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Sample records for californian sea lions

  1. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Jochen BW

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL, being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL. In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL. Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki, the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is under the general protection of the habitat it lives in.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santokh Gill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

  3. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Jochen BW; Tautz Diethard; Trillmich Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships w...

  4. StellarSeaLion_CriticalHabitat_CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts Designated Critical Habitat for Stellar Sea Lions in California. It is meant as a general locational reference for these designated areas. The...

  5. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  6. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  7. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Shinsuke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

  8. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2014. Non-pup counts have...

  9. Observations on sea lion harvest, Alaska Peninsula, summer, 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of a sea lion pup harvest on the Alaskan peninsula during the summer of 1965. Culling was kept to only 50 of the rookerys pups. The...

  10. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Robert F. Massung

    2010-01-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  13. Diagnostic testing for Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a relatively common bacterial disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); however, there remain gaps in our understanding of maintenance hosts relative to animals demonstrating clinical disease. To effectively study the epidemiology of leptospirosis in any species, a s...

  14. Sea lions and equivalence: expanding classes by exclusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Kastak, Colleen Reichmuth; Schusterman, Ronald J.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments have shown that human and nonhuman subjects are capable of performing new arbitrary stimulus-stimulus relations without error. When subjects that are experienced with matching-to-sample procedures are presented with a novel sample, a novel comparison, and a familiar comparison, most respond by correctly selecting the novel comparison in the presence of the new sample. This exclusion paradigm was expanded with two California sea lions that had previously formed two 10-member equiva...

  15. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Velazquez, F.D.; Galindo-Sanchez, C.E.; Taylor, Martin I.; De La Rosa-Velez, J.; Cote, I.M.; Schramm, Y.; Aurioles-Gamboa, D.; Rico, Ciro

    2005-01-01

    Nine microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). In addition, two of five loci tested from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) produced a single, clear band in Z. californianus, as did one out of five loci from grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and one out of two loci from elephant seal (Mirounga sp.). No locus tested from South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) amplified in Z. californianus. Locus variability was assessed in Califo...

  16. Phylogenomic characterization of California sea lion adenovirus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; Goldstein, Tracey; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca; Waltzek, Thomas B; Salemi, Marco; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-04-01

    Significant adenoviral diversity has been found in humans, but in domestic and wild animals the number of identified viruses is lower. Here we present the complete genome of a recently discovered mastadenovirus, California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1) isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), an important pathogen associated with hepatitis in pinnipeds. The genome of this virus has the typical mastadenoviral structure with some notable differences at the carboxy-terminal end, including a dUTPase that does not cluster with other mastadenoviral dUTPases, and a fiber that shows similarity to a trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi and choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The GC content is low (36%), and phylogenetic analyses placed the virus near the root of the clade infecting laurasiatherian hosts in the genus Mastadenovirus. These findings support the hypothesis that CSLAdV-1 in California sea lions represents a host jump from an unknown mammalian host in which it is endemic. PMID:25660039

  17. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  18. Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, K C; Greig, Denise J; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Hornsby, Richard L; Palmer, Lauren J; Soper, Jennifer; Wu, Qingzhong; Zuerner, Richard L; Gulland, Frances M D; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2013-05-31

    Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years. PMID:23419822

  19. Epidemiology and pathology of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-04-01

    The coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and warm-blooded animals worldwide. The ecology of this parasite in marine systems is poorly understood, although many marine mammals are infected and susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. We summarized the lesions associated with T. gondii infection in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population and investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with T. gondii exposure, as indicated by antibody. Five confirmed and four suspected cases of T. gondii infection were identified by analysis of 1,152 medical records of necropsied sea lions from 1975-2009. One suspected and two confirmed cases were identified in aborted fetuses from a sea lion rookery. Toxoplasmosis was the primary cause of death in five cases, including the two fetuses. Gross and histopathologic findings in T. gondii-infected sea lions were similar to those reported in other marine mammals. The most common lesions were encephalitis, meningitis, and myocarditis. The antibody prevalence in stranded, free-ranging sea lions for 1998-2009 was 2.5% (±0.03%; IgG titer 640). There was an increase in odds of exposure in sea lions with increasing age, suggesting cumulative risk of exposure and persistent antibody over time. The occurrence of disseminated T. gondii infection in aborted fetuses confirms vertical transmission in sea lions, and the increasing odds of exposure with age is consistent with additional opportunities for horizontal transmission in free-ranging sea lions over time. These data suggest that T. gondii may have two modes of transmission in the sea lion population. Overall, clinical disease was uncommon in our study which, along with low prevalence of T. gondii antibody, suggests substantially less-frequent exposure and lower susceptibility to clinical disease in California sea lions as compared to sympatric southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). PMID:25588007

  20. Foraging Behaviour of Juvenile Female New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in Contrasting Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Elaine S.; Augé, Amélie A.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Moore, Antoni B.; Bruce C. Robertson

    2013-01-01

    Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolon...

  1. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

  2. Steller sea lion haulout and rookery locations in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) use terrestrial sites for reproduction, resting, molting, and other activities. Sites used during the breeding season...

  3. Steller sea lion capture, marking, and handling data across their range 1985-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on individual sea lions that were marked or handled from 1985-2014. Individuals were handled for various projects including vital...

  4. Steller sea lion sightings or recaptures of previously marked animals throughout their range, 1987-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the sighting and capture of previously marked Steller sea lions from 1987 to the present. Marks are seen and documented...

  5. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  6. AFSC/REFM: Steller sea lion economic survey data, U.S., 2007, Lew

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project will produce a valuation function that depends on factors related to Steller sea lion (SSL) protection measures, and may include some combination of the...

  7. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites 12 Table 12 to Part 679 Wildlife...Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites Column Number 1 2 3 4...

  8. Discovery of an orthoreovirus in the aborted fetus of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F X; Raverty, Stephen; Bussetti, Ana V; Hui, Jeffrey; Savji, Nazir; Nollens, Hendrik H; Lambourn, Dyanna; Celone, Christopher; Hutchison, Stephen; Calisher, Charles H; Nielsen, Ole; Lipkin, W Ian

    2011-11-01

    An aborted mid-gestational male Steller sea lion fetus with an attached placenta was recovered on the floor of an open floating capture trap located off Norris Rock near Denman Island, British Columbia. Viral culture of the placenta demonstrated cytopathic effect. Although no specific signal was obtained in microarray experiments using RNA obtained from viral culture, elution and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a reovirus. Complete genome pyrosequencing led to the identification of an orthoreovirus that we have tentatively named Steller sea lion reovirus (SSRV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed similarities between SSRV and orthoreoviruses of birds, bats and other mammals that suggests potential for interspecies transmission. PMID:21795475

  9. A CASE OF TRYCHOPHYTON RUBRUM DERMATOPHYTOSIS IN A PATAGONIAN SEA LION (OTARIA BYRONIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Benoît; Lohmann, Caroline; Lefaux, Brice

    2015-09-01

    A 23-yr old female Patagonian sea lion (Otaria byronia) presented multifocal to coalescing and ulcerative skin lesions on the lumbar region. Skin scrapings were collected and a microscopic examination was conducted followed by a fungal culture that revealed a Trychophyton rubrum infection, an anthropophilic dermatophytosis agent. Oral terbinafine and topical eniconazole were used as a treatment for a period of 75 days and complete recovery was achieved. Epidemiological analysis revealed a dermatophytosis case in one of the carnivore section keepers a few weeks before the lesions were diagnosed in the sea lion. PMID:26352974

  10. Inter-Population Movements of Steller Sea Lions in Alaska with Implications for Population Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Jemison, Lauri A.; Pendleton, Grey W.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Hastings, Kelly K.; Maniscalco, John M.; Trites, Andrew W.; Gelatt, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15–30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each D...

  11. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

  12. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Milton; Joshi, Dhanashree; Draghi, Andrew; Gulland, Frances M; Jessup, David; De Guise, Sylvain

    2010-04-01

    During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern that DA may exert chronic effects, such as immunomodulation, which may potentially increase an individual's susceptibility to a number of opportunistic infections following nonlethal exposure. We investigated the effects of DA on innate (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and adaptive (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation) immune functions with the use of peripheral blood leukocytes collected from healthy California sea lions and southern sea otters upon in vitro exposure to 0 (unexposed control), 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 microM DA. Domoic acid did not significantly modulate phagocytosis or respiratory burst in either species. For California sea lions, DA significantly increased ConA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation upon exposure to DA concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 10 microM, resulting in a nonlinear dose-response curve. There was no effect on lymphocyte proliferation at the highest concentration of DA tested. No effects on lymphocyte proliferation were observed in southern sea otters. Importantly, the in vitro DA concentrations affecting T-cell proliferation were within or below the range of DA in serum measured in free-ranging California sea lions following natural exposure, suggesting a risk for immunomodulation in free-ranging animals. Understanding the risk for immunomodulation upon DA exposure will contribute in the health assessment and management of California sea lions and southern sea otters, as well as guide veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators in caring for and treating afflicted animals. PMID:20688647

  13. Antibiotic efficacy in eliminating leptospiruria in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranding with leptospirosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection of California sea lions with leptospirosis can result in stranding and death of the animals. Shedding of the infectious organism contributes to spread of the disease to other animals and also poses a threat to human health. This is both for the public interacting with stranded animals and ...

  14. Dissecting the Influences of Climate and Demography on the Dynamics of Leptospirosis in California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection of global importance, yet its population dynamics remain poorly understood. We present the first empirically-motivated study of the dynamics of leptospirosis, drawing on a unique 24-year time series of disease in California sea lions (CSLs). Since the early 19...

  15. Foraging energetics and diving behavior of lactating New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D P; Gales, N J

    2000-12-01

    The New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri, is the deepest- and longest-diving sea lion. We were interested in whether the diving ability of this animal was related to changes in its at-sea and diving metabolic rates. We measured the metabolic rate, water turnover and diving behavior of 12 lactating New Zealand sea lions at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands Group, New Zealand (50 degrees 30'S, 166 degrees 17'E), during January and February 1997 when their pups were between 1 and 2 months old. Metabolic rate (rate of CO(2) production) and water turnover were measured using the (18)O doubly-labeled water technique, and diving behavior was measured with time/depth recorders (TDRs). Mean total body water was 66.0+/-1.1 % (mean +/- s.d.) and mean rate of CO(2) production was 0. 835+/-0.114 ml g(-)(1 )h(-)(1), which provides an estimated mass-specific field metabolic rate (FMR) of 5.47+/-0.75 W kg(-)(1). After correction for time on shore, the at-sea FMR was estimated to be 6.65+/-1.09 W kg(-)(1), a value 5.8 times the predicted standard metabolic rate of a terrestrial animal of equal size. The mean maximum dive depth was 353+/-164 m, with a mean diving depth of 124+/-36 m. The mean maximum dive duration was 8.3+/-1.7 min, with an average duration of 3.4+/-0.6 min. The deepest, 550 m, and longest, 11.5 min, dives were made by the largest animal (155 kg). Our results indicate that the deep and long-duration diving ability of New Zealand sea lions is not due to a decreased diving metabolic rate. Individual sea lions that performed deeper dives had lower FMRs, which may result from the use of energetically efficient burst-and-glide locomotion. There are differences in the foraging patterns of deep and shallow divers that may reflect differences in surface swimming, time spent on the surface and/or diet. Our data indicate that, although New Zealand sea lions have increased their O(2) storage capacity, they do not, or cannot, significantly reduce their at-sea metabolic rates and are therefore likely to be operating near their physiological maximum. PMID:11060226

  16. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  17. Steller sea lion haulout and rookery locations in the United States for 2015-05-14 (NCEI Accession 0129877)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) use terrestrial sites for reproduction, resting, molting, and other activities. Sites used during the breeding season...

  18. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2007. The...

  19. Foraging behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elaine S; Augé, Amélie A; Chilvers, B Louise; Moore, Antoni B; Robertson, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat). We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) and time-depth recorders (TDRs) on 2-3 year-old females at AI (2007-2010) and Otago (2009-2010). Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can alter food availability such as potential resource competition with fisheries. PMID:23671630

  20. p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

    2002-05-01

    An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely that the sediments impacted by the Whites Point outfall were the source of much of the DDE and PCBs in these animals.

  1. Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemison, Lauri A; Pendleton, Grey W; Fritz, Lowell W; Hastings, Kelly K; Maniscalco, John M; Trites, Andrew W; Gelatt, Tom S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

  2. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

  3. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring

  4. Discovery of an orthoreovirus in the aborted fetus of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F.X.; Raverty, Stephen; Bussetti, Ana V.; Hui, Jeffrey; Savji, Nazir; Nollens, Hendrik H.; Lambourn, Dyanna; Celone, Christopher; Hutchison, Stephen; Charles H. Calisher; Nielsen, Ole; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    An aborted mid-gestational male Steller sea lion fetus with an attached placenta was recovered on the floor of an open floating capture trap located off Norris Rock near Denman Island, British Columbia. Viral culture of the placenta demonstrated cytopathic effect. Although no specific signal was obtained in microarray experiments using RNA obtained from viral culture, elution and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a reovirus. Complete genome pyrosequencing led to the identification of...

  5. Lung collapse in the diving sea lion: hold the nitrogen and save the oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Birgitte I.; Ponganis, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as evidenced by abrupt changes in during descent and ascent, (ii) depth of lung collapse was positively related to maximum dive depth, suggesting that t...

  6. Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WilliamGeorgeVan Bonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

  7. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Flatz, Ramona; Gonzalez-Suarez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Gerber, Leah R.

    2012-01-01

    Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males acros...

  8. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner Sylvia; Harrod Chris; Wolf Jochen BW; Salazar Sandie; Trillmich Fritz; Tautz Diethard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal...

  9. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Helen M.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Hall, Ailsa J.; Finlayson, Jeanie; Dagleish, Mark P.; Billington, Karen J.; Colegrove, Kathleen; Hammond, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Although neoplasia is a major cause of mortality in humans and domestic animals, it has rarely been described in wildlife species. One of the few examples is a highly prevalent urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (CSLs). Although the aetiology of this carcinoma is clearly multifactorial, inbreeding depression, as estimated using levels of microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, is identified as predictive for this neoplasia. On further analysis, this relationship appears to be larg...

  10. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)

    OpenAIRE

    L.O. Artico; Bianchini, A.; K.S. Grubel; MONTEIRO, D.S.; S.C. Estima; L. R. Oliveira; Bonatto, S. L.; L.F Marins

    2010-01-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with...

  11. Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Flatz, Ramona; M. González-Suárez; Young, Julie K.; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Berger, Leah R.

    2012-01-01

    Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males acros...

  12. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in ...

  13. Urban life of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristobal Island, Ecuador: colony trends and threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkinger, Judith; Gordillo, Luis; Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Guevara, Nataly; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Fietz, Katharina; Rubianes, Francisco; Dan, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, pristine environments are influenced by human societies. In the Galapagos Islands, the endangered, endemic Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) has formed one of the biggest colonies within the town center of Puerto Baquerizo Moreno. About 8,000 people live there and human wildlife interactions occur daily. With colony counts and direct observations from 2008 to 2012, we analyze cause of death, injuries and disease of urban sea lion colonies at Wreck Bay. Population increase since 2008 can be attributed to an immigration of adult sea lions in 2010, resulting in an increase in the pup and juvenile production in 2011 and 2012. Pup mortality increased drastically to 2009 and again in 2011 and 2012. Besides pup mortality, most of the deaths are caused by increased disease incidences and human activity. Our observations suggest that overall 65% of the injuries observed are produced by human interaction. The increase in threats leading to death, injuries or disease can have long-term effects on the population. Although threats that cause physical injuries can be managed locally, sea lions range movements contributes to the spread of infectious pathogens, which may affect neighbor colonies and potentially have an impact on the survival of the species. Our study reveals the need of stronger efforts towards a more complete understanding of threats and especially disease spread among Galapagos Sea lions in urban environments and the establishment of more effective management measures.

  14. Diagnosing domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) using behavioral criteria: A novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, Christiana; Lahvis, Garet P; Keith, Edward O; Self-Sullivan, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Domoic acid toxicosis in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is difficult to diagnose using presence of toxin alone because the duration of domoic acid presence in blood and urine is generally less than 48?hr following exposure. Because domoic acid toxicosis is often suggested by presentation of behavioral abnormalities, we asked whether assessment of behavior might be useful for diagnostic purposes. We developed an ethogram to categorize behavioral data collected via continuous focal animal sampling. In total, 169 subjects were observed at a rehabilitation center. Sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis displayed head weaving (P?fasciculations (P?sea lion. PMID:25962475

  15. Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; van Schie, Robbert; Verboom, Wim C.; de Haan, Dick

    2005-09-01

    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not. The signals were narrow-band, frequency-modulated stimuli with a duration of 600 ms and center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 32 kHz for the male and from 4 to 32 kHz for the female. Detection thresholds at each frequency were measured by varying signal amplitude according to the up-down staircase method. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for the male Steller sea lion showed the typical mammalian U-shape. His maximum sensitivity (77 dB re: 1 ?Pa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 16 kHz (4 octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 kHz and above 16 kHz. The maximum sensitivity of the female (73 dB re: 1 ?Pa, rms) occurred at 25 kHz. Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed for signals below 16 kHz and above 25 kHz. At frequencies for which both subjects were tested, hearing thresholds of the male were significantly higher than those of the female. The hearing sensitivity differences between the male and female Steller sea lion in this study may be due to individual differences in sensitivity between the subjects or due to sexual dimorphism in hearing.

  16. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  17. A 500 kyr record of global sea level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea level variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frigola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of Late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion which consists of five main sequences stacked during the sea level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles. The high sensitivity to sea level oscillations of the grain-size record along the borehole, favoured by the large width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, demonstrates that sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf are able to cyclically modify the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea level oscillations at millennial scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence ever for a one-to-one coupling of millennial-scale sea level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  18. A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Frigola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  19. Risk Functions of Dolphins and Sea Lions Exposed to Sonar Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Steven W; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic dose-response functions have been recommended as a means of predicting behavioral impacts on marine mammals from anthropogenic noise exposure. Thirty bottlenose dolphins and fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study to explore dose-response relationships to the received level of a simulated sonar signal. Both species showed an increase in the probability of response and in the severity of response with increased received levels. Differences in species sensitivity were noted in habituation and the impact of age on responsiveness. PMID:26610994

  20. Diagnosis and seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions from coastal California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagross-Schouten, Angela M; Mazet, Jonna A K; Gulland, Frances M D; Miller, Melissa A; Hietala, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) as a method for detection of exposure to Leptospira spp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were determined. Sera came from individuals that demonstrated clinical signs of renal disease, had lesions suggestive of leptospirosis at necropsy, and had visible leptospires in silver stained kidney sections as positive controls. Sera from unexposed captive individuals were used as negative controls. The test was 100% sensitive at 1:3,200 for confirming renal infection and 100% specific at negative SeaWorld California (San Diego, California). At The Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito, California) [prevalence 27.8% (48/173)], the majority of seropositive animals were subadults and adults, and males were 4.7 times more likely to be seropositive to serovar pomona than females. When combining results from all three centers, subadult and adult animals were more likely to be seropositive than pups and juvenile sea lions, and the highest proportion of seropositive animals presented during the autumn months. Serum elevations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, phosphorus, and/or calcium were associated with seropositivity to serovar pomona. We found no association between potassium or sodium levels and seropositivity. PMID:11838231

  1. Auditory Discrimination of Natural and High-Pass Filtered Bark Vocalizations in a California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulsow, Jason; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    A California sea lion performed a psychophysical auditory discrimination task with a set of six stimuli: three barks recorded from conspecific males and high-pass filtered versions of the barks that removed the majority of energy at fundamental frequencies. Discrimination performance and subject reaction times (RTs) suggested that the vocalizations were all perceived as fairly dissimilar. This preliminary study hints that low-frequency components are a salient part of the California sea lion bark despite elevation of this species' aerial hearing thresholds and the potential for elevated environmental noise levels at frequencies below 1 kHz. PMID:26611026

  2. Diversity of MHC DQB and DRB Genes in the Endangered Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Quintin; Chow, Natalie; Gray, Rachael; Gongora, Jaime; Higgins, Damien P

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules have an important role in vertebrate adaptive immunity, being responsible for recognizing, binding, and presenting specific antigenic peptides to T lymphocytes. Here, we study the MHC class II DQB and DRB exon 2 genes of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), an endangered pinniped species that experiences high pup mortality. Following characterization of N. cinerea DQB and DRB by molecular cloning, and evaluation of diversity in pups across 2 colonies using variant screening (n = 47), 3 DQB alleles and 10 DRB variants (including 1 pseudogene allele) were identified. The higher diversity at DRB relative to DQB is consistent with other studies in marine mammals. Despite overall lower MHC class II allelic diversity relative to some other pinniped species, we observed similar levels of nucleotide diversity and selection in N. cinerea. In addition, we provide support for recent divergence of MHC class II alleles. The characterization of MHC class II diversity in the Australian sea lion establishes a baseline for further investigation of associations with disease, including endemic hookworm infection, and contributes to the conservation management of this species. PMID:25908666

  3. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.O., Artico; A., Bianchini; K.S., Grubel; D.S., Monteiro; S.C., Estima; L.R., de Oliveira; S.L., Bonatto; L.F., Marins.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe L [...] este da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  4. Equal latency contours for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Brandt, Lacey; Finneran, James J

    2015-11-01

    Loudness perception by non-human animals is difficult to study directly. Previous research efforts have instead focused on estimating loudness perception using simple reaction time (RT) data. These data are used to generate equal latency contours that serve as a proxy for equal loudness contours. To aid the design of auditory weighting functions for marine mammals, equal latency contours were generated using RT data for two marine mammal species that are representative of broader functional hearing groups: the bottlenose dolphin (under water) and California sea lion (in air). In all cases, median RT decreased with increasing tone sound pressure level (SPL). The equal latency contours corresponding to near-threshold SPLs were similar to audiograms for both species. The sea lion contours showed some compression at frequencies below 1 kHz; however, a similar pattern was not apparent in the more variable data for dolphins. Equal latency contours for SPLs greater than approximately 40?dB above threshold diverged from predicted equal loudness contours, likely due to the asymptotic nature of RT at the highest tested SPLs. The results suggest that auditory threshold data, potentially augmented with compression at low frequencies, may provide a useful way forward when designing auditory weighting functions for marine mammals. PMID:26627745

  5. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  6. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  7. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O. Artico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  8. Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St Leger Judy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California sea lions that stranded alive on the California coast, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We evaluated seroprevalence among yearlings as a measure of incidence in the population, and characterized antibody persistence times based on temporal changes in the distribution of titer scores. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to determine individual risk factors for seropositivity with high and low titers. Results The serosurvey revealed cyclical patterns in seroprevalence to L. interrogans serovar Pomona, with 4–5 year periodicity and peak seroprevalence above 50%. Seroprevalence in yearling sea lions was an accurate index of exposure among all age classses, and indicated on-going exposure to leptospires in non-outbreak years. Analysis of titer decay rates showed that some individuals probably maintain high titers for more than a year following exposure. Conclusion This study presents results of an unprecedented long-term serosurveillance program in marine mammals. Our results suggest that leptospirosis is endemic in California sea lions, but also causes periodic epidemics of acute disease. The findings call into question the classical dichotomy between maintenance hosts of leptospirosis, which experience chronic but largely asymptomatic infections, and accidental hosts, which suffer acute illness or death as a result of disease spillover from reservoir species.

  9. Stable Isotopes Reveal Long-Term Fidelity to Foraging Grounds in the Galapagos Sea Lion (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo; Tapia, Washington; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Most otariids have colony-specific foraging areas during the breeding season, when they behave as central place foragers. However, they may disperse over broad areas after the breeding season and individuals from different colonies may share foraging grounds at that time. Here, stable isotope ratios in the skull bone of adult Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) were used to assess the long-term fidelity of both sexes to foraging grounds across the different regions of the Galapagos archipelago. Results indicated that the stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) of sea lion bone significantly differed among regions of the archipelago, without any significant difference between sexes and with a non significant interaction between sex and region. Moreover, standard ellipses, estimated by Bayesian inference and used as a measure of the isotopic resource use area at the population level, overlapped widely for the sea lions from the southern and central regions, whereas the overlap of the ellipses for sea lions from the central and western regions was small and non-existing for those from the western and southern regions. These results suggest that males and females from the same region within the archipelago use similar foraging grounds and have similar diets. Furthermore, they indicate that the exchange of adults between regions is limited, thus revealing a certain degree of foraging philopatry at a regional scale within the archipelago. The constraints imposed on males by an expanded reproductive season (~ 6 months), resulting from the weak reproductive synchrony among females, and those imposed on females by a very long lactation period (at least one year but up to three years), may explain the limited mobility of adult Galapagos sea lions of both sexes across the archipelago. PMID:26808381

  10. Stable Isotopes Reveal Long-Term Fidelity to Foraging Grounds in the Galapagos Sea Lion (Zalophus wollebaeki)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo; Tapia, Washington; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Most otariids have colony-specific foraging areas during the breeding season, when they behave as central place foragers. However, they may disperse over broad areas after the breeding season and individuals from different colonies may share foraging grounds at that time. Here, stable isotope ratios in the skull bone of adult Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) were used to assess the long-term fidelity of both sexes to foraging grounds across the different regions of the Galapagos archipelago. Results indicated that the stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) of sea lion bone significantly differed among regions of the archipelago, without any significant difference between sexes and with a non significant interaction between sex and region. Moreover, standard ellipses, estimated by Bayesian inference and used as a measure of the isotopic resource use area at the population level, overlapped widely for the sea lions from the southern and central regions, whereas the overlap of the ellipses for sea lions from the central and western regions was small and non-existing for those from the western and southern regions. These results suggest that males and females from the same region within the archipelago use similar foraging grounds and have similar diets. Furthermore, they indicate that the exchange of adults between regions is limited, thus revealing a certain degree of foraging philopatry at a regional scale within the archipelago. The constraints imposed on males by an expanded reproductive season (~ 6 months), resulting from the weak reproductive synchrony among females, and those imposed on females by a very long lactation period (at least one year but up to three years), may explain the limited mobility of adult Galapagos sea lions of both sexes across the archipelago. PMID:26808381

  11. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM THE ENDANGERED AUSTRALIAN SEA LION (NEOPHOCA CINEREA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delport, Tiffany C; Harcourt, Robert G; Beaumont, Linda J; Webster, Koa N; Power, Michelle L

    2015-07-01

    Greater interaction between humans and wildlife populations poses significant risks of anthropogenic impact to natural ecosystems, especially in the marine environment. Understanding the spread of microorganisms at the marine interface is therefore important if we are to mitigate adverse effects on marine wildlife. We investigated the establishment of Escherichia coli in the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) by comparing fecal isolation from wild and captive sea lion populations. Fecal samples were collected from wild colonies March 2009-September 2010 and from captive individuals March 2011-May 2013. Using molecular screening, we assigned a phylotype to E. coli isolates and determined the presence of integrons, mobile genetic elements that capture gene cassettes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents common in fecal coliforms. Group B2 was the most abundant phylotype in all E. coli isolates (n = 37), with groups A, B1, and D also identified. Integrons were not observed in E. coli (n = 21) isolated from wild sea lions, but were identified in E. coli from captive animals (n = 16), from which class I integrases were detected in eight isolates. Sequencing of gene cassette arrays identified genes conferring resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin (aadA1) and trimethoprim (dfrA17, dfrB4). Class II integrases were not detected in the E. coli isolates. The frequent detection in captive sea lions of E. coli with resistance genes commonly identified in human clinical cases suggests that conditions experienced in captivity may contribute to establishment. Identification of antibiotic resistance in the microbiota of Australian sea lions provides crucial information for disease management. Our data will inform conservation management strategies and provide a mechanism to monitor microorganism dissemination to sensitive pinniped populations. PMID:25919463

  12. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Araceli, Fernández; María, Paz Villanueva; Mario, González; Fabiola, Fernández; Fadua, Latif; Sandra Nonier, Flores; Heriberto, Fernández.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh fe [...] ces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  13. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  14. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hong, Su-Myeong [National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Atkinson, Shannon [University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Juneau Center, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.ed [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 {mu}g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 {mu}g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

  15. Diving deeper into individual foraging specializations of a large marine predator, the southern sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, A M M; Orben, R A; Arnould, J P Y; Peters, K; Knox, T; Costa, D P; Staniland, I J

    2015-12-01

    Despite global declines in the abundance of marine predators, knowledge of foraging ecology, necessary to predict the ecological consequences of large changes in marine predator abundance, remains enigmatic for many species. Given that populations suffering severe declines are of conservation concern, we examined the foraging ecology of southern sea lions (SSL) (Otaria flavescens)-one of the least studied otariids (fur seal and sea lions)-which have declined by over 90% at the Falkland Islands since the 1930s. Using a combination of biologging devices and stable isotope analysis of vibrissae, we redress major gaps in the knowledge of SSL ecology and quantify patterns of individual specialization. Specifically, we revealed two discrete foraging strategies, these being inshore (coastal) and offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). The majority of adult female SSL (72% or n = 21 of 29 SSL) foraged offshore. Adult female SSL that foraged offshore travelled further (92 ± 20 vs. 10 ± 4 km) and dived deeper (75 ± 23 vs. 21 ± 8 m) when compared to those that foraged inshore. Stable isotope analysis revealed long-term fidelity (years) to these discrete foraging habitats. In addition, we found further specialization within the offshore group, with adult female SSL separated into two clusters on the basis of benthic or mixed (benthic and pelagic) dive behavior (benthic dive proportion was 76 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8%, respectively). We suggest that foraging specialization in depleted populations such as SSL breeding at the Falkland Islands, are influenced by foraging site fidelity, and could be independent of intraspecific competition. Finally, the behavioral differences we describe are crucial to understanding population-level dynamics, impediments to population recovery, and threats to population persistence. PMID:26323982

  16. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunner Sylvia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

  17. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  18. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  19. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion pups conducted on rookeries in Alaska from 1961-06-22 to 2014-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0128189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  20. Alaska Steller sea lion pups blood serum chemistry and hematology values measured from 1998-06-01 to 2011-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0137994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  1. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45?kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode. PMID:26449976

  2. Characterisation of whisker control in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during a complex, dynamic sensorimotor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alyx O; Grant, Robyn A

    2014-10-01

    Studies in pinniped whisker use have shown that their whiskers are extremely sensitive to tactile and hydrodynamic signals. While pinnipeds position their whiskers on to objects and have some control over their whisker protractions, it has always been thought that head movements are more responsible for whisker positioning than the movement of the whiskers themselves. This study uses ball balancing, a dynamic sensorimotor skill that is often used in human and robotic coordination studies, to promote sea lion whisker movements during the task. For the first time, using tracked video footage, we show that sea lion whisker movements respond quickly (26.70 ms) and mirror the movement of the ball, much more so than the head. We show that whisker asymmetry and spread are both altered to help sense and control the ball during balancing. We believe that by designing more dynamic sensorimotor tasks we can start to characterise the active nature of this specialised sensory system in pinnipeds. PMID:25138923

  3. Extensive variation at MHC DRB in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, A J; Zavodna, M; Chilvers, B L; Robertson, B C; Negro, S S; Kennedy, M.A.; Gemmell, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are often reported to possess reduced variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We evaluated diversity at two MHC class II B genes, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, NZSL) a species that has suffered high mortality owing to bacterial epizootics, using Sanger sequencing and haplotype reconstruction, together with next-generation sequencing. Despite this species' prolonged ...

  4. Applicability of Single-Camera Photogrammetry to Determine Body Dimensions of Pinnipeds: Galapagos Sea Lions as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser di...

  5. The multi-factorial aetiology of urogenital carcinoma in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) : a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    California sea lions (CSLs) have an unusually high occurrence of urogenital cancer (UGC), with studies revealing metastatic carcinoma in 26 % of CSLs admitted to a rehabilitation centre between 1998 and 2012. It is likely that the aetiology of this disease is multi-factorial as genetics, viral infection and exposure to contaminants have been associated with this cancer to date. The goal of this study was to investigate the association of a number of factors using a case-control study design ...

  6. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes, respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  7. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  8. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Helen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Hammond, John A; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Hall, Ailsa J

    2015-07-19

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis. PMID:26056370

  9. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ?DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 ?g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCBs, 2.96 ?g/g), chlordanes (0.12 ?g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 ?g/g). The ?DDTs/?PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

  10. The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

    2005-01-01

    Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

  11. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Susannah S; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R

    2011-01-01

    The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations. PMID:21436887

  12. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Helen M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances M D; Hall, Ailsa J; Finlayson, Jeanie; Dagleish, Mark P; Billington, Karen J; Colegrove, Kathleen; Hammond, John A

    2014-12-01

    Although neoplasia is a major cause of mortality in humans and domestic animals, it has rarely been described in wildlife species. One of the few examples is a highly prevalent urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (CSLs). Although the aetiology of this carcinoma is clearly multifactorial, inbreeding depression, as estimated using levels of microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, is identified as predictive for this neoplasia. On further analysis, this relationship appears to be largely driven by one marker, suggesting that a single locus might be associated with the occurrence of this disease in CSLs. In a case-control study, carcinoma was significantly associated with homozygosity at the Pv11 microsatellite locus. Pv11 was mapped to intron 9 of the heparanase 2 gene (HPSE2) locus, a very large gene encoding heparanase 2, which in humans is associated with multiple carcinomas. Correspondingly, immunohistochemical labelling in tissues was present in carcinoma cases within a single homozygous Pv11 genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual locus being associated with cancer in any wildlife species. This adds emphasis to the study of HPSE2 in other species, including humans and will guide future studies on this sentinel species that shares much of its diet and environment with humans. PMID:25339718

  13. At-sea and on-shore cycles of juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) derived from satellite dive recorders: A comparison between declining and increasing populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Katherine A.; Fadely, Brian S.; Greig, Angie; Rehberg, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We calculated the durations of time on-shore and at-sea for juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) using satellite dive recorders deployed between 2000 and 2002, and compared two genetically distinct populations; one increasing (eastern stock; n=42) and one that experienced an 80% decline in population since the mid-1970s (western stock; n=89). Data represented 24-h periods divided into 72 20-min increments indicating whether an animal was on-shore (dry) or at-sea (wet). Time apportioned between land and sea was described on a per-trip basis (rather than a 24-h cycle) and durations ranged from 20 min to several days. We tested differences in the durations of on-shore and at-sea events among sex, geographic region, year, and age at capture using mixed-effects models. Animal identifier was included as a random effect to account for repeated measures on the same individual. Sea lions from the eastern Aleutian Islands, central Aleutian Islands, and central Gulf of Alaska hauled out just after sunrise, and departure times coincided with dusk. For Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska animals, arrivals and departures occurred throughout the day and were not related to crepuscular period. Mean duration on-shore did not differ among sex, region, year or age, and was unrelated to previous trip duration. This may suggest a minimum rest period for juvenile Steller sea lions or that dependant animals are maximizing their time on-shore suckling. Time spent at-sea varied among individuals from both populations and development of maternal independence, inferred from significant increases in time spent at sea, occurred approximately 10 months later in individuals from Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska than in the other regions, suggesting environmental and developmental differences among regions.

  14. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2014-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2014. Non-pup counts have...

  15. Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Annalaura; Ryan, James C; Chapman, Robert W; Wu, Qingzhong; Warr, Gregory W; Gulland, Frances M D; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2012-04-01

    Conservation biologists face many challenges in assessing health, immune status and infectious diseases in protected species. These challenges include unpredictable sample populations, diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds of the animals, as well as the practical, legal and ethical issues involved in experimentation. The use of whole genome scale transcriptomics with animal samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner is an approach that shows promise for health assessment. In this study we assessed the utility of a microarray to identify changes in gene expression predictive of health status by interrogating blood samples from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in rehabilitation. A custom microarray was developed from the commercially available dog microarray (Canis familiaris) by selecting probes that demonstrated reliable cross-hybridization with RNA in sea lion blood. This custom microarray was used for the analysis of RNA from 73 sea lion blood samples, from animals with a broad spectrum of health changes. Both traditional classifying techniques and newer artificial neural network approaches correctly classified sea lions with respect to health status, primarily distinguishing between leptospirosis infection and domoic acid exposure. Real time PCR validation for a small set of genes, followed by sequencing, showed good correlation with array results and high identity (96-98%) between the dog and sea lion sequences. This approach to health status classification shows promise for disease identification in a clinical setting, and assessment of health status of wildlife. PMID:22067742

  16. Body regional distribution and stratification of fatty acids in the blubber of New Zealand sea lions: implications for diet predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Antoine; Meynier, Laureline; Donaldson, Laura C; Roe, Wendi D; Morel, Patrick C H

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) from blubber are often analysed to assess the diet of marine mammals. However, distribution of blubber FAs is not necessarily uniform along the body. It is therefore important to understand the deposition of dietary fat to be able to estimate the diet. We analysed the FA compositions of the thoracic ventral (T region) blubber of 28 New Zealand (NZ) sea lions Phocarctos hookeri by-caught by the southern arrow squid Nototodarus sloani fishery. Each blubber sample was divided into an inner and an outer layer. For 16 of these 28 animals, the pelvic dorsal (P) region was also sampled. The influence of body region and layer was statistically tested on the distribution of blubber FAs. We found minimal differences between the P and T regions (3 out of 29 FAs). The outer blubber layer was more concentrated in short-chain monounsaturated FAs, and less concentrated in saturated FAs, but the degree of stratification was small. Diet predictions from quantitative FA signature analysis (QFASA) applied on different body regions were similar. When applied to different blubber layers, QFASA gave some variation in the contribution of rattails (~25 % in outer blubber vs. ~12 % in inner blubber). Nonetheless, diet predicted from both layers was dominated by similar prey species: octopus, hoki and rattails. Hoki and rattails shared a similar ecological niche. Therefore, feeding ecology of NZ sea lions inferred from the inner or the outer blubber would lead to the same conclusions. In the case of NZ sea lions, the outer layer of blubber, if the only sample accessible, could be a useful tissue for diet inference from FAs. PMID:22847500

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Aurioles-Gamboa, David

    2004-01-01

    Between June 1995 and May 1996 seven rookeries in the Gulf of California were visited four times in order to collect scat samples for studying spatial and seasonal variability California sea lion prey. The rookeries studied were San Pedro Mártir, San Esteban, El Rasito, Los Machos, Los Cantiles, Isla Granito, and Isla Lobos. The 1273 scat samples collected yielded 4995 otoliths (95.3%) and 247 (4.7%) cephalopod beaks. Fish were found in 97.4% of scat samples collected, cephalopods in 11.2%, a...

  18. JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800 IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Cortegana-Arias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

  19. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in multiple tissues of free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Keogh, Mandy J; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Ylitalo, Gina M; Fadely, Brian S; Pitcher, Kenneth W

    2016-01-15

    The relationships of selected organochlorine (OC) contaminants between blubber, blood, feces, and milk of young, free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined. Both between and within each tissue there was considerable individual variation. In spite of the variation, similar patterns were observed across the tissues for most of the selected PCB congeners. In all four tissues, the major PCB congeners were PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, and PCB153. The most prominent congener, both as a weight (ng/g lipid) and as a percentage of summed PCBs (?PCBs), was PCB 153. Comparisons between paired tissues showed that ?DDTs in blubber samples were related to concentrations in blood, feces, and milk. The ?PCBs in blubber were related to concentrations in milk and fecal samples, though the relationship with feces was weak. Our findings show milk samples, in particular, are useful for assessing OCs in young sea lions. Blubber concentrations of PCB101, PCB118, and PCB138 were an order of magnitude higher than those in milk, supporting the biomagnification of these PCB congeners in SSL tissues. The findings indicate alternative tissues may be used as indicators of relative contaminant exposure in lieu of surgical blubber biopsy. PMID:26524270

  20. Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely Benjamin A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73. Artificial neural networks (ANN were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20. Results No single peak was a good classifier of acute DAT, and ANN models were the best predictors of acute DAT. Performance measures for a single median ANN were: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60%; positive predictive value, 71%; negative predictive value, 100%. When 101 ANNs were combined and allowed to vote for the outcome, the performance measures were: sensitivity, 30%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 59%. Conclusions These results suggest that MALDI-TOF peptide profiling and neural networks can perform either as a highly sensitive (100% negative predictive value or a highly specific (100% positive predictive value diagnostic tool for acute DAT. This also suggests that machine learning directed by populations of predictive models offer the ability to modulate the predictive effort into a specific type of error.

  1. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by a combination of bathymetry and ecological boundaries within LPRE. Regardless of their reproductive condition, females showed a strong fidelity to IL, and their foraging activity was restricted to relatively shallow areas (10-100 m) on the continental shelf. During autumn and winter, SSL females made significantly longer FTs than during the breeding season, when lactating females decrease FT duration by increasing transit speed but maintain a similar spatial coverage compared with FT later in lactation. Although several aquatic areas of high priority for conservation in LPRE have been identified and proposed, only 15% of the foraging habitat of SSL females is currently included in these areas. This emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of the at-sea foraging distributions of central point foragers in marine protected areas. If conservation efforts focus only on coastal breeding concentrations, key elements of the life cycle are excluded with potential unpredictable effects.

  2. Molecular Markers, MAT and Modeling: New Evidence for Leptospirosis Being Endemic in California Sea Lions, with Periodic Epizootics that Defy the Host-adapted Strain Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally in humans and domestic dogs. Disease outbreaks have occurred periodically in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the central and northern coasts of California, with hundreds of a...

  3. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  4. Crossing to safety: dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Corry-Crowe, Greg; Gelatt, Tom; Rea, Lorrie; Bonin, Carolina; Rehberg, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Population growth typically involves range expansion and establishment of new breeding sites, while the opposite occurs during declines. Although density dependence is widely invoked in theoretical studies of emigration and colonization in expanding populations, few empirical studies have documented the mechanisms. Still fewer have documented the direction and mechanisms of individual transfer in declining populations. Here, we screen large numbers of pups sampled on their natal rookeries for variation in mtDNA (n = 1106) and 16 microsatellite loci (n = 588) and show that new Steller sea lion breeding sites did not follow the typical paradigm and were instead colonized by sea lions from both a declining (Endangered) population and an increasing population. Dispersing individuals colonized rookeries in the distributional hiatus between two evolutionarily distinct (?¯(st) = 0.222, R¯(st) = 0.053, K = 2) metapopulations recently described as separate subspecies. Hardy-Weinberg, mixed-stock and relatedness analysis revealed levels of interbreeding on the new rookeries that exclude (i) assortative mating among eastern and western forms, and (ii) inbreeding avoidance as primary motivations for dispersal. Positive and negative density dependence is implicated in both cases of individual transfer. Migration distance limits, and conspecific attraction and performance likely influenced the sequence of rookery colonizations. This study demonstrates that resource limitation may trigger an exodus of breeding animals from declining populations, with substantial impacts on distribution and patterns of genetic variation. It also revealed that this event is rare because colonists dispersed across an evolutionary boundary, suggesting that the causative factors behind recent declines are unusual or of larger magnitude than normally occur. PMID:25266462

  5. Determination of sediment accumulation and mixing rates in the gulf of lions, mediterranean-sea

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Zz; Eisma, D; Berger, Gw

    1991-01-01

    Sediment mixing and accumulation rates in the Gulf of Lions were determined, applying the Pb-210 and Cs-137 dating methods to a total of 20 boxcores taken in 1987, 1988 and 1989. The distribution of excess Pb-210 profiles indicated the presence of surface mixed layers in the nearshore sediment cores which ranged from 3 to 15 cm. The apparent Pb-210 accumulation rates varied from 0.02 to 0.63 cm.yr-1 in this study area. Rates were highest near the river mouth of the Rhone and decreased with in...

  6. Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central

    OpenAIRE

    MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS OLIVA; ALEJANDRA URRA; MARÍA J PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ; RODRIGO MORAGA; DANIEL SCHRADER; PATRICIA INOSTROZA; ANGELA MELO; HUMBERTO DÍAZ; WALTER SIELFELD

    2011-01-01

    The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proporti...

  7. Isolation of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus from Samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, J C; Madin, S H; Skilling, D E

    1978-01-01

    A virus was isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. It was later named San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV). State and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because SMSV was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Ground carcasses of northern fur seals, salvaged after harvesting pelts, are fed to mink on ranches in the United States. Domestic swine are kept on some of these same ranches. Samples withheld from lots of this seal carcass mink food were found to contain SMSV (serotype 5) in titers of 10(6.1) and 10(6.8) tissue culture infective doses. PMID:629435

  8. Examining the Role of Components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the Susceptibility of New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Amy J.; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B. Louise; Kennedy, Martin A.; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a ...

  9. Pleuritis and suppurative pneumonia associated with a hypermucoviscosity phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Spencer; Wheeler, Liz; Carey, Roberta B; Jensen, Bette; Crandall, Claudia M; Schrader, Kimmi N; Jessup, David; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances M D

    2010-02-24

    The aim of this study is to document the isolation of a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae from 25 cases of suppurative pneumonia and pleuritis and two cases of abscesses in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from the central California coast, representing the first report of this zoonotic pathogen from the marine environment and only the second report in non-humans. Animals died 2h to 4 days after first being observed sick on beaches. Clinical signs varied from dyspnoea to coma. Gross post-mortem examination of 25 cases revealed fibrinous pleuritis, copious pus in the pleural cavity and suppurative bronchopneumonia. K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from lung and pleural swabs and the hepatic and subcuticular abscesses were highly mucoid on blood agar culture media and were positive to the "string test". Twenty-one of the 27 isolates were examined by PCR and all were positive for rmpA and K2wyz and negative for K1magA genes. Although pneumonia and pleuritis have previously commonly been observed in marine mammals, their association with pure cultures of a zoonotic bacteria, K. pneumoniae HMV phenotype, has not. This report provides further evidence of the role marine mammals play as sentinels of health risks to humans from coastal waters. PMID:19709820

  10. Activation of an inflammatory response is context-dependent during early development of the California sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Massieu, Camila; Brock, Patrick M; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2015-04-01

    Variations in immune function can arise owing to trade-offs, that is, the allocation of limited resources among costly competing physiological functions. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the ontogeny of the immune system within an ecological context, and it is still unknown whether development affects the way in which resources are allocated to different immune effectors. We investigated changes in the inflammatory response during early development of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and examined its association with body condition, as a proxy for the availability of energetic resources. We found that the relationship between inflammation and body condition varied according to developmental stage and circulating levels of leucocyte populations, a proxy for current infection. Body condition was related to the magnitude of the inflammatory response during two of the three developmental periods assessed, allowing for the possibility that the availability of pup energetic reserves can limit immune function. For older pups, the ability to mount an inflammatory response was related to their circulating levels of neutrophils and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, implying that the infection status of an individual will influence its ability to respond to a new challenge. Our results suggest that trade-offs may occur within the immune system and highlight the importance of taking into account ontogeny in ecoimmunological studies. PMID:26064646

  11. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of Steller sea lions in Washington, 1993 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1993 to 2007, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs from Steller sea...

  12. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... point of each major rookery and major haulout in Alaska. Critical habitat includes an air zone that..., measured vertically from sea level. Critical habitat includes an aquatic zone that extends 3,000 feet (0.9... rookeries identified in Table 1 and associated air and aquatic zones. Critical habitat includes an air...

  13. The Use of Surrogate Data in Demographic Population Viability Analysis: A Case Study of California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data necessary to parameterize population models are seldom available for imperiled species. As an alternative, data from populations of the same species or from ecologically similar species have been used to construct models. In this study, we evaluated the use of demographic data collected at one California sea lion colony (Los Islotes) to predict the population dynamics of the same species from two other colonies (San Jorge and Granito) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, for which demographic data are lacking. To do so, we developed a stochastic demographic age-structured matrix model and conducted a population viability analysis for each colony. For the Los Islotes colony we used site-specific pup, juvenile, and adult survival probabilities, as well as birth rates for older females. For the other colonies, we used site-specific pup and juvenile survival probabilities, but used surrogate data from Los Islotes for adult survival probabilities and birth rates. We assessed these models by comparing simulated retrospective population trajectories to observed population trends based on count data. The projected population trajectories approximated the observed trends when surrogate data were used for one colony but failed to match for a second colony. Our results indicate that species-specific and even region-specific surrogate data may lead to erroneous conservation decisions. These results highlight the importance of using population-specific demographic data in assessing extinction risk. When vital rates are not available and immediate management actions must be taken, in particular for imperiled species, we recommend the use of surrogate data only when the populations appear to have similar population trends. PMID:26413746

  14. Extensive variation at MHC DRB in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, A J; Zavodna, M; Chilvers, B L; Robertson, B C; Negro, S S; Kennedy, M A; Gemmell, N J

    2013-07-01

    Marine mammals are often reported to possess reduced variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We evaluated diversity at two MHC class II B genes, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, NZSL) a species that has suffered high mortality owing to bacterial epizootics, using Sanger sequencing and haplotype reconstruction, together with next-generation sequencing. Despite this species' prolonged history of small population size and highly restricted distribution, we demonstrate extensive diversity at MHC DRB with 26 alleles, whereas MHC DQB is dimorphic. We identify four DRB codons, predicted to be involved in antigen binding, that are evolving under adaptive evolution. Our data suggest diversity at DRB may be maintained by balancing selection, consistent with the role of this locus as an antigen-binding region and the species' recent history of mass mortality during a series of bacterial epizootics. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB and DRB sequences from pinnipeds and other carnivores revealed significant allelic diversity, but little phylogenetic depth or structure among pinniped alleles; thus, we could neither confirm nor refute the possibility of trans-species polymorphism in this group. The phylogenetic pattern observed however, suggests some significant evolutionary constraint on these loci in the recent past, with the pattern consistent with that expected following an epizootic event. These data may help further elucidate some of the genetic factors underlying the unusually high susceptibility to bacterial infection of the threatened NZSL, and help us to better understand the extent and pattern of MHC diversity in pinnipeds. PMID:23572124

  15. Effects of the 1997-1998 El Niño and 1998-1999 La Niña events on breeding waterbirds and sea lions in the Upper Gulf of California, México

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Mellink

    2003-01-01

    During 1998 and 1999 I monitored waterbirds nesting on Isla San Jorge, at La Purinera and on Isla Montague, in the northern Gulf of California, as well as sea lions on Isla San Jorge. During El Niño the brown boobies on San Jorge ceased breeding and left the island, coinciding with an influx of several thousand blue-footed boobies. El Niño conditions coincided with an increase in the numbers of nesting least, elegant, and royal terns and black skimmers on Montague. Double-crested cormorants o...

  16. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    OpenAIRE

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-01-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model...

  17. Effects of the 1997-1998 El Niño and 1998-1999 La Niña events on breeding waterbirds and sea lions in the Upper Gulf of California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mellink

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During 1998 and 1999 I monitored waterbirds nesting on Isla San Jorge, at La Purinera and on Isla Montague, in the northern Gulf of California, as well as sea lions on Isla San Jorge. During El Niño the brown boobies on San Jorge ceased breeding and left the island, coinciding with an influx of several thousand blue-footed boobies. El Niño conditions coincided with an increase in the numbers of nesting least, elegant, and royal terns and black skimmers on Montague. Double-crested cormorants on San Jorge, least terns on La Purinera, and snowy egrets, black-crowned night-herons, laughing gulls, and gull-billed terns on Montague did not seem affected by this event. Sea lions at San Jorge about doubled their number, but the number of pups did not increase. La Niña conditions coincided with a return to population levels before El Niño in all these species. During 1999 Heermann’s gulls and Brandt’s cormorants nested on San Jorge. Heermann’s gulls had stopped breeding there long ago, and Brandt’s cormorants had never been know to nest there.

  18. Origin and Depositional Processes of Coastal Sands Revealed by Grain-Size Analysis (golfe du Lion, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Braud, R.

    2014-12-01

    The study focused on the lower beach and nearshore zone of the Golfe du Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea -France). We looked at grain-size distribution in the berm, collision zone, inner and outer bars, lower shoreface applying parametric methods, grain-size modal analysis and a deconvolution program (LNDoGS).Results indicate a mixture of three recognizable sedimentary types (ST1 - ST3 - ST4) and explain grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sands in both multimodal and apparently unimodal GSDs. ST1 flows from the River Rhone, ST3 and 4 are local components originating from either fluvial input or nearshore reworking of Quaternary sediments.A fourth component (ST2), derived in situ from ST1, is found far from the overwhelming footprint of the Rhone river sands, westward in the lower shoreface.The mixing process entails significant variations in grain-size indices and skewness appears as a very sensitive and meaningful parameter. Skewness and bimodality, generated in all zones, are two aspects of the mixing process, depending on the relative proportions of STs.Using LNDoGS makes deciphering the STs a lot easier. It also reveals that some GSDs can result from a combination of 3 sedimentary variants (SVs) belonging to the same ST (monotype grain-size distributions). Monotype mixtures are very abundant on the lower shoreface, significantly present on the berm and inner bar but rare in the most dynamic zones. On the berm they tend towards a lognormal model for only bedload is present in the swash. This trend towards a lognormal model can also be observed on the lower shoreface, possibly indicating the occurrence of suspension as a dominant process.Thus, each segment of the nearshore - foreshore profile can be characterized using coarseness, skewness sign, the presence of locally generated ST2, abundance of bimodalities, occurrence of SVs. Finally, a more detailed description of the spatial properties of grain-size distributions could help explore possible mechanisms underlying sediment sorting in the coastal zone and provide a useful set of indices for paleogeographic reconstructions.

  19. Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Florencia Grandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American sea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predatorio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica.

  20. Trophic niche overlap of sprat and commercial small pelagic teleosts in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourg, B.; B?naru, D.; Saraux, C.; Nowaczyk, A.; Le Luherne, E.; Jadaud, A.; Bigot, J. L.; Richard, P.

    2015-09-01

    Increasing abundance of non-commercial sprats and decreasing biomass and landings of commercial anchovies and sardines justify the need to study the feeding ecology and trophic niche overlap of these planktivorous species in the Gulf of Lions. Their diet has been investigated on the basis of stomach content and stable isotope analyses in 2011 and 2012 according to different depths and regions in the study area. The main prey were Corycaeidae copepods, Clauso/Paracalanus, Euterpina acutifrons and Microsetella, for sprats and small copepods, such as Microsetella, Oncaea and Corycaeidae, for anchovies and sardines. This is the first time that the diet of sprats is described in the Gulf of Lions. Sprats fed on a larger size spectrum of prey and seem to be more generalist feeders compared to anchovies and sardines. Ontogenetic changes as well as spatial and temporal variations of the diet occurred in the three species. Stable isotope analysis revealed mobility of sardines and sprats among feeding areas while anchovies exhibited preferred feeding areas. Sprats showed a higher relative condition assessed by C/N ratios than sardines and anchovies. Our results showed an overlap of the trophic niches for the three species, indicating a potential trophic competition in the Gulf of Lions.

  1. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. PMID:26821159

  2. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  3. PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ITS METABOLITE O-DESMETHYLTRAMADOL FOLLOWING A SINGLE, ORALLY ADMINISTERED DOSE IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Barbosa, Lorraine; Van Bonn, William G; Johnson, Shawn P; Gulland, Frances M D; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting, opiate-like analgesic that is structurally related to codeine and morphine. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of tramadol was administered orally in fish at 2 mg/kg to a total of 15 wild California sea lions admitted for rehabilitation. Twenty-four total blood samples were collected post drug administration at 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr. Blood plasma was separated and stored at -80°C until analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the major active metabolite. The results indicate that the plasma levels of parent tramadol are low or negligible during the first 30-45 min and then reach the predicted mean maximum plasma concentration of 358 ng/ml at 1.52 hr. The M1 metabolite was not detectable in 21 of 24 plasma samples, below the level of quantification of 5 ng/ml in one sample, and detectable at 11 and 17 ng/ml in two of the samples. This study suggests that a 2 mg/kg dose would need to be administered every 6-8 hr to maintain concentrations of tramadol above the minimum human analgesic level for mild to moderate pain. Based on dosing simulations, a dose of 4 mg/kg q8 hr or q12 hr, on average, may represent an adequate compromise, but further studies are needed using a larger sample size. Pharmacodynamic studies are warranted to determine if tramadol provides analgesic effects in this species. The potential for tramadol toxicosis at any dose also has not been determined in this species. PMID:26352950

  4. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds. PMID:22779229

  5. Aislamiento de Plesiomonas shigelloides y Aeromonas veronii biotipo sobria en heces de lobo marino común sudamericano, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) / Isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) feces

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario J, González; María P, Villanueva; Fadua, Latif; Fabiola, Fernández; Heriberto, Fernández.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. are Gram negative bacteria vastly distributed in the environment, being isolated from aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial and marine animals. The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is the most frequent marine mammal of the Chilean coasts, living in [...] beaches, rocks or coastline of rivers. In this work we determined the isolation frequency of P. shigelloides and A. veronii biotype sobria in fecal samples of South American sea lions belonging to a colony established at the urban South coastline of Valdivia River, southern Chile. From the 30 samples under study, P. shigelloides was isolated in 27 (90.0%) and A. veronii biotype sobria in 17 (56.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of P. shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. from South American sea lions in Chile. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these bacteria play any role in producing disease, or are merely commensals, in these marine mammals.

  6. Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics / Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Florencia, Grandi; Rocío, Loizaga de Castro; Enrique A, Crespo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predat [...] orio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica. Abstract in english Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American s [...] ea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.

  7. Composition and provenance of terrigenous organic matter transported along submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqual, Catalina; Goñi, Miguel A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Previous projects in the Gulf of Lion have investigated the path of terrigenous material in the Rhone deltaic system, the continental shelf and the nearby canyon heads. This study focuses on the slope region of the Gulf of Lion to further describe particulate exchanges with ocean’s interior through submarine canyons and atmospheric inputs. Nine sediment traps were deployed from the heads to the mouths of Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus submarine canyons and on the southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. Sediment trap samples were analyzed by CuO oxidation to investigate spatial and temporal variability in the yields and compositional characteristics of terrigenous biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols and cutin acids. Sediment trap data show that the Dense Shelf Water Cascading event that took place in the months of winter 2006 (January, February and March) had a profound impact on particle fluxes in both canyons. This event was responsible for the majority of lignin phenol (55.4%) and cutin acid (42.8%) inputs to submarine canyons, with lignin compositions similar to those measured along the mid- and outer-continental shelf, which is consistent with the resuspension and lateral transfer of unconsolidated shelf sediment to the canyons. The highest lithogenic-normalized lignin derived phenols contents in sediment trap samples were found during late spring and summer at all stations (i.e., 193.46 ?g VP g-1 lithogenic at deep slope station), when river flow, wave energy and total particle fluxes were relatively low. During this period, lignin compositions were characterized by elevated cinnamyl to vanillyl phenol ratios (>3) at almost all stations, high p-coumaric to ferulic acid ratios (>3) and high yields of cutin acids relative to vanillyl phenols (>1), all trends that are consistent with high pollen inputs. Our results suggest marked differences in the sources and transport processes responsible for terrigenous material export along submarine canyons, mainly consisting of fluvial and shelf sediments during winter and atmospheric dust inputs during spring and summer.

  8. Budget and residence time of 210Pb along the Gulf of Lion's continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of 210Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion's continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk 210Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of 210Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of 210Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for 210Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of 210Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the 210Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author)

  9. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  10. A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized. PMID:23544769

  11. Behavioral response of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens to tourist disturbance during the breeding season / Respuesta conductual del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens a la perturbación por turistas durante la época reproductiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guido, Pavez; Lily, Muñoz; Patricia, Inostroza; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los pinípedos muestran una alta predictibilidad en su distribución, tanto espacial como temporal, y tienden a congregarse en parches, lo que permite un fácil acceso de turistas. Sin embargo, la presencia de dichos turistas puede generar un impacto negativo sobre los animales. El objetivo de este est [...] udio fue evaluar, por primera vez en Chile, el efecto del ecoturismo sobre el comportamiento del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens durante la época reproductiva. Registramos un total de 44 visitas de embarcaciones a la lobera reproductiva de Isla Chañaral. La mayoría de los turistas mostró una actitud de calma, seguida por moderada y perturbadora. La respuesta de los lobos marinos fue mayoritariamente de escape, seguida de inactiva y alerta. La respuesta de los lobos marinos se relacionó negativamente con la distancia de aproximación de la embarcación a la colonia, pero no se relacionó ni con el tiempo de permanencia de la embarcación en la colonia ni con la conducta de los turistas. Nuestros resultados indican que el lobo marino común es afectado negativamente por la presencia de turistas, especialmente debido al escape de los individuos desde la colonia al mar. Dichos escapes pueden generar efectos fisiológicos negativos sobre el animal, lo que puede incidir sobre su adecuación biológica. Sugerimos que futuros estudios evalúen el comportamiento de respuesta de los lobos marinos durante la época reproductiva y en otros periodos del año, además de analizar posibles diferencias entre clases de edad y sexo, lo que permita contar con herramientas adecuadas para el manejo del turismo sobre el lobo marino común en Chile. Abstract in english Pinnipeds have a high predictability, both spatial and temporal, and tend to be distributed in patches, which permitting tourists easy access to them. However, the presence of tourists may generate a negative impact on the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in C [...] hile, the effect of ecotourism activities on the behavior of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens during the reproductive season. We recorded a total of 44 visiting boats to the reproductive colony of this species on Isla Chañaral. The attitude of the majority of the tourists was a quiet one; however this was followed by moderate and disturbing behavior. The response of sea lions was mainly to escape, followed by a period of inactive and alert. The response of sea lions was negatively related to the distance at which the boats approached the colony, but was not related to the time boats remained in the colony or the behavior of tourists. Our results show that the South American sea lion is negatively affected by human presence, shown by the escape of individuals from the colony to the sea. Escaping from the colony may generate negative physiological effects on an animal physiological effects on an animal, and ultimately affect the fitness of the individual. We suggest that future studies should evaluate changes in behavior during the reproductive season and in other periods, and the behavior of sea lions at different ages and sexes, to provide tools to improve the management of tourist activities on the South American sea lion in Chile.

  12. Controls and budgets of riverine sediment fluxes to the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) : Do coastal rivers better than the Rhone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaoui, Mahrez; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Bourrin, François; Raimbault, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Riverine sediment yields can be highly variable among the various river systems on Earth and, despite an increasing amount of data and studies during recent years. Small rivers can be more efficient in the evacuation of freshly eroded materials, attributing greater sediment delivery ratios to these rivers compared to large river systems. The Gulf of Lions (GoL), north-western Mediterranean Sea, is one of the most extensive shelf regions in the Mediterranean Sea. Riverine sediment fluxes from small coastal rivers (SCR) along the Languedoc-Roussillon coast can be compared to the fluxes of the Rhone River, one of the largest in the Mediterranean. Since the late 1990, however, several research programs got interested in these river systems and individual rivers were studied more in detail. Long-term monitoring of the Tet and Rhone rivers was established and finally integrated in the French oceanographic observation system MOOSE (Mediterranean Ocean Observing system of the Environment). In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of sediment load values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the SCR and Rhone river basins, 7 catchments covering 86 % of this area. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SSY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 46 years of measurements at gauging stations. A Simple Rating Curve Approach (SiRCA) using daily discharge data, which allows the estimation of mean annual sediment loads from infrequent sediment concentration data, was used to calculate sediment fluxes. Second, we analyze the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated of sediment load (SL) values, and the contribution of floods in the annual report of sediment yield. Finally, we estimate the contribution of the coastal rivers in total inputs in the GoL. The SL values at the outlet of the catchments range from 0.045 Mt.yr-1 to 8.37 Mt.yr-1, and the SSY values range from 19 to 87 t.km-2.yr-1. A comparison with the limited values available in the literature for this region corroborates our estimations. The most of sediments are exported during episodes of flooding, more of 50% of sediment exported during flash floods events which occur only 1.5 of time. The watershed area of all SCR presents 13.03 % face to Rhone. The inputs of SCR present 9.19 % compared to those of the Rhone over the period studied (46 years). Seasonally, the contribution of the SCR is especially important during late spring and autumn, when flash-floods can occur. Under these conditions, they can even contribute to >90% of the total monthly sediment discharge. Keywords: Gulf of Lion, SiRCA method, small coastal rivers, Rhone river, sediment load, specific sediment yields.

  13. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D.; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P.; Hückstädt, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for ?13C and ?15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common. PMID:26309046

  14. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-02-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.

  15. Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Amy J; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B Louise; Kennedy, Martin A; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i) a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii) putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii) a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance. PMID:25874773

  16. The Californian power crisis; Die kalifornische Stromkrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Auer, H. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Energiewirtschaft; Shioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2001-05-01

    The article analyses systematically the causes behind the power crisis, structural conditions at the time, as well as some developments which were wilfully induced by some market participants. Although it is not conceivable that a similarly disastrous situation will happen in West European countries, Europe may well learn from the Californian experience. (orig./CB) [German] In dem Artikel werden die ausloesenden Ursachen fuer die Krise, die strukturellen Randbedingungen und von einigen Marktteilnehmern z.T. bewusst herbeigefuehrte Entwicklungen systematisch analysiert. Wenn gleich in Westeuropa eine aehnliche Katastrophe nicht denkbar ist, so kann Europa doch aus den kalifornischen Erfahrungen lernen. (orig./CB)

  17. A lion population under threat

    OpenAIRE

    Tumenta, Pricelia Nyaekon

    2012-01-01

    Lions in Waza National Park Cameroon were studied with focus on lion ecology and the human-lion conflicts due to livestock predation. The number of adult lions has declined from 40-60 in 2002 to 14-21 in 2008, which represents a reduction of about 65% in 6 years. The human-livestock pressure on the park is enormous, 31% of photographs captured by camera traps in 2008, were of humans and livestock in the park. Retaliatory killing of lions by herders is high, as lions increasingly predate on ca...

  18. Key Characteristics of Californians Age 60 and Over

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set presents key demographic characteristics of Californians Age 60 and Over. This data set can be viewed by county or Area Agency on Aging Planning and...

  19. Diet plasticity of the South American sea lion in Chile: stable isotope evidence / Plasticidad de la dieta del lobo marino común en Chile: evidencia mediante isótopos estables

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lily, Muñoz; Guido, Pavez; Renato A, Quiñones; Doris, Oliva; Macarena, Santos; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudios de dieta del lobo marino común (LMC) en Chile sugieren que esta especie es un depredador oportunista y generalista, cuya dieta varía dependiendo de la distribución de las especies presas y de las variaciones espacio-temporales en la abundancia de dichas presas. Sin embargo, estos estudios h [...] an sido esporádicos, limitados espacialmente y basados en análisis de contenidos estomacales, lo que no permite un análisis integral de la composición de la dieta y de sus potenciales diferencias espacio-temporales. En este estudio se analizó la composición de la dieta del LMC en 3 zonas geográficas de la costa chilena utilizando los isótopos estables de ?13C y ?15N en muestras de pelo y piel. En la zona norte las principales especies consumidas fueron los peces Isacia conceptionis (19,5%) de acuerdo al análisis de piel y Cilus gilberti (23,3%) en análisis de pelo; en la zona centro lo fueron Thyrsites atun (40,1%) en piel y Strangomera bentincki (31,1%) en pelo; mientras que en la zona sur especies de peces pelágicos (como T. atun y Trachurus murphyi, 20,8%) en piel y salmones de cultivo (20,7%) en pelo. Estas diferencias demuestran que el LMC muestra cambios espaciales en la composición de su dieta. Variaciones entre tejidos, así como con lo registrado en estudios previos, sugiere que esta especie es capaz de adaptarse a variaciones, tanto intra como inter-anuales, de la presencia/ausencia de sus presas. Abstract in english Diet studies of the South American sea lion (SASL) in Chile suggest that this species is an opportunistic and generalist predator whose diet varies depending on the distribution of prey species and spatial and temporal variations in the abundance of these dams. However, these studies have been spora [...] dic, geographically limited and based on stomach content analysis, which does not allow an integral analysis of the composition of the diet of this species and its potential spatial and temporal variability. In this study we analyzed the diet of the SASL in 3 geographic zones of the coast of Chile using analysis of stable isotopes ?13C and ?15N on hair and skin tissues. In the northern zone, the main prey species consumed by SASL were Isacia conceptionis (19.5%) for skin and Cilus gilberti (23.3%) for hair; in the central zone were Thyrsites atun (40.1%) for skin and Strangomera bentincki (31.1%) for hair, whereas in the southern zone the main species were pelagic fish (such as T. atun and Trachurus murphyi, 20.8%) for skin and farm-raised salmonids (20.7%) for hair analysis. These differences indicate variation in the composition of its diet. Variations between the analyzed tissues and also with previous studies suggest that this species is capable of adapting to intra- and inter-annual variations in the presence/absence of its prey.

  20. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton–zooplankton–anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean-francois; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant s...

  1. 77 FR 41181 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Massachusetts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ...EL12-83-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Massachusetts Department of Public...PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M. Sarvey (collectively Petitioner) filed a...

  2. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo L. Bustos; Gustavo A. Daneri; Volpedo, Alejandra V.; Ana Harrington; Esperanza A. Varela

    2012-01-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Ka...

  3. Productiv Index of Meat Rabbits of White New Zealand Breed Californian and their Crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macari Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The researches had been held at the rabbits farm of STE Maximovca on the rabbits of White New Zealandand Californian meat breeds, crossbreds of the first generation received after the breeding (?White NewZealand x ? Californian and ?Californian x ? White New Zealand. After the rabbits slaughtering fromfour analysed groups, there was established the received meat quantity after the carcass boning ofcrossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian which was 80.1±0.2%, and the same analysed indexat crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand was 77.0±0.1%. The total amount of ratiobone/meat in the carcass there was received at crossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian whichwas 1:4.05, and at crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand this index was 1:3.38.

  4. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton-zooplankton-anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, Emilie; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Veron, Alain; Tronczynski, Jacek; Radakovitch, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    The transfer of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on (210)Po, (210)Pb activity concentrations and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that (210)Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while (210)Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and (210)Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence (210)Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. PMID:25771222

  5. Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) / First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Crovetto; R, Franjola; R, Silva.

    Full Text Available Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anop [...] lura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur. Abstract in english The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the exis [...] tent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

  6. 78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...RP13-436-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice...FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M. Sarvey (Complainants), filed a...

  7. 78 FR 2390 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Pacific Gas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...EL13-32-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company...FERC), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M. Sarvey (Complainants) filed a complaint...

  8. 77 FR 40878 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. California Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...EL12-82-000] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. California Public Utilities Commission...PURPA), Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M. Sarvey (collectively Petitioner) filed a...

  9. 78 FR 2393 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...QF03-80-003] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public Utilities Commission...PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M. Sarvey filed a petition requesting the...

  10. Depredación del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens sobre el pingüino de penacho amarillo Eudyptes c. chrysocome en isla Gonzalo, Diego Ramírez, sur de Chile / Predation of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens on Southern Rockhopper penguin Eudyptes c. chrysocome in Gonzalo Island, Diego Ramírez, southernmost Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime A., Cursach; Cristián G., Suazo; Jaime R., Rau.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english During the summer season 2010-2011 was studied the predation of Otaria flavescens on Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome in Gonzalo Island (56°31'S; 68°42'W), Diego Ramírez archipelago, southern Chile. In total, 75 attacks of sea lion on penguins were recorded, from which 34 (45.3%) corresponded to succe [...] ssful attacks and kill of penguins. Among recorded behaviors during attacks, we highlight: i) persecutions during penguin's swimming, ii) persecutions at land and iii) surprise attacks under water. We identified a bird assemblage associated to predation events, dominated by Macronectes giganteus.

  11. Neurologic Disease in Captive Lions (Panthera leo) with Low-Titer Lion Lentivirus Infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Greg; Podell, Michael D.; Wack, Raymund; Kraft, Susan; Jennifer L. Troyer; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; VandeWoude, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Lion lentivirus (LLV; also known as feline immunodeficiency virus of lion, Panthera leo [FIVPle]) is present in free-ranging and captive lion populations at a seroprevalence of up to 100%; however, clinical signs are rarely reported. LLV displays up to 25% interclade sequence diversity, suggesting that it has been in the lion population for some time and may be significantly host adapted. Three captive lions diagnosed with LLV infection displayed lymphocyte subset alterations and progressive ...

  12. Comparación de los patrones conductuales del lobo marino común en época reproductiva y no reproductiva / Comparison of behavioral patterns of South American sea lions between breeding and non-breeding seasons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. José, Pérez-Alvarez; Pablo, Carrasco; Maritza, Sepúlveda; Renato A, Quiñones.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se han descrito tácticas reproductivas para machos y hembras en sistemas reproductivos poligínicos, dentro de las cuales, una respuesta conductual sexo-específico sería esperable para maximizar el ixito reproductivo. El presente estudio da cuenta de un seguimiento conductual del lobo marino común Ot [...] aria flavescens durante la época reproductiva (ER) y no reproductiva (ENR) en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Lobería Cobquecura, Chile central. Se registraron patrones conductuales de machos, hembras, juveniles y crías entre mayo de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. Los machos presentaron mas registros de conductas asociadas a agresión, desplazamiento y reconocimiento durante ER, mientras que la conducta descanso fue mayor durante ENR. Hembras y juveniles presentaron mayores registros de reconocimiento durante ENR mientras que las otras categorías conductuales no presentaron diferencias entre ER y ENR. Las conductas agresivas por parte de los machos así como las relacionadas al cuidado parental por parte de las hembras podrían ser estrategias conductuales desarrolladas por ambos sexos para asegurar la viabilidad poblacional. Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de los patrones conductuales reproductivos de la especie y forma parte de uno de los seguimientos conductuales reproductivos mas continuos desarrollados en la actualidad en el lobo marino común. Dado que el estudio se realiza en un area protegida dentro del marco legal de Santuario de la Naturaleza, los resultados expuestos serán de utilidad para futuras comparaciones con loberas reproductivas afectadas por actividad antrópica. Abstract in english In a polygynous mating system males and females have different reproductive strategies; so it is expectable that both sexes have evolved different reproductive behavioral responses to maximize their reproductive success. We analyze the behavior of different sex/age classes of Otaria flavescens durin [...] g breeding (BS) and non-breeding seasons (NBS) at a Nature Sanctuary breeding colony, central Chilean coast. From May 2008 to December 2009 data of males, females, juveniles and pups were recorded. Males performed more aggression, locomotion and recognizing behaviors during the BS, while they mostly rested during the NBS. Females and juveniles performed more recognizing behavior in the NBS, while the other behavior categories did not show differences between the NBS and the BS. As reproductive behavioral strategies, male aggression and maternal care may increase the overall population viability. This study contributed to a better understanding of the reproductive behavior patterns of this species based on what is to our knowledge the most continuous monitoring of a South American sea lion breeding colony. Since the study has been undertaken in a Nature Sanctuary, the results may be used as a baseline to compare with behavioral data from colonies perturbed by human activities.

  13. Cannes Lions 2005 / Hando Sinisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinisalu, Hando, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Artiklis esitletakse võidutöö "Grr" autori Sean Thompson'i ning žüriiliikmete John Hunt'i, Mark Stewart ning Fred Koblinger'i avaldatud mõtteid reklaamivõistluselt Cannes'is, kus osales ligi 500 tööd 38 riigist. Vt. samas: Cannes Lions 2005 winners

  14. I am like a lion to Ephraim

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    The article gives examples from the Old Testament of the lion as image of God and shows how this image is part of various stories about lions, shepherds and sheep. It is discussed whether Yahweh was ever worshipped in the image of an animal and it is argued that the combination of anthropomorphic...

  15. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using 210 Po et le 210 Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    210 Po and 210 Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of 210 Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, 210 Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than 210 Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a 210 Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of 210 Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. 210 Po and 210 Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, 210 Po and 210 Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author)

  16. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    CERN Document Server

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  17. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to genetic distinctiveness of West and Central African lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km²) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions. PMID:24421889

  18. 78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v... and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable...

  19. Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions in captivity: an analysis of Moroccan Royal Lions

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Simon A.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Harland, Adrian; Groombridge, Jim J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The last representatives of the Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo), once numerous in North Africa but exterminated from the wild by the 1940s, are believed to be the captive lions descended from the Moroccan Royal Collection, numbering less than 90 animals in zoos worldwide. The genetic fitness of these captive ?Royal Lions? may now be under threat since, although most zoos have avoided hybridisation with animals of other origin, no formal breeding programme currently exists ...

  20. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a carbon sequestration program based in payments for management adoption is going to favor the probability of adoption of mitigating alternatives. Finally, in Chapter 4, we interpret the yield productivity potential, as a state variable, summarizing the complex system of environmental and land-use history of each field, and propose fully dynamic econometric models to structurally assess carbon sequestration policies.

  1. Actualización sobre el estado del apostadero de lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria Flavescens) en la Isla Trinidad, estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina / Update on the status of South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) colony from Trinidad Island, Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo F, Petracci; Martín, Sotelo; Victoria, Massola; Martín, Carrizo; Alberto, Scorolli; Sergio, Zalba; Valdemar, Delhey.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) se distribuye en la costa argentina desde Mar del Plata hasta Tierra del Fuego e Islas Malvinas con unas 70 colonias descriptas. En Buenos Aires existe una colonia reproductiva en Banco Culebra y tres no reproductivas en Mar del Plata, Quequ [...] én e Isla Trinidad. Esta última fue comunicada en 1952; desde ese año no se publicaron nuevos registros y en consecuencia la información citada posteriormente es confusa. En la presente nota se dan a conocer observaciones inéditas sobre su tamaño desde 1990. Se contaron entre 0 y 150 machos adultos y subadultos con variaciones según la época del año. Abstract in english The South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) is distributed along the Argentinean coast, from Mar del Plata to Tierra del Fuego and Malvinas Islands, with 70 reporte colonies. In Buenos Aires there is one breeding colony in Banco Culebra and three non reproductive settlements in Mar del Plata, Qu [...] equén and Trinidad Island. The latter was reported for the first time in 1952, since then no further records were published about its current status and the information cited by many authors is confusing. Here we provide new observations about the population size of this colony from 1990. Seal counts ranged between 0-150 males and sub-adults depending on the season.

  2. Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

  3. 76 FR 44901 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...EL11-52-000] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public Utilities Commission...Inc. (CARE), acting on behalf of its members, Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M. Sarvey, individually, (collectively...

  4. Optimal Load Dispatch Using Ant Lion Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Mahendru Nischal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Ant lion optimization (ALO technique to solve optimal load dispatch problem. Ant lion optimization (ALO is a novel nature inspired algorithm. The ALO algorithm mimics the hunting mechanism of ant lions in nature. Five main steps of hunting prey such as the random walk of ants, building traps, entrapment of ants in traps, catching preys, and re-building traps are implemented. Optimal load dispatch (OLD is a method of determining the most efficient, low-cost and reliable operation of a power system by dispatching available electricity generation resources to supply load on the system. The primary objective of OLD is to minimize total cost of generation while honoring operational constraints of available generation resources. The proposed technique is implemented on 3, 6 & 20 unit test system for solving the OLD. Numerical results shows that the proposed method has good convergence property and better in quality of solution than other algorithms reported in recent literature.

  5. Mac OS X Lion portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Two e-books, Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius and MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition, bundled in one package Books in the Portable Genius series provide readers with the most accessible, useful information possible, including plenty of tips and techniques for the most-used features in a product or software. These e-books will show you what you may not find out by just working with your MacBook Pro and OS X Lion. Genius icons present smart or innovative ways to do something, saving time and hassle. Easy-to-find information gives you the essentials plus insightful tips on how to navigate

  6. Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins; Etude du transfert et du depot du materiel particulaire par le {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application aux marges continentales du Golfe de Gascogne (NE Atlantique) et du Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranee)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radakovitch, O.

    1995-07-07

    {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of {sup 210} Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, {sup 210} Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than {sup 210} Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a {sup 210} Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of {sup 210} Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on {sup 210} Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author). 243 refs.

  8. Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina / Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Alejandra, Romero; Silvana, Dans; Raúl, González; Guillermo, Svendsen; Néstor, García; Enrique, Crespo.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina) es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las agua [...] s de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías. Abstract in english As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with [...] particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

  9. Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C Eloff

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

  10. PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis also enables to identify key parameters and assumptions which control contamination pathways in the Gulf of Lions. Thus, this work is based on coupling such complex biogeochemical model (Eco3M), with a PCBs transport model and a model of hydrodynamics (MARS3D) in order to test a scientific exploration tool for the assessment of PCB dispersion in space and time in the Gulf of Lion and of their transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. In this work we estimate PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between the different species of PCB, namely: dissolved total, available dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption (equilibrium partitioning), bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization. References Auger P.A., Diaz F., Ulses C., Estornel C., Neveux J., Joux F., Pujo-Pay M. and Naudin J.J., 2011. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean) during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modeling combined approach. Biogeosciences, 8, 3231-3261. André, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V. and Fraunié, P., 2005. Modeled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 294-308. Andre, G., Garreau, P., Fraune, P.,2009. Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimentional model. Continental Shelf Research, 2, 407-423. Carpenter, D.O., 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Rev. Environ. Health, 21, 1-23. Dufois F., Garreau P., Le Hir P., Forget P., 2008. Wave- and current-induced bottom shear stress distribution in the Gulf of Lions. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 1920-1934. Lohmann, R.;Breivik, K.; Dachs, J.; Muir, D., 2007. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150: 150-165. Ulses C., Estourne

  11. Cooperation and individuality among man-eating lions

    OpenAIRE

    Yeakel, Justin D; Patterson, Bruce D; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Okumura, Mercedes M.; Cerling, Thure E.; Moore, Jonathan W.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Cooperation is the cornerstone of lion social behavior. In a notorious case, a coalition of two adult male lions from Tsavo, southern Kenya, cooperatively killed dozens of railway workers in 1898. The “man-eaters of Tsavo” have since become the subject of numerous popular accounts, including three Hollywood films. Yet the full extent of the lions' man-eating behavior is unknown; estimates range widely from 28 to 135 victims. Here we use stable isotope ratios to quantify increasing dietary spe...

  12. The LIONS code (version 1.0)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new LIONS code (Lancement d'IONS or Ion Launching), a dynamical code implemented in the SPIRaL project for the CIME cyclotron studies, is presented. The various software involves a 3D magnetostatic code, 2D or 3D electrostatic codes for generation of realistic field maps, and several dynamical codes for studying the behaviour of the reference particle from the cyclotron center up to the ejection and for launching particles packets complying with given correlations. Its interactions with the other codes are described. The LIONS code, written in Fortran 90 is already used in studying the CIME cyclotron, from the center to the ejection. It is designed to be used, with minor modifications, in other contexts such as for the simulation of mass spectrometer facilities

  13. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  14. Sustainable trophy hunting of African lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Karyl; Starfield, Anthony M; Quadling, Henley S; Packer, Craig

    2004-03-11

    In most species, sport hunting of male trophy animals can only reduce overall population size when the rate of removal of males is so high that females can no longer be impregnated. However, where males provide extensive paternal care, the removal of even a few individuals could harm the population as a whole. In species such as lions, excessive trophy hunting could theoretically cause male replacements (and associated infanticide) to become sufficiently common to prevent cubs reaching adulthood. Here we simulate the population consequences of lion trophy hunting using a spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model parameterized with 40 years of demographic data from northern Tanzania. Although our simulations confirm that infanticide increases the risk of population extinction, trophy hunting could be sustained simply by hunting males above a minimum age threshold, and this strategy maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the long-term kill. We present a simple non-invasive technique for estimating lion age in populations lacking long-term records, and suggest that quotas would be unnecessary in any male-only trophy species where age determination could be reliably implemented. PMID:14990967

  15. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor; I. Elendt; Rusznyak, P.; H. Kunow; R. Müller-Mellin; M.; Witte

    1997-01-01

    A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION) instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP), which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC).

  16. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

  17. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period / Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raimundo L., Bustos; Gustavo A., Daneri; Alejandra V., Volpedo; Ana, Harrington; Esperanza A., Varela.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue [...] analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7) y abundancia numérica (29,6%) respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%), mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) fue el mas abundante (77%). La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área. Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavesce [...] ns from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7) and numbers (29.6%) respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%), whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) was the most abundant (77%). The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  18. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7 y abundancia numérica (29,6% respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%, mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 fue el mas abundante (77%. La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

  19. Californians Concerned about Youth Smoking, Majority Believes Media Has Negative Effect. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelch, Deborah Reidy

    This report, second in a series of eight, highlights some of the findings from two recent surveys of the opinions of adult Californians on products and policies affecting youth tobacco use. The specific focus is on public perceptions of the role of the media in affecting youth tobacco consumption. The surveys were conducted in October and November…

  20. Quantifying denudation rates in Mediterranean margin catchments: the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Jouet, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Freslon, N.; Leroux, E.; Moreau, J.; Aslanian, D.; Vella, C.

    2013-12-01

    Margins are the place of transfer, deposit and erosion of sediments whose geometries are controlled by sea-level fluctuations, vertical movements and sedimentary fluxes. Surface processes (sedimentation, denudation) and deep-sea dynamic are also intimately linked. Due to the numerous data acquired over the last 10 years, the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica margins could be considered as privileged studied areas to understand the relationships between denudation, sedimentation and associated vertical displacements. The quantification of denudation rates on these margins catchments, using offshore and onshore data aims to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial evolution of denudation processes in their sedimentation and geodynamic evolution in a large basin (Gulf of Lion) and in a small confined basin (Golo margin; East-Corsica) during the Quaternary. The Gulf of Lion is the northern passive margin of the Liguro-provençal basin, in western Mediterranean Sea. During the Quaternary, it receives sediments from catchments draining several structural domains, as Alps, Pyrenees and Massif Central, for a drainage area of about 120,000 km^2. The East-Corsica corresponds to the western passive margin of the Tyrrhenian basin. The main catchment (Golo River) size is about 100 times smaller than the Gulf of Lion and is composed by two main structural units: Hercynian granites in the upstream part and Alpine schists in the downstream part. In this study, we quantified Quaternary denudation rates using four independent methods: i) estimation of eroded volumes using DEMs; ii) compilation of present-day sediment load fluxes; iii) determination of catchment-scale cosmogenic denudation rate by measuring 10Be concentrations in sands at the catchment outlets or buried in boreholes; iv) quantification of sediment volumes deposited offshore. Our results show a good consistence between the four methods. The Inner Alps present the highest values of denudation (~ 700 m/Ma), compared to averaged much lower values in other domains (150-250 m/Ma in foreland Alps, 100-150 m/Ma in Corsica, about 100 m/Ma in Pyrenees and 55-75 m/Ma in Massif Central). The alpine domain provides at least 75 % of the eroded volume in the Gulf of Lion catchment. A quantitative geomorphologic approach highlights the main role of denudation processes in relief evolution for both studied areas. At a regional scale (Gulf of Lion catchment), we highlight an exponential correlation between mean catchment elevation and denudation rates suggesting the main role of uplift in areas glaciated during the LGM in the control of denudation rates. At a more local scale (East-Corsica), denudation rates seem to rely on lithologic and structural control.

  1. Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzo, John

    2011-01-01

    The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

  2. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  3. Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

    1975-12-01

    Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

  4. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  5. Waveform and packet structure of lion roars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Baumjohann

    Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence

  6. A Horse Frightened by a Lion in a Rocky Wooded Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Barret, George, the elder (Irish landscapist, 1728 or 1732-1784)

    1987-01-01

    This picture is almost certainly inspired by Stubbs' painting of a horse frightened by a lion (see 'Stubbs', Tate Gallery, 1984, no 62, p 94; in a private collection). The horse and lion are possibly painted by Sawrey Gilpin.

  7. Study of a mesoscale anticyclonic eddy in the western part of the Gulf of Lion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z. Y.; Petrenko, A. A.; Doglioli, A. M.; Dekeyser, I.

    2011-10-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and Expendable Bathy Thermograph (XBT) data were collected during the Latex08 cruise (September 1-5, 2008) throughout the western part of the Gulf of Lion. These data, combined with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) satellite images and Lagrangian drifter trajectories, show the presence of an intense anticyclonic eddy in the western part of the Gulf of Lion. The eddy is elliptic in shape and the estimated radius is 21.5 (15.5) km for its major (minor) axis. The vertical extent of the eddy reached about 35 m depth and was limited by the bottom of the seasonal mixed layer. The eddy interacts with the Northern Current at the end of the cruise, maybe leading to its deformation. Moreover complementary drifter data suggest that this anticyclonic eddy was already present at the beginning of August 2008. Hence the eddy lasted around 50 days in the same region. In light of previous numerical study, some hypotheses about the formation and behavior of the eddy are also discussed.

  8. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Joaquín; Noguerales, Víctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  9. Invasion in a diversity hotspot: Exotic cover and native richness in the Californian serpentine flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S.; Grace, J.B.; Davies, K.F.; Safford, H.D.; Viers, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Exotic species have been observed to be more prevalent in sites where the richness of native species is highest, possibly reflecting variation among sites in resources, propagule supply, heterogeneity, or disturbance. However, such a pattern leaves unclear whether natives at species-rich sites are subject to especially severe impacts from exotics as a result. We considered this question using path models in which relationships between exotic cover and native richness were evaluated in the presence of correlated environmental factors. At 109 sites on serpentine soils across California, USA, exotic cover was positively correlated with total native herbaceous richness and was negatively correlated with the richness of both serpentine-endemic and rare native herbs. However, in path models that accounted for the influences of soil chemistry, disturbance, overstory cover, and regional rainfall and elevation, we found no indication that exotic cover reduced any component of native herb richness. Rather, our results indicated similarities and differences in the conditions favoring exotic, native, endemic, and rare species. Our results suggest that, in spite of some localized impacts, exotic species are not exerting a detectable overall effect on the community richness of the unique native flora of Californian serpentine. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. Genetic Consequences of Dispersal and Social Behavior in Lions, Panthera leo

    OpenAIRE

    Spong, Goran

    2001-01-01

    This thesis combines behavioral observations of African lions (Panthera leo) with genetic analyses, in an attempt to clarify causes and consequences of lion group living. The numerous complex cooperative behaviors of lions present an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution and maintenance of group living. This thesis focuses on female group living and male dispersal patterns. Lion sociality is found to be more complex than previously thought. Short dispersal distances result in str...

  11. The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Domenica R.

    David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;…

  12. Population characteristics and recent history of lions in two parts of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Smuts

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey entailing the capture and marking of lions was undertaken in two parts of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, during 1974 and 1975. A total of 347 lions were captured and marked while 62 were destroyed as part of an experimental cropping operation. Sixty out of 66 prides contained marked lions.

  13. Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Remo G., Lobetti; Peter, Caldwell.

    Full Text Available Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered af [...] ter 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

  14. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagnini Didier Q

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  15. Water use by the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Eloff

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which the Kalahari lion can survive without having to drink water was investigated in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. It was found that while they may drink regularly where water is available, they may become completely independent of water under extreme desert conditions. Sufficient moisture for their needs seems to be obtained from the blood and body fluids of their prey and the vegetable components of theirdiet. Loss of water through evaporation is reduced by the lion'sleisurely way of life.

  16. “The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome Melford Ratiba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all  pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

  17. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he…

  18. Cooperation and individuality among man-eating lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakel, Justin D; Patterson, Bruce D; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Okumura, Mercedes M; Cerling, Thure E; Moore, Jonathan W; Koch, Paul L; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2009-11-10

    Cooperation is the cornerstone of lion social behavior. In a notorious case, a coalition of two adult male lions from Tsavo, southern Kenya, cooperatively killed dozens of railway workers in 1898. The "man-eaters of Tsavo" have since become the subject of numerous popular accounts, including three Hollywood films. Yet the full extent of the lions' man-eating behavior is unknown; estimates range widely from 28 to 135 victims. Here we use stable isotope ratios to quantify increasing dietary specialization on novel prey during a time of food limitation. For one lion, the delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of bone collagen and hair keratin (which reflect dietary inputs over years and months, respectively) reveal isotopic changes that are consistent with a progressive dietary specialization on humans. These findings not only support the hypothesis that prey scarcity drives individual dietary specialization, but also demonstrate that sustained dietary individuality can exist within a cooperative framework. The intensity of human predation (up to 30% reliance during the final months of 1898) is also associated with severe craniodental infirmities, which may have further promoted the inclusion of unconventional prey under perturbed environmental conditions. PMID:19884504

  19. Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

  20. Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2011-08-01

    The cave lion, Panthera spelaea, was widespread across northern Eurasia and Alaska/Yukon during the Late Pleistocene. Both morphology and DNA indicate an animal distinct from modern lions (probably at the species level) so that its disappearance in the Late Pleistocene should be treated as a true extinction. New AMS radiocarbon dates directly on cave lion from across its range, together with published dates from other studies - totalling 111 dates - indicate extinction across Eurasia in the interval ca. 14-14.5 cal ka BP, and in Alaska/Yukon about a thousand years later. It is likely that its extinction occurred directly or indirectly in response to the climatic warming that occurred ca. 14.7 cal ka BP at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1, accompanied by a spread of shrubs and trees and reduction in open habitats. Possibly there was also a concomitant reduction in abundance of available prey, although most of its probable prey species survived substantially later. At present it is unclear whether human expansion in the Lateglacial might have played a role in cave lion extinction. Gaps in the temporal pattern of dates suggest earlier temporary contractions of range, ca. 40-35 cal ka BP in Siberia (during MIS 3) and ca. 25-20 cal ka BP in Europe (during the 'Last Glacial Maximum'), but further dates are required to corroborate these. The Holocene expansion of modern lion ( Panthera leo) into south-west Asia and south-east Europe re-occupied part of the former range of P. spelaea, but the Late Pleistocene temporal and geographical relationships of the two species are unknown.

  1. Characterising the short-term sensitivity of Californian intertidal community calcification to ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and invasion of part of this CO2 into the oceans results in a decrease in seawater pH and a lowering of the calcium carbonate saturation state. The historic and projected decrease of the calcium carbonate saturation state of seawater has the potential to compromise the ability of many marine calcifying organisms to form their calcium carbonate shells or skeletons and is likely to have significant ocean ecosystem impacts over the 21st Century. In laboratory manipulations temperate calcifying organisms have been shown to exhibit reduced calcification as a result of CO2 addition. However, very few experiments have observed how calcification in temperate systems responds to natural variations in seawater carbonate chemistry. We assess the community level sensitivity of Californian tidal pool calcification rates to variability in the calcium carbonate saturation state. Our tidal pool study sites at Bodega Bay in Northern California experience extreme variation in low tide carbonate saturation state due to photosynthetic activity and the time at which the pools are isolated from the open ocean. During our study period, we observed aragonite saturation levels ranging from 0.5 to 9. Photosynthetic activity is largely dependent on temperature and photosynthetic active radiation which vary on a diurnal timescale whereas the time at which pools are isolated from open seawater, and thus the amount by which tide pool carbonate chemistry differs from that of open ocean waters, is largely a consequence of tidal period which varies on a lunar cycle. Because there are substantial uncorrelated components of light, temperature, and seawater carbonate chemistry in our data, one can separate the influence of carbonate saturation state on calcification from the influence of temperature and PAR. This provides an opportunity to characterise the short-timescale sensitivity of tidal pool calcification rates to changes in carbonate saturation state. We show that on such timescales community level rates of daytime calcification are not strongly influenced by variability in carbonate saturation state. This suggests that these intertidal communities may be more resilient to projected ocean acidification than previously thought, although extending this work to consider longer timescales would be required to more firmly support this hypothesis.

  2. Variation in social organisation of lions with particular reference to the Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica (Carnivora: Felidae of the Gir forest, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sociality is one of the distinctive features of Lions (Panthera leo, which are the only social felids. Their evolutionary history is important both for understanding the evolution of sociality and that of other sympatric species owing to their widespread distribution throughout the entire Holarctic region during the Pleistocene. Lion grouping patterns, cooperative behaviour and strategies vary throughout their range and in different habitats. Their resilience in diverse habitats facing a variety of conservation pressures is largely owing to this plasticity of lion social behaviour. This review describes the variation in social organisation of lions in 11 habitats across Africa, taking into account relevant ecological parameters. The social organization of the Asiatic Lion is described from this perspective using the results of previous studies and of a five-year study conducted between 2002 and 2006 in the Gir forest of India.

  3. Detection and genetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVple) in southern African lions (Panthera leo)

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Hayley R.; Van Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Kania, Stephen; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2011-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus of domestic cats that causes immunosuppressive disease and lifelong infection. Lentivirus has also been detected in African lions (Panthera leo). The lentivirus infecting lions in southern Africa has never been isolated; thus, knowledge about its molecular characteristics in these populations is limited. Our investigation used whole blood samples collected opportunistically from free-ranging southern African lions in Kruger National...

  4. PATHOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) INFECTION IN WILD AFRICAN LIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Roelke, Melody E.; Meredith A. Brown; Jennifer L. Troyer; Winterbach, Hanlie; Winterbach, Christiaan; Hemson, Graham; Smith, Dahlem; Johnson, Randall C.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roca, Alfred L.; Alexander, Katherine; Klein, Lin; Martinelli, Paulo; Krishnasamu, Karthiuani; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus) but has not been explicitly associated with AIDS pathology in any of the eight free-ranging species of Felidae that are endemic with circulating FIV strains. African lion (Panthera leo) populations are infected with lion-specific FIV strains (FIVple), yet there remains uncertainty about the degree to which FIV infection impacts their health. Reported CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in FIVple infected lions and anecd...

  5. Lion (Panthera leo) populations are declining rapidly across Africa, except in intensively managed areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; Chapron, Guillaume; Nowell, Kristin; Henschel, Philipp; Funston, Paul; Hunter, Luke T B; Macdonald, David W; Packer, Craig

    2015-12-01

    We compiled all credible repeated lion surveys and present time series data for 47 lion (Panthera leo) populations. We used a Bayesian state space model to estimate growth rate-? for each population and summed these into three regional sets to provide conservation-relevant estimates of trends since 1990. We found a striking geographical pattern: African lion populations are declining everywhere, except in four southern countries (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe). Population models indicate a 67% chance that lions in West and Central Africa decline by one-half, while estimating a 37% chance that lions in East Africa also decline by one-half over two decades. We recommend separate regional assessments of the lion in the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species: already recognized as critically endangered in West Africa, our analysis supports listing as regionally endangered in Central and East Africa and least concern in southern Africa. Almost all lion populations that historically exceeded ?500 individuals are declining, but lion conservation is successful in southern Africa, in part because of the proliferation of reintroduced lions in small, fenced, intensively managed, and funded reserves. If management budgets for wild lands cannot keep pace with mounting levels of threat, the species may rely increasingly on these southern African areas and may no longer be a flagship species of the once vast natural ecosystems across the rest of the continent. PMID:26504235

  6. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a female Lion (Panthera leo)

    OpenAIRE

    Bollo, Enrico; BELLUSO, Elena; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Tursi, Massimiliano; Capella, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    An 18-year-old female lion (Panthera leo) was referred to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At necropsy, multiple nodular, 4-20-mm, confluent white firm nodules were scattered throughout the pleural surfaces of the thoracic wall and of the lungs. Histological lesions were represented by proliferations of papillary structures lined by cuboidal basophilic mesothelial cells with large, oval nuclei and abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemi...

  7. STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.

    OpenAIRE

    Daud Sudradjad; Mahfud MS; Agus Maulana

    2011-01-01

    PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, insta...

  8. Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adrian S.W., Tordiffe; Nicky, Cassel; Emily P., Lane; Fred, Reyers.

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; name [...] ly osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50% of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a). The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors' knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions.

  9. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography and space-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005-2006. The mean times lions were inactive was similar between the...... three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions...... spent most of their time on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgets were similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the...

  10. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Adams

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo. Although lion lentivirus (FIVple infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

  11. Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Power

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63 and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

  12. Conserving large populations of lions - the argument for fences has holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, S; Becker, M S; Durant, S M; M'Soka, J; Matandiko, W; Dickman, A J; Christianson, D; Dröge, E; Mweetwa, T; Pettorelli, N; Rosenblatt, E; Schuette, P; Woodroffe, R; Bashir, S; Beudels-Jamar, R C; Blake, S; Borner, M; Breitenmoser, C; Broekhuis, F; Cozzi, G; Davenport, T R B; Deutsch, J; Dollar, L; Dolrenry, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Fitzherbert, E; Foley, C; Hazzah, L; Henschel, P; Hilborn, R; Hopcraft, J G C; Ikanda, D; Jacobson, A; Joubert, B; Joubert, D; Kelly, M S; Lichtenfeld, L; Mace, G M; Milanzi, J; Mitchell, N; Msuha, M; Muir, R; Nyahongo, J; Pimm, S; Purchase, G; Schenck, C; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Sinclair, A R E; Songorwa, A N; Stanley-Price, M; Tehou, C A; Trout, C; Wall, J; Wittemyer, G; Zimmermann, A

    2013-11-01

    Packer et al. reported that fenced lion populations attain densities closer to carrying capacity than unfenced populations. However, fenced populations are often maintained above carrying capacity, and most are small. Many more lions are conserved per dollar invested in unfenced ecosystems, which avoid the ecological and economic costs of fencing. PMID:23837659

  13. 77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY... object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul Getty Museum from abroad...

  14. The impact of burning on lion Panthera leo habitat choice in an African savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie EBY, Anna MOSSER, Craig PACKER, Mark RITCHIE, Ali SWANSON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carnivores play a central role in ecosystem processes by exerting top-down control, while fire exerts bottom-up control in ecosystems throughout the world, yet, little is known about how fire affects short-term carnivore distributions across the landscape. Through the use of a long-term data set we investigated the distribution of lions, during the daytime, in relation to burned areas in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We found that lions avoid burned areas despite the fact that herbivores, their prey, are attracted to burned areas. Prey attraction, however, likely results from the reduction in cover caused by burning, that may thereby decrease lion hunting success. Lions also do not preferentially utilize the edges of burned areas over unburned areas despite the possibility that edges would combine the benefit of cover with proximity to abundant prey. Despite the fact that lions avoid burned areas, lion territory size and reproductive success were not affected by the proportion of the territory burned each year. Therefore, burning does not seem to reduce lion fitness perhaps because of the heterogeneity of burned areas across the landscape or because it is possible that when hunting at night lions visit burned areas despite their daytime avoidance of these areas [Current Zoology 59 (3: 335–339, 2013].

  15. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. PMID:25151647

  16. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sam M., Ferreira; Nkabeng T., Maruping; Darius, Schoultz; Travis R., Smit.

    Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of p [...] eople present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

  17. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their habitat from hunting. PMID:22247772

  18. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  19. Mitochondrial genome of the African lion Panthera leo leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue-ping; Wang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the African lion P. leo leo was reported. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,054?bp. It contained the typical mitochondrial structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region; 21 of the tRNA genes folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNASe. The overall composition of the mitogenome was A (32.0%), G (14.5%), C (26.5%) and T (27.0%). The new sequence will provide molecular genetic information for conservation genetics study of this important large carnivore. PMID:24409914

  20. Generalized Lions-Peetre interpolation construction and optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, a new description of the generalized Lions-Peetre method of means is found, which enables one to evaluate the interpolation orbits of spaces constructed by this method. The list of these spaces includes all Lorentz spaces with functional parameters, Orlicz spaces, and spaces close to them. This leads in turn to new optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces produced using the Lions-Peetre construction in rearrangement invariant spaces. It turns out that the optimal space of the embedding is also a generalized Lions-Peetre space whose parameters are explicitly evaluated. Bibliography: 18 titles

  1. Generalized Lions-Peetre interpolation construction and optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, V I [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-31

    In the paper, a new description of the generalized Lions-Peetre method of means is found, which enables one to evaluate the interpolation orbits of spaces constructed by this method. The list of these spaces includes all Lorentz spaces with functional parameters, Orlicz spaces, and spaces close to them. This leads in turn to new optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces produced using the Lions-Peetre construction in rearrangement invariant spaces. It turns out that the optimal space of the embedding is also a generalized Lions-Peetre space whose parameters are explicitly evaluated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  2. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Mountain Lion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of mountain lion, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  3. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  4. Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km2137Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km2. Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137Cs and 210Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7Be and 234Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth. Results showed that the sediment remobilization was very important in this area but that the exports of suspended solid matters towards the Gulf of Lions were weak, or even deposited in fine on the pro-delta. (author)

  5. The golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia): a flagship species for the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stolwijk, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation has a major impact on forest-dwelling species survival, as species lose their habitat or can no longer subsist in the small fragments of forests that are left. In this review, the effectiveness of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) as a flagship species to protect the biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest is discussed. The golden lion tamarin was almost extinct in the wild in the 1960s and the captive population was not well established. After research on captive bre...

  6. Mandibular and dental abnormalities of two Pleistocene American lions (Panthera leo atrox) from Yukon Territory.

    OpenAIRE

    Beebe, B F; Hulland, T J

    1988-01-01

    Fragmented mandibles of two Pleistocene lions (Panthera leo atrox) recovered from Yukon Territory possessed acquired pathological changes and congenital abnormalities, judging from the anatomy of contemporary and modern lions. One specimen showed evidence of chronic periodontitis, an extensive sclerosing osteomyelitis and congenital absence of left lower incisor teeth 1 and 2. The second showed long-standing loss of the left lower canine tooth with subsequent obliteration of the alveolus by l...

  7. Serum biochemical study of major elements of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Jani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The serum biochemistry of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica in India has not been studied in depths. We report here the results of an analysis of a large number of individuals with the aim of providing reference ranges for major serological parameters in male and female Asiatic lions in health and diseases. This information will be of use to zoo veterinarians and pathologists.

  8. Some population characteristics of the Lion Panthera Leo in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L. Mills

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of estimating the number of lions in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Republic of South Africa, are described; the first gives a minimum figure (113 and the second a more realistic one (140. Data are presented on sex and age ratios and pride composition. The factors contributing to the low density are briefly discussed and some management practices in connection with lions trespassing out of the Park are suggested.

  9. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo)

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Barnes, Ian; Cooper, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from ac...

  10. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Laura D; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; de Snoo, Geert R.; De Iongh, Hans H.; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, th...

  11. The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Agostinho; Troyer, Jennifer L; Roelke, Melody E.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Packer, Craig; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Frank, Laurence; Stander, Philip; Siefert, Ludwig; Driciru, Margaret; Funston, Paul J.; Alexander, Kathy A.; Prager, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of...

  12. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, Laura D; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A; Driscoll, Carlos A; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Tumenta, Pricelia N; Jirmo, Tuqa H; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  13. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-uk; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a...

  14. Parâmetros genéticos para coelhos da raça Califórnia criados no Brasil Genetic parameters for Californian rabbits raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Paula

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Registros de pesos de 3.249 coelhos, nascidos de 1980 a 1996 e, dados de pedigree de 4.857 coelhos da raça Califórnia, criados no Campus da USP de Pirassununga, São Paulo, submetidos à seleção por três gerações, com base em valores genéticos de pesos à desmama (PD e à 10ª semana de idade (P10 e ganho de peso da desmama até 10 semanas de idade (GPD10, foram analisados pelo método de modelos mistos sob modelos animais para obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para as características consideradas como parte do critério de seleção. As estimativas do coeficiente de herdabilidade encontradas foram de 0,23 para PD, de 0,44 para P10 e 0,39 para GP10, mostrando ser possível haver ganhos genéticos se aplicados processos seletivos. A correlação genética entre PD e P10 foi de 0,66 e entre PD e GPD10 foi baixa, indicando que as variáveis são praticamente independentes. A proporção da variância fenotípica devida aos efeitos permanentes de ninhada foi importante para todas as características. Os resultados sugerem que a seleção para características ponderais pode ser eficiente.Genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters of a population of Californian rabbits submitted to selection for three generations were studied. Traits analyzed were individual weaning weight (PD, weight at 10 weeks (P10 and average daily gain from weaning to 10 weeks of age (GPD10 using 3,249 records of weights of rabbits and pedigree information of 4,857 animals, born from 1980 to 1996, and selected based on an index of estimated breeding values for PD, P10 and GPD10. Permanent effects of litters were as important as additive genetic effects. Heritabilities for the three traits were .23 (PD, .44 (P10 and .39 (GPD10. Genetic correlations between PD and P10 and between PD and GPD10 were high (.66 and very low, respectively.

  15. Public hospital quality report awareness: evidence from National and Californian Internet searches and social media mentions, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth; Doctor, Jason N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Publicly available hospital quality reports seek to inform consumers of important healthcare quality and affordability attributes, and may inform consumer decision-making. To understand how much consumers search for such information online on one Internet search engine, whether they mention such information in social media and how positively they view this information. Setting and design A leading Internet search engine (Google) was the main focus of the study. Google Trends and Google Adwords keyword analyses were performed for national and Californian searches between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013 for keywords related to ‘top hospital’, best hospital’, and ‘hospital quality’, as well as for six specific hospital quality reports. Separately, a proprietary social media monitoring tool was used to investigate blog, forum, social media and traditional media mentions of, and sentiment towards, major public reports of hospital quality in California in 2012. Primary outcome measures (1) Counts of searches for keywords performed on Google; (2) counts of and (3) sentiment of mentions of public reports on social media. Results National Google search volume for 75 hospital quality-related terms averaged 610?700 searches per month with strong variation by keyword and by state. A commercial report (Healthgrades) was more commonly searched for nationally on Google than the federal government's Hospital Compare, which otherwise dominated quality-related search terms. Social media references in California to quality reports were generally few, and commercially produced hospital quality reports were more widely mentioned than state (Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development (OSHPD)), or non-profit (CalHospitalCompare) reports. Conclusions Consumers are somewhat aware of hospital quality based on Internet search activity and social media disclosures. Public stakeholders may be able to broaden their quality dissemination initiatives by advertising on Google or Twitter and using social media interactively with consumers looking for relevant information. PMID:24618223

  16. Individual identification and genetic variation of lions (Panthera leo) from two protected areas in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tende, Talatu; Hansson, Bengt; Ottosson, Ulf; Akesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) spanned through a period of five years (2008 -2012), whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP) was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012). We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown) from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females) from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST ?= 0.17) with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS ?= 0.49, KLNP FIS ?= 0.38). The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild. PMID:24427283

  17. Influence of drought on predation of elephant (Loxodonta africana) calves by lions (Panthera leo) in an African wooded savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, AJ; Hunt, JE; F. Murindagomo; MacDonald, DW

    2006-01-01

    Data were collected on species killed by lions Panthera leo in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe between 1998 and 2004. Lions killed predominantly large to medium-sized herbivores, concentrating on buffalo Syncerus caffer, elephant Loxodonta africana, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis, wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and zebra Equus burchelli. These species made up 83% of all lion kills found and 94% of the biomass of kills actually observed. Elephant calves made up an unusually large proportion o...

  18. Seroepizootiological survey for selected viral infections in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) from western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Anand; Malik, Pradeep K; Prasad, Gaya

    2007-09-01

    Infectious diseases have been responsible for large-scale declines in many endangered animals. Disease outbreaks in small populations have probably led to the eventual extinction of such endangered animals in the wild. The endangered Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) population may also face such threats. This was evident from this study on captive Asiatic lions from western India, which were sampled from December 1998 to March 1999. Fifty-six Asiatic lions, including 17 hybrid lions (Afro-Asian crosses) from six captive centers in western India, were tested for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia viral (FeLV) antigen. Agar gel immunodiffusion test and dot immunobinding assay were employed for CDV and FPV antibody detection. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen detection. Forty-nine of 56 lions (87.5%) were positive for CDV. All 56 (100%) lions were positive for FPV antibodies. There were no detectable levels of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigens. It was observed that CDV and FPV, two viruses known to cause high mortality in captive carnivores, were widely prevalent in these captive Asiatic lions. It is suggested that these seropositive animals will have the potential to pose a risk of infection to other seronegative animals. Hence, it is imperative to carefully consider any movement, translocation, or reintroduction of these animals to new regions. It is also recommended that these animals be required to undergo standard quarantine and disease screening protocols. The lack of exposure to pathogens, such as FIV and FeLV, would also be a risk, and, hence, identification of reservoirs and screening of in-contact animals is highly recommended. Vaccinations must be considered, using killed or other suitable viral vaccines, which have been proved to be safe, effective, and efficacious in endangered felids. PMID:17939348

  19. Mitochondrial Haplotype Diversity in Zambian Lions: Bridging a Gap in the Biogeography of an Iconic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Caitlin J; White, Paula A; Derr, James N

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence diversity at the 12S to 16S mitochondrial genes of 165 African lions (Panthera leo) from five main areas in Zambia has uncovered haplotypes which link Southern Africa with East Africa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Zambia may serve as a bridge connecting the lion populations in southern Africa to eastern Africa, supporting earlier hypotheses that eastern-southern Africa may represent the evolutionary cradle for the species. Overall gene diversity throughout the Zambian lion population was 0.7319 +/- 0.0174 with eight haplotypes found; three haplotypes previously described and the remaining five novel. The addition of these five novel haplotypes, so far only found within Zambia, nearly doubles the number of haplotypes previously reported for any given geographic location of wild lions. However, based on an AMOVA analysis of these haplotypes, there is little to no matrilineal gene flow (Fst = 0.47) when the eastern and western regions of Zambia are considered as two regional sub-populations. Crossover haplotypes (H9, H11, and Z1) appear in both populations as rare in one but common in the other. This pattern is a possible result of the lion mating system in which predominately males disperse, as all individuals with crossover haplotypes were male. The determination and characterization of lion sub-populations, such as done in this study for Zambia, represent a higher-resolution of knowledge regarding both the genetic health and connectivity of lion populations, which can serve to inform conservation and management of this iconic species. PMID:26674533

  20. Variability of the transgressive stacking pattern under environmental changes control: Example from the Post-Glacial deposits of the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf, Mediterranean, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaune, Caroline; Tesson, Michel; Gensous, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    At a regional scale, high-resolution seismic dataset analysis provides an accurate image of the stratigraphic organization of the Post-Glacial transgressive deposits of the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf. Architectural and stratigraphic characteristics are different in four main sectors, clearly demonstrating that depositional models have to be adapted from place to place following the interplay of various genetic factors. The southern part of the Gulf of Lions presents minor development of the transgressive deposits mainly controlled by paleo-topography, in addition to glacio-eustatism. Northward, complexity and sediment thickness increase. Additional factors, such as oceanographic regime and sedimentary supply, interact with glacio-eustatism and paleo-topography. In the occidental and oriental Rhône-shelf sectors, sedimentary supply and glacio-eustatism control the deposition and the preservation potentials. The paleo-topography controls the type of stacking pattern. At the regional scale, this study further emphasizes the role of two usually underestimated factors which are the drainage characteristics and the sedimentary response to climatic variations. The stacking pattern of the transgressive systems tract with several parasequences emphasizes a pulsed Post-Glacial transgression. The main parasequences seems to be related to two periods of decreasing rate of sea-level rise and increasing rate of sediment discharge.

  1. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

  2. Of lion manes and human beards: some unusual effects of the interaction between aggression and sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Caroline Blanchard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin (1871 suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights. Recent experimental studies on wild lions have emphasized the role of female selection, but analyses of specific attack behaviors and targets, and the social consequences of manelessness for lions living in very hot climates suggest that male manes may indeed mitigate the outcomes of intraspecific male attack and thus serve a permissive function for multimale + female groups, facilitating protection of prides against takeovers and infanticide by nomadic males. Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion’s mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social lifestyle, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors.

  3. Genetic Evidence for Contrasting Wetland and Savannah Habitat Specializations in Different Populations of Lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andy E; Cotterill, Fenton P D Woody; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Antunes, Agostinho; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    South-central Africa is characterized by an archipelago of wetlands, which has evolved in time and space since at least the Miocene, providing refugia for animal species during Pleistocene arid episodes. Their importance for biodiversity in the region is reflected in the evolution of a variety of specialist mammal and bird species, adapted to exploit these wetland habitats. Populations of lions (Panthera leo) across south-central and east Africa have contrasting signatures of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and biparental nuclear DNA in wetland and savannah habitats, respectively, pointing to the evolution of distinct habitat preferences. This explains the absence of genetic admixture of populations from the Kalahari savannah of southwest Botswana and the Okavango wetland of northern Botswana, despite separation by only 500 km. We postulate that ancestral lions were wetland specialists and that the savannah lions evolved from populations that were isolated during arid Pleistocene episodes. Expansion of grasslands and the resultant increase in herbivore populations during mesic Pleistocene climatic episodes provided the stimulus for the rapid population expansion and diversification of the highly successful savannah lion specialists. Our model has important implications for lion conservation. PMID:26695079

  4. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions (Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment. PMID:22707238

  5. Fatal cytauxzoonosis in captive-reared lions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, P V; Soares, C O; Scofield, A; Santiago, C D; França, T N; Barros, S S

    2007-04-30

    Fatal cytauxzoonosis is described in a captive reared lioness (Panthera leo) and its 6-month-old cub. Clinical signs in the lioness included loss of weight, depression, anaemia, loss of hair, dark discolored urine, tachypnoea, nystagmus, deaphness and staggering gait. The cub died after a short period of depression. In the lioness, laboratory examination revealed normochromic normocytic anaemia, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, monocytosis, eosinopenia, thrombocytopenia, proteinuria, pyuria, haematuria and increased. At necropsy the lioness showed marked pulmonary edema and slight gelatinous translucent edema in the mediastinum, petechiae and echymosis disseminated in the serosae, and the intestinal content was red and semiliquid. The cub presented hemothorax, endocardial and pulmonary edema, petechiae in the cardiac serosae, hepatic and splenic congestion and segments of the small intestine with blood stained fluid contents and reddish mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathological examination of liver, spleen, heart, lungs, intestines, pancreas, mesenteric lymph nodes, kidneys, skeletal muscle, brain and skin revealed large number of intravascular macrophages with their cytoplasm filled with various schizogonic stages of a Theileriidae. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of schizonts in endothelial-associated macrophages. The diagnosis was established by the finding of the pathognomonic schizonts in macrophages within blood vessels in several organs and tissues from both lions. This is the first report of feline cytauxzoonosis in P. leo and of a confirmed infection by Cytauxzoon felis in felidae in South America. PMID:17306459

  6. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in social life histories correspond to intraspecific variation in total or regional brain volumes in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). African lions live in gregarious prides usually consisting of related adult females, their dependent offspring, and a coalition of immigrant males. Upon reaching maturity, male lions enter a nomadic and often, solitary phase in their lives, whereas females are mainly philopatric and highly social throughout their lives. In contrast, the social life history does not differ between male and female cougars; both are solitary. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts were created using computed tomography from the skulls of 14 adult African lions (8 male, 6 female) and 14 cougars (7 male, 7 female). Endocranial volume and basal skull length were highly correlated in African lions (r = 0.59, p aggressor. PMID:22722087

  7. Occurrence, prevalence and intensity of internal parasite infections of African lions (Panthera leo) in enclosures at a recreation park in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarati, Norman L; Vassilev, George D; Tagwireyi, Whatmore M; Tavengwa, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A coprological survey was conducted to determine the types, prevalence, and intensity of infection of internal parasites in a population of captive African lions (Panthera leo) at a recreational game park in Zimbabwe. Individual fecal samples were collected on three occasions over a 4-month period from each of 30 lions (55%) out of 55 animals held. The samples were examined using flotation and sedimentation techniques to assess the presence and count of parasite eggs, oocysts, and cysts per gram of feces as well as larvae identification. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 100% (30/30), and 80% (24/30) of fecal samples also were positive for protozoan parasite forms. Eggs of Ancylostoma spp. were found in the feces of 23 (76.7%) lions, Physaloptera sp. in 14 (46.7%) lions, Toxascaris leonina in 13 (43.3%) lions, Toxocara cati in 12 (40%) lions, and Gnathostoma spinigerum and Toxocara canis in 2 (6.7%) lions. Furthermore, eggs of Cylicospirura subequalis, Gnathostoma spp., Lagochilascaris major, Acanthocephalan and Linguatula spp. as well as larvae of Aelurostrongylus sp. were identified in the feces of one lion. Oocysts of five apicomplexan parasites and cysts of one mastigophoran protozoan parasite were recorded, namely, Cystoisospora leonina in 11 (36.7%) lions' feces, Cystoisospora spp. in 9 (30.0%) lions, Cystoisospora felis in 5 (16.7%) lions; Toxoplasma-like spp. in 5 (16.7 %) lions, and Giardia spp. in 8 (26.7%) lions. The majority of lions (28/30) showed mixed infections with different internal parasites, whereas only two animals had single parasite infections. The intensity of infection was relatively low. Some parasite forms observed and identified, such as Eimeria spp. oocysts, were spurious and probably originated from the prey species for the lions. Among the parasites identified were some of zoonotic importance that have health implications for at-risk personnel and visitors who get into contact with the animals. PMID:24063097

  8. Bayesian estimates of male and female African lion mortality for future use in population management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthold, Julia; Loveridge, Andrew; Macdonald, David; Packer, Craig; Colchero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    1. The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. 2. Various demographic...... models evaluate consequences of hunting on lion population growth. However, none of the models use unbiased estimates of male age-specific mortality because such estimates do not exist. Until now, estimating mortality from resighting records of marked males has been impossible due to the uncertain fates...... of disappeared individuals: dispersal or death. 3. We develop a new method and infer mortality for male and female lions from two popula- tions that are typical with respect to their experienced levels of human impact. 4. We found that mortality of both sexes differed between the populations and that...

  9. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-Uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species. PMID:24045858

  10. Alegoria californiana Californian allegory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrategias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formulated strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

  11. Alegoria californiana / Californian allegory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Ramos.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinaçã [...] o entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in spanish El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrate [...] gias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in english The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formula [...] ted strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

  12. Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Primates, Callitrichidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando de Camargo, Passos; Alexine, Keuroghlian.

    Full Text Available Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey item [...] s, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities). These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

  13. New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Krausman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus cooleyi, a species about which little is known.

  14. Pedologic influences on hillslope hydrology: The relationships between soil and hydrologic connectivity in a Californian oak-woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldritt, K.; O'Geen, A.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding what controls hydrologic connectivity and how it develops has important implications for ecosystem services. It can affect water quality, nutrient and sediment delivery to the stream, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and more. Bedrock topography and soil act in concert as primary physical controls on hydrologic connectivity. However, the important role soil can play is not well understood. A hillslope study was conducted to explore the dynamics between soil and hydrologic connectivity. The hillslope was in a zero-order watershed with a flashy ephemeral stream. It was located in an oak-woodland in the Californian northern Sierra foothills. The research objectives were to 1) identify and characterize hydrologically significant soil properties; 2) explore how soil stratigraphy and morphology influence hydrologic connectivity; and 3) examine potential causes for connection and disconnection of hydrologic flowpaths during and between rain storm events. During the 2012 wet season a 210-m hillslope transect was instrumented to collect soil moisture data every five minutes. The instruments were put at multiple locations and depths to capture the soil spatial variability. Once the soil became too dry for monitoring the transect was trenched, characterized and sampled. Texture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves were measured in the lab. Structure, color, redoximorphic features, soil horizon spatial differentiation, saprolite and bedrock characteristics, and coarse fragment percentage were recorded in the field. Prior to excavation an electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in conjunction with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) was performed along the hillslope. The goal of the survey was to explore non-invasive techniques to determine spatial variability of hydrologically significant soil horizons and bedrock. The GPR was found not to be reliable at the site. However, the EMI showed potential in showing the discontinuous distribution of the claypan, a horizon characterized by a large and abrupt increase in clay content and very low permeability. The data obtained from the transect excavation was used to create a two-dimensional hillslope model using HYDRUS-2D. Coupled with the soil moisture and local precipitation data the hillslope hydrology was modeled at individual storm event time scale. The field data showed that the hillslope was very complex and comprised of a discontinuous claypan, undulating bedrock topography and highly variable saprolite. The soil moisture data and modeling efforts showed that the surface horizons, which are highly permeable and contain numerous macropores, are the primary hydrologic flowpaths during storm events. The model showed that the presence of claypan decreased effective soil depth, increased antecedent wetness and created a perched water table. The model also showed that the undulating bedrock acted like a dam along the hillslope. The claypan network and undulating bedrock created isolated zones of wetness that only become connected and flow downhill into the stream when a storm caused the disconnected zones to rise in the highly permeable surface horizons.

  15. STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Sudradjad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

  16. Impedance characteristics of the Bz diode on the LION accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LION accelerator at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of the applied B/sub z/, or 'barrel' diode. This 0.8 TW, 4 ohm, ion accelerator has the ability to take several shots per day, and hence alloys systematic scans to be performed. An important result of a recent series of experiments is that the diode impedance remains relatively constant, decaying only slowly, during the 50 nsec pulse. When the diode is operated with a 4.5 mm gap and a 21 kG insulating magnetic field, the typical diode parameters, are a voltage of 1 MV and a total current of 250 kA, leading to a diode impedance of 4 ohms and power of 0.25 TW. The diode impedance decays with a 100 nsec time constant. The ion beams have peak currents of roughly 125 kA and typical impedances of Bohms, which decays with a time constant of 25 nsec. The Child-Langmuir gap was approximately 2 mm and closed with a velocity of roughly 2X10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Current experimental work is aimed at characterizing the impedance of the B/sub z/ diode as a function of the applied magnetic field, the A-K gap, the anode curvature, and the anode groove parameters. In addition, the effect of changing the voltage rise with a plasma opening switch and of adding an electron limiter is examined. The ion beam quality is examined at the focus of the barrel diode with a swept Thomson parabola and various Rutherford scattering diagnostics

  17. Phylogeography of lions (Panthera leo ssp.) reveals three distinct taxa and a late Pleistocene reduction in genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ross; Shapiro, Beth; Barnes, Ian; Ho, Simon Y W; Burger, Joachim; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Higham, Thomas F G; Wheeler, H Todd; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Sher, Andrei V; Sotnikova, Marina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Martin, Larry D; Harington, C Richard; Burns, James A; Cooper, Alan

    2009-04-01

    Lions were the most widespread carnivores in the late Pleistocene, ranging from southern Africa to the southern USA, but little is known about the evolutionary relationships among these Pleistocene populations or the dynamics that led to their extinction. Using ancient DNA techniques, we obtained mitochondrial sequences from 52 individuals sampled across the present and former range of lions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct clusters: (i) modern lions, Panthera leo; (ii) extinct Pleistocene cave lions, which formed a homogeneous population extending from Europe across Beringia (Siberia, Alaska and western Canada); and (iii) extinct American lions, which formed a separate population south of the Pleistocene ice sheets. The American lion appears to have become genetically isolated around 340 000 years ago, despite the apparent lack of significant barriers to gene flow with Beringian populations through much of the late Pleistocene. We found potential evidence of a severe population bottleneck in the cave lion during the previous interstadial, sometime after 48 000 years, adding to evidence from bison, mammoths, horses and brown bears that megafaunal populations underwent major genetic alterations throughout the last interstadial, potentially presaging the processes involved in the subsequent end-Pleistocene mass extinctions. PMID:19302360

  18. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina, Loch; Paulo C., Simões-Lopes; César J., Drehmer.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comp [...] aratively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6), due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  19. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Loch; Paulo C. Simões-Lopes; César J. Drehmer

    2010-01-01

    Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarin...

  20. Human Disturbance Influences Reproductive Success and Growth Rate in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)

    OpenAIRE

    French, Susannah S.; González-Suárez, M.; JULIE K. YOUNG; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R.

    2011-01-01

    The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an ...

  1. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... factors. Available information suggests it is likely that global warming and ocean acidification may.... The Status Review also identifies five potential sources of threat under this factor: 1. Global... Disturbance; 4. Toxic Substances; and 5. Oil and Gas Development. Global climate warming and...

  2. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ...its range. Coastal development, such as tourism, settlement, industry...threat of further coastal development and increased human...such as shipping, tourism, or other forms of coastal development. To authorize any...

  3. Equivalence classification by California sea lions using class-specific reinforcers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kastak, C R; Schusterman, R J; Kastak, D

    2001-01-01

    The ability to group dissimilar stimuli into categories on the basis of common stimulus relations (stimulus equivalence) or common functional relations (functional equivalence) has been convincingly demonstrated in verbally competent subjects. However, there are investigations with verbally limited humans and with nonhuman animals that suggest that the formation and use of classification schemes based on equivalence does not depend on linguistic skills. The present investigation documented th...

  4. Geographical Dissemination of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona During Seasonal Migration of California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses in the world, and affects both terrestrial and marine mammals. Little information is available describing the geographical spread of leptospirosis, but it is logical to assume that animal migrations contribute to this process. There ha...

  5. CRYSTALLIZATION AND PRELIMINARY CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SAN MIGUEL SEA LION VIRUS: AN ANIMAL CALICIVIRUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Caliciviridae is a family of non-enveloped, icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. This family of viruses consists of both animal and human pathogens. Adapting human caliciviruses to cell culture has not been successful, whereas some animal caliciviruses, including San Miguel ...

  6. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Loch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  7. «Sur la piste du lion», les itinéraires de Kessel, 1898-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude IMBERT

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Le livre d'Yves Courrière (Sur la piste du lion, 1985 permet de suivre l'essentiel des grands voyages de Joseph Kessel (1898-1979 après avoir raconté la diaspora familiale. Ils constituent le support géographique de son œuvre, dans les domaines du reportage et de la littérature: une reconstitution à travers des cartes chronologiques.

  8. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  9. Eestis on üle tuhande lõvi : [Lions-liikumisest] / Vello Talviste, Olev Saluveer, Jaan Palumets...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Lions-liikumisega on ühinenud ka koolidirektorid. Küsimustele - mis ajendas neid seda tegema, mida lõvid ette võtavad ning kui aktuaalne on heategevuse temaatika koolis, vastavad Paide Gümnaasiumi direktor Vello Talviste, Ülenurme Gümnaasiumi direktor Olev Saluveer, Saue Gümnaasiumi direktor Jaan Palumets, Tõrva Gümnaasiumi direktor Ivar Hanvere ja Tabivere Gümnaasiumi direktor Toivo Punga

  10. Individual behaviors dominate the dynamics of an urban mountain lion population isolated by roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Sikich, Jeffrey A; Dalbeck, Lisa; Wayne, Robert K; Ernest, Holly B

    2014-09-01

    Large carnivores can be particularly sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity [1, 2]. The Santa Monica Mountains (SMMs), a large natural area within Greater Los Angeles, is completely isolated by urban development and the 101 freeway to the north. Yet the SMMs support a population of mountain lions (Puma concolor), a very rare example of a large carnivore persisting within the boundaries of a megacity. GPS locations of radio-collared lions indicate that freeways are a near-absolute barrier to movement. We genotyped 42 lions using 54 microsatellite loci and found that genetic diversity in SMM lions, prior to 2009, was lower than that for any population in North America except in southern Florida, where inbreeding depression led to reproductive failure [3-5]. We document multiple instances of father-daughter inbreeding and high levels of intraspecific strife, including the unexpected behavior of a male killing two of his offspring and a mate and his son killing two of his brothers. Overall, no individuals from the SMMs have successfully dispersed. Gene flow is critical for this population, and we show that a single male immigrated in 2009, successfully mated, and substantially enhanced genetic diversity. Our results imply that individual behaviors, most likely caused by limited area and reduced opportunities to disperse, may dominate the fate of small, isolated populations of large carnivores. Consequently, comprehensive behavioral monitoring can suggest novel solutions for the persistence of small populations, such as the transfer of individuals across dispersal barriers. PMID:25131676

  11. "The Lion King" and "Hamlet": A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Rosemarie

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the movie "The Lion King" may be used to elucidate Shakespeare's "Hamlet," a play about a prince who does not always seem heroic to modern audiences. Gives specific points of comparison between the two works concerning heroes, characters, conflicts, themes, ending scenes, and archetypal patterns. (TB)

  12. A Rare Case of Gastric Myiasis in a Lion Caused by Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera: Gasterophilidae-Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ganjali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection caused by a variety of dipterous (fly larvae in vertebrate’s tissue (man and domestic or wild animals. Species of Gasterophilus are obligate parasite of horses, donkeys, zebras, elephants and rhinoceroses. There are records worldwide, but mostly, in tropical and subtropical regions. This case report describes a type of gastric myiasis caused by G. intestinalis in an old lion in a zoo in Sistan, southeast Iran. Myiasis in lions is rarely reported and this is the first report of gastric myiasis in lion.

  13. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

  14. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Castillo; Adriana Hernández; David Dominguez; Damaris Ojeda

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed...

  15. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2011-07-01

    Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

  16. Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in flight, the network and data management were handled by a Nexus 7 tablet.

  17. A Rare Case of Gastric Myiasis in a Lion Caused by Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)-Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ganjali; Mojtaba Keighobadi

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infection caused by a variety of dipterous (fly) larvae in vertebrate’s tissue (man and domestic or wild animals). Species of Gasterophilus are obligate parasite of horses, donkeys, zebras, elephants and rhinoceroses. There are records worldwide, but mostly, in tropical and subtropical regions. This case report describes a type of gastric myiasis caused by G. intestinalis in an old lion in a zoo in Sistan, southeast Iran. Myiasis in lions is rarely reported and this is the firs...

  18. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, L.D.; Van Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Uit de Weerd, D. R.; York, D.S.; H. Bauer; Prins, H.H.T.; Funston, P. J.; Udo de Haes, H.A.; Leirs, H.; Van Haeringen, W.A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P.N.; H.H. de Iongh

    2011-01-01

    Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique evolutionary history, which is reflected by their genetic makeup. Location Sub-Saharan Africa and India, with special focus on West and Central Africa. Method In this study 126 samples, throughout th...

  19. Effects of storm events on the shelf-to-basin sediment transport in the southwestern end of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Palanques

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Shelf-to-basin sediment transport during storms was studied at the southwestern end of the Gulf of Lions from November 2003 to March 2004. Waves, near-bottom currents, temperature and sediment fluxes were measured on the inner shelf at 28-m depth, in the Cap de Creus submarine canyon head at 300-m depth and in the northwestern Mediterranean basin at 2350-m depth. This paper is a synthesis of results published separately in different papers; it includes some new data and focusses on the subject of storms. It is the first paper in which simultaneous data about the effect of storms on the shelf, the slope and in the basin are shown together. During the winter studied, there were two severe E-SE storms with significant wave heights ? 7 m: one in December 2003 and one in February 2004. During these storms, coastal water was exported off-shelf producing strong near-bottom currents (up to 82 cm s?1 at the canyon head that resuspended sediment and increased the downcanyon sediment fluxes by several orders of magnitude. The suspended sediment flux increase in the canyon head was much larger during the February storm than during the December storm. At the deep basin site, particle fluxes also increased drastically (1–2 orders of magnitude immediately after the February storm but not after the December storm. The reason was that the February storm was reinforced by dense shelf water cascading and was long enough (43 h to transfer large amounts of resuspended sediment from shallow shelf areas to the canyon head and from there to the northwestern Mediterranean basin. Thus, in the western Gulf of Lions, severe winter E-SE storms occurring during the dense shelf water cascading period can significantly increase the transfer to deep-sea (> 2000 m environments of shelf and slope resuspended material, including anthropogenic contaminants and organic matter.

  20. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to the advancement of comparative genomics of human pathogens, as well as emerging disease in wild populations of endangered species.

  1. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

  2. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

    2012-09-01

    An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age) strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca). In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

  3. Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Charles T T; Bunnefeld, Nils; Balme, Guy A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of terrestrial hunting requires managers to set quotas restricting offtake. This often takes place in the absence of reliable information on the population size, and as a consequence, quotas are set in an arbitrary fashion, leading to population decline and revenue loss. In this investigation, we show how an indirect measure of abundance can be used to set quotas in a sustainable manner, even in the absence of information on population size. Focusing on lion hunting in Africa, we developed a simple algorithm to convert changes in the number of safari days required to kill a lion into a quota for the following year. This was tested against a simulation model of population dynamics, accounting for uncertainties in demography, observation, and implementation. Results showed it to reliably set sustainable quotas despite these uncertainties, providing a robust foundation for the conservation of hunted species. PMID:24344299

  4. Nasal, oral and rectal microbiota of Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vania M., Carvalho; Ralph E.T., Vanstreels; Cátia D., Paula; Cristiane K.M., Kolesnikovas; Maria Christina C., Ramos; Selene D., Coutinho; Cristiana S., Martins; Alcides, Pissinatti; José L., Catão-Dias.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus) are endangered callithrichids. Their conservation may require future translocations or reintroductions; however these approaches involve risks of pathogen introduction in the environment and stress-related opportunistic infections in these animals. In [...] order to screen for opportunistic and potential pathogenic bacterial and fungal microbiota, ten free-ranging and ten captive Black lion tamarins were studied and the results compared. Nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected and cultured for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi, and a total 203 bacterial and 84 fungal isolates were obtained. Overall, the most frequent organisms were Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Microbiota of free-ranging and captive animals were similar in composition. A number of potentially pathogenic organisms were identified, emphasizing the importance of microbiological screening in future translocation or reintroduction conservation management programs.

  5. Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-11-01

    In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz. PMID:25249386

  6. Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to pred...

  7. The Gulf of Lions: An overview of recent studies within the French 'Margins' Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Berne, Serge; Gorini, C.

    2005-01-01

    Within the French 'Margins' Programme (Groupement de Recherches 'Marges', or 'GDR Marges'), The Gulf of Lions was selected as a key area where scientists specialized in complementary aspects of geosciences (structural geology, tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, various aspects of modeling) work together in order to better understand the processes that control the formation and evolution of continental margins. A key objective was to link offshore data (that mainly consist of seismic data...

  8. Examining the Extinction of the Barbary Lion and Its Implications for Felid Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Simon A.; Fellous, Amina; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Roberts, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Estimations of species extinction dates are rarely definitive, yet declarations of extinction or extirpation are important as they define when conservation efforts may cease. Erroneous declarations of extinctions not only destabilize conservation efforts but also corrode local community support. Mismatches in perceptions by the scientific and local communities risk undermining sensitive, but important partnerships. We examine observations relating to the decline and extinction of Barbary lion...

  9. THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia van den Eeckhout; Peter Scholliers

    2011-01-01

    Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price a...

  10. A Hybrid High-Order method for Leray–Lions elliptic equations on general meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Di Pietro, Daniele Antonio; Droniou, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop and analyze a Hybrid High-Order (HHO) method for steady non-linear Leray–Lions problems. The proposed method has several assets, including the support for arbitrary approximation orders and general polytopal meshes. This is achieved by combining two key ingredients devised at the local level: a gradient reconstruction and a high-order stabilization term that generalizes the one originally introduced in the linear case. The convergence analysis is carried out using a c...

  11. Culture-Independent Characterization of the Microbiota of the Ant Lion Myrmeleon mobilis (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Anne K.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2005-01-01

    Ant lions are insect larvae that feed on the liquefied internal components of insect prey. Prey capture is assisted by the injection of toxins that are reportedly derived from both the insect and bacterial symbionts. These larvae display interesting gut physiology where the midgut is not connected to the hindgut, preventing elimination of solid waste until adulthood. The presence of a discontinuous gut and the potential involvement of bacteria in prey paralyzation suggest an interesting micro...

  12. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    Sondgeroth Kerry; Roelke Melody; VandeWoude Sue; Troyer Jennifer L; McCracken Carrie L; Pecon-Slattery Jill; Winterbach Christiaan; Winterbach Hanlie; O'Brien Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 dep...

  13. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Castilho, Camila S.; Luiz G. Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Freitas, Thales R.O.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, o...

  14. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C.; O'Brien, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A li...

  15. Individual Identification and Genetic Variation of Lions (Panthera leo) from Two Protected Areas in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tende, Talatu; Hansson, Bengt; Ottosson, Ulf; Åkesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) spanned through a period of five years (2008 –2012), whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (K...

  16. A Hybrid High-Order method for Leray-Lions elliptic equations on general meshes

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro, Di; A., Daniele; Droniou; Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop and analyze a Hybrid High-Order (HHO) method for steady non-linear Leray-Lions problems. The proposed method has several assets, including the support for arbitrary approximation orders and general polytopal meshes. This is achieved by combining two key ingredients devised at the local level: a gradient reconstruction and a high-order stabilization term that generalizes the one originally introduced in the linear case. The convergence analysis is car...

  17. COMPARATIVE RESEARCHE REGARDING METABOLIC PROFILE OF THE CALIFORNIAN, NEW ZEALAND WHITE, GRAND CHINCHILLA MEAT RABIT BREEDS AND THE F1 NZCH HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA-MARCELA TOB? (GOINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Precious biological characteristics of rabbits make their breeding a very profitable occupation. The rabbit meat, organoleptically same to the white meat, is rich in proteins, but low in fats. Biological researched done in direction to elucidate the biochemical systems that are the basis for organism physiological processes, have revealed that the level in which this process are develop directly influence the rabbits productivity capacity. 60 rabbit’s heads was used as biological material, distributed in: 15 Californian, 15 New Zeeland White, 15 Grand Chinchilla and 15 F1NZCH hybrids obtained from cross-breeding the New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form. Blood was sampled from the rabbit and was biochemical analyzed. The studied indices were: total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubine, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose. The experimental lot formed from F1 NZCH hybrids registered a concentration of 2.1 mg/dl uric acid, and in the other three lots the concentration was under 2 mg/dl. In all four lots, uric acid value was in normal limits. The determined creatinine registered very low values, under 1 mg/dl, at the low limit of reference values. At hybrids from New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form, in equal environmental conditions, the serum biochemical analysis haven’t registered significant differences compared to pure breeds individuals.

  18. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boretti Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

  19. Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

  20. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans.

  1. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not affect population productivity (i.e., maternity), but had an additive effect on mountain lion mortality, and therefore population growth. Through harvest, wildlife managers have the ability to control mountain lion populations.

  2. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  3. Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yearby

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

  4. A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

    2013-05-01

    The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals. PMID:23495802

  5. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  6. Temperature-salinity structure and mixed layer in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, N. N. [???? ??? ????? ???

    1997-01-01

    The hydrographic data taken during 1932 — 1985 were analyzed to present the mean temperature structure and the mixed layer in the different basins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The data indicate that a surface mixed layer exists all year round in all basins with maximum depth reach to about 260m in the Gulf of Lions during February. The mixed layer depth (MLD) seemed to be more shallow in the Alboran Sea (average 50 m ) than other basins. The seasonal variation of mixed layer salinity (ML...

  7. Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R; Ringleb, J; Bertelsen, M F; Rasmusen, K; Andersen, C Y; Kristensen, S G; Jewgenow, K

    ovaries of female lions (Panthera leo). Good quality cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated and subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM). In addition, ovarian cortex was obtained and cut into pieces for culture and cryopreservation by slow freezing. The survival of ovarian follicles was assessed by...... histology. Frozen-thawed samples of ovarian cortex samples were xenotransplanted under the skin of ovariectomized immunodeficient mouse for 28 days. Overall, 178 intact COCs were obtained from 13 lions, but only 28.1% were matured in vitro indicating insufficient IVM conditions. In contrast, almost all...... follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed...

  8. The Lion King and the Hyaena Queen: large carnivore interactions and coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périquet, Stéphanie; Fritz, Hervé; Revilla, Eloy

    2015-11-01

    Interactions among species, which range from competition to facilitation, have profound effects on ecosystem functioning. Large carnivores are of particular importance in shaping community structure since they are at the top of the food chain, and many efforts are made to conserve such keystone species. Despite this, the mechanisms of carnivore interactions are far from understood, yet they are key to enabling or hindering their coexistence and hence are highly relevant for their conservation. The goal of this review is thus to provide detailed information on the extents of competition and facilitation between large carnivores and their impact in shaping their life histories. Here, we use the example of spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta) and lions (Panthera leo) and provide a comprehensive knowledge of their interactions based on meta-analyses from available literature (148 publications). Despite their strong potential for both exploitation and interference competition (range and diet overlap, intraguild predation and kleptoparasitism), we underline some mechanisms facilitating their coexistence (different prey-age selection and scavenging opportunities). We stress the fact that prey abundance is key to their coexistence and that hyaenas forming very large groups in rich ecosystems could have a negative impact on lions. We show that the coexistence of spotted hyaenas and lions is a complex balance between competition and facilitation, and that prey availability within the ecosystem determines which predator is dominant. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge such as the spatio-temporal dynamics of their interactions. As both species' survival becomes increasingly dependent on protected areas, where their densities can be high, it is critical to understand their interactions to inform both reintroduction programs and protected area management. PMID:25530248

  9. Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L. Mills

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the population, seem to be related to changes in prey populations, particularly to a decline in numbers and condition of buffalo Syncerus cafer.

  10. Patterns of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Multiple Infection and Genome Divergence in a Free-Ranging Population of African Lions

    OpenAIRE

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Black, Lori; Packer, Craig; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS-like immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Free-ranging lions, Panthera leo, carry a chronic species-specific strain of FIV, FIV-Ple, which so far has not been convincingly connected with immune pathology or mortality. FIV-Ple, harboring the three distinct strains A, B, and C defined by pol gene sequence divergences, is endemic in the large outbred population of lions in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania. Here we desc...

  11. Captive propagation of threatened primates - the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaumanns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many conservation-oriented breeding programs are not likely to reach their goal of establishing self-sustaining populations. Some zoo biologists propagate to reconsider zoo-based conservation policies and strategies. The Lion-tailed Macaque is a flagship species for in situ conservation and a high priority species in captive propagation. This article reviews the captive management history of the Lion-tailed Macaque, identifies management patterns that might have negatively influenced the development of the programs, and proposes to use this analysis to initiate a new management perspective. In the North American captive Lion-tailed Macaque population under the Species Survival Plan (SSP, the strong reduction in population size and group sizes due to space problems might have contributed to a decrease in population viability. The population over two decades has declined from almost 300 to less than 100 individuals. In the European population under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP, population size was not limited and larger groups were advocated. The population grew slowly but steadily to a present size of more than 350 individuals over about 23 years. The effective population size has remained low in both SSP and EEP populations. A general conceptual framework that focuses on individuals and their phenotypes for in situ and ex situ conservation recently developed by field conservationists is briefly introduced. It is used to suggest improvements in the management of the Lion-tailed Macaque. It is concluded that the size and structure of a breeding population is to be decided so as to provide conditions and materials for successful reproduction rather than by the available zoo space only. For this, large groups and populations with representation of all age-sex classes are advocated. This would result in a further reduction in the number of species kept in zoos. It is indicated that zoo biology needs to develop new concepts that include a large spectrum of concepts of biology and knowledge about the adaptive potential of animal species under altered and fragmented conditions.

  12. Growth of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the Gulf of Lions based on conventional tagging

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon-duval, Capucine; De Pontual, Helene; Metral, Luisa; Quemener, Loic

    2010-01-01

    Growth of European hake was estimated from the results of a conventional tagging study in the Gulf of Lions, the first tagging experiment to have been undertaken on the species in Mediterranean waters. In all, 4277 hake 15–40 cm long were tagged and released on the inshore fishing grounds during spring 2006. The overall recapture rate was 6.5% and times-at-liberty ranged from 1 to 717 d. Growth rate in hake varied with size and sex. The estimated growth parameter (von Bertalanffy k) was estim...

  13. Comparison of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins

    OpenAIRE

    Selmi, André L.; Mendes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Juliana P.; Barbudo-Selmi, Glenda R.; Lins, Bruno T.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine (20 ?g/kg bodyweight [BW] and 10 mg/kg BW) (MK group) or dexmedetomidine-ketamine (10 ?g/kg BW and 10 mg/kg BW) (DK group) were studied in golden-headed lion tamarins. Heart rate decreased after administration of both combinations; this reduction was statistically greater in the DK group than in the MK group after 15 and 45 minutes. Systolic arterial pressure decreased in a similar way in both groups, except at 1...

  14. Exploding metal film active anode source experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors report results using an extractor geometry magnetically insulated ion diode on the 0.5 TW LION accelerator. Experiments with an exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS) have shown that intense beams with significantly improved turn-on time compared to epoxy-filled-groove anodes can be produced. A new geometry, in which a plasma switch is used to provide the current path that explodes the thin film anode, has improved the ion efficiency (to typically 70%) compared with the previous scheme in which an electron collector on the anode provided this current. Leakage electron current is reduced when no collector is used

  15. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry and Lions

    KAUST Repository

    Caffarelli, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry and Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary. 2011 Académie des sciences.

  16. Paleoenvironmental imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleontological parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasted subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lions. Since both depositional environments were well-documented in this area, large data-sets were available and allowed to calibrate the investigated cores with several reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. Molecular-based fingerprints showed that the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by an heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee, were unexpectedly dominated by Betaproteobacteria (more than 70 %, at the base of the core mainly below five meters in the sediment. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidites frequency indicated that the microbial diversity was controlled by the important climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. This result was supported by statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In contrast, the Gulf of Lions core, characterized by a homogeneous lithology of upper-slope environment, was dominated by the Bacteroidetes group and in a lesser extent, by the Betaproteobacteria group. At both sites, the dominance of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lions, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western-Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the structure/composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

  17. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  18. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; Martins, Andreia Fonseca; Xavier, Samantha Cristina das Chagas; Lima, Valdirene Dos Santos; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI. PMID:25946156

  19. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Varella, Lisboa; Rafael Veríssimo, Monteiro; Andreia Fonseca, Martins; Samantha Cristina das Chagas, Xavier; Valdirene dos Santos, Lima; Ana Maria, Jansen.

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rai [...] nforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  20. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Varella, Lisboa; Rafael Veríssimo, Monteiro; Andreia Fonseca, Martins; Samantha Cristina das Chagas, Xavier; Valdirene dos Santos, Lima; Ana Maria, Jansen.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rai [...] nforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  1. Selected clinical, biochemical, and electrolyte alterations in anesthetized captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Sabrina; Seddighi, M Reza; Steeil, James C; Sura, Patricia; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Gompf, Rebecca E; Elliott, Sarah B; Ramsay, Edward C

    2014-06-01

    A prospective study to assess changes in selected plasma biochemistry and electrolyte values, plasma insulin and aldosterone concentrations, and electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on eight female captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and three lions (Panthera leo) undergoing general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic ovariectomy. Each animal was sedated with medetomidine (18-25 microg/kg) and midazolam (0.06-0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and anesthesia was induced with ketamine (1.9-3.5 mg/kg) intramuscularly and maintained with isoflurane. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma biochemistry parameters and insulin and aldosterone concentrations. An ECG was recorded at the time of each blood sample collection. Mean plasma potassium, glucose, phosphorus, and aldosterone concentrations increased during anesthesia (P < or = 0.05). One tiger developed hyperkalemia (6.5 mmol/L) 2.5 hr after anesthetic induction. Plasma insulin concentrations were initially below the low end of the domestic cat reference interval (72-583 pmol/L), but mean insulin concentration increased (P < or = 0.05) over time compared with the baseline values. Three tigers and two lions had ECG changes that were representative of myocardial hypoxemia. Based on these results, continuous monitoring of clinical and biochemical alterations during general anesthesia in large nondomestic felids is warranted, and consideration should be given to reversal of medetomidine in these animals should significant changes in electrolytes or ECG occur. PMID:25000694

  2. Identification of source-sink dynamics in mountain lions of the Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Alyson M; Stewart, Kelley M; Longland, William S; Beckmann, Jon P; Forister, Matthew L

    2012-12-01

    Natural and anthropogenic boundaries have been shown to affect population dynamics and population structure for many species with movement patterns at the landscape level. Understanding population boundaries and movement rates in the field for species that are cryptic and occur at low densities is often extremely difficult and logistically prohibitive; however genetic techniques may offer insights that have previously been unattainable. We analysed thirteen microsatellite loci for 739 mountain lions (Puma concolor) using muscle tissue samples from individuals in the Great Basin throughout Nevada and the Sierra Nevada mountain range to test the hypothesis that heterogeneous hunting pressure results in source-sink dynamics at the landscape scale. We used a combination of non-spatial and spatial model-based Bayesian clustering methods to identify genetic populations. We then used a recently developed Bayesian multilocus genotyping method to estimate asymmetrical rates of contemporary movement between those subpopulations and to identify source and sink populations. We identified two populations at the highest level of genetic structuring with a total of five subpopulations in the Great Basin of Nevada and the Sierra Nevada range. Our results suggest that source-sink dynamics occur at landscape scales for wide-ranging species, such as mountain lions, and that source populations may be those that are under relatively less hunting pressure and that occupy refugia. PMID:22934825

  3. Live foraminifera from the open slope between Grand Rhône and Petit Rhône Canyons (Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F. J.; Lansard, B.; Mouret, A.; Buscail, R.; Schmidt, S.; Kerhervé, P.; Buron, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Hunault, G.; Ernoult, E.; Artero, C.; Anschutz, P.; Rabouille, C.

    2008-11-01

    We present an ecological study of live (Rose Bengal stained) foraminifera from 6 deep-sea stations sampled on the open slope between the Grand Rhône Canyon and the Petit Rhône Canyon (eastern part of the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean). The 6 stations describe a bathymetric transect from ˜350 to ˜2000 m depth. The main objective of our study is to investigate the changes of the foraminiferal density, composition and microhabitat along this transect in response to the physico-chemical conditions at and below the sediment-water interface. All our observations underline the general meso-oligotrophic character of our inter-canyon open-slope setting where low-quality organic matter originating from both marine and continental sources settles. The input of organic matter at the sediment-water interface leads to a classical succession of redox reactions within the sediment. The shallowest station (˜350 m) appears as an active sedimentary environment, where coarse sediments characterized by lower-quality organic matter and biogenic material accumulate. The 550-m-deep station presents bioturbated sediments with the highest concentration of labile organic compounds. The deeper stations, between about 750 and 2000 m deep, show decreasing sedimentation rates with water depth and are characterized by a background of low-quality organic matter. The foraminiferal changes recorded along the bathymetric transect are related to a complex association of physico-chemical parameters. We think that the quality of organic matter in the surficial sediment, as expressed by the lipid concentration, is the major parameter controlling the foraminiferal distribution at our open-slope stations. From the 550- to the 2000-m-deep station, the foraminiferal standing stocks and diversity decrease with depth, as a result of the increasing scarcity of labile organic compounds at the sediment-water interface. Oxygen concentration and penetration depth and the intensity of bioturbation seem to play only a secondary ecological role. Other, putative hydro-sedimentary processes (winnowing by strong bottom currents, sand-bed deposition) appear as additional parameters controlling the foraminiferal community structure. At the 350-m-deep station, the live foraminiferal fauna can be considered as a non-equilibrium assemblage thriving in frequently disturbed and food-impoverished sediments. At the 745- and 980-m-deep stations, the occurrence of suspensivorous epibenthic/epilithic species suggests the presence of strong bottom-water current velocities and the related suspension of organic particles.

  4. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... at De Beque, Colorado; Channel 237C3 at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2..., Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel 288C2 at Rule; and by...

  5. 78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule... 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock, Channel 225C2. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  6. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-156...De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and Shamrock, TX AGENCY...4). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting...Communications Commission amends 47 CFR Part 73 as follows:...

  7. 78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [MB Docket No. 13-156...Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco...involve channel allotments. See 47 CFR 1.1204(b) for rules governing...procedures for comments, see 47 CFR 1.415 and 1.420....

  8. Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R

    2012-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is considered an important tool in the conservation of endangered species, but often the most limiting factor of ART is the availability of mature oocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of preserving female germ cells from ovaries of female lions (Panthera leo). Good quality cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated and subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM). In addition, ovarian cortex was obtained and cut into pieces for culture and cryopreservation by slow freezing. The survival of ovarian follicles was assessed by histology. Frozen-thawed samples of ovarian cortex samples were xenotransplanted under the skin of ovariectomized immunodeficient mouse for 28 days. Overall, 178 intact COCs were obtained from 13 lions, but only 28.1% were matured in vitro indicating insufficient IVM conditions. In contrast, almost all follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed in favour of follicular growth. Female gamete rescue from valuable felids may be performed by slow freeze cryopreservation of ovarian cortex. Although the IVM protocol for lions is not yet optimized, mature oocytes may be obtained after long-term xenotransplantation and IVM and could potentially represent one way of salvage of endangered felid species in the future.

  9. "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali." Adapted by Kim Hines, Featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso, Cue Sheet for Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Aakhu TuahNera

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Sundiata: Lion King of Mali," adapted by Kim Hines and featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) Sundiata: Man & Myth (discusses the real man and the…

  10. Degradation characteristics of golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia two-phrase long calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabatini, Vera; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    long calls of the Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia and its implications for "reading" and ranging long calls of calling tamarins. The experiments were made in lowland, evergreen forest in Brazil. Synthesized copies of natural sounds were broadcast and re-recorded using different combinations...

  11. Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) type IIx single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Tertius A.; Noakes, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (Vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°C from lion, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758), and caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. Additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. Only type IIx muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type IIx and only two type I fibres were found in the lion sample. Only pure type I and IIa, and hybrid type IIax fibres were identified in the human samples – there were no pure type IIx fibres. Nevertheless, compared with all the human fibre types, the lion and caracal fibres were smaller (P<0.01) in cross-sectional area (human: 6194±230 μm2, lion: 3008±151 μm2, caracal: 2583±221 μm2). On average, the felid type IIx fibres produced significantly greater force (191–211 kN m−2) and ~3 times more power (29.0–30.3 kN m−2 fibre lengths s−1) than the human IIax fibres (100–150 kN m−2, 4–11 kN m−2 fibre lengths s−1). Vmax values of the lion type IIx fibres were also higher than those of human type IIax fibres. The findings suggest that the same fibre type may differ substantially between species and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:23155088

  12. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 ± 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 ± 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 ± 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 ± 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions. PMID:26460849

  13. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of this shrub is puzzling. Three of the Desert Tortoise shell remains possessed distinctive intercanine punctures measuring 55-60 mm center to center indicating that this was an adult sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm.; Medica 1990. Great Basin Nat. 50:83-84), while Coyotes (Canis latrans) were never observed within th

  14. The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

    2014-03-01

    The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

  15. Progress on Californian Otter Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon J.S.

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The river otter Lutra lutra has been protected in Hungary since 1974 and became strictly protected in 1978. However, the first and so far only survey of its distribution was carried out by me in 1987-88. I now report the results of this survey and discuss the present status and conservation problems of otter in Hungary. Otters are most plentiful in the south west. Because of contamination of many water courses, otters are dependent on fish farms of various sizes. Until now, these were subsidised, but now they are in private hands, but no compensation for otter-related losses are available, owners on low incomes cannot afford expensive mitigation measures. They would welcome the live-trapping and removal of problem otters, but the government would need to sponsor suitable areas for release of these animals. Conservationists in Hungary are seeking support for such a scheme. We think that it would be in the interest of the conservationists of Europe to help to maintain Hungary as one of the strongholds of otter and we are inviting suggestions and ideas on how to achieve this.

  16. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  17. Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILLY CHRISTIANTO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp. were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Two isolates (Myr7 and MyrB were found to possess quorum quenching activity. Isolates with quorum quenching activity were later identified employing 16S rRNA. Both isolates were similar to bacteria in the genus Aeromonas

  18. k-Capture in Multiagent Pursuit Evasion, or the Lion and the Hyenas

    CERN Document Server

    Bopardikar, Shaunak D

    2011-01-01

    We consider the following generalization of the classical pursuit-evasion problem, which we call k-capture. A group of n pursuers (hyenas) wish to capture an evader (lion) who is free to move in an m-dimensional Euclidean space, the pursuers and the evader can move with the same maximum speed, and at least k pursuers must simultaneously reach the evader's location to capture it. If fewer than k pursuers reach the evader, then those pursuers get destroyed by the evader. Under what conditions can the evader be k-captured? We study this problem in the discrete time, continuous space model and prove that k-capture is possible if and only there exists a time when the evader lies in the interior of the pursuers' k-Hull. When the pursuit occurs inside a compact, convex subset of the Euclidean space, we show through an easy constructive strategy that k-capture is always possible.

  19. Loin Exposure as a Means of Complementing Thermoregulation in Kalahari Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork on the thermoregulatory behavior of a small pride of lions (Panthera leo, consisting of three adults and two cubs, was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, Namibia. Continuous daytime and nighttime observations of the pride were performed during winter (May-July 2003 and summer (February-March 2004. Temporal incidences of loin exposure showed a positive relationship with increasing temperature from winter to summer. Full belly loin exposures during both seasons occurred across the ambient temperature range, but empty belly loin exposures were only observed above 17°C. The frequency of loin exposure for both seasons on empty or full bellies rapidly increased from 28°C. The two males demonstrated a similar probability of loin exposure, possibly as a result of their similar shape and sex and the average orientation of loins into an oncoming breeze occurred 51 and 58% during winter and summer, respectively.

  20. Stratigraphy and depositional environment of upper Cambrian Red Lion Formation, southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, L.L.; Bush, J.H.

    1987-08-01

    The Red Lion Formation was examined along a northwest-southeast transect from Missoula to Bozeman, Montana. Lateral equivalents are the Snowy Range Formation east of Bozeman and the upper Fishtrap Dolomite in northwest Montana. The basal Dry Creek Member (0-5 m) consists of shale interbedded with quartz siltstones and sandstones. The overlying Sage Member, up to 115 meters in thickness, is characterized by ribbon carbonate beds containing lime mudstone and quartzose calcisiltite couplets arranged in fining-upward sequences 1-5 cm thick. Couplets are interlayered in places with thin (1-5 cm) to medium bedded (6-70 cm) units of laminated and non-laminated calcareous siltstones, flat-pebble conglomerates, trilobite packstones, cryptalgal boundstones, bioturbated lime mudstones and shales. In places, the upper Sage contains columnar and domal algal features. The Red Lion Formation is considered to be one Grand Cycle with the Dry Creek representing a lower inner detrital half-cycle and the Sage an upper carbonate half-cycle. The Dry Creek formed as the result of a westward clastic pulse from the inner detrital belt across an intrashelf basin onto outer middle carbonate peritidal complexes of the underlying Pilgrim Formation. Lower Sage ribbon rocks were deposited in storm-crossed, below wave-base areas. During deposition of the upper Sage, shallowing formed discontinuous algal-peritidal complexes over much of western and central Montana. These complexes were less extensive than earlier Cambrian buildups owing to slower rates of basin subsidence and clastic input suppressing carbonate production.

  1. Implications of diet for the extinction of saber-toothed cats and American lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, Larisa R G; Schubert, Blaine W; Scott, Jessica R; Ungar, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    The saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, and American lion, Panthera atrox, were among the largest terrestrial carnivores that lived during the Pleistocene, going extinct along with other megafauna ?12,000 years ago. Previous work suggests that times were difficult at La Brea (California) during the late Pleistocene, as nearly all carnivores have greater incidences of tooth breakage (used to infer greater carcass utilization) compared to today. As Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA) can differentiate between levels of bone consumption in extant carnivores, we use DMTA to clarify the dietary niches of extinct carnivorans from La Brea. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that times were tough at La Brea with carnivorous taxa utilizing more of the carcasses. Our results show no evidence of bone crushing by P. atrox, with DMTA attributes most similar to the extant cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, which actively avoids bone. In contrast, S. fatalis has DMTA attributes most similar to the African lion Panthera leo, implying that S. fatalis did not avoid bone to the extent previously suggested by SEM microwear data. DMTA characters most indicative of bone consumption (i.e., complexity and textural fill volume) suggest that carcass utilization by the extinct carnivorans was not necessarily more complete during the Pleistocene at La Brea; thus, times may not have been "tougher" than the present. Additionally, minor to no significant differences in DMTA attributes from older (?30-35 Ka) to younger (?11.5 Ka) deposits offer little evidence that declining prey resources were a primary cause of extinction for these large cats. PMID:23300674

  2. Assessing the exposure of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) to future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas L S; Pie, Marcio R; Passos, Fernando C

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how biodiversity will respond to climate change is a major challenge in conservation science. Climatic changes are likely to impose serious threats to many organisms, especially those with narrow distribution ranges, small populations and low dispersal capacity. Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) are endangered primates endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF), and all four living species are typical examples of these aggravating conditions. Here, we integrate ecological niche modeling and GIS-based information about BAF remnants and protected areas to estimate the exposure (i.e., the extent of climate change predicted to be experienced by a species) of current suitable habitats to climate change for 2050 and 2080, and to evaluate the efficacy of existing reserves to protect climatically suitable areas. Niche models were built using Maxent and then projected onto seven global circulation models derived from the A1B climatic scenario. According to our projections, the occurrence area of L. caissara will be little exposed to climate change. Western populations of L. chrysomelas could be potentially exposed, while climatically suitable habitats will be maintained only in part of the eastern region. Protected areas that presently harbor large populations of L. chrysopygus and L. rosalia will not retain climatic suitability by 2080. Monitoring trends of exposed populations and protecting areas predicted to hold suitable conditions should be prioritized. Given the potential exposure of key lion tamarin populations, we stress the importance of conducting additional studies to assess other aspects of their vulnerability (i.e., sensitivity to climate and adaptive capacity) and, therefore, to provide a more solid framework for future management decisions in the context of climate change. PMID:24346860

  3. Recent population expansion in the evolutionary history of the Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax / Expansión poblacional reciente en la historia evolutiva de la anchoveta de California Engraulis mordax

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noé, Díaz-Viloria; Laura, Sánchez-Velasco; Ricardo, Pérez-Enríquez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La anchoveta de California Engraulis mordax, es una especie templada que pudo haber pasado por un proceso de disyunción poblacional, debido al proceso postglacial de calentamiento del agua alrededor de la punta de la península de Baja California, hace unos 10,000 años. Se realizó un análisis genétic [...] o para probar la hipótesis nula de homogeneidad genética entre el Golfo de California, México y el sur de California, EUA y si este era el caso, estimar el tiempo de surgimiento de haplotipos en términos de coalescencia. Se analizaron en total 80 secuencias de la región control hipervariable (ADNmt) de E. mordax, capturadas en la región central del Golfo de California (n = 40) y el sur de California (n = 40). A pesar del gran número de haplotipos únicos, no se observó diferenciación genética significativa entre localidades (F ST = -0.0025, p = 0.686). Una distribución unimodal en la frecuencia del número de diferencias entre haplotipos indica un modelo de expansión rápida en el tamaño poblacional, que basado en una tasa mutacional de 3.6% por millón de años para la región control, indicó un tiempo de diferenciación nucleotídica relativamente reciente de aproximadamente 61,000 años. Este periodo de tiempo corresponde al Pleistoceno tardío, después de la formación de la península de Baja California, sugiriendo expansiones poblacionales en cada una de las localidades, seguidas del último episodio de glaciación, el cual quizás contribuyó a la migración de esta especie de afinidad templada entre las dos localidades y a su homogenización genética. Sin embargo este único evento reciente de flujo genético en la historia evolutiva de la especie, no explica por sí solo los patrones de distribución encontrados en las frecuencias de diferencias nucleotídicas. Abstract in english The Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax, a temperate species, may have undergone a process of population disjunction from experiencing post-glacial water heating processes around the tip of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico about 10,000 b.p. A genetic analysis was performed to test the null hyp [...] othesis of genetic homogeneity between the Gulf of California and Southern California, U. S. A., and if this is the case, to estimate the time of haplotype emergence in terms of coalescence. A total of 80 sequences of the mtDNA hypervariable control region of E. mordax captured in the central Gulf of California (n = 40) and Southern California (n = 40) were analyzed. In spite of the large number of private haplotypes, no significant genetic differentiation among sites (F ST = -0.0025, p = 0.686) was observed. An unimodal distribution of mismatch frequency between haplotypes indicated a model of rapid expansion in population size that, based on a mutation rate of 3.6% per million years in the control region, indicates a relatively recent nucleotide differentiation time of approximately 61,000 years. This time period corresponds to the late Pleistocene, suggesting population expansions at each locality, followed by the last episode of glaciation, which may have contributed to migration of this temperate-affinity species between two locations and the genetic homogenization. However this unique recent event of gene flow in the evolutionary history of species does not explain by itself the mismatch distribution patterns found.

  4. The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986Pages 21 - 25 (ReportJack AmesAbstract:It has proved difficult to devise a population census method that is reliable, and the efforts to do so are reviewed. Whether the population has remained stable or declined slightly, the fact remains that a population that had been growing at a rate of approximately five percent per year has not grown for more than a decade. This lack of population growth remains a significant point of concern. However, new net fishing restrictions and the fact that the geographic range of the sea otter in California has continued to increase, lead us to conclude that future increases in population size in California are likely. In the worst of all scenarios, were the Californian population of sea otters to be exterminated, a new population could be started from Alaskan sea otters. Such transplanted populations currently thrive in British Columbia, Canada and the state of Washington.

  5. Onde bebem os leões: estudo de referências nos filmes vencedores do Cannes Lions Festival entre 2007 e 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Zambam Mattos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is the unusual association of contexts that bring to life the advertising ideas considered creative. Eco (2001 explains that the spectator facing a creative piece of communication feels invited to interpretation and rewarded by the comprehension of such association, that generated duplicity of meanings and is only fully understood by the observer who possesses a certain former knowledge. This article accepts the challenge of identifying possible references that generated creative processes in a sample formed by four commercials that won the Grand Prix or the Gold Lion in the Film area of the Cannes Lions Festival, the most celebrated festival when it comes to advertising or creativity. Therefore, this research intends to identify inferences from movies, literature, music, design, art and history in advertising commercials, by comparing the sample with probable verbal and visual inspirations.

  6. Using Reaction Time and Equal Latency Contours to Derive Auditory Weighting Functions in Sea Lions and Dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E

    2016-01-01

    Subjective loudness measurements are used to create equal-loudness contours and auditory weighting functions for human noise-mitigation criteria; however, comparable direct measurements of subjective loudness with animal subjects are difficult to conduct. In this study, simple reaction time to pure tones was measured as a proxy for subjective loudness in a Tursiops truncatus and Zalophus californianus. Contours fit to equal reaction-time curves were then used to estimate the shapes of auditory weighting functions. PMID:26610970

  7. Data from "Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus."

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data sets used to support analysis published by O'Corry-Crowe et al (2014) Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct...

  8. Development of a real-time PCR for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in marine mammals is challenging: microbiological culture can take 3-6 months and has low sensitivity, immunohistochemical staining of kidney to detect leptospires is invasive and time consuming, and serological methods, such as the microscopic agglutina...

  9. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Torben Dabelsteen; Ogutu, Joseph O; Niels L. Mogensen

    2011-01-01

    Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declinesin large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systemswhere carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes incarnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography andspace-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve andthe adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in s...

  10. Using Landscape and Bioclimatic Features to Predict the Distribution of Lions, Leopards and Spotted Hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Abade, Leandro; Macdonald, David W.; Dickman, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i) identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of li...

  11. Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) type IIx single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kohn, Tertius A.; Noakes, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (Vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°C from lion, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758), and caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. Additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. Only type IIx muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type IIx and o...

  12. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae), select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Sabatini; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches) that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766)...

  13. Comparison of methods for stock assessment of European hake Merluccius merluccius in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Aldebert, Yvonne; Recasens, Laura

    1996-01-01

    European hake Merluccius merluccius is the main commercial demersal species in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean). This fish is exploited by French and Spanish trawler fleets and by small-scale fisheries using gillnets and longlines. Data on landings and the demography of catches by type of gear are now available for the period 1988-1991. The assessment of the hake stock was carried out using methods of virtual population analysis (VPA), or cohort analysis, based respectively on m...

  14. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

  15. Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, Caren; Lubin, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Retrievals of total sea ice concentration from four algorithms using the 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the marginal ice zone in the Barents and Greenland Seas are compared with retrievals of total sea ice concentration from helicopter-borne linescan camera observations made during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern during May-June 1997. The goals are to evaluate (1) SSM/I 85.5 GHz retrievals of total sea ice concentration for climatological purposes, and (2) the ability of 85.5 GHz data to show the sea ice edge through cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19 and 37 GHz) traditionally used for sea ice remote sensing. A self-adjusting algorithm that performs a nonlinear correction for atmospheric moisture, without explicit atmospheric input data, yields the best accuracy over total sea ice concentrations greater than 30%. However, this algorithm can misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice concentrations in the range 20-70%, empirical 85.5 GHz hybrids of lower-frequency algorithms developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center can improve the accuracy of these algorithms.

  16. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila S., Castilho; Luiz G., Marins-Sá; Rodrigo C., Benedet; Thales R.O., Freitas.

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variabili [...] ty and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software),we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  17. Electron collector and ion species experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the effects of an electron collector on the electron flow in an ion diode and on diode impedance history are being done with an extractor geometry ion diode (B/sub r/ magnetic insulation field) on the LION accelerator (1.5 MV, 4?, 40 ns). The collector is a flux-penetrable metal protrusion on the inner radius of the anode that collects electrons. This device increases the diode operating impedance particularly during the later part of the pulse when the diode impedance collapses without the collector. In the present set of experiments, several thin wires are inserted into the anode and allowed to protrude a few millimeters into the A-K gap. These wires are damaged by the electron flow during the pulse and by measuring the length of the remaining wire, the distance of the electron layer from the anode can be inferred. The ion current density is also measured in three radial locations across the diode, giving a measure, through the Child-Langmuir law, of the effective gap spacing between the anode and the electron sheath. A simple model is proposed to account for the scaling of ion current density with the diode voltage observed in the experiment

  18. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  19. Metacognitive-like information seeking in lion-tailed macaques: a generalized search response after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Heidi L

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that Old World primates (both apes and monkeys) seek information about the location of a hidden food item, unless they are privy to the hiding process. This has been cited as evidence of metacognition. However, these results could also be interpreted using non-metacognitive accounts, including a generalized search response to uncertainty, in which subjects reach for food when it is seen, or search for food until it is spotted. In the present research, lion-tailed macaques were tested on an object-choice task. Conditions varied with respect to the visibility of the baiting process, and whether the location of the hidden food could be inferred by logical exclusion. Additionally, the hidden food could be located visually before a choice was made, by peering under the objects through a Plexiglas tray. Across conditions, monkeys consistently looked for the food when it had not been seen, even if its location could be inferred, despite the fact that these monkeys are capable of inference by exclusion. This suggests that apparently 'metacognitive' information seeking in monkeys may instead reflect a generalized search strategy. Alternatively, it is possible that monkeys only have metacognitive access to certain types of knowledge, including that obtained visually. Results are discussed with respect to the likelihood of metacognition in this species and the evolutionary emergence of metacognition across species. PMID:24913068

  20. Alloparental Care and Auntie Behaviour in a Male Kalahari Lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo consisting of a five year old male, a four year old male and female sibling pair and a male and female cub, held in a 500 ha enclosure, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Due to their continued contact since birth, the male and female sibling pair developed a strong bond and spent 57% of their time together, co-operating and sharing resources. At the arrival of the cubs, this association did not change and as a result, the male was included in all the activities between the female and cubs. He demonstrated great patience with them and took custody of them when darting procedures took place. On two separate occasions, he secured meat for them and defended the carcass while they fed. This type of egalitarianism, alloparenting and auntie roles has been described for females of the same pride, but males have never exhibited such behaviour. The behaviour may lie in kin selection or may be for agonistic buffering, reducing aggression from the older male.

  1. Molecular detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in a lion (Panthera leo) from a Brazilian zoological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Javorouski, Manoel L; Bonat, Marcelo; Lacerda, Oneida; Balbinotti, Bruna; Queiroz, Lucyenne G P B; Timenetsky, Jorge; Biondo, Alexander W; Messick, Joanne B

    2007-01-01

    Although Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections have been reported in wild cats from United States, their presence among native and captive wild cats in Brazil is still unknown. A 12 year old healthy male lion (Panthera leo) from the Zoological Garden of Curitiba, Brazil was anesthetized for transportation and dental evaluation. A blood sample was obtained for a complete blood cell count (CBC) and PCR analysis. DNA was extracted and fragments of Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified in PCR assays. CBC results were within reference intervals. A weak band of 192 pb for "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" was observed, and no band was amplified from Mycoplasma haemofelis reaction. A weak PCR band associated with normal CBC results and without visible parasitemia or clinical signs may suggest a chronic subclinical infection with "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum". The lack of clinical signs may also represent the low pathogenicity of this organism; however, it is noteworthy that immune suppression caused by management and/or corticoids treatment may induce parasitemia and anemia in this animal. This detection suggests further studies in captive wild cats in Brazilian Zoological Gardens. PMID:17625699

  2. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  3. Development of feline microsatellites and SNPs for evaluating primary cataract candidate genes as cause for cataract in Angolan lions (Panthera leo bleyenberghi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Ute; Steinmetz, Andrea; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    Primary cataracts (CAT) are characterized as any form of opacities of the eye lenses and are not accompanied by other diseases. CAT may impair vision depending on their size, location, and their state of progression. In order to investigate the cause of congenital or juvenile CAT in inbred Angolan lions kept in German zoos, we analyzed the genomic sequences of 4 crystalline genes CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBB2, and CRYBB1. In addition, 10 CAT candidate genes (GJA3, LIM2, CRYGA, CRYGB, CRYGC, CRYGD CRYGS, BFSP2, CRYBA4, and CRYBB1) were analyzed using adjacent microsatellites. We identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Angolan lion crystalline genes and 9 segregating microsatellites. Nonparametric and parametric linkage analyses did not reveal any linkage between one of the analyzed markers and CAT. So, we concluded that these genes can be excluded as causative for the familial primary cataract phenotype in these Angolan lions. PMID:20423916

  4. Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A

    2014-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses. PMID:25400554

  5. Innervation Patterns of Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris Mystacial Follicle-Sinus Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Douglas Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F-SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339±408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses¬.

  6. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, Marc; Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation. PMID:26893967

  7. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  8. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae), select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vera, Sabatini; Carlos R., Ruiz-Miranda.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches) that would facilitate call propagation and [...] perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766) - emit long calls from places (perch) within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata) and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests) used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4) of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  9. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810 skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diedrich C G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical finds of bone remains of Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss from the Upper Pleistocene loess open air site at Praha-Podbaba (Czech Republic are reviewed. The largely complete cranium from Central Bohemia and finds from other sites in Czech Republic are also described. The bone proportions of the cranial and postcranial material from Podbaba indicate them to have come from an adult male lion carcass. One foreleg and lower jaw belonged to an adult female as evidenced by their much smaller proportions. A few additional bones were found at other loess pits around Praha along the Vltava River and at open air sites along the Berounka River close to Beroun. By undertaking a preliminary overview of these finds and other bones from cave sites in Central Bohemia, a first palaeobiogeographical distribution of these extinct carnivores can be presented. The lion remains from the open air sites, were found alongside the typical glacial cold-period macrofauna consisting of a few Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, but mainly Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach bones, which were often well-chewed by Ice Age spotted hyenas. Other faunal remains were found in the loess sites, and these appeared, in most cases, to be hyena prey depots or scavenging sites. These remains included Bison priscus (Bojanus, Equus ferus Boddaert [partly Equus przewalskii (Poljakoff], Equus hemionus (Pallas, Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, Capra ibex (Linnaeus and rarely Rupricapra rupricapra (Linnaeus. The latter two animals indicate that an alpine fauna existed in Central Bohemia during the early and middle Upper Pleistocene. Some lion remains and locations described here may be of Saalian Age, during which a similar fauna existed. The bone accumulations, including lion remains, are probably, in many cases, hyena prey deposits. Their presence in caves seems to have been mainly the result of hyena and lion conflicts, and lion kills which were imported, often as complete carcasses, into the hyena cave dens such as the one at Srbsko Chlum-Komín. Their carcasses seemed to have very often been imported by hyenas into their dens in loess along the Weichselian river valleys, the Vltava and Berounka Rivers. In some cases, lions may have been killed at the conflict site, and been scavenged there. The proven minimum number of individuals (MNI lions for the Weichselian in Central Bohemia can be estimated from cave and open air sites to be about 20 compared with a provable hyena MNI of more than twice this number at about 48 individuals.

  10. Subversion of power: Exploring the Lion metaphor in Nahum 2:12-14

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilhelm J., Wessels.

    Full Text Available The short book of Nahum has posed many questions to the scholarly community. For many the book represents an unacceptable display of nationalism and for others the violence in Nahum is too much to bear. The book also stirs emotions with its humiliating references to women to depict weakness and reje [...] ction. The book of Nahum also raises the question of YHWH as the aggressor committing acts of violence. These issues are all valid concerns that need to be entertained by scholars. However, the poetic nature of the Nahum text cannot go unnoticed. The view taken is that Nahum should be read as "resistance poetry " similar to struggle poems and songs that function in oppressive contexts. The argument promoted in this article is that the rhetoric of the book serves the purpose of enticing the Judean people to imagine victory in spite of their oppression and victimisation by the Assyrian forces. The text of Nahum is an excellent display of power battles with the sovereign power YHWH overpowering the Assyrian powers with Nineveh and the Assyrian king as symbols of power. YHWH acts on behalf of the Judean people, who feel powerless in their confrontation with the Assyrians. With this in mind, it will be illustrated that some metaphors in Nahum are used as a means to undermine the power of the enemy. A case will be put forward that the metaphor of the lion, which represents power par excellence, is used in Nah 2:12-14 in a taunt song to subvert the idea of power inherent in this very image. The idea is to illustrate how a metaphor depicting power is used creatively to achieve the exact opposite by subverting that power.

  11. Evaluación de la calidad química del humus de lombriz roja californiana (Eiseniafoetida) elaborado a partir de cuatro sustratos orgánicos en Arica / Chemical characterization of humus produced by Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) from four organic substrates in Arica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe, Salinas-Vásquez; Leslie, Sepúlveda-Morales; Germán, Sepúlveda-Chavera.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad química del humus producido por la lombriz roja californiana elaborado a partir de cuatro compost preparados con diferentes desechos orgánicos. Se trabajó con cuatro tratamientos: T0 (suelo 100%); T1 (compost tomate: pimentón)(1:1 p/p); T2 (restos frescos de tomate-pimentón: sue [...] lo)(1:1 p/p); T3 (compost plantas ornamentales Ficus: Hibiscus: Cynodon)(1:1:3 p/p) y T4 (compost olivo: tomate)(1:1 p/p). Cada tratamiento se caracterizó químicamente al iniciar el proceso y después de tres meses. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente y se compararon las medias con la prueba de rango múltiple de Tukey (p Abstract in english The chemical quality of humus produced by the Californian red worm drawn from four different preparations compost organic waste was evaluated. We worked with four treatments: T0 (100% soil); Tl (compost tomato: capsicum) (1:1 w / w); T2 (fresh tomato, capsicum residues: soil) (1:1 w / w); T3 (compos [...] t ornamental plants Ficus : Hibiscus: Cynodon) (1:1:3 w / w) and T4 (olive compost: tomato) (1:1 w / w). Each treatment was chemically characterized to start the process and after three months. The results were statistically analyzed and the means were compared with the multiple range test of Tukey (p

  12. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  13. Impact of an intrusion by the Northern Current on the biogeochemistry in the eastern Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Oliver N.; Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Pairaud, Ivane

    2016-03-01

    We present the results from the RHOMA2011-LEG2 campaign that took place in the eastern Gulf of Lion from 7 to 17 Oct 2011 and combine them with remote sensing observations and results from a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to study an intrusion event of the Northern Current (NC) onto the continental shelf in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean). Our analysis shows that during the intrusion, the previously upwelled nutrient-rich water present on the shelf is replaced by warmer and mostly oligotrophic NC water within a matter of 2-3 days. This has a marked impact on the local biogeochemistry in the Gulf with pre-intrusion Chl-a concentrations in the surface layer of over 0.5 mg m-3 dropping to near the detection limit within less than 72 h. The intrusion event leads to a dramatic albeit short-lived regime shift in the limiting nutrient for primary production: prior to the intrusion most of production on the shelf is nitrogen limited while the intrusion induces a shift to phosphorous limitation. The relatively high frequency of occurrence of these intrusions in combination with their impact on the local ecosystem make them primary targets for future study.

  14. Crustal thinning, extension, heat flow, subsidence across a Tertiary passive margin: The Gulf of Lions case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auzende, M.; Burrus, J.L.; Galdeanos, A.; Labaume, P.; Lajat, D.; Mauffret, M.; Olivet, J.L.; Patriat, P.; Pascal, G.; Pinet, B.; de Voogd, B. (Institut Francais du petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    1990-05-01

    The Gulf of Lions is a passive margin that borders the small oceanic domain of the Provencal basin, located south of France, The Gulf of Lions is a segment of the western European rift system created during the Oligocene-Miocene. Numerous data (industrial seismic reflection, refraction, and heat-flow measurements) have been used to investigate the geodynamic evolution of the margin, These data showed that this young passive margin presents a conventional structure (important crustal thinning, up to p = 5, associated with block faulting, sealed by a postrift unconformity) and a rather typical evolution (synrift, postrift, and present heat flow are roughly in agreement with model predictions assuming a uniform extension). According to previous interpretation, it was proposed that the margin had undergone very small horizontal extension in apparent contradiction with model prediction. This paradox is investigated in light of a deep seismic profile acquired in 1988-1989 by the ECORS group. This 300-km profile (15 sec two-way travel time) images the structure of the margin down to the Moho. The profile suggests that the paradox of stretching can be explained in part by the role of prerift structural inheritance (Pyrenean structuration clearly visible below the margin), and intense block deformation during the extension.

  15. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Western Ghats, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula Singh; B A Krishna; Mewa Singh

    2006-09-01

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale. Grooming scores were also converted into interval scales using standard scores. Grooming received and grooming given correlated positively and negatively respectively with dominance ranks indicating that high ranking females received more and gave less grooming. Grooming was also positively related to encounter rates for dyads of females. More grooming among adjacent ranks, and grooming being more reciprocal, occurred only in the case of dominant females. The grooming patterns, therefore, appeared to be more of despotic than egalitarian nature. While ranking macaques into different Grades of social systems ranging from despotic to egalitarian, Thierry (2004) has placed lion-tailed macaques in Grade 3 corresponding to the ‘relaxed’ social system. Our results indicate that the grooming and dominance relationships in this species are more despotic, and hence, the Grade for this species requires to be shifted toward 2 or 1.

  16. Simulation and analysis of the mesoscale circulation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Echevin

    Full Text Available The large-scale and mesoscale circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are simulated with an eddy-resolving primitive-equation regional model (RM of 1/16° resolution embedded in a general circulation model (GM of the Mediterranean Sea of 1/8° resolution. The RM is forced by a monthly climatology of heat fluxes, precipitation and wind stress. The GM, which uses the same atmospheric forcing, provides initial and boundary conditions for the RM. Analysis of the RM results shows that several realistic features of the large-scale and mesoscale circulation are evident in this region. The mean cyclonic circulation is in good agreement with observations. Mesoscale variability is intense along the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Catalan Sea. The length scales of the Northern Current meanders along the Provence coast and in the Gulf of Lions’ shelf are in good agreement with observations. Winter Intermediate Water is formed along most of the north-coast shelves, between the Gulf of Genoa and Cape Creus. Advection of this water by the mean cyclonic circulation generates a complex eddy field in the Catalan Sea. Intense anticyclonic eddies are generated northeast of the Balearic Islands. These results are in good agreement with mesoscale activity inferred from satellite altimetric data. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a down-scaling system composed of a general-circulation, a regional and a coastal model, which is one of the goals of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (currents; eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation

  17. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids. PMID:22779227

  18. Spatio-temporal separation between lions and leopards in the Kruger National Park and the Timbavati Private Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakedi W. Maputla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the underlying processes that drive coexistence among apex predators is of great importance to landscape managers overseeing their persistence. Two pressing questions stand out. These questions relate to whether space use by subordinate carnivores is a function of resource distribution and shifts in resource availability or fine scale movement associations with sympatric top predators that dominate them. We hypothesized that leopard movements were primarily resource-driven and secondarily, competition driven. Using data from leopards and lions collared in the Kruger National Park (Kruger and the neighboring Timbavati Private Nature Reserve (Timbavati, we investigated the associations between leopard GPS fixes and resource distribution. We built landscapes of movement activities of lions to investigate the relationships with leopard movements. Results suggested that leopard movements were strongly resource-driven. Lion influence did not come out strongly on leopards collared in the Kruger. In the Timbavati however, lion movements appeared to strongly influence the male leopard movements. We concluded that resources were the main driver of leopard movement behavior and that differences in observed behaviors between Kruger and Timbavati were as a result of different management regimes practiced in the two reserves.

  19. Atmospheric patterns driving Holocene productivity in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean): a multiproxy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausin, Blanca; Flores, Jose-Abel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Cacho, Isabel; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Martrat, Belén; Grimalt, Joan

    2014-05-01

    This study is aimed to reconstruct productivity during the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean as well as to investigate what processes account for its short-term variability. Fossil coccolithophore assemblages have been studied along with Mg/Ca and Uk'37-estimated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental proxies. The study site is located in a semi-permanent area of upwelling in the Alboran Sea. This productive cell is of special interest since is closely related to local hydrological dynamics driven by the entering Atlantic Jet (AJ). The onset of this productive cell is suggested at 7.7 ka cal. B.P. and linked to the establishment of the anticyclonic gyres. From 7.7 ka cal. BP to present, the N ratio and accumulation rate of Florisphaera profunda show successive upwelling and stratification events. This alternation is simultaneous to changes in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation rate in the Gulf of Lions [Frigola et al., 2007], along with changes in Mg/Ca-estimated SST, relative abundance of reworked nannoliths, pollen grains record [Fletcher et al., 2012] and n-hexacosan-1-ol index. Two scenarios are proposed to explain short-term climatic and oceanographic variability: [1] Wetter climate and weaker north-westerlies blowing over the Gulf of Lions trigger a slackening of the WMDW formation. Consequently, a minor AJ inflows the Alboran Sea leading to less vertical mixing and a deepening of the nutricline and hence, long-term stratification events. [2] Arid climate and stronger north-westerlies enable WMDW reinforcement. In turn, increased AJ triggers vertical mixing and nutricline shoaling, and therefore, productive periods. Finally, changes in atmospheric patterns (e.g. the winter North Atlantic Oscillation; [Olsen et al., 2012]) prove to be useful in explaining the WMDW formation in the Gulf of Lions and associated short-term productivity variations in the Alboran Sea. References Fletcher, W. J., M. Debret, and M. F. Sanchez Goñi (2012), Mid-Holocene emergence of a low-frequency millennial oscillation in western Mediterranean climate: Implications for past dynamics of the North Atlantic atmospheric westerlies, The Holocene, 23, 153-166. Frigola, J., A. Moreno, I. Cacho, M. Canals, F. J. Sierro, J. A. Flores, J. O. Grimalt, D. A. Hodell, and J. H. Curtis (2007), Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean region from a deepwater sediment record, Paleoceanography, 22, PA2209. Olsen, J., N. J. Anderson, and M. F. Knudsen (2012), Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the past 5,200 years, Nature Geosci, 5, 808-812.

  20. Undraining Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Capildeo, V.

    2009-01-01

    Undraining Sea engages with ideas of time and of the city, the built and the unbuilt. The first section takes the form of a calendar and interrogates the human experience of time. It engages with a number of other texts, notably by Hesiod. The second section interrogates the human experience of place, via immersive poems inspired by the layered recollection of places (Oslo, Port of Spain, Florence, London). This section engages with William Carlos Williams's _Paterson_. The final section obli...

  1. Southern Sea Otter, the Process to Translocate and the Results of the Initial Year, August 1987 - August 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz C.T.

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available A successful translocation programme requires success in research, law enforcement and containment efforts inclusively. If successful, the translocation will establish a second breeding colony of southern sea otters (contained within a designated zone and accomplish certain goals and requirements of the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The second colony will : 1 reduce the probability that more than a small proportion of the population could be decimated by any single natural or man-caused catastrophe; and 2 allow additional data to be obtained for assessing translocation and containment techniques, population status, and the influence of sea otters on the nearshore marine community, which will facilitate a better understanding of the characteristics and impacts of a sea otter population at an optimum sustainable level. In 1987, 45 sea otters were captured from the southern third of the Californian sea otter range, and translocated to San Nicolas Island. One year later, only 14 were known to still be at the new location. The success of the initial year's effort at reestablishing a founder population at San Nicolas Island is less than expected. However, based on the Washington State translocation example, it may take many years before the success of the translocation at San Nicolas Island can be determined. Although the habitat round San Nicolas Island appears to be able to support a large population, many sea otters have returned to their parent range, or passed through Management and No Otter Zones. From this first year, a number of lessons about how to go about the capture and relocation process have been learned.

  2. Human-carnivore conflict in Tanzania: modelling the spatial distribution of lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), and their attacks upon livestock, in Tanzania’s Ruaha landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Abade, Leandro Alécio; Macdonald, David; Dickman, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Tanzania’s Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivore conservation, harbouring roughly 10% of the world’s lions, and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, these large carnivore populations are threatened by intense retaliatory killing due to human-carnivore conflict on village land around Ruaha National Park (RNP), mostly as a result of livestock predation by lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas. Moreover, a current lack of ecological data o...

  3. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  4. Les mécanismes de la conversion vers les hautes fréquences, application à l'ion Tm^{3+}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, M.; Jouart, J. P.; Mary, G.

    1996-05-01

    The anti-Stokes fluorescence excitation with a monochromatic source can be due to three mechanisms: the successive absorptions, the energy transfer and the photon avalanche distinguishable by certain experimental tests specified by the theoretical study of a three-level model. The photon avalanche is characterized by the existence of a threshold for the excitation density with, beyond this threshold, a sudden increase of the anti-Stokes fluorescence intensity and by a rise time which may be longer than the storage level lifetime, with a strongly marked bending point. This process, efficient for the population inversion, is not separable from the other two mechanisms which can favour it, impede it or even block it. Thus, the avalanche can be started by a weak ground-state absorption and blocked when this absorption becomes too strong. Then, a system based on an excited-state absorption has two operating modes: a successive absorptions mechanism and the photon avalanche. The transition from the former mode to the latter progressively occurs as the excited-state absorption increases compared with the ground-state absorption. The energy level diagram of Tm^{3+} ion favours the excited-state absorption processes, with, in particular the photon avalanche. Some experimental results concerning Tm^{3+} in fluoride crystals are given. L'excitation de la fluorescence anti-Stokes, au moyen d'une source monochromatique peut être due à trois mécanismes : les absorptions successsives, le transfert d'énergie et l'avalanche de photons. De l'étude théorique d'un modèle à trois niveaux, nous dégageons les traits spécifiques de chacun de ces mécanismes. L'avalanche de photons est caractérisée par l'existence d'un seuil pour la densité d'excitation avec, au delà de ce seuil, une brusque augmentation de l'intensité de la fluorescence anti-Stokes et par un temps de montée qui ne peut être plus long que la durée de vie du niveau réservoir, avec un point d'inflexion très marqué. Ce mécanisme est efficace du point de vue de l'inversion de population mais n'est pas séparable des deux autres mécanismes qui peuvent le favoriser, le contrarier ou même le bloquer. Ainsi l'avalanche peut-elle être amorcée grâce à l'existence d'une très faible absorption dans l'état fondamental mais bloquée lorsque cette absorption devient trop forte. Un système basé sur une absorption dans un état excité possède donc deux modes de fonctionnement : un mécanisme où les absorptions successives dominent et l'avalanche de photons. Le passage d'un mode à l'autre apparait progressivement lorsque l'absorption dans l'état excité augmente par rapport à l'absorption dans l'état fondamental. Les résultats expérimentaux que nous avons obtenus avec l'ion Tm^{3+} illustrent les processus d'absorption dans l'état excité dont l'avalanche de photons.

  5. Unusual 210Po/210Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of 210Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the 210Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have 210Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their 210Po/210Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of 210Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors)

  6. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  7. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  8. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  9. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  10. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  11. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  12. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    Science.gov (United States)

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  13. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  14. Mitochondrial genome architecture of the giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus (Strongylocentrotidae, Echinoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Californian giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus has been determined. It has a length of 15,650 bp and contains the same 37 genes found in other metazoans (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes). Only five tRNA genes and the Nad6 gene are coded on the minus strand. There were 14 identified small intergene regions (2 to 24 bp) and a large non-coding region (125 bp) located between the tRNA-T and tRNA-P. The overall base composition of this genome is 29.8% A, 27.6% T, 29.7% C, and 17.5% G, with a slight A + T bias of 59.4%. The most frequent start codon is ATG (11 genes) whereas TAA is the most frequent stop codon (10 genes). Overall, gene arrangement pattern, gene content and genome organization is similar to other echinoids. PMID:24724935

  15. Extinctions of Late Ice Age Cave Bears as a Result of Climate/Habitat Change and Large Carnivore Lion/Hyena/Wolf Predation Stress in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-01-01

    Predation onto cave bears (especially cubs) took place mainly by lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss), as nocturnal hunters deep in the dark caves in hibernation areas. Several cave bear vertebral columns in Sophie’s Cave have large carnivore bite damages. Different cave bear bones are chewed or punctured. Those lets reconstruct carcass decomposition and feeding technique caused only/mainly by Ice Age spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea, which are the only of all three predators that crush...

  16. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S.; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N.; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species acr...

  17. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S.; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N.; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species across its distributional range in the Western Ghats. We sequenced around 900 bases of DNA covering two mitochondrial regions–hypervariable region-I and partial mitochondrial cytochrome b–from individuals sampled both from wild and captivity, constructed and dated phylogenetic trees. We found that the lion-tailed macaque troops in the isolated forest patches in Anamalai hills have depleted mitochondrial DNA diversity compared to troops in larger and continuous forests. Our results also revealed an ancient divergence in the lion-tailed macaque into two distinct populations across the Palghat gap, dating to 2.11 million years ago. In light of our findings, we make a few suggestions on the management of wild and captive populations. PMID:26561307

  18. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species across its distributional range in the Western Ghats. We sequenced around 900 bases of DNA covering two mitochondrial regions-hypervariable region-I and partial mitochondrial cytochrome b-from individuals sampled both from wild and captivity, constructed and dated phylogenetic trees. We found that the lion-tailed macaque troops in the isolated forest patches in Anamalai hills have depleted mitochondrial DNA diversity compared to troops in larger and continuous forests. Our results also revealed an ancient divergence in the lion-tailed macaque into two distinct populations across the Palghat gap, dating to 2.11 million years ago. In light of our findings, we make a few suggestions on the management of wild and captive populations. PMID:26561307

  19. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  20. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  1. Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766) and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Ramon, Ruiz-Miranda; Adriana Gomes, Affonso; Marcio Marcelo de, Morais; Carlos Eduardo, Verona; Andreia, Martins; Benjamin B., Beck.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Callithrix jacchus e spp (micos estrela) tem sido introduzido no estado do Rio de Janeiro em áreas designadas para a reintrodução do Leontopithecus rosalia (mico leão dourado). Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a população de sagüis em dois fragmentos particulares, e caracterizar a interação e [...] ntre as espécies. A densidade de sagüis (0.09 a/ha) foi maior que a de mico-leão (0.06 a/ha). O grau de associação entre mico-leão e o sagüi variou entre grupos e estações do ano (inverno= 61%, verão =35%). Foram observados sinais de competição durante o inverno quando a presença do mico estrela está associada a mudanças no forrageio do mico-leão e aumento de comportamentos territoriais. No verão, sinais de benefícios foram uma diminuição da vigilância por parte dos adultos de micos leões. Além disso, os micos leões foram observados se alimentando de goma proveniente dos buracos feitos pelos micos estrela. Estes resultados sugerem que o mico estrela é uma ameaça para a conservação do mico-leão, no entanto. Abstract in english Marmosets (Callithrix spp.) have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM) population in two fragments with reintroduced go [...] lden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha) was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha). The mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%). During the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. Evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. Golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. Marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.

  2. Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766 and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ramon Ruiz-Miranda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Marmosets (Callithrix spp. have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia. The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM population in two fragments with reintroduced golden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha. The mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%. During the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. Evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. Golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. Marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.Callithrix jacchus e spp (micos estrela tem sido introduzido no estado do Rio de Janeiro em áreas designadas para a reintrodução do Leontopithecus rosalia (mico leão dourado. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a população de sagüis em dois fragmentos particulares, e caracterizar a interação entre as espécies. A densidade de sagüis (0.09 a/ha foi maior que a de mico-leão (0.06 a/ha. O grau de associação entre mico-leão e o sagüi variou entre grupos e estações do ano (inverno= 61%, verão =35%. Foram observados sinais de competição durante o inverno quando a presença do mico estrela está associada a mudanças no forrageio do mico-leão e aumento de comportamentos territoriais. No verão, sinais de benefícios foram uma diminuição da vigilância por parte dos adultos de micos leões. Além disso, os micos leões foram observados se alimentando de goma proveniente dos buracos feitos pelos micos estrela. Estes resultados sugerem que o mico estrela é uma ameaça para a conservação do mico-leão, no entanto.

  3. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Moscoso, Luciano; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma Nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; P?v?la?, Gabriela E; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J M; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G F; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts. PMID:23874425

  4. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C.; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J.; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; P?v?la?, Gabriela E.; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G.; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J. M.; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G. F.; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as “open-sea convection”. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts. PMID:23874425

  5. Reinforced Concrete Condition Assessment in Architectural Heritage. The Lion Chambers (Glasgow, UK) and the Theatre E. Duni (Matera, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, A.; Dimitrijevic, B.; Pagliuca, A.

    2012-04-01

    The research objective is to provide new qualitative information on the strength of reinforced concrete structures of two prominent examples of modern architecture by using innovative, non-invasive testing techniques. The first one is Lion Chambers in Glasgow (Scotland, United Kingdom) designed by the architects Salmon, Son and Gillespie and completed in 1907. It was the second example of the use of François Hennebique's reinforced concrete system in a building in Glasgow and one of the earliest in Britain. The second example is Duni Theatre in Matera (Southern Italy), designed by the architect Ettore Stella and completed in 1949. The tests on the internal reinforced concrete columns were undertaken by using "SonReb" (SONic + REBound) method that enables assessing the concrete resistance by combining the speed of ultrasound waves and the index of surface bounce through a scleorometric test. In fact, the sclerometer index only gives information regarding the surface layer of the building's structure. In fact, due to the effects of the natural ageing, catalysed by the presence of humidity, surface layers of concrete are affected over time by carbonatation, which increases surface rigidity, providing as a result a greatly "altered" rebound index (much greater than one would have under normal conditions). On the other hand, the ultrasound speed, on the contrary to resistance, is inversely proportional to the age of the concrete (this seems to be due to the cracks that occur and reduce the speed). The hardening process continues over time with a consequent increase in resistance, which diminishes with the passage of time. The paper provides the results of the tests run on the structure of the Lion Chambers and the Duni Theatre. The tests carried out are the basis of a diagnostic project that is possible to implement and monitor to guarantee a deeper knowledge, with the goal of attaining a level of thorough understanding aimed at the preservation of "Modern Architecture" in Europe. The analysis and qualification of the structures of built heritage show how this approach is useful for classifying the pathological events on each building and to implement the innovative solutions to improve the durability of a restoration intervention.

  6. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihi, H.

    1997-05-12

    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  7. Epi-bathyal ostracod assemblage in Holocene Rhone deltaic sediments (Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean) and their palaeoecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Fanget, Anne-sophie; Bassetti, Maria Angela; Berne, Serge; Arnaud, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Since the Last Glacial Maximum, the Rhone River, which is the most important source of freshwater and sediment to the western Mediterranean Sea, migrated in a north-westward direction during the rapid Deglacial and Early Holocene sea-level rise. During the phase of global high sea-level (Middle and Late Holocene), an overall eastward migration of the Rhone outlet, under natural and/or human influence, is recorded through several sediment accumulations confined along the inner shelf i...

  8. L’iconographie ortodoxe du Sommeil de l’Enfant Jésus, endormi comme un lion, et ses variantes roumaines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin I. Ciobanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L’image du Sommeil de Jésus porte des noms différents dans les Balkans et en Russie, sans se distinguer fondamentalement du point de vue iconographique. En Grèce l’image s’appelle Anapeson (gr. ? ????????: fr. Celui qui se couche – Genèse, 49 : 9 et porte parfois en titre le verset entier « Il ploie les genoux, il se couche, comme un lion, comme une lionne : qui le fera lever ?», alors que les icônes et les fresques russes du même type sont intitulées L’OEil qui veille et l’on y ajoute parfois l’inscription : « Le gardien d’Israël ne tombera pas en somnolence, il ne s’endormira pas» (Psaume 120 : 4 ». Le but de la présente étude est de relever l’importance des sources littéraires (y compris des textes liturgiques chantés aux matines du Samedi saint dans la constitution du type iconographique de l’image du Sommeil de Jésus et de faire une description des ses variantes roumaines.

  9. Multiple breeding females in captive groups of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas): causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, K; Van Elsacker, L; Leus, K

    2001-01-01

    In Callitrichidae, reproduction in subordinate females is generally inhibited but occurs in rare cases, possibly in association with the presence of an unrelated male, important food resources or low dispersal opportunities. This study investigates the occurrence of groups with multiple breeding females in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), the factors leading to their formation and the consequences for the group. Information obtained from studbook data on the world captive population during 1984-1998 revealed that polygynous groups in captivity are very rare: only 7 cases were discovered. Family groups in which daughters started breeding with a related male were larger than average, had a high number of sexually mature sons and eldest offspring that were well past the age of sexual maturity. Following a breeding attempt, severe aggression frequently occurred, especially if the infants were liveborn. Polygynous groups composed of two related females and an unrelated male tended to remain stable for a longer period than families with breeding daughters. Competition for infant care is probably an important factor determining whether the polygynous situation can persist and for how long. PMID:11275743

  10. Comparative analysis of the reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Angel-Dapa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated in a culturing system in Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur, Mexico during an annual cycle, comparing its response with data previously reported at other localities. High frequencies of ripe gonads throughout the year indicate that reproduction was continuous, with two main ripening/spawning events: July-September and December-March. A continuous breeding is also reported for the species in Bahía Magdalena, Bahía Juncalito, and Bahía de Los Angeles. These eutrophic areas are Biological Active Centers where gametogenesis appears to be regulated by the energy taken from recently ingested food following an opportunistic strategy. However, the digestive gland index decreased and the muscle indices increased during one of the breeding peaks, suggesting that some stored reserves are also used to sustain gametogenesis (conservative strategy partially. High incidences of atretic oocytes are likely associated with atypical daily variations in water temperature from May through September (12 to 33°C, or with stressful conditions in the culturing system in summer. Despite this, the culturing system set in Bahía Tortugas appears beneficial for a continuous reproduction of N. subnodosus.

  11. Dining in the lions' den - Bel and the dragon, verses 28-42 (Old Greek/Theodotion)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joseph J., de Bruyn.

    Full Text Available This article is part of a series of articles written on Bel and the dragon. This series of articles is an investigation into the Greek editor/author's use of body, space, narrative and genre in creating a new reality regarding the Jewish deity. A spatial framework is used to specifically examine the [...] third episode of Bel and the dragon, entitled Dining in the lions' den. It is suggested that the third episode of Bel and the dragon should be read in a reciprocal relationship with not only Bel and the dragon but also the larger book of Daniel. Firstly, such an analysis indicates that the smaller episode is part of a larger clash of deities. Secondly, it shows that the editor/ author utilises the episode to recreate a new cosmology. In this new cosmology, the God of Israel is an almighty deity whilst other deities are revealed as false and not real living gods. In his own way, the editor/author contributes to the way in which Jews regarded their God within the reality of the diaspora. INTRADISCIPLINARY AND/OR INTERDISCIPLINARY IMPLICATIONS: The aim with this article was to analyse Daniel 14 by means of new insights from developments in language studies. Until now, scholars tended to repeat each other in their analysis of Daniel 14. No attention was given to space, body or other aspects of new developments in the field of language. This article challenges the repetitive research previously done on Daniel 14.

  12. Are Aftershocks of Large Californian Earthquakes Diffusing?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Helmstetter; Ouillon, Guy; SORNETTE, D

    2003-01-01

    We analyze 21 aftershock sequences of California to test for evidence of space-time diffusion. Aftershock diffusion may result from stress diffusion and is also predicted by any mechanism of stress weakening. Here, we test an alternative mechanism to explain aftershock diffusion, based on multiple cascades of triggering. In order to characterize aftershock diffusion, we develop two methods, one based on a suitable time and space windowing, the other using a wavelet transform...

  13. Are Aftershocks of Large Californian Earthquakes Diffusing?

    CERN Document Server

    Helmstetter, A; Sornette, D; Helmstetter, Agnes; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    We analyze 21 aftershock sequences of California to test for evidence of space-time diffusion. Aftershock diffusion may result from stress diffusion and is also predicted by any mechanism of stress weakening. Here, we test an alternative mechanism to explain aftershock diffusion, based on multiple cascades of triggering. In order to characterize aftershock diffusion, we develop two methods, one based on a suitable time and space windowing that has been calibrated on the ETAS model of triggered seismicity, the other using a wavelet transform adapted to the removal of background seismicity. Both methods confirm that diffusion of seismic activity is very weak, much weaker than reported in previous studies. A possible mechanism explaining the weakness of observed diffusion is the effect of geometry, including the localization of aftershocks on a fractal fault network and the impact of extended rupture lengths which control the typical distances of interaction between earthquakes.

  14. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de medias mediante contrastes ortogonales. A las 25 semanas ambos sistemas redujeron la relación C/N a valores de 15,5 en vermicompost y de 17,1 en semi-compost, además se incrementó el contenido de N-total, N-NO3, Ca y de algunos micronutrimentos. La concentración de K, y Na fueron más altos en compost que en vermicompost. La media de pH presentó diferencia para los sistemas de descomposición. El índice de germinación usando semillas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro de los productos de descomposición se incrementó en la semana 25 indicando el grado de madurez alcanzado. El efecto del almacenamiento permitió alcanzar una mayor estabilidad de los productos al reducir la relación C/N a 8,13 para vermicompost y de 7,05 para compost, así como un incremento en el contenido de N disponible en forma de N-NO3 en el caso del compost y en el contenido de Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn y Cu en ambos sistemas.

  15. Comportamiento de lombriz roja californiana y lombriz silvestre en bosta bovina y rumia bovina como sustrato / Behavior of californian red earthworm and wild earthworm in bovine dung and bovine rumination as substrate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manuel, Loza Murguía; Beatriz, Choque Mamani; Hilda, Pillco Tancara; David, Huayta Tintaya; Iván, Chambi Osorio; Berta, Cutili Palero.

    2010-12-30

    Full Text Available En los Yungas del departamento de La Paz, Bolivia se ubica la comunidad Carmen Pampa, fuente de recursos naturales y biodiversidad exquisita, últimamente está siendo afectada por los chaqueos y actividades agrícolas convencionales, dado que no existen datos suficientes en la región para poder desarr [...] ollar alternativas agrícolas sostenibles que cuiden el medio ambiente, de ahí que este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar el comportamiento de la lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia spp.) y la lombriz silvestre (Lumbricus spp.) en dos sustratos a fin mejorar la calidad del vermicompost producido por estos anélidos. El trabajo se ha realizado en el módulo de Microbiología Ambiental, en instalaciones de la Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP), Campus Leahy, ubicado en Coroico Nor Yungas del Departamento de La Paz-Bolivia. Se ha estudiado su comportamiento en dos sustratos bosta bobina (estiércol) y rumia bovina (rumia) en 40 unidades experimentales de 0.2 m de ancho*0.25 m de largo*0.4 m de profundidad, cada unidad presentaba una densidad de 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 individuos con dos repeticiones de cada una en 1 000 g de sustrato. Se determinó el número de cocones, número de individuos a las 8 semanas, porcentaje de degradación del sustrato. Los resultados indican que los sustratos estiércol son mejores en la dinámica poblacional de Eisenia spp., en comparación con Lumbricus spp. Posiblemente las características físicas y químicas del estiércol y la rumia influyeron en este tipo de comportamiento de Eisenia spp. Abstract in english In Yungas of department of La Paz, Bolivia is located the community Carmen Pampas, source of natural resources and exquisite biodiversity, lately is being affected by the chaqueos and conventional agricultural activities, due there is not enough data in the region to develop sustainable agricultural [...] alternatives that take care of environment. Taking this into account this work has as purpose to study the behavior of the californian red earthworm (Eisenia spp.) and the wild earthworm (Lumbricus spp.) in two substrates with the aim to improve the quality of vermicompost produced by these annelids. The work has been carried out in the module of Environmental Microbiology, in facilities of Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP), Campus Leahy, located in Coroico Nor Yungas of Departamento of La Paz-Bolivia. Their behavior has been studied in two substrates bovine dung (manure) and bovine rumination (rumination) in 40 experimental units of 0.2 m width*0.25 m length*0.4 m depth, each unit showed a density of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 individuals with two repetitions of each one in 1 000 g of substrate. The cocoons number, number of individuals at 8 weeks, and percentage of degradation of the substrate was determined. The results indicate that substrates manure is better in the population dynamics of Eisenia spp., in comparison with Lumbricus spp. The physical and chemical characteristics of manure and rumination possibly influenced in this type of behavior for Eisenia spp.

  16. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials / Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Castillo; Adriana, Hernández; David, Dominguez; Damaris, Ojeda.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida) usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, r [...] elación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente). En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de medias mediante contrastes ortogonales. A las 25 semanas ambos sistemas redujeron la relación C/N a valores de 15,5 en vermicompost y de 17,1 en semi-compost, además se incrementó el contenido de N-total, N-NO3, Ca y de algunos micronutrimentos. La concentración de K, y Na fueron más altos en compost que en vermicompost. La media de pH presentó diferencia para los sistemas de descomposición. El índice de germinación usando semillas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) var. Grandes Lagos in vitro de los productos de descomposición se incrementó en la semana 25 indicando el grado de madurez alcanzado. El efecto del almacenamiento permitió alcanzar una mayor estabilidad de los productos al reducir la relación C/N a 8,13 para vermicompost y de 7,05 para compost, así como un incremento en el contenido de N disponible en forma de N-NO3 en el caso del compost y en el contenido de Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn y Cu en ambos sistemas. Abstract in english The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, ph [...] ytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.

  17. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  18. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture...Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and eligibility will...

  19. Contrasting diagenetic histories of concretions vs. host rocks, Lion Mountain Member, Riley formation (upper Cambrian), Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, E.F.

    1988-02-01

    White, elliptical, calcite-cemented concretion nuclei up to 1 m long contrast markedly in color, composition, and diagenetic history from more glauconite-rich concretion rinds and from dark-green glaucarenite host rocks. Concretion nuclei are loosely packed deposits of trilobite carapaces and minor quartz and glauconite that have intergranular volumes of 58%. The nuclei are shell-lag deposits that were cemented by calcite at the sea floor or after burial of a few meters. Concretion rinds, composed of subequal amounts of quartz and compactionally deformed glauconite, have an intergranular volume of only 32% and minor quartz overgrowths that preceded pore-occluding calcite cement. The rinds underwent burial for several million years to tens of millions of years to depths of several hundred meters before they were cemented. The host rock is predominately glauconite with very minor quartz and calcite cement. Strontium isotopic ratios of host-rock calcite cement are variable (0.7084 to 0.7093), but the lowest value suggests precipitation during the Middle Ordovician. In the absence of significant amounts of carbonate cement, the host rock underwent complete dissolution of trilobite carapaces and maximum compaction with total loss of porosity through squashing of glauconite grains. Maximum burial during this stage was completed by the end of Ordovician time.

  20. Eddy measurements, coastal turbulence and statistics in the gulf of Lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Redondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in radar sensors may be applied to study the flow in the Region of Fresh Water Influence (ROFI region of the ocean. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a useful tool that may be used to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution. Oil spills and natural slicks may be detected and processed with advanced computer techniques to reveal vortex dynamics and turbulence spectral characteristics of the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface, more than 300 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 1998 were analyzed. A total of 255 eddies were detected under convenient environmental conditions and we analyzed statistically the appearance, size, shape and position of vortices in the test area. We find that the maximum size of the eddies detected near the coast is limited by the Rossby deformation radius and that there is a decrease in size in the coastal waters in the direction of the Liguro-Provenzal current with the largest eddies occurring near the cape of Rosas. Near the Rhone and Ebro rivers, high discharges also contribute to eddy forcing, coastal radar measurements confirm the SAR observations. The role of submarine canyons in the vortex generation is also confirmed due to the asymmetry of their distribution with respect to the thalwegs. It is demonstrated that useful information of a geometrical nature obtained by SAR satellite images may be used to estimate relevant dynamical parameters of coastal flows.

  1. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper suggests that SEA professionals need to consider 'democratic effectiveness' as well as 'environmental effectiveness' in both 'direct' and 'indirect' outputs. The effectiveness of SEA depends critically on the...

  2. Oceanography of marginal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    The North Indian Ocean consists of three marginal seas; The Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the west and the Andaman Sea in the east. Oceanographic features of these semi-enclosed basins have been discussed in this article. While circulation...

  3. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    1999-01-01

    In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% ...

  5. Prey foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan 1823) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae) Comportamento de forrageio por presas, sazonalidade e orçamento temporário das atividades do mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan 1823) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A. KEUROGHLIAN; PASSOS F. C.

    2001-01-01

    Foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, South-eastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. For the full dry season we found that animal prey represented 11.2% of the black lion tamarin diet, while during the wet season they represented 1.9%. Foraging behavior made up 19.8% of their total activity in the dry season and only 12.8% in the wet season. These results point ou...

  6. Effect of Intestinal Tapeworm Clestobothrium crassiceps on Concentrations of Toxic Elements and Selenium in European Hake Merluccius merluccius from the Gulf of Lion (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jordi; Eira, Catarina; Miquel, Jordi; Ferrer-Maza, Dolors; Delgado, Eulàlia; Casadevall, Margarida

    2015-10-28

    The capacity for heavy metal bioaccumulation by some fish parasites has been demonstrated, and their contribution to decreasing metal concentrations in tissues of parasitized fish has been hypothesized. The present study evaluated the effect of the cestode Clestobothrium crassiceps on the accumulation of trace elements in 30 European hake, Merluccius merluccius, in Spain (half of them infested by C. crassiceps). Tissue samples from all M. merluccius and specimens of C. crassiceps from the infected hakes were collected and stored until element analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic, mercury, and selenium were generally present in lower levels in the cestode than in all hake tissues. The mean value of the muscular Se:Hg molar ratio in the infested subsample was higher than that in hakes without cestodes. Values indicate that the edible part of infested hakes presents a lower amount of Cd and Pb in relation to noninfested hakes. PMID:26434500

  7. Variable Nucleotide Tandem-Repeat Analysis Revealing a Unique Group of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Pomona Isolates Associated with California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is commonly isolated from a variety of wildlife and domesticated livestock. It is difficult to assess whether disease outbreaks with serovar Pomona in given animal populations are due to endemic infections or accidental exposure. Unlike many leptospiral serovars...

  8. 'Sea' and baryon structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors suggest a general formalism to treat a baryon as a bound state of three quarks and a 'sea'. In this formalism, the 'sea' is a cluster which can consists of gluons and quark-antiquark pairs. The hadron wave function with a 'sea' component is given. The magnetic moments, related sum rules and axial weak coupling constant are obtained. The data seems to favor a vector 'sea' rather than a scalar 'sea'. The quark spin distributions in the nucleon are also discussed

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in diet may affect condition and abundance of juvenile European hake in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraton, Franck; Harmelin Vivien, Mireille; Mellon-duval, Capucine; Souplet, Arnauld

    2007-01-01

    Variations in space and time of juvenile hake diet (5 to 19 cm total length, TL) were investigated in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) and related to variation in C and N stable isotope ratios, condition and abundance. Crustaceans (mysids and euphausiids) dominated the diet of the smallest juvenile hake (5 to 9 cm. TL), and fishes (sardines and anchovies) of the largest juveniles (15 to 19 cm TL). The transition from a crustacean- to a fish-based diet occurred in medium-sized juveniles (1...

  10. Descripción Anatómica de la Inervación del Miembro Pélvico de León Africano (Panthera leo) / Anatomical Description of Pelvic Limb Innervation of African Lion (Panthera leo)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodemil, Medina Puentes; Pamela, Morales Muñoz; Ismael, Concha Albornoz; Cintya, Borroni González.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El león africano (Panthera leo) pertenece a la familia felidae del orden carnívora, corresponde a un depredador de gran tamaño, en Chile se encuentra únicamente en estado de cautiverio, sin embargo está presente en numerosos zoológicos. La preocupación e interés por el bienestar de estos animales ha [...] aumentado, por lo cual, cada vez se realizan procedimientos médicos de mayor complejidad. Lo expuesto anteriormente genera la necesidad de profundizar los conocimientos anatómicos que existen de esta especie. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio anatómico detallado de la inervación del miembro pélvico del león y describir sus relaciones topográficas con el sistema músculo esquelético y vascular. Se disecó un cadáver de león hembra, adulta, presentando la descripción según las regiones topográficas: región del cíngulo miembro pélvico, región femoral, región crural y región del pie. Se realizó un registro fotográfico de las disecciones, el cual fue complementada con ilustraciones anatómicas representativas de cada región. Acorde a lo observado, podemos indicar que existe una gran similitud con lo descrito en el gato, destacando el gran desarrollo de los nervios y ramos musculares del león. La presente descripción, permite, ampliar el conocimiento de la anatomía del miembro pélvico del león africano, específicamente su inervación y relaciones musculares y vasculares. Abstract in english The African Lion (Panthera leo) belongs to the felidae family of the order carnivore, corresponding to large predators. In Chile it is found only in a state of captivity and is present in many zoos. As the concern and interest in these animals has increased, more complex procedures are performed eac [...] h day. This generates the need for anatomical knowledge of this specie. This anatomical study was performed in order to describe the innervation of the pelvic limb of an African lion and topographical relationship with skeletal muscles and vascular structures. A corpse of an adult female lion, 130 kg, was dissected and described by topographical regions. Proximal to distal: cingulum pelvic limb region, femoral region, crural region and foot region. Descriptions of each region were complemented by photographs and drawings. According to the descriptive study of the innervation of the pelvic limb, it was observed that there is a great similarity with that described in the domestic cat, excepting the great development of their nerves and muscular branches. This study provides information about the innervation of the pelvic limb of the African lion, showing the relation with muscular and vascular structures. The anatomical information provided in this study can be useful for medical procedures in this species and other big cats.

  11. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 105 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  12. Regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Plag, Hans-Peter; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Xu, Qing; He, Yijun

    2015-12-01

    The regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) is investigated based on tide gauge, satellite altimeter data and an independent oceanic general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) model outputs. It is found that atmospheric forcing significantly affects local sea level variability in the BS and YS and local sea level variability at the Southern ECS is highly correlated with along-shore currents. Particularly, the annual sea level fluctuations potentially change inundation risk and the frequency and magnitude of flooding in regions with high annual sea level. Hence, the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is carried out to investigate the variations of annual sea level cycle amplitude. Similar spatial distribution characteristics of annual sea level amplitude fluctuations are presented from satellite altimeter data and model outputs. The variability of annual sea level amplitude estimated from the satellite altimeter data agrees well with that from the tide gauge data, and positively (negatively) correlates with Southern Oscillation Index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). The OFES model, however, underestimates the fluctuation of the annual cycle. After removing the annual signal, the low-passed (i.e., 13-month running mean) tide gauge data shows high correlations with SOI and PDO on time scales over 8 years in the BS and ECS.

  13. Sea piracy and law of the sea

    OpenAIRE

    Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-01-01

    As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this ...

  14. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have...

  15. The Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Demilecamps, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The project to channel water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea has fascinated people for the past one hundred and fifty years. It was brought back to the fore in 2005 by the three neighbouring countries: Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The stated goals are to halt the decline of the Dead Sea (fig.?X.11) and to save it from environmental damage (fig.?X.12), to desalinate water and produce affordable energy for all three countries, creating a symbol of peace through a tripartite co...

  16. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in......The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...

  17. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in......The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...

  18. Offshore-onshore linkages in the larval life history of sole in the Gulf of Lions (NW-Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morat, Fabien; Letourneur, Yves; Blamart, Dominique; Pécheyran, Christophe; Darnaude, Audrey M.; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille

    2014-08-01

    Understanding individual dispersion from offshore natal areas to coastal nurseries during pelagic larval life is especially important for the sustainable management of exploited marine fish species. For several years, the hatching period, the larval life duration, the average growth rate and the otolith chemical composition (?13C, ?18O, Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca) during the larval life were studied for young of the year (YOY) of sole collected in three main nurseries of the Gulf of Lions (GoL) (Thau, Mauguio and Berre). We investigated the spatial variation in the origin of the sole larvae which colonised the nurseries around the GoL, and whether temporal differences in environmental conditions during this life stage affected growth and larval life duration. The hatching period ranges from October to March, depending on year and site. Average ages at metamorphosis varied between 43 and 50 days, with the lowest and highest values consistently found for Mauguio and Berre, respectively. Otolith growth rates ranged between 2.7 and 3.2 ?m d-1, with the lowest values in Thau and Mauguio and the highest in Berre. Otolith chemical composition during the larval life also varied, suggesting contrasted larval environmental histories in YOY among nurseries. In fishes from Berre and Mauguio, larval life was more influenced by the Rhône River, showing consistently higher larval Ba:Ca ratios (10/23 ?mol mol-1) and lower ?13C (-6.5/-6.1‰) and ?18O values (-1.6/0.1‰) than for Thau (with Ba:Ca ratios < 8 ?mol mol-1, ?13C ˜-2.3‰ and ?18O ˜1.5‰). Differences in larval otolith composition were observed for 2004, with higher Ba:Ca and lower ?13C and ?18O values than in the two other years. These differences were explained by changes in composition and chemical signatures of water masses after an exceptional flooding event of the Rhône River in late 2003.

  19. Characteristics of reproductive biology and proximate factors regulating seasonal breeding in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Leus, Kristin; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2003-08-01

    Reproduction is highly demanding in terms of energy expenditure, and the costs and benefits associated with postponing or investing in a reproductive effort are crucial determinants of an individual's fitness. Understanding the reproductive potential of a species under varying ecological conditions offers important insights into the dynamics of its social system. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive potential of wild- and captive-born golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) under captive conditions, based on studbook data compiled during 1984-2000. Litters produced by wild-born females breeding in captivity are similar in size to litters observed in the wild, but smaller than litters of captive-born females. The more stringent ecological conditions experienced by wild-born females during maturation may result in a lifelong effect on litter size. However, interbirth intervals are shorter for wild-born than captive-born females. The relatively smaller burden of infant care that results from having smaller litters may allow wild-born females to sustain the next pregnancy sooner. Reproduction in the Brazilian captive population is highly seasonal for both wild-born females and females born in captivity in Brazil. Changes in photoperiod over a year provide a proximate explanation for changes in the proportion of conceptions and births per month. Outside Brazil, breeding occurs year-round, and no clear birth peak is apparent. Information from field reports that could be used to relate this finding to ecological factors, such as resource availability, is unavailable. PMID:12910464

  20. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  1. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-08-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

  2. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    In the Eemian to Early/Middle Weichselian (Late Pleistocene), when the Scandinavian and Alpine Glaciers were still small, and northern Germany under mammoth steppe to taiga palaoenvironment conditions, Late Quaternary steppe lions were well distributed in northern to central Germany, whereas generally all over Central Europe bones and rarely articulated skeletons were found less at open air but mainly at cave sites (Diedrich 2007a, 2008a-b, 2009a-b, 2010a-c, k, in review a-b; Diedrich and Rathgeber in review). A similar distribution, but more dense, is reported for the Late Quaternary Ice Age spotted hyenas (Diedrich 2005, 2006, 2007b-c, 2008a, c, 2010f-j, in review c-d, Diedrich and Žák 2006). The last lions of northern Europe were thought to have reached into the final Magdalénan (cf. Musil 1980). This can be not concluded with a restudy of the bone material from the Late Magdalenian (V-VI) Teufelsbrücke stone arch site near Saalfeld (Thuringia, Central Germany) and many other Magdalenian stations (open air and caves) in northern to central Germany (Münsterland Bay, Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Thuringian Karst). None of those sites yield remains of final Upper Pleistocene spotted hyenas or steppe lion bones anymore, nor in the few preserved Late Magdalenian mobile art can those be recognized in those regions. The last lion remains seem to reach into the Aurignacian or possibly into the Early Gravettian (early Late Weichselian) documented especially at the cave bear den, hyena den and overlapping Neandertalian to Modern human camp site Balve Cave (Sauerland Karst, cf. archaeology in Günther 1964) where still a mammoth fauna is documented for that time (Diedrich 2010a). The last and by archaeological layers dated hyena remains were also found in the Balve Cave and are from the Late Middle Palaeolithic cave site reaching a maximum Aurignacian age documenting an overlapping of hyena den and human camp site use (Diedrich 2010a, b). In northern Germany there are no records of indirectly dated hyena and lion remains being younger then even Aurignacian/Early Gravettian (35.000-28.000 BP). Those largest Late Quaternary predators must have got extinct in northern Germany with the Late Weichselian/Wuermian extending Skandinavian Glacier, which reached northern Europe between Hamburg and Berlin its maximum extension about 24.000 BP (Skupin et al. 1993). The two largest predators of the Late Quaternary of Europe seem to have been well represented in the Gravettian and up to Magdalénian Late Palaeolithic of southern Europe, in which mainly lions, but only rarely hyenas are well documented within the cave and mobile art (e.g Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995, Diedrich and Rathgeber in review, Diedrich 2005). Hyenas and lions must have been represented in the Gravettian, Early and Middle and possibly even ?Late Magdalenian in southern Europe, which must have resulted from a southern migration of those predators during the Late Weichselian/Wuermian together with the megafauna and humans. The disappearance of hyenas and lions also correlate with the extinction of mammoth and woolly rhinoceros in northern Germany. The large mammals such as elephants and rhinoceroses were highly important for hyenas and lions during the Late Quaternary. Hyenas had a systematic scavenging strategy on both large prey which was even "transferred" until today compared to modern spotted hyenas and lions of Africa (Diedrich 2010d, e, in prep). Where those Late Quaternary giant mammals such as woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were absent in middle mountainous regions (e.g. Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Bohemian Karst, Thuringian Karst) those had to kill other medium sized animals such as horse or steppe bison and those in larger amounts (Diedrich 2008, 2010c). Woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth seem to be not known in northern Germany after Aurignacian/?Early Gravettian times (Sauerland Karst and Münsterland Bay, Harz Mountain Karst) such as humans (archaeology cf. Günther 1988) but there are also lacking radiocarbon dating series or new excavations. Humans must have been in antagonism to the large predators about their prey and also their Late Palaeolithic sanctuaries - the large caves especially in southern Europe, in which they left thousands of animal figurations mainly during the Gravettian to Late Magdalenian periods (e.g. Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995). Therefore the extinction reason of the largest predators of the Late Quaternary seems to be a complex combination of climate change with resulting maximum glacier extension which finally caused a southern directed megafaunal migration and reduction of the available caves and habitat areas in general. Finally in those southern European regions a higher competition about larger caves as cave bear hibernation places, hyena den sites and human settlement/sanctuary sites must have happened. Therefore an active hunt onto lions and hyenas can not be excluded nor be proven well yet, even if there are finds of necklesses in Europe from Late Palaeolithic ages made of mainly carnivore teeth including rare lion and hyena teeth, which might have been only collected. The resettlement of the northern European region by humans and a reduced "reindeer fauna" and its main and largest predators such as wolves and wolverines after the maximum glacier extension in the middle Late Weichselian started not before the Late Magdalenian (Magdalénian V: e.g. Perick Caves, Martins Cave - Sauerland Karst; Rübeland Caves - Harz Mountain Karst, Teufelsbrücke stone arch - Thuringian Karst). Humans occupied at that post-maximum glaciation time many caves in the Sauerland Karst region and even at open air sites in the Münsterland Bay or central Germany (cf. Bosinski 1987, Günther 1988). Within this Late Magdalénian V-VI times in the record of ten thousands of bones from more then 100 sites no hyena or lion remains are recorded anymore in northern and central Germany, such as cave bears. References Begouen R. and Clottes J. 1987. Les Trois Frères after Breuil. Antiquity, 61: 180-187. Bosinski, G. 1987. Die große Zeit der Eiszeitjäger. Europa zwischen 40.000 und 10.000 v.Chr. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 34: 13-139. Breuil, H. 1952. Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art. Montignac, Dordogne, 414 pp. Chauvet, J.-M., Deschamps B.E, and Hillaire C. 1995. Grotte Chauvet. Altsteinzeitliche Höhlenkunst im Tal der Ardèche. Thorbecke Speläo 1, Sigmaringen, 120 pp. Diedrich, C. 2005. Eine oberpleistozäne Population von Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland) und ihr Kannibalismus. Philippia, 12 (2): 93-115, Kassel. Diedrich, C. 2006. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the early Upper Pleistocene hyena open air prey deposit site Biedensteg near Bad Wildungen (Hess, NW Germany) and the contribution to their phylogenetic position, coprolites and prey. Cranium, 23 (2): 39-53, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and the contribution to other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 82 (2), 99-117, Prague. Diedrich, C. 2007b. Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from the Upper Pleistocene hyaena Teufelskammer Cave den site near Hochdahl in the Neander valley (NRW, NW Germany). Cranium, 24 (2): 39-44, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007c. The Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the gypsum karst den site Westeregeln near Magdeburg (Middle Germany). Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde, 30: 57-83, Magdeburg. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Late Pleistocene Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyura LINNAEUS 1758 from the Fuchsluken cave at the Rote Berg near Saalfeld (Thuringia, Germany) - a porcupine and hyena den and contribution to their palaeobiogeography. - The Open Palaeontological Journal, 2008 (1): 33-41. Diedrich, C. 2008b. The rediscovered holotypes of the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) and taphonomic discussion to the Zoolithen Cave hyena den at Geilenreuth (Bavaria, South-Germany). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society London, 154, 822-831. Diedrich, C. 2008c. Late Pleistocene hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) from Upper Rhine valley open air sites and the contribution to skull shape variability. Cranium, 25-2: (in press), Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Bilstein Caves (Sauerland Karst) and contribution to the steppe lion taphonomy, palaeobiology and sexual dimorphism. Annales de Paléontologie, 95 (2009) 117-138, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in Northern Germany. Quaternary Research 71 (3): 361-374, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2010a. Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Balve Cave (NW Germany) - a hyena den and Middle Palaeolithic human site. - International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (acepted). Diedrich, C. 2010b. Ein Skelett einer kranken Löwin Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) und andere männliche Löwenreste aus Neumark-Nord. - Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderbad (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Keppler Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany). Cranium 26, Amsterdam (in press). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Specialized horse killers in Europe - foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters. - Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. 2010d. Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) carcass destructors, bone collectors, crackers and gnawers of the Late Pleistocene in Central Europe - the Ice Age spotted hyenas and their feeding strategies on their largest prey - the mammoth. Abstract Vth International Conference on Mammoths and their relatives, Le Puy-en-Velay, France. Diedrich, C. 2010e. Späteiszeiliche Fleckenhyänen-Fressstrategien und Steppenlöwen an ihrer größte Beute - dem Waldelefanten Palaeoloxodon antiquus Falconer & Cautley 1845 in Neumark-Nord. Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010f. Die späteiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänen und deren Exkremente aus Neumark-Nord. Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010g. Rare Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from northern Czech Republic open air loess sites along the Elbe River. Cranium, (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010h. Europe's first Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) skeleton from a small cannibalistic hyena population found in the main dome of the Koněprusy Caves - a hyena cave prey depot site in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (in review). Diedrich, C. 2010i. Periodical use of the Balve Cave (NW Germany) as a Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) den - hyena occupations and bone accumulations versa human Middle Palaeolithic activity. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. 2010j. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene Rösenbeck Cave den in NW Germany and contribution to the sexual dimorphism and palaeobiogeography of the last hyenas of Europe. Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. 2010k. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) remains from an open air loess bone accumulation site in Freyburg a. U. (Central Germany). Jahresschrift für mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte (accepted). Diedrich, C. in prep. Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach 1799) hunters and scavengers - the Late Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and its feeding strategy on its most important prey in Europe. Diedrich, C. in review a. A diseased Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) lioness from a forest elephant graveyard in the Late Pleistocene (Eemian) interglacial lake at Neumark-Nord, Central Germany. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. in review b. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the open air hyena den Emscher River terrace site Bottrop and other sites of northern Germany - new proves for hyena-lion antagonism. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. DIEDRICH, C. in review c. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the Upper Pleistocene Teufelskammer Cave hyena den site in the Neandertal (NRW, NW Germany). Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. in review d. The Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene hyena open air Emscher River terrace den near Bottrop (NWGermany) and other sites in the Westphalian Bay and its mammoth and woolly rhinoceros prey. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. and Rathgeber, T. in review. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) skeleton remains of the Upper Rhine valley (SW Germany) and contribution to their palaeobiogeography, sexual dimorphism and palaeoecology. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. Diedrich, C. AND Žák, K. 2006. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81 (4), 237-276. Günther, K. 1964. Die altsteinzeitlichen Funde der Balve Höhle. Bodenaltertümer Westfalens, 8, 1-165. Günther, K. 1988. Alt- und Mittelsteinzeitliche Fundplätze in Westfalen. Teil 2. Einführung in die Vor- und Frühgeschichte Westfalens 6, 1-183. Musil, R. 1980. Die Großsäoger und Vögel der Teufelsbrücke. In: Feustel, R. Magdalénienstation Teufelsbrücke. II: Paläontologischer Teil. Weimarer Monographien zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte 3, 1-71. Skupin, K., Speetzen, E. and Zandstra, J.G. 1993. Die Eiszeit in Nordwestdeutschland. GLA Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld, 143 pp.

  3. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum on hydrolytic and antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Norma; de Jesús Romero, Maria; Campa-Córdova, Angel; Luna, Antonio; Ascencio, Felipe

    2007-11-01

    This study documents effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a producer of paralytic shellfish poison, on juvenile farmed (5.9+/-0.39 cm) giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. Scallops were fed bloom concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate G. catenatum for 7 h. The effect of the toxic dinoflagellate in different tissues was determined by analysis of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid peroxidation), and hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, glycosidases, phosphatases, lipases, and esterases). Histopathological photos record the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate in various tissues. The results show that juvenile lions-paw scallops produce pseudo-feces, partially close their shell, increase melanization, and aggregate hemocytes. Several enzymes were affected and could serve as biological markers. In general, the adductor muscle was not affected. In the digestive gland, some enzymes could be the result of defensive and digestive processes. Gills and mantle tissue were markedly affected because these sites respond first to toxic dinoflagellates, leading to the idea that proteolytic cascades could be involved. PMID:17613278

  4. Black Sea Baric Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaia Ion

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is meant to demonstrate that, in the special synoptic conditions, on the surface of the Black Sea, a baric depression is being formed. This depression is formed when the Black Sea's water temperature is higher than the surrounding continental ground's temperature. There are situations when the baric depression of the Black Sea occurs because of the consequences of the movement of another baric depression from the east of the Mediterranean Sea to its north-east side. Due to the high atmospheric pressure of the continental zone that's surrounding the Black Sea, the baric depression will get a retrograde movement, towards the north or northwest. Eventually, this depression occludes in the eastern continental zone of Europe or even near the Baltic Sea. During a retrograde movement of a baric depression, the atmospheric precipitations will fall in big quantities, in many situations, causing floods.

  5. Co-existence of scimitar-toothed cats, lions and hominins in the European Pleistocene. Implications of the post-cranial anatomy of Homotherium latidens (Owen) for comparative palaeoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Mauricio; Galobart, Angel; Turner, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Human occupants of Europe shared food resources with a number of larger Carnivora, and their coexistence with two lion-sized felids, the lion and the scimitar-toothed machairodont Homotherium latidens, poses intriguing paleoecological problems. We investigate the ecology of Homotherium latidens using an exceptional sample of postcrania from the Spanish Early Pleistocene site of Incarcal, making comparisons with modern cats and with other machairodont species. Evidence of cursorial adaptations in Homotherium suggests a hunting technique different from modern cats or smilodontine sabre-tooths. Some, like reduction of the claws, would have limited the ability of individual homotheres to bring down large prey, implying group action. Homotherium would also have been disadvantaged in direct confrontation with Pleistocene lions by smaller body mass, reduced forepaw muscle strength, smaller claws and more fragile dentition. Its hunting technique would have worked best in more open habitats, but competition from lions would have forced it to seek moderate cover. Among factors that could de-stabilise coexistence of the two big cat species in Pleistocene Europe we invoke a decrease in environmental mosaicism associated with stepped climatic change over the last million years, and the increased importance of humans within the larger predator guild.

  6. Sea water magnetohydrodynamic thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetohydrodynamics is a possible mean to thrust directly a ship in sea water without propeller and mobile mechanical part. The combined action of a magnetic field and electric field produces a J x B forces field. Sea water is an electrolyte, thus applying current via electrodes produces an undesired electrolysis. Consequently three kinds of phenomena take place in a sea water thruster: hydrodynamics, electromagnetics and electrochemistry. The following presentation aims to classify these phenomena and their coupling in the frame of MHD sea water thruster. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  7. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  8. River transport of radionuclides to the Arctic Seas, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This subtopic focuses on the transport of radionuclides from different sources to the rivers and the transport via the rivers to the sea. The rivers and seas included in the study were: Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Mackenzie, Finnish rivers, Bug-Vistula, Danube, Dnieper and Colombia, and Arctic seas, Baltic Sea, Black Sea and the Pacific Ocean

  9. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  10. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  11. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  12. Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2010. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD. Part I. Spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-of-art on alien species in the Mediterranean Sea is presented, making distinctions among the four subregions defined in the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive: (i the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMED; (ii the Central Mediterranean Sea (CMED; (iii the Adriatic Sea (ADRIA; and (iv the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMED. The updated checklist (December 2010 of marine alien species within each subregion, along with their acclimatization status and origin, is provided. A total of 955 alien species is known in the Mediterranean, the vast majority of them having being introduced in the EMED (718, less in the WMED (328 and CMED (267 and least in the Adriatic (171. Of these, 535 species (56% are established in at least one area.Despite the collective effort of experts who attempted in this work, the number of introduced species remains probably underestimated. Excluding microalgae, for which knowledge is still insufficient, aliens have increased the total species richness of the Mediterranean Sea by 5.9%. This figure should not be directly read as an indication of higher biodiversity, as spreading of so many aliens within the basin is possibly causing biotic homogenization. Thermophilic species, i.e. Indo-Pacific, Indian Ocean, Red Sea, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Pacific, and circum(subtropical, account for 88.4% of the introduced species in the EMED, 72.8% in the CMED, 59.3% in the WMED and 56.1% in the Adriatic. Cold water species, i.e. circumboreal, N Atlantic, and N Pacific, make up a small percentage of the introduced species, ranging between 4.2% and 21.6% and being more numerous in the Adriatic and less so in the EMED.Species that are classified as invasive or potentially invasive are 134 in the whole of the Mediterranean: 108 are present in the EMED, 76 in the CMED, 53 in the Adriatic and 64 in the WMED. The WMED hosts most invasive macrophytes, whereas the EMED has the lion’s share in polychaetes, crustaceans, molluscs and fish.

  13. Black Sea in Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  14. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg; Melsheimer, Christian; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Schyberg, Harald; Tveter, Frank; Dahlgren, Per; Lundelius, Tomas; Gustafsson, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect and...... determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  15. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation and if the...

  16. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise and in June–July 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts.

  17. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mahé, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-09-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise) and in June-July 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

  18. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  19. Still the Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Goss, SM

    2009-01-01

    Still the Sea (2009) for two guitars Stephen Goss Still the Sea, written for ChromaDuo, is a homage to Japanese composer Toru Takemitsu. Its title both references his piece Toward the Sea for guitar and alto flute, and is a triple play on words: first, regarding his continuing influence in the classical music world; second, his musical style hallmarked by a sense of gentleness as opposed to goal-oriented movement; and third, the stilling of his voice after his death from cancer in 1996. Its t...

  20. Dead sea water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment. PMID:22863826

  1. Sea Turtle Rehab Dispo

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spreadsheet tracks all the sea turtles that are currently in rehabilitation, as well as all transports and releases that occur in the region. Information in...

  2. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  3. The Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Naik, H.; Narvekar, P.V.

    The Arabian Sea makes contributions to global biogeochemical cycles that are far in excess of what might be expected from its modest size. It experiences extremes in atmospheric forcing, asymmetrically distributed over the region, that brings about...

  4. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

  5. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    OpenAIRE

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Guèrin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinarès-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  6. Continuity and change in subsistence harvests in five Bering Sea communities: Akutan, Emmonak, Savoonga, St. Paul, and Togiak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, James A.; Braem, Nicole S.; Brown, Caroline L.; Hutchinson-Scarbrough, Lisa B.; Koster, David S.; Krieg, Theodore M.

    2013-10-01

    To document and quantify subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife resources, and provide topics for subsequent key respondent interviews to collect local and traditional knowledge (LTK) about the Bering Sea ecosystem, comprehensive household harvest surveys were conducted in four Bering Sea Alaska Native communities: Akutan, Emmonak, Savoonga, and Togiak. In a fifth community, St. Paul, annual programs to document two key subsistence resources, fur seals and sea lions, continued. Surveys documented relatively high and diverse subsistence harvests, consistent with earlier research that demonstrated the continuing economic, social, and cultural importance of subsistence uses of wild resources. The research also found differences in subsistence use patterns compared to previous years' studies, such as harvest levels, harvest composition, and diversity of resources used, although differences between study years were not uniform across communities. Survey respondents, as well as key respondents in subsequent interviews, identified a complex range of personal, economic, and environmental factors when comparing subsistence uses in the study year with other years, such as increasing costs of fuel and purchased food, commercial fisheries harvests and bycatch, more persistent storms and less predictable winds, and reduced sea ice. Such conditions affect resource abundance and locations as well as access to fish and wildlife populations, and may shape long-term trends. So far, as in the past, families and communities have adapted to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions, but the future is less clear if such changes intensify or accelerate. Local community residents should be essential partners in future efforts to understand these complex processes that affect the natural resources of the Bering Sea.

  7. Annual sea ice. An air-sea gas exchange moderator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Arctic annual sea ice, particularly when it is relatively warm (> -15/sup 0/C) permits significant gas exchange between the sea and air throughout the entire year. Sea ice, particularly annual sea ice, differs from freshwater ice with respect to its permeability to gases. The presence of brine allows for significant air-sea-ice exchange of CO/sub 2/ throughout the winter, which may significantly affect the global carbon dioxide balance. Other trace gases are also noted to be enriched in sea ice, but less is known about their importance to air-sea-interactions at this time. Both physical and biological factors cause and modify evolution of gases from the surface of sea ice. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the nature and physical behavior of sea ice with respect to brine and gases are discussed.

  8. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  9. Importância de diferentes microhabitats no comportamento de forrageio por presas do mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae) Microhabitats importance in prey foraging behavior of black lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando C. Passos; Cleber J.R. Alho

    2001-01-01

    Prey foraging behavior in the Black Lion Tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan, 1823) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, southeastern Brazil, during 550 hours of direct observations between December 1993 and February 1995. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey items, they examine a variety of microhabitats. The most important microhabitat used for prey foraging behav...

  10. Molecular detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" in a lion (Panthera leo) from a brazilian zoological garden Detecção molecular do "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" em um leão (Panthera leo) de um zoológico brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Ana M. S. Guimaraes; Manoel L. Javorouski; Marcelo Bonat; Oneida Lacerda; Bruna Balbinotti; Lucyenne G.P.B. Queiroz; Jorge Timenetsky; Alexander W. Biondo; Joanne B. Messick

    2007-01-01

    Although Mycoplasma haemofelis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" infections have been reported in wild cats from United States, their presence among native and captive wild cats in Brazil is still unknown. A 12 year old healthy male lion (Panthera leo) from the Zoological Garden of Curitiba, Brazil was anesthetized for transportation and dental evaluation. A blood sample was obtained for a complete blood cell count (CBC) and PCR analysis. DNA was extracted and fragments of Mycoplasma h...

  11. Deep-sea benthic ecosystem collapse and recovery after an intense Dense Shelf Water Cascading event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pusceddu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons of several regions of the world are preferential conduits for Dense Shelf Water Cascading (DSWC, which quickly modify physical and chemical conditions while transporting large amounts of material towards the adjacent deep margin. Observations conducted during the last 15 yr in the Cap de Creus Canyon (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea reported several intense events of DSWC. Their effects on the deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are almost unknown. To investigate the effects of these episodic events we analysed changes in the meiofaunal biodiversity inside and outside the canyon. Sediment samples were collected at depths varying from ca. 1000 to > 2100 m in May 2004 (before a major event, April 2005 (during a major cascading event and in October 2005, August 2006 April 2008 and April 2009. We report here that the late winter-early spring 2005 cascading led to a reduction of the organic matter contents in canyon floor sediments down to 1800 m depth, whereas surface sediments at about 2200 m depth showed an increase. Our findings suggest that the nutritional material removed from the shallower continental shelf open slope and canyon was transported to the deep margin. During the cascading event the meiofaunal abundance and biodiversity in the studied deep-sea sediments dropped down by a factor of 5 to 10. Benthic assemblages in the impacted seafloor recovered to pre-cascading conditions after only six months from the cessation of the cascading. Since the present climate change is expected to increase the intensity and frequency of these episodic events, we anticipate that they will increasingly impact biodiversity and functioning of the benthic bathyal ecosystems, which may eventually challenge their resilience.

  12. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S–23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may constitute a barrier to the colonization of these waters by alien picocyanobacterial groups.

  13. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

  14. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo / Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando de Camargo, Passos.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorde [...] d, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively). Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

  15. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively. Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

  16. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  17. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  18. Study of the combined effects of data assimilation and grid nesting in ocean models – application to the Gulf of Lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ben Bouallegue

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern operational ocean forecasting systems routinely use data assimilation techniques in order to take observations into account in the hydrodynamic model. Moreover, as end users require higher and higher resolution predictions, especially in coastal zones, it is now common to run nested models, where the coastal model gets its open-sea boundary conditions from a low-resolution global model. This configuration is used in the ''Mediterranean Forecasting System: Towards environmental predictions'' (MFSTEP project. A global model covering the whole Mediterranean Sea is run weekly, performing 1 week of hindcast and a 10-day forecast. Regional models, using different codes and covering different areas, then use this forecast to implement boundary conditions. Local models in turn use the regional model forecasts for their own boundary conditions. This nested system has proven to be a viable and efficient system to achieve high-resolution weekly forecasts. However, when observations are available in some coastal zone, it remains unclear whether it is better to assimilate them in the global or local model. We perform twin experiments and assimilate observations in the global or in the local model, or in both of them together. We show that, when interested in the local models forecast and provided the global model fields are approximately correct, the best results are obtained when assimilating observations in the local model.

  19. Sub Sea Power Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffersen, Andreas Hoon Wenaas

    2007-01-01

    Sub sea compression for maintaining reservoir pressure in a gas field is important to have a steady production of gas as it is extracted from the field. Electrical drives in the several megawatt range are suitable to control the compressor motor since it is not desirable to have gears which need maintenance. Problems related to the location on the sea bed have so far been overcome by using massive pressure tanks which hold 1 atmosphere. A new approach would be to allow the pressure on t...

  20. Irish Sea: British radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) have recently taken the decision to invest several hundred million pounds in reducing the discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant into the Irish Sea. This report outlines the history of the plant and its operation up to the present day and its plans for the future. The attitude of the Irish regulatory authorities and of the public to the radioactive discharges is presented and the incidence of Downs Syndrome and certain specific cancer types on both sides of the Irish Sea is discussed

  1. Columbia River ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions, harbor seals, and California sea lions in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  2. 77 FR 33197 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14334

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ...transfer from mother to pup during lactation; (4) reduced research sampling of aging sea lions; and (5) mortality or euthanasia of sea lions for health reasons not directly related to research. These changes are effective for the duration of the...

  3. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ? NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux conditions de la haute atmosphere. Ainsi, en tenant compte de ces resultats, nous contribuons a confirmer l'hypothese que la reaction enoncee precedemment implique preferentiellement un etat excite quadruplet de N2O+ se trouvant en dessous de l'etat A2Sigma+.

  4. The drift of sea ice

    CERN Document Server

    Leppäranta, Matti

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. This edition includes new information on the climate problem, mathematical modeling and ice engineering applications.

  5. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  6. Solar Sea Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  7. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  8. Balancing the Sea Level Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Leuliette

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise is both a powerful impact of and indicator for global warming and climate change. Observing sea level change, as well as its causes, is therefore a top priority for scientists and society at large. By measuring the ocean’s temperature, salinity, mass, and surface height, the relative sources of recent sea level rise can be discerned. With these observations, sea level change is determined in terms of total sea level and its two major components, ocean mass and steric (density-related sea level. The sea level budget is closed when the sum of the independent components agrees with measurements of total sea level, indicating that the observations can be used to interpret the causes of sea level change. While nearly global monitoring of sea level from space-based radar altimeters has been available since the early 1990s, satellite gravity missions capable of weighing changes in ocean mass have been available for less than 10 years. Even more recently, the Argo array of profiling floats achieved a level of coverage that now allows assessment of global sea level change due to temperature and salinity in the upper 2000 m of the ocean. Only during the overlapping period of all three observing systems can the sea level budget be directly addressed by observations.

  9. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  10. Importance of the variability of hydrographic preconditioning for deep convection in the Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Grignon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the variability of hydrographic preconditioning defined as the heat and salt contents in the Ligurian Sea before convection. The stratification is found to reach a maximum in the intermediate layer in December, whose causes and consequences for the interannual variability of convection are investigated. Further study of the interannual variability and correlation tests between the properties of the deep water formed and the winter surface fluxes support the description of convection as a process that transfers the heat and salt contents from the top and intermediate layers to the deep layer. A proxy for the rate of transfer is given by the final convective mixed layer depth, that is shown to depend equally on the surface fluxes and on the preconditioning. In particular, it is found that deep convection in winter 2004–2005 would have happened even with normal winter conditions, due to low pre-winter stratification.

  11. Importance of the variability of hydrographic preconditioning for deep convection in the Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Grignon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the variability of hydrographic preconditioning defined as the heat and salt contents in the Ligurian Sea before convection. The stratification is found to reach a maximum in the intermediate layer in December, whose causes and consequences for the interannual variability of convection are investigated. Further study of the interannual variability and correlation tests between the properties of the deep water formed and the winter surface fluxes support the description of convection as a process that transfers the heat and salt contents from the top and intermediate layers to the deep layer. A proxy for the rate of transfer is given by the final convective mixed layer depth, that is shown to depend equally on the surface fluxes and on the preconditioning. In particular, it was found that deep convection in winter 2004–2005 would have happened even with normal winter conditions, due to low pre-winter stratification.

  12. Uranium from the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems of a future plant having the capacity of extracting 1,000 tons of uranium per year from sea in Japan are studied. The investigations into the extraction of uranium from sea water in F.R. Germany, United Kingdom, France, United States of America and other foreign countries are described. The operation of a test plant having the capacity of ten kg uranium per year will be started by a project team in Japan. The team consists of four sub teams to study separately the total system, the absorption and desorption, the enrichment and separation, and the location and environment. About 40,000 tons of sea water per day are required for the test plant at the recovery rate of 27.7% during 300 operation days. The concentration of uranium in sea water of the Seto inland sea is assumed as 3.0 microgram per litre. The adsorption power was compared among titanic acid adsorbent, the composite adsorbent of activated carbon and titanic acid, and galena adsorbent. As a result of testing, the titanic acid indicated the adsorption capacity of 750 U-microgram/g; the composite showed 1,200 U-microgram/g; and the galena gave 550 U-microgram/g. For the desorption process, 1 M carbonate solution or 0.05 N dilute hydrochloric acid solution is used. For the processes of enrichment, separation and purification, the system of ion exchange membrane electrodialysis and flash evaporator may be the most effective. The aim for future is the production cost of uranium of 150 dollars/lb. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. The new dead sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gist, G.L.

    On Jan. 25, 1991 Iraqi troops began releasing oil into the Persian Gulf from the Sea Island supertanker loading facility and from five scuttled tankers located 10 miles off the coast of Kuwait. Dubbed ecoterrorism, the act was to have served by preventing an amphibious assault into Kuwait by Allied troops. The consequences, however, will prove to be more drastic and far-reaching ecologically than anyone can predict. Recent experiences with major oil spills have resulted in inevitable comparisons between this even and what had, to date, been the largest oil spill in history, namely the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster. Given the vast differences between these two situations, however, using such comparisons to develop a rationale for dealing with the Sea Island disaster would be risky. The Persian Gulf is a unique area with important characteristics that necessitate special handling of the response to this event. The Persian Gulf, also known as the Arabian Gulf, is a shallow marginal sea of the Indian Ocean. Although the area is more known for its oil production, the Gulf also boasts a large commercial fishing industry. Tuna, mackerel, sardines and shrimp are regularly shipped from Kuwait, Qatar and Bahrain to other parts of the world. Pearl fishing is still an active industry, although it is on the decline due to the increases Japanese production of cultured pearls. Water is perhaps the most precious commodity in the Persian Gulf. Sea water from the Gulf is pumped through desalination (multistage flash distillation process) plants to provide drinking water to many Gulf states. The desalination plant in Jubail, Saudi Arabia, alone provides 800,000 tons of fresh water daily to Saudi citizens and Allied troops. In addition, manufacturing plants and oil refineries along the coast rely on Gulf water for cooling purposes. All of these uses of Gulf water are threatened by the Sea Island slick.

  14. Dead Sea Rate of Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz L. AL-Khlaifat

    2008-01-01

    The Dead Sea is exceptional by many standards. It is the saltiest and lowest lake in the world. Moreover it is a closed lake with very large variations in its water level caused by both man-made and natural oscillations of the components that make up the water balance. Most of the fundamental studies on the Dead Sea focused on the sea water contents, Dead Sea geology, salt origin, ground-water sea intrusion, and qualitative analysis of the material balance. The objective of the present paper ...

  15. Balancing the Sea Level Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Eric W. Leuliette; Willis, Josh K.

    2011-01-01

    Sea level rise is both a powerful impact of and indicator for global warming and climate change. Observing sea level change, as well as its causes, is therefore a top priority for scientists and society at large. By measuring the ocean’s temperature, salinity, mass, and surface height, the relative sources of recent sea level rise can be discerned. With these observations, sea level change is determined in terms of total sea level and its two major components, ocean mass and steric (density-r...

  16. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs (133Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  17. Long-term (1998-2010) large-scale comparison of the ecological quality status of gulf of lions (NW Mediterranean) benthic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Bonifácio, Paulo; Labrune, Céline; Sardá, Rafael; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Bellan, Gérard; Duchêne, Jean Claude; Hermand, Rachel; Karakassis, Ioannis; Dounas, Costas; Grémare, Antoine

    2016-01-15

    A comprehensive Mediterranean data set has been used to address 3 questions associated with the use of sensitivity/tolerance based biotic indices to infer the Ecological Quality status (EcoQs) of benthic habitats. Our results showed: (1) a significant effect of the reference database on derived sensitivity/tolerance measure (ES500.05) as well as associated Benthic Quality Index values and derived EcoQs; (2) a lack of correlation neither between BQI and AZTI Marine Biotic Index values nor between BQI and Multivariate-AZTI Marine Biotic Index values; (3) a lack of correlation between the values of the Benthic Habitat Quality Index (index derived from Sediment Profile Imagery) and those of either of the 3 tested biotic indices; and (4) a general agreement between the 3 tested biotic indices in describing the lack of global trend for the EcoQs of the Gulf of Lions despite the occurrence of significant changes in benthic macrofauna composition between 1998 and 2010. PMID:26675011

  18. Expression of the myostatin gene in the adductor muscle of the Pacific lion-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus in association with growth and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelos, Rosa M; Ramírez, José L; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Ibarra, Ana M

    2015-04-01

    The cDNA sequence of the myostatin gene in the Pacific lion-paw Nodipecten subnodosus (Ns-mstn) was characterized, and the temporal expression during grow-out was analyzed for the first time in a scallop. Ns-mstn encodes a 459-amino-acid protein in which two propeptide proteolytic sites were identified, the previously recognized (RSKR) and a second one at position 266-269 aa (RRKR). The alternative furin cleavage site could be related with post-translational processing, or it could be a tissue-specific mechanism for signaling activity. The Ns-mstn transcript was located by in situ hybridization in sarcomeres and around the nucleus of muscle fibers. The temporal expression analysis by qPCR in the adductor muscle showed that Ns-mstn expression was significantly different (P?

  19. Descripción de un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo) / Description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia case in an African lion (Panthera leo)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.L., Migliorisi; A.T., Soto; M.V., Gómez; R., Laplace; A., Massone.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo) de 13 años de edad aproximada, alojada en el Jardín Botánico y Zoológico de la ciudad de La Plata. El estudio anatómico, histopatológico y ultrasonográfico del aparato reproductor fue [...] ron realizados posteriormente a la ovariohisterectomía. Los principales hallazgos correspondieron a un proceso crónico de hiperplasia endometrial quística con infiltración linfoplasmocitaria, presencia de un quiste folicular parcialmente luteinizado y cuerpo lúteo en uno de sus ovarios. La edad del animal, la administración de anticonceptivos progestágenos por varios años y la reciente ovulación espontánea, verificada por el hallazgo de un cuerpo lúteo, se corresponden con las causas predisponentes del cuadro descripto. Abstract in english This paper presents an anatomical, histopathological and ultrasonographic description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia in an African lion (Panthera leo) The study, of the reproductive tract, was made after the ovariohysterectomy. The main findings corresponded to a chronic cystic endometrial hype [...] rplasia with linfoplasmocitarian infiltration, the presence of a luteinized follicular cyst and a corpus luteum in one of the ovaries. The age of the animal, the administration of progestin contraceptive and the recent spontaneous ovulation were coincident with causes that predispose these findings.

  20. Descripción de un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo Description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia case in an African lion (Panthera leo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Migliorisi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe un caso de hiperplasia endometrial quística en una leona africana (Panthera leo de 13 años de edad aproximada, alojada en el Jardín Botánico y Zoológico de la ciudad de La Plata. El estudio anatómico, histopatológico y ultrasonográfico del aparato reproductor fueron realizados posteriormente a la ovariohisterectomía. Los principales hallazgos correspondieron a un proceso crónico de hiperplasia endometrial quística con infiltración linfoplasmocitaria, presencia de un quiste folicular parcialmente luteinizado y cuerpo lúteo en uno de sus ovarios. La edad del animal, la administración de anticonceptivos progestágenos por varios años y la reciente ovulación espontánea, verificada por el hallazgo de un cuerpo lúteo, se corresponden con las causas predisponentes del cuadro descripto.This paper presents an anatomical, histopathological and ultrasonographic description of a cystic endometrial hyperplasia in an African lion (Panthera leo The study, of the reproductive tract, was made after the ovariohysterectomy. The main findings corresponded to a chronic cystic endometrial hyperplasia with linfoplasmocitarian infiltration, the presence of a luteinized follicular cyst and a corpus luteum in one of the ovaries. The age of the animal, the administration of progestin contraceptive and the recent spontaneous ovulation were coincident with causes that predispose these findings.