all affected the health of concentration camp prisoners, contributing to multimorbidities, increased mortality and accelerated development of chronic illnesses, what we have shown in an earlier publication. The interrelated somatic and psychological symptoms gave rise to concentration camp syndrome (KZ-syndrome), which has many features of PTSD, occurring frequently nowadays. The paper attempts at assessing the influence of concentration camp conditions on functional disorders in each system of the human body, occurring in KZ-syndrome, and at demonstrating the progressive nature of the syndrome. A retrospective assessment of the former prisoners' health after 5 and 30 years following their leaving camps was performed based on medical records and surveys. The materials included 250 former prisoners who underwent medical examination in 1950, i.e. 5 years after leaving the camp, of whom 120 former prisoners survived and were examined and surveyed in 1975, i.e. 30 years after leaving the camp. KZ-syndrome was shown to occur in 58.8% of former prisoners 5 years after leaving the camp, and in 77.5% after 30 years (p < 0.001), which confirms the syndrome's chronic and progressive nature. Pathological sequels of internment in concentration camps, in the form of KZ-syndrome, were observed in most former prisoners. Over time, the number of morbidities and the intensity of symptoms increased, which indicates that the syndrome has a chronic and progressive nature. KZ-syndrome is a multi-organ disorder, with numerous chronic comorbidities exacerbating the progression. PMID:26783727

  9. Evaluation of undergraduate nursing students' clinical confidence following a mental health recovery camp.

    Cowley, Thomas; Sumskis, Sue; Moxham, Lorna; Taylor, Ellie; Brighton, Renee; Patterson, Chris; Halcomb, Elizabeth


    In the present study, we evaluate the impact of participation in a mental health recovery camp on the clinical confidence of undergraduate nursing students in dealing with individuals with mental illness. Twenty undergraduate nursing students who participated in the recovery camp completed the Mental Health Nursing Clinical Confidence Scale both before and directly after attending the camp. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Participation in the recovery camp was associated with a statistically-significant increase in students' level of overall confidence between the pretest and post-test data (P level of confidence in both the pre- and post-results. The clinical confidence of undergraduate nursing students improved through participation in an immersive clinical experience within the recovery camp. PMID:26767715

  10. Free will in total institutions: The case of choice inside Nazi death camps.

    Davidov, Jonathan; Eisikovits, Zvi


    Nazi death camps, as any total institutions, were designed to deny any free will or choice from inmates. Furthermore, former inmates in such extreme conditions often account for their own actions and behavior in such settings as inevitable ("I had no other choice"). This study examines the questions of free will vs. determinism in death camps from a descriptive-phenomenological perspective. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with 20 former death camp inmates. The following themes emerged from the qualitative analysis of the data: the 'selection' experience; 'borrowed time' perception; and the experience of 'nothingness'. A conceptual model grounded in these data was developed to illustrate the inmate's lived experience of choice in the reality of the camps. Analysis of the model indicates that under the extreme conditions of the death camp, free will and existence are interchangeable: "I choose - therefore I am". PMID:25881235

  11. Resting easier : large or small, Canada's flock of remote camp operators senses better times ahead

    Flackstad, N.


    This article described recent trends in the provision of remote mobile housing in the oil patch. Contemporary camps are used as recruiting tools to help attract workers, and they feature modern conveniences. Many mobile camps stay in place for years, moving only when a major project is completed or the resource depleted. Smaller camp configurations tend to be moved more frequently. Mobile camps can move from a resource site without leaving any imprint. The business models of various companies involved in remote camp operations were described, along with both large and small projects. Some companies supply inclusive packages covering accommodation, catering, water/sanitation services, camp management, and related logistics, whereas others focus on a single aspect. The slowdown in drilling had depressed remote-camp utilization, but the increase in activity is spurring the demand for remote-camp operators, and the outlook for utilization rates is optimistic. There is an increasing movement towards an open camp housing model. Whereas past work camps would serve one project or one company, open camps are more like remote, temporary hotels. Open camps are suitable when travel distances to permanent accommodations are lengthy and the long-term economics make setting up permanent hotels close to field operations unfeasible. 4 figs.

  12. Crisis DSM Generation To Support Refugee Camp Management

    Gstaiger, Veronika; d'Angelo, Pablo; Schneiderhan, Tobais; Krauss, Thomas


    The extraction of high resolution surface information from satellite data has become an important area of research. One of the numerous fields of application is disaster management. Detailed information about the affected terrain is not only needed for analyses during the emergency relief phase, but also for reconstruction and prevention activities. In this paper the authors present the generation of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) based on three very high resolution optical satellite images. The DSM was produced to supplement a flood mapping activity in Jordan and serves as example for the implementation of scientific results during an emergency request. The flood affected the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan and was mapped by the Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information (ZKI) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in January 2013 under emergency mapping conditions.

  13. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva


    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  14. Laser camp: shining a light on optics careers

    Donnelly, Judith; Goyette, Donna; Magnani, Nancy; Wosczyna-Birch, Karen


    Three Rivers Community College offers two associate degree programs in optics/photonics, and graduates have their choice of jobs in New England and across the United States. Nonetheless, students, their parents, teachers and guidance counselors are largely unaware of the career opportunities in the photonics industry. To promote optics/photonics career awareness, we hosted two versions of "Laser Camp" in 2007 and 2008. Hands-on activities were chosen to promote awareness of optical science and technology careers and to provide "take home" information and souvenirs to share with family and friends. In this paper, we discuss the logistics of funding, marketing, permissions, transportation and food service and share our student-tested activities.

  15. UAV Survey Data from Clifton Camp (ST56557330, Bristol, UK

    Stephen Gray


    Full Text Available This data was collected via low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle survey of an area of Clifton Camp (ST565557330, best known for its Iron Age promontory fort. The dataset comprises of metadata records, near-vertical photographs and a derived 3D polygonal mesh. This dataset has been constructed with two kinds of reuse in mind: Firstly, the area surveyed is culturally rich and underexplored; while some of the non-natural features detected by this survey can be identified, others cannot. This data is intended to inform future investigations of the site. Secondly, the survey methodologies employed and the structuring of the resulting dataset are intended to act as an exemplar, a standard method of creating survey data while prioritising open technologies, and of organising UAV survey datasets to ensure maximum re-usability.

  16. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther


    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  17. The effect of radioprotectors and ionizing radiation on the cAMP system

    A number of changes characteristic of all the radioprotectors which appear to play a key role in the radioprotective effect can be distinguished from a variety of radioprotector-caused processes in cells and tissues known to date. Experiments have revealed an increase in cAMP concentration in cells and tissues under the effect of radioprotectors belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. Biogenic amines account for the following reaction sequence: adenylate cyclase activation followed by an increase in cAMP concentration. The augmentation of cAMP level resultant from the effect of sulfur-containing protectors takes an indirect route since adenylate cyclase activation or phosphodiesterase inhibition have not been recorded. It is suggested that an increase in cAMP concentration brought about by sulfur-containing protectors is mediated by biogenic amines as these protectors activate biogenic amine synthesis to increase the level of biogenic amines in tissues, biogenic amines in these concentrations activating adenylate cyclase. The evidence on the dynamics of cAMP level changes after administration of radioprotectors are consistent with the above suggestion. Investigations of the effect of ionizing radiations on the intracellular regulator (cAMP) system account for some of the manifestations of radiation disease. Some data on the effect of radiations on the cAMP system enzymes are given. Changes in the enzyme activity are noted. Possible mechanisms and consequences of these changes are discussed

  18. Suicide in Inmates in Nazis and Soviet Concentration Camps: Historical Overview and Critique.

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Cuerda-Galindo, Esther


    Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL), Soviet special camps, and gulags, providing some preliminary data for our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty), while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover-up the murder victims as suicides. Most of the suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment, and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behaviors when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed wire fences) or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison). In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment, and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors, such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die, have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain. PMID:27303312

  19. Distancing Students From Nature: Science Camp and the Representation of the Human-Nature Relationship

    Terrill, Laura Anne

    This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and curricular guides. These data were analyzed to understand how the camp represented the human-environment relationship and the "proper" human-environment relationship to its participants. Analysis indicated that the camp's official and enacted curriculum was shaped in response to two perceived problems, (1) students were perceived as having a disconnected relationship with the outdoors and lacking in outdoor experiences; and (2) staff members of the camp believed that time for science during the school day had diminished and that students were not receiving adequate science instruction at school. In response, the goal of the camp was to connect students to the outdoors through hands-on, sensory, experience based science and outdoor education experiences. However, key aspects of the camp experience and the formal and enacted curriculum unintentionally positioned students as separate from nature. The camp experience presented a vacation like understanding of the human-environment relationship as students became tourists of the outdoors. Despite the site's goal of connecting students to the outdoors, the science camp experience worked to distance students from the outdoors by unintentionally representing the outdoors as a place that existed away from home and students' everyday lives. Notably, nature became a place that existed in the past, separate from modernity. Students were tourists in an exotic location - nature. They received tours of the foreign outdoors, had fun, and returned home to their ordinary lives that were separate and distinct from the natural world.

  20. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    Jansen, B.J.


    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First, the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions o...

  1. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks NF-{kappa}B activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found

  2. Active site coupling in PDE:PKA complexes promotes resetting of mammalian cAMP signaling.

    Krishnamurthy, Srinath; Moorthy, Balakrishnan Shenbaga; Xin Xiang, Lim; Xin Shan, Lim; Bharatham, Kavitha; Tulsian, Nikhil Kumar; Mihalek, Ivana; Anand, Ganesh S


    Cyclic 3'5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent-protein kinase (PKA) signaling is a fundamental regulatory pathway for mediating cellular responses to hormonal stimuli. The pathway is activated by high-affinity association of cAMP with the regulatory subunit of PKA and signal termination is achieved upon cAMP dissociation from PKA. Although steps in the activation phase are well understood, little is known on how signal termination/resetting occurs. Due to the high affinity of cAMP to PKA (KD ∼ low nM), bound cAMP does not readily dissociate from PKA, thus begging the question of how tightly bound cAMP is released from PKA to reset its signaling state to respond to subsequent stimuli. It has been recently shown that phosphodiesterases (PDEs) can catalyze dissociation of bound cAMP and thereby play an active role in cAMP signal desensitization/termination. This is achieved through direct interactions with the regulatory subunit of PKA, thereby facilitating cAMP dissociation and hydrolysis. In this study, we have mapped direct interactions between a specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE8A) and a PKA regulatory subunit (RIα isoform) in mammalian cAMP signaling, by a combination of amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, peptide array, and computational docking. The interaction interface of the PDE8A:RIα complex, probed by peptide array and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry, brings together regions spanning the phosphodiesterase active site and cAMP-binding sites of RIα. Computational docking combined with amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry provided a model for parallel dissociation of bound cAMP from the two tandem cAMP-binding domains of RIα. Active site coupling suggests a role for substrate channeling in the PDE-dependent dissociation and hydrolysis of cAMP bound to PKA. This is the first instance, to our knowledge, of PDEs directly interacting with a cAMP-receptor protein in a mammalian system, and

  3. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company


    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  4. Family camping: a case study of the potential for personal development

    Ivo Jirásek


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the family camping phenomenon and its educative potential in education between generations. The study focused on the tradition of family camping in the Czech countryside and it shows the club Veteran Green as a typical Czech example of this leisure activity. This study used a sequential combine design of empirical research based on an autoethnographic examination and survey of both adult (n = 14 and children (n = 14 participants (together from 9 families of a family camp in the Czech Republic. The paper indicated four dimensions of the leisure experience: the phenomena of family, community, nature and spirituality.

  5. Exogenous Camp upregulates the expression of glnII and glnK-amtB genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021

    TIAN Zhexian; MAO Xianjun; SU Wei; LI Jian; BECKER Anke; WANG Yiping


    The existence of multiple adenylate cyclase encoding genes implies the importance of Camp in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. In this study, as a pioneer step of understanding Camp roles, microarray analysis on S. Meliloti was carried out for the function of exogenous Camp. To our surprise, the result showed that the transcriptions of glnII and glnK genes were significantly upshifted in the presence of exogenous Camp in S. Meliloti. This phenomenon is further confirmed in S. Meliloti that the expression of either glnII or glnK promoter-lacZ translational fusion is higher in the presence of exogenous Camp.Therefore, for the first time, we have identified genes from S. Meliloti whose expression is activated by Camp. The potential physiological role of upregulation of glnII and glnK by Camp is discussed.

  6. Cultural behaviour and the invention of traditions: music and musical practices in the early concentration camps, 1933-6/7.

    Fackler, Guido


    This article investigates music in the concentration camps before the second world war. For the camp authorities, ordering prisoners to sing songs or play in orchestras was an instrument of domination. But for the prisoners, music could also be an expression of solidarity and survival: inmates could retain a degree of their own agency in the pre-war camps, despite the often unbearable living conditions and harsh treatment by guards. The present article emphasizes this ambiguity of music in the early camps. It illustrates the emergence of musical traditions in the pre-war camps which came to have a significant impact on everyday life in the camps. It helps to overcome the view that concentration camp prisoners were simply passive victims. PMID:20845575

  7. From Death To Death:Some Thoughts about Indian Camp by Ernest Hemingway

    LI Hui


    Based on Indian Camp, the thesis probes into the death complex of Ernest Hemingway from the visual angle of Nick, the protagonist of the novel, death complex shown in Hemingway’s works and Nick, the archetype of Hemingway respectively.

  8. How to Create a Day Camp Using the Resources of Your Community.

    Hazelwood, James; Hazelwood, Lisa


    Outlines process of putting together a local week-long day camp: assessing community resources, developing a curriculum, choosing the staff (coordinator; teachers/counselors; assistants; directors of art, recreation, and music) and marketing the program. (NEC)

  9. Effects of a Structured Camp Experience on Locus of Control Orientation

    Nowicki, Stephen, Jr.; Barnes, Jarvis


    Inner-city teenagers experienced a structured camp program for a week. It was predicted and found that this experience led to a change toward internality, in the locus of control orientation of these youngsters. (Authors)

  10. From charity and philanthropy to State social protection: school holiday camps in Spain (1887-1936



    Full Text Available School holiday camps, which started in Switzerland in 1886, would start to function in Spain under the institutionalist and director of the then called Museo de Instrucción Primaria de Madrid (Museum of Primary Instruction, Manuel B. Cossío, in 1887. The paper analyses briefly the social, hygienic and educational context in which international movement of summer camps made their appearance and with special reference to Spain. The paper focuses on the beginnings and the scope of these camps in Spain and on the influence of public policies on these processes. These policies shifted from initial government inhibition and the call to the forces of the country to charity and patriotism, to a progressive promotion and to State protection for the summer camps.

  11. Caxingo - a promising model for integrating the hydroelectric work camps to the site communities

    The social and economical impacts caused by the hydroelectric work camps in the sites where the hydroelectric will be constructed are studied, analysing the great supply of works when the hydroelectric is been constructed face to the reduction one when the works are concluded; the neglect by the State in providing medical and educational assistances to the neighbour populations; the appearance of a commerce in the neighbour areas; the employer stableness in the camp after the pension and the lack by the neighbour cities of a social and economical substructure to offer to the population, that come with the hydroelectric construction. A new solution for these problems is presented in the Xingo camp, where the camp will be as a district of city near to the work, with community services provide by the State and the needful substructure to its construction and the equipment provide by the concessionaire. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  12. Fiscal year 1939 : Narrative report : Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge : Camp BF-2

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1939 narrative report for Pea Island Migratory Wildfowl Refuge provides a roster of army personnel and service personnel, a summary of camp life, a list of...

  13. The development of creativity of hig school students during a summer camp

    ČEJKOVÁ, Iva


    This work is monitored from a professional point of view the area of creativity and its development on students during a summer camp. The theoretical part deals with the problems of creativity, its development and leisure activities. Research section includes a comprehensive weekly program that uses various methods to develop creativity, applied on the high school students during the summer camp activities. The aim of this study was to compare the methods used in terms of their impact on huma...

  14. Narratives from Jenin Refugee Camp: Children as extreme defence against the disintegration of family and community

    Guido Veronese; Mahmud Shobi Said; Marco Castiglioni


    This paper aim to explore practices that create serious risks to the physical and psychological  health of Palestinian children. The typical stories of three children interviewed at Jenin Refugee Camp are subjected to content analysis. This analysis also extends to the micro and macro social developmental context of these children (which the share with the entire population of the camp). Key themes emerging from the analysis include the need to "redeem" grand parents and parents (de...

  15. Integrating Enhanced STEM Themes in the UTEP CAREERS Weather Camp for Youth

    Güereque, M.; Olgin, J. G.; Kier, M. W.; Winston, C. E.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.


    The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors a network of high school and middle school summer camps entitled "Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program, CAREERS". These camps are conducted nationwide at NCAS academic partners; the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), Howard University (HU), University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM), and Jackson State University (JSU). The goals of these camps are to increase the interest of secondary school (HS) students in atmospheric and weather related sciences, target under-represented students, and to ultimately boost their college enrollment in STEM related fields. For 2014 at UTEP, the annual student-outreach weather camp program underwent a thematic overhaul that sought to incorporate more of the geological and environmental context of the region. Doctoral students were allowed to assume greater responsibility for the design, development and implementation of the camp activities. The prevailing assumption was that these Ph.D. students were better suited for peer mentoring, bridging the age and interest gap, and delivering the material through the modern technologies and modes of communication. The redesigned approach focused on the identification of climate drivers within the region and this concept formed a thread throughout the planning and design of the camp modules. The outcome resulted in the incorporation of project based learning (PBL) activities, field excursions, and deployment of weather instrumentation, for explaining regional climate processes and events. Standardized surveys were administered to camp participants to evaluate the efficacy, as well as student perceptions of the camp and its activities. Results will be presented that are based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of student responses.

  16. Rapid tube CAMP test for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B).

    Phillips, E. A.; Tapsall, J W; Smith, D D


    A rapid CAMP test for the presumptive identification of Streptococcus agalactiae (Lancefield group B) is described. Sheep erythrocytes, sensitized by staphylococcal beta-lysin and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were used to determine the lytic capacity of the neutralized supernatant fluids of 4-h broth cultures of streptococci being tested. A total of 96.2% of 130 group B streptococci gave positive CAMP tests, that is, lysis of the sheep erythrocytes after 10 min of exposure of strep...

  17. The clown at the gates of the camp : sovereignty, resistance and the figure of the fool.

    Amoore, L.; Hall, A


    This article considers the figure of the clown-fool as a way of approaching anew contemporary practices of sovereignty and resistance. The spectre of the camp as the nomos of modern sovereign power is widely critiqued for its neglect of the thriving and teeming life that actually accompanies the declaration of exception. The clown is an errant and troublesome figure whose life haunts the sovereign decision on exception. His presence in border-camp activism invokes a rich, provocative history ...

  18. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Rwandan and Burundese Refugee Camps

    Jong, J. de; Scholte, W.F.; Koeter, M W; Hart, A A


    OBJECTIVE: We examined the prevalence of mental health problems in refugees living in camps that emerged in Tanzania during the Rwanda crisis that started in 1994. METHOD: Using the 28-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), we examined two samples: a random sample (n = 854) and a sample of clients of a psychosocial support programme in these camps (n = 23). Sensitivity, specificity and positive- and negative predictive values were estimated for several cut-off scores of th...

  19. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases

    Park Sung-Jun; Ahmad Faiyaz; Philp Andrew; Baar Keith; Williams Tishan; Luo Haibin; Ke Hengming; Rehmann Holger; Taussig Ronald; Brown Alexandra L; Kim Myung K; Beaven Michael A; Burgin Alex B; Manganiello Vincent; Chung Jay H


    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca2...

  20. Role of Outreach Camps in Reducing the Burden of Cataracts in South India

    Rajesh Nayak R; Ajay Kamath R; Madhurima Nayak A; Gurudutt Kamath M; Manjunath Kamath M; Susan D'Souza


    Aim: To establish the efficacy of rural outreach programme in reducing blindness caused by cataract by comparative analysis of visual outcome. Materials and Methods: Records of patients attending outreach camps conducted during 10 years i.e., 2001-02 to 2010-11 were studied. The total number of patients attending the camp and those who were detected to have visually significant cataract were noted. Similarly, the number of patients attending the outpatient department of the department of Opht...

  1. High levels of mortality, malnutrition, and measles, among recently-displaced Somali refugees in Dagahaley camp, Dadaab refugee camp complex, Kenya, 2011

    Polonsky, Jonathan A.; Ronsse, Axelle; Ciglenecki, Iza; Rull, Monica; Porten, Klaudia


    Background Following a rapid influx of over 200,000 displaced Somalis into the Dadaab refugee camp complex in Kenya, Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a mortality and nutrition survey of the population living in Bulo Bacte, a self-settled area surrounding Dagahaley camp (part of this complex). Methods The survey was conducted between 31st July and 10th August 2011. We exhaustively interviewed representatives from all households in Bulo Bacte, collecting information on deaths, births, and pop...

  2. Improved molecular toolkit for cAMP studies in live cells

    Nicol Xavier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background cAMP is a ubiquitous second messenger involved in a wide spectrum of cellular processes including gene transcription, cell proliferation, and axonal pathfinding. Precise spatiotemporal manipulation and monitoring in live cells are crucial for investigation of cAMP-dependent pathways, but existing tools have several limitations. Findings We have improved the suitability of cAMP manipulating and monitoring tools for live cell imaging. We attached a red fluorescent tag to photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PACα that enables reliable visualization of this optogenetic tool for cAMP manipulation in target cells independently of its photoactivation. We show that replacement of CFP/YFP FRET pair with GFP/mCherry in the Epac2-camps FRET probe reduces photobleaching and stabilizes the noise level during imaging experiments. Conclusions The modifications of PACα and Epac2-camps enhance these tools for in vitro cAMP studies in cultured living cells and in vivo studies in live animals in a wide range of experiments, and particularly for long term time-lapse imaging.

  3. Improving Surgical Access in Rural Africa through a Surgical Camp Model.

    Galukande, M; Kituuka, O; Elobu, E; Jombwe, J; Sekabira, J; Butler, Elissa; Faulal, J


    Introduction. Surgical camps are preplanned activities where volunteer surgical teams congregate at specified place(s) and perform a wide range of mostly elective procedures for a limited period of time. This is usually at no cost to the patients, who belong to vulnerable (poor and hard to reach) communities. We describe a surgical camp model and its challenges as a means of improving access to surgical services. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Data from a recent Association of Surgeons of Uganda surgical camp were collected and analyzed for demographics, costs, procedure types, and rates and, in addition, challenges encountered and solutions. Personnel that participated in this exercise included specialist surgeons, surgical residents, medical officers, clinical officers, anesthetists, and theater nurses (a total of 121 staff). Results. In total, 551 procedures were performed during a four-day-long camp. Mean age was 35 years (SD 23), M : F ratio was 2 : 1. Herniorrhaphy, skin lump excision, hydrocelectomy, and thyroidectomy formed 81% of all the procedures. Average cost per procedure was $73 USD. Conclusion. Surgical camps offer increased access to surgical services to vulnerable populations. Hernias and goiters were most common. Surgical camps should become an integral part of the Health Service delivery in low-resourced environments. PMID:27413775

  4. Epac and PKA: a tale of two intracellular cAMP receptors

    Xiaodong Cheng; Zhenyu Ji; Tamara Tsalkova; Fang Mei


    cAMP-mediated signaling pathways regulate a multitude of important biological processes under both physiological and pathological conditions,including diabetes,heart failure and cancer.In eukaryotic cells,the effects of cAMP are mediated by two ubiquitously expressed intracellular cAMP receptors,the classic protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP(Epac)/cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors.Like PKA,Epac contains an evolutionally conserved cAMP binding domain that acts as a molecular switch for sensing intracellular second messenger cAMP levels to control diverse biological functions.The existence of two families of cAMP effectors provides a mechanism for a more precise and integrated control of the cAMP signaling pathways in a spatial and temporal manner.Depending upon the specific cellular environments as well as their relative abundance,distrbution and localization,Epac and PKA may act independently,converge synergistically or oppose each other in regulating a specific cellular function.

  5. Impact of incarceration in Nazi concentration camps on multimorbidity of former prisoners

    Jablonski RK


    Full Text Available Robert K Jablonski,1 Jerzy Leszek,2 Joanna Rosińczuk,3 Izabella Uchmanowicz,4 Bernard Panaszek11Department and Clinic of Internal Diseases, Geriatry and Allergology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Department of Clinical Nursing, 4Division of Nursing in Internal Medicine Procedures, Department of Clinical Nursing, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, PolandObjective: To show the extent to which the health of former prisoners was affected by incarceration in extermination camps after 5 and 30 years of leaving the camp, and to determine the etiological factors underlying particular dysfunctions.Methods: Medical records of former prisoners developed in 1950 (n=250 and 1975 (n=120 were then, after several decades, retrospectively analyzed and compared with the control group, randomized and matched according to age, sex, occupation, and environment. None of the subjects in the control group was a prisoner either at a concentration camp or at any other prison or detention facility.Results: Multimorbidity affected mainly the central nervous system (CNS. Five years after leaving a camp, CNS dysfunctions were observed in 66% of former prisoners. Skeletal (42.4% and cardiovascular system (34.4% dysfunctions were the second and third most frequent dysfunctions. Thirty years after leaving a camp, the most prevalent coexisting conditions were also found within the CNS (80%, cardiovascular system (58.33%, and skeletal system (55%. Five and 30 years after leaving a camp, multiorgan lesions were found in 21.6% and 60% of survivors, respectively. Multimorbidity was more frequent in a group of prisoners who underwent the state of apathy and depression or who had been incarcerated longer than 24 months. The rate of CNS diseases was four times higher, and the rate of cardiovascular diseases or skeletal system dysfunctions was two times higher, in the study group after 30 years of leaving a camp compared with the control group

  6. Camp life: Are northern work camps safe havens for a migrant workforce, or dens of iniquity rampant with sex, drugs and alcohol?

    Laverty, K.


    Two studies, dealing with life in work camps in northern Alberta and yielding contradictory results, are discussed. One study by a graduate student in sociology found that many of the men and women housed in work camps in remote locations of the northeastern oilsands belt use drugs, alcohol and casual sex to relieve boredom and loneliness. The other study, commissioned by the Athabasca Regional Issues Working Group (RWIG) found that camp workers visit Fort McMurray on the average of just over once a week, and use that time to take care of normal business, such as visiting health care professionals, buying gasoline, clothing, etc. It found no evidence of widespread sex, or drug or alcohol abuse among work camp residents. The RWIG study surveyed 25 per cent of the 6,272 worker population living in three camps in the Wood Buffalo region during June 2003. The study prepared by V. Taylor for a M.A. degree in sociology at the University of Calgary was severely criticized, primarily for its conclusions being based on a sample size of only nine men and one woman. Despite the criticism, the Taylor study made headlines across the country and has been instrumental in raising awareness of the special needs of a mobile workforce. A more broadly-based study is in progress at the University of Alberta, supported by the RCMP and a number of workplace stakeholders. Its objectives are to examine the situation more thoroughly, identify gaps in services and to explore long term solutions to what is undeniably a serious problem, indicated, if not proven, by the Taylor study.

  7. Developing water and sanitation services in refugee settings from emergency to sustainability - The case of Zaatari Camp in Jordan

    van der Helm, A. W. C.; Bhai, A.; Coloni, F.; Koning, W.J.G.; De Bakker, P.T.


    Three years after Zaatari camp was established in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, to host Syrian refugees, its population has grown to 82,000 persons. Zaatari is one of the largest refugee camps in the world, in one of the most water scarce areas on earth. Since its establishment, drinking water has been delivered by trucks to communal facilities across the camp. Wastewater is trucked out from these facilities, and from unregulated, self-constructed wastewater storages next to family househo...

  8. A Study to Explore the Lived Experience of Camping and Associated Effects of Escapism: A Green Exercise Approach

    Morrow, Rosie


    Aims: The aim of the current study was to investigate the lived experience of camping, with a particular focus on the associated experiences of escapism, and the potential impact of camping on psychological health and wellbeing. Method: Four semi-structured interviews took place to gather data. Participants were asked to reflect on their most memorable camping experience, and through prompts and probes we were able to explore each experience fully. Following transcription, Colaizzi’s (1978) s...

  9. Assisting Groundwater Exploration for Refugee/IDP Camps by Remote Sensing and GIS

    Wendt, Lorenz; Robl, Jörg; Hilberg, Sylke; Braun, Andreas; Rogenhofer, Edith; Dirnberger, Daniel; Strasser, Thomas; Füreder, Petra; Lang, Stefan


    Refugee camps and camps of internally displaced people (IDP) often form spontaneously or have to be established rapidly in remote, rural areas, where little is known about the hydrogeological situation. This requires a rapid assessment of the availability of groundwater to enable humanitarian organisations like Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to supply the camp population with sufficient potable water. Within the project EO4HumEn, hydrogeological reconnaissance maps are produced for MSF by integrating remote sensing data like SRTM, Landsat, ASTER, optical very-high resolution (VHR) imagery, and SAR data. Depending on the specific situation of the camps, these maps contain topography, permanent and temporary water bodies, hard rock outcrops and their geological variability, locations of existing boreholes and wells (if available), potential contamination sources, roads and obstacles (e.g. swampland). In areas characterized by unconsolidated sediments, specific landforms like alluvial fans, meanders, levees, deltas or beach ridges are identified. Here, the reconnaissance map can be sufficient to plan drill sites for groundwater abstraction. In hard rock areas, the lithology is determined, if the vegetation cover allows it. Fractures, faults and karst features are mapped to resolve the structural setting. Anomalous vegetation patterns are interpreted in terms of near-surface groundwater. The maps provide an overview of the camp surroundings, and allow the field hydrogeologists to focus their investigations on the most promising locations. The maps are complemented by a literature review on geological maps, articles and reports available for the area of interest. Assisting groundwater exploration by remote sensing data analysis is not a new development, but it has not been widely adopted by the humanitarian community as interfaces between humanitarian organisations and GI-scientists were missing. EO4HumEn fills this gap by a strong interdisciplinary cooperation

  10. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available Isolated Schwann cells (SCs respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1. To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC, a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the

  11. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène


    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. PMID:25107992

  12. Persistent cAMP Signaling by Internalized LH Receptors in Ovarian Follicles.

    Lyga, Sandra; Volpe, Silvia; Werthmann, Ruth C; Götz, Konrad; Sungkaworn, Titiwat; Lohse, Martin J; Calebiro, Davide


    A crucial event in female reproduction occurs at midcycle, when a LH peak induces the final maturation of ovarian follicles. LH signals via a G protein-coupled receptor selectively expressed in the outermost follicular cell layers. However, how LH signals are relayed inside these cells and finally to the oocyte is incompletely understood. Here, we monitored LH signaling in intact ovarian follicles of transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent cAMP sensor. We found that LH stimulation induces 2 phases of cAMP signaling in all cell layers surrounding the oocyte. Interfering with LH receptor internalization abolished the second, persistent cAMP phase and partially inhibited oocyte meiosis resumption. These data suggest that persistent cAMP signals from internalized LH receptors contribute to transmitting LH effects inside follicle cells and ultimately to the oocyte. Thus, this study indicates that the recently proposed paradigm of cAMP signaling by internalized G protein-coupled receptors is implicated in receptor function and is physiologically relevant. PMID:26828746

  13. cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.

    Yijin Tao

    Full Text Available The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs. Form-deprived myopia (FDM was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia.

  14. Intercellular redistribution of cAMP underlies selective suppression of cancer cell growth by connexin26.

    Anjana Chandrasekhar

    Full Text Available Connexins (Cx, which constitute gap junction intercellular channels in vertebrates, have been shown to suppress transformed cell growth and tumorigenesis, but the mechanism(s still remain largely speculative. Here, we define the molecular basis by which Cx26, but less frequently Cx43 or Cx32, selectively confer growth suppression on cancer cells. Functional intercellular coupling is shown to be required, producing partial blocks of the cell cycle due to prolonged activation of several mitogenic kinases. PKA is both necessary and sufficient for the Cx26 induced growth inhibition in low serum and the absence of anchorage. Activation of PKA was not associated with elevated cAMP levels, but appeared to result from a redistribution of cAMP throughout the cell population, eliminating the cell cycle oscillations in cAMP required for efficient cell cycle progression. Cx43 and Cx32 fail to mediate this redistribution as, unlike Cx26, these channels are closed during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle when cAMP levels peak. Comparisons of tumor cell lines indicate that this is a general pattern, with growth suppression by connexins occurring whenever cAMP oscillates with the cell cycle, and the gap junction remain open throughout the cell cycle. Thus, gap junctional coupling, in the absence of any external signals, provides a general means to limit the mitotic rate of cell populations.

  15. Hydromania II: Journey of the Oncorhynchus. Summer Science Camp Curriculum 1994.

    Moura, Joan; Swerin, Rod


    The Hydromania II curriculum was written for the third in a series of summer science camp experiences targeting students in grades 4--6 who generally have difficulty accessing supplementary academic programs. The summer science camp in Portland is a collaborative effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the Portland Parks and Recreation Community Schools Program along with various other cooperating businesses and organizations. The curriculum has also been incorporated into other summer programs and has been used by teachers to supplement classroom activities. Camps are designed to make available, affordable learning experiences that are fun and motivating to students for the study of science and math. Inner-city, under-represented minorities, rural, and low-income families are particularly encouraged to enroll their children in the program.

  16. Involvement of the second messenger cAMP in gravity-signal transduction in physarum

    Block, I.; Rabien, H.; Ivanova, K.

    The aim of the investigation was to clarify, whether cellular signal processing following graviperception involves second messenger pathways. The test object was a most gravisensitive free-living ameboid cell, the myxomycete (acellular slime mold) Physarum polycephalum. It was demonstrated that the motor response is related to acceleration-dependent changes in the levels of the cellular second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Rotating Physarum plasmodia in the gravity field of the Earth about a horizontal axis increased their cAMP concentration. Depriving the cells for a few days of the acceleration stimulus (near weightlessness in a space experiment on STS-69) slightly lowered plasmodial cAMP levels. Thus, the results provide first indications that the acceleration-stimulus signal transduction chain of Physarum uses an ubiquitous second messenger pathway.

  17. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.


    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  18. [Miranda de Ebro: Medical condition of the concentration camp in the autumn of 1943].

    Héraut, Louis-Armand


    Georges Morin's thesis (Algiers January 4 1944) allows to understand the sanitary conditions of the refugee camp at Miranda De Ebro (Spain) in the fall 1943. To avoid the Nazi occupation and the Obligatory Work Service in Germany 18,000 French got in Spain in 1943 and 10,000 including 39 physicians came through Miranda. The French were the majority and they created a Health Service separate from the official Spanish Health Service. The general dirtiness, the lack of water, the rudimentary conditions of lodging, the inadequacy and imbalance of food provoked two diseases among the young men: scabies and the so-called "mirandite" that is to say all the diarrheic diseases in the camp. Despite hard conditions of living the death rate in the camp remained smaller than crossing the Pyrenees from France where the danger threatened the escaped men. PMID:19230323

  19. Campers’ Characteristic, Recreation Activities and Related Forest Camping Attributes in Shah Alam Agriculture Park, Selangor

    Abdullah Mohd


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to identify the campers’ backgrounds and their recreation participation pattern in camping site at Shah Alam Agriculture Park, Selangor. The study has found that the campers were comprised of well-educated youths with tertiary education background. They usually came during festive holiday break with their friends and most of them are the first time visitors. The results also indicated that most of them valued the natural beauty, cleanliness and maintenance in campsite, safety and friendly staff of the park. The main purpose of camping is to enjoy and experiencing nature, escape from daily stress and learning of new experience. In overall, it shows that the campers’ dynamics where their emphasis on the naturalness, cleanliness as well as provision of more activities (especially activities involving family recreation or group leadership camping programs and facilities (using actually tent instead of chalet would be the criteria to attract campers to this park.

  20. Regulation of cAMP Intracellular Levels in Human Platelets Stimulated by 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

    Signorello, Maria Grazia; Leoncini, Giuliana


    We demonstrated that in human platelets the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) decreased dose- and time-dependently cAMP intracellular levels. No effect on cAMP decrease induced by 2-AG was observed in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 as well in platelets pretreated with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 or with aspirin, inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase pathway. An almost complete recovering of cAMP level was measured in platelets pretreated with the specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, milrinone. In platelets pretreated with LY294002 or MK2206, inhibitors of PI3K/AKT pathway, and with U73122, inhibitor of phospholipase C pathway, only a partial prevention was shown. cAMP intracellular level depends on synthesis by adenylate cyclase and hydrolysis by PDEs. In 2-AG-stimulated platelets adenylate cyclase activity seems to be unchanged. In contrast PDEs appear to be involved. In particular PDE3A was specifically activated, as milrinone reversed cAMP reduction by 2-AG. 2-AG enhanced PDE3A activity through its phosphorylation. The PI3K/AKT pathway and PKC participate to this PDE3A phosphorylation/activation mechanism as it was greatly inhibited by platelet pretreatment with LY294002, MK2206, U73122, or the PKC specific inhibitor GF109203X. Taken together these data suggest that 2-AG potentiates its power of platelet agonist reducing cAMP intracellular level. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1240-1249, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26460717

  1. Geophysical Summer Field Camp: Answering questions about the subsurface for the local community

    van Wijk, K.; Batzle, M.; Liberty, L.; Raynolds, R.


    Summer Geophysics Field Camp is part of the core requirement for undergraduate Geophysics majors at Boise State University (CSM), as well as at Colorado School of Mines (CSM). We have found it to be most effectively taught when the target of the camp involves answering questions, which impact society. For example, currently the CSM/BSU geophysics summer camp focuses on ground water resources and geothermal potential in the Upper Arkansas River Basin, a part of the Rio Grande Rift system in Chaffee County, Colorado. A prime goal is to train students how to combine diverse sources of information into a unified interpretation: Students examine lithologies and structures on the periphery of the basin. Cross sections are constructed to predict the geophysical signature. Geophysical tools then are used to ascertain the gross structure and examine subsurface conditions in greater detail. These tools include surveying, regional gravity, deep and shallow seismic surveys, magnetics, DC resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar, electromagnetics, hydrochemistry, and karaoke. While BSU and CSM own a considerable amount of geophysical hardware, our field camps are only possible because of extensive support by corporations and governmental agencies. In addition, the Society of Exploration Geohysics (SEG) Foundation provides financial support, Chaffee County assists with housing costs, and local land owners provide open access. In turn, the field camp results aid the community of Chaffee County in assessing their water resources for long term growth planning, as well as understanding the geothermal potential for hydroelectric power generation. BSU is currently exploring with the SEG Foundation under the Geophysicists Without Borders program to apply this model of combined education and social outreach in the form a geophysics camp for Southeast Asia, where we propose to study geohazards,geoarcheology and groundwater issues.

  2. Cooperation between cAMP signalling and sulfonylurea in insulin secretion.

    Shibasaki, T; Takahashi, T; Takahashi, H; Seino, S


    Although glucose is physiologically the most important regulator of insulin secretion, glucose-induced insulin secretion is modulated by hormonal and neural inputs to pancreatic β-cells. Most of the hormones and neurotransmitters evoke intracellular signals such as cAMP, Ca²⁺ , and phospholipid-derived molecules by activating G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In particular, cAMP is a key second messenger that amplifies insulin secretion in a glucose concentration-dependent manner. The action of cAMP on insulin secretion is mediated by both protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and Epac2A-dependent mechanisms. Many of the proteins expressed in β-cells are phosphorylated by PKA in vitro, but only a few proteins in which PKA phosphorylation directly affects insulin secretion have been identified. On the other hand, Epac2A activates the Ras-like small G protein Rap in a cAMP-dependent manner. Epac2A is also directly activated by various sulfonylureas, except for gliclazide. 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analogue, and glibenclamide, a sulfonylurea, synergistically activate Epac2A and Rap1, whereas adrenaline, which suppresses cAMP production in pancreatic β-cells, blocks activation of Epac2A and Rap1 by glibenclamide. Thus, cAMP signalling and sulfonylurea cooperatively activate Epac2A and Rap1. This interaction could account, at least in part, for the synergistic effects of incretin-related drugs and sulfonylureas in insulin secretion. Accordingly, clarification of the mechanism of Epac2A activation may provide therapeutic strategies to improve insulin secretion in diabetes. PMID:25200305

  3. Professional burnout of personnel working in summer camps of people with disabilities

    Giannia N.


    Full Text Available Introduction: Professional burnout constitutes a syndrome of physical and mental exhaustion occurring in working environment with symptoms that are present after frequent and long-term exposure in difficult working conditions especially in special education settings where a higher burnout in noticed due to tne nature of the profession. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine professional burnout of working personnel in summer camps for people with disabilities. Materials – Methods: The sample consisted of 35 participants (11 men and 25 women all camp personnel escorting people with disabilities in summer camps. Each participant completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1986 comprised of 22 items that assess the variables of exhaustion, accomplishment and depersonalization. Omega total reliability analysis revealed an internal consistency ranging from good (ω total= .72 to high (ω total = .91 and a positive interaction between all factors. Independent samples t-test revealed differences personal accomplishment (t = -1.9 , df = 33, p = 0.32 και depersonalization t = -2.59 , df = 33, p = .014 according to participation in physical activity during the summer camp period. ANOVA analysis showed statistically significant differences in depersonalization (F (3, 33 = 2.81, p = .043, η2 =.076 , exhaustion (F (3, 33 = .335, p = .032, η2 =.084 , and personal accomplishment (F (3, 33 = 4.67, p = .008, η2 =.090 in relation to work satisfaction and type of disability. Conclusions: Professional burnout of personnel working in summer camps for people with disabilities appears high due to many hours and high working load that is affected by the nature of disability, participation of personnel in physical activities and their satisfaction derived from primary profession other than summer camp work.

  4. Marketingová strategie společnosti Camp Leaders s.r.o.

    Švubová, Tereza


    The bachelor thesis deals with the marketing strategy of the company Camp Leaders s.r.o. in the Czech Republic. The main objective of the work is to analyse the marketing strategy. The first chapter explains some key concepts of marketing. The second chapter is dedicated to the introduction of the company Camp Leaders, part of the Smaller Earth. Then the second chapter analyses the marketing mix of this company and the main competitors of providing Work&Travel programmes are introduced. The m...

  5. Dermatologic challenges of health care for displaced people. lessons from a German emergency refugee camp

    Uwe Wollina; Beatrix Gaber; Rahaf Mansour; Dana Langner; Gesina Hansel; André Koch


    Background: The World faces the highest waves of displaced people since World War II. There is limited knowledge about need of dermatological care for refugees and asylum seekers. Methods: We report the experience with a temporary emergency refugee camp in Dresden form the viewpoint of a hospital department. This is a descriptive report covering the period of 10 weeks. Results: In this refugee camp up to 1 100 people were hosted. The male to female ratio was 5.3. The majority of inhab...

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections in the residents of an emigration camp in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Huh, S; Ahn, C; Chai, J Y


    We examined stool specimens of the residents in the emigration camp in Tijuana, Mexico for helminth eggs or protozoan cysts with formalin-ethyl acetate concentration method in February and July 1992. Out of 92 examined samples, number of positive was 49 (53.3%). While number of cumulative positive was 66 (71.7%). Cysts of Entamoeba coli (29.3%) Giardia lamblia (9.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.6%), and eggs of Taenia spp. (6.5) were most frequently observed. Filtered water supply and chemotherapy were required in this camp. PMID:7735788

  7. Effectiveness of a one-year multi-component day-camp intervention for overweight children

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Møller, Niels Christian;


    was offered two weekly hours of physical activity training for six weeks. The outcomes were measured at baseline and at six-week and 52-week follow-ups. Furthermore, BMI will be assessed again at 48-month follow-up. Test personnel were kept blinded. The intervention effect will be evaluated using......-camp intervention program on overweight children, due to the design and the follow-up period. Moreover, it will add to the knowledge on designing and implementing feasible camp settings for preventing overweight in children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01574352 at on the 8th of March 2012....

  8. Biophysical Techniques for Detection of cAMP and cGMP in Living Cells

    Viacheslav O. Nikolaev


    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP are ubiquitous second messengers which regulate myriads of functions in virtually all eukaryotic cells. Their intracellular effects are often mediated via discrete subcellular signaling microdomains. In this review, we will discuss state-of-the-art techniques to measure cAMP and cGMP in biological samples with a particular focus on live cell imaging approaches, which allow their detection with high temporal and spatial resolution in living cells and tissues. Finally, we will describe how these techniques can be applied to the analysis of second messenger dynamics in subcellular signaling microdomains.

  9. The research of teenager's physical development level in summer health tent camps.

    Rybalko P.F.


    Full Text Available The problems of forming and content of physical-health work in scout camp organization are examined. In the research took part 230 pupils of 11 - 15 years old. The level of physical development and physical preparation of children is estimated; it is found out that majority of children have "lower that average level". The effectiveness of express-methodic that gives the estimation level of physical development and physical preparation of 11 - 15 years old schoolchildren is proved. Special complex of health physical training programmers for children summer camps is worked out.

  10. Communication and Shared Practices are Bringing NASA STEM Resources to Camp Youth

    LaConte, K.; Shaner, A.; Shipp, S.; Garst, B.; Bialeschki, M. D.; Netting, R.; Erickson, K.


    In 2012, NASA and the American Camp Association (ACA) entered into an alliance to further both organizations' goals and objectives with regard to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. This alliance is providing camp staff—and their young audiences—access to NASA's resources. NASA disseminates resources (e.g., pathways for requesting guest presenters, informal learning lesson plans), conducts ACA professional development (online and at ACA conferences), and coordinates efforts around key events (e.g., spacecraft launches). ACA promotes awareness of NASA resources through their communications and services. Together, the organizations are working to inspire a new generation of scientists, engineers, explorers, educators, and innovators to pursue STEM careers.