Sample records for callinectes sapidus rathbun

  1. Occurrence of the Invasive Crab Species Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, in NW Greece



    Full Text Available The present work aims to review and describe the current status of the invasive species Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, along the Ionian coastal zone of Greece and to assess its invasive potential. Blue crab has a long invasion history in the Mediterranean Sea, but the available data on the species occurrence in the Ionian sub-region are scarce and fragmented. The proximity of most of the estuaries and lagoons to local ports and to the shipping routes, as well as the swimming/dispersal ability of the adults of the species, indicate that range expansion will likely continue. The invasiveness risk of the species in the region was estimated with the use of a decision support tool (Marine Invertebrate Invasiveness Screening Kit, version 1.19. The observed impacts are discussed, along with urgent mitigation priorities. Measures to limit the expansion of this invasive species may include the effective management of ballast waters and the targeted increase of fishing pressure on C. sapidus populations. The importance of ballast water management is further highlighted by the existence of numerous ports with the capacity to serve ships with ballast tanks in close proximity to the recipient ecosystems. Moreover, the Ionian Sea, which connects the Adriatic Sea to the rest of the Mediterranean, is a significant shipping route for the local, regional, and international seaborne trade.

  2. Recruitment of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun 1896 Megalopae from Three Southwestern Gulf of Mexico Lagoon-system Inlets

    R. Chavez-Lopez


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the highest recruitment time of Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896 megalopae and the relation of megalopae density with temperature, salinity, velocity and direction of current flow in three inlets of the Southwestern portion of the Gulf of Mexico. Collections were made at night, using for the capture a conical 243-mm mesh net. The total abundance of C. sapidus for the three coastal systems was of 2,579,725 megalopae. The average temperature was of 28.231.37C, salinity of 23.547.10 psu and stream velocity of 0.390.18 m sec-1. During the study, recruitment peaks were observed between 22:00 and 02:00 h. The maximal recruitment was registered in the SM river inlet, whereas Puerto Real inlet representing the lowest recruitment registered. The correlation between salinity and megalopae density was significant (p = 0.05 in the three coastal systems. The highest density was registered when salinity was > 23 psu. Recruitment was related to the influx of seawater towards the coastal systems. There were no significant differences in magalopae density (p = 0.05 between consecutive sampling cycles.

  3. Synopsis of biological data on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun

    Millikin, Mark R.; Williams, Austin B.


    This synopsis reviews taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, commercial hard and soft shell crab fisheries, physiology, diseases, ecology, laboratory culture methodology, and influences of environmental pollutants on the blue crab, Callinecles sapidus. Over 300 selected, published reports up to and including 1982 are covered. (PDF file contains 45 pages.)

  4. Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for Weight Predictions of Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus RATHBUN, 1896 Using Predictor Variables



    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of artificial networks (ANNs to estimate the weights of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus catches in Yumurtalık Cove (Iskenderun Bay that uses measured predictor variables is presented, including carapace width (CW, sex (male, female and female with eggs, and sampling month. Blue crabs (n=410 were collected each month between 15 September 1996 and 15 May 1998. Sex, CW, and sampling month were used and specified in the input layer of the network. The weights of the blue crabs were utilized in the output layer of the network. A multi-layer perception architecture model was used and was calibrated with the Levenberg Marguardt (LM algorithm. Finally, the values were determined by the ANN model using the actual data. The mean square error (MSE was measured as 3.3, and the best results had a correlation coefficient (R of 0.93. We compared the predictive capacity of the general linear model (GLM versus the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN for the estimation of the weights of blue crabs from independent field data. The results indicated the higher performance capacity of the ANN to predict weights compared to the GLM (R=0.97 vs. R=0.95, raw variable when evaluated against independent field data.

  5. PCR-based prevalence of a fatal reovirus of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) along the northern Atlantic coast of the USA.

    Flowers, E M; Simmonds, K; Messick, G A; Sullivan, L; Schott, E J


    There is a need for more information on the relationship between diseases and fluctuations of wild populations of marine animals. In the case of Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1, also known as RLV), there is a lack of baseline information on range, prevalence and outbreaks, from which to develop an understanding of population-level impacts. An RT-qPCR assay was developed that is capable of detecting 10 copies of the CsRV1 genome. In collaboration with state, federal and academic partners, blue crabs were collected from sites throughout the north-eastern United States to assess the northern range of this pathogen. In addition, archived crab samples from the Chesapeake Bay were assessed for CsRV1 by RT-qPCR and histology. PCR-based assessments indicate that CsRV1 was present at all but one site. Prevalence of CsRV1 as assessed by RT-qPCR was highly variable between locations, and CsRV1 prevalence varied between years at a given location. Mean CsRV1 prevalence as assessed by RT-qPCR was >15% each year, and peak prevalence was 79%. The wide geographic range and highly variable prevalence of CsRV1 indicate that more study is needed to understand CsRV1 dynamics and the role the virus plays in blue crab natural mortality. PMID:26249243

  6. Genome sequence analysis of CsRV1, a pathogenic reovirus that infects the blue crab Callinectes sapidus across its trans-hemispheric range

    The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), which is a commercially important trophic link in coastal ecosystems of the western Atlantic, is infected in both North and South America by C. sapidus Reovirus 1 (CsRV1), a double stranded RNA virus. The 12 genome segments of a North American strai...

  7. Epidermal carbonic anhydrase activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Calhoun, Stacy; Zou, Enmin


    During the crustacean molting cycle, the exoskeleton is first mineralized in postmolt and intermolt and then presumably demineralized in premolt in order for epidermal retraction to occur. The mineralization process calls for divalent metal ions, such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) , and bicarbonate ions whereas protons are necessary for dissolution of carbonate salts. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) has been suggested to be involved in exoskeletal mineralization by providing bicarbonate ions through catalyzing the reaction of carbon dioxide hydration. However, results of earlier studies on the role of epidermal CA in metal incorporation in crustacean exoskeleton are not consistent. This study was aimed to provide further evidence to support the notion that epidermal CA is involved in exoskeletal mineralization using the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896), as the model crustacean. Significant increases first in calcium and magnesium then in manganese post-ecdysis indicate significant metal deposition during postmolt and intermolt. Significant positive correlation between calcium or magnesium content and epidermal CA activity in postmolt and intermolt constitutes evidence that CA is involved in the mineralization of the crustacean exoskeleton. Additionally, we proposed a hypothetical model to describe the role of epidermal CA in both mineralization and demineralization of the exoskeleton based on the results of epidermal CA activity and exoskeletal metal content during the molting cycle. Furthermore, we found that the pattern of epidermal CA activity during the molting cycle of C. sapidus is similar to that of ecdysteroids reported for the same species, suggesting that epidermal CA activity may be under control of the molting hormones. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A:XX-XX, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26935248

  8. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P


    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not s...

  9. The Influence of Diet Composition on Fitness of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Belgrad, Benjamin A; Griffen, Blaine D


    The physiological condition and fecundity of an organism is frequently controlled by diet. As changes in environmental conditions often cause organisms to alter their foraging behavior, a comprehensive understanding of how diet influences the fitness of an individual is central to predicting the effect of environmental change on population dynamics. We experimentally manipulated the diet of the economically and ecologically important blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, to approximate the effects of a dietary shift from primarily animal to plant tissue, a phenomenon commonly documented in crabs. Crabs whose diet consisted exclusively of animal tissue had markedly lower mortality and consumed substantially more food than crabs whose diet consisted exclusively of seaweed. The quantity of food consumed had a significant positive influence on reproductive effort and long-term energy stores. Additionally, seaweed diets produced a three-fold decrease in hepatopancreas lipid content and a simultaneous two-fold increase in crab aggression when compared to an animal diet. Our results reveal that the consumption of animal tissue substantially enhanced C. sapidus fitness, and suggest that a dietary shift to plant tissue may reduce crab population growth by decreasing fecundity as well as increasing mortality. This study has implications for C. sapidus fisheries. PMID:26784581

  10. Evaluation of Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Megalopal Settlement and Condition during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Erin K Grey

    Full Text Available The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, is a commercially, culturally, and ecologically significant species in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM, whose offshore stages were likely impacted by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWH. To test for DWH effects and to better understand the planktonic ecology of this species, we monitored Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement and condition at sites within and outside of the spill extent during and one year after the DWH. We tested for DWH effects by comparing 2010 settlement against baseline data available for two sites, and by testing for differences in settlement and condition inside and outside of the spill extent. We also developed time series models to better understand natural drivers of daily settlement variation (seasonal and lunar trends, hydrodynamics, wind during 2010 and 2011. Overall, we found that neither megalopal settlement nor body weight were significantly reduced at oiled sites, but that high unexplained variation and low statistical power made detection of even large effects unlikely. Time series models revealed remarkably consistent and relatively strong seasonal and lunar trends within sites (explaining on average 28% and 9% of variation, respectively, while wind and hydrodynamic effects were weak (1-5% variation explained and variable among sites. This study provides insights into DWH impacts as well as the natural drivers of Callinectes spp. megalopal settlement across the northern GOM.

  11. Toxicity of the organophosphate insecticide fenitrothion and its metabolism by blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus

    The LC50 for Callinectes sapidus exposed to fenitrothion for 96 hours at 220C and a salinity of 34 ppt (parts per thousand) was estimated to be 8.6 μg/liter. Acute toxicity was shown to decrease with decreasing salinity and decreasing temperature. Exposure to a simulated tidal cycle increased the acute toxicity of fenitrothion to Callinectes. The autotomization response in Callinectes was shown to be affected at subacute exposure levels as low as 0.1 μg/liter. In vitro studies showed that the rates of formation of 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol and desmethyl fenitrothion were greater and the rate of formation of fenitrooxon was less in subcellular fractions prepared from the hepatopancreas of crabs which had been acclimated to lower salinity seawater. All three of these metabolites were formed at faster rates in subcellular fractions prepared from crabs which had been acclimated to and incubated at 220C than at 170C. Tissue distribution of aniline hydroxylase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was also determined. The uptake of 14C-fenitrothion at a level in a seawater of 5.2 μg/liter was greater at 220C than at 170C and from 34 ppt than from 17 ppt seawater. Tissue distribution of radioactivity was determined as well as the nature of radiolabelled metabolites in the hepatopancreas and in seawater. There was no significant difference in the overall level of metabolites detected in the 220C than in the 170C seawater. The rate of uptake of fenitrothion by Callinectes also affects the toxicity as the uptake of fenitrothion was more rapid at the higher salinity as well as at the higher temperature

  12. Uptake and survival of enteric viruses in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Hejkal, T W; Gerba, C P


    Uptake of poliovirus 1 by the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, was measured to assess the likelihood of contamination by human enteric viruses. Virus was found in all parts of the crab within 2 h after the crab was placed in contaminated artificial seawater. The highest concentrations of virus were found in the hemolymph and digestive tract, but the meat also contained virus. The concentration of virus in the crabs was generally less than in the surrounding water. Changes in salinity did not substantially affect the rate of accumulation. An increase in temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C increased the rates of both uptake and removal. Poliovirus survived up to 6 days in crabs at a temperature of 15 degrees C and a salinity of 10 g/kg. When contaminated crabs were boiled, 99.9% of poliovirus 1, simian rotavirus SA11, and a natural isolate of echovirus 1 were inactivated within 8 min. These data demonstrate that viruses in crabs should not pose a serious health hazard if recommended cooking procedures are used. PMID:6261683

  13. High Connectivity among Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Populations in the Western South Atlantic

    Kersanach, Ralf; Cortinhas, Maria Cristina Silva; Prata, Pedro Fernandes Sanmartin; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; Proietti, Maíra Carneiro; Maggioni, Rodrigo; D’Incao, Fernando


    Population connectivity in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus was evaluated along 740 km of the Western South Atlantic coast. Blue crabs are the most exploited portunid in Brazil. Despite their economic importance, few studies report their ecology or population structure. Here we sampled four estuarine areas in southern Brazil during winter 2013 and summer 2014 in order to evaluate diversity, gene flow and structure of these populations. Nine microsatellite markers were evaluated for 213 adult crabs, with identification of seven polymorphic loci and 183 alleles. Pairwise FST values indicated low population structure ranging from -0.00023 to 0.01755. A Mantel test revealed that the geographic distance does not influence genetic (r = -0.48), and structure/migration rates confirmed this, showing that even the populations located at the opposite extremities of our covered region presented low FST and exchanged migrants. These findings show that there is a significant amount of gene flow between blue crab populations in South Brazil, likely influenced by local current dynamics that allow the transport of a high number of larvae between estuaries. Considering the elevated gene flow, the populations can be considered a single genetic stock. However, further information on population size and dynamics, as well as fishery demands and impacts at different regions, are necessary for harvest management purposes. PMID:27064977

  14. An evaluation of the effects of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) behavior on the efficacy of crab pots as a tool for estimating population abundance

    Sturdivant, S. Kersey; Clark, Kelton L.


    Crab traps have been used extensively in studies on the population dynamics of blue crabs to provide estimates of catch per unit of effort; however, these estimates have been determined without adequate consideration of escape rates. We examined the ability of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) to escape crab pots and the possibility that intraspecific crab interactions have an effect on catch rates. Approximately 85% of crabs that entered a pot escaped, and 83% of crabs escaped fro...

  15. Dieta natural do siri-azul Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Natural diet of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Decapoda, Portunidae in the Patos Lagoon estuary area, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Alexandre Oliveir

    Full Text Available Na região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos, o siri-azul Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1869 é o mais abundante dentre as espécies do gênero. Apesar do siri-azul exercer influência sobre as comunidades bentônicas, por ser considerado um predador do topo da cadeia alimentar, não existem muitos estudos sobre aspectos ecológicos, inclusive sobre a composição e variabilidade sazonal de sua dieta natural, neste estuário. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi investigar a composição da dieta do siri-azul, evidenciando possíveis relações com a comunidade bentônica da região estuarina da Lagoa dos Patos. O período de estudo foi de março de 2003 a março de 2004, com coletas bimestrais. Os organismos foram coletados com auxílio de rede de arrasto de fundo, com malha de 13 mm entre nós opostos. Ainda em campo os animais foram fixados em formol 10%. Após a coleta os animais foram separados quanto ao sexo, medidos (largura e comprimento da carapaça - cm e pesados (peso - g. Após a triagem, os animais foram dissecados e os intestinos retirados e pesados. As análises dos conteúdos alimentares dos siris demonstraram que os hábitos alimentares são diversificados, constituindo-se principalmente de invertebrados bentônicos. O item encontrado com maior freqüência foi Detrito, seguido pelo molusco filtrador Erodona mactroides Bosc, 1802 (Erodonidae. Crustáceos da classe Ostracoda e grãos de areia foram importantes componentes dos conteúdos dos intestinos anteriores, sendo que areia não foi considerada como item alimentar, propriamente dito. Também foram encontradas cerdas e mandíbulas de poliquetos, além de sementes das macrófitas Ruppia maritima L. (Potamogatonaceae e Zannichellia palustris L. (Potamogatonaceae. Este estudo serve como subsídio para medidas de proteção e conservação da população do siri-azul, bem como caracteriza relações tróficas com comunidades bentônicas do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos.The Southern

  16. Bioaccumulation and depuration of metals in blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun) from a contaminated and clean estuary

    Blue crabs from a contaminated estuary (Hackensack Meadowlands-HM) and a cleaner reference site (Tuckerton-TK) were analyzed for Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn in muscle and hepatopancreas. Crabs from each site were taken into the laboratory and fed food from the other site, or in another experiment, transplanted to the other site for eight weeks. All crabs were analyzed for metals. Overall, tissue concentrations reflected environmental conditions. Tissue differences were found for Cu, Pb and Zn (all higher in hepatopancreas), and Hg (higher in muscle). HM muscle had more Hg than TK muscle, but did not decrease after transplanting or consuming clean food. HM crabs lost Cu, Pb and Zn in hepatopancreas after being fed clean food or transplanted. TK crabs increased Hg in muscle and Cr and Zn in hepatopancreas after transplantation or being fed contaminated (HM) food. Concentrations were variable, suggesting that blue crabs may not be fully reliable bioindicators of polluted systems. - The accumulation of metals within the muscle and hepatopancreas of blue crabs was highly variable, but often followed environmental concentrations.

  17. Comparative analysis of the proximate and elemental composition of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the warty crab Eriphia verrucosa, and the edible crab Cancer pagurus.

    Zotti, Maurizio; Coco, Laura Del; Pascali, Sandra Angelica De; Migoni, Danilo; Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo


    The proximate composition and element contents of claw muscle tissue of Atlantic blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) were compared with the native warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa) and the commercially edible crab (Cancer pagurus). The scope of the analysis was to profile the chemical characteristics and nutritive value of the three crab species. Elemental fingerprints showed significant inter-specific differences, whereas non-significant variations in the moisture and ash contents were observed. In the blue crab, protein content was significantly lower than in the other two species, while its carbon content resulted lower than that characterizing only the warty crab. Among micro-elements, Ba, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, and Pb showed extremely low concentrations and negligible among-species differences. Significant inter-specific differences were observed for Na, Sr, V, Ba, Cd and Zn; in particular, cadmium and zinc were characterized in the blue crab by concentrations significantly lower than in the other two species. The analysis of the available literature on the three species indicated a general lack of comparable information on their elemental composition. The need to implement extended elemental fingerprinting techniques for shellfish quality assessment is discussed, in view of other complementary profiling methods such as NMR-based metabolomics. PMID:27441254

  18. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae in the Southeast coast of Brazil

    Evandro Severino-Rodrigues


    Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.

  19. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Southeast coast of Brazil.

    Severino-Rodrigues, Evandro; Musiello-Fernandes, Joelson; Moura, Alvaro A S; Branco, Geisa M P; Canéo, Victor O C


    C sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt), and cephalothorax width (CW) was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We) and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne). A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50) occurred at CW = 10.33 cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100) was CW = 11.20 cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11 cm of carapace width. PMID:23885578

  20. (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the Adriatic Sea (SE Italy): A comparison with warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa), and edible crab (Cancer pagurus).

    Zotti, Maurizio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Del Coco, Laura; Migoni, Danilo; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo


    The metabolomic profile of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) captured in the Acquatina lagoon (SE Italy) was compared to an autochthonous (Eriphia verrucosa) and to a commercial crab species (Cancer pagurus). Both lipid and aqueous extracts of raw claw muscle were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and MVA (multivariate data analysis). Aqueous extracts were characterized by a higher inter-specific discriminating power compared to lipid fractions. Specifically, higher levels of glutamate, alanine and glycine characterized the aqueous extract of C. sapidus, while homarine, lactate, betaine and taurine characterized E. verrucosa and C. pagurus. On the other hand, only the signals of monounsaturated fatty acids distinguished the lipid profiles of the three crab species. These results support the commercial exploitation and the integration of the blue crab in human diet of European countries as an healthy and valuable seafood. PMID:26593533

  1. New functions of arthropod bursicon: inducing deposition and thickening of new cuticle and hemocyte granulation in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    J Sook Chung

    Full Text Available Arthropod growth requires molt-associated changes in softness and stiffness of the cuticle that protects from desiccation, infection and injury. Cuticle hardening in insects depends on the blood-borne hormone, bursicon (Burs, although it has never been determined in hemolymph. Whilst also having Burs, decapod crustaceans reiterate molting many more times during their longer life span and are encased in a calcified exoskeleton, which after molting undergoes similar initial cuticle hardening processes as in insects. We investigated the role of homologous crustacean Burs in cuticular changes and growth in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. We found dramatic increases in size and number of Burs cells during development in paired thoracic ganglion complex (TGC neurons with pericardial organs (POs as neurohemal release sites. A skewed expression of Burs β/Burs α mRNA in TGC corresponds to protein contents of identified Burs β homodimer and Burs heterodimer in POs. In hemolymph, Burs is consistently present at ∼21 pM throughout the molt cycle, showing a peak of ∼89 pM at ecdysis. Since initial cuticle hardness determines the degree of molt-associated somatic increment (MSI, we applied recombinant Burs in vitro to cuticle explants of late premolt or early ecdysis. Burs stimulates cuticle thickening and granulation of hemocytes. These findings demonstrate novel cuticle-associated functions of Burs during molting, while the unambiguous and constant presence of Burs in cells and hemolymph throughout the molt cycle and life stages may implicate further functions of its homo- and heterodimer hormone isoforms in immunoprotective defense systems of arthropods.

  2. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: In vivo and in vitro studies

    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC50 and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) μM Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) μM Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC50 values were expressed as the free Cu2+ ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) μM free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) μM free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu2+ activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) μM Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) μM Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2 h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this 'steady-state' period. This finding was corroborated by a significant increase in

  3. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: In vivo and in vitro studies

    De Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Menezes, Eliana Jaime de; Mussoi Giacomin, Marina [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Wood, Chris M. [McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)


    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC{sub 50} and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) {mu}M Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) {mu}M Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC{sub 50} values were expressed as the free Cu{sup 2+} ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) {mu}M free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) {mu}M free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu{sup 2+} activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) {mu}M Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) {mu}M Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2 h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this 'steady-state' period. This finding

  4. Investigação dos teores de metais pesados em espécies de siris azuis do gênero Callinectes sp. Heavy metals content investigation in blue crab species of the genus Callinectes sp.

    Rossana Helena Pitta Virga


    Full Text Available A ocorrência de metais pesados em sistemas aquáticos, usualmente, é resultante de processos naturais geoquímicos. Entretanto, a presença destes elementos químicos tem aumentado consideravelmente nas últimas décadas, como no caso da bacia do rio Cubatão, em conseqüência das atividades humanas na região. Neste trabalho, foi realizada uma análise quantitativa do conteúdo de Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn e Cu, em quatro espécies de siris azuis do gênero Callinectes sp., coletadas ao longo do rio Cubatão, utilizando a técnica da espectrometria de absorção atômica por chama (FAAS. Foram analisadas 144 amostras de siris azuis das seguintes espécies: C. danae (63%; C. sapidus (23%; C. bocourti (10.5%; e C. ornatus (3.5%. A espécie C. Sapidus foi a que apresentou os maiores níveis de concentração para os metais estudados. Com exceção do Cu, cuja concentração média obtida foi 40% maior para as fêmeas (p Usually, heavy metals occurrence in aquatic systems is resulting from natural geochemical processes. However, the presence of these chemical elements has considerably increased in the last decades . An example is the case of the Cubatão river basin caused by human activities in that region. In this work, a quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Cu content of four blue crab species of the genus Callinectes sp., sampled along the Cubatão river, was carried out using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS. 144 blue crab samples from the following species were analyzed: C. danae (63%, C. sapidus (23%, C. bocourti (10.5%, and C. ornatus (3.5%. The C. Sapidus species presented the highest concentration levels for the studied metals. With the exception of Cu, for which the average concentration was 40% higher for the females (p < 0,05, there was no significant variation in the heavy metal content regarding sex and the size of the animals. Except for Cr, for which the average values interval obtained for the 4 species was above the

  5. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, larval settlement in Mississippi

    The largest accidental release of crude oil in history occurred in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM) between April 20 and July 15, 2010 (Alford et al., this volume). The DWH spill was unprecedented due to both its magnitude (>600,000 metric tons released) and its occurren...

  6. The history of Chesapeake Bay's blue crab (Callinectes sapidus: fisheries and management Perspectiva histórica de la pesquería y del manejo del cangrejo azul (Callinectes sapidus: en la Bahía de Chesapeake

    Cluney Stagg


    Full Text Available Major blue crab fisheries have existed on the Atlantic coast of the United States for at least 100 years, and on the Gulf of Mexico coast for more than 50 years. From 1990 to 1994, reported landings averaged more than 96 million kg per year, with a reported dockside value of more than $200 million. Until about 1950, Chesapeake Bay accounted for over 75% of the total reported U.S. harvest of blue crabs, but less than 50% over the last two decades. The United States blue crab fishery is made up of hundreds to thousands of small-scale fishermen. The commercial fishery has a hard crab component and a soft crab (recently molted fishery. There is also a substantial recreational (casual fishery for blue crabs. Since the 1950s, crab pots have accounted for the largest proportion of reported landings. Other major gears include the trotline, crab scrape and crab dredge. U.S. blue crab fisheries have undergone periods of low abundance. Changes in fishing effort and power, environmental conditions, ecological interactions and market forces have been hypothesized as causative factors. Management measures in the Chesapeake Bay blue crab fisheries have included size and life stage, season, and gear limitations, as well as entry restrictions. An historical perspective should be taken in the interpretation of the recent decline in reported harvests. A 1997 stock assessment concluded that Chesapeake Bay blue crab stocks were fully exploited but in no current danger of recruitment overfishingImportantes pesquerías de jaiba azul han existido en la costa Atlántica de los Estados Unidos por lo menos durante 100 años, y en la costa del Golfo de México por más de 50 años. Desde 1990 a 1994, los desembarques informados promedian más de 96 millones de kg por año, con un valor playa de más de US$ 200 millones. Hasta cerca de 1950, la Bahía de Chesapeake contribuía sobre el 75% del total de la captura de jaibas azules informada para EE.UU., pero menos del 50% en las últimas dos décadas. La pesquería de jaiba azul de los Estados Unidos está conformada por cientos a miles de pescadores artesanales. La pesquería comercial tiene una componente de jaibas duras y una pesquería de jaibas blandas recién mudadas. También existe una importante pesquería recreacional (casual de jaibas azules. Desde los años 50, el uso de trampas para la captura de jaibas han contribuido en mayor proporción a las capturas reportadas. Otros artes utilizados incluyen la "trotline", rastra de jaibas y draga. Las pesquerías de jaiba azul en EE.UU. han tenido períodos de baja abundancia. Cambios en el esfuerzo y poder de pesca, condiciones ambientales, interacciones ecológicas y fuerzas de mercado han sido hipotetizadas como factores causales. Las medidas de manejo de las pesquerías de jaiba azul en la Bahía de Chesapeake han incluido limitaciones de la talla y ciclo de vida, períodos de pesca y limitaciones a los arte de pesca, así como restricciones al ingreso. Debe tomarse una perspectiva histórica en la interpretación de la reciente declinación en las capturas registradas. Una evaluación de stock realizada en 1997 concluye que los stocks de jaiba azul de la Bahía de Chesapeake están completamente explotados pero no en actual peligro de sobrepesca por reclutamiento

  7. Cadmium and Mercury Uptake by Immobilized Pleurotus sapidus

    YALÇINKAYA, Yağmur


    Pleurotus sapidus} basidiospores immobilized onto Ca-alginate beads were used for the removal of cadmium and mercury ions from aqueous solutions. The biosorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions on the alginate beads and both immobilized live and heat inactivated fungal mycelia of Pleurotus sapidus} was studied from aqueous solutions in the concentration range of 30-500 mg L - 1. The biosorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions by the alginate and both live and heat inactivated immobilized prepara...

  8. Sekretomanalyse von Pleurotus sapidus zum effizienten Aufschluss von Lignocellulosen

    Schüttmann, Ina


    Mit einer polyvalenten Peroxidase wurde ein Schlüsselenzym des Lignocelluloseabbaus aus Kulturen des Basidiomyceten Pleurotus sapidus chromatographisch gereinigt. Nach einer dreistufigen Reinigung wurde das Enzym mit einem Reinigungsfaktor von 130 aus dem Überstand einer Submerskultur isoliert. Die Aktivitätsoptima wurden für die Substrate b,b-Carotin, ABTS, Syringol und Veratrylalkohol ebenso bestimmt wie die Wechselzahlen und katalytischen Konstanten. In Zusammenarbeit mit der Firma Arte...

  9. Primeiro registro de Lepteces ornatus Rathbun (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majidae) para o Atlântico Sul First record of Lepteces ornatus Rathbun (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majidae) for the Southwestern Atlantic

    Gustavo Augusto S. de Melo; Thais Brandini Crivelaro


    During the project GEDIP, in the coast of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with some stations off Uruguay, a specimen female of the brachyuran crab Lepteces ornatus Rathbun, 1893 was found. Up till now this species was known only by his type material, from Arrowsmith Bank, Yukatan, Mexico. Description, material examined and distribution are done.

  10. Primeiro registro de Lepteces ornatus Rathbun (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majidae para o Atlântico Sul First record of Lepteces ornatus Rathbun (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majidae for the Southwestern Atlantic

    Gustavo Augusto S. de Melo


    Full Text Available During the project GEDIP, in the coast of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with some stations off Uruguay, a specimen female of the brachyuran crab Lepteces ornatus Rathbun, 1893 was found. Up till now this species was known only by his type material, from Arrowsmith Bank, Yukatan, Mexico. Description, material examined and distribution are done.

  11. Crescimento relativo em Uca leptodactyla Rathbun (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae Relative growth in the fiddler crab Uca leptodactyla Rathbun (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae

    Setuko Masunari


    Full Text Available Relative growth of the male major chela and female abdome was studied in a population of the fiddler crab Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 from Itapoá, Santa Catarina coast, southern Brazil. Major chela length (CMQ was measured from 191 males, and abdomen width (LAB from 128 females. Carapace width (LC was the reference dimension for both sexes, which ranged from 3.9 to 11.5 mm for males, and from 3.15 to 10.65 mm for females. Males grew bigger than females. Relationship between CMQ and LC showed a transition point at 8.35 mm LC in males, and between LA and LC at 7.10 mm LC in females. Growth was allometrically positive in the early ontogenesis and isometric after the puberal molting for both sexes. Regressions between LC and CMQ in males read as: logCMQ = -0,854536 + 2,19. logLC for empirical points at left of critical point and logCMQ = 0,063047 + 1,24. logLC for those at right. In females, this relation was logLAB = -0,603590 + 1,30. logLC and logLAB = -0,361464 + 1,07. logLC, respectively. These body dimensions were connected with reproductive activity of this species.

  12. Phosphorus source-sink relationships of stream sediments in the Rathbun Lake watershed in southern Iowa, USA.

    Hongthanat, Najphak; Kovar, John L; Thompson, Michael L; Russell, James R; Isenhart, Thomas M


    The surface waters of Rathbun Lake watershed in southern Iowa are impacted by agricultural sources of sediments and nutrients, including phosphorus (P). Because stream sediments often play an important role in regulating P concentrations in stream water, we investigated sediment-water column P relationships in four creeks within the watershed and then evaluated the relationship between sediment properties and indicators of the risk of P loss. Based on Mehlich-3-extractable P (17 to 68 mg kg(-1)) and degree of P saturation (2 to 12 %), stream bank and bed sediments at the four sites were unlikely to serve as major sources of P. However, equilibrium P concentrations, which ranged from 0.02 to 0.12 mg L(-1), indicated that bed sediments could release P to the water column depending on dissolved P (DP) concentrations in the stream water and the time of year. The likelihood of P desorption from the sediments increased with increasing pH (r = 0.92, p < 0.01) and sand content (r = 0.78, p < 0.05), but decreased with clay content (r = -0.72, p < 0.05) and iron (Fe) (r = -0.93, p < 0.001) associated with organic matter. From these results, we speculate that changes in land use within the riparian areas may, at least initially, have little effect on P concentrations in the streams. Low concentrations of DP relative to total P (TP) in these streams, however, suggest that P loads to Rathbun Lake can be reduced if P inputs from eroded bank sediments are controlled. PMID:27393193

  13. Isolation and characterization of wild-type lipoxygenase LOX(Psa)1 from Pleurotus sapidus.

    Plagemann, Ina; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G


    The lipoxygenase LOX(Psa) 1 of Pleurotus sapidus, originally investigated because of its ability to oxidize (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit aroma (+)-nootkatone, was isolated from the peptidase-rich lyophilisate using a three-step purification scheme including preparative isoelectric focusing and chromatographic techniques. Nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) of the purified enzyme and peptide mass fingerprint analysis gave 38 peptides of the lipoxygenase from P. sapidus. Nearly 50% of the 643 amino acids long sequence encoded by the cDNA was covered. Both terminal peptides of the native LOX(Psa) 1 were identified by de novo sequencing, and the postulated molecular mass of 72.5 kDa was confirmed. With linoleic acid as the substrate, the LOX(Psa)1 showed a specific activity of 113 U mg(-1) and maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C, respectively. PMID:24873036

  14. The occurrence of Callinectes arcuatus ordway, 1863 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in Bahia, Brazil

    Edilson Pires de Gouvêa


    Full Text Available During the study of the Carcinofauna of the Bahian Coast, some Brachyura Portunidae were found. Some of these animals were Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 which has its distribution restricted to the Pacific Ocean, from California to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. This is the first occurrence of this species reported from the Atlantic Ocean and the Brazilian Coast (Bahia, 38º50'Wand 12º50'S.Durante o estudo da carcinofauna do litoral baiano, muitos Braquiuros Portunidae foram encontrados. Alguns destes animais foram Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 que possuia sua distribuição restrita da Califórnia ao Peru e Ilhas Galápagos, no Oceano Pacífico. Esta é a primeira ocorrência desta espécie no Oceano Atlântico e na Costa Brasileira. (Bahia, 12º50'S e 38º50'W.

  15. Maturidade sexual do caranguejo Armases rubripes (Rathbun (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Sexual maturity of the crab Armases rubripes (Rathbun (Crustacea, Brachyura, Sesarmidae in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Giovana V. Lima


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a maturidade sexual de Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 em três diferentes ambientes (rio, praia arenosa e manguezal no sudeste do Brasil. Os caranguejos foram coletados mensalmente de julho/2002 a fevereiro/2004, utilizando-se peneiras no Rio Sahy durante as marés altas e, manualmente, na praia e no manguezal, durante as marés baixas. Os animais foram capturados por dois coletores num esforço de 15 minutos por estação de coleta. No laboratório, os exemplares foram separados por sexo e mensurados em relação a largura da carapaça, do abdome e comprimento do gonopódio. As gônadas, gonopódios e o abdome foram analisados segundo sua forma e seu aspecto. Um total de 4.051 indivíduos foram amostrados (1.067 machos, 1.563 fêmeas e 1.421 juvenis. Foram determinados cinco morfotipos: juvenis, machos imaturos, fêmeas imaturas, machos maduros e fêmeas maduras. O início da maturidade sexual fisiológica e morfológica ocorreu de forma assíncrona, com machos produzindo gametas mais cedo que as fêmeas. O tamanho da primeira maturidade sexual apresentou diferença significativa entre os ambientes analisados, exceção observada para o manguezal. Os indivíduos obtidos no manguezal apresentaram menores tamanhos para o início da maturidade sexual. Embora, estimados os tamanhos da maturidade sexual morfológica de machos e fêmeas, a análise do crescimento alométrico foi inadequado para a espécie.The present study analyzed the sexual maturity of Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 in three populations from different environmental conditions (river, beach and mangrove in the southeastern Brazilian coast. Crabs were sampled monthly from July 2002 to February 2004; they were captured with sieves at Sahy River, during the high tides, and by hand at beach and mangrove areas, during low tides. Animals were captured by establishing a catch effort of two collectors during 15 minutes for each station. At laboratory, all individuals

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in blue crabs (Callinectes bocourti) from Maceio, AL, Brazil

    In this work the elements Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn and Ni were analyzed in hepatopancreas samples of crabs (Callinectes bocourti) from the city of Marechal Deodoro and from the city of Coqueiro Seco, both in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The biometry of this crabs was performed, their hepatopancreas were extracted, and then lyophilized. Heavy metal analysis were performed by Grafite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS) Thirty seven crabs individuals, were collected. The crabs were adults with average mass of∼ 78g. The average values of the metals were measured, and for Pb and Cd, that the ANVISA establishes limits, these values are lower than the limits, even some individual concentration are higher than the recommended limits. The concentrations of Cu and Zn are higher than the other metals, suggesting that there is an influence of the industrial activities in surroundings of the sampled sites. (author)

  17. Some aspects of the biology of the female blue crab Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Akpan Michael Mfon; Udoh Ifiok Solomon


    Objective: To investigate some important aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola (C. amnicola) such as fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty ovigerous females of C. amnicola, freshly caught with basket traps, lift net trap, and gill net were collected from the catches of the artisanal fisheries in the study area between J...

  18. Functional expression of a valencene dioxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in E. coli.

    Zelena, Kateryna; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G


    Valencene dioxygenase (ValOx) from the edible basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus converted the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the valuable grapefruit flavour (+)-nootkatone and to nootkatols through intermediate hydroperoxides. Expression of the enzyme was carried out in the cytosol and periplasm of Escherichia coli. The heterologous production led to high yields of inclusion bodies. The poor yield of soluble recombinant protein was improved by various strategies including cold shock expression, chaperone co-expression, and employment of mutant E. coli strains. Up to 60 mg of the biologically active, soluble ValOx was produced by cold shock under control of the cspA promoter at 8 °C in the BL21(DE3)Star strain and co-expression of the E. coli trigger factor. The recombinant enzyme, purified using the N-terminal His tag, showed the catalytic properties of the wild-type enzyme, as was confirmed by the LC-MS analysis of hydroperoxide intermediates and GC-MS analysis of the volatile products. PMID:22264428

  19. Juvenile development of Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae under laboratory conditions



    Full Text Available The juvenile development of Callinectes danae was investigated from megalopae obtained in neuston samples at Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The individuals were raised in the laboratory under constant temperature (25 ± 1°C, filtered sea water from the collection location (35‰, and natural photoperiod. Newly hatched Artemia sp. nauplii were offered as food on a daily basis and ornamental-fish food was also provided for the juveniles from the 4th stage on. Twelve stages of the juvenile phase were obtained. The main morphological features that allowed recognition of the first juvenile stage were drawn and described. All the subsequent stages obtained were examined and measured, and the main changes in relation to the first stage were recorded. Sexual dimorphism becomes apparent from the fourth juvenile stage onwards. Some appendages and morphological features proved to be of great importance in the identification of species, including the number of segments of the antennal flagellum and the number of setae on the maxilla and on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillipeds. These can probably be used for future comparisons and species identifications.

  20. An environmental forensic approach for tropical estuaries based on metal bioaccumulation in tissues of Callinectes danae.

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Andrade, Nathalia P; Hortellani, Marcos A; Favaro, Deborah I T; Kakazu, Mauricio H; Cotrim, Marycel E B; Lavradas, Raquel T; Moreira, Isabel; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann


    The blue crab Callinectes danae is distributed throughout the Atlantic coast and this study aimed to evaluate a environmental forensics approach that could be applied at tropical estuarine systems where this species is distributed, based on the metal concentrations in its tissues. For this purpose, blue crab samples were collected in 9 sites (distributed in 3 areas) along the Santos Estuarine System, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in gills, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed in these same sites. A data distribution pattern was identified during both sampling periods (August and December 2011). In order to validate this model, a new sampling campaign was performed in March 2013 at the Santos Estuarine System and also at Ilha Grande (state of Rio de Janeiro). These data were added to the previous database (composed of the August and December 2011 samples) and a discriminant analysis was applied. The results confirmed an environmental fingerprint for the Santos Estuarine System. PMID:26475048

  1. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacted by golf course runoff is not well understood. This report summarizes trace metal, pesticide and PCB residues for colonized periphyton, Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass), Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (blue crabs) and Crassostrea virginica Gemlin (Eastern oyster) collected from areas adjacent to a Florida golf course complex which receive runoff containing reclaimed municipal wastewater. Concentrations of 19 chlorinated pesticides and 18 PCB congeners were usually below detection in the biota. In contrast, 8 trace metals were commonly detected although concentrations were not usually significantly different for biota collected from reference and non-reference coastal areas. Residue concentrations in decreasing order were typically: zinc, arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury. Mean BCF values for the eight trace metals ranged between 160-57 000 (periphyton), 79-11 033 (R. maritima), 87-162 625 (C. virginica) and 12-9800 (C. sapidus). Most trace metal residues in periphyton colonized adjacent to the golf complex, were either similar to or significantly less than those reported for periphyton colonized in nearby coastal areas impacted by urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. Consequently, the recreational complex does not appear to be a major source of bioavailable contaminants locally nor in the immediate watershed based on results for the selected biota

  2. An aryl-alcohol oxidase of Pleurotus sapidus: heterologous expression, characterization, and application in a 2-enzyme system.

    Galperin, Ilya; Javeed, Aysha; Luig, Hanno; Lochnit, Günter; Rühl, Martin


    Aryl-alcohol oxidases (AAOs) are enzymes supporting the degradation of lignin by fungal derived class II peroxidases produced by white-rot fungi. AAOs are able to generate H2O2 as a by-product via oxidation of an aryl-alcohol into its correspondent aldehyde. In this study, an AAO was heterologously expressed in a basidiomycete host for the first time. The gene for an AAO of the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sapidus, a close relative to the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, was cloned into an expression vector and put under control of the promotor of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene 2 (gpdII) of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. The expression vector was transformed into the model basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea, and several positive transformants were obtained. The best producing transformants were grown in shake-flasks and in a stirred tank reactor reaching enzymatic activities of up to 125 U L(-1) using veratryl alcohol as a substrate. The purified AAO was biochemically characterized and compared to the previously described native and recombinant AAOs from other Pleurotus species. In addition, a two-enzyme system comprising a dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) from Mycetinis scorodonius and the P. sapidus AAO was successfully employed to bleach the anthraquinone dye Reactive Blue 5. PMID:27138199

  3. Crosses between monokaryons of Pleurotus sapidus or Pleurotus florida show an improved biotransformation of (+)-valencene to (+)-nootkatone.

    Omarini, Alejandra B; Plagemann, Ina; Schimanski, Silke; Krings, Ulrich; Berger, Ralf G


    Several hundred monokaryotic and new dikaryotic strains derived thereof were established from (+)-valencene tolerant Pleurotus species. When grouped according to their growth rate on agar plates and compared to the parental of Pleurotus sapidus 69, the slowly growing monokaryons converted (+)-valencene more efficiently to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone. The fast growing monokaryons and the slow×slow and the fast×fast dikaryotic crosses showed similar or inferior yields. Some slow×fast dikaryons, however, exceeded the biotransformation capability of the parental dikaryon significantly. The activity of the responsible enzyme, lipoxygenase, showed a weak correlation with the yields of (+)-nootkatone indicating that the determination of enzyme activity using the primary substrate linoleic acid may be misleading in predicting the biotransformation efficiency. This exploratory study indicated that a classical genetics approach resulted in altered and partly improved terpene transformation capability (plus 60%) and lipoxygenase activity of the strains. PMID:25189516

  4. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.


    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  5. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediment and Tissues of the Crab Callinectes pallidus from the Azuabie Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta

    Erema R. Daka


    Full Text Available The accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in sediment and the flesh/carapace of the edible swimming crab Callinectes pallidus from Azuabie creek in the upper Bonny Estuary, Niger Delta and Nigeria were studied. Sediment and crab samples were collected from three sampling stations along the Azuabie creek in July (rainy season and November (dry season 2007. These stations were selected to reflect point of abattoir waste input (which includes ash from tyre used for roasting meat into the creek as well as locations upstream and downstream of the point. Seasonal and spatial variations were observed in the concentrations of PAH. Significant differences in PAH (p<0.01 were observed between rainy season and dry season samples. The major classes of PAH found in sediment and Callinectes pallidus Callinectes pallidus C. pallidus Naphthalene, Benzo (a pyrene, Benzo (a anthracene and Phenanthrene which are known to be carcinogenic. The PAHs were higher during the rainy season probably due to run-off of tyre ash from the nearby abattoir. The observations made in this study suggest thatC. pallidus from the Azuabie creek might not be safe for human consumption because of the levels of PAHs found in the flesh of samples mostly in the rainy season. The abattoir appears to impact the creek because significantly higher levels of PAHs were recorded at the proximate sampling station.

  6. Accumulation of contaminants from urban rainfall runoff in blue crabs: A pilot study

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of using caged blue crabs Callinectes sapidus to monitor accumulation of contaminants in urban...

  7. Idade e crescimento de Callinectes danae e C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Age and growth of Callinectes danae and C. ornatus (Crustacea, Decapoda in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Karina A. Keunecke


    Full Text Available Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 e C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constituem uma parcela importante da produção pesqueira na Baía de Guanabara. Ambas espécies compõem uma fração significativa da fauna-acompanhante sendo exaustivamente descartadas pelas pescarias de arrasto de camarões na costa brasileira. As curvas de crescimento de C. danae e C. ornatus foram calculadas por meio da análise de progressão modal. Para estimar os parâmetros biológicos, foi aplicado o modelo de crescimento de Bertalanffy e para estimar a longevidade foi usada a sua fórmula inversa. As curvas de crescimento foram: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t , ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t e ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t , respectivamente para C. danae e C. ornatus. A longevidade alcançada para as duas espécies foi em torno de 2,5 anos, além de validar as curvas de crescimento. O estudo do crescimento em crustáceos é de extrema importância, pois além de fornecer a informação biológica básica para o grupo, os parâmetros estimados subsidiam o ordenamento e manejo pesqueiro das espécies exploradas.Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 and C. ornatus Ordway, 1863 constitute an important portion from the fishing products at Guanabara Bay. Both species compose a significant by-catch fraction being a lot discarded during shrimp trawlings along Brazilian coast. Growth curves were estimated by modal progression analysis. For the biological parameters it was applied the Bertalanffy growth function and for the age it was used its inverse formula. Growth curves of C. danae and C. ornatus were respectively: ♂ LC = 120 (1 - e -0,005t, ♀ LC = 113 (1 - e -0,005t; ♂ LC = 94 (1 - e -0,005t and ♀ LC = 110 (1 - e -0,005t. The age for both species reached around 2.5 years, besides to confirm growth curves. Growth study in crustaceans is very important, because besides supplying biological information it subsidizes fishery management for exploted species.

  8. A dioxygenase of Pleurotus sapidus transforms (+)-valencene regio-specifically to (+)-nootkatone via a stereo-specific allylic hydroperoxidation.

    Krügener, Sven; Krings, Ulrich; Zorn, Holger; Berger, Ralf G


    A selective and highly efficient allylic oxidation of the sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to the grapefruit flavour compound (+)-nootkatone was achieved with lyophilisate of the edible mushroom Pleurotus sapidus. The catalytic reaction sequence was elucidated through the identification of intermediate, (+)-valencene derived hydroperoxides. A specific staining of hydroperoxides allowed the semi-preparative isolation of two secondary (+)-valencene hydroperoxides, 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-4(S)-yl-hydroperoxide and 6(R)-Isopropenyl-4(R),4a(S)-dimethyl-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-naphthalen-2(R)-yl-hydroperoxide. Chemical reduction of the biotransformation products yielded a tertiary alcohol identified as 2(R)-Isopropenyl-8(R),8a(S)-dimethyl-1,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-2H-naphthalen-4a(R)-ol. This suggested a lipoxygenase-type oxidation of (+)-valencene via secondary and tertiary hydroperoxides and confirmed homology data of the key enzyme obtained previously from amino acid sequencing. PMID:19765983

  9. Meat yield of Callinectes bocourti A. Milne Edwards, 1879 (Crustacea, Portunidae in Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil Rendimiento de la carne de Callinectes bocourti A. Milne Edwards, 1879 (Crustacea, Portunidae, en Iguape São Paulo, Brasil

    Gustavo Yomar-Hattori


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the meat yield for both sexes of the crab Callinectes bocourti in the region of Iguape, Brazil. The carapace width for males was 78.1-114.0 mm (96.7 ± 9.5 mm and for females 76.0-106.3 mm (93.0 ± 7.8 mm. In males, the total wet weight ranged from 65.53 to 224.36 g (134.04 ± 40.77 g and for females from 56.66 to 164.74 g (105.93 ± 26.88 g. A comparison of morphological structures revealed that the greatest meat yield was in the carapace (55.1%, followed by the right chela (16.9%, the left chela (15.9%, and the legs (12.1%. The total yield from the males (28.5% was slightly higher than that from the females (22.1%. In general, portunids yield more meat than other crab species. The results of this study will allow the optimization of meat production for this crab species. Manual meat removal makes the process more expensive. This activity could offer an alternative to the fishing communities that live exclusively from this fishery resourceEl objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar el rendimiento de la carne del cangrejo Callinectes bocourti en ambos sexos en la región de Iguape, Brasil. Los machos presentaron un ancho de carapazón entre 78,1 y 114,0 mm (96,7 ± 9,5 mm y las hembras 76,0 a 106,3 mm (93,8 ± 7,8 mm. El peso húmedo total de los machos varió de 65,53 a 224,36 g (134,04 ± 40,77 g y entre 56,66 y 164,74 g (105,93 ± 26,88 g en las hembras. Comparando las estructuras morfológicas, se encontró que el mayor rendimiento de carne estuvo en el carapazón (55,1%, seguido de la pinza derecha (16,9%, izquierda (15,9% y patas (12,1%. En los machos el rendimiento total fue 28,5%, levemente superior al de las hembras (22,1%. Los portúnidos generalmente presentaron mayor rendimiento de carne al compararlo con otras especies de cangrejos. Los resultados de este estudio permiten optimizar la producción de carne en esta especie de cangrejo. La remoción de la carne es una actividad manual

  10. Population biology and distribution of the portunid crab Callinectes ornatus (Decapoda: Brachyura in an estuary-bay complex of southern Brazil

    Timoteo T. Watanabe


    Full Text Available Trawl fisheries are associated with catches of swimming crabs, which are an important economic resource for commercial as well for small-scale fisheries. This study evaluated the population biology and distribution of the swimming crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 in the Estuary-Bay of São Vicente, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Crabs were collected from a shrimp fishing boat equipped with a semi-balloon otter-trawl net, on eight transects (four in the estuary and four in the bay from March 2007 through February 2008. Specimens caught were identified, sexed and measured. Samples of bottom water were collected and the temperature and salinity measured. A total of 618 crabs were captured (332 males, 267 females and 19 ovigerous females, with a sex ratio close to 1:1. A large number of juveniles were captured (77.67%. Crab spatial distributions were positively correlated with salinity (Rs = 0.73, p = 0.0395 and temperature (Rs = 0.71, p = 0.0092. Two peaks of recruitment occurred, in summer and autumn, and ovigerous females were mostly captured during summer, showing a seasonal reproductive pattern. The results showed that C. ornatus uses the bay as a nursery area for juvenile development. Callinectes ornatus is not yet a legally protected species, and the minimum allowed size of crabs caught in the area, although already restricted, should be carefully evaluated since the removal of large numbers of juveniles could negatively impact the local population.

  11. Estudo do crescimento relativo de Austinixa patagoniensis (Rathbun (Decapoda, Pinnotheridae simbionte de Callichirus major (Say (Decapoda, Callianassidae no mesolitoral da praia de Balneário Camboriú, Santa Catarina, Brasil Relative growth of Austinixa patagoniensis (Rathbun (Decapoda, Pinnotheridae, a symbiotic crab of Callichirus major (Say (Decapoda, Callianassidae on the midlittoral of Balneário Camboriú beach, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Eliana dos S. Alves


    Full Text Available O crescimento relativo de Austinixa patagoniensis (Rathbun, 1918, simbionte do callianassídeo Callichirus major (Say, 1818 na praia de Balneário Camboriú, Santa Catarina (26º59'S, 48º39'W, foi estudado separadamente para 119 juvenis, 228 machos e 249 fêmeas. O método funcional de regressão foi utilizado para o estudo das seguintes variáveis: largura e comprimento da carapaça, largura máxima do abdome, altura máxima do própodo do quelípodo, comprimento inferior e superior total do própodo do quelípodo. A largura da carapaça (LC foi adotada como medida de referência. Com exceção da altura do própodo do quelípodo de juvenis e do comprimento superior do própodo do quelípodo de fêmeas, que cresceram segundo o modelo linear, as demais variáveis estudadas foram melhor descritas pelo modelo potencial. A análise do crescimento relativo de A. patagoniensis permitiu observar que as diversas alterações morfológicas processadas ao longo da ontogenia desta espécie encontram-se relacionadas com fins reprodutivos. A presença de pontos de transição no crescimento da quela e do abdome, permitiu estimar o tamanho de maturação sexual de A. patagoniensis na praia de Balneário Camboriú em 7,8-7,9 mm e 7,9-8,3 mm (LC para machos e fêmeas, respectivamente. Valores praticamente idênticos foram encontrados para a mesma espécie na praia do Cassino, Rio Grande do Sul (32°13'S, 52°15'W, onde A. patagoniensis está associada ao também callianassídeo Sergio mirim (Rodrigues, 1971. Dessa forma, sugere-se que o tamanho de maturação da espécie não varia entre hospedeiros e no intervalo latitudinal analisado, apesar de terem sido detectadas diferenças no tamanho máximo atingido pelos organismos, assim como na sua fecundidade e no comportamento reprodutivo.The relative growth of Austinixa patagoniensis (Rathbun, 1918, a symbiotic crab inhabiting burrows of the callianassid shrimp Callichirus major (Say, 1818 in Balneário Cambori

  12. Some aspects of the biology of the female blue crab Callinectes amnicola (De Rocheburne) from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria

    Eyo Victor Oscar; Akpan Michael Mfon; Udoh Ifiok Solomon


    Objective: To investigate some important aspects of the biology of Callinectes amnicola (C. amnicola) such as fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution from the Cross River estuary, Nigeria. Methods: A total of one hundred and twenty ovigerous females of C. amnicola, freshly caught with basket traps, lift net trap, and gill net were collected from the catches of the artisanal fisheries in the study area between June 2012 and May 2013. Fecundity, carapace length-weight relationship, condition factor and carapace length frequency distribution were determined and analyzed following standard methods. Results: Fecundity (F) ranged between 73090 eggs for crab of carapace length 8.1 cm and total weight 34 g and 809450 eggs for crab of carapace length 16.1 cm and total weight 395 g with a mean of 311808.93±17693.94 eggs. There was a positive significant relationship between fecundity and carapace length, total weight and condition factor as follows: F=6839.7CL1.4403 (r2=0.2145, P<0.05), F=15302TW0.5798 (r2=0.4079, P<0.05), F=147255K0.2788 (r=0.2717, r2=0.0738, P<0.05). A significant linear relationship between carapace length and weight of C. amnicola is given by the equation: Log W=2.0447LogL – 0.1389 (r2=0.3357, P<0.05). The crab exhibited a negative allometric growth pattern (b=2.0447). Condition factor ranged between 21.48 to 104.95 with a mean value of 47.21±2.17. The carapace length frequency distribution showed a unimodal class size distribution. Conclusions: Findings of this study is crucial in assessing the population dynamics and development of management strategies of the the Blue crab, C. amnicola from the estuary such as mesh size regulation, fishing season and fishing ground regulation in the Cross River estuary. Also, findings of this study will be useful in evaluation of the aquaculture potential of the Blue crab C. amnicola, which is a valuable shell fish for the inhabitants estuary.

  13. La temperatura como factor de variabilidad en el desarrollo y morfología de larvas zoeas de Acanthocyclus hassleri Rathbun (Decapoda, Brachyura, Atelecyclidae cultivadas en laboratorio Temperature as factor in variability of the development and morphology of zoeae larvae of Acanthocyclus hassleri Rathbun (Decapoda, Brachyura, Atelecyclidae reared in the laboratory

    Erwin M Barría


    Full Text Available Se cultivaron larvas zoeas de Acanthocyclus hassleri Rathbun a 10, 17 y 20ºC, evaluando la sobrevivencia, tiempo de desarrollo, tamaño larval, tamaño de diferentes estructuras larvales y proporción morfométrica de esas estructuras respecto del tamaño larval. El desarrollo larval de A. hassleri comprende cuatro estadios zoea (ZI-ZIV y una megalopa. La mayor sobrevivencia promedio fue de 95,2% a 20ºC en ZIV, cayendo drásticamente a un 13,2% en la megalopa. El tiempo de desarrollo osciló entre 80,2 ± 3,2 y 28,2 ± 0,9 días a 10 y 20ºC respectivamente. La ZI a 20ºC y ZII, ZIII y ZIV a 17ºC alcanzaron las mayores tallas larvales. El incremento de tamaño de la espina rostral, cefalotórax, abdomen y telson fue directamente proporcional a la temperatura de cultivo; mientras que para la espina dorsal, antena y ambos maxilípedos esos incrementos fueron inversamente proporcionales a la temperatura de cultivo. Los valores de proporción morfométrica de la espina rostral y abdomen permanecieron constantes; para el cefalotórax y telson disminuyó en los estadios ZIII y ZIV; mientras que para la espina rostral, espina dorsal, antena y ambos maxilípedos los tamaños relativos fueron significativamente mayores a 10ºC que a 17 y 20ºC, a partir del estadio ZII. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren una alta capacidad de resistencia a la temperatura de las larvas zoeas de A. hassleri, no así de las megalopas. Tal capacidad por parte de las zoeas, se relaciona con un alto nivel de plasticidad morfo-adaptativa a la temperatura ambiental, planteando un modelo de adecuación morfológica gradual asociada con la temperatura de cultivoZoeae larvae of A. hassleri were reared at 10, 17 and 20ºC, evaluating their survival, duration of larval life, larval size, sizes of different larval structures and morphometric proportions among structures with respect to larval size. Larval development of A. hassleri included four zoeal stages (ZI-ZIV and one

  14. Thermal biology of prey (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya from the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Noyola Regil, Javier; Mascaro, Maite; Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Sánchez-Zamora, Adolfo; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Rosas, Carlos


    On the Yucatan Peninsula there is an upwelling which allows access to a body of cold water that controls temperature in this area. This modulates the ecology and distribution of organisms that inhabit the continental shelf. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different acclimation temperatures on the thermal biology of prey as mollusc, crustacean (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators as fish (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya. Octopus prey preferred temperatures between 23.5°C and 26.0°C, while predators preferred temperatures 26.4-28.5°C. The species with largest thermal windows were M. corona bispinosa (328.8°C(2)), C. similis (322.8°C(2)), L. dubia (319.2°C(2)), C. undecimalis (288.6°C(2)), O. chrysurus (237.5°C(2)), while the smallest thermal window was for S. pugilis (202.0°C(2)). The acclimation response ratios (ARR) estimated for prey ranged from 0.24-0.55 in animals exposed to CTMax and 0.21-0.65 in those exposed to CTMin. Amongst predators, ARR ranged from 0.30 to 0.60 and 0.41 to 0.53 for animals exposed to CTMax and CTMin, respectively. Correlating the optimal temperature limits of prey and predators with surface temperatures on the continental shelf and those 4m deep showed that the main prey, Callinectes similis and L. dubia, shared a thermal niche and that an increase in temperature could force these species to migrate to other sites to find optimal temperatures for their physiological functions. As a consequence the continental shelf community would undergo a structural change. Predators were found to be near their optimal temperatures in surface temperatures on the continental shelf. We conclude that they would remain in the area in a warming scenario. The size of the thermal window was related to the type of ecosystem inhabited by these species. These ARR intervals allowed us to categorize the species as temperate or tropical

  15. Seasonal Variation of Heavy Metals in Muscles of the Crab Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 from a Tropical Coastal Lagoon, Brazil [Variação Sazonal de Metais Pesados em Siris Callinectes ornatus (Ordway, 1863 da Lagoa de Iquiparí, Brasil

    Taísa B. Matos


    Full Text Available In the present study heavy metal (Al, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn content in crabs Callinectes ornatus species were analyzed between July 2008 and April 2009, from Iquipari coastal lagoon, SE, Brazil, in order to use this species as a biomonitor. Metal determination was performed by an ICP/AES after strong acid mixture digestion of the soft parts of the organisms. Among all studied metals Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and V presented concentrations below the detection limit of the used method. The highest metal concentrations were always observed in the dry period when compared with the rainy period, evidencing seasonality in the distribution of these elements. Copper assimilation by females in the rainy season was higher than for males. Most of the studied elements presented a negative correlation with the body size, with higher concentrations in smaller organisms. As a general trend it was possible to observe that for all the studied trace elements the concentrations in the muscles of Callinecctes ornatus from Iquipari coastal lagoon were low when compared to others studies, therefore it is possible to consider the area as free of metal contamination and the results can also be used as background levels for these region.

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHO796 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHO796 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15285-1 - (Link to Original site) ... CV462822 |CV462822.1 CS_hyp_49g10_M13Reverse Blue crab ... hypodermis, normalized Callinectes sapidus cDNA cl ...

  17. Comparação do peso dos quelípodos e crescimento em duas espécies de "sirís" do gênero Callinectes (Brachyura, Portunidae

    Cecilia Margarita Guerrero-Ocampo


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, as espécies C. danae e C. ornatus foram comparadas quanto ao peso dos quelípodos. Os siris foram coletados com 2 redes de arrasto do tipo "otter trawl" na Enseada de Ubatuba (23° 26' S e 45° 02' W. As constantes alométricas obtidas foram analisadas por meio da função potência (Y = aXb . As espécies apresentaram diferentes graus alométricos para cada sexo. A relação PQ X PC apresentou alometria positiva em ambas espécies, porém os machos apresentam maior alometria positiva do que as fêmeas. C. danae apresenta maior alometria positiva para os quelípodos do que C. ornatus. O fato de C. danae atingir maior porte e possuir quelípodos maiores indica que esta espécie tem potencial para o cultivo.A comparison of the cheliped's weight in two species of the genus Callinectes was accomplished. The species C. danae e C. ornatus were collected by two otter trawl in Ubatuba bay (23º 26' S and 45º 02' W. The allometric constants obtained from the regression adjusted to a power function (Y = aXb were analyzed. These species presented different allometry degrees for each sex considered. The relation PQ x PC presented positive allometry for sex of both species, but male presented higher positive allometry than female. C. danae presented higher positive allometry for chelipeds than C. ornatus. We suggest here that C. danae could be indicated to be submitted to grow out in ponds since it reaches higher size and bigger chelipeds.

  18. Influence of diffuse and chronic metal pollution in water and sediments on edible seafoods within Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria.

    Ololade, Isaac A; Lajide, Labunmi; Olumekun, Victor O; Ololade, Olusola O; Ejelonu, Benjamin C


    The bioconcentration levels of 3 non-essential elements (Pb, Cd and Ni) have been investigated in three different seafoods; Fish (Tilapia zilli), Crab (Callinectes sapidus) and periwinkle (Littorina littorea), to investigate the ecosystem health status in Ondo oil-polluted coastal region, Nigeria. The seafood samples were chosen based on their popularity as a food source and the potential of the species to contain high levels of metals based on past research results. Metal concentrations in the biota showed marked interspecific differences with C. sapidus recording the highest concentrations of all the metals. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) showed that C. sapidus and T. zilli have the greatest potential to concentrate Cd (BCF = 3-10) and Pb (BCF = 11-84) respectively. Lead uptake from both water and sediment (BCF ≈ BSAF: 0.003-0.018) were abysmally low in L. littorea as compared with other organisms. The high concentrations of Pb in fish species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd in species of crab and periwinkles, as well as very high BSAF of Ni found in species of crab indicated a strong influence from anthropogenic pollutant source on the biotic community. Oil pollution appears to be a major source of bioavailable metal contaminants for the selected biota. The study shows that C. sapidus and L. littorea can effectively compartmentalize potentially toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and Ni within their tissues. In terms of toxicity, C. sapidus had Cd concentrations greater than the 3,000 ng/g limit set by the Commission of the European Communities while Pb concentration exceeded their limits in both C. sapidus and T. zilli. All levels of Ni were below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action levels for these metals in fish, crustaceans and shellfish. The study revealed anthropogenic enrichment of the metals studied which can possibly pose potential threats to the ecology of the area. PMID:21714630

  19. Ecdysteriod titers during the molt cycle of the blue crab resemble those of other crustacea

    Callinectes sapidus is the only true crab (brachyuran) whose pattern of ecdysteroid titers has been described as departing from the pattern seen in other decapods. While ecdysteroids in other crabs reach a peak just prior to ecdysis, those of C. sapidus were claimed to reach their maxima after ecdysis. The data reported here challenge these findings. Ecdysteroids were measured in hemolymph, ovaries, and whole animal extracts of blue crabs using a radioimmunoassay. In hemolymph and whole animals, ecdysteroid levels rose during premolt to a maximum at stage D3. Ecdysteroids declined rapidly from late premolt stage D4 through postmolt stage A2, increased slightly at postmolt stage B, and returned to low levels where they remained during intermolt stage C. Ecdysteroid levels in males and immature females were not significantly different but mature females, having reached a terminal anecdysis, had signifincatly lower ecdysteroid levels. Ovaries of mature females accumulated ecdysteroids during vitellogenesis while the concentration of ecdysteroids in hemolymph was low

  20. The Molting Biomarker Metabolite N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone in Female Urine of the Helmet Crab Telmessus cheiragonus.

    Yano, Hirona; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi


    N-acetylglucosamino-1,5-lactone (NAGL) is a molting biomarker in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus The concentration of this compound in urine is highest at the premolt stage. Since sexually mature premolt females release sex pheromone in their urine, NAGL is a candidate sex pheromone molecule in C. sapidus This compound has not been reported in other species. In the present study, we quantified the concentration of NAGL in the urine of the helmet crab Telmessus cheiragonus, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and found that the concentration increases toward the day of molting and decreases after molting. However, the total amount of NAGL collected from individual animals was greatest two to five days after molting, because the amount of urine collected was the lowest at the premolt stage, and it increased after molting. The highest median concentration of NAGL in T. cheiragonas was 29 μmol l(-1), which is 75% of the highest concentration reported in C. sapidus This is the first report of NAGL as a molting biomarker in a species other than C. sapidus We assume that NAGL is part of a pheromone bouquet in these two species. PMID:27132136

  1. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio


    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was inject...

  2. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.


    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  3. Total mercury and its distribution in blue crab and deep water pink shrimp from Alexandria coast

    Moustafa, E.K.; Moharram, Y.G.; El-Sokkary, I.; Telb, A.I.


    Total mercury content and its distribution in muscles and viscera of male and female blue grab (Callinectes sapidus Rothbum) and deep water pink shrimp (Parapenacus longirostris) collected from the 3 main fishing grounds near the Alexandria coast in the Mediterranean sea was estimated. The results indicate that the mercury content in the muscles of both species differ according to fishing areas, size, sex, and species. More than 75% of total mercury were accumulated in the viscera of both species which indicates that the mercury entered in these organisms via the feed chain.

  4. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.


    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  5. Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs and ribbed mussels living in clumps

    Lin, Junda


    Predator-prey interactions between blue crabs ( Callinectes sapidus) and ribbed mussels ( Geukensia demissa) were studied by manipulating different components of mussel clump structure in the laboratory to test their effects on the mussels' susceptibility to crab predation. Mussels with stronger attachment strength or those buried deeper in the sediment suffered lower mortality. Blue crabs showed no significant size selectivity when two size classes of mussles (30-40 and 50-60 mm in shell heights) were offered. When juvenile mussels were attached to adult conspecifics and completely buried in the centres of clumps as in the field, blue crabs did not actively search for them. The crabs, however, did consume juveniles as by-products when they preyed upon the adult mussels to which the juveniles were attached.

  6. Degradation and mineralization of chitin in an estuary

    A method for measuring microbial degradation and mineralization of radiolabeled native chitin is described. 14C-labeled chitin was synthesized in vivo by injecting shed blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) with N-acetyl-D-[14C]-glucosamine, allowing for its incorporation into the exoskeleton. Rates of chitin degradation and mineralization in estuarine water and sediments were determined as functions of temperature, inoculum source, and oxygen condition. Significant differences in rates between temperature treatments were evident. Q10 values ranged from 1.2 to 2.5 for water and sediment, respectively. Increased incubation temperature also resulted in decreased lag times before onset of chitinoclastic bacterial growth and chitin degradation. The anaerobic pathway of chitin decomposition by chitinoclastic bacteria was examined with an emphasis on end product coupling to other bacterial types. Actively growing chitinoclastic bacterial isolates produced primarily acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide in broth culture

  7. The crab Neohelice (= Chasmagnathus) granulata: an emergent animal model from emergent countries

    Spivak, Eduardo D.


    Neohelice granulata (previously known as Chasmagnathus granulata and C. granulatus) is a burrowing semiterrestrial crab found in the intertidal zone of estuaries, salt marshes and mangroves of the South-western Atlantic Ocean. Beginning in the late 1989s, an explosion of publications appeared in international journals dealing with its ecology, physiology, toxicology and behavior. A bibliometric analysis using the Scopus database allowed detecting 309 papers that deal with this species during the period 1986-2009. The number of papers per year increased continuously, reaching a mean annual value of 22.6 during the last 5 years; a great majority of them were authored by researchers from Argentina and Brazil. Neohelice granulata has become now one of the most studied crab species, after Carcinus maenas, Callinectes sapidus, Scylla serrata and Cancer pagurus and C. magister, and it can be considered as an emergent animal model for biochemical, physiological and ecological research.

  8. Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Vivian Fransozo


    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. Water and sediment samples were also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224, followed by UBA (154 and MV (23 but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

  9. Record of an established population of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the Mediterranean Sea: confirming a prediction

    J. A. CUESTA


    Full Text Available The capture of larvae of Palaemon macrodactylus off Mallorca (Balearic Islands has been recently reported as evidence of a potential presence of a population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos of this species, taken during dives in the Sacca di Goro (northern Adriatic were published in the same year, but no specimen could be collected at that time. Herein we report the capture in 2013 of numerous individuals of the oriental shrimp, including ovigerous females, both in the Sacca di Goro and in the Lagoon of Marano and Grado (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy, confirming the existence of a well-established population of this species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide: a membrane-impermeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

    A novel carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor, quaternary ammonium sulfanilamide (QAS), was tested for potency as a CA inhibitor and for its ability to be excluded from permeating biological membranes. Inhibitor titration plots of QAS vs. pure bovine CA II and CA from the gills of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, yielded K/sub i/ values of ∼ 15 μM; thus QAS is a relatively weak but effective CA inhibitor. Permeability of the QAS was directly tested by two independent methods. The inhibitor was excluded from human erythrocytes incubated in 5 mM QAS for 24 h as determined using an 18O-labeled mass spectrometer CA assay for intact cells. Also QAS injected into the hemolymph of C. sapidus (1 or 10 mM) did not cross the basal membrane of the gill. The compound was cleared from the hemolymph by 96 h after injection, and at no time during that period could the QAS be detected in homogenates of gill tissue. Total branchial CA activity was only slightly reduced following the QAS injection. These data indicate that QAS is a CA inhibitor to which biological membranes are impermeable and that can be used in vivo and in vitro in the study of membrane-associated CA

  11. Description of a new species of brooding spider crab in the genus Paranaxia Rathbun, 1924 (Brachyura: Majoidea), from northern Australia and Indonesia.

    Hosie, Andrew M; Hara, Ana


    A new species, Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov., is described based on specimens collected in northern Australia. The new species differs from its only congener, P. serpulifera (Guérin, 1832, in Guérin-Méneville 1829-1837), by several characters including carapace setation, sternal cavities, absence of a subhepatic spine, presence of a sharp spine on the posterodistal angle of the cheliped merus, relatively shorter chelipeds, and longer and more slender ambulatory legs. Morphological separation of the two species is supported by 12s rDNA sequence divergences of 7.4-8.2%. Like P. serpulifera, the newly described species exhibits direct development with females carrying juvenile individuals under the pleon. Both species are sympatric, but Paranaxia keesingi sp. nov. is found in deeper waters than P. serpulifera. PMID:27395615

  12. Tidal salt marshes of the southeast Atlantic Coast: A community profile

    Wiegert, R.G.; Freeman, B.J.


    This report is part of a series of community profiles on the ecology of wetland and marine communities. This particular profile considers tidal marshes of the southeastern Atlantic coast, from North Carolina south to northern Florida. Alone among the earth's ecosystems, coastal communities are subjected to a bidirectional flooding sometimes occurring twice each day; this flooding affects successional development, species composition, stability, and productivity. In the tidally influenced salt marsh, salinity ranges from less than 1 ppt to that of seawater. Dominant plant species include cordgrasses (Spartina alterniflora and S. cynosuroides), black needlerush (Juncus romerianus), and salt marsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Both terrestrail and aquatic animals occur in salt marshes and include herons, egrets ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), alligators (Alligator Mississippiensis), manatees (Trichecus manatus), oysters, mussels, and fiddler crabs. Currently, the only significant direct commercial use of the tidal salt marshes is by crabbers seeking the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, but the marshes are quite important recreationally, aesthetically, and educationally. 151 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio


    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (maya conspecifics, partly paralyzing and sedating them; this suggests that octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey. PMID:26895025

  14. Membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing coupling with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform mass spectrometry for neuropeptide analysis.

    Zhang, Zichuan; Wang, Junhua; Hui, Limei; Li, Lingjun


    Herein we report a highly efficient and reliable membrane-assisted capillary isoelectric focusing (MA-CIEF) system being coupled with MALDI-FTMS for the analysis of complex neuropeptide mixtures. The new interface consists of two membrane-coated joints made near each end of the capillary for applying high voltage, while the capillary ends were placed in the two reservoirs which were filled with anolyte (acid) and catholyte (base) to provide pH difference. Optimizations of CIEF conditions and comparison with conventional CIEF were carried out by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) tryptic peptides. It was shown that the MA-CIEF could provide more efficient, reliable and faster separation with improved sequence coverage when coupled to MALDI-FTMS. Analyses of orcokinin family neuropeptides from crabs Cancer borealis and Callinectes sapidus brain extracts have been conducted using the established MA-CIEF/MALDI-FTMS platform. Increased number of neuropeptides was observed with significantly enhanced MS signal in comparison with direct analysis by MALDI-FTMS. The results highlighted the potential of MA-CIEF as an efficient fractionation tool for coupling to MALDI MS for neuropeptide analysis. PMID:21696746

  15. Toxicity of phthalate esters in fish and shellfish from virginia beach using matrix solid phase dispersion (mspd) and gc-ms

    This study presents the outcome of an investigation on the occurrence of phthalates, in eight edible marine fish species from lower James River, Chesapeake Bay along the Virginia Coast of Atlantic ocean. These include shell fish like Crab(Callinectes sapidus), Clam( Merccnaria), Oyster(C.ariakensis), and white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) from aquaculture center of Virginia Tech. These were analyzed for their content of Dimethyl Phthalate, Diethyl Phthalate, Di-n-butyl Phthalate , butyl benzyl Phthalate , bis(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate ,and di-n-octyl Phthalate Mean concentrations (range) of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in fish samples were 1.1 (<0.01-1.5), 0.22 (<0.01-1.1) and 0.14 (<0.01-1.3) mu g g-1; those in shell fishery were 1.2 (<0.02-1.3), 0.13 (<0.01-0.27) and 0.09 (<0.02-0.22) mu g g-1, respectively. The highest concentration of bis (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in fish samples were found in Atlantic mackerel (Centropristis striate) (1.98+-0.92) mu g/g (wet weight) and Oyster (C.ariakensis) (2.30 mu g/g (wet weight), were higher than those in other fish species. (author)

  16. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Nutritional value of winter foods for whooping cranes

    Nelson, J.T.; Slack, R.D.; Gee, G.F.


    We measured metabolizable energy and digestibility of Whooping Crane (Grus americana) winter foods (blue crab [Callinectes sapidus]), common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn [wolfberry]), and live oak acorn (Ouercus virginiana [acorn])] with feeding trials to captive-reared Whooping Cranes. Apparent metabolizable energy coefficients (expressed as %) were for crab (34.1), Rangia clam (75.0), wolfberry (44.8), and acorn (43.2). Digestion coefficients for protein were lower for plant foods (48.9 and 53.4) than for animal foods (69.4 and 75.2). Digestion coefficients for total lipid differed among foods: highest and lowest lipid digestibility was for acorn (87.2) and wolfberry (60.0), respectively. We also determined total energy and percent protein and lipid of the four foods and stout razor clam (Tagelus plebeius); gross energy was 2-5x higher for acorn and wolfberry on a dry-weight basis than for blue crab and stout razor clam. Crude protein was 2-3x higher for blue crab than for wolfberry and stout razor clam. Wolfberry ranked the highest of five foods for metabolic energy and total lipid nutrient availability per kg of food ingested, and blue crab ranked highest for crude protein availability.

  18. Food consumption and retention time in captive whooping cranes (Grus americana)

    Nelson, J.T.; Gee, G.F.; Slack, R.D.


    Food consumption, digesta retention time, and food preference were measured for captive whooping cranes fed pelleted diets. The basal commercial diet was compared to four mixtures containing 70% basal and 30% of one of four important winter foods for the whooping crane: blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), wolfberry fruit (Lycium carolinianurn), live oak acorn (Quercus virginiana), or common Rangia clam (Rangia cuneata). Because captive birds would not eat whole foods, we were prevented from direct food preference tests. Food passed through the gut rapidly, with almost complete elimination within 7 hr. There was some indication that retention time was shorter for the low fiber and high ash and calcium clam diet. Cranes ate less wolfberry feed (g/day) than the other feeds, and all birds ate less wolfberry feed on the day it was first fed, compared to basal diet the previous day. Birds ate more low energy feed than high energy feed. Due to combined effects of low energy content, lower metabolizable energy coefficients, and reduced feed consumption, less energy was assimilated for study diets than basal diet. Apparent shorter retention times for some diets con-taming whooping crane foods may partly explain lower digestibilities and metabolizable energy of winter whooping crane foods compared to commercial crane diet.

  19. Photothermal and Structural Comparative Analysis of Chitinous Exoskeletons of Marine Invertebrates

    Juárez-de la Rosa, B. A.; Yañez-Limón, J. M.; Tiburcio-Moreno, J. A.; Zambrano, M.; Ardisson, P.-L.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.


    Chitinous materials are common in nature and provide different functions including protection and support of many invertebrate animals. Exoskeletons in these organisms constitute the boundary regulating interaction between the animal and the external environment. For this reason, it is important to study the physical properties of these skeletons, in particular, thermal properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the thermal diffusivity of the skeletons of four species of marine invertebrates, Antipathes caribbeana (black coral), Panulinus argus (lobster), Callinectes sapidus (crab), and Limulus polyphemus (xiphosure). Thermal characterization is performed using photothermal radiometry (PTR) and laser-flash techniques. The measurements are complemented with structural characterization using X-ray diffraction. The results using both laser flash and PTR are consistent. These indicate that the thermal properties are strongly dependent on the presence of biogenic minerals (calcium and/or magnesium) and on the crystallinity index of the structure. The thermal-diffusivity values show an increase as a function of the crystallinity index.

  20. The Dilemma of Derelict Gear.

    Scheld, A M; Bilkovic, D M; Havens, K J


    Every year, millions of pots and traps are lost in crustacean fisheries around the world. Derelict fishing gear has been found to produce several harmful environmental and ecological effects, however socioeconomic consequences have been investigated less frequently. We analyze the economic effects of a substantial derelict pot removal program in the largest estuary of the United States, the Chesapeake Bay. By combining spatially resolved data on derelict pot removals with commercial blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) harvests and effort, we show that removing 34,408 derelict pots led to significant gains in gear efficiency and an additional 13,504 MT in harvest valued at US $21.3 million--a 27% increase above that which would have occurred without removals. Model results are extended to a global analysis where it is seen that US $831 million in landings could be recovered annually by removing less than 10% of the derelict pots and traps from major crustacean fisheries. An unfortunate common pool externality, the degradation of marine environments is detrimental not only to marine organisms and biota, but also to those individuals and communities whose livelihoods and culture depend on profitable and sustainable marine resource use. PMID:26790394

  1. Cumulative Effects of Coastal Habitat Alterations on Fishery Resources: toward Prediction at Regional Scales

    Janet A. Nestlerode


    Full Text Available Coastal habitat alterations such as the loss of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV and hardening of shorelines could have cumulative effects on valuable fishery resources. To investigate this effect, we developed a multiscale modeling framework for blue crab (Callinectes sapidus in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Areal coverage of shoreline land cover and SAV for Mobile Bay, Alabama, were combined with information from small-scale biological studies and long-term, large-scale commercial fishery data to model the potential effects of marginal habitat losses on the blue crab fishery. We applied stochastic variation in annual recruitment to the fishery to estimate probabilities for sustainable harvests under scenarios of habitat loss. The simulations suggested that, accumulated over large areas, relatively small local losses of estuarine marsh edge and SAV habitats could have long-term negative effects on the sustainability of the fishery. Spatially extensive models are required to investigate the cumulative ecological effects of many local environmental changes. The requisite scaling adds uncertainty and reduces precision, but if model parameters are accurate at each scale, accurate predictions of long-term outcomes and probabilities are possible.

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April, 2014



    Full Text Available According to reports, the following 16 species have extended their distribution to other Mediterranean areas or have made a new appearance in other regions. The first category includes the following organisms: The rare and common Indo-Pacific seaweed Codium arabicum (Lebanese coasts, the acari Thalassarachna affinis (Marmara Sea, and the non-indigenous nudibranch Flabellina rubrolineata, which has also been found in many other areas of the Aegean Sea. In addition, the rare sea slug Thecacera pennigera (Piccolo of Taranto, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (National Marine Park of Zakynthos, Ionian Sea, the carangid Seriola fasciata (Gulf of Antalya, Lagocephalus sceleratus (SE. Ionian Sea, the reticulated leatherjacket Stephanolepis diaspros (Slovenia, N. Adriatic Sea, the marbled stingray, Dasyatis marmorata (NE Levantine, the starry smooth-hound Mustelus asterias (Iskenderun Bay, NE Mediterranean, the cephalopod Ommastrephes bartramii (Ionian Sea have also been reported. The Atlantic crab Dyspanopeus sayi has expanded to many Italian areas and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus to a lake in N. Greece and in the S. Adriatic Sea. Finally, Farfantepenaeus aztecus has been found in the Ionian Sea, thus showing its wide expansion in the Mediterranean. The larval stages of Faccionella oxyrhyncha have been found, after many years, in the Aegean Sea and the first report of an existence on intersexual acari Litarachna duboscqi in Split(Adriatic Sea was reported.

  3. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013



    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  4. Predator-prey interactions mediated by prey personality and predator hunting mode.

    Belgrad, Benjamin A; Griffen, Blaine D


    Predator-prey interactions are important drivers in structuring ecological communities. However, despite widespread acknowledgement that individual behaviours and predator species regulate ecological processes, studies have yet to incorporate individual behavioural variations in a multipredator system. We quantified a prevalent predator avoidance behaviour to examine the simultaneous roles of prey personality and predator hunting mode in governing predator-prey interactions. Mud crabs,Panopeus herbstii, reduce their activity levels and increase their refuge use in the presence of predator cues. We measured mud crab mortality and consistent individual variations in the strength of this predator avoidance behaviour in the presence of predatory blue crabs,Callinectes sapidus, and toadfish,Opsanus tau We found that prey personality and predator species significantly interacted to affect mortality with blue crabs primarily consuming bold mud crabs and toadfish preferentially selecting shy crabs. Additionally, the strength of the predator avoidance behaviour depended upon the predation risk from the predator species. Consequently, the personality composition of populations and predator hunting mode may be valuable predictors of both direct and indirect predator-prey interaction strength. These findings support theories postulating mechanisms for maintaining intraspecies diversity and have broad implications for community dynamics. PMID:27075257

  5. A comparison of two methods for colorimetric in situ hybridization using paraffin-embedded tissue sections and digoxigenin-labeled hybridization probes.

    Marcino, Joe


    Two methods for colorimetric in situ DNA probe hybridization (CISH) assays on paraffin-embedded tissue sections were compared. The heated method used heat (90-100°C) to denature DNA in the sample prior to probe hybridization, while the unheated method used a standard hybridization temperature of 42°C. Both procedures were tested on tissue samples that harbored the mollusk protozoan pathogens Perkinsus marinus, P. chesapeaki, or Haplosporidium nelsoni, the protozoan and bacterial fish pathogens Myxobolus cerebralis (myxosporidean) or Renibacterium salmoninarum (bacterial), or the crab viral pathogen Callinectes sapidus reovirus. Samples were fixed in either formalin or Davidson's fixative and embedded in paraffin for histological examination. The heated method is labor intensive and highly prone to human error, while the unheated method is less labor intensive and can be completed in a shorter period of time. Both methods yielded similar hybridization results. The use of complex and expensive prehybridization buffers did not improve the performances of the tested CISH assays. Prehybridization heat denaturation of DNA in assayed samples increased both assay duration and loss of samples but did not improve hybridization signals. PMID:23697605

  6. Concurrent protein synthesis is required for in vivo chitin synthesis in postmolt blue crabs

    Chitin synthesis in crustaceans involves the deposition of a protein-polysaccharide complex at the apical surface of epithelial cells which secrete the cuticle or exoskeleton. The present study involves an examination of in vivo incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids and amino sugars into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Rates of incorporation of both 3H leucine and 3H threonine were linear with respect to time of incubation. Incorporation of 3H threonine into the endocuticle was inhibited greater than 90% in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, puromycin. Linear incorporation of 14C glucosamine into the cuticle was also demonstrated; a significant improvement of radiolabeling was achieved by using 14C-N-acetylglucosamine as the labeled precursor. Incorporation of 3H-N-acetylglucosamine into the cuticle of postmolt blue crabs was inhibited 89% by puromycin, indicating that concurrent protein synthesis is required for the deposition of chitin in the blue crab. Autoradiographic analysis of control vs. puromycin-treated crabs indicates that puromycin totally blocks labeling of the new endocuticle with 3H glucosamine. These results are consistent with the notion that crustacean chitin is synthesized as a protein-polysaccharide complex. Analysis of the postmolt and intermolt blue crab cuticle indicates that the exoskeleton contains about 60% protein and 40% chitin. The predominant amino acids are arginine, glutamic acid, alanine, aspartic acid, and threonine

  7. The use of Monte Carlo analysis for exposure assessment of an estuarine food web

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Shear, N.M.; Harrington, N.W.; Henning, M.H. [McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineering Corp., Portland, ME (United States). ChemRisk Div.


    Despite apparent agreement within the scientific community that probabilistic methods of analysis offer substantially more informative exposure predictions than those offered by the traditional point estimate approach, few risk assessments conducted or approved by state and federal regulatory agencies have used probabilistic methods. Among the likely deterrents to application of probabilistic methods to ecological risk assessment is the absence of ``standard`` data distributions that are considered applicable to most conditions for a given ecological receptor. Indeed, point estimates of ecological exposure factor values for a limited number of wildlife receptors have only recently been published. The Monte Carlo method of probabilistic modeling has received increasing support as a promising technique for characterizing uncertainty and variation in estimates of exposure to environmental contaminants. An evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of estuarine organisms was conducted in order to identify those variables that most strongly influence uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values for polychaetes (Nereis sp.), mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in east coast estuaries were identified. Understanding the variation in such factors, which include feeding rate, growth rate, feeding range, excretion rate, respiration rate, body weight, lipid content, food assimilation efficiency, and chemical assimilation efficiency, is critical to the understanding the mechanisms that control the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in aquatic organisms, and to the ability to estimate bioaccumulation from chemical exposures in the aquatic environment.

  8. Fecundidade em Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae) da lagoa da Conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fecundity of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae) in lagoa da Conceição, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Joaquim Olinto Branco; Marcelo Gentil Avilar


    The estimate for the average fecundity for the C. danae population of Lagoa da Conceição (Florianópolis, Santa Catarina) was of 598.885 eggs by female. The average number of eggs and the weight of the mass of eggs, in general, increase with the female size. The variation in colour and in the diameter of the eggs is associated with the degree of development of the embryo.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from Blue Crab Meat (Callinectus sapidus) and Blue Crab Processing Plants

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive, intracellular food borne pathogen which causes a severe disease called listeriosis in high risk groups. However, there is limited information about the prevalence and sources of L. monocytogenes in blue crab and blue crab processing plants in Maryland. The...

  10. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens Thorvald


    Rhizocephalan parasites are dioecious organisms, in that one or several dwarf males are implanted into the external part of the female parasite soon after it emerges from the interior of the host animal. The structure of the female externa and its resident males is crucial for understanding both...

  11. Decapod crustaceans from the Paleocene of Central Texas, USA

    Adam Armstrong; Torrey Nyborg; Gale A. Bishop; Àlex Ossó-Morales; Vega, Francisco J.


    Fourteen species of decapods crustaceans are described from a single locality near Mexia, Texas, where Paleocene sediments of the Mexia Clay Member of the Wills Point Formation crop out. The species are represented by Hoploparia sp., Linuparus wilcoxensis Rathbun, 1935, an unnamed paguroid, Kierionopsis nodosa Davidson, 1966, Pithonoton cardwelli new species, Caloxanthus sp., Macroacaena johnsoni (Rathbun, 1935), new combination, Raninoides bournei (Rathbun, 1928), R. treldenaesensis (Collins...

  12. Seasonal Shift of Bycatch in the Artisanal Shrimp Trawl Fishery of the Gulf of Salamanca, Caribbean Sea of Colombia

    Luis Orlando Duarte


    Full Text Available Bycatch assessments in trawl fisheries have been mainly referred to an annual scale, ignoring possible seasonal variations. In the Gulf of Salamanca, an artisanal shrimp trawl fleet operates recently and this study evaluates its bycatch for first time, considering the climatic and oceanographic seasonality that dominates the region (runoff and upwelling. 90 hauls in the calm or rainy season (November 2010 and 86 in the windy season (April 2011 were sampled on board of fishing boats. The bycatch to shrimp ratio was 2,69 (2,37 -3,21, 95 % CI and 6,37 (5,10 – 8,24, 95 % CI for the calm season and windy season respectively. We recorded a total of 101 taxa, with a large number of juveniles. The community structure of bycatch differed between seasons (ANOSIM, pStellifer spp., Symphurus caribbeanus y Callinectes sapidus, whereas, in addition, the calm season was characterized by Cathorops mapale, Anchovia clupeoides, Trichiurus lepturus, and the windy season by Larimus breviceps, Cnidaria (jellyfish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Simper. The results showed a seasonal change in the bycatch, raising the need to implement monitoring programs and management measures that address that temporal variability. Negative ecological effects of this fishery prompt the use of mitigation strategies, involving fishermen, to balance social needs and the ecosystem conservation. CAMBIO ESTACIONAL EN LA FAUNA ACOMPAÑANTE DE LA PESQUERÍA ARTESANAL DE ARRASTRE DE CAMARÓN DEL GOLFO DE SALAMANCA, MAR CARIBE DE COLOMBIALa evaluación de la fauna acompañante en las pesquerías de arrastre se ha referido generalmente a una escala anual, ignorando eventuales variaciones estacionales. En el golfo de Salamanca, recientemente opera una flota artesanal de arrastre de camarón, cuya fauna acompañante es evaluada por primera vez en el presente estudio, considerando la estacionalidad climática y oceanográfica que domina la región (descargas continentales y surgencia

  13. Seasonal effects of leached mirex on selected estuarine animals.

    Tagatz, M E; Borthwick, P W; Forester, J


    Four 28-day seasonal experiments were conducted using selected estuarine animals in outdoor tanks that received continuous flow of mirex-laden water. Mirex (dodecachlorooctahydro-1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta [cd] pentalene) leached from fire ant bait (0.3% mirex) by fresh water and then mixed with salt water was toxic to blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus), pink shrimp (Penaeus duorarum), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) but not to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus), at concentrations less than 0.53 mug/L in water. The amount of leaching was greatest in summer and least in spring. Greatest mortality occurred in summer at the highest water temperature and concentration of mirex; least mortality occurred in spring at the next to the lowest temperature and at the lowest concentration. Earliest deaths of blue crabs occurred after six days of exposure and shrimps after two days. Small juvenile crabs were more sensitive to leached mirex than were large juveniles. Mirex did not appear to affect growth or frequency of molting in crabs. All exposed animals concentrated mirex. Among animals that survived for 28 days, sheepshead minnows concentrated mirex 40,800X above the concentration in the water, blue crabs 2,300X, pink shrimp 10,000X, and grass shrimp 10,800X. Sand substrata contained mirex up to 770X that in the water. Most control and exposed animals in samples examined histologically had normal tissues, but alteration in gills of some exposed fish and natural pathogens in some exposed and control crabs and shrimp were observed. The experiments demonstrated that mirex can be leached from bait by fresh water, concentrated by estuarine organisms, and can be toxic to crabs and shrimps. PMID:1190846

  14. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014



    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf. 

  15. Using Flow-Ecology Relationships to Evaluate Ecosystem Service Trade-Offs and Complementarities in the Nation's Largest River Swamp

    Kozak, Justin P.; Bennett, Micah G.; Hayden-Lesmeister, Anne; Fritz, Kelley A.; Nickolotsky, Aaron


    Large river systems are inextricably linked with social systems; consequently, management decisions must be made within a given ecological, social, and political framework that often defies objective, technical resolution. Understanding flow-ecology relationships in rivers is necessary to assess potential impacts of management decisions, but translating complex flow-ecology relationships into stakeholder-relevant information remains a struggle. The concept of ecosystem services provides a bridge between flow-ecology relationships and stakeholder-relevant data. Flow-ecology relationships were used to explore complementary and trade-off relationships among 12 ecosystem services and related variables in the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Results from Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration were reduced to four management-relevant hydrologic variables using principal components analysis. Multiple regression was used to determine flow-ecology relationships and Pearson correlation coefficients, along with regression results, were used to determine complementary and trade-off relationships among ecosystem services and related variables that were induced by flow. Seven ecosystem service variables had significant flow-ecology relationships for at least one hydrologic variable ( R 2 = 0.19-0.64). River transportation and blue crab ( Callinectes sapidus) landings exhibited a complementary relationship mediated by flow; whereas transportation and crawfish landings, crawfish landings and crappie ( Pomoxis spp.) abundance, and blue crab landings and blue catfish ( Ictalurus furcatus) abundance exhibited trade-off relationships. Other trade-off and complementary relationships among ecosystem services and related variables, however, were not related to flow. These results give insight into potential conflicts among stakeholders, can reduce the dimensions of management decisions, and provide initial hypotheses for experimental flow modifications.

  16. Direct and indirect estimates of natural mortality for Chesapeake Bay blue crab

    Hewitt, D.A.; Lambert, D.M.; Hoenig, J.M.; Lipcius, R.N.; Bunnell, D.B.; Miller, T.J.


    Analyses of the population dynamics of blue crab Callinectes sapidus have been complicated by a lack of estimates of the instantaneous natural mortality rate (M). We developed the first direct estimates of M for this species by solving Baranov's catch equation for M given estimates of annual survival rate and exploitation rate. Annual survival rates were estimated from a tagging study on adult female blue crabs in Chesapeake Bay, and female-specific exploitation rates for the same stock were estimated by comparing commercial catches with abundances estimated from a dredge survey. We also used eight published methods based on life history parameters to calculate indirect estimates of M for blue crab. Direct estimates of M for adult females in Chesapeake Bay for the years 2002–2004 ranged from 0.42 to 0.87 per year and averaged 0.71 per year. Indirect estimates of M varied considerably depending on life history parameter inputs and the method used. All eight methods yielded values for M between 0.99 and 1.08 per year, and six of the eight methods yielded values between 0.82 and 1.35 per year. Our results indicate that natural mortality of blue crab is higher than previously believed, and we consider M values between 0.7 and 1.1 per year to be reasonable for the exploitable stock in Chesapeake Bay. Remaining uncertainty about Mmakes it necessary to evaluate a range of estimates in assessment models.

  17. Interactions between multiple recruitment drivers: post-settlement predation mortality and flow-mediated recruitment.

    Antony M Knights

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dispersal is a primary driver in shaping the future distribution of species in both terrestrial and marine systems. Physical transport by advection can regulate the distance travelled and rate of propagule supply to a habitat but post-settlement processes such as predation can decouple supply from recruitment. The effect of flow-mediated recruitment and predation on the recruitment success of an intertidal species, the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica was evaluated in two-replicated field experiments. Two key crab species were manipulated to test predator identity effects on oyster mortality. FINDINGS: Recruitment was ∼58% higher in high flow compared to low flow, but predation masked those differences. Predation mortality was primarily attributed to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, whilst the mud crab Panopeus herbstii had no effect on recruit mortality. Recruit mortality from predation was high when recruit densities were high, but when recruit density was low, predation effects were not seen. Under high recruitment (supply, predation determined maximum population size and in low flow environments, recruitment success is likely determined by a combination of recruitment and resource limitation but not predation. CONCLUSIONS: Four processes are demonstrated: (1 Increases in flow rate positively affect recruitment success; (2 In high flow (recruitment environments, resource availability is less important than predation; (3 predation is an important source of recruit mortality, but is dependent upon recruit density; and (4 recruitment and/or resource limitation is likely a major driver of population structure and functioning, modifying the interaction between predators and prey. Simultaneous testing of flow-mediated recruitment and predation was required to differentiate between the role of each process in determining population size. Our results reinforce the importance of propagule pressure, predation and post

  18. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (December 2012



    Full Text Available This paper presents records extending or confirming the distribution of Mediterranean species. Three alien algae are included, namely Codium taylorii reported for the first time from the Aegean and Turkey (Izmir Gulf, Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Karpathos and Chalki Isl., Aegean Sea and Ganonema farinosum (Karpathos Isl., Aegean Sea. As far as animals are concerned, Litarachna divergens (Acari: Hydrachnidia was recorded (Side, Eastern Mediterranean and represents a new amendment at genus level for Turkish fauna. Other invertebrates include alien species such as the crabs Dyspanopeus sayi (Lago Fusaro, SW Italy, Percnon gibbesi (Larnaca, Cyprus; Karpathos and Chalki Isl., Aegean Sea and Callinectes sapidus (Voda estuary, NW Greece, the nudibranch Aplysia dactylomela (Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro, the gastropod Conomurex persicus (Karpathos and ChalkiIsl., Aegean Sea and the bryozoan Electra tenella (Livorno harbour and Messina Straits area. The alien fish Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Fistularia commersonii, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Sargocentron rubrum are also reported from the islands of Karpathos and Chalki, and Pteragogus pelycus from Heraklion Bay, Crete. In addition, new localities for four rare Mediterranean inhabitants are given: the cephalopod Thysanoteuthis rhombus (NW Sardinia and the fish: Lampris guttatus (Calabria, S Italy, Petromyzon marinus (Gokova Bay and Remora australis (Saronikos Gulf, while the opisthobranch gastropod Cerberilla bernadettae is reported for the first time from the E Mediterranean (Cyprus. Finally, three species of the Aegean ascidiofauna are recorded for the first time: Lissoclinum perforatum, Ciona roulei and Ecteinascidia turbinata. Furthermore, it was established that Phallusia nigra has extended its distributional range to the north of the Aegean Sea.

  19. Distributions of key exposure factors controlling the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals in an estuarine food web

    Iannuzzi, T.J.; Harrington, N.W.; Shear, N.M.; Curry, C.L.; Carlson-Lynch, H.; Henning, M.H. [ChemRisk, Portland, ME (United States); Su, S.H. [Bailey Research Associates, Inc., New York, NY (United States); Rabbe, D.E. [Chemical Land Holdings, Inc., Kearny, NJ (United States)


    A critical evaluation of literature on the behavior, physiology, and ecology of common estuarine organisms was conducted in an attempt to develop probabilistic distributions for those variables that influence the uptake of xenobiotic chemicals from sediments, water, and food sources. The ranges, central tendencies, and distributions of several key parameter values were identified for dominant organisms from various trophic levels, including the polychaete Nereis virens, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), and striped bass (Morone saxatilis). The exposure factors of interest included ingestion rate for various food sources, growth rate, respiration rate, excretion rate, body weight, wet/dry weight ratio, lipid content, chemical assimilation efficiency, and food assimilation efficiency. These exposure factors are critical to the execution of mechanistic food web models, which, when properly calibrated, can be used to estimate tissue concentrations of nonionic chemicals in aquatic organisms based on knowledge of the bioenergetics and feeding interactions within a food web and the sediment and water concentrations of chemicals. In this article the authors describe the use of distributions for various exposure factors in the context of a mechanistic bioaccumulation model that is amenable to probabilistic analyses for multiple organisms within a food web. A case study is provided which compares the estimated versus measured concentrations of five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in a representative food web from the tidal portion of the Passaic River, New Jersey, USA. The results suggest that the model is accurate within an order of magnitude or less in estimating the bioaccumulation of PCBs in this food web without calibration. The results of a model sensitivity analysis suggest that the input parameters which most influence the output of the model are both chemical and organism specific.

  20. Chitin and L(+)-lactic acid production from crab (Callinectes bellicosus) wastes by fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source.

    Flores-Albino, Belem; Arias, Ladislao; Gómez, Jorge; Castillo, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko


    Crab wastes are employed for simultaneous production of chitin and L(+)-lactic acid by submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus sp. B2 using sugar cane molasses as carbon source. Response surface methodology was applied to design the culture media considering demineralization. Fermentations in stirred tank reactor (2L) using selected conditions produced 88% demineralization and 56% deproteinization with 34% yield of chitin and 19.5 gL(-1) of lactic acid (77% yield). The chitin purified from fermentation displayed 95% degree of acetylation and 0.81 and 1 ± 0.125% of residual ash and protein contents, respectively. PMID:22367529

  1. Dinâmica da alimentação natural de Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae na Lagoa da Conceição, Florianôpolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Feeding natural dynamics of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae from Lagoa da conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Joaquim Olinto Branco


    Full Text Available From March/91 to February/92 monthly collcction surveys were carried out to obtain basic information about the dynamics of feeding and trophic spectrum of C. danae Smith, 1869. A total of 456 males and 527 females were caught. The diet of the species was not sex related. The trophic spectrum of C. danae is composed by a high number of items. The 35 items were assembled in 14 categories and the feeding index was applied. Mollusca, Polychaeta and Crustacea were observed to be basic elements in the species diet, Osteichthyes and MOND appear as secondary resource whereas vegetal material were found to be of less importance.

  2. Mitigating by-catch of diamondback terrapins in crab pots

    Hart, Kristen M.; Crowder, Larry B.


    Chronic by-catch of diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) in blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) pots is a concern for terrapin conservation along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Despite the availability of by-catch reduction devices (BRDs) for crab pots, adoption of BRDs has not been mandated and by-catch of terrapins continues. We conducted experimental fishing studies in North Carolina's year-round blue crab fishery from 2000 to 2004 to evaluate the ability of various BRDs to reduce terrapin by-catch without a concomitant reduction in the catch of blue crabs. In 4,822 crab pot days fished, we recorded only 21 terrapin captures. Estimated capture rates were 0.003 terrapins/pot per day in hard crab experimental fishing and 0.008 terrapins/pot per day in peeler experimental fishing. All terrapin captures occurred from April to mid-May within 321.4 m of the shoreline. Longer soak times produced more dead terrapins, with 4 live and 4 dead during hard crab experimental fishing and 11 live and 2 dead during peeler experimental fishing. The 4.0-cm BRDs in fall and 4.5-cm and 5.0-cm BRDs in spring reduced the catch of legal-sized male hard crabs by 26.6%, 21.2%, and 5.7%, respectively. Only the 5.0-cm BRDs did not significantly affect the catch of legal-sized hard male crabs. However, BRDs had no measurable effect on catch of target crabs in the peeler crab fishery. Our results identify 3 complementary and economically feasible tools for blue crab fishery managers to exclude terrapins from commercially fished crab pots in North Carolina: 1) gear modifications (e.g., BRDs); 2) distance-to-shore restrictions; and 3) time-of-year regulations. These measures combined could provide a reduction in terrapin by-catch of up to 95% without a significant reduction in target crab catch.

  3. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding molt-inhibiting hormone from Portunus trituberculatus

    ZHU Dong-Fa


    Full Text Available Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH, which belongs to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH neuropeptide family, inhibits the synthesis of ecdysteroids by Y-organs. The CHH family is divided into two major groups, designated I and II. Group Ⅰ is composed of all CHH peptides, and Group Ⅱ is composed of most MIHs, gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH and mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone (MOIH. The Group Ⅰ peptides consist of a signal sequence, a CHH precursor related peptide (CPRP and a mature hormone. The Group Ⅱ peptides have only a signal sequence and a mature hormone. The full-length molt-inhibiting hormone cDNA of Portunus trituberculatus (Pot-MIH was cloned by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The degenerate nucleotide primers was designed based on the amino acid sequence of other crustacean MIHs. The full-length sequence of Pot-MIH cDNA (GenBank accession number:EU284117 is 1572 bp in size and consists of a 210 bp 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, a 342 bp open reading frame and a 3′- untranslated region (3′-UTR. The deduced polypeptide consisted of a 78-amino acid mature MIH peptide and a 35-amino acid signal ptptide. The mature Pot-MIH peptide shared twelve conserved residues (Cys7, Gly12, Arg14, Cys24, Asp26, Cys27, Asn29, Arg32, Cys40, Cys44, Phe50, and Cys53 with other crustacean MIHs. The mature Pot-MIH peptide had the Gly12 residue and the precursor lacked a CPRP sequence, both of which are characteristic of all Group Ⅱ peptides. Alignment of the amino acid sequence deduced from the full-length Pot-MIH cDNA with MIH amino acid sequences of other crustaceans revealed that they had very high identity. The identities between the putative Pot-MIH amino acid sequence with that of MIH of P.pelagicus, Callinectes sapidus, Charybdis feriatus, Cancer pagurus, C.magister, Carcinus maenas and Gecarcinus lateralis were 97%, 95%, 90%, 82%, 81%, 77% and 60

  4. Mechanical implications of the arthropod exoskeleton microstructures and the mechanical behavior of the bioinspired composites

    Cheng, Liang

    Many biological materials possess complicated hierarchical and multiscale structures, after millions of years of evolution. Most of them also demonstrate outstanding mechanical properties, along with multi-functionality. Arthropod is the most widely distributed and the largest phylum of animals in the planet. Their exoskeletons are well-known for excellent mechanical performance and versatility, and consequently emerge among the best sources to study and uncover the mystery of nature in devising its own material systems. This work first investigated the microstructures of the exoskeletons from selected arthropods, including Homarus Americanus, Callinectes sapidus and Popillia japonica, which exhibit highly complex but interesting hierarchical structures. Exoskeletons are chitin-protein based material systems organized into horizontally well-defined multi-region and multi-layer patterns, with elaborate structures interweaving in the vertical direction. Using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), the characteristic and distinctive structural features of the exoskeletons were revealed for all the species investigated. In particular, distinct patterns (e.g., stacking sequence of multiple layers) were identified in each region of exoskeletons studied. For example, the "helicoidal structure" is characterized by a stacking sequence in which layers are continuously and unidirectionally rotating a small angle with respect to their adjacent layers. Important mechanical implications of those unique structural features were subsequently evaluated and compared using mechanics-based modeling and analysis, as well as numerical simulation. After the structure-property-function relationship of the investigated biomaterial systems was established, attempts were made to reveal and extract the design strategies employed by nature in designing its own materials and structures. One of the most predominant structural patterns observed in the

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015



    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  6. The Effects of Teachers' Gender-Stereotypical Expectations on the Development of the Math Gender Gap

    Robinson, Joseph P.; Lubienski, Sarah T.; Copur, Yasemin


    Scholars have identified mathematics gender gaps favoring males as early as kindergarten or first grade, particularly at the top of the achievement distribution (Penner & Paret, 2008; Rathbun, West & Germino-Hausken, 2004; Robinson & Lubienski, 2011). These relatively small achievement disparities precede larger differences in students' career…

  7. 阿魏菇粗提物对稳定转染OLC1基因肺癌H1299细胞的抗增殖作用%The Anti-proliferation Effects of Pleurotas sapidus on H1299 Cell Line with Stable Transfection of OLC1 Gene in Vitro

    郑灿龙; 袁劲松; 石太平; 程书钧; 马大龙; 张月明


    阿魏菇(Pleurotas sapidus)是新疆特有的一种食用真菌,含有丰富的蛋白质、碳水化合物、多种维生素、矿物质、皂甙、有机酸、生物碱、挥发油、三萜或甾醇等成分,对S180荷瘤鼠肿瘤生长有明显的抵制作用.阿魏菇粗提物对体外培养的人肝癌(Q3)、人胃癌(MGC-803)、人宫颈癌(Hela),小鼠肺腺癌(SPC—A-1)细胞株的生长及蛋白合成均有明显的抑制作用。本研究建立肺癌细胞OLC1稳定株模型,以OLC1基因为靶标,观察阿魏菇提取物的抗肿瘤作用。

  8. Aerial census of manatees and boats over the lower St. Johns River and the Intracoastal waterway in northeastern Florida

    Kinnaird, Margaret F.


    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) occur throughout the year in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas of Florida (Moore 1951, Hartman 1974, Irvine and Campbell 1978, Irvine et al. 1981). Manatees are widely dispersed along the Gulf and Atlantic Coasts of the southeastern U.S. during the summer months and aggregate at traditional warm water wintering sites during cooler months (Hartman 1974, Powell and Waldron 1978, Rose and McCutcheon 1980, Rathbun et al. 1982, Powell a...

  9. Censusing manatees: a report on the feasibility of using aerial surveys and mark and recapture techniques to conduct a population survey of the West Indian Manatee

    Eberhardt, L. Lee; Percival, H. Franklin; Packard, Jane M.


    This report results from an invitation to review the needs and prospects for capture-recapture and aerial census studies of the manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. Three aerial reconnaissance flights provided a first hand view of manatee habitats, as follows: May 3, Suwannee River to Kings Bay and Crystal River (Rathbun, Eberhardt), May 4, Vero Beach to Ft. Lauderdale and Ft. Myers by way of Whitewater Bay (Rose, Percival, Eberhardt), and May 5, Cape Canaveral to Jackso...

  10. Partitioning loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats into mortality and emigration

    Etherington, L.L.; Eggleston, D.B.; Stockhausen, W.T.


    Determining how post-settlement processes modify patterns of settlement is vital in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment variability of species with open populations. Generally, either single components of post-settlement loss (mortality or emigration) are examined at a time, or else the total loss is examined without discrimination of mortality and emigration components. The role of mortality in the loss of early juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, has been addressed in a few studies; however, the relative contribution of emigration has received little attention. We conducted mark-recapture experiments to examine the relative contribution of mortality and emigration to total loss rates of early juvenile blue crabs from seagrass habitats. Loss was partitioned into emigration and mortality components using a modified version of Jackson's (1939) square-within-a-square method. The field experiments assessed the effects of two size classes of early instars (J1-J2, J3-J5), two densities of juveniles (low: 16 m-2, high: 64 m-2), and time of day (day, night) on loss rates. In general, total loss rates of experimental juveniles and colonization rates by unmarked juveniles were extremely high (range = 10-57 crabs m-2/6 h and 17-51 crabs m-2/6 h, for loss and colonization, respectively). Total loss rates were higher at night than during the day, suggesting that juveniles (or potentially their predators) exhibit increased nocturnal activity. While colonization rates did not differ by time of day, J3-J5 juveniles demonstrated higher rates of colonization than J1-J2 crabs. Overall, there was high variability in both mortality and emigration, particularly for emigration. Average probabilities of mortality across all treatment combinations ranged from 0.25-0.67/6 h, while probabilities of emigration ranged from 0.29-0.72/6 h. Although mean mortality rates were greater than emigration rates in most treatments, the proportion of experimental trials

  11. Biomass power for rural development. Quarterly report, July 3--December 4, 1997

    Cooper, J.T.


    This paper describes progress in several projects related to biomass power. These include switchgrass conversion development; switchgrass gasification development; production activities including soil studies, carbon studies, switchgrass production economics, watershed impacts, and prairie lands bio-products; information and education; and geographical information system. Attachments describe switchgrass co-firing test; switchgrass production in Iowa; cooperative agreements with ISU; Rathbun Lake watershed project; newspaper articles and information publications; Secretary of Agriculture Glickman`s visit; integration of technical aspects of switchgrass production in Iowa; and evaluation of an integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell power plant.

  12. Distribuição e abundância dos caranguejos Uca Leach (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs Uca Leach (Crustacea Decapoda Ocypodidae in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil

    Setuko Masunari


    Full Text Available Um estudo sobre distribuição espacial e abundância dos chama-marés Uca Leach, 1814 foi realizado na Baía de Guaratuba, Estado do Paraná. Foram coletados chama-marés de dez biótopos ao longo de um gradiente de salinidade de zero a 32 dentro da Baía de Guaratuba. Foram obtidas sete espécies, entre as quais, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 que foi registrada somente em biótopos inundados por águas de baixas salinidades (de zero a 16. As demais espécies mostraram tolerância a uma ampla variação de salinidade, mas Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 e Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominaram em águas mais salinas, de 14 a 32, enquanto U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900 e Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 foram coletadas em mais de três biótopos e mostraram uma tendência ao eurihalismo, suportando salinidades de 4 a 32. Entretanto, outras características do substrato tais como porcentagem relativa de cascalho/areia/silte/argila, teor de matéria orgânica e presença de marismas, também, influenciaram a distribuição espacial destes caranguejos. U. leptodactyla foi registrada com densidade máxima de 240 ind.m-2, o mais alto valor conhecido.A study of the spatial distribution and abundance of fiddler crabs was carried out in Guaratuba Bay, Parana State, southern Brazil. Fiddler crabs were collected from 10 biotopes located along a salinity gradient from zero to 32 inside Guaratuba Bay (between 48°30'W-25°50'S and 48°45'W-25°54'S. Seven species were found, among which, Uca mordax (Smith, 1870 occurred only in biotopes inundated by low salinity water, from zero to 16. Remaining species tolerated wide range of salinity oscillation, but Uca maracoani (Latreille, 1802-1803 and Uca leptodactyla Rathbun, 1898 predominated in saltier waters, from 14 to 32, while U. burgersi Holthuis, 1967, Uca rapax (Smith, 1870, Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, and Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 were collected in more

  13. Distribuição geográfica potencial de espécies americanas do caranguejo "violinista" (Uca spp.) (Crustacea, Decapoda) com base em modelagem de nicho ecológico Potential geographical distribution of American species of "fiddler crab" (Uca spp.) (Crustacea, Decapoda) based on ecological niche model

    João Carlos Nabout; Paulo De Marco Júnior; Luis Maurício Bini; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F.


    Caranguejos do gênero Uca Leach, 1814 (caranguejo "violinista") são um grupo bem conhecido e caracterizado por um acentuado dimorfismo sexual e assimetria da quela do macho. Atualmente, estão descritas 97 espécies no mundo. Objetivou-se estimar a distribuição geográfica potencial de 4 espécies do gênero Uca que ocorrem na costa do continente Americano: Uca maracoani Latreille, 1802-1803, U. uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, U. panacea Novak & Salmon, 1974 e U. monilifera Rathbun, 1914. Para modelar ...

  14. The effects of fish hydrolysate (CPSP) level on Octopus maya (Voss and Solis) diet: Digestive enzyme activity, blood metabolites, and energy balance

    Aguila, J; Cuzon, Gerard; Pascual, C; Domingues, P; Gaxiola, G; Sanchez, A.; T. Maldonado; Rosas, C


    As has been demonstrated in previous studies, Octopus maya can be fed on artificial diets. In the present study six different diets were assayed. Five diets were designed to test the effect of percentage of inclusion of fish protein concentrate (CPSP: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and were offered to octopuses as a specifically designed artificial diet. The sixth diet consisted of frozen crab (Callinectes spp) and was used as control diet. Blood metabolites and energy budget of octopuses were evalua...

  15. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    González-Galaviz José Reyes; Rodriguez-Anaya Libia Zulema; Molina-Garza Zinnia Judith; Ibarra-Gámez José Cuauhtémoc; Galaviz-Silva Lucio


    White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV) isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris), crabs (Callinectes arcuatus) and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei) in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and s...

  16. Salida de campo a Wamba (Valladolid) el 1 y 2 de agosto de 1951

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo a Wamba, en la provincia de Valladolid, durante los días 1 y 2 de agosto de 1951, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre una Culebra viperina (Natrix maura, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor), ranas (especies no identificadas), los siguientes mamíferos: Apodemus sp. (Ratón), Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua) y "Pytimis" (llamado así por el autor, siendo posiblemente el actual género Microtus), y las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus sp. (Carricero, probablemente A.scir...

  17. Salida de campo a Tudela de Duero (Valladolid) el 13 de abril de 1953

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo a Tudela de Duero (Valladolid), a orillas del río Duero, el 13 de abril de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor) y ranas, renacuajos y otros sapos (sin identificar las especies), los siguientes reptiles: culebras, lagartijas y lagartos (sin identificar las especies), los siguientes mamíferos: Ardilla (pudiendo ser Sciurus vulgaris o Atlantoxerus getulus), Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, ...

  18. Salida de campo al pinar de Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 25 de marzo de 1952

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo al pinar de Laguna de Duero (Valladolid) el 25 de marzo de 1952, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre "Lymneidos", la Rana Común (Pelophylax perezi), saltamontes y mariposas, los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua) y Erizo (pudiendo ser Erinaceus europaeus o Atelerix algirus), los siguientes reptiles: Blanus cinereus (Culebrilla ciega), Chalcides sp. (Eslizón) y lagartijas (sin identificar especies), y las siguientes aves: Accipiter nisus (Gavilán común,...

  19. Excursión Corcos - Aguilarejo (Valladolid) el 31 de mayo de 1951

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Excursión de Corcos a Aguilarejo, en la provincia de Valladolid, pasando por Peña Caída y el Cueto, el 31 de mayo de 1951, en la que se observaron Liebres (Lepus sp.) y Ratas de agua (Arvicola sapidus), y se anotaron observaciones sobre las siguientes aves: Acrocephalus sp. (Carricero), Ardea sp. (Garza), Carduelis cannabina (Pardillo común, llamada Acanthis cannabina por el autor), Caprimulgus sp. (Chotacabras), Cettia cetti (Ruiseñor bastardo), Charadrius dubius (Chorlitejo chico), Clamator...

  20. Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra (Madrid) a mediados de septiembre de 1953

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003


    Salida de campo a Montejo de la Sierra, en Madrid, a mediados de septiembre de 1953, de la que se anotaron observaciones sobre los siguientes anfibios: Bufo bufo (Sapo común, llamado B.vulgaris por el autor) y Rana sp. (Rana), los siguientes reptiles: Natrix maura (Culebra viperina, llamada Tropidonotus viperinus por el autor) y Psammodromus sp. (Lagartija), los siguientes mamíferos: Arvicola sapidus (Rata de agua, también llamado Ratón aguadero), Martes foina (Garduña), Plecotus sp. (Orejudo...

  1. Extension of the geographical distribution of some brachyuran and porcellanid decapods (Crustacea to the coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil Extensão da distribuição geográfica de alguns decápodos braquiúros e porcelanídeos (Crustacea para a costa do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Douglas F. R. Alves


    Full Text Available Investigations of the distribution of marine organisms provide a better understanding of the patterns of distribution and dispersal of these animals. Extensions of the distributional limits of decapod crustaceans in Brazilian waters have been recorded steadily and gradually, but these limits still remain poorly understood. The present study provides information extending the known range of eight species of brachyuran crabs and one species of porcellanid crab. The animals were obtained by Scuba diving during a sampling program carried out near Vitória Island, Ilhabela, on the northeastern coast of the State of São Paulo (23º44'04"S-45º01'35"W between February, 2004 and January, 2005. These new records extend the geographical distributions of the porcellanid Petrolisthes amoenus (Guérin Menéville, 1855, the majoids Mithrax caribbaeus Rathbun, 1920, Mithrax verrucosus H. Milne Edwards, 1832, Nemausa acuticornis (Stimpson, 1871 and Teleophrys ornatus Rathbun, 1901, and the xanthoids Domecia acanthophora acanthophora (Desbonne & Schramm, 1867, Garthiope spinipes (A. Milne Edwards, 1880, Xanthodius denticulatus (White, 1847 and Xanthodius parvulus (Fabricius, 1793 to the São Paulo coast. These new records may be related to different mechanisms of larval dispersal, larval transport by ballast water, or may simply be exceptional records.Investigações sobre a distribuição de organismos marinhos proporcionam um melhor entendimento dos padrões de distribuição e dispersão desses animais. As ampliações dos limites de distribuição de crustáceos decápodos em águas brasileiras têm sido registradas de maneira constante e gradual, mas ainda permanecem pouco compreendidas. Este estudo fornece informações sobre a ampliação da distribuição de oito espécies de caranguejos braquiúros e uma espécie de caranguejo porcelanídeo. Os animais foram obtidos por meio de mergulho Scuba durante um programa amostral, realizado na região da Ilha

  2. Galileo PPR at Io: High Resolution Scans Taken in Conjunction with SSA and NIMS Data

    Rathbun, J. A.; Spencer, J. R.; Tamppari, L. K.; Martin, T. Z.; Barnard, L.; Travis, L. D.


    The Galileo Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR), when used in the radiometry mode which is most often used at Io, is a long-wavelength infrared single-aperture photometer. It is sensitive to temperatures from about 60 to several hundred K, and is thus useful for studying the volcanoes and background temperatures on Io. PPR can take raster scan images when it is the primary instrument being used (these data were discussed last year, see Rathbun et al., 2002). It can also take data in ride-along mode in conjunction with another remote sensing instrument (either SSI or NIMS) producing one-dimensional temperature scans. The best data of this type were taken during the close approach flybys during orbits I24, I25, I27, I31, I32, and I33 and include measurements of the volcanoes Pele, Prometheus, Pillan, Zamama, Tvashtar, Daedalus, Amarani, Gish Bar, Isum, Emakong, Tupan, and Tohil.

  3. Crustacea decapoda da praia rochosa da Ilha do Farol, Matinhos, Paraná: II. Distribuição espacial de densidade das populações

    Setuko Masunari


    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. II. Spatial distribution of population densities. A study of the spatial distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25º51'S, 48º32'W was canied out. In the supralittoral the rocky surface is covered partially by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial habitats; in the midlittoral boulders and pebbles cover the rocky basin and in the infralittoral, there is a belt of seaweeds. A total of 8 samples were taken by hand, two from each of the following levels: supralittoral (emersion time 8-12 hours, upper midlittoral (4-8, lower midlittoral (0-4 and limit between midlittoral and infralittoral, monthly, from May/1990 to April/1991. The number of species increased from supralittoral (5 to infralittoral (22 and a clear vertical zonation on density was observed according to the emersion time gradient. The supralittoral is characterized by grapsids Armases angustipes (Dana, (1852, Cyclograpsus integer H. Milne Edwards, 1837 and Metasesarma rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 which have terrestrial habits and aerial respiration as a main way in obtaining the oxygen. In the midlittoral, the decapods show three basic types of adaptation against emersion desiccation and thermal stresses: (1 by digging into wet mud among the stones such as Panopeus americanus Saussure, 1857, Panopeus occidentalis Saussure, 1857 and Eurypanopeus abbreviatus Stimpson, 1860, (2 by resting in shady and wet space between the boulders and pebbles or underside of them, like Pachygrapsus transversus (Gibbes, 1850, Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, 1850 and adults of Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and (3 by clinging over the soaked filamentous algae layer on the pebbles or bouders surfaces, a strategy observed in small species such as Pilumnus dasypodus Kingsley, 1879, Podochela sp., Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc, 1801 , Alpheus bouvieri A. Milne

  4. Searching for Thermal Anomalies on Icy Satellites: Step 1- Validation of the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D)

    Simmons, Gary G.; Howett, Carly J. A.; Young, Leslie A.; Spencer, John R.


    In the last few decades, thermal data from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft have detected various anomalies on Jovian and Saturnian satellites, including the thermally anomalous “PacMan” regions on Mimas and Tethys and the Pwyll anomaly on Europa (Howett et al. 2011, Howett et al. 2012, Spencer et al. 1999). Yet, the peculiarities of some of these anomalies, like the weak detection of the “PacMan” anomalies on Rhea and Dione and the low thermal inertia values of the widespread anomalies on equatorial Europa, are subjects for on-going research (Howett et al. 2014, Rathbun et al. 2010). Further, analysis and review of all the data both Galileo and Cassini took of these worlds will provide information of the thermal inertia and albedos of their surfaces, perhaps highlighting potential targets of interest for future Jovian and Saturnian system missions. Many previous works have used a thermophysical model for airless planets developed by Spencer (1990). However, the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D) model proposed by Young (2012) is able to predict surface temperatures in significantly faster computation time, incorporating seasonal and diurnal insolation variations. This work is the first step in an ongoing investigation, which will use VT3D’s capabilities to reanalyze Galileo and Cassini data. VT3D, which has already been used to analyze volatile transport on Pluto, is validated by comparing its results to that of the Spencer thermal model. We will also present our initial results using VT3D to reanalyze the thermophysical properties of the PacMan anomaly previous discovered on Mimas by Howett et al. (2011), using temperature constraints of diurnal data from Cassini/CIRS. VT3D is expected to be an efficient tool in identifying new thermal anomalies in future Saturnian and Jovian missions.Bibliography:C.J.A. Howett et al. (2011), Icarus 216, 221.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2012), Icarus 221, 1084.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2014), Icarus 241, 239.J

  5. Radiation processing and characterization of chitin and chitosan extracted from crab shells

    The extraction and characterization of Chitin and Chitosan from crab shells (Callinectes sp.) obtained locally in Ghana is presented. The shells were finely milled and soaked in 10 % dilute hydrochloric acid (HCI) for 48 hr followed by de-proteinization using 2M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 24 hr to obtain Chitin. The Chitin was refluxed at 100 (deg) C in 50 % NaOH for 7 hr to yield Chitosan. The Chitin and Chitosan were characterized by determining the de-acetylation, viscosity and average molecular weights. The degree of de-acetylation was determined to be 89.7 %. The viscosity of Chitosan in dilute acetic acid was measured and the average molecular weight estimated. The average molecular weight of dry gamma irradiated (up to 100kGy) Chitosan samples decreased with increasing dose. The results have been discussed in terms of radiation induced degradation of solids. (au)

  6. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    González-Galaviz José Reyes


    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  7. Biodiversity of decapod crustaceans in the estuarine floodplain around the city of Belém (Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Danielle Viveiros Cavalcante


    Full Text Available The present study focused on the decapod fauna of the fluvial-estuarine environment of the Guajará Bay, in the Brazilian state of Pará, where specimens were collected monthly from six sites, from May 2006 to April 2007. A total of 6,793 specimens were captured, belonging to 11 species of crab and shrimp: eight palaemonids - Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862, Macrobrachium surinamicum Holthuis, 1948, Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879, Macrobrachium spp. 1-4 -, one portunid - Callinectes bocourti A. Milne-Edwards, 1879 -, and two trichodactylids - Sylviocarcinus devileii H. Milne-Edwards, 1853 and Sylviocarcinus pictus (Milne-Edwards, 1853. While no significant differences were found in the ecological indices of diversity with respect to season, site, or trap size, a tendency for increased abundance and species richness was found during the dry season (August-November, in particular at some sites, apparently reflecting the influence of the estuary's saline wedge.




    Full Text Available Six 0.04-ha plastic-lined ponds were used at the Iowa Department of NaturalResources’ Rathbun Fish Culture and Research Facility to evaluate the use ofsupplemental fish food on walleye (Sander vitreus fingerling growth and survival,and on the benthic invertebrate community. Walleye were stocked 3-4 days posthatch on 2 May 2003, and harvested 5-6 June 2003. Organic fertilizer (alfalfapellets, 112kg/ha/week was used to increase primary production and inorganicfertilizers were added periodically to maintain a target nutrient ratio of 7:1 nitratenitrogento total phosphorus (NO3-N: TP. Additional nutrients in the form of LansyCW fish feed were added to three of the six ponds. The objective of this project wasto determine the effect of a commercial fish diet on water quality. At the end of theculture season, there were significant differences between water chemistryparameters in the ponds; the feed treatments had higher levels of nitrogenouscompounds and total phosphorus.

  9. Two New Brightening Events at Io's Loki Patera

    de Kleer, K.; De Pater, I.


    Loki Patera is one of the most dramatically time-variable volcanic features on Io, exhibiting periodic brightening events every 1-2 years that constitute over 15% of Io's global heat flow when active. We obtained new near-infrared (2-5 μm) observations of Loki Patera on 37 nights during and after two such brightening events using adaptive optics at the Keck and Gemini North telescopes in 2013-2015. We modify the Matson et al. (2006) model for Loki Patera as an overturning basaltic magma sea to model our observations, and find an overturn front propagation velocity of 0.85-0.95 km/day. The 445±45 day interval between the two events is 100 days shorter than the 540-day period calculated by Rathbun et al. (2002) for events prior to 2001. The overturn front appears to propagate around the patera in the clockwise direction, opposite to what has been inferred for these past brightening events, and may include irregular propagation patterns and multiple simultaneous fronts. Based on the anomalously-low intensities when Loki Patera is viewed at high emission angle, we find evidence for a topographic barrier to the west of the patera, which may be a raised region or the edge of a depression in which the magma sea resides.

  10. Shallow-water stenopodidean and caridean shrimps from Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil: new records and updated checklist.

    Soledade, Guidomar O; Fonseca, Mytalle S; Almeida, Alexandre O


    This study deals with a recent collection of stenopodidean and caridean shrimps made in the Abrolhos Archipelago, Bahia, Brazil, in July and August 2013. Sampling was carried out in the vicinity of Ilha de Santa Bárbara (17°57'49"S 38°41'53"W). Specimens were obtained by hand or using small hand nets in tide pools or under rocks in the intertidal zone. Part of the material was collected by scuba diving in the shallow subtidal, to a maximum depth of 11 m. We obtained a total of 18 species, 12 of which are reported for the first time for the Abrolhos and 4 as new records for the state of Bahia. The distributions of Microprosthema semilaeve (von Martens, 1872), Typton gnathophylloides Holthuis, 1951, Alpheus verrilli (Schmitt, 1924) and Alpheopsis cf. trigona (Rathbun, 1901) are extended from their previously known ranges. The occurrence of Automate cf. rectifrons Chace, 1972 on the Brazilian coast is confirmed. We thus provide an updated checklist of stenopodidean (2 species) and caridean (29 species) shrimps from the Abrolhos Archipelago, incorporating and critically evaluating previous records.  PMID:25661021

  11. Morphology and size variation of a portunoid crab from the Maastrichtian of the Americas

    Vega, Francisco J.; Phillips, George E.; Nyborg, Torrey; Flores-Ventura, José; Clements, Don; Espinosa, Belinda; Solís-Pichardo, Gabriela


    The portunoid crab OphthalmoplaxRathbun, 1935, is known from late Cretaceous deposits of Africa and the Americas. A review of 76 specimens from many localities in North and South America reveals that the genus is represented by only two species - one in Africa (recently described) and the other in the Americas. Ophthalmoplax brasiliana (Maury, 1930) was distributed along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the Americas throughout the Maastrichtian - from Brazil to North Carolina. In early Maastrichtian deposits of North America (˜69.0 Ma), the species is represented by local populations of medium-sized individuals, and by the late Maastrichtian (˜67.0 Ma), populations of larger individuals became abundant. This size increase may be related to a decrease in ocean water temperatures. Populations of medium-sized individuals are found again in the latest Maastrichtian (˜66.2 Ma), below strata with ejecta deposits in Coahuila, Mexico, and in the uppermost Owl Creek Formation, Mississippi. This size decrease is possibly linked to an increase in seawater temperature occurring just below the K/P boundary, when Ophthalmoplax became extinct.

  12. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2H or 3H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2HHO and 3HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  13. Distribution, biomass and size of grooved Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes tanneri) from annual bottom trawl surveys (2003-2010) along the U.S. west coast (Washington to California)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Harms, John H.; Buchanan, John C.


    Catch and distribution of grooved Tanner crab (Chionoecetes tanneri Rathbun, 1893) from the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey (55-1280 m) were examined along the U.S. west coast (lat. 32°30'N-48°30'N). Grooved Tanner crabs were present in 28% of tows and occurred primarily at depths from 300 to 1280 m. Annual biomass (metric tons, mt) indices and density (kg km-2) estimates for the population varied significantly throughout the study area and within five International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC) statistical areas. Highest estimates occurred in the Monterey INPFC area (lat. 36°N-40°30'N) and within the 601-800 m depth interval. Depth distribution varied by year and coast-wide catch-weighted average depths (m) were significantly correlated with average annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) indices (2003-2010), a measure of Pacific climate variability. Annual mean carapace widths (CW), measured from 2005 to 2010, were always greater for males (96.9-113.9 mm) relative to females (85.3-95.8 mm). Size frequency distributions varied by year with strong recruitment for both sexes apparent in 2010. Grooved Tanner crabs were partially segregated by depth and stage. Males and females were found in all depth intervals but the average depth of adult females was significantly shallower (756 m) than adult males (837 m); adults were significantly shallower than subadult female (907 m) and subadult male (927 m) crabs.

  14. Caracterización preliminar de los invertebrados bentónicos capturados accidentalmente en la pesca de camarones en el norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, sudeste de Brasil Preliminary characterization of benthic invertebrates caught as by-catch in the shrimp fishery in the north of the Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Igor David da Costa


    Full Text Available Para caracterizar la biodiversidad de invertebrados bentónicos que componen la fauna asociada a la pesca de camarones en el puerto del Farol de Sao Thomé, costa norte del estado de Río de Janeiro, se realizaron 11 pescas mensuales en el año 2004 con redes de arrastre de fondo, cuya área de operaciones comprende 3-5 mn desde la línea de costa, entre 22°00'S y 22°20'S. Los datos registrados de cada taxon y/o especie se refieren a la frecuencia de ocurrencia, frecuencia numérica, biomasa, índice de Importancia Relativa y abundancia. En total se registraron 27 especies de invertebrados bentónicos de Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Annelida, Crustácea, Echinodermata y Bryozoa. Crustácea fue el más representativo, tanto en número de ejemplares de Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus y Callinectes ornatos, como en biomasa de P. diogenes y H. pudibundas. En términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia en los muéstreos, 11 especies (40,7% fueron constantes; 6 (22,2% accesorias y 10 (37,0% accidentales.In order to characterize the biodiversity of the benthic invertebrate by-catch associated with the shrimp fishery at Farol de Sao Thome harbor, northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, in 2004, 11 monthly trawls were conducted using bottom trawl nets between 22°00'S and 22°20'S and from 3 to 5 nm from the shoreline. The analyzed data for each talon and/or species include frequency of occurrence, numeric frequency, biomass, index of Relative Importance, and abundance. In total, 27 benthic invertebrate species were recorded, including Peripheral, Cnidarians, Mollusk, Annelid, Crustacea, Echinodermata, and Bryozoa. The most representative group was Crustacea, both in number of specimens (Petrochirus diogenes, Hepatus pudibundus, Callinectes ornatus and in biomass (P. diogenes, H. pudibundus. In terms of the frequency of occurrence in the samples, 11 species (40.7% were constant, 6 species (22.2% were accessories, and 10 species (37.0% were by-catch.

  15. Spatial and temporal distribution of decapod larvae in the subtropical waters of the Arvoredo archipelago, SC, Brazil Distribuição espacial e temporal de larvas de decápodos nas águas subtropicais do arquipélago do Arvoredo, SC, Brasil

    Andréa G. Koettker


    Full Text Available The present paper aims to describe the temporal and spatial distribution of the composition and abundance of Decapoda larvae in the shallow waters around Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve. Stomatopod occurrence is also discussed. Plankton samples were collected at five sites around the Arvoredo Island every two months for one year from May, 2002 to April, 2003. Thirty-nine morphotypes, 11 genus and 4 species (Artemesia longinaris Bate, 1888, Hexapanopeus schmitii Rathbun, 1930, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and Pleoticus muelleri Bate, 1888 were identified, among them only two morphotypes of Stomatopoda larvae, and the remainder Decapoda larvae. Brachyuran zoeae were the most abundant group and they were well represented by Portunidae and Xanthidae zoeae. Lucifer sp. and Caridea zoeae were the most abundant non-brachyuran taxa. Decapod larvae were observed to occur at all sampling sites, however the spatial distribution demonstrated a general tendency to greater abundance and diversity at the southern sites of the Island. Decapoda and Stomatopoda larvae occurred throughout the year, showing that reproduction is continuous, but that larval input in planktonic community was significantly higher during autumn and spring.Este trabalho tem como objetivo a descrição da distribuição temporal e espacial da composição e abundância de larvas de decápodes nas águas rasas ao redor da Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo. A ocorrência de larvas de estomatópodes também foi discutida. Foram realizadas coletas de plâncton em cinco estações ao redor da Ilha do Arvoredo, de maio de 2002 a abril de 2003 a cada dois meses. Foram identificados 39 morfotipos, 11 gêneros e 4 espécies (Artemesia longinaris Bate, 1888, Hexapanopeus schmitii Rathbun, 1930, Menippe nodifrons Stimpson, 1859 and Pleoticus muelleri Bate, 1888, sendo apenas dois morfotipos da Ordem Stomatopoda e o restante da Ordem Decapoda. Zoés de Brachyura foi o grupo mais abundante

  16. Distribuição geográfica potencial de espécies americanas do caranguejo "violinista" (Uca spp. (Crustacea, Decapoda com base em modelagem de nicho ecológico Potential geographical distribution of American species of "fiddler crab" (Uca spp. (Crustacea, Decapoda based on ecological niche model

    João Carlos Nabout


    Full Text Available Caranguejos do gênero Uca Leach, 1814 (caranguejo "violinista" são um grupo bem conhecido e caracterizado por um acentuado dimorfismo sexual e assimetria da quela do macho. Atualmente, estão descritas 97 espécies no mundo. Objetivou-se estimar a distribuição geográfica potencial de 4 espécies do gênero Uca que ocorrem na costa do continente Americano: Uca maracoani Latreille, 1802-1803, U. uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, U. panacea Novak & Salmon, 1974 e U. monilifera Rathbun, 1914. Para modelar a distribuição dessas espécies nas Américas foram utilizados pontos de ocorrência compilados da literatura. Para a modelagem foram utilizados os programas Maxent e GARP a partir de 10 variáveis climáticas e três variáveis topográficas. Todas as variáveis foram convertidas para uma malha com resolução de 0,0417 graus. Nos dois modelos (Maxent e GARP as espécies apresentaram distribuição geográfica maior do que sugerido por outros trabalhos de registro de ocorrência, com exceção de U. monilifera. Segundo o critério de área sob a curva (AUC, os modelos gerados pelo GARP apresentaram melhores resultados do que os modelos do Maxent. Entretanto, avaliando em conjunto os resultados dos dois modelos é possível melhor estabelecer planos de conservação para espécies com habitat restrito (U. panaceae e U. monilifera, além de recomendar um aumento na amostragem de U. maracoani no nordeste brasileiro e U. uruguyaensis no sudeste brasileiro, a fim de detectar possíveis aumentos na sua distribuição geográfica com base nas predições dos modelos de nicho.The genus Uca Leach, 1814 (fiddler-crabs is a well-know group characterized by a marked sexual dimorphism. Worldwide, there are 97 species of fiddler crabs described. Here, we predicted the potential geographical distribution of four species of this genus (Uca maracoani Latreille, 1802-1803, U. uruguayensis Nobili, 1901, U. panacea Novak & Salmon, 1974 e U. monilifera Rathbun, 1914

  17. Reproductive biology of the sesarmid crab Armases rubripes (Decapoda, Brachyura from an estuarine area of the Sahy River, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Biologia reprodutiva do caranguejo sesarmídeo Armases rubripes (Decapoda, Brachyura de uma área estuarina do rio Sahy, Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Giovana V. Lima


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain knowledge about reproductive biology of the crab Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 from an estuarine area of the Sepetiba Bay. Samples were taken monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 in the Sahy River estuary (22º56'S; 44º01'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The crabs were collected by hand during 15-minute catch-effort sessions conducted by two people. In the laboratory, the specimens were separated by sex, carapace width was measured and gonadal stage was checked macroscopically. A total of 830 individuals were caught - 304 males, 373 females (60 ovigerous females and 153 juveniles. The ovigerous females were found almost year-round, except in November and April, showing a continuous reproductive period. They presented a size range from 8.2 to 15.0 mm carapace width (12.1 ± 1.7 mm. Color and macroscopical aspects determined five gonadal stages for males and females (immature, rudimentary, intermediary, developed and resting. First sexual maturity was estimated at 6.5 mm of carapace width for males and 8.1 mm for females. Individual fecundity varied from 200 to 11,460 eggs (4,458 ± 2,739 eggs. Mean egg size was 0.248 ± 0.026 mm, varying from 0.213 to 0.333 mm, while the volume ranged from 0.0051 to 0.0188 mm³ (0.0082 ± 0.0029 mm³.O objetivo desse trabalho foi obter informações sobre a biologia reprodutiva do caranguejo Armases rubripes (Rathbun, 1897 numa área estuarina da Baía de Sepetiba. Exemplares foram obtidos mensalmente de fevereiro 2003 a janeiro 2004 no estuário do rio Sahy (22º56'S; 44º01'W, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os caranguejos foram coletados manualmente durante 15 minutos por estação de coleta e por dois coletores. Em laboratório, os indivíduos foram separados por sexos, mensurados em relação à largura da carapaça e os estágios gonadais observados macroscopicamente. Um total de 830 indivíduos foram obtidos - 304 machos, 373 fêmeas (60 fêmeas ovígeras e 153 juvenis. As f

  18. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann


    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  19. Alpheid shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea) of the Trindade & Martin Vaz Archipelago, off Brazil, with new records, description of a new species of Synalpheus and remarks on zoogeographical patterns in the oceanic islands of the tropical southern Atlantic.

    Anker, Arthur; Tavares, Marcos


    The present study deals with shrimps of the family Alpheidae collected in the shallow waters around the remote Trindade & Martin Vaz Archipelago, situated 1200 km off the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A few additional samples came from dredges on top of the seamounts of the Vitória-Trindade Seamount Chain. A total of 23 species in eight genera are reported, the vast majority representing new records for the area. One species is described as new, Synalpheus trinitatis sp. nov., based on the type material from Trindade Island. The new species clearly belongs to the Synalpheus brooksi Coutière, 1909 species complex, differing from all its other members by at least two morphological features. Four species represent new records for Brazil and the southwestern Atlantic: Alpheopsis aequalis Coutière, 1897 sensu lato, Alpheopsis chalciope de Man, 1910 sensu lato, Alpheus crockeri (Armstrong, 1941) and Prionalpheus gomezi Martínez-Iglesias & Carvacho, 1991; the two species of Alpheopsis are recorded from the Atlantic Ocean for the first time. The colour pattern of the recently described Alpheus rudolphi Almeida & Anker, 2011, a species endemic to Brazil, is shown for the first time and compared to the colour patterns of the four closely related species of the A. armatus Rathbun, 1901 complex from the Caribbean-Florida region. A brief zoogeographical analysis of the alpheid fauna of the oceanic islands of the tropical southern Atlantic (Trindade & Martin Vaz, Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, São Pedro & São Paulo, Ascension, Saint Helena, Cape Verde, São Tomé & Príncipe) is also provided. PMID:27470751




    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  1. Species composition and gear characteristics of the Macrobrachium fishery of the Cross River Estuary, Nigeria

    Nwosu, Francis M.


    The Cross River Estuary, Nigeria, is an important shrimping area for artisanal fishermen of the coastal communities. The multi-species Macrobrachium fishery is exploited with three main gears, namely beach seine, push net and trap. Studies on species composition of this fishery recorded thirteen shrimp species, one swimming crab ( Callinectes amnicola) and two fish species ( Eleotris sp. and Pellonula leonensis). The shrimp species identified included Macrobrachium macrobrachion (83.39% and 55.69% by number and weight, respectively), M. vollenhovenii (9.66% and 37.18%), M. equidens (3.8% and 2.87%), juveniles-sub-adults of Penaeus notialis (1.11% and 1.3%), M. dux, M. felicinum, Palaemonetes africanus, Palaemon maculatus, Palaemon elegans, Desmocaris sp., Leander sp., Nematopalaemon hastatus and Alpheus pontederiae. While the selectivity index for trap was 0.25, beach seine and push net had a lower index of 0.063. The results present the first comprehensive and representative report for the Estuary shrimp fishery and will assist in the management of the biodiversity of this ecosystem.

  2. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas Silva; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vasquez, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Ribeiro, Amanda Santos Vaz; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; Oliveira, Sérgio Soares do Prado; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio


    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer' seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  3. Cadmium and lead in seafood from the Aratu Bay, Brazil and the human health risk assessment.

    Silva da Araújo, Cecilia Freitas; Lopes, Mariângela Vieira; Vaz Ribeiro, Mirian Rocha; Porcino, Thiago Santos; Vaz Ribeiro, Amanda Santos; Rodrigues, Juliana Lima Gomes; do Prado Oliveira, Sérgio Soares; Menezes-Filho, José Antonio


    This study aimed to evaluate cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in seafood and perform a risk assessment based on individual food consumption frequency of inhabitants of the Aratu Bay, Brazil. From December 2013 to November 2014, ready-to-market seafood, including fish [pititinga (Lile piquitinga) and small green eel (Gobionellus oceanicus)], mollusks [mussel (Mytella guyanensis) and oyster (Crassostrea rhizophorae)], and crustaceans [white shrimp (Litopenaeus schmitti) and blue crab (Callinectes exasperatus)], were purchased bimonthly from a local artisanal shellfish harvester. Metal levels were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Based on the volunteer’ seafood consumption, estimates of the non-carcinogenic target hazard quotients (THQs) were calculated. The annual concentrations (μg/g, w/w) of Cd were 0.007 (±0.001) in crustaceans, 0.001 (±0.0003) in fish, and 0.446 (±0.034) in mollusks. Lead levels were

  4. The next generation: etravirine in the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults refractory to other antiretrovirals

    R Chris Rathbun


    Full Text Available R Chris Rathbun, Michelle D LiedtkeDepartment of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, USAAbstract: Etravirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI that is approved for the treatment of adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients with documented or suspected resistance to first-generation NNRTIs. Etravirine has a flexible molecular structure that allows it to retain its activity against mutant HIV strains that exhibit resistance to first-generation agents. It is evident that 3 or more etravirine resistance-associated mutations are typically necessary before clinical resistance to etravirine. Safety and efficacy of etravirine are established in antiretroviral treatment-experienced patients in combination with antiretroviral regimens that contain darunavir/ritonavir. In phase III studies, cutaneous reactions occurred in 19% of treated patients and are the most commonly observed adverse event. The typical manifestation is the development of a maculopapular rash within the first few weeks of etravirine therapy. Resolution commonly occurs within 1–2 weeks on continued therapy. Rare cases of severe skin reactions (<0.1% have been reported. Etravirine is hepatically metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Drug interactions with some antiretrovirals (eg, unboosted protease inhibitors and fosamprenavir/ritonavir and medications for other comorbidities (eg, atorvastatin and clarithromycin have been reported and may require dosage adjustment for the coadministered drug or selection of alternative therapy in some instances. Administration of etravirine with potent inducers of CYP450 is not recommended due to the potential for subtherapeutic etravirine concentrations. In this article, the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and tolerability of etravirine in adult treatment-experienced patients with HIV-1

  5. Monitoring of carcinofauna abundance and diversity during eight years of expressway construction in Santa Catarina, Brazil Ocho años de monitoreo de la abundancia y diversidad de la fauna carcinológica durante la construcción de una carretera en Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Felipe Freitas Junior


    Full Text Available Crustaceans are important in estuarine ecosystems, transferring energy to higher trophic levels and contributing to artisanal and industrial fisheries. This paper aims to evaluate the carcinofauna diversity and abundance in Saco dos Limões and how this changed when affected by dredging during the construction of an expressway through South Bay, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Collections were made onboard a commercial fishing boat for three months, day and night, at six sampling sites from 1997 to 2006. The families Penaeidae and Portunidae were the most diverse in terms of taxa, with the largest species abundances. The dominant species were the shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, and Litopenaeus schmitti, and the crab Callinectes danae. The largest abundances were found in two areas, in the summer and at night. The diversity and equitability Índices showed similar patterns, with the highest values in autumn and winter. Acording to the Jaccard Index, the similarity of the crustacean composition was highest for the years 2005 and 2006 and lowest between 1997 and 2005. The structure of the carcinofauna changed over the years, with high mortalities during dredging operations followed by a recovery in the subsequent years. Our observations indicated that dredging did not have catastrophiçõeffects ñor did it produce long-term disturbances in the carcinofauna of the estuary. It is important to monitor natural resources in order to record the extent and limits of human impacts on the environment.Los crustáceos son importantes en el ecosistema estuarino, transfiriendo energía hacia los niveles tróficos más altos y contribuyendo a la pesca artesanal e industrial. El objetivo del artículo es evaluar la diversidad y abundancia de la fauna carcinológica de la región de Saco dos Limões y sus cambios bajo la influencia de las actividades de dragado durante la construcción de la carretera Bahía sur, Florianópolis, Santa

  6. Microbial liquefaction of peat for the production of synthetic fuels

    Gunasekaran, M.


    Objectives of this study were: to evaluate the potential of using various microorganisms to hydrolyse and liquify peat; to determine the optimal conditions for peat hydrolysis and liquefaction; to study the co-metabolizable substances; to separate the compounds present in liquified peat by alumina and silica acid chromatography and capillary gas chromatography; and to identify the compounds in liquified peat by capillary GC-Mass spectrometry. Organisms used in the study include: Coprinus comatus, Coriolus hirsutus, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Lenzites trabea, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. sapidus, Polyporus adjustus, Neurospora sitophila, Rhizophus arrhizus, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. The fungi were maintained and cultivated in potato dextrose agar at 30 C. The bacteria were maintained in nutrient agar at 30 C. We have also initiated work on coal solubilization in addition to the studies on peat liquefaction. A relatively new substratum or semi-solid base for culture media called Pluronic F-127, or Polyol (BASF, New Jersey). Objectives of this study were: (1) to study the growth patterns of Candida ML 13 on pluronic as substratum; (2) to determine the rate of microbial coal solubilization on pluronic F-127 amended in different growth media; (3) to separate the mycelial mat of Candida ML 13 from unsolubilized coal particles and solubilized coal products from pluronic F-127; (4) to determine the effects of pH on microbial coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media; (5) the effect of concentration of pluronic F-127 in media on coal solubilization; and, (6) to study the role of extracellular factors secreted by Candida ML 13 on coal solubilization in pluronic F-127 media. Results are discussed. 4 refs.

  7. Micromamíferos del Pleistoceno Superior del yacimiento de PRERESA en el valle del Manzanares y su contribución a la reconstrucción paleoambiental de la cuenca de Madrid durante el Pleistoceno

    Sesé, C.


    Full Text Available PRERESA (Getafe, Madrid is a site of the first third of the Late Pleistocene, at the end of MIS 5, of which 255 m2 have been excavated, and where 754 stone pieces and abundant remains of micro- and macrovertebrates have been recovered. This paper deals with the study of the following identified micromammals at the site: Erinaceomorpha: Erinaceus europaeus; Soricomorpha: Crocidura russula; Chiroptera: Rhinolophus ferrumequinum; Rodentia: Eliomys quercinus quercinus, Apodemus sp., Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae, Arvicola aff. sapidus, Microtus cabrerae, Microtus duodecimcostatus; Lagomorpha: Oryctolagus cuniculus. This faunal association, mainly due to the presence of Microtus cabrerae, belongs to the Late Pleistocene. The evolved stage of Microtus cabrerae and Arvicola aff. sapidus indicate the antiquity of this association within the first part of this period, which is consistent with the date of 84±5,6 ka BP obtained by OSL. All the taxa recorded in PRERESA are currently living in the area where the site is located, except Cricetulus (Allocricetus bursae that became extinct in the Iberian Peninsula at the end of the Late Pleistocene. Observations on the material indicate that the accumulation of the small mammal remains could have been mainly caused by predators, most likely by pellets of birds of prey. The association of small mammals from PRERESA indicates temperate conditions with some moisture and vegetation development with some wooded areas and mainly open areas but mostly shrubby, herbaceous, wet and dry grasslands, and riparian vegetation. The comparison of the small mammals from PRERESA with those of the Middle Pleistocene sites from Áridos and Valdocarros, indicate a similarity of the climatic conditions and lansdcape in the low sections of the Manzanares and Jarama rivers in the moments that these sites represent (the advanced Middle Pleistocene and

  8. Heterogeneous road networks have no apparent effect on the genetic structure of small mammal populations.

    Grilo, Clara; Del Cerro, Irene; Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Ramiro, Victor; Román, Jacinto; Molina-Vacas, Guillem; Fernández-Aguilar, Xavier; Rodríguez, Juan; Porto-Peter, Flávia; Fonseca, Carlos; Revilla, Eloy; Godoy, José A


    Roads are widely recognized to represent a barrier to individual movements and, conversely, verges can act as potential corridors for the dispersal of many small mammals. Both barrier and corridor effects should generate a clear spatial pattern in genetic structure. Nevertheless, the effect of roads on the genetic structure of small mammal populations still remains unclear. In this study, we examine the barrier effect that different road types (4-lane highway, 2-lane roads and single-lane unpaved roads) may have on the population genetic structure of three species differing in relevant life history traits: southern water vole Arvicola sapidus, the Mediterranean pine vole Microtus duodecimcostatus and the Algerian mouse Mus spretus. We also examine the corridor effect of highway verges on the Mediterranean pine vole and the Algerian mouse. We analysed the population structure through pairwise estimates of FST among subpopulations bisected by roads, identified genetic clusters through Bayesian assignment approaches, and used simple and partial Mantel tests to evaluate the relative barrier or corridor effect of roads. No strong evidences were found for an effect of roads on population structure of these three species. The barrier effect of roads seems to be site-specific and no corridor effect of verges was found for the pine vole and Algerian mouse populations. The lack of consistent results among species and for each road type lead us to believe that the ability of individual dispersers to use those crossing structures or the habitat quality in the highway verges may have a relatively higher influence on gene flow among populations than the presence of crossing structures per se. Further research should include microhabitat analysis and the estimates of species abundance to understand the mechanisms that underlie the genetic structure observed at some sites. PMID:27219505

  9. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.


    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  10. Distribution and bioconcentration of heavy metals in a tropical aquatic food web: A case study of a tropical estuarine lagoon in SE Mexico.

    Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Lozada, Alejandra; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Geissen, Violette


    Despite the increasing impact of heavy metal pollution in southern Mexico due to urban growth and agricultural and petroleum activities, few studies have focused on the behavior and relationships of these pollutants in the biotic and abiotic components of aquatic environments. Here, we studied the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) in suspended load, sediment, primary producers, mollusks, crustaceans, and fish, in a deltaic lagoon habitat in the Tabasco coast, with the aim to assess the potential ecological risk in that important wetland. Zn showed the highest concentrations, e.g., in suspended load (mean of 159.58 mg kg(-1)) and aquatic consumers (15.43-171.71 mg kg(-1)), particularly Brachyura larvae and ichthyoplankton (112.22-171.71 mg kg(-1)), followed by omnivore Callinectes sp. crabs (113.81-128.07 mg kg(-1)). The highest bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Zn were observed for planktivore and omnivore crustaceans (3.06-3.08). Zn showed a pattern of distribution in the food web through two pathways: the pelagic (where the higher concentrations were found), and the benthic (marsh plants, sediment, mollusk, fish). The other heavy metals had lower occurrences in the food web. Nevertheless, high concentrations of Ni and Cr were found in phytoplankton and sediment (37.62-119.97 mg kg(-1)), and V in epiphytes (68.64 mg kg(-1)). Ni, Cr, and Cd concentrations in sediments surpassed international and national threshold values, and Cd entailed a "considerable" potential risk. These heavy metals are most likely transferred into the food web up to fishes through the benthic pathway. Most of the collected fishes are residents in this type of habitat and have commercial importance. Our results show that the total potential ecological risk in the area can be considered as "moderate". Nevertheless, heavy metal values were similar or surpassed the values from other highly industrialized tropical coastal regions. PMID:26708770

  11. Assessment of heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment and biota (fish and crabs) samples from the Densu Delta

    The aim of the study was assess the concentration of some selected heavy metals in water, sediments and biota (fish and crab) sampled from the Densu Delta. In situ and laboratory based analysis were carried out to measure the following physicochemical properties of surface water from the delta; temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity, sodium ion concentration (Na+), potassium ion concentration (K+), chloride ion concentration (Cl), bicarbonate concentration, phosphate concentration, nitrate concentration, sulphate concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Heavy metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg) concentrations in water, sediments, fish and crab sampled at six sites from the Densu Delta wetland in the month of December, 2009 were analysed using VARIAN Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model AA240 FS. Two fish species; Blackchin tilapia (Sarotherodon melanotheron), White mullet (Mugil curema) and one species of crab; Blue swimming crab (Callinectes amnicola) were collected from the Densu Delta wetland and analysed. Heavy metal contents in the fish were higher in gill tissue than muscle tissue while in crabs concentrations were higher in the soft tissue than the shell. Levels of Fe, Zn and Cu in the muscle tissue of S. melanotheron were greater than the levels detected in the muscle tissue of M. curema. Cd, Ni and Hg were detected in gill tissue but not in the muscle tissue of S. melanotheron, M. curema on the other hand contained these metals in both gill and muscle tissue. The maximum level of Fe (34.98 mg/L), Zn (25.08 mg/L) in the muscle of S. melanotheron was observed at Bortianor and Zn (2.70 mg/L) was observed at Tetegu. In the M. curema, the maximum level of Fe (34.66 mg/L), Zn (15.9 mg/L) and Cu (1.43 mg/L) was detected at Aplaku, Tetegu and Faana respectively. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in sediment than water. The presence of elevated levels of Cd

  12. Notes on the Bull shark Carcharhinus leucas in the lagoon region of Cananéia, Brazil

    V Sadowsky


    tamanhos oscilaram ent re 768-812 mm. O comprimento do menor jovem livre encontrado foi de 697 mm, sendo que jovens de presumivelmente 9 a 12 meses têm de 98 a 112 cm; entre 21 e 24 meses alcançam 124 a 128 cm, ou seja, os tamanhos que apresentam quando emigram para mar aberto. Não ficou confirmado o fenômeno da inibição alimentar nas fêmeas capturadas, já observado em genetrizes da mesma espécie durante o período de parição no delta do Mississippi. O conteúdo estomacal apresentou, por ordem decrescente de abundância: Arius spixii (13; Chloroscombrus chrysurus (7; A. grandicassus (6; A. barbus (4; Felichtys marinus (3; Genidens genide ns (2; Chanophorus tajacica (2; Carcharhinus porosus (2; Conodon nobilis, Caranx crysos, scomberomorus maculatus, Sphyrna tiburo, Rhinoptera brasiliensis, Dasyatis americana, Diapterus rhombeus (1, além de cerca de 25/30 exemplares de Callinectes sp.


    Marcelino Silva Farias Filho


    Full Text Available

    Agricultural production in the Maranhão State, southeastern periphery of Amazonia, Brazil, is predominantly smallholder-based and uses slash-and-burn technology. Nevertheless, other environmentally less aggressive land use systems are also relevant for food production, especially the so-called ebbtide system, in the Maranhão lowlands. This paper describes and evaluates ebbtide production, within the landless settlement project “Diamante Negro/Jutaí”, located in Monção and Igarapé do Meio, municipalities of the Maranhão lowlands. Our farmer-based assessment consisted of interviews with 14 farmers and in loco observations. Furthermore, an agroecological assessment was conducted, based on participative field experimentation, with 15 local farmers. The main factors causing rice productivity losses are related to hydric stress situations and rodents (Arvicola sapidus. The productivity and milling yield of improved rice varieties did not differ statistically.


    KEY-WORDS: Rice; Maranhão lowlands; smallholder agriculture; ebbtide production.