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Sample records for californian sea lions

  1. Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus

    Santokh Gill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

  2. Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

    Wolf Jochen BW

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL, being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL. In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL. Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki, the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is under the general protection of the habitat it lives in.

  3. Galpagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management

    Wolf Jochen BW; Tautz Diethard; Trillmich Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galpagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galpagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships w...

  4. Sea Lion Diet Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  5. StellarSeaLion_CriticalHabitat_CA

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts Designated Critical Habitat for Stellar Sea Lions in California. It is meant as a general locational reference for these designated areas. The...

  6. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  7. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  8. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited

    Tanabe Shinsuke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

  9. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2014. Non-pup counts have...

  10. Observations on sea lion harvest, Alaska Peninsula, summer, 1965

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior This report covers observations of a sea lion pup harvest on the Alaskan peninsula during the summer of 1965. Culling was kept to only 50 of the rookerys pups. The...

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  13. Diagnostic testing for Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Leptospirosis is a relatively common bacterial disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); however, there remain gaps in our understanding of maintenance hosts relative to animals demonstrating clinical disease. To effectively study the epidemiology of leptospirosis in any species, a s...

  14. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Hernandez-Velazquez, F.D.; Galindo-Sanchez, C.E.; Taylor, Martin I.; De La Rosa-Velez, J.; Cote, I.M.; Schramm, Y; Aurioles-Gamboa, D.; Rico, Ciro

    2005-01-01

    Nine microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). In addition, two of five loci tested from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) produced a single, clear band in Z. californianus, as did one out of five loci from grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and one out of two loci from elephant seal (Mirounga sp.). No locus tested from South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) amplified in Z. californianus. Locus variability was assessed in Califo...

  15. Phylogenomic characterization of California sea lion adenovirus-1.

    Corts-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; Goldstein, Tracey; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca; Waltzek, Thomas B; Salemi, Marco; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-04-01

    Significant adenoviral diversity has been found in humans, but in domestic and wild animals the number of identified viruses is lower. Here we present the complete genome of a recently discovered mastadenovirus, California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1) isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), an important pathogen associated with hepatitis in pinnipeds. The genome of this virus has the typical mastadenoviral structure with some notable differences at the carboxy-terminal end, including a dUTPase that does not cluster with other mastadenoviral dUTPases, and a fiber that shows similarity to a trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi and choline-binding protein A (CbpA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The GC content is low (36%), and phylogenetic analyses placed the virus near the root of the clade infecting laurasiatherian hosts in the genus Mastadenovirus. These findings support the hypothesis that CSLAdV-1 in California sea lions represents a host jump from an unknown mammalian host in which it is endemic. PMID:25660039

  16. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Habitat Model Satellite Telemetry and Environmental Data, 2000-2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The at-sea habitat use of Steller sea lions was modeled from location and dive behavior data obtained from the deployment of satellite-linked telemetry tags on sea...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679Steller sea lion conservation...

  18. Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.

    Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis. PMID:24484486

  19. Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Prager, K C; Greig, Denise J; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Hornsby, Richard L; Palmer, Lauren J; Soper, Jennifer; Wu, Qingzhong; Zuerner, Richard L; Gulland, Frances M D; Lloyd-Smith, James O

    2013-05-31

    Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years. PMID:23419822

  20. Epidemiology and pathology of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Mazet, Jonna A K; Johnson, Christine K

    2015-04-01

    The coccidian parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and warm-blooded animals worldwide. The ecology of this parasite in marine systems is poorly understood, although many marine mammals are infected and susceptible to clinical toxoplasmosis. We summarized the lesions associated with T. gondii infection in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population and investigated the prevalence of and risk factors associated with T. gondii exposure, as indicated by antibody. Five confirmed and four suspected cases of T. gondii infection were identified by analysis of 1,152 medical records of necropsied sea lions from 1975-2009. One suspected and two confirmed cases were identified in aborted fetuses from a sea lion rookery. Toxoplasmosis was the primary cause of death in five cases, including the two fetuses. Gross and histopathologic findings in T. gondii-infected sea lions were similar to those reported in other marine mammals. The most common lesions were encephalitis, meningitis, and myocarditis. The antibody prevalence in stranded, free-ranging sea lions for 1998-2009 was 2.5% (0.03%; IgG titer 640). There was an increase in odds of exposure in sea lions with increasing age, suggesting cumulative risk of exposure and persistent antibody over time. The occurrence of disseminated T. gondii infection in aborted fetuses confirms vertical transmission in sea lions, and the increasing odds of exposure with age is consistent with additional opportunities for horizontal transmission in free-ranging sea lions over time. These data suggest that T. gondii may have two modes of transmission in the sea lion population. Overall, clinical disease was uncommon in our study which, along with low prevalence of T. gondii antibody, suggests substantially less-frequent exposure and lower susceptibility to clinical disease in California sea lions as compared to sympatric southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). PMID:25588007

  1. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  2. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

  3. Steller sea lion sightings or recaptures of previously marked animals throughout their range, 1987-2014

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset contains information regarding the sighting and capture of previously marked Steller sea lions from 1987 to the present. Marks are seen and documented...

  4. Steller sea lion capture, marking, and handling data across their range 1985-2014

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on individual sea lions that were marked or handled from 1985-2014. Individuals were handled for various projects including vital...

  5. Steller sea lion haulout and rookery locations in the United States

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) use terrestrial sites for reproduction, resting, molting, and other activities. Sites used during the breeding season...

  6. AFSC/REFM: Steller sea lion economic survey data, U.S., 2007, Lew

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project will produce a valuation function that depends on factors related to Steller sea lion (SSL) protection measures, and may include some combination of the...

  7. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  8. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of Steller sea lions in Washington, 1993 - 1999

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1993 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples from Steller sea lions in...

  9. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  10. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine environment. PMID:27141438

  11. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine environment.

  12. The SeaLion has Landed: An IDE for Answer-Set Programming---Preliminary Report

    Oetsch, Johannes; Tompits, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We report about the current state and designated features of the tool SeaLion, aimed to serve as an integrated development environment (IDE) for answer-set programming (ASP). A main goal of SeaLion is to provide a user-friendly environment for supporting a developer to write, evaluate, debug, and test answer-set programs. To this end, new support techniques have to be developed that suit the requirements of the answer-set semantics and meet the constraints of practical applicability. In this respect, SeaLion benefits from the research results of a project on methods and methodologies for answer-set program development in whose context SeaLion is realised. Currently, the tool provides source-code editors for the languages of Gringo and DLV that offer syntax highlighting, syntax checking, and a visual program outline. Further implemented features are support for external solvers and visualisation as well as visual editing of answer sets. SeaLion comes as a plugin of the popular Eclipse platform and provides its...

  13. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California.

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M; Vetter, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5-38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  14. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven.

  15. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions.

  16. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

  17. Inter-Population Movements of Steller Sea Lions in Alaska with Implications for Population Separation

    Jemison, Lauri A.; Pendleton, Grey W.; Fritz, Lowell W.; Hastings, Kelly K.; Maniscalco, John M.; Trites, Andrew W.; Gelatt, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144 W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 1530 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each D...

  18. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson , Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Karen Shapiro; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Daphne Carlson-Bremer; Gulland, Frances M; Daniel Rejmanek; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated wi...

  19. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.

    Levin, Milton; Joshi, Dhanashree; Draghi, Andrew; Gulland, Frances M; Jessup, David; De Guise, Sylvain

    2010-04-01

    During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern that DA may exert chronic effects, such as immunomodulation, which may potentially increase an individual's susceptibility to a number of opportunistic infections following nonlethal exposure. We investigated the effects of DA on innate (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and adaptive (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation) immune functions with the use of peripheral blood leukocytes collected from healthy California sea lions and southern sea otters upon in vitro exposure to 0 (unexposed control), 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 microM DA. Domoic acid did not significantly modulate phagocytosis or respiratory burst in either species. For California sea lions, DA significantly increased ConA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation upon exposure to DA concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 10 microM, resulting in a nonlinear dose-response curve. There was no effect on lymphocyte proliferation at the highest concentration of DA tested. No effects on lymphocyte proliferation were observed in southern sea otters. Importantly, the in vitro DA concentrations affecting T-cell proliferation were within or below the range of DA in serum measured in free-ranging California sea lions following natural exposure, suggesting a risk for immunomodulation in free-ranging animals. Understanding the risk for immunomodulation upon DA exposure will contribute in the health assessment and management of California sea lions and southern sea otters, as well as guide veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators in caring for and treating afflicted animals. PMID:20688647

  20. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  1. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  2. Antibiotic efficacy in eliminating leptospiruria in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranding with leptospirosis

    Infection of California sea lions with leptospirosis can result in stranding and death of the animals. Shedding of the infectious organism contributes to spread of the disease to other animals and also poses a threat to human health. This is both for the public interacting with stranded animals and ...

  3. Dissecting the Influences of Climate and Demography on the Dynamics of Leptospirosis in California Sea Lions

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection of global importance, yet its population dynamics remain poorly understood. We present the first empirically-motivated study of the dynamics of leptospirosis, drawing on a unique 24-year time series of disease in California sea lions (CSLs). Since the early 19...

  4. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  5. Alaska Steller sea lion population abundance and survival data from Marmot and Ugamak Islands Field Camps, 2000 to present

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts and resights of marked adult and juvenile (non-pup) and pup Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts at Marmot and Ugamak Islands,...

  6. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2007

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2007. The...

  7. Steller sea lion haulout and rookery locations in the United States for 2015-05-14 (NCEI Accession 0129877)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) use terrestrial sites for reproduction, resting, molting, and other activities. Sites used during the breeding season...

  8. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Survival Rate of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California from 1987-2009

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  9. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  10. p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands

    Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

    2002-05-01

    An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely that the sediments impacted by the Whites Point outfall were the source of much of the DDE and PCBs in these animals.

  11. Bottom-up forcing and the decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatas) in Alaska: Assessing the ocean climate hypothesis

    Trites, AW; Miller, AJ; Maschner, HDG; Alexander, MA; Bograd, SJ; Calder, JA; Capotondi, A; Coyle, KO; Lorenzo, ED; Finney, BP; Gregr, EJ; Grosch, CE; Hare, SR; Hunt, GL; Jahncke, J

    2007-01-01

    Declines of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska could be a consequence of physical oceanographic changes associated with the 1976-77 climate regime shift. Changes in ocean climate are hypothesized to have affected the quantity, quality, and accessibility of prey, which in turn may have affected the rates of birth and death of sea lions. Recent studies of the spatial and temporal variations in the ocean climate system of the North Pacifi...

  12. Somatosensory brainstem, thalamus, and cortex of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Sawyer, Eva K; Turner, Emily C; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-15

    Pinnipeds (sea lions, seals, and walruses) are notable for many reasons, including their ape-sized brains, their adaptation to a coastal niche that combines mastery of the sea with strong ties to land, and the remarkable abilities of their trigeminal whisker system. However, little is known about the central nervous system of pinnipeds. Here we report on the somatosensory areas of the nervous system of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Using stains for Nissl, cytochrome oxidase, and vesicular glutamate transporters, we investigated the primary somatosensory areas in the brainstem, thalamus, and cortex in one sea lion pup and the external anatomy of the brain in a second pup. We find that the sea lion's impressive array of whiskers is matched by a large trigeminal representation in the brainstem with well-defined parcellation that resembles the barrelettes found in rodents but scaled upward in size. The dorsal column nuclei are large and distinct. The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus has divisions, with a large area for the presumptive head representation. Primary somatosensory cortex is located in the neocortex just anterior to the main vertical fissure, and precisely locating it as we do here is useful for comparing the highly gyrified pinniped cortex with that of other carnivores. To our knowledge this work is the first comprehensive report on the central nervous system areas for any sensory system in a pinniped. The results may be useful both in the veterinary setting and for comparative studies related to brain evolution. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1957-1975, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878587

  13. Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation.

    Jemison, Lauri A; Pendleton, Grey W; Fritz, Lowell W; Hastings, Kelly K; Maniscalco, John M; Trites, Andrew W; Gelatt, Tom S

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144 W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

  14. Diets of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Southeast Alaska, 1993−1999

    Trites, Andrew W.; Calkins, Donald G.; Winship, Arliss J

    2007-01-01

    The diet of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) was determined from 1494 scats (feces) collected at breeding (rookeries) and nonbreeding (haulout) sites in Southeast Alaska from 1993 to 1999. The most common prey of 61 species identified were walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), Pacific salmon (Salmonidae), arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), rockfish (Sebastes spp.), skates (Rajidae), and cephalopods ...

  15. Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus

    WilliamGeorgeVan Bonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

  16. The Cognitive Effects of Naturally Occurring Domoic Acid Toxicosis in Wild California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus)

    Cook, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation comprises three separate studies making use of a unique model for conducting cognitive neuroscience in a wild population: California sea lions (CSLs) (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation for toxic exposure to algal metabolite domoic acid (DA). The approach described here presents some notable advantages over typical research with laboratory animals, featuring as it does large samples of big-brained, socially complex animals with broad genetic diversity and vari...

  17. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics

    Flatz, Ramona; Gonzalez-Suarez, Manuela; Young, Julie K.; Hernndez-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Gerber, Leah R.

    2012-01-01

    Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males acros...

  18. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galpagos sea lion populations

    Brunner Sylvia; Harrod Chris; Wolf Jochen BW; Salazar Sandie; Trillmich Fritz; Tautz Diethard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galpagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galpagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal...

  19. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion

    Browning, Helen M.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Hall, Ailsa J.; Finlayson, Jeanie; Dagleish, Mark P.; Billington, Karen J.; Colegrove, Kathleen; Hammond, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Although neoplasia is a major cause of mortality in humans and domestic animals, it has rarely been described in wildlife species. One of the few examples is a highly prevalent urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (CSLs). Although the aetiology of this carcinoma is clearly multifactorial, inbreeding depression, as estimated using levels of microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, is identified as predictive for this neoplasia. On further analysis, this relationship appears to be larg...

  20. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)

    L.O. Artico; Bianchini, A.; K.S. Grubel; MONTEIRO, D.S.; S.C. Estima; L. R. Oliveira; Bonatto, S. L.; L.F Marins

    2010-01-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with...

  1. Weak Polygyny in California Sea Lions and the Potential for Alternative Mating Tactics

    Flatz, Ramona; M. Gonzlez-Surez; Young, Julie K.; Hernndez-Camacho, Claudia J.; Immel, Aaron J.; Berger, Leah R.

    2012-01-01

    Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males acros...

  2. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in ...

  3. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    Ippei Suzuki; Katsufumi Sato; Andreas Fahlman; Yasuhiko Naito; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Trites, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumet...

  4. Non-invasive 3D geometry extraction of a Sea lion foreflipper

    Friedman, Chen; Watson, Martha; Zhang, Pamela; Leftwich, Megan

    2015-11-01

    We are interested in underwater propulsion that leaves little traceable wake structure while producing high levels of thrust. A potential biological model is the California sea lion, a highly maneuverable aquatic mammal that produces thrust primarily with its foreflippers without a characteristic flapping frequency. The foreflippers are used for thrust, stability, and control during swimming motions. Recently, the flipper's kinematics during the thrust phase was extracted using 2D video tracking. This work extends the tracking ability to 3D using a non-invasive Direct Linear Transformation technique employed on non-research sea lions. marker-less flipper tracking is carried out manually for complete dorsal-ventral flipper motions. Two cameras are used (3840 × 2160 pixels resolution), calibrated in space using a calibration target inserted into the sea lion habitat, and synchronized in time using a simple light flash. The repeatability and objectivity of the tracked data is assessed by having two people tracking the same clap and comparing the results. The number of points required to track a flipper with sufficient detail is also discussed. Changes in the flipper pitch angle during the clap, an important feature for fluid dynamics modeling, will also be presented.

  5. Urban life of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristobal Island, Ecuador: colony trends and threats

    Denkinger, Judith; Gordillo, Luis; Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Guevara, Nataly; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Fietz, Katharina; Rubianes, Francisco; Dan, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, pristine environments are influenced by human societies. In the Galapagos Islands, the endangered, endemic Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) has formed one of the biggest colonies within the town center of Puerto Baquerizo Moreno. About 8,000 people live there and human wildlife interactions occur daily. With colony counts and direct observations from 2008 to 2012, we analyze cause of death, injuries and disease of urban sea lion colonies at Wreck Bay. Population increase since 2008 can be attributed to an immigration of adult sea lions in 2010, resulting in an increase in the pup and juvenile production in 2011 and 2012. Pup mortality increased drastically to 2009 and again in 2011 and 2012. Besides pup mortality, most of the deaths are caused by increased disease incidences and human activity. Our observations suggest that overall 65% of the injuries observed are produced by human interaction. The increase in threats leading to death, injuries or disease can have long-term effects on the population. Although threats that cause physical injuries can be managed locally, sea lions range movements contributes to the spread of infectious pathogens, which may affect neighbor colonies and potentially have an impact on the survival of the species. Our study reveals the need of stronger efforts towards a more complete understanding of threats and especially disease spread among Galapagos Sea lions in urban environments and the establishment of more effective management measures.

  6. A nutrigenomic approach to detect nutritional stress from gene expression in blood samples drawn from Steller sea lions.

    Spitz, Jérôme; Becquet, Vanessa; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-09-01

    Gene expression profiles are increasingly being used as biomarkers to detect the physiological responses of a number of species to disease, nutrition, and other stressors. However, little attention has been given to using gene expression to assess the stressors and physiological status of marine mammals. We sought to develop and validate a nutrigenomic approach to quantify nutritional stress in Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We subjected 4 female Steller sea lions to 3 feeding regimes over 70-day trials (unrestricted food intake, acute nutritional stress, and chronic nutritional stress), and drew blood samples from each animal at the end of each feeding regime. We then extracted the RNA of white blood cells and measured the response of 8 genes known to react to diet restriction in terrestrial mammals. Overall, we found that the genomic response of Steller sea lions experiencing nutritional stress was consistent with how terrestrial mammals respond to dietary restrictions. Our nutritionally stressed sea lions down-regulated some cellular processes involved in immune response and oxidative stress, and up-regulated pro-inflammatory responses and metabolic processes. Nutrigenomics appears to be a promising means to monitor nutritional status and contribute to mitigation measures needed to assist in the recovery of Steller sea lions and other at-risk species of marine mammals. PMID:25700740

  7. A 500 kyr record of global sea level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea level variability

    J. Frigola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of Late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion which consists of five main sequences stacked during the sea level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles. The high sensitivity to sea level oscillations of the grain-size record along the borehole, favoured by the large width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, demonstrates that sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf are able to cyclically modify the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea level oscillations at millennial scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence ever for a one-to-one coupling of millennial-scale sea level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  8. A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability

    J. Frigola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  9. Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; van Schie, Robbert; Verboom, Wim C.; de Haan, Dick

    2005-09-01

    The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not. The signals were narrow-band, frequency-modulated stimuli with a duration of 600 ms and center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 32 kHz for the male and from 4 to 32 kHz for the female. Detection thresholds at each frequency were measured by varying signal amplitude according to the up-down staircase method. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for the male Steller sea lion showed the typical mammalian U-shape. His maximum sensitivity (77 dB re: 1 ?Pa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 16 kHz (4 octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 kHz and above 16 kHz. The maximum sensitivity of the female (73 dB re: 1 ?Pa, rms) occurred at 25 kHz. Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed for signals below 16 kHz and above 25 kHz. At frequencies for which both subjects were tested, hearing thresholds of the male were significantly higher than those of the female. The hearing sensitivity differences between the male and female Steller sea lion in this study may be due to individual differences in sensitivity between the subjects or due to sexual dimorphism in hearing.

  10. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    Ippei Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus that made 186 dives. Our study animals were trained to dive to feed at fixed depths (10–50 m under artificially controlled buoyancy and drag conditions. Buoyancy and drag were manipulated using a pair of polyvinyl chloride (PVC tubes attached to harnesses worn by the sea lions, and buoyancy conditions were designed to fall within the natural range of wild animals (∼12–26% subcutaneous fat. Drag conditions were changed with and without the PVC tubes, and swim speeds were recorded and compared during descent and ascent phases using an accelerometer attached to the harnesses. Generalized linear mixed-effect models with the animal as the random variable and five explanatory variables (body mass, buoyancy, dive depth, dive phase, and drag showed that swim speed was best predicted by two variables, drag and dive phase (AIC = −139. Consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, the results of our study suggest that the optimal swim speed of Steller sea lions is a function of drag, and is independent of dive depth and buoyancy.

  11. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife. PMID:26259982

  12. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  13. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  14. Variability of circulation features in the gulf of lion NW Mediterranean Sea. Importance of inertial currents

    Petrenko, Aa

    2003-01-01

    ADCP data from two cruises, Moogli 2 (June 1998) and Moogli 3 (January 1999), show the variability of the circulation features in the Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea. The objective of the present study is to determine whether the hydrodynamic features are due to local forcings or seasonal ones. During both cruises, the Mediterranean Northern Current (NC) is clearly detected along the continental slope and intrudes on the eastern side of the shelf. East of the gulf, its flux is similar to2 ...

  15. Risk Functions of Dolphins and Sea Lions Exposed to Sonar Signals.

    Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Steven W; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic dose-response functions have been recommended as a means of predicting behavioral impacts on marine mammals from anthropogenic noise exposure. Thirty bottlenose dolphins and fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study to explore dose-response relationships to the received level of a simulated sonar signal. Both species showed an increase in the probability of response and in the severity of response with increased received levels. Differences in species sensitivity were noted in habituation and the impact of age on responsiveness. PMID:26610994

  16. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  17. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  18. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health. PMID:27051860

  19. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging "Urban" South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging "urban" colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health. PMID:27051860

  20. Equal latency contours for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Brandt, Lacey; Finneran, James J

    2015-11-01

    Loudness perception by non-human animals is difficult to study directly. Previous research efforts have instead focused on estimating loudness perception using simple reaction time (RT) data. These data are used to generate equal latency contours that serve as a proxy for equal loudness contours. To aid the design of auditory weighting functions for marine mammals, equal latency contours were generated using RT data for two marine mammal species that are representative of broader functional hearing groups: the bottlenose dolphin (under water) and California sea lion (in air). In all cases, median RT decreased with increasing tone sound pressure level (SPL). The equal latency contours corresponding to near-threshold SPLs were similar to audiograms for both species. The sea lion contours showed some compression at frequencies below 1 kHz; however, a similar pattern was not apparent in the more variable data for dolphins. Equal latency contours for SPLs greater than approximately 40 dB above threshold diverged from predicted equal loudness contours, likely due to the asymptotic nature of RT at the highest tested SPLs. The results suggest that auditory threshold data, potentially augmented with compression at low frequencies, may provide a useful way forward when designing auditory weighting functions for marine mammals. PMID:26627745

  1. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800

    L.O. Artico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  2. Stable Isotopes Reveal Long-Term Fidelity to Foraging Grounds in the Galapagos Sea Lion (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo; Tapia, Washington; Pez-Rosas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Most otariids have colony-specific foraging areas during the breeding season, when they behave as central place foragers. However, they may disperse over broad areas after the breeding season and individuals from different colonies may share foraging grounds at that time. Here, stable isotope ratios in the skull bone of adult Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) were used to assess the long-term fidelity of both sexes to foraging grounds across the different regions of the Galapagos archipelago. Results indicated that the stable isotope ratios (?13C and ?15N) of sea lion bone significantly differed among regions of the archipelago, without any significant difference between sexes and with a non significant interaction between sex and region. Moreover, standard ellipses, estimated by Bayesian inference and used as a measure of the isotopic resource use area at the population level, overlapped widely for the sea lions from the southern and central regions, whereas the overlap of the ellipses for sea lions from the central and western regions was small and non-existing for those from the western and southern regions. These results suggest that males and females from the same region within the archipelago use similar foraging grounds and have similar diets. Furthermore, they indicate that the exchange of adults between regions is limited, thus revealing a certain degree of foraging philopatry at a regional scale within the archipelago. The constraints imposed on males by an expanded reproductive season (~ 6 months), resulting from the weak reproductive synchrony among females, and those imposed on females by a very long lactation period (at least one year but up to three years), may explain the limited mobility of adult Galapagos sea lions of both sexes across the archipelago. PMID:26808381

  3. Stable Isotopes Reveal Long-Term Fidelity to Foraging Grounds in the Galapagos Sea Lion (Zalophus wollebaeki)

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo; Tapia, Washington; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Most otariids have colony-specific foraging areas during the breeding season, when they behave as central place foragers. However, they may disperse over broad areas after the breeding season and individuals from different colonies may share foraging grounds at that time. Here, stable isotope ratios in the skull bone of adult Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) were used to assess the long-term fidelity of both sexes to foraging grounds across the different regions of the Galapagos archipelago. Results indicated that the stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) of sea lion bone significantly differed among regions of the archipelago, without any significant difference between sexes and with a non significant interaction between sex and region. Moreover, standard ellipses, estimated by Bayesian inference and used as a measure of the isotopic resource use area at the population level, overlapped widely for the sea lions from the southern and central regions, whereas the overlap of the ellipses for sea lions from the central and western regions was small and non-existing for those from the western and southern regions. These results suggest that males and females from the same region within the archipelago use similar foraging grounds and have similar diets. Furthermore, they indicate that the exchange of adults between regions is limited, thus revealing a certain degree of foraging philopatry at a regional scale within the archipelago. The constraints imposed on males by an expanded reproductive season (~ 6 months), resulting from the weak reproductive synchrony among females, and those imposed on females by a very long lactation period (at least one year but up to three years), may explain the limited mobility of adult Galapagos sea lions of both sexes across the archipelago. PMID:26808381

  4. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM THE ENDANGERED AUSTRALIAN SEA LION (NEOPHOCA CINEREA).

    Delport, Tiffany C; Harcourt, Robert G; Beaumont, Linda J; Webster, Koa N; Power, Michelle L

    2015-07-01

    Greater interaction between humans and wildlife populations poses significant risks of anthropogenic impact to natural ecosystems, especially in the marine environment. Understanding the spread of microorganisms at the marine interface is therefore important if we are to mitigate adverse effects on marine wildlife. We investigated the establishment of Escherichia coli in the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) by comparing fecal isolation from wild and captive sea lion populations. Fecal samples were collected from wild colonies March 2009-September 2010 and from captive individuals March 2011-May 2013. Using molecular screening, we assigned a phylotype to E. coli isolates and determined the presence of integrons, mobile genetic elements that capture gene cassettes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents common in fecal coliforms. Group B2 was the most abundant phylotype in all E. coli isolates (n = 37), with groups A, B1, and D also identified. Integrons were not observed in E. coli (n = 21) isolated from wild sea lions, but were identified in E. coli from captive animals (n = 16), from which class I integrases were detected in eight isolates. Sequencing of gene cassette arrays identified genes conferring resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin (aadA1) and trimethoprim (dfrA17, dfrB4). Class II integrases were not detected in the E. coli isolates. The frequent detection in captive sea lions of E. coli with resistance genes commonly identified in human clinical cases suggests that conditions experienced in captivity may contribute to establishment. Identification of antibiotic resistance in the microbiota of Australian sea lions provides crucial information for disease management. Our data will inform conservation management strategies and provide a mechanism to monitor microorganism dissemination to sensitive pinniped populations. PMID:25919463

  5. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska

    Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hong, Su-Myeong [National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Atkinson, Shannon [University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Juneau Center, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.ed [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 {mu}g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 {mu}g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

  6. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 μg/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 μg/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

  7. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  8. Diving deeper into individual foraging specializations of a large marine predator, the southern sea lion.

    Baylis, A M M; Orben, R A; Arnould, J P Y; Peters, K; Knox, T; Costa, D P; Staniland, I J

    2015-12-01

    Despite global declines in the abundance of marine predators, knowledge of foraging ecology, necessary to predict the ecological consequences of large changes in marine predator abundance, remains enigmatic for many species. Given that populations suffering severe declines are of conservation concern, we examined the foraging ecology of southern sea lions (SSL) (Otaria flavescens)-one of the least studied otariids (fur seal and sea lions)-which have declined by over 90% at the Falkland Islands since the 1930s. Using a combination of biologging devices and stable isotope analysis of vibrissae, we redress major gaps in the knowledge of SSL ecology and quantify patterns of individual specialization. Specifically, we revealed two discrete foraging strategies, these being inshore (coastal) and offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). The majority of adult female SSL (72% or n = 21 of 29 SSL) foraged offshore. Adult female SSL that foraged offshore travelled further (92 ± 20 vs. 10 ± 4 km) and dived deeper (75 ± 23 vs. 21 ± 8 m) when compared to those that foraged inshore. Stable isotope analysis revealed long-term fidelity (years) to these discrete foraging habitats. In addition, we found further specialization within the offshore group, with adult female SSL separated into two clusters on the basis of benthic or mixed (benthic and pelagic) dive behavior (benthic dive proportion was 76 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8%, respectively). We suggest that foraging specialization in depleted populations such as SSL breeding at the Falkland Islands, are influenced by foraging site fidelity, and could be independent of intraspecific competition. Finally, the behavioral differences we describe are crucial to understanding population-level dynamics, impediments to population recovery, and threats to population persistence. PMID:26323982

  9. Validating the relationship between 3-dimensional body acceleration and oxygen consumption in trained Steller sea lions.

    Volpov, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-08-01

    We tested the ability of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) to predict the rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) in freely diving Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) while resting at the surface and diving. The trained sea lions executed three dive types-single dives, bouts of multiple long dives with 4-6 dives per bout, or bouts of multiple short dives with 10-12 dives per bout-to depths of 40 m, resulting in a range of activity and oxygen consumption levels. Average metabolic rate (AMR) over the dive cycle or dive bout calculated was calculated from [Formula: see text]. We found that ODBA could statistically predict AMR when data from all dive types were combined, but that dive type was a significant model factor. However, there were no significant linear relationships between AMR and ODBA when data for each dive type were analyzed separately. The potential relationships between AMR and ODBA were not improved by including dive duration, food consumed, proportion of dive cycle spent submerged, or number of dives per bout. It is not clear whether the lack of predictive power within dive type was due to low statistical power, or whether it reflected a true absence of a relationship between ODBA and AMR. The average percent error for predicting AMR from ODBA was 7-11 %, and standard error of the estimated AMR was 5-32 %. Overall, the extensive range of dive behaviors and physiological conditions we tested indicated that ODBA was not suitable for estimating AMR in the field due to considerable error and the inconclusive effects of dive type. PMID:26002519

  10. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis. Further studies are needed to determine the most appropriate long-term treatment. PMID:27010266

  11. Alaska Steller sea lion pups blood serum chemistry and hematology values measured from 1998-06-01 to 2011-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0137994)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  12. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The...

  13. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  14. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  15. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion pups conducted on rookeries in Alaska from 1961-06-22 to 2014-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0128189)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2014. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  16. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  17. Applicability of Single-Camera Photogrammetry to Determine Body Dimensions of Pinnipeds: Galapagos Sea Lions as an Example

    Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser di...

  18. The multi-factorial aetiology of urogenital carcinoma in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) : a case-control study

    Browning, Helen M.

    2014-01-01

    California sea lions (CSLs) have an unusually high occurrence of urogenital cancer (UGC), with studies revealing metastatic carcinoma in 26 % of CSLs admitted to a rehabilitation centre between 1998 and 2012. It is likely that the aetiology of this disease is multi-factorial as genetics, viral infection and exposure to contaminants have been associated with this cancer to date. The goal of this study was to investigate the association of a number of factors using a case-control study design ...

  19. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions

    B. Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes, respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  20. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ΣDDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 μg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, 2.96 μg/g), chlordanes (0.12 μg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 μg/g). The ΣDDTs/ΣPCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

  1. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis.

    Browning, Helen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Hammond, John A; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Hall, Ailsa J

    2015-07-19

    Naturally occurring cancers in non-laboratory species have great potential in helping to decipher the often complex causes of neoplasia. Wild animal models could add substantially to our understanding of carcinogenesis, particularly of genetic and environmental interactions, but they are currently underutilized. Studying neoplasia in wild animals is difficult and especially challenging in marine mammals owing to their inaccessibility, lack of exposure history, and ethical, logistical and legal limits on experimentation. Despite this, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) offer an opportunity to investigate risk factors for neoplasia development that have implications for terrestrial mammals and humans who share much of their environment and diet. A relatively accessible California sea lion population on the west coast of the USA has a high prevalence of urogenital carcinoma and is regularly sampled during veterinary care in wildlife rehabilitation centres. Collaborative studies have revealed that genotype, persistent organic pollutants and a herpesvirus are all associated with this cancer. This paper reviews research to date on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of urogenital carcinoma in this species, and presents the California sea lion as an important and currently underexploited wild animal model of carcinogenesis. PMID:26056370

  2. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  3. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  4. Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

    2013-09-01

    We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of helminth species is often lacking in parasitological surveys on otariids and other marine vertebrates, but it is of significance to improve precision in parascript studies or ecological meta-analyses. PMID:22967801

  5. Age-structured modeling reveals long-term declines in the natality of western Steller sea lions.

    Holmes, E E; Fritz, L W; York, A E; Sweeney, K

    2007-12-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the western Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), inhabiting Alaskan waters from Prince William Sound west through the Aleutian Islands, has declined by over 80%. Changing oceanographic conditions, competition from fishing operations, direct human-related mortality, and predators have been suggested as factors driving the decline, but the indirect and interactive nature of their effects on sea lions have made it difficult to attribute changes in abundance to specific factors. In part, this is because only changes in abundance, not changes in vital rates, are known. To determine how vital rates of the western Steller sea lion have changed during its 28-year decline, we first estimated the changes in Steller sea lion age structure using measurements of animals in aerial photographs taken during population surveys since 1985 in the central Gulf of Alaska (CGOA). We then fit an age-structured model with temporally varying vital rates to the age-structure data and to total population and pup counts. The model fits indicate that birth rate in the CGOA steadily declined from 1976 to 2004. Over the same period, survivorship first dropped severely in the early 1980s, when the population collapsed, and then survivorship steadily recovered. The best-fitting model indicates that in 2004, the birth rate in the central Gulf of Alaska was 36% lower than in the 1970s, while adult and juvenile survivorship were close to or slightly above 1970s levels. These predictions and other model predictions concerning population structure match independent field data from mark-recapture studies and photometric analyses. The dominant eigenvalue for the estimated 2004 Leslie matrix is 1.0014, indicating a stable population. The stability, however, depends on very high adult survival, and the shift in vital rates results in a population that is more sensitive to changes in adult survivorship. Although our modeling analysis focused exclusively on the central Gulf of Alaska, the western Gulf of Alaska and eastern Aleutians show a similar pattern of declining pup fraction with no increase in the juvenile, or pre-breeding, fraction. This suggests that declining birth rate may be a problem for western Steller sea lions across the Gulf of Alaska and into the Aleutian Islands. PMID:18213964

  6. Tuberculosis in sea lions and fur seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

    Bernardelli, A; Bastida, R; Loureiro, J; Michelis, H; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Costa, E

    1996-09-01

    Diverse pathological conditions causing the strandings and/or deaths of several species of sea lions and seals on the northern coast of the province of Buenos Aires are being studied. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in six cases of strandings, involving two otariid seal species (one Otaria flavescens and five Arctocephalus australis), between March 1989 and December 1992. Necropsies were performed on all six cases. Granulomatous lesions were observed in the prescapular and hepatic lymph nodes. Lesions were also seen in the lungs, pleura, liver, spleen and peritoneum. Bacteriological isolation was attempted from all the samples. The isolates were identified as belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Some showed characteristics consistent with M. bovis, whereas others demonstrated properties of M. tuberculosis. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from these strains was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), using IS6110, a genetic marker found only in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Using the IS6110 probe, similar fingerprints were obtained, suggesting a common source of infection. However, the pattern of DNA differed from DNA patterns of M. bovis isolated from humans and cattle in Argentina, which generally contain a unique 1.9 kbp band. These results suggest that mycobacteria isolated from wild seals form a different grouping inside the M. tuberculosis complex. This is the first time that tuberculosis has been detected in wild seals from the south-western Atlantic coast. PMID:9025145

  7. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion.

    Browning, Helen M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gulland, Frances M D; Hall, Ailsa J; Finlayson, Jeanie; Dagleish, Mark P; Billington, Karen J; Colegrove, Kathleen; Hammond, John A

    2014-12-01

    Although neoplasia is a major cause of mortality in humans and domestic animals, it has rarely been described in wildlife species. One of the few examples is a highly prevalent urogenital carcinoma in California sea lions (CSLs). Although the aetiology of this carcinoma is clearly multifactorial, inbreeding depression, as estimated using levels of microsatellite multilocus heterozygosity, is identified as predictive for this neoplasia. On further analysis, this relationship appears to be largely driven by one marker, suggesting that a single locus might be associated with the occurrence of this disease in CSLs. In a case-control study, carcinoma was significantly associated with homozygosity at the Pv11 microsatellite locus. Pv11 was mapped to intron 9 of the heparanase 2 gene (HPSE2) locus, a very large gene encoding heparanase 2, which in humans is associated with multiple carcinomas. Correspondingly, immunohistochemical labelling in tissues was present in carcinoma cases within a single homozygous Pv11 genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an individual locus being associated with cancer in any wildlife species. This adds emphasis to the study of HPSE2 in other species, including humans and will guide future studies on this sentinel species that shares much of its diet and environment with humans. PMID:25339718

  8. At-sea and on-shore cycles of juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) derived from satellite dive recorders: A comparison between declining and increasing populations

    Call, Katherine A.; Fadely, Brian S.; Greig, Angie; Rehberg, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We calculated the durations of time on-shore and at-sea for juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) using satellite dive recorders deployed between 2000 and 2002, and compared two genetically distinct populations; one increasing (eastern stock; n=42) and one that experienced an 80% decline in population since the mid-1970s (western stock; n=89). Data represented 24-h periods divided into 72 20-min increments indicating whether an animal was on-shore (dry) or at-sea (wet). Time apportioned between land and sea was described on a per-trip basis (rather than a 24-h cycle) and durations ranged from 20 min to several days. We tested differences in the durations of on-shore and at-sea events among sex, geographic region, year, and age at capture using mixed-effects models. Animal identifier was included as a random effect to account for repeated measures on the same individual. Sea lions from the eastern Aleutian Islands, central Aleutian Islands, and central Gulf of Alaska hauled out just after sunrise, and departure times coincided with dusk. For Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska animals, arrivals and departures occurred throughout the day and were not related to crepuscular period. Mean duration on-shore did not differ among sex, region, year or age, and was unrelated to previous trip duration. This may suggest a minimum rest period for juvenile Steller sea lions or that dependant animals are maximizing their time on-shore suckling. Time spent at-sea varied among individuals from both populations and development of maternal independence, inferred from significant increases in time spent at sea, occurred approximately 10 months later in individuals from Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska than in the other regions, suggesting environmental and developmental differences among regions.

  9. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2014-07-09 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2014. Non-pup counts have...

  10. Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches.

    Mancia, Annalaura; Ryan, James C; Chapman, Robert W; Wu, Qingzhong; Warr, Gregory W; Gulland, Frances M D; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2012-04-01

    Conservation biologists face many challenges in assessing health, immune status and infectious diseases in protected species. These challenges include unpredictable sample populations, diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds of the animals, as well as the practical, legal and ethical issues involved in experimentation. The use of whole genome scale transcriptomics with animal samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner is an approach that shows promise for health assessment. In this study we assessed the utility of a microarray to identify changes in gene expression predictive of health status by interrogating blood samples from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in rehabilitation. A custom microarray was developed from the commercially available dog microarray (Canis familiaris) by selecting probes that demonstrated reliable cross-hybridization with RNA in sea lion blood. This custom microarray was used for the analysis of RNA from 73 sea lion blood samples, from animals with a broad spectrum of health changes. Both traditional classifying techniques and newer artificial neural network approaches correctly classified sea lions with respect to health status, primarily distinguishing between leptospirosis infection and domoic acid exposure. Real time PCR validation for a small set of genes, followed by sequencing, showed good correlation with array results and high identity (96-98%) between the dog and sea lion sequences. This approach to health status classification shows promise for disease identification in a clinical setting, and assessment of health status of wildlife. PMID:22067742

  11. A longitudinal study of Steller sea lion natality rates in the Gulf of Alaska with comparisons to census data.

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Parker, Pamela; Adkison, Milo D

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality) may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery. PMID:25383865

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF RETROBULBAR AND AURICULOPALPEBRAL NERVE BLOCKS IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Gutiérrez, J; Simeone, C; Gulland, F; Johnson, S

    2016-03-01

    Eye lesions are commonly observed in pinnipeds. Clinical assessment is challenging because animals are often blepharospastic and under inhalant anesthesia the globe rotates ventrally, making observation difficult. Retrobulbar and auriculopalpebral nerve block techniques have been developed in other species to alleviate these difficulties and allow for a more thorough ophthalmic exam. Ocular nerve block techniques were developed for California sea lions (CSLs) (Zalophus californianus) using lidocaine hydrochloride 2%. To develop the retrobulbar block, a variety of needle sizes, anatomic approaches, and volumes of methylene blue were injected into the orbits of 10 CSL cadavers. An optimal technique, based on desired distribution of methylene blue dye into periocular muscles and tissues, was determined to be a two-point (ventrolateral and ventromedial) transpalpebral injection with a 20-ga, 1 1/2-inch needle. This technique was then tested using lidocaine on 26 anesthetized animals prior to euthanasia, and on one case with clinical ocular disease. A dose of 4 mg/kg of lidocaine was considered ideal, with positive results and minimal complications. The retrobulbar block had a 76.9% rate of success (using 4 mg/kg of lidocaine), which was defined as the globe returning at least halfway to its central orientation with mydriasis. No systemic adverse effects were noted with this technique. The auriculopalpebral nerve block was also adapted for CSLs from techniques described in dogs, cattle, and horses. Lidocaine was injected (2-3 ml) by subcutaneous infiltration lateral to the orbital rim, where the auriculopalpebral nerve branch courses over the zygomatic arch. This block was used in five blepharospastic animals that were anesthetized for ophthalmic examinations. The auriculopalpebral nerve block was successful in 60% of the cases, which was defined as reduction or elimination of blepharospasm for up to 3 hr. Success appeared to be dependent more on the location of injection rather than on the dose administered. PMID:27010283

  13. PATHOGENIC LEPTOSPIRA SEROVARS IN FREE-LIVING SEA LIONS IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND ALONG THE BAJA CALIFORNIA COAST OF MEXICO.

    Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Atilano-López, Daniel; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Ramírez-Delgado, David; Ramírez-Echenique, María F; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Suzán, Gerardo; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2016-04-28

    The California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), a permanent inhabitant of the Gulf of California in Mexico, is susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection, which can result in hepatic and renal damage and may lead to renal failure and death. During summer 2013, we used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in blood of clinically healthy sea lion pups from seven rookery islands on the Pacific Coast of Baja California (Pacific Ocean) and in the Gulf of California. We also used PCR to examine blood for Leptospira DNA. Isolation of Leptospira in liquid media was unsuccessful. We found higher antibody prevalence in sea lions from the rookery islands in the gulf than in those from the Pacific Coast. Antibodies against 11 serovars were identified in the Gulf of California population; the most frequent reactions were against serovars Bataviae (90%), Pyrogenes (86%), Wolffi (86%), Celledoni (71%), and Pomona (65%). In the Pacific Ocean population, MAT was positive against eight serovars, where Wolffi (88%), Pomona (75%), and Bataviae (70%) were the most frequent. Serum samples agglutinated with more than one Leptospira serovar. The maximum titer was 3,200. Each island had a different serology profile, and islands combined showed a distinct profile for each region. We detected pathogenic Leptospira DNA in 63% of blood samples, but we found no saprophytic Leptospira. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood samples with high and low MAT titers. Together, these two methods enhance the diagnosis and interpretation of sea lion leptospirosis. Our results may be related to human activities or the presence of other reservoirs with which sea lions interact, and they may also be related to sea lion stranding. PMID:26967136

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in the diet of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Aurioles-Gamboa, David

    2004-01-01

    Between June 1995 and May 1996 seven rookeries in the Gulf of California were visited four times in order to collect scat samples for studying spatial and seasonal variability California sea lion prey. The rookeries studied were San Pedro Mrtir, San Esteban, El Rasito, Los Machos, Los Cantiles, Isla Granito, and Isla Lobos. The 1273 scat samples collected yielded 4995 otoliths (95.3%) and 247 (4.7%) cephalopod beaks. Fish were found in 97.4% of scat samples collected, cephalopods in 11.2%, a...

  15. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae. PMID:25431362

  16. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in multiple tissues of free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Keogh, Mandy J; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Ylitalo, Gina M; Fadely, Brian S; Pitcher, Kenneth W

    2016-01-15

    The relationships of selected organochlorine (OC) contaminants between blubber, blood, feces, and milk of young, free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined. Both between and within each tissue there was considerable individual variation. In spite of the variation, similar patterns were observed across the tissues for most of the selected PCB congeners. In all four tissues, the major PCB congeners were PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, and PCB153. The most prominent congener, both as a weight (ng/g lipid) and as a percentage of summed PCBs (?PCBs), was PCB 153. Comparisons between paired tissues showed that ?DDTs in blubber samples were related to concentrations in blood, feces, and milk. The ?PCBs in blubber were related to concentrations in milk and fecal samples, though the relationship with feces was weak. Our findings show milk samples, in particular, are useful for assessing OCs in young sea lions. Blubber concentrations of PCB101, PCB118, and PCB138 were an order of magnitude higher than those in milk, supporting the biomagnification of these PCB congeners in SSL tissues. The findings indicate alternative tissues may be used as indicators of relative contaminant exposure in lieu of surgical blubber biopsy. PMID:26524270

  17. JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800 IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU

    Davis Cortegana-Arias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

  18. Characterization of a novel papillomavirus species (ZcPV1) from two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Rivera, Rebecca; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Hoffman, Elizabeth M; Stacy, Brian A; Jensen, Eric D; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wellehan, James F X

    2012-03-23

    A seven-year old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presented with focally extensive, bilaterally symmetric, proliferative axillary skin lesions and preputial lesions. A second California sea lion in the same population presented with similar proliferative lesions on the underside of the tail. Histopathology revealed epidermal hyperplasia with severe hyperkeratosis, with proliferating keratinocytes forming broad, branching pegs that extended into the dermis. Pan-papillomaviral consensus PCR was used to obtain initial E1 sequence template and the complete genome was determined using a combination of rolling circle amplification and specific-primer PCR. Analysis revealed a novel papillomavirus, Zalophus californianus papillomavirus 1 (ZcPV1), with seven open reading frames encoding five early proteins (E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4) and two late proteins (L1 and L2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that (ZcPV1) is most closely related to Equine papillomavirus 1 (EcPV1) in the genus Zetapapillomavirus, and Canine papillomaviruses 3 and 4 (CPV3, CPV4) in the genus Chipapillomavirus. The lesions regressed without intervention over a period of several months. PMID:22005176

  19. Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions

    Neely Benjamin A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73. Artificial neural networks (ANN were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20. Results No single peak was a good classifier of acute DAT, and ANN models were the best predictors of acute DAT. Performance measures for a single median ANN were: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60%; positive predictive value, 71%; negative predictive value, 100%. When 101 ANNs were combined and allowed to vote for the outcome, the performance measures were: sensitivity, 30%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 59%. Conclusions These results suggest that MALDI-TOF peptide profiling and neural networks can perform either as a highly sensitive (100% negative predictive value or a highly specific (100% positive predictive value diagnostic tool for acute DAT. This also suggests that machine learning directed by populations of predictive models offer the ability to modulate the predictive effort into a specific type of error.

  20. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by a combination of bathymetry and ecological boundaries within LPRE. Regardless of their reproductive condition, females showed a strong fidelity to IL, and their foraging activity was restricted to relatively shallow areas (10-100 m) on the continental shelf. During autumn and winter, SSL females made significantly longer FTs than during the breeding season, when lactating females decrease FT duration by increasing transit speed but maintain a similar spatial coverage compared with FT later in lactation. Although several aquatic areas of high priority for conservation in LPRE have been identified and proposed, only 15% of the foraging habitat of SSL females is currently included in these areas. This emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of the at-sea foraging distributions of central point foragers in marine protected areas. If conservation efforts focus only on coastal breeding concentrations, key elements of the life cycle are excluded with potential unpredictable effects.

  1. Molecular Markers, MAT and Modeling: New Evidence for Leptospirosis Being Endemic in California Sea Lions, with Periodic Epizootics that Defy the Host-adapted Strain Paradigm

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally in humans and domestic dogs. Disease outbreaks have occurred periodically in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the central and northern coasts of California, with hundreds of a...

  2. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  3. Crossing to safety: dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus.

    O'Corry-Crowe, Greg; Gelatt, Tom; Rea, Lorrie; Bonin, Carolina; Rehberg, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Population growth typically involves range expansion and establishment of new breeding sites, while the opposite occurs during declines. Although density dependence is widely invoked in theoretical studies of emigration and colonization in expanding populations, few empirical studies have documented the mechanisms. Still fewer have documented the direction and mechanisms of individual transfer in declining populations. Here, we screen large numbers of pups sampled on their natal rookeries for variation in mtDNA (n = 1106) and 16 microsatellite loci (n = 588) and show that new Steller sea lion breeding sites did not follow the typical paradigm and were instead colonized by sea lions from both a declining (Endangered) population and an increasing population. Dispersing individuals colonized rookeries in the distributional hiatus between two evolutionarily distinct (?(st) = 0.222, R(st) = 0.053, K = 2) metapopulations recently described as separate subspecies. Hardy-Weinberg, mixed-stock and relatedness analysis revealed levels of interbreeding on the new rookeries that exclude (i) assortative mating among eastern and western forms, and (ii) inbreeding avoidance as primary motivations for dispersal. Positive and negative density dependence is implicated in both cases of individual transfer. Migration distance limits, and conspecific attraction and performance likely influenced the sequence of rookery colonizations. This study demonstrates that resource limitation may trigger an exodus of breeding animals from declining populations, with substantial impacts on distribution and patterns of genetic variation. It also revealed that this event is rare because colonists dispersed across an evolutionary boundary, suggesting that the causative factors behind recent declines are unusual or of larger magnitude than normally occur. PMID:25266462

  4. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations

    Brunner Sylvia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

  5. Food habits studies of Steller sea lions in Washington, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1993-05-01 to 1999-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0145304)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1993 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples from Steller sea lions in...

  6. California sea lion and northern fur seal censuses conducted at Channel Islands, California by Alaska Fisheries Science Center from 1969-07-31 to 2015-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0145165)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  7. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  8. Survival and natality rate observations of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1987-09-20 to 2014-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0145167)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  9. Age-related change and distribution of cadmium and zinc concentrations in the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata) from the coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    Hamanaka, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Japan); Itoo, T.; Mishima, S.

    1982-02-01

    Tissue cadmium and zinc levels in Steller sea lions have been analysed to elucidate the body distribution of these metals and their age-related accumulation. A significant correlation between age (0.7-8.8 year old) and renal and hepatic cadmium concentration was noted. Of the tissues examined, the kidney manifested the highest cadmium content (mean: 20.9 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry wt). A similar zinc distribution pattern was observed; its concentration was more uniform among tissues than that of cadmium. The tissue cadmium concentration in the Steller sea lion was lower than in other pinnipeds from various areas, possibly due to their feeding habits which may represent a major pathway of metal accumulation.

  10. Isolation of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus from Samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.

    Sawyer, J C; Madin, S H; Skilling, D E

    1978-01-01

    A virus was isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. It was later named San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV). State and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because SMSV was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Ground carcasses of northern fur seals, salvaged after harvesting pelts, are fed to mink on ranches in the United States. Domestic swine are kept on some of these same ranches. Samples withheld from lots of this seal carcass mink food were found to contain SMSV (serotype 5) in titers of 10(6.1) and 10(6.8) tissue culture infective doses. PMID:629435

  11. Determination of sound types and source levels of airborne vocalizations by California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, in rehabilitation at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California

    Schwalm, Afton Leigh

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly popular and easily recognized marine mammal in zoos, aquariums, circuses, and often seen by ocean visitors. They are highly vocal and gregarious on land. Surprisingly, little research has been performed on the vocalization types, source levels, acoustic properties, and functions of airborne sounds used by California sea lions. This research on airborne vocalizations of California sea lions will advance the understanding of this aspect of California sea lions communication, as well as examine the relationship between health condition and acoustic behavior. Using a PhillipsRTM digital recorder with attached microphone and a calibrated RadioShackRTM sound pressure level meter, acoustical data were recorded opportunistically on California sea lions during rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA. Vocalizations were analyzed using frequency, time, and amplitude variables with Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software Version 1.4 (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY). Five frequency, three time, and four amplitude variables were analyzed for each vocalization. Differences in frequency, time, and amplitude variables were not significant by sex. The older California sea lion group produced vocalizations that were significantly lower in four frequency variables, significantly longer in two time variables, significantly higher in calibrated maximum and minimum amplitude variables, and significantly lower in frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared with pups. Six call types were identified: bark, goat, growl/grumble, bark/grumble, bark/growl, and grumble/moan. The growl/grumble call was higher in dominant beginning, ending, and minimum frequency, as well as in the frequency at maximum amplitude compared with the bark, goat, bark/grumble calls in the first versus last vocalization sample. The goat call was significantly higher in first harmonic interval than any other call type in the all vocalizations sample. The "fate" of a sea lion was categorized as: released, placed at another facility, remained at TMMC, euthanized, or died. To determine if acoustic features could be used to assess the recovery of a pup, the acoustic features of a pup's first recorded vocalization were compared with the frequency, time, and amplitude of the last vocalization recorded (i.e., before it was released or placed at another facility). In addition, all first vocalizations were pooled and all last vocalizations were pooled for acoustic analysis, regardless of their fate. Released pups had shorter duration calls, a greater first harmonic interval, and a higher dominant maximum frequency than either pups that died or pups remaining at TMMC. Released pups had a higher frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared to dead and remaining pups. Pups that died had significantly lower dominant ending frequency and a lower dominant minimum frequency than released or remaining pups. These results were supported by other studies on different species of otariids, phocids, and cetaceans. The preliminary analyses presented in this thesis holds promise that with additional data acoustic features of California sea lion airborne vocalizations could indicate sex, age, and possibly health condition or the potential for release.

  12. High natality rates of endangered Steller sea lions in Kenai Fjords, Alaska and perceptions of population status in the Gulf of Alaska.

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Parker, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Steller sea lions experienced a dramatic population collapse of more than 80% in the late 1970s through the 1990s across their western range in Alaska. One of several competing hypotheses about the cause holds that reduced female reproductive rates (natality) substantively contributed to the decline and continue to limit recovery in the Gulf of Alaska despite the fact that there have been very few attempts to directly measure natality in this species. We conducted a longitudinal study of natality among individual Steller sea lions (n = 151) at a rookery and nearby haulouts in Kenai Fjords, Gulf of Alaska during 2003-2009. Multi-state models were built and tested in Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. The models that most closely fit the data suggested that females which gave birth had a higher probability of surviving and giving birth in the following year compared to females that did not give birth, indicating some females are more fit than others. Natality, estimated at 69%, was similar to natality for Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska prior to their decline (67%) and much greater than the published estimate for the 2000s (43%) which was hypothesized from an inferential population dynamic model. Reasons for the disparity are discussed, and could be resolved by additional longitudinal estimates of natality at this and other rookeries over changing ocean climate regimes. Such estimates would provide an appropriate assessment of a key parameter of population dynamics in this endangered species which has heretofore been lacking. Without support for depressed natality as the explanation for a lack of recovery of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska, alternative hypotheses must be more seriously considered. PMID:20386691

  13. Examining the Role of Components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the Susceptibility of New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to Disease

    Osborne, Amy J.; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B. Louise; Kennedy, Martin A.; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a ...

  14. Activation of an inflammatory response is context-dependent during early development of the California sea lion.

    Vera-Massieu, Camila; Brock, Patrick M; Godnez-Reyes, Carlos; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2015-04-01

    Variations in immune function can arise owing to trade-offs, that is, the allocation of limited resources among costly competing physiological functions. Nevertheless, there is little information regarding the ontogeny of the immune system within an ecological context, and it is still unknown whether development affects the way in which resources are allocated to different immune effectors. We investigated changes in the inflammatory response during early development of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and examined its association with body condition, as a proxy for the availability of energetic resources. We found that the relationship between inflammation and body condition varied according to developmental stage and circulating levels of leucocyte populations, a proxy for current infection. Body condition was related to the magnitude of the inflammatory response during two of the three developmental periods assessed, allowing for the possibility that the availability of pup energetic reserves can limit immune function. For older pups, the ability to mount an inflammatory response was related to their circulating levels of neutrophils and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, implying that the infection status of an individual will influence its ability to respond to a new challenge. Our results suggest that trade-offs may occur within the immune system and highlight the importance of taking into account ontogeny in ecoimmunological studies. PMID:26064646

  15. Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    Stegall, V.K.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Pitcher, K.W.; Rye, R.O.; Kester, C.L.; Stricker, C.A.; Bern, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

  16. Extensive variation at MHC DRB in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection.

    Osborne, A J; Zavodna, M; Chilvers, B L; Robertson, B C; Negro, S S; Kennedy, M A; Gemmell, N J

    2013-07-01

    Marine mammals are often reported to possess reduced variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We evaluated diversity at two MHC class II B genes, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, NZSL) a species that has suffered high mortality owing to bacterial epizootics, using Sanger sequencing and haplotype reconstruction, together with next-generation sequencing. Despite this species' prolonged history of small population size and highly restricted distribution, we demonstrate extensive diversity at MHC DRB with 26 alleles, whereas MHC DQB is dimorphic. We identify four DRB codons, predicted to be involved in antigen binding, that are evolving under adaptive evolution. Our data suggest diversity at DRB may be maintained by balancing selection, consistent with the role of this locus as an antigen-binding region and the species' recent history of mass mortality during a series of bacterial epizootics. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB and DRB sequences from pinnipeds and other carnivores revealed significant allelic diversity, but little phylogenetic depth or structure among pinniped alleles; thus, we could neither confirm nor refute the possibility of trans-species polymorphism in this group. The phylogenetic pattern observed however, suggests some significant evolutionary constraint on these loci in the recent past, with the pattern consistent with that expected following an epizootic event. These data may help further elucidate some of the genetic factors underlying the unusually high susceptibility to bacterial infection of the threatened NZSL, and help us to better understand the extent and pattern of MHC diversity in pinnipeds. PMID:23572124

  17. Origin and Depositional Processes of Coastal Sands Revealed by Grain-Size Analysis (golfe du Lion, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Braud, R.

    2014-12-01

    The study focused on the lower beach and nearshore zone of the Golfe du Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea -France). We looked at grain-size distribution in the berm, collision zone, inner and outer bars, lower shoreface applying parametric methods, grain-size modal analysis and a deconvolution program (LNDoGS).Results indicate a mixture of three recognizable sedimentary types (ST1 - ST3 - ST4) and explain grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sands in both multimodal and apparently unimodal GSDs. ST1 flows from the River Rhone, ST3 and 4 are local components originating from either fluvial input or nearshore reworking of Quaternary sediments.A fourth component (ST2), derived in situ from ST1, is found far from the overwhelming footprint of the Rhone river sands, westward in the lower shoreface.The mixing process entails significant variations in grain-size indices and skewness appears as a very sensitive and meaningful parameter. Skewness and bimodality, generated in all zones, are two aspects of the mixing process, depending on the relative proportions of STs.Using LNDoGS makes deciphering the STs a lot easier. It also reveals that some GSDs can result from a combination of 3 sedimentary variants (SVs) belonging to the same ST (monotype grain-size distributions). Monotype mixtures are very abundant on the lower shoreface, significantly present on the berm and inner bar but rare in the most dynamic zones. On the berm they tend towards a lognormal model for only bedload is present in the swash. This trend towards a lognormal model can also be observed on the lower shoreface, possibly indicating the occurrence of suspension as a dominant process.Thus, each segment of the nearshore - foreshore profile can be characterized using coarseness, skewness sign, the presence of locally generated ST2, abundance of bimodalities, occurrence of SVs. Finally, a more detailed description of the spatial properties of grain-size distributions could help explore possible mechanisms underlying sediment sorting in the coastal zone and provide a useful set of indices for paleogeographic reconstructions.

  18. The response of SST to insolation and ice sheet variability from MIS 3 to MIS 11 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record based on the Uk'37 index from the PRGL1 borehole (Promess1) drilled on the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (GL). This is the first continuous and high-resolution record in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS) 3 to MIS 11. Due the location of the GL, the SST proxy can be considered to be a reliable tool to study the climate link between high latitude and midlatitude. During glacial inceptions, the northern ice sheet signal via cold northwesterly winds was first recorded in our study area in comparison with southern locations, highlighting the strong sensitivity of this location to high-latitude dynamics. Moreover, the amplitude of the millennial-scale variability in the western Mediterranean basin seems to be the result of both ice sheet and insolation variability.

  19. Trophic niche overlap of sprat and commercial small pelagic teleosts in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Le Bourg, B.; Bănaru, D.; Saraux, C.; Nowaczyk, A.; Le Luherne, E.; Jadaud, A.; Bigot, J. L.; Richard, P.

    2015-09-01

    Increasing abundance of non-commercial sprats and decreasing biomass and landings of commercial anchovies and sardines justify the need to study the feeding ecology and trophic niche overlap of these planktivorous species in the Gulf of Lions. Their diet has been investigated on the basis of stomach content and stable isotope analyses in 2011 and 2012 according to different depths and regions in the study area. The main prey were Corycaeidae copepods, Clauso/Paracalanus, Euterpina acutifrons and Microsetella, for sprats and small copepods, such as Microsetella, Oncaea and Corycaeidae, for anchovies and sardines. This is the first time that the diet of sprats is described in the Gulf of Lions. Sprats fed on a larger size spectrum of prey and seem to be more generalist feeders compared to anchovies and sardines. Ontogenetic changes as well as spatial and temporal variations of the diet occurred in the three species. Stable isotope analysis revealed mobility of sardines and sprats among feeding areas while anchovies exhibited preferred feeding areas. Sprats showed a higher relative condition assessed by C/N ratios than sardines and anchovies. Our results showed an overlap of the trophic niches for the three species, indicating a potential trophic competition in the Gulf of Lions.

  20. Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.

    Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel Garca; Eulenberger, Klaus

    2012-06-01

    Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds. PMID:22779229

  1. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora).

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. PMID:26821159

  2. PHARMACOKINETICS OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE AND ITS METABOLITE O-DESMETHYLTRAMADOL FOLLOWING A SINGLE, ORALLY ADMINISTERED DOSE IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Boonstra, Jennifer L; Barbosa, Lorraine; Van Bonn, William G; Johnson, Shawn P; Gulland, Frances M D; Cox, Sherry K; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Tramadol is a synthetic, centrally acting, opiate-like analgesic that is structurally related to codeine and morphine. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of tramadol was administered orally in fish at 2 mg/kg to a total of 15 wild California sea lions admitted for rehabilitation. Twenty-four total blood samples were collected post drug administration at 10, 20, 30, and 45 min and at 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr. Blood plasma was separated and stored at -80C until analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine levels of tramadol and M1, the major active metabolite. The results indicate that the plasma levels of parent tramadol are low or negligible during the first 30-45 min and then reach the predicted mean maximum plasma concentration of 358 ng/ml at 1.52 hr. The M1 metabolite was not detectable in 21 of 24 plasma samples, below the level of quantification of 5 ng/ml in one sample, and detectable at 11 and 17 ng/ml in two of the samples. This study suggests that a 2 mg/kg dose would need to be administered every 6-8 hr to maintain concentrations of tramadol above the minimum human analgesic level for mild to moderate pain. Based on dosing simulations, a dose of 4 mg/kg q8 hr or q12 hr, on average, may represent an adequate compromise, but further studies are needed using a larger sample size. Pharmacodynamic studies are warranted to determine if tramadol provides analgesic effects in this species. The potential for tramadol toxicosis at any dose also has not been determined in this species. PMID:26352950

  3. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  4. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  5. Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa

    M. Florencia Grandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American sea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predatorio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica.

  6. Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics / Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tcticas del predador y la presa

    M. Florencia, Grandi; Roco, Loizaga de Castro; Enrique A, Crespo.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predat [...] orio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitn del barco, se describe cmo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamferos marinos y las pesqueras a lo largo de la costa patagnica. Abstract in english Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American s [...] ea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.

  7. Composition and provenance of terrigenous organic matter transported along submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Pasqual, Catalina; Goi, Miguel A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Previous projects in the Gulf of Lion have investigated the path of terrigenous material in the Rhone deltaic system, the continental shelf and the nearby canyon heads. This study focuses on the slope region of the Gulf of Lion to further describe particulate exchanges with oceans interior through submarine canyons and atmospheric inputs. Nine sediment traps were deployed from the heads to the mouths of Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus submarine canyons and on the southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. Sediment trap samples were analyzed by CuO oxidation to investigate spatial and temporal variability in the yields and compositional characteristics of terrigenous biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols and cutin acids. Sediment trap data show that the Dense Shelf Water Cascading event that took place in the months of winter 2006 (January, February and March) had a profound impact on particle fluxes in both canyons. This event was responsible for the majority of lignin phenol (55.4%) and cutin acid (42.8%) inputs to submarine canyons, with lignin compositions similar to those measured along the mid- and outer-continental shelf, which is consistent with the resuspension and lateral transfer of unconsolidated shelf sediment to the canyons. The highest lithogenic-normalized lignin derived phenols contents in sediment trap samples were found during late spring and summer at all stations (i.e., 193.46 ?g VP g-1 lithogenic at deep slope station), when river flow, wave energy and total particle fluxes were relatively low. During this period, lignin compositions were characterized by elevated cinnamyl to vanillyl phenol ratios (>3) at almost all stations, high p-coumaric to ferulic acid ratios (>3) and high yields of cutin acids relative to vanillyl phenols (>1), all trends that are consistent with high pollen inputs. Our results suggest marked differences in the sources and transport processes responsible for terrigenous material export along submarine canyons, mainly consisting of fluvial and shelf sediments during winter and atmospheric dust inputs during spring and summer.

  8. Budget and residence time of 210Pb along the Gulf of Lion's continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Concentration of 210Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion's continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk 210Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of 210Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of 210Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for 210Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of 210Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the 210Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author)

  9. A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.

    Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized. PMID:23544769

  10. A NOVEL GAMMAHERPESVIRUS IN NORTHERN FUR SEALS (CALLORHINUS URSINUS) IS CLOSELY RELATED TO THE CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS) CARCINOMA-ASSOCIATED OTARINE HERPESVIRUS-1.

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; DeLong, Robert; Gelatt, Tom; Archer, Linda; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-01-01

    Otarine herpesvirus 1 (OtHV1) is strongly associated with California sea lion (CSL, Zalophus californianus) urogenital carcinoma, the most common cancer documented in marine mammals. In addition to CSL, OtHV1 has also been found in association with carcinoma in South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), demonstrating it can infect related species. Northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus) are sympatric with CSL, and copulation between these species has been observed; yet, there are no reports of urogenital carcinoma in NFS. We describe a new Otarine herpesvirus found in vaginal swabs from NFS, herein called OtHV4. Partial sequencing of the polymerase gene and the glycoprotein B gene revealed OtHV4 is closely related to OtHV1, with 95% homology in the region of polymerase sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that they are sister taxa. An OtHV4-specific hydrolysis probe quantitative PCR was developed and validated, and its use on vaginal swabs revealed 16 of 50 (32%) wild adult female NFS were positive for OtHV4. The identification of a virus highly similar to the carcinoma-associated OtHV1 in a sympatric species without carcinoma suggests that comparative genomics of OtHV1 and OtHV4 may identify candidate viral oncogenes. PMID:26555110

  11. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  12. Mortality among health-conscious elderly Californians.

    Enstrom, J. E.; Pauling, L.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to obtain epidemiologic evidence regarding the mortality rate among vitamin supplement users, a prospective study was made of 479 elderly Californian respondents to a 1974 questionnaire carried in Prevention, a health magazine that advocates vitamin supplement usage. Based on self-reported questionnaire data obtained in 1974 and 1977, this cohort does indeed consume large quantities of vitamin and mineral supplements. In addition, the cohort is quite health conscious and appears...

  13. Transformation of PBDE mixtures during sediment transport and resuspension in marine environments (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion were studied. They were largely predominated by BDE 209 (98.7% of all PBDEs) indicating that the main source of these pollutants was the commercial mixture deca-BDE. This compound and the less brominated BDE exhibited a southwestward decreasing concentration gradient following the dominant marine currents and bottom relief, e.g. the Mud Belt, the submarine canyons and the Open Continental Slope. All PBDEs exhibited statistically significant correlations confirming the common origin. However, a progressive transformation of the dumped BDE 209 was identified showing a depletion paralleled by increases of the less brominated BDEs (from 8.6% to 22%). These less brominated compounds were accumulated at about 100–140 km away from the Rhone prodelta, e.g. at the end of the submarine canyons, evidencing that these transformation compounds can be accumulated at long distances from the dumping sites in the marine system. Highlights: ► Polybromodiphenyl ethers are associated to organic carbon in marine sediments. ► PBDEs in marine sediments can accumulate further away than 140 km from the spill site. ► BDE-209 in marine sediments generate congeners found in banned commercial mixtures. ► BDE-209 in marine sediments generates new congeners not found in commercial mixtures. ► Submarine canyons channel PBDEs from the continental platform to the deep shelf. - Decomposition of decabromodiphenyl ether in marine sediments generates congeners found in banned mixtures in areas located far away from the discharge sites.

  14. Stratigraphic simulations of the shelf of the Gulf of Lions: testing subsidence rates and sea-level curves during the Pliocene and Quaternary

    Leroux, Estelle; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; GRANJEON, Didier; Droz, Laurence; Gorini, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Determining the relative importance of factors interacting to control stratigraphic organization is a key issue in sedimentology. The Pliocene-Quaternary chronostratigraphy on the Gulf of Lions platform is still poorly constrained, giving rise to different interpretations of the evolution of its subsidence through time. This paper examines the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary filling of the Gulf of Lion's shelf with Dionisos, a numerical stratigraphic model. Our results show that a constant su...

  15. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Adkison, Milo D; Parker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population) in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ) was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality. PMID:26488901

  16. Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to disease.

    Osborne, Amy J; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B Louise; Kennedy, Martin A; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i) a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii) putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii) a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance. PMID:25874773

  17. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Newsome, Seth D; Pavez, Guido; Oliva, Doris; Costa, Daniel P; Hückstädt, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL) and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD) contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common. PMID:26309046

  18. Key Characteristics of Californians Age 60 and Over

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set presents key demographic characteristics of Californians Age 60 and Over. This data set can be viewed by county or Area Agency on Aging Planning and...

  19. A lion population under threat

    Tumenta, Pricelia Nyaekon

    2012-01-01

    Lions in Waza National Park Cameroon were studied with focus on lion ecology and the human-lion conflicts due to livestock predation. The number of adult lions has declined from 40-60 in 2002 to 14-21 in 2008, which represents a reduction of about 65% in 6 years. The human-livestock pressure on the park is enormous, 31% of photographs captured by camera traps in 2008, were of humans and livestock in the park. Retaliatory killing of lions by herders is high, as lions increasingly predate on ca...

  20. Productiv Index of Meat Rabbits of White New Zealand Breed Californian and their Crossbreeds

    Macari Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The researches had been held at the rabbits farm of STE Maximovca on the rabbits of White New Zealandand Californian meat breeds, crossbreds of the first generation received after the breeding (?White NewZealand x ? Californian and ?Californian x ? White New Zealand. After the rabbits slaughtering fromfour analysed groups, there was established the received meat quantity after the carcass boning ofcrossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian which was 80.10.2%, and the same analysed indexat crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand was 77.00.1%. The total amount of ratiobone/meat in the carcass there was received at crossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian whichwas 1:4.05, and at crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand this index was 1:3.38.

  1. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton–zooplankton–anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    The transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on 210Po, 210Pb activity concentrations and 210Po/210Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that 210Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while 210Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and 210Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence 210Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. - Highlights: • 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in plankton vary up to a factor of two in the Gulf of Lion (East vs West). • 210Po and 210Pb variability is connected to local specific pelagic habitats. • Bio-magnification of 210Po is evidenced in anchovy/sardine foodwebs

  2. Lions of West Africa

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé Aïkpémi

    2011-01-01

    The Earth’s biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate in the last decades. Many species, including carnivores, are becoming endangered. The lion was one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals and is today restricted to Gir ecosystem in India and to more or less fragmented populations in sub-saharan Africa. The species is considered as Vulnerable on IUCN Red List. In West Africa, due to its small and fragmented populations, the species is listed as Regionally ...

  3. The Spanish Language in Californian Colleges and Universities

    Buzatu, Anamaría

    2013-01-01

    Spanish is considered the second familiar language in California due to its Californian history, our state’s proximity to Mexico and other Latin American countries, continuous Hispanic immigration, and the size of its Hispanic population, which surpasses that of all other states. This article analyzes the number of enrollment in Spanish courses during 2010–2011 academic year and then compared to the ones from other Romance languages (Portuguese, Italian, French, Romanian & Catalan) taught at ...

  4. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R.; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E.; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014–2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  5. Cannes Lions 2005 / Hando Sinisalu

    Sinisalu, Hando, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    Artiklis esitletakse vidut "Grr" autori Sean Thompson'i ning riiliikmete John Hunt'i, Mark Stewart ning Fred Koblinger'i avaldatud mtteid reklaamivistluselt Cannes'is, kus osales ligi 500 td 38 riigist. Vt. samas: Cannes Lions 2005 winners

  6. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using 210 Po et le 210 Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins

    210 Po and 210 Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of 210 Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, 210 Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than 210 Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a 210 Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of 210 Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. 210 Po and 210 Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, 210 Po and 210 Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author)

  7. I am like a lion to Ephraim

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    The article gives examples from the Old Testament of the lion as image of God and shows how this image is part of various stories about lions, shepherds and sheep. It is discussed whether Yahweh was ever worshipped in the image of an animal and it is argued that the combination of anthropomorphic...

  8. 78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v... and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable...

  9. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  10. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to genetic distinctiveness of West and Central African lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km, or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions. PMID:24421889

  11. A lion population under threat: understanding lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) ecology and human-lion interactions related to livestock predation in Waza National Park, Cameroon

    Tumenta, Pricelia Nyaekon

    2012-01-01

    Lions in Waza National Park Cameroon were studied with focus on lion ecology and the human-lion conflicts due to livestock predation. The number of adult lions has declined from 40-60 in 2002 to 14-21 in 2008, which represents a reduction of about 65% in 6 years. The human-livestock pressure on the park is enormous, 31% of photographs captured by camera traps in 2008, were of humans and livestock in the park. Retaliatory killing of lions by herders is high, as lions increasingly predate on ca...

  12. Maintaining the genetic health of putative Barbary lions in captivity: an analysis of Moroccan Royal Lions

    Black, Simon A.; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Harland, Adrian; Groombridge, Jim J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The last representatives of the Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo), once numerous in North Africa but exterminated from the wild by the 1940s, are believed to be the captive lions descended from the Moroccan Royal Collection, numbering less than 90 animals in zoos worldwide. The genetic fitness of these captive ?Royal Lions? may now be under threat since, although most zoos have avoided hybridisation with animals of other origin, no formal breeding programme currently exists ...

  13. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a carbon sequestration program based in payments for management adoption is going to favor the probability of adoption of mitigating alternatives. Finally, in Chapter 4, we interpret the yield productivity potential, as a state variable, summarizing the complex system of environmental and land-use history of each field, and propose fully dynamic econometric models to structurally assess carbon sequestration policies.

  14. Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

  15. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.

    Myers, D L; Zurbriggen, A.; Lutz, H.; Pospischil, A.

    1997-01-01

    In light of recent canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of CDV infection in captive lions and tigers in Switzerland. The retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. Necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. All existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against CDV. The results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classif...

  16. Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology

    This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Impact of Health Insurance Policy Changes on Californians with Severe Chronic Disease

    LEIBOWITZ, Arleen A.; Desmond, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Two recent changes in health policy will likely negatively impact state budgets and the health of low-income Californians with chronic disease. The new cost-sharing for medical visits, pharmaceuticals, and inpatient stays in California's Medcaid program (Medi-Cal) and the exclusion of the undocumented and individuals who have been legal residents for less than five years from the insurance expansions that The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 provides will reduce medical care...

  18. Optimal Load Dispatch Using Ant Lion Optimization

    Menakshi Mahendru Nischal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Ant lion optimization (ALO technique to solve optimal load dispatch problem. Ant lion optimization (ALO is a novel nature inspired algorithm. The ALO algorithm mimics the hunting mechanism of ant lions in nature. Five main steps of hunting prey such as the random walk of ants, building traps, entrapment of ants in traps, catching preys, and re-building traps are implemented. Optimal load dispatch (OLD is a method of determining the most efficient, low-cost and reliable operation of a power system by dispatching available electricity generation resources to supply load on the system. The primary objective of OLD is to minimize total cost of generation while honoring operational constraints of available generation resources. The proposed technique is implemented on 3, 6 & 20 unit test system for solving the OLD. Numerical results shows that the proposed method has good convergence property and better in quality of solution than other algorithms reported in recent literature.

  19. Mac OS X Lion portable genius

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Two e-books, Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius and MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition, bundled in one package Books in the Portable Genius series provide readers with the most accessible, useful information possible, including plenty of tips and techniques for the most-used features in a product or software. These e-books will show you what you may not find out by just working with your MacBook Pro and OS X Lion. Genius icons present smart or innovative ways to do something, saving time and hassle. Easy-to-find information gives you the essentials plus insightful tips on how to navigate

  20. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins; Etude du transfert et du depot du materiel particulaire par le {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application aux marges continentales du Golfe de Gascogne (NE Atlantique) et du Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranee)

    Radakovitch, O.

    1995-07-07

    {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of {sup 210} Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, {sup 210} Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than {sup 210} Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a {sup 210} Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of {sup 210} Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on {sup 210} Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author). 243 refs.

  1. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya.

    Hazzah, Leela; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Naughton, Lisa; Edwards, Charles T T; Mwebi, Ogeto; Kearney, Fiachra; Frank, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing. PMID:24527992

  2. Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo

    F. C Eloff

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

  3. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  4. The LIONS code (version 1.0)

    The new LIONS code (Lancement d'IONS or Ion Launching), a dynamical code implemented in the SPIRaL project for the CIME cyclotron studies, is presented. The various software involves a 3D magnetostatic code, 2D or 3D electrostatic codes for generation of realistic field maps, and several dynamical codes for studying the behaviour of the reference particle from the cyclotron center up to the ejection and for launching particles packets complying with given correlations. Its interactions with the other codes are described. The LIONS code, written in Fortran 90 is already used in studying the CIME cyclotron, from the center to the ejection. It is designed to be used, with minor modifications, in other contexts such as for the simulation of mass spectrometer facilities

  5. Sustainable trophy hunting of African lions.

    Whitman, Karyl; Starfield, Anthony M; Quadling, Henley S; Packer, Craig

    2004-03-11

    In most species, sport hunting of male trophy animals can only reduce overall population size when the rate of removal of males is so high that females can no longer be impregnated. However, where males provide extensive paternal care, the removal of even a few individuals could harm the population as a whole. In species such as lions, excessive trophy hunting could theoretically cause male replacements (and associated infanticide) to become sufficiently common to prevent cubs reaching adulthood. Here we simulate the population consequences of lion trophy hunting using a spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model parameterized with 40 years of demographic data from northern Tanzania. Although our simulations confirm that infanticide increases the risk of population extinction, trophy hunting could be sustained simply by hunting males above a minimum age threshold, and this strategy maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the long-term kill. We present a simple non-invasive technique for estimating lion age in populations lacking long-term records, and suggest that quotas would be unnecessary in any male-only trophy species where age determination could be reliably implemented. PMID:14990967

  6. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were very worried…

  7. Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    María Alejandra Romero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

  8. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor; I. Elendt; Rusznyak, P.; H. Kunow; R. Müller-Mellin; M.; Witte

    1997-01-01

    A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION) instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP), which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC).

  9. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

    Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

  10. Quantifying denudation rates in Mediterranean margin catchments: the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica case-study

    Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Jouet, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Freslon, N.; Leroux, E.; Moreau, J.; Aslanian, D.; Vella, C.

    2013-12-01

    Margins are the place of transfer, deposit and erosion of sediments whose geometries are controlled by sea-level fluctuations, vertical movements and sedimentary fluxes. Surface processes (sedimentation, denudation) and deep-sea dynamic are also intimately linked. Due to the numerous data acquired over the last 10 years, the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica margins could be considered as privileged studied areas to understand the relationships between denudation, sedimentation and associated vertical displacements. The quantification of denudation rates on these margins catchments, using offshore and onshore data aims to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial evolution of denudation processes in their sedimentation and geodynamic evolution in a large basin (Gulf of Lion) and in a small confined basin (Golo margin; East-Corsica) during the Quaternary. The Gulf of Lion is the northern passive margin of the Liguro-provenal basin, in western Mediterranean Sea. During the Quaternary, it receives sediments from catchments draining several structural domains, as Alps, Pyrenees and Massif Central, for a drainage area of about 120,000 km^2. The East-Corsica corresponds to the western passive margin of the Tyrrhenian basin. The main catchment (Golo River) size is about 100 times smaller than the Gulf of Lion and is composed by two main structural units: Hercynian granites in the upstream part and Alpine schists in the downstream part. In this study, we quantified Quaternary denudation rates using four independent methods: i) estimation of eroded volumes using DEMs; ii) compilation of present-day sediment load fluxes; iii) determination of catchment-scale cosmogenic denudation rate by measuring 10Be concentrations in sands at the catchment outlets or buried in boreholes; iv) quantification of sediment volumes deposited offshore. Our results show a good consistence between the four methods. The Inner Alps present the highest values of denudation (~ 700 m/Ma), compared to averaged much lower values in other domains (150-250 m/Ma in foreland Alps, 100-150 m/Ma in Corsica, about 100 m/Ma in Pyrenees and 55-75 m/Ma in Massif Central). The alpine domain provides at least 75 % of the eroded volume in the Gulf of Lion catchment. A quantitative geomorphologic approach highlights the main role of denudation processes in relief evolution for both studied areas. At a regional scale (Gulf of Lion catchment), we highlight an exponential correlation between mean catchment elevation and denudation rates suggesting the main role of uplift in areas glaciated during the LGM in the control of denudation rates. At a more local scale (East-Corsica), denudation rates seem to rely on lithologic and structural control.

  11. Strong intrusions of the Northern Mediterranean Current on the eastern Gulf of Lion: insights from in-situ observations and high resolution numerical modelling

    Barrier, Nicolas; Petrenko, Anne A.; Ourmières, Yann

    2016-03-01

    The Northern Mediterranean Current is the return branch of the cyclonic circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Because of geostrophic constraints, this warm and oligotrophic current is forced to flow westward along the continental slope of the Gulf of Lion. But, occasionally, it penetrates on the shelf and strongly impacts the local biogeochemistry and in turn the primary production. By combining in situ observations and high-resolution modelling, it is shown that intrusions on the eastern part of the gulf are mainly forced by easterly or northwesterly wind events, through physical mechanisms that are very different in nature. Easterlies induce a piling of water along the Gulf of Lion coast that drives, through geostrophy, an alongshore shelf-intruding current. This intrusive current occurs independently of the stratification and is concomitant with the wind forcing. On the other hand, intrusions due to northwesterlies only occur during stratified conditions and are related to the development of upwellings along the Gulf of Lion coasts. When the upwelling develops, a northwestward alongshore pressure force balances the Coriolis force associated with the onshore flow at depth. When the winds drop, the upwelling relaxes and the onshore flow weakens. Consequently, the Coriolis force no longer counterbalances the pressure force that ultimately dominates the momentum balance, causing the displacement of the Northern Current on the Gulf of Lion shelf approximately 1 day after the wind relaxation. This time lag between the northwesterlies decrease and the intrusions permits to anticipate possible changes in the biogeochemistry of the Gulf of Lion.

  12. Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies

    Rizzo, John

    2011-01-01

    The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

  13. Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)

    Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

    1975-12-01

    Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

  14. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  15. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo).

    Roelke-Parker, M E; Munson, L; Packer, C; Kock, R; Cleaveland, S; Carpenter, M; O'Brien, S J; Pospischil, A; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mwamengele, G L; Mgasa, M N; Machange, G A; Summers, B A; Appel, M J

    1996-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem of East Africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 (ref. 1), and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in 1991 (refs 2, 3). The large, closely monitored Serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. However, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV emerged abruptly in the lion population of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in early 1994, resulting in fatal neurological disease characterized by grand mal seizures and myoclonus; the lions that died had encephalitis and pneumonia. Here we report the identification of CDV from these lions, and the close phylogenetic relationship between CDV isolates from lions and domestic dogs. By August 1994, 85% of the Serengeti lion population had anti-CDV antibodies, and the epidemic spread north to lions in the Maasai Mara National reserve, Kenya, and uncounted hyaenas, bat-eared foxes, and leopards were also affected. PMID:8559247

  16. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez; Eric Mellink

    2015-01-01

    The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services inc...

  17. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7 y abundancia numérica (29,6% respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%, mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 fue el mas abundante (77%. La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

  18. Phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in Serengeti's lions.

    Harder, Timm; Kenter, Marcel; Appel, Max; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Barrett, Thomas; Osterhaus, Ab

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificates and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that a wild-type strain of canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) was involved. Vaccination of the local domestic dog population with proven safe CDV ...

  19. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  20. Waveform and packet structure of lion roars

    W. Baumjohann

    Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.51 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence

  1. PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis also enables to identify key parameters and assumptions which control contamination pathways in the Gulf of Lions. Thus, this work is based on coupling such complex biogeochemical model (Eco3M), with a PCBs transport model and a model of hydrodynamics (MARS3D) in order to test a scientific exploration tool for the assessment of PCB dispersion in space and time in the Gulf of Lion and of their transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. In this work we estimate PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between the different species of PCB, namely: dissolved total, available dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption (equilibrium partitioning), bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization. References Auger P.A., Diaz F., Ulses C., Estornel C., Neveux J., Joux F., Pujo-Pay M. and Naudin J.J., 2011. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean) during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modeling combined approach. Biogeosciences, 8, 3231-3261. André, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V. and Fraunié, P., 2005. Modeled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 294-308. Andre, G., Garreau, P., Fraune, P.,2009. Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimentional model. Continental Shelf Research, 2, 407-423. Carpenter, D.O., 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Rev. Environ. Health, 21, 1-23. Dufois F., Garreau P., Le Hir P., Forget P., 2008. Wave- and current-induced bottom shear stress distribution in the Gulf of Lions. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 1920-1934. Lohmann, R.;Breivik, K.; Dachs, J.; Muir, D., 2007. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150: 150-165. Ulses C., Estournel C., Durrieu de Madron X., Palanques A., 2008. Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 30 August 2008, 2048-2070.

  2. Invasion in a diversity hotspot: Exotic cover and native richness in the Californian serpentine flora

    Harrison, S.; Grace, J.B.; Davies, K.F.; Safford, H.D.; Viers, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Exotic species have been observed to be more prevalent in sites where the richness of native species is highest, possibly reflecting variation among sites in resources, propagule supply, heterogeneity, or disturbance. However, such a pattern leaves unclear whether natives at species-rich sites are subject to especially severe impacts from exotics as a result. We considered this question using path models in which relationships between exotic cover and native richness were evaluated in the presence of correlated environmental factors. At 109 sites on serpentine soils across California, USA, exotic cover was positively correlated with total native herbaceous richness and was negatively correlated with the richness of both serpentine-endemic and rare native herbs. However, in path models that accounted for the influences of soil chemistry, disturbance, overstory cover, and regional rainfall and elevation, we found no indication that exotic cover reduced any component of native herb richness. Rather, our results indicated similarities and differences in the conditions favoring exotic, native, endemic, and rare species. Our results suggest that, in spite of some localized impacts, exotic species are not exerting a detectable overall effect on the community richness of the unique native flora of Californian serpentine. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    Ortego, Joaqun; Noguerales, Vctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  4. Genetic Consequences of Dispersal and Social Behavior in Lions, Panthera leo

    Spong, Goran

    2001-01-01

    This thesis combines behavioral observations of African lions (Panthera leo) with genetic analyses, in an attempt to clarify causes and consequences of lion group living. The numerous complex cooperative behaviors of lions present an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution and maintenance of group living. This thesis focuses on female group living and male dispersal patterns. Lion sociality is found to be more complex than previously thought. Short dispersal distances result in str...

  5. Population characteristics and recent history of lions in two parts of the Kruger National Park

    G. L. Smuts

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey entailing the capture and marking of lions was undertaken in two parts of the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, during 1974 and 1975. A total of 347 lions were captured and marked while 62 were destroyed as part of an experimental cropping operation. Sixty out of 66 prides contained marked lions.

  6. A diverse population of Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGIII in southern Californian HIV/AIDS patients.

    Byrnes, Edmond J; Li, Wenjun; Ren, Ping; Lewit, Yonathan; Voelz, Kerstin; Fraser, James A; Dietrich, Fred S; May, Robin C; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chatuverdi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Chatuverdi, Vishnu; Heitman, Joseph

    2011-09-01

    Cryptococcus gattii infections in southern California have been reported in patients with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we examined the molecular epidemiology, population structure, and virulence attributes of isolates collected from HIV/AIDS patients in Los Angeles County, California. We show that these isolates consist almost exclusively of VGIII molecular type, in contrast to the VGII molecular type isolates causing the North American Pacific Northwest outbreak. The global VGIII population structure can be divided into two molecular groups, VGIIIa and VGIIIb. Isolates from the Californian patients are virulent in murine and macrophage models of infection, with VGIIIa significantly more virulent than VGIIIb. Several VGIII isolates are highly fertile and produce abundant sexual spores that may serve as infectious propagules. The a and α VGIII MAT locus alleles are largely syntenic with limited rearrangements compared to the known VGI (a/α) and VGII (α) MAT loci, but each has unique characteristics including a distinct deletion flanking the 5' VGIII MATa alleles and the α allele is more heterogeneous than the a allele. Our studies indicate that C. gattii VGIII is endemic in southern California, with other isolates originating from the neighboring regions of Mexico, and in rarer cases from Oregon and Washington state. Given that >1,000,000 cases of cryptococcal infection and >620,000 attributable mortalities occur annually in the context of the global AIDS pandemic, our findings suggest a significant burden of C. gattii may be unrecognized, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications. These results signify the need to classify pathogenic Cryptococcus cases and highlight possible host differences among the C. gattii molecular types influencing infection of immunocompetent (VGI/VGII) vs. immunocompromised (VGIII/VGIV) hosts. PMID:21909264

  7. Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion

    Cagnini Didier Q

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

  8. “The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle

    Matome Melford Ratiba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all  pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

  9. Characterising the short-term sensitivity of Californian intertidal community calcification to ocean acidification

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and invasion of part of this CO2 into the oceans results in a decrease in seawater pH and a lowering of the calcium carbonate saturation state. The historic and projected decrease of the calcium carbonate saturation state of seawater has the potential to compromise the ability of many marine calcifying organisms to form their calcium carbonate shells or skeletons and is likely to have significant ocean ecosystem impacts over the 21st Century. In laboratory manipulations temperate calcifying organisms have been shown to exhibit reduced calcification as a result of CO2 addition. However, very few experiments have observed how calcification in temperate systems responds to natural variations in seawater carbonate chemistry. We assess the community level sensitivity of Californian tidal pool calcification rates to variability in the calcium carbonate saturation state. Our tidal pool study sites at Bodega Bay in Northern California experience extreme variation in low tide carbonate saturation state due to photosynthetic activity and the time at which the pools are isolated from the open ocean. During our study period, we observed aragonite saturation levels ranging from 0.5 to 9. Photosynthetic activity is largely dependent on temperature and photosynthetic active radiation which vary on a diurnal timescale whereas the time at which pools are isolated from open seawater, and thus the amount by which tide pool carbonate chemistry differs from that of open ocean waters, is largely a consequence of tidal period which varies on a lunar cycle. Because there are substantial uncorrelated components of light, temperature, and seawater carbonate chemistry in our data, one can separate the influence of carbonate saturation state on calcification from the influence of temperature and PAR. This provides an opportunity to characterise the short-timescale sensitivity of tidal pool calcification rates to changes in carbonate saturation state. We show that on such timescales community level rates of daytime calcification are not strongly influenced by variability in carbonate saturation state. This suggests that these intertidal communities may be more resilient to projected ocean acidification than previously thought, although extending this work to consider longer timescales would be required to more firmly support this hypothesis.

  10. Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River

    Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

  11. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he

  12. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he…

  13. Severe intestinal coccidiosis in a newborn lion (Panthera leo)

    Severe coccidiosis was found in sections of small intestine of a less than 2 day old lion (Panthera leo) born in captivity. Schizonts, merozoites, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were located in epithelial cells of ileum. Ultrastructural examination indicated that schizonts divided by schizogony. ...

  14. Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea

    Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2011-08-01

    The cave lion, Panthera spelaea, was widespread across northern Eurasia and Alaska/Yukon during the Late Pleistocene. Both morphology and DNA indicate an animal distinct from modern lions (probably at the species level) so that its disappearance in the Late Pleistocene should be treated as a true extinction. New AMS radiocarbon dates directly on cave lion from across its range, together with published dates from other studies - totalling 111 dates - indicate extinction across Eurasia in the interval ca. 14-14.5 cal ka BP, and in Alaska/Yukon about a thousand years later. It is likely that its extinction occurred directly or indirectly in response to the climatic warming that occurred ca. 14.7 cal ka BP at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1, accompanied by a spread of shrubs and trees and reduction in open habitats. Possibly there was also a concomitant reduction in abundance of available prey, although most of its probable prey species survived substantially later. At present it is unclear whether human expansion in the Lateglacial might have played a role in cave lion extinction. Gaps in the temporal pattern of dates suggest earlier temporary contractions of range, ca. 40-35 cal ka BP in Siberia (during MIS 3) and ca. 25-20 cal ka BP in Europe (during the 'Last Glacial Maximum'), but further dates are required to corroborate these. The Holocene expansion of modern lion ( Panthera leo) into south-west Asia and south-east Europe re-occupied part of the former range of P. spelaea, but the Late Pleistocene temporal and geographical relationships of the two species are unknown.

  15. Variation in social organisation of lions with particular reference to the Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica (Carnivora: Felidae of the Gir forest, India

    V. Meena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sociality is one of the distinctive features of Lions (Panthera leo, which are the only social felids. Their evolutionary history is important both for understanding the evolution of sociality and that of other sympatric species owing to their widespread distribution throughout the entire Holarctic region during the Pleistocene. Lion grouping patterns, cooperative behaviour and strategies vary throughout their range and in different habitats. Their resilience in diverse habitats facing a variety of conservation pressures is largely owing to this plasticity of lion social behaviour. This review describes the variation in social organisation of lions in 11 habitats across Africa, taking into account relevant ecological parameters. The social organization of the Asiatic Lion is described from this perspective using the results of previous studies and of a five-year study conducted between 2002 and 2006 in the Gir forest of India.

  16. Multi-approach quantification of denudation rates in the Gulf of Lion source-to-sink system (SE France)

    Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Leroux, E.; Bourlès, D. L.; Authemayou, C.; Aslanian, D.; Chauvet, F.; Civet, F.; Jouët, G.

    2016-06-01

    During the Pliocene and the Quaternary, the Gulf of Lion, the northern passive margin of the Liguro-Provençal basin in the western Mediterranean Sea, received sediments from a 120 000 km2 drainage area constituted by several structural domains. The denudation of mountainous areas, source of this sedimentary supply, results from complex interactions between tectonics, climate, morphology, and rock erodibility. In this study, denudation rates from the present-day and ranging back to the Quaternary and the Pliocene are quantified using four independent methods allowing an investigation over different time scales: 1) compilation of present-day measured sediment fluxes, 2) determination of catchment-scale cosmogenic denudation rates through measurements of in situ-produced 10Be concentrations in sands sampled at the outlet of present-day rivers, 3) estimation of eroded volumes within catchments using a DEM to quantify long-term averaged Quaternary denudation rates, and 4) quantification of sediment volumes deposited within the marine realm of the Gulf of Lion. The results obtained by these four methods are in agreement within the range of uncertainties. The internal part of the Alps exhibits significantly higher denudation rates (∼700 mm ka-1) than those estimated in the other structural domains: 150-250 mm ka-1 in the foreland Alps, ∼100 mm ka-1 in the Pyrenees, and 55-75 mm ka-1 in the Massif Central. The Alpine domain provides at least 80% of the total eroded volume supplied towards the Gulf of Lion. A quantitative geomorphological approach shows that denudation rates are controlled at the first order by catchment morphologies (slope, relief) over different time scales, suggesting glacial conditioning to be the main driver on denudation from the Quaternary to present-day. Throughout the Pliocene-Quaternary, a doubling of denudation rates related to the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (∼0.9 Ma) is highlighted.

  17. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry & Lions

    Caffarelli, Luis A; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik

    2011-01-01

    We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry & Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary.

  18. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    Vercammen, F.; J. Brandt; Van Brantegem, L; L. Bosseler; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, th...

  19. Online Environment Market Research : Travel Lions Entering the UK Market

    Backman, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the commissioning company, Travel Lions, market knowledge of the online commerce environment in the United Kingdom. Additionally, key customer segments were to be identified and a customer acquisition strategy was to be suggested. The data used in this study is purely secondary data obtained from reputable sources such as governmental publications and statistics and trusted banking services companies. The data was analysed and applied to a theoretical ...

  20. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Yao-Min Fang; Jun-Ping Pu

    2007-01-01

    Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induce...

  1. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    H. Adams

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo. Although lion lentivirus (FIVple infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

  2. Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve

    R.J. Power

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63 and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

  3. Conserving large populations of lions - the argument for fences has holes.

    Creel, S; Becker, M S; Durant, S M; M'Soka, J; Matandiko, W; Dickman, A J; Christianson, D; Drge, E; Mweetwa, T; Pettorelli, N; Rosenblatt, E; Schuette, P; Woodroffe, R; Bashir, S; Beudels-Jamar, R C; Blake, S; Borner, M; Breitenmoser, C; Broekhuis, F; Cozzi, G; Davenport, T R B; Deutsch, J; Dollar, L; Dolrenry, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Fitzherbert, E; Foley, C; Hazzah, L; Henschel, P; Hilborn, R; Hopcraft, J G C; Ikanda, D; Jacobson, A; Joubert, B; Joubert, D; Kelly, M S; Lichtenfeld, L; Mace, G M; Milanzi, J; Mitchell, N; Msuha, M; Muir, R; Nyahongo, J; Pimm, S; Purchase, G; Schenck, C; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Sinclair, A R E; Songorwa, A N; Stanley-Price, M; Tehou, C A; Trout, C; Wall, J; Wittemyer, G; Zimmermann, A

    2013-11-01

    Packer etal. reported that fenced lion populations attain densities closer to carrying capacity than unfenced populations. However, fenced populations are often maintained above carrying capacity, and most are small. Many more lions are conserved per dollar invested in unfenced ecosystems, which avoid the ecological and economic costs of fencing. PMID:23837659

  4. 77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse”

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY... object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul Getty Museum from abroad...

  5. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.110(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. PMID:25151647

  6. Traditional Culture into Interactive Arts: The Cases of Lion Dance in Temple Lecture

    Lee, Wen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Tung; He, Ming-Yu; Hsu, Tao-I.

    The lion dance in Chinese culture is one of profound arts. This work aims to bridge traditional culture and modern multimedia technology and application of network cameras for the interactive tool to design a set of activities to promote the lion as the main body. There consists of the imaging systems and interactive multimedia applications.

  7. The impact of burning on lion Panthera leo habitat choice in an African savanna

    Stephanie EBY, Anna MOSSER, Craig PACKER, Mark RITCHIE, Ali SWANSON

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carnivores play a central role in ecosystem processes by exerting top-down control, while fire exerts bottom-up control in ecosystems throughout the world, yet, little is known about how fire affects short-term carnivore distributions across the landscape. Through the use of a long-term data set we investigated the distribution of lions, during the daytime, in relation to burned areas in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We found that lions avoid burned areas despite the fact that herbivores, their prey, are attracted to burned areas. Prey attraction, however, likely results from the reduction in cover caused by burning, that may thereby decrease lion hunting success. Lions also do not preferentially utilize the edges of burned areas over unburned areas despite the possibility that edges would combine the benefit of cover with proximity to abundant prey. Despite the fact that lions avoid burned areas, lion territory size and reproductive success were not affected by the proportion of the territory burned each year. Therefore, burning does not seem to reduce lion fitness perhaps because of the heterogeneity of burned areas across the landscape or because it is possible that when hunting at night lions visit burned areas despite their daytime avoidance of these areas [Current Zoology 59 (3: 335–339, 2013].

  8. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their habitat from hunting. PMID:22247772

  9. The trophy hunting of African lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ~558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation. PMID:24058491

  10. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services including the maintenance of biodiversity. The Tijuana River Watershed (TRW is located within this floristic province. It has experienced rapid population growth during the last 50 years, demanding development of infrastructure in areas where native vegetation existed. As a binational watershed, it is an ideal area to study the processes involved in fragmentation and connectivity of natural environments, since both countries, while sharing the same environment, contrast greatly in their economic and social systems, which impose different pressures to these shared natural resources. Our research addresses change in vegetation cover and land use in the TRW, analyzing the changes and differences between Mexico and the United States. This analysis will be a basis to propose future management strategies for the conservation of ecological processes and biodiversity, according to the policies and actions for land management and conservation in both countries.

  11. Lion king or Aslan: a tale from Narnia!

    Battista, Renaldo

    2011-01-01

    In the Chronicles of Narnia series by C.S. Lewis, Aslan the all-powerful but benevolent lion does not need to have his tail twisted; rather, he twists tails to create convergence and harmony in his dream world. In this issue's lead article, "Twisting the Lion's Tail: Collaborative Health Policy Making in British Columbia," the authors discuss the problems regarding better coordination of health services research, knowledge translation and policy making. The roles of academia, health authorities and government are presently unclear, with leadership differences, power discrepancies, conflicting agendas, lag times and systemic structural complexity. Exploring these issues in British Columbia, Lindstrom, MacLeod and Levy advocate a change in perspective from practice gaps to bridging knowledge boundaries. Recommendations include networking of academia, action research and strengthening of relationships between stakeholders. However, a key cohesive element seems missing. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a formidable, dynamic driving force. With over 20 years' experience in HTA, Canada has a number of world-class innovative agencies federally and provincially that actively involve academia to generate evidence for informed policy making. Increased use of evidence-based medicine in research and the clinic may be achieved by augmenting HTA's scientific capacity through the creation of pan-Canadian exchange forums and by boosting the demand for knowledge translation. PMID:21677516

  12. Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km2. Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km2–31/km2 with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n = 165), predation events (n = 180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions’ biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis’ traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a crucial element needed for human-carnivore coexistence. PMID:23341871

  13. First results from the SARDINIA deep seismic cruise on the Western Sardinia and Gulf of Lions conjugate margin pair

    Gailler, A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Beslier, M.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Bache, F.; Moulin, M.; Matias, L.; Afilhado, A.; Nouze, H.

    2008-12-01

    The deep North-Western Mediterranean (or Provencal) basin was formed by thinning and rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block which started 30-20 Ma ago. It is bounded by the Gulf of Lions to the north, the Catalan margin to the west, the Ligurian Sea to the east, and the Valencia Trough to the south-west, in which rifting started at roughly the same time as in the Provencal basin. The basin has a depth of up to 2.8 km and a sedimentary layer thickness of up to 8 km. The central part of the basin is presumed to be underlain by a crust of oceanic nature, while the neighboring Valencia Trough is situated on thinned continental crust. During the SARDINIA cruise of the R/V Atalante in December 2006, three wide-angle seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Lions area and three profiles on the conjugate margin offshore Sardinia. The main goals of the SARDINIA project were to image the deep structure of the conjugate margin pair, to characterize the nature of the crust, detect any exhumed upper mantle materiel and to define the geometry of the basins to better constrain the opening history of the basin. During the cruise, a total of 57 ocean bottom seismometers/hydrophones (OBS/OBH) from Ifremer, the University of Brest and Geomar, Kiel were deployed in the Gulf of Lions region and 47 OBS and OBH offshore Sardinia. The lines perpendicular to the margins were recorded by landstations onshore, thus prolonging the profiles. Tomographic and forward wide-angle seismic models of the deep seismic data from the margin perpendicular profile located in the Gulf of Lions image a sedimentary layer up to 8 km thickness, which is locally strongly disturbed by salt tectonics. They indicate, that crustal thinning in the Gulf of Lions area occurs within a 100 km wide zone. East of this zone of crustal thinning is a zone characterized by high velocities in the lower crust (7.2-7.4 km/s) atypical for either thinned continental or normal oceanic crust. The boundary of this layer coincides with a prominent reflector (T-reflector) found in existing reflection seismic data. This reflector has been proposed to be the limit between thinned continental crust and exhumed material. The boundary between the region of high crustal velocities and more normal oceanic crust coincides with the boundary between a region of layered evaporites and and a region of large salt domes. Oceanic crust found in the deepest part of the basin is thinner than normal oceanic crust (only 4-5 km) and lies deeper than can be explained by its thickness alone, which might be due to its formation as a back-arc basin.

  14. Lions-liiton www-sivuston kehittämistyö

    Koskinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Tässä ylemmän ammattikorkeakoulun opinnäytetyössä tehtiin kehittämistyö Suomen Lions-liiton internet sivuston uudistamisesta. Kehittämistyö tehtiin projektimuotoisena ja tilaajana toimi Suomen Lions-liitto. Kehittämistyö saavuttaa kehittämistutkimuksen vaateet, kun kehittämistyössä lopputuotteena syntyy jotain konkreettista. Tämän kehittämistyön tavoitteeksi asetettiin se, että suunnittelutyön lopputuotteena tehdään Lions-liitolle uusi toimivampi konsepti internetsivustosta. Kehittämistut...

  15. Generalized Lions-Peetre interpolation construction and optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces

    Ovchinnikov, V I [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-01-31

    In the paper, a new description of the generalized Lions-Peetre method of means is found, which enables one to evaluate the interpolation orbits of spaces constructed by this method. The list of these spaces includes all Lorentz spaces with functional parameters, Orlicz spaces, and spaces close to them. This leads in turn to new optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces produced using the Lions-Peetre construction in rearrangement invariant spaces. It turns out that the optimal space of the embedding is also a generalized Lions-Peetre space whose parameters are explicitly evaluated. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  16. Public hospital quality report awareness: evidence from National and Californian Internet searches and social media mentions, 2012

    Huesch, Marco D; Currid-Halkett, Elizabeth; Doctor, Jason N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Publicly available hospital quality reports seek to inform consumers of important healthcare quality and affordability attributes, and may inform consumer decision-making. To understand how much consumers search for such information online on one Internet search engine, whether they mention such information in social media and how positively they view this information. Setting and design A leading Internet search engine (Google) was the main focus of the study. Google Trends and Google Adwords keyword analyses were performed for national and Californian searches between 1 August 2012 and 31 July 2013 for keywords related to top hospital, best hospital, and hospital quality, as well as for six specific hospital quality reports. Separately, a proprietary social media monitoring tool was used to investigate blog, forum, social media and traditional media mentions of, and sentiment towards, major public reports of hospital quality in California in 2012. Primary outcome measures (1) Counts of searches for keywords performed on Google; (2) counts of and (3) sentiment of mentions of public reports on social media. Results National Google search volume for 75 hospital quality-related terms averaged 610?700 searches per month with strong variation by keyword and by state. A commercial report (Healthgrades) was more commonly searched for nationally on Google than the federal government's Hospital Compare, which otherwise dominated quality-related search terms. Social media references in California to quality reports were generally few, and commercially produced hospital quality reports were more widely mentioned than state (Office of Statewide Healthcare Planning and Development (OSHPD)), or non-profit (CalHospitalCompare) reports. Conclusions Consumers are somewhat aware of hospital quality based on Internet search activity and social media disclosures. Public stakeholders may be able to broaden their quality dissemination initiatives by advertising on Google or Twitter and using social media interactively with consumers looking for relevant information. PMID:24618223

  17. Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km2137Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km2. Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137Cs and 210Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7Be and 234Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth. Results showed that the sediment remobilization was very important in this area but that the exports of suspended solid matters towards the Gulf of Lions were weak, or even deposited in fine on the pro-delta. (author)

  18. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  19. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Mountain Lion

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of mountain lion, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  20. Mandibular and dental abnormalities of two Pleistocene American lions (Panthera leo atrox) from Yukon Territory.

    Beebe, B F; Hulland, T J

    1988-01-01

    Fragmented mandibles of two Pleistocene lions (Panthera leo atrox) recovered from Yukon Territory possessed acquired pathological changes and congenital abnormalities, judging from the anatomy of contemporary and modern lions. One specimen showed evidence of chronic periodontitis, an extensive sclerosing osteomyelitis and congenital absence of left lower incisor teeth 1 and 2. The second showed long-standing loss of the left lower canine tooth with subsequent obliteration of the alveolus by l...

  1. Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study

    Ferreira, Sam M.; Nkabeng T. Maruping; Darius Schoultz; Travis R. Smit

    2013-01-01

    Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest...

  2. The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo)

    Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Barnes, Ian; Cooper, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from ac...

  3. The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics

    Antunes, Agostinho; Troyer, Jennifer L; Roelke, Melody E.; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Packer, Craig; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Frank, Laurence; Stander, Philip; Siefert, Ludwig; Driciru, Margaret; Funston, Paul J.; Alexander, Kathy A.; Prager, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of...

  4. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    Bertola, Laura D; Tensen, Laura; van Hooft, Pim; White, Paula A; Driscoll, Carlos A; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotp A; Tumenta, Pricelia N; Jirmo, Tuqa H; de Snoo, Geert R; de Iongh, Hans H; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1) West/Central Africa, 2) East Africa, 3) Southern Africa and 4) India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted. PMID:26466139

  5. The golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia): a flagship species for the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    Stolwijk, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation has a major impact on forest-dwelling species survival, as species lose their habitat or can no longer subsist in the small fragments of forests that are left. In this review, the effectiveness of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) as a flagship species to protect the biodiversity of the Atlantic Forest is discussed. The golden lion tamarin was almost extinct in the wild in the 1960s and the captive population was not well established. After research on captive bre...

  6. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa

    Bertola, Laura D.; Tensen, Laura; Hooft, Pim Van; White, Paula A.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Henschel, Philipp; Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Tumenta, Pricelia N.; Jirmo, Tuqa H.; De Snoo, Geert R.; De Iongh, Hans H.; Vrieling, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo) in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, th...

  7. Serum biochemical study of major elements of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica

    R.G. Jani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The serum biochemistry of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica in India has not been studied in depths. We report here the results of an analysis of a large number of individuals with the aim of providing reference ranges for major serological parameters in male and female Asiatic lions in health and diseases. This information will be of use to zoo veterinarians and pathologists.

  8. Some population characteristics of the Lion Panthera Leo in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    M.G.L. Mills

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of estimating the number of lions in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Republic of South Africa, are described; the first gives a minimum figure (113 and the second a more realistic one (140. Data are presented on sex and age ratios and pride composition. The factors contributing to the low density are briefly discussed and some management practices in connection with lions trespassing out of the Park are suggested.

  9. Fear of Darkness, the Full Moon and the Nocturnal Ecology of African Lions

    Packer, Craig; Swanson, Alexandra; Ikanda, Dennis; Kushnir, Hadas

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal carnivores are widely believed to have played an important role in human evolution, driving the need for night-time shelter, the control of fire and our innate fear of darkness. However, no empirical data are available on the effects of darkness on the risks of predation in humans. We performed an extensive analysis of predatory behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when huntin...

  10. Individual identification and genetic variation of lions (Panthera leo) from two protected areas in Nigeria.

    Tende, Talatu; Hansson, Bengt; Ottosson, Ulf; Akesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) spanned through a period of five years (2008 -2012), whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP) was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012). We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown) from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females) from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST ?= 0.17) with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS ?= 0.49, KLNP FIS ?= 0.38). The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild. PMID:24427283

  11. Mitochondrial Haplotype Diversity in Zambian Lions: Bridging a Gap in the Biogeography of an Iconic Species.

    Curry, Caitlin J; White, Paula A; Derr, James N

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence diversity at the 12S to 16S mitochondrial genes of 165 African lions (Panthera leo) from five main areas in Zambia has uncovered haplotypes which link Southern Africa with East Africa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Zambia may serve as a bridge connecting the lion populations in southern Africa to eastern Africa, supporting earlier hypotheses that eastern-southern Africa may represent the evolutionary cradle for the species. Overall gene diversity throughout the Zambian lion population was 0.7319 +/- 0.0174 with eight haplotypes found; three haplotypes previously described and the remaining five novel. The addition of these five novel haplotypes, so far only found within Zambia, nearly doubles the number of haplotypes previously reported for any given geographic location of wild lions. However, based on an AMOVA analysis of these haplotypes, there is little to no matrilineal gene flow (Fst = 0.47) when the eastern and western regions of Zambia are considered as two regional sub-populations. Crossover haplotypes (H9, H11, and Z1) appear in both populations as rare in one but common in the other. This pattern is a possible result of the lion mating system in which predominately males disperse, as all individuals with crossover haplotypes were male. The determination and characterization of lion sub-populations, such as done in this study for Zambia, represent a higher-resolution of knowledge regarding both the genetic health and connectivity of lion populations, which can serve to inform conservation and management of this iconic species. PMID:26674533

  12. Variability of the transgressive stacking pattern under environmental changes control: Example from the Post-Glacial deposits of the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf, Mediterranean, France

    Labaune, Caroline; Tesson, Michel; Gensous, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    At a regional scale, high-resolution seismic dataset analysis provides an accurate image of the stratigraphic organization of the Post-Glacial transgressive deposits of the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf. Architectural and stratigraphic characteristics are different in four main sectors, clearly demonstrating that depositional models have to be adapted from place to place following the interplay of various genetic factors. The southern part of the Gulf of Lions presents minor development of the transgressive deposits mainly controlled by paleo-topography, in addition to glacio-eustatism. Northward, complexity and sediment thickness increase. Additional factors, such as oceanographic regime and sedimentary supply, interact with glacio-eustatism and paleo-topography. In the occidental and oriental Rhne-shelf sectors, sedimentary supply and glacio-eustatism control the deposition and the preservation potentials. The paleo-topography controls the type of stacking pattern. At the regional scale, this study further emphasizes the role of two usually underestimated factors which are the drainage characteristics and the sedimentary response to climatic variations. The stacking pattern of the transgressive systems tract with several parasequences emphasizes a pulsed Post-Glacial transgression. The main parasequences seems to be related to two periods of decreasing rate of sea-level rise and increasing rate of sediment discharge.

  13. Genetic Evidence for Contrasting Wetland and Savannah Habitat Specializations in Different Populations of Lions (Panthera leo).

    Moore, Andy E; Cotterill, Fenton P D Woody; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Antunes, Agostinho; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    South-central Africa is characterized by an archipelago of wetlands, which has evolved in time and space since at least the Miocene, providing refugia for animal species during Pleistocene arid episodes. Their importance for biodiversity in the region is reflected in the evolution of a variety of specialist mammal and bird species, adapted to exploit these wetland habitats. Populations of lions (Panthera leo) across south-central and east Africa have contrasting signatures of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and biparental nuclear DNA in wetland and savannah habitats, respectively, pointing to the evolution of distinct habitat preferences. This explains the absence of genetic admixture of populations from the Kalahari savannah of southwest Botswana and the Okavango wetland of northern Botswana, despite separation by only 500 km. We postulate that ancestral lions were wetland specialists and that the savannah lions evolved from populations that were isolated during arid Pleistocene episodes. Expansion of grasslands and the resultant increase in herbivore populations during mesic Pleistocene climatic episodes provided the stimulus for the rapid population expansion and diversification of the highly successful savannah lion specialists. Our model has important implications for lion conservation. PMID:26695079

  14. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

  15. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. PMID:27111059

  16. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    spent most of their time on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgets were similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the...

  17. Alegoria californiana Californian allegory

    Julio Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrategias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formulated strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

  18. Alegoria californiana Californian allegory

    Julio Ramos

    2012-01-01

    O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constitu...

  19. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor).

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in social life histories correspond to intraspecific variation in total or regional brain volumes in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). African lions live in gregarious prides usually consisting of related adult females, their dependent offspring, and a coalition of immigrant males. Upon reaching maturity, male lions enter a nomadic and often, solitary phase in their lives, whereas females are mainly philopatric and highly social throughout their lives. In contrast, the social life history does not differ between male and female cougars; both are solitary. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts were created using computed tomography from the skulls of 14 adult African lions (8 male, 6 female) and 14 cougars (7 male, 7 female). Endocranial volume and basal skull length were highly correlated in African lions (r = 0.59, p aggressor. PMID:22722087

  20. Pedologic influences on hillslope hydrology: The relationships between soil and hydrologic connectivity in a Californian oak-woodland

    Alldritt, K.; O'Geen, A.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding what controls hydrologic connectivity and how it develops has important implications for ecosystem services. It can affect water quality, nutrient and sediment delivery to the stream, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and more. Bedrock topography and soil act in concert as primary physical controls on hydrologic connectivity. However, the important role soil can play is not well understood. A hillslope study was conducted to explore the dynamics between soil and hydrologic connectivity. The hillslope was in a zero-order watershed with a flashy ephemeral stream. It was located in an oak-woodland in the Californian northern Sierra foothills. The research objectives were to 1) identify and characterize hydrologically significant soil properties; 2) explore how soil stratigraphy and morphology influence hydrologic connectivity; and 3) examine potential causes for connection and disconnection of hydrologic flowpaths during and between rain storm events. During the 2012 wet season a 210-m hillslope transect was instrumented to collect soil moisture data every five minutes. The instruments were put at multiple locations and depths to capture the soil spatial variability. Once the soil became too dry for monitoring the transect was trenched, characterized and sampled. Texture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves were measured in the lab. Structure, color, redoximorphic features, soil horizon spatial differentiation, saprolite and bedrock characteristics, and coarse fragment percentage were recorded in the field. Prior to excavation an electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in conjunction with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) was performed along the hillslope. The goal of the survey was to explore non-invasive techniques to determine spatial variability of hydrologically significant soil horizons and bedrock. The GPR was found not to be reliable at the site. However, the EMI showed potential in showing the discontinuous distribution of the claypan, a horizon characterized by a large and abrupt increase in clay content and very low permeability. The data obtained from the transect excavation was used to create a two-dimensional hillslope model using HYDRUS-2D. Coupled with the soil moisture and local precipitation data the hillslope hydrology was modeled at individual storm event time scale. The field data showed that the hillslope was very complex and comprised of a discontinuous claypan, undulating bedrock topography and highly variable saprolite. The soil moisture data and modeling efforts showed that the surface horizons, which are highly permeable and contain numerous macropores, are the primary hydrologic flowpaths during storm events. The model showed that the presence of claypan decreased effective soil depth, increased antecedent wetness and created a perched water table. The model also showed that the undulating bedrock acted like a dam along the hillslope. The claypan network and undulating bedrock created isolated zones of wetness that only become connected and flow downhill into the stream when a storm caused the disconnected zones to rise in the highly permeable surface horizons.

  1. Occurrence, prevalence and intensity of internal parasite infections of African lions (Panthera leo) in enclosures at a recreation park in Zimbabwe.

    Mukarati, Norman L; Vassilev, George D; Tagwireyi, Whatmore M; Tavengwa, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A coprological survey was conducted to determine the types, prevalence, and intensity of infection of internal parasites in a population of captive African lions (Panthera leo) at a recreational game park in Zimbabwe. Individual fecal samples were collected on three occasions over a 4-month period from each of 30 lions (55%) out of 55 animals held. The samples were examined using flotation and sedimentation techniques to assess the presence and count of parasite eggs, oocysts, and cysts per gram of feces as well as larvae identification. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 100% (30/30), and 80% (24/30) of fecal samples also were positive for protozoan parasite forms. Eggs of Ancylostoma spp. were found in the feces of 23 (76.7%) lions, Physaloptera sp. in 14 (46.7%) lions, Toxascaris leonina in 13 (43.3%) lions, Toxocara cati in 12 (40%) lions, and Gnathostoma spinigerum and Toxocara canis in 2 (6.7%) lions. Furthermore, eggs of Cylicospirura subequalis, Gnathostoma spp., Lagochilascaris major, Acanthocephalan and Linguatula spp. as well as larvae of Aelurostrongylus sp. were identified in the feces of one lion. Oocysts of five apicomplexan parasites and cysts of one mastigophoran protozoan parasite were recorded, namely, Cystoisospora leonina in 11 (36.7%) lions' feces, Cystoisospora spp. in 9 (30.0%) lions, Cystoisospora felis in 5 (16.7%) lions; Toxoplasma-like spp. in 5 (16.7 %) lions, and Giardia spp. in 8 (26.7%) lions. The majority of lions (28/30) showed mixed infections with different internal parasites, whereas only two animals had single parasite infections. The intensity of infection was relatively low. Some parasite forms observed and identified, such as Eimeria spp. oocysts, were spurious and probably originated from the prey species for the lions. Among the parasites identified were some of zoonotic importance that have health implications for at-risk personnel and visitors who get into contact with the animals. PMID:24063097

  2. Can a lamb reach a haven before being eaten by diffusing lions?

    Gabel, Alan; Majumdar, Satya N.; Panduranga, Nagendra K.; Redner, S.

    2012-05-01

    We study the survival of a single diffusing lamb on the positive half line in the presence of N diffusing lions that all start at the same position L to the right of the lamb and a haven at x = 0. If the lamb reaches this haven before meeting any lion, the lamb survives. We investigate the survival probability of the lamb, SN(x, L), as a function of N and the respective initial positions of the lamb and the lions, x and L. We determine SN(x, L) analytically for the special cases of N = 1 and N\\rightarrow \\infty . For large but finite N, we determine the unusual asymptotic form whose leading behavior is SN(z) ~ N-z2, with z = x/L. Simulations of the capture process very slowly converge to this asymptotic prediction as N reaches 10500.

  3. Can a Lamb Reach a Haven Before Being Eaten by Diffusing Lions?

    Gabel, Alan; Panduranga, Nagendra K; Redner, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the survival of a single diffusing lamb on the positive half line in the presence of N diffusing lions that all start at the same position L to the right of the lamb and a haven at x=0. If the lamb reaches this haven before meeting any lion, the lamb survives. We investigate the survival probability of the lamb, S_N(x,L), as a function of N and the respective initial positions of the lamb and the lions, x and L. We determine S_N(x,L) analytically for the special cases of N=1 and N--->oo. For large but finite N, we determine the unusual asymptotic form whose leading behavior is S_N(z)\\simN^{-z^2}, with z=x/L. Simulations of the capture process very slowly converge to this asymptotic prediction as N reaches 10^{500}.

  4. Bayesian estimates of male and female African lion mortality for future use in population management

    Barthold, Julia; Loveridge, Andrew; Macdonald, David; Packer, Craig; Colchero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    1. The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. 2. Various demographic mo...... used to improve lion population management and, in addition, the mortality model itself has potential applications in demographically informed approaches to the conservation of species with sex-biased dispersal.......1. The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. 2. Various demographic...

  5. The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.

    Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-Uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Kntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

    2013-01-01

    Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species. PMID:24045858

  6. Polarisation and propagation of lion roars in the dusk side magnetosheath

    M. Maksimovic

    Full Text Available We present observations of "lion roars" obtained in the magnetosheath by the Spectrum Analyser (SA of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment aboard Cluster. STAFF-SA calculates, in near real time, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrix derived from three magnetic and two electric components of the electromagnetic field at 27 frequencies in the range of 8 Hz to 4 kHz. This allows the study of the properties of whistler mode waves and more particularly, the properties of "lion roars", which are intense, short-duration, narrow-banded packets of whistler waves. Their presence is favoured by the magnetic field troughs associated with mirror mode structures. During two short periods of well-defined mirror modes, we study the depth δB/B of the magnetic troughs, and the direction of propagation of the lion roars. During the first period, close to the magnetopause, deep magnetic troughs pass the satellites. Lion roars are then observed to propagate simultaneously in two directions, roughly parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field: this probably indicates that during this period, the satellites were within the successive source regions of lion roars. For the second period, far from the magnetopause, the magnetic troughs are less deep. Lion roars are propagating in only one direction, roughly anti-parallel to the magnetic field, suggesting that the source regions are more distant and predominantly on one side of the satellites.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities Radio science (radiowave propagation

  7. New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona

    Paul R. Krausman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus cooleyi, a species about which little is known.

  8. Impedance characteristics of the Bz diode on the LION accelerator

    The LION accelerator at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of the applied B/sub z/, or 'barrel' diode. This 0.8 TW, 4 ohm, ion accelerator has the ability to take several shots per day, and hence alloys systematic scans to be performed. An important result of a recent series of experiments is that the diode impedance remains relatively constant, decaying only slowly, during the 50 nsec pulse. When the diode is operated with a 4.5 mm gap and a 21 kG insulating magnetic field, the typical diode parameters, are a voltage of 1 MV and a total current of 250 kA, leading to a diode impedance of 4 ohms and power of 0.25 TW. The diode impedance decays with a 100 nsec time constant. The ion beams have peak currents of roughly 125 kA and typical impedances of Bohms, which decays with a time constant of 25 nsec. The Child-Langmuir gap was approximately 2 mm and closed with a velocity of roughly 2X10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Current experimental work is aimed at characterizing the impedance of the B/sub z/ diode as a function of the applied magnetic field, the A-K gap, the anode curvature, and the anode groove parameters. In addition, the effect of changing the voltage rise with a plasma opening switch and of adding an electron limiter is examined. The ion beam quality is examined at the focus of the barrel diode with a swept Thomson parabola and various Rutherford scattering diagnostics

  9. Conserving connectivity: some lessons from mountain lions in southern California.

    Morrison, Scott A; Boyce, Walter M

    2009-04-01

    Habitat corridors can be essential for persistence of wildlife populations in fragmented landscapes. Although much research has focused on identifying species and places critical for conservation action, the conservation literature contains surprisingly few examples of corridors that actually have been protected and so provides little guidance for moving from planning through implementation. We examined a case study from southern California that combines monitoring of radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor) with an assessment of land-protection efforts to illustrate lessons learned while attempting to maintain ecological connectivity in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. As in many places, conservation scientists have provided science-based maps of where conservation efforts should focus. But implementing corridors is a business decision based not solely on ecological information but also on cost, opportunity cost, investment risk, and other feasibility considerations. Here, the type and pattern of development is such that key connections will be lost unless they are explicitly protected. Keeping pace with conversion, however, has been difficult, especially because conservation efforts have been limited to traditional parcel-by-parcel land-protection techniques. The challenges of and trade-offs in implementation make it clear that in southern California, connectivity cannot be bought one parcel at a time. Effective land-use plans and policies that incorporate conservation principles, such as California's Natural Communities Conservation Planning program, are needed to support the retention of landscape permeability. Lessons from this study have broad application, especially as a precautionary tale for places where such extensive and intensive development has not yet occurred. Given how limiting resources are for biodiversity conservation, conservationists must be disciplined about where and how they attempt corridor protection: in rapidly fragmenting landscapes, the opportunity for success can be surprisingly fleeting. PMID:18983604

  10. STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.

    Daud Sudradjad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

  11. CRYSTALLIZATION AND PRELIMINARY CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SAN MIGUEL SEA LION VIRUS: AN ANIMAL CALICIVIRUS

    The Caliciviridae is a family of non-enveloped, icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. This family of viruses consists of both animal and human pathogens. Adapting human caliciviruses to cell culture has not been successful, whereas some animal caliciviruses, including San Miguel ...

  12. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)

    Carolina Loch; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C.; César J. Drehmer

    2010-01-01

    Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarin...

  13. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    2012-04-18

    ... factors. Available information suggests it is likely that global warming and ocean acidification may.... The Status Review also identifies five potential sources of threat under this factor: 1. Global... Disturbance; 4. Toxic Substances; and 5. Oil and Gas Development. Global climate warming and...

  14. Sexual harassment and female gregariousness in the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens

    Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Túnez, Juan I.; Cassini, Marcelo H.

    2008-07-01

    Most colonial pinnipeds form extreme clusters of breeding females that cannot be entirely explained by the distribution of sites for reproduction. Avoidance of male harassment has been postulated as an important determinant of reproductive aggregation in this group of mammals. Female gregariousness can reduce harassment by resident males by two mechanisms; directly by the ‘dilution effect’ or indirectly because resident males that defend large female groups are less harassing. In order to investigate the relationship between male harassment and female gregariousness in relation to the size of breeding groups, we analysed the behaviour of dominant males and their females in a breeding colony of Otaria flavescens. Females in large breeding groups received less harassment by resident males due to dilution effects and because males that defended a large group interacted less frequently with females than males with small groups.

  15. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae

    Carolina Loch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  16. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of California sea lions in Washington, 1986 - 1999

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  17. "The Lion King" and "Hamlet": A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.

    Gavin, Rosemarie

    1996-01-01

    Explains how the movie "The Lion King" may be used to elucidate Shakespeare's "Hamlet," a play about a prince who does not always seem heroic to modern audiences. Gives specific points of comparison between the two works concerning heroes, characters, conflicts, themes, ending scenes, and archetypal patterns. (TB)

  18. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  19. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

  20. Eestis on le tuhande lvi : [Lions-liikumisest] / Vello Talviste, Olev Saluveer, Jaan Palumets...[jt.

    2009-01-01

    Lions-liikumisega on hinenud ka koolidirektorid. Ksimustele - mis ajendas neid seda tegema, mida lvid ette vtavad ning kui aktuaalne on heategevuse temaatika koolis, vastavad Paide Gmnaasiumi direktor Vello Talviste, lenurme Gmnaasiumi direktor Olev Saluveer, Saue Gmnaasiumi direktor Jaan Palumets, Trva Gmnaasiumi direktor Ivar Hanvere ja Tabivere Gmnaasiumi direktor Toivo Punga

  1. Individual behaviors dominate the dynamics of an urban mountain lion population isolated by roads.

    Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Sikich, Jeffrey A; Dalbeck, Lisa; Wayne, Robert K; Ernest, Holly B

    2014-09-01

    Large carnivores can be particularly sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity [1, 2]. The Santa Monica Mountains (SMMs), a large natural area within Greater Los Angeles, is completely isolated by urban development and the 101 freeway to the north. Yet the SMMs support a population of mountain lions (Puma concolor), a very rare example of a large carnivore persisting within the boundaries of a megacity. GPS locations of radio-collared lions indicate that freeways are a near-absolute barrier to movement. We genotyped 42 lions using 54 microsatellite loci and found that genetic diversity in SMM lions, prior to 2009, was lower than that for any population in North America except in southern Florida, where inbreeding depression led to reproductive failure [3-5]. We document multiple instances of father-daughter inbreeding and high levels of intraspecific strife, including the unexpected behavior of a male killing two of his offspring and a mate and his son killing two of his brothers. Overall, no individuals from the SMMs have successfully dispersed. Gene flow is critical for this population, and we show that a single male immigrated in 2009, successfully mated, and substantially enhanced genetic diversity. Our results imply that individual behaviors, most likely caused by limited area and reduced opportunities to disperse, may dominate the fate of small, isolated populations of large carnivores. Consequently, comprehensive behavioral monitoring can suggest novel solutions for the persistence of small populations, such as the transfer of individuals across dispersal barriers. PMID:25131676

  2. A Rare Case of Gastric Myiasis in a Lion Caused by Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera: Gasterophilidae-Case Report

    Maryam Ganjali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection caused by a variety of dipterous (fly larvae in vertebrate’s tissue (man and domestic or wild animals. Species of Gasterophilus are obligate parasite of horses, donkeys, zebras, elephants and rhinoceroses. There are records worldwide, but mostly, in tropical and subtropical regions. This case report describes a type of gastric myiasis caused by G. intestinalis in an old lion in a zoo in Sistan, southeast Iran. Myiasis in lions is rarely reported and this is the first report of gastric myiasis in lion.

  3. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Hugo Castillo; Adriana Hernández; David Dominguez; Damaris Ojeda

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed...

  4. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure. PMID:24741092

  5. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

  6. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Rvillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Gugan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

    2012-09-01

    An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age) strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca). In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

  7. Monitoring dense shelf water cascades: an assessment tool for understanding deep-sea ecosystems functioning

    Puig, Pere; Font, Jordi; Company, Joan B; Palanques, Albert; Sardà, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Cascading of dense shelf water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon whose effects have been largely underestimated. The north-western Mediterranean is one of the regions of the world where massive dense water formation occurs because of cooling and evaporation of surface waters during winter-time. Concurrent with the well known open-sea convection process over the MEDOC region, coastal surface waters over the wide shelf of the Gulf of Lions also become denser than the underly...

  8. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2011-07-01

    Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

  9. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    Bertola, L.D.; Van Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Uit de Weerd, D. R.; York, D.S.; H. Bauer; Prins, H.H.T.; Funston, P. J.; Udo de Haes, H.A.; Leirs, H.; Van Haeringen, W.A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P.N.; H.H. de Iongh

    2011-01-01

    Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique evolutionary history, which is reflected by their genetic makeup. Location Sub-Saharan Africa and India, with special focus on West and Central Africa. Method In this study 126 samples, throughout th...

  10. A Rare Case of Gastric Myiasis in a Lion Caused by Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)-Case Report

    Maryam Ganjali; Mojtaba Keighobadi

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infection caused by a variety of dipterous (fly) larvae in vertebrates tissue (man and domestic or wild animals). Species of Gasterophilus are obligate parasite of horses, donkeys, zebras, elephants and rhinoceroses. There are records worldwide, but mostly, in tropical and subtropical regions. This case report describes a type of gastric myiasis caused by G. intestinalis in an old lion in a zoo in Sistan, southeast Iran. Myiasis in lions is rarely reported and this is the firs...

  11. Sharing the top : how do spotted hyaenas cope with lions ? : apex predator coexistence in a wooded savana

    Périquet, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Being at the top of the food chain, apex predators have the potential to influence the whole community structure through food webs, even within their own guild. In Africa, lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, hyaenas hereafter) are the largest and most numerous predators, with hyaenas often thought to be subordinate to the larger lion Never the less, our understanding of their interactions is limited, even more in wooded ecosystems. This work focuses on identifying the m...

  12. Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.

    Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-11-01

    In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz. PMID:25249386

  13. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to the advancement of comparative genomics of human pathogens, as well as emerging disease in wild populations of endangered species.

  14. Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance.

    Edwards, Charles T T; Bunnefeld, Nils; Balme, Guy A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of terrestrial hunting requires managers to set quotas restricting offtake. This often takes place in the absence of reliable information on the population size, and as a consequence, quotas are set in an arbitrary fashion, leading to population decline and revenue loss. In this investigation, we show how an indirect measure of abundance can be used to set quotas in a sustainable manner, even in the absence of information on population size. Focusing on lion hunting in Africa, we developed a simple algorithm to convert changes in the number of safari days required to kill a lion into a quota for the following year. This was tested against a simulation model of population dynamics, accounting for uncertainties in demography, observation, and implementation. Results showed it to reliably set sustainable quotas despite these uncertainties, providing a robust foundation for the conservation of hunted species. PMID:24344299

  15. Nasal, oral and rectal microbiota of Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus

    Vania M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus are endangered callithrichids. Their conservation may require future translocations or reintroductions; however these approaches involve risks of pathogen introduction in the environment and stress-related opportunistic infections in these animals. In order to screen for opportunistic and potential pathogenic bacterial and fungal microbiota, ten free-ranging and ten captive Black lion tamarins were studied and the results compared. Nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected and cultured for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi, and a total 203 bacterial and 84 fungal isolates were obtained. Overall, the most frequent organisms were Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Microbiota of free-ranging and captive animals were similar in composition. A number of potentially pathogenic organisms were identified, emphasizing the importance of microbiological screening in future translocation or reintroduction conservation management programs.

  16. Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion

    BILLY CHRISTIANTO; YOGIARA

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp.) were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an...

  17. Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to pred...

  18. Post-rift evolution of the Gulf of Lion margin tested by stratigraphic modelling

    Leroux, Estelle; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Bache, Francois; Moulin, Maryline; Pellen, Romain; GRANJEON, Didier; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2015-01-01

    The sedimentary architecture of basins and passive margins is determined by a complex interaction of parameters, including subsidence, eustasy, and sediment supply. A quantification of the post-rift (20 Ma-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Gulf of Lion (West Mediterranean) is proposed here based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary paleomarkers using a large 3D grid of reflection seismic data, correlations with existing drillings, and refraction data. Post-rift subsidence was measured by t...

  19. THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914

    Patricia van den Eeckhout; Peter Scholliers

    2011-01-01

    Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price a...

  20. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Sondgeroth Kerry; Roelke Melody; VandeWoude Sue; Troyer Jennifer L; McCracken Carrie L; Pecon-Slattery Jill; Winterbach Christiaan; Winterbach Hanlie; O'Brien Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus) and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo) and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 dep...

  1. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Castilho, Camila S.; Luiz G. Marins-S; Rodrigo C. Benedet; Freitas, Thales R.O.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, o...

  2. A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.

    Brown, E W; Yuhki, N; Packer, C.; O'Brien, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A li...

  3. Individual Identification and Genetic Variation of Lions (Panthera leo) from Two Protected Areas in Nigeria

    Tende, Talatu; Hansson, Bengt; Ottosson, Ulf; kesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) spanned through a period of five years (2008 2012), whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (K...

  4. Quantifying subsidence and isostatic readjustment using sedimentary paleomarkers, example from the Gulf of Lion

    Rabineau, Marina; Leroux, Estelle; Aslanian, Daniel; Bache, F.; Gorini, Christian; Moulin, Maryline; Molliex, Stephane; Droz, Laurence; Dos Reis, Antonio; Rubino, J.L.; Guillocheau, Francois; Olivet, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Passive margins are characterised by an important tectonic and thermal subsidence, which favours a good preservation of sedimentary sequences. This sedimentation in turn enhances the subsidence because of loading effects. We present here a direct method based on sedimentary markers seen on seismic data, to evaluate total subsidence rates from the coast to the outer shelf and to the deep basin in the Gulf of Lion, from the beginning of massive salt deposition up to present day (the last circa ...

  5. Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions.

    Munson, Linda; Terio, Karen A; Kock, Richard; Mlengeya, Titus; Roelke, Melody E; Dubovi, Edward; Summers, Brian; Sinclair, Anthony R E; Packer, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five "silent" CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer). As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality events may become increasingly common if climate extremes disrupt historic stable relationships between co-existing pathogens and their susceptible hosts. PMID:18575601

  6. A Hybrid High-Order method for LerayLions elliptic equations on general meshes

    Di Pietro, Daniele Antonio; Droniou, Jrme

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop and analyze a Hybrid High-Order (HHO) method for steady non-linear LerayLions problems. The proposed method has several assets, including the support for arbitrary approximation orders and general polytopal meshes. This is achieved by combining two key ingredients devised at the local level: a gradient reconstruction and a high-order stabilization term that generalizes the one originally introduced in the linear case. The convergence analysis is carried out using a c...

  7. A Hybrid High-Order method for Leray-Lions elliptic equations on general meshes

    Pietro, Di; A., Daniele; Droniou; Jrme

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop and analyze a Hybrid High-Order (HHO) method for steady non-linear Leray-Lions problems. The proposed method has several assets, including the support for arbitrary approximation orders and general polytopal meshes. This is achieved by combining two key ingredients devised at the local level: a gradient reconstruction and a high-order stabilization term that generalizes the one originally introduced in the linear case. The convergence analysis is carried out using a c...

  8. Polarisation and propagation of lion roars in the dusk side magnetosheath

    Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, C.C.; Santolík, O; Lacombe, C.; De Conchy, Y.; Hubert, D.; F. Pantellini; Cornilleau-Werhlin, N.; Dandouras, I; E. A. Lucek; Balogh, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of "lion roars" obtained in the magnetosheath by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. STAFF-SA calculates, in near real time, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrix derived from three magnetic and two electric components of the electromagnetic field at 27 frequencies in the range of 8 Hz to 4 kHz. This allows the study of the properties of whistler mod...

  9. Polarisation and propagation of lion roars in the dusk side magnetosheath

    Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, C.C.; Santolík, O; Lacombe, C.; De Conchy, Y.; Hubert, D.; F. Pantellini; Cornilleau-Werhlin, N.; Dandouras, I; E. A. Lucek; Balogh, A.

    2001-01-01

    We present observations of "lion roars" obtained in the magnetosheath by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. STAFF-SA calculates, in near real time, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrix derived from three magnetic and two electric components of the electromagnetic field at 27 frequencies in the range of 8 Hz to 4 kHz. This allows the study of the properties of whistler mode waves an...

  10. A service evaluation: EllenorLions Hospices Children and Young Peoples Service: Executive Summary

    Teasdale, D.; Summers, K; Ruston, A.

    2011-01-01

    Between January and June 2011, the EllenorLions Hospices commissioned a team from Canterbury Christ Church University to independently review the Children and Young Peoples Service to evaluate the integrated service model which delivers both palliative care and community oncology to children and young people with life threatening and life limiting illnesses. The project brief was conducted in two phases. In Phase 1 an information review was undertaken and in Phase 2 the effectiveness and usab...

  11. Cytauxzoon felis-like in the Moutain Lion (Puma concolor: A Case Report

    Netto, Nilton T?rcio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Laboratory of Clinical Pathology of UNIDERP performs routine examinations, when requested, of animals from the Center for Wild Animal Rehabilitation (CRAS of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. During one of these routine procedures, erythrocytic parasites identified as Cytauxzoon felis-like were detected in blood smears obtained from a mountain lion (Puma concolor with parasitemia being 20%. No clinical alterations or infestation with ticks were observed in this animal, and hematological and serum biochemical exams showed only slight alterations. Blood and serum were collected three months later from six mountain lions housed at the CRAS and another animal tested positive for parasites in blood smears with parasitemia of 10%, without showing any clinical, hematological or blood biochemical changes characteristic of cytauxzoonosis. This animal presented parasitemia and laboratory results slightly lower than those observed in the previous animal. Two domestic cats (Felis catus were inoculated, but the animals did not show any clinical signs of cytauxzoonosis. The identification of this blood-borne parasite in wild felines maintained in captivity in the absence of pathogenic manifestations suggests that the mountain lion acts as a natural host for C. felis- like, or that this strain is less pathogenic. Since this is the first report of cytauxzoonosis in Puma concolor in Brazil, further epidemiological studies are necessary to determine the true impact of infection of wild felines with this protozoan.

  12. Of lion manes and human beards: some unusual effects of the interaction between aggression and sociality

    D. Caroline Blanchard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin (1871 suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights. Recent experimental studies on wild lions have emphasized the role of female selection, but analyses of specific attack behaviors and targets, and the social consequences of manelessness for lions living in very hot climates suggest that male manes may indeed mitigate the outcomes of intraspecific male attack and thus serve a permissive function for multimale + female groups, facilitating protection of prides against takeovers and infanticide by nomadic males. Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion’s mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social lifestyle, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors.

  13. Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)

    Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

  14. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans.

  15. On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams

    Andersson, Jonas; Johansson, Erik; Toelli, Heikki [Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI CBRN Defense and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambers, containing isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) and tetramethylsilane [Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}] as the sensitive media, and a NACP-02 monitor chamber. An initial activity of approximately 250 GBq {sup 18}F was employed as the radiation source in the experiments. The initial dose rate in each measurement series was estimated to 1.0 Gy min{sup -1} by Monte Carlo simulations and the measurements were carried out during the decay of the radioactive source. In the investigation of general recombination losses, employing the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, the liquid ionization chambers were operated at polarizing voltages 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 V. Furthermore, measurements were also performed at 500 V polarizing voltage in the investigation of the sensitivity of the microLion chamber to ambient electric fields. Results: The measurement results from the liquid ionization chambers, corrected for general recombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of 0.2 Gy min{sup -1} were excluded from the present investigation of the general collection efficiency. The perturbations were found to be more pronounced when the chamber polarizing voltage was increased. Conclusions: By using the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, comparable corrected ionization currents from experiments in low and medium energy photon beams can be achieved. However, the valid range of general collection efficiencies has been found to vary in a comparison between experiments performed in continuous beams of 120 kVp x ray, and the present investigation of 511 keV annihilation photons. At very high dose rates in continuous beams, there are presently no methods that can be used to correct for general recombination losses and at low dose rates the microLion chamber may be perturbed by ambient electric fields. Increasing the chamber polarizing voltage, which diminishes the general recombination effect, was found to increase the microLion chamber sensitivity to ambient electric fields. Prudence is thus advised when employing the microLion chamber in radiation dosimetry, as ambient electric fields of the strength observed in the present work may be found in many common situations. Due to uncertainties in the theoretical basis for recombination losses in liquids, further studies on the underlying theories for the initial and general recombination effect are needed if liquid ionization chambers are to become a viable option in high precision radiation dosimetry.

  16. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not affect population productivity (i.e., maternity), but had an additive effect on mountain lion mortality, and therefore population growth. Through harvest, wildlife managers have the ability to control mountain lion populations.

  17. Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft

    K. H. Yearby

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5degrees is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

  18. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389394, 2010].

  19. A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.

    Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

    2013-05-01

    The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals. PMID:23495802

  20. Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park

    I.J. Whyte

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

  1. Paleoenvironmental imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleontological parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasted subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lions. Since both depositional environments were well-documented in this area, large data-sets were available and allowed to calibrate the investigated cores with several reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. Molecular-based fingerprints showed that the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by an heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee, were unexpectedly dominated by Betaproteobacteria (more than 70 %, at the base of the core mainly below five meters in the sediment. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidites frequency indicated that the microbial diversity was controlled by the important climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. This result was supported by statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In contrast, the Gulf of Lions core, characterized by a homogeneous lithology of upper-slope environment, was dominated by the Bacteroidetes group and in a lesser extent, by the Betaproteobacteria group. At both sites, the dominance of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lions, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western-Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the structure/composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

  2. Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park

    M.G.L. Mills

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the population, seem to be related to changes in prey populations, particularly to a decline in numbers and condition of buffalo Syncerus cafer.

  3. Siemensin ohjelmoitavien logiikoiden tiedot Red Lion -laitteille muuntavan työkalun toteutus C#- ja .NET-tekniikoilla

    Savolainen, Lassi

    2014-01-01

    Sarlin Oy Ab tuottaa teknisiä tuotteita ja palveluja teollisuudelle sekä kunnille, ja sen osaamisalueita ovat automaatio, energia, paineilma sekä teollisuusuunit. Sarlin Oy Ab on jälleenmyyjänä Red Lion -tuoteperheen laitteille. Insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli kehittää sovellus, jonka avulla pystyttäisiin helposti ja kätevästi kokoamaan Siemensin ohjelmoitaville logiikoille tehty projekti ja tuomaan projektin tiedot Red Lion -tuoteperheen laitteiden kanssa tehtyyn toteutukseen. Sovellukse...

  4. Cecil: A moment or a movement? Analysis of media coverage of the death of a lion, Panthera leo

    Macdonald, DW; Jacobsen, KS; Burnham, D.; Loveridge, AJ; Johnson, PJ

    2016-01-01

    The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed “Cecil”, a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified usi...

  5. Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera Leo

    Macdonald, David W. (David Whyte); Kim S. Jacobsen; Dawn Burnham; Johnson, Paul J; Loveridge, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed “Cecil”, a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified usi...

  6. Patterns of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Multiple Infection and Genome Divergence in a Free-Ranging Population of African Lions

    Troyer, Jennifer L; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Roelke, Melody E.; Black, Lori; Packer, Craig; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that causes AIDS-like immunodeficiency disease in domestic cats. Free-ranging lions, Panthera leo, carry a chronic species-specific strain of FIV, FIV-Ple, which so far has not been convincingly connected with immune pathology or mortality. FIV-Ple, harboring the three distinct strains A, B, and C defined by pol gene sequence divergences, is endemic in the large outbred population of lions in the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania. Here we desc...

  7. LIONS: a new set of Fortran 90 codes for the SPIRAL project at GANIL

    A set of new computer programs developed at GANIL is presented; these codes are used to study different parts of the SPIRAL project (a new radioactive ion beam facility), and particularly the dynamics in the CIME cyclotron, its injection inflector, and the new extraction system of the ECR ion sources. Three important modules are described: CHA3D for the evaluation of 3D electric fields with or without space charge effects, LIONS for the motion of ions and EXTRACT for the ECRIS extraction. These modules are written in Fortran 90 in a ''data parallel scheme''. They work either on UNIX workstations or parallel and vectorial computers. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs

  8. Captive propagation of threatened primates - the example of the Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus

    W. Kaumanns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many conservation-oriented breeding programs are not likely to reach their goal of establishing self-sustaining populations. Some zoo biologists propagate to reconsider zoo-based conservation policies and strategies. The Lion-tailed Macaque is a flagship species for in situ conservation and a high priority species in captive propagation. This article reviews the captive management history of the Lion-tailed Macaque, identifies management patterns that might have negatively influenced the development of the programs, and proposes to use this analysis to initiate a new management perspective. In the North American captive Lion-tailed Macaque population under the Species Survival Plan (SSP, the strong reduction in population size and group sizes due to space problems might have contributed to a decrease in population viability. The population over two decades has declined from almost 300 to less than 100 individuals. In the European population under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP, population size was not limited and larger groups were advocated. The population grew slowly but steadily to a present size of more than 350 individuals over about 23 years. The effective population size has remained low in both SSP and EEP populations. A general conceptual framework that focuses on individuals and their phenotypes for in situ and ex situ conservation recently developed by field conservationists is briefly introduced. It is used to suggest improvements in the management of the Lion-tailed Macaque. It is concluded that the size and structure of a breeding population is to be decided so as to provide conditions and materials for successful reproduction rather than by the available zoo space only. For this, large groups and populations with representation of all age-sex classes are advocated. This would result in a further reduction in the number of species kept in zoos. It is indicated that zoo biology needs to develop new concepts that include a large spectrum of concepts of biology and knowledge about the adaptive potential of animal species under altered and fragmented conditions.

  9. Exploding metal film active anode source experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    In this paper the authors report results using an extractor geometry magnetically insulated ion diode on the 0.5 TW LION accelerator. Experiments with an exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS) have shown that intense beams with significantly improved turn-on time compared to epoxy-filled-groove anodes can be produced. A new geometry, in which a plasma switch is used to provide the current path that explodes the thin film anode, has improved the ion efficiency (to typically 70%) compared with the previous scheme in which an electron collector on the anode provided this current. Leakage electron current is reduced when no collector is used

  10. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Boretti Tanya; Fairer-Wessels Felicité

    2014-01-01

    Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT) volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro env...

  11. Comparison of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins

    Selmi, André L.; Mendes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Juliana P.; Barbudo-Selmi, Glenda R.; Lins, Bruno T.

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine (20 μg/kg bodyweight [BW] and 10 mg/kg BW) (MK group) or dexmedetomidine-ketamine (10 μg/kg BW and 10 mg/kg BW) (DK group) were studied in golden-headed lion tamarins. Heart rate decreased after administration of both combinations; this reduction was statistically greater in the DK group than in the MK group after 15 and 45 minutes. Systolic arterial pressure decreased in a similar way in both groups, except at 1...

  12. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry and Lions

    Caffarelli, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry and Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary. 2011 Académie des sciences.

  13. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  14. 20th century sediment budget trends on the Western Gulf of Lions shoreface (France): An application of an integrated method for the study of sediment coastal reservoirs

    Brunel, C.; Certain, R.; Sabatier, F.; Robin, N.; Barusseau, J. P.; Aleman, N.; Raynal, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a shoreface sediment budget established for the 20th century (1895-1984-2009) along the microtidal wave-dominated coast of the western Gulf of Lions (Languedoc-Roussillon, Mediterranean Sea, SE France). The implementation of a diachronic bathymetric approach, coupled with the definition of sand reservoirs (upper sand unit - USU) by very high-resolution seismic surveys and the results of LiDAR investigations, offers a new means of defining precisely the magnitude and change trends of the sediment budget. The aim of this study is to link the Large Scale Coastal Behaviour (LSCB) of the littoral prism (expressed in terms of shoreface sediment budget, shoreface sediment volume and spatial distribution pattern of cells) to climatic change, river sediment input to the coast, longshore sediment transport distribution, impact of hard coastal defence structures and artificial beach nourishment. The results show a significant reduction of the volume of the western Gulf of Lions littoral prism over 114 years (- 26.1 ± 4.6 × 106 m3). From 1895 to 1984, the overall budget is slightly positive, with a volume estimated at 4.1 ± 3.5 × 106 m3. For 1984-2009, however, the estimated sediment budgets clearly indicate that erosion is dominant over the last 25 years, with a volume loss of - 30.2 ± 4.2 × 106 m3. In relation to the long-term sediment budget and longshore drift pattern, the long-term trend of the USU volume distribution displays strong spatio-temporal contrasts linked to longshore sediment drift, spatial distribution of fluvial sediment inputs and hard engineering structures. Locally, the sedimentary reservoir is significantly eroded within a century (- 80% of USU), since the initial amount present was low and not sustainable. The emphasis is on the importance of considering the volume changes of available sediment reservoirs rather than their losses and gains. Erosion of the Languedoc-Roussillon shoreface is likely to continue in the future due to the "natural" decrease of river sediment input and the sand removal for human purposes. Consequently the littoral sand prism results in sedimentary reservoirs that are gradually being used up.

  15. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of this shrub is puzzling. Three of the Desert Tortoise shell remains possessed distinctive intercanine punctures measuring 55-60 mm center to center indicating that this was an adult sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm.; Medica 1990. Great Basin Nat. 50:83-84), while Coyotes (Canis latrans) were never observed within the fenced enclosures. Prior to this predation event in Rock Valley, 17 Desert Tortoises were alive between 2000 and 2002, only 7 were known to be alive in 2004, while 2 tortoises have not been seen since 2002. Predation studies of Mountain Lions indicate that these events may be an example of a learned behavior of individual animals developing a preference for a prey (Logan and Sweanor 2001, Desert Puma: Evolutionary ecology and conservation of an enduring carnivore. Hornocker Wildlife Institute, Island Press, Washington. 463 pp.; Creeden and Graham 1997, Desert Bighorn Council Transactions. p. 37-43), or the plight of a large predator locating an available source of food while passing through low elevation Mojave Desert habitat in late summer or early fall.

  16. Identification of source-sink dynamics in mountain lions of the Great Basin.

    Andreasen, Alyson M; Stewart, Kelley M; Longland, William S; Beckmann, Jon P; Forister, Matthew L

    2012-12-01

    Natural and anthropogenic boundaries have been shown to affect population dynamics and population structure for many species with movement patterns at the landscape level. Understanding population boundaries and movement rates in the field for species that are cryptic and occur at low densities is often extremely difficult and logistically prohibitive; however genetic techniques may offer insights that have previously been unattainable. We analysed thirteen microsatellite loci for 739 mountain lions (Puma concolor) using muscle tissue samples from individuals in the Great Basin throughout Nevada and the Sierra Nevada mountain range to test the hypothesis that heterogeneous hunting pressure results in source-sink dynamics at the landscape scale. We used a combination of non-spatial and spatial model-based Bayesian clustering methods to identify genetic populations. We then used a recently developed Bayesian multilocus genotyping method to estimate asymmetrical rates of contemporary movement between those subpopulations and to identify source and sink populations. We identified two populations at the highest level of genetic structuring with a total of five subpopulations in the Great Basin of Nevada and the Sierra Nevada range. Our results suggest that source-sink dynamics occur at landscape scales for wide-ranging species, such as mountain lions, and that source populations may be those that are under relatively less hunting pressure and that occupy refugia. PMID:22934825

  17. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Boretti Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

  18. Live foraminifera from the open slope between Grand Rhne and Petit Rhne Canyons (Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean)

    Fontanier, C.; Jorissen, F. J.; Lansard, B.; Mouret, A.; Buscail, R.; Schmidt, S.; Kerherv, P.; Buron, F.; Zaragosi, S.; Hunault, G.; Ernoult, E.; Artero, C.; Anschutz, P.; Rabouille, C.

    2008-11-01

    We present an ecological study of live (Rose Bengal stained) foraminifera from 6 deep-sea stations sampled on the open slope between the Grand Rhne Canyon and the Petit Rhne Canyon (eastern part of the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean). The 6 stations describe a bathymetric transect from 350 to 2000 m depth. The main objective of our study is to investigate the changes of the foraminiferal density, composition and microhabitat along this transect in response to the physico-chemical conditions at and below the sediment-water interface. All our observations underline the general meso-oligotrophic character of our inter-canyon open-slope setting where low-quality organic matter originating from both marine and continental sources settles. The input of organic matter at the sediment-water interface leads to a classical succession of redox reactions within the sediment. The shallowest station (350 m) appears as an active sedimentary environment, where coarse sediments characterized by lower-quality organic matter and biogenic material accumulate. The 550-m-deep station presents bioturbated sediments with the highest concentration of labile organic compounds. The deeper stations, between about 750 and 2000 m deep, show decreasing sedimentation rates with water depth and are characterized by a background of low-quality organic matter. The foraminiferal changes recorded along the bathymetric transect are related to a complex association of physico-chemical parameters. We think that the quality of organic matter in the surficial sediment, as expressed by the lipid concentration, is the major parameter controlling the foraminiferal distribution at our open-slope stations. From the 550- to the 2000-m-deep station, the foraminiferal standing stocks and diversity decrease with depth, as a result of the increasing scarcity of labile organic compounds at the sediment-water interface. Oxygen concentration and penetration depth and the intensity of bioturbation seem to play only a secondary ecological role. Other, putative hydro-sedimentary processes (winnowing by strong bottom currents, sand-bed deposition) appear as additional parameters controlling the foraminiferal community structure. At the 350-m-deep station, the live foraminiferal fauna can be considered as a non-equilibrium assemblage thriving in frequently disturbed and food-impoverished sediments. At the 745- and 980-m-deep stations, the occurrence of suspensivorous epibenthic/epilithic species suggests the presence of strong bottom-water current velocities and the related suspension of organic particles.

  19. "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali." Adapted by Kim Hines, Featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso, Cue Sheet for Students.

    Freeman, Aakhu TuahNera

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Sundiata: Lion King of Mali," adapted by Kim Hines and featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) Sundiata: Man & Myth (discusses the real man and the

  20. 78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX

    2013-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule... 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock, Channel 225C2. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  1. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... at De Beque, Colorado; Channel 237C3 at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2..., Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel 288C2 at Rule; and by...

  2. Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse

    Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R; Ringleb, J; Bertelsen, M F; Rasmusen, K; Andersen, C Y; Kristensen, S G; Jewgenow, K

    follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed...

  3. 75 FR 28642 - Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...

    2010-05-21

    ... in the Federal Register (74 FR 38667; August 4, 2009). We received 220 responses during the comment... Fish and Wildlife Service Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National...) predation on desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge...

  4. Degradation characteristics of golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia two-phrase long calls

    Sabatini, Vera; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    long calls of the Golden Lion Tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia and its implications for "reading" and ranging long calls of calling tamarins. The experiments were made in lowland, evergreen forest in Brazil. Synthesized copies of natural sounds were broadcast and re-recorded using different combinations...

  5. Dynamics of a morbillivirus at the domestic-wildlife interface: Canine distemper virus in domestic dogs and lions.

    Viana, Mafalda; Cleaveland, Sarah; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Halliday, Jo; Packer, Craig; Craft, Meggan E; Hampson, Katie; Czupryna, Anna; Dobson, Andrew P; Dubovi, Edward J; Ernest, Eblate; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Horton, Daniel L; Kaare, Magai T; Kanellos, Theo; Lankester, Felix; Mentzel, Christine; Mlengeya, Titus; Mzimbiri, Imam; Takahashi, Emi; Willett, Brian; Haydon, Daniel T; Lembo, Tiziana

    2015-02-01

    Morbilliviruses cause many diseases of medical and veterinary importance, and although some (e.g., measles and rinderpest) have been controlled successfully, others, such as canine distemper virus (CDV), are a growing concern. A propensity for host-switching has resulted in CDV emergence in new species, including endangered wildlife, posing challenges for controlling disease in multispecies communities. CDV is typically associated with domestic dogs, but little is known about its maintenance and transmission in species-rich areas or about the potential role of domestic dog vaccination as a means of reducing disease threats to wildlife. We address these questions by analyzing a long-term serological dataset of CDV in lions and domestic dogs from Tanzania's Serengeti ecosystem. Using a Bayesian state-space model, we show that dynamics of CDV have changed considerably over the past three decades. Initially, peaks of CDV infection in dogs preceded those in lions, suggesting that spill-over from dogs was the main driver of infection in wildlife. However, despite dog-to-lion transmission dominating cross-species transmission models, infection peaks in lions became more frequent and asynchronous from those in dogs, suggesting that other wildlife species may play a role in a potentially complex maintenance community. Widespread mass vaccination of domestic dogs reduced the probability of infection in dogs and the size of outbreaks but did not prevent transmission to or peaks of infection in lions. This study demonstrates the complexity of CDV dynamics in natural ecosystems and the value of long-term, large-scale datasets for investigating transmission patterns and evaluating disease control strategies. PMID:25605919

  6. Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) type IIx single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans

    Kohn, Tertius A.; Noakes, Timothy D.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (Vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°C from lion, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758), and caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. Additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. Only type IIx muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type IIx and only two type I fibres were found in the lion sample. Only pure type I and IIa, and hybrid type IIax fibres were identified in the human samples – there were no pure type IIx fibres. Nevertheless, compared with all the human fibre types, the lion and caracal fibres were smaller (P<0.01) in cross-sectional area (human: 6194±230 μm2, lion: 3008±151 μm2, caracal: 2583±221 μm2). On average, the felid type IIx fibres produced significantly greater force (191–211 kN m−2) and ~3 times more power (29.0–30.3 kN m−2 fibre lengths s−1) than the human IIax fibres (100–150 kN m−2, 4–11 kN m−2 fibre lengths s−1). Vmax values of the lion type IIx fibres were also higher than those of human type IIax fibres. The findings suggest that the same fibre type may differ substantially between species and potential explanations are discussed. PMID:23155088

  7. Characterization of Ovarian Steroid Patterns in Female African Lions (Panthera leo), and the Effects of Contraception on Reproductive Function.

    Putman, Sarah B; Brown, Janine L; Franklin, Ashley D; Schneider, Emily C; Boisseau, Nicole P; Asa, Cheryl S; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2015-01-01

    Because of poor reproduction after the lifting of an 8-year breeding moratorium, a biomedical survey of female lions in U.S. zoos was initiated in 2007. Fecal estrogen (FEM), progestagen (FPM) and glucocorticoid (FGM) metabolites were analyzed in samples collected 3-4 times per wk from 28 lions at 17 facilities (0.9-13.8 yr of age) for 4 mo-3.5 yr and body weights were obtained ~monthly from 17 animals at eight facilities (0.0-3.0 yr of age). Based on FEM, estrous cycle length averaged 17.5 0.4 d in duration, with estrus lasting 4.4 0.2 d. All but one female exhibited waves of estrogenic activity indicative of follicular activity; however, not all females expressed estrous behaviors (73%), suggesting silent estrus was common. Female lions experienced puberty earlier than expected; waves of estrogenic activity were observed as young as 1.1 yr of age, which may be related to a faster growth rate of captive vs. wild lions. Mean gestation length was 109.5 1.0 d, whereas the non-pregnant luteal phase was less than half (46.0 1.2 d). Non-mating induced increases in FPM were observed in 33% of females housed without a male, consistent with spontaneous ovulation. A number of study animals had been contracepted, and the return to cyclicity after treatment withdrawal, while variable, was ~4.0 yr and longer than the 1-yr expected efficacy, especially for those implanted with Suprelorin. For FGM, there were no differences in overall, baseline or peak mean concentrations among the age groups or across seasons, nor were there any relationships between reproductive parameters and FGM concentrations. Overall, results suggest that poor reproduction in lions after the breeding moratorium was not related to altered adrenal or ovarian steroid activity, but for some females may have been a consequence of individual institutions' management decisions. PMID:26460849

  8. The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986

    Ames J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986Pages 21 - 25 (ReportJack AmesAbstract:It has proved difficult to devise a population census method that is reliable, and the efforts to do so are reviewed. Whether the population has remained stable or declined slightly, the fact remains that a population that had been growing at a rate of approximately five percent per year has not grown for more than a decade. This lack of population growth remains a significant point of concern. However, new net fishing restrictions and the fact that the geographic range of the sea otter in California has continued to increase, lead us to conclude that future increases in population size in California are likely. In the worst of all scenarios, were the Californian population of sea otters to be exterminated, a new population could be started from Alaskan sea otters. Such transplanted populations currently thrive in British Columbia, Canada and the state of Washington.

  9. Californians & Education. PPIC Statewide Survey

    Baldassare, Mark; Bonner, Dean; Petek, Sonja; Shrestha, Jui

    2014-01-01

    The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) Statewide Survey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 141st PPIC Statewide Survey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a…

  10. The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon

    Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

    2014-03-01

    The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

  11. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  12. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality.

    Mosser, Anna; Fryxell, John M; Eberly, Lynn; Packer, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Habitat quality is typically inferred by assuming a direct relationship between consumer density and resource abundance, although it has been suggested that consumer fitness may be a more accurate measure of habitat quality. We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. A 40-year average of female reproductive success (yearling cubs per female) was best explained by proximity to river confluences, whereas patterns of productivity (yearling cubs per km(2)) and adult female density (individuals per km(2)) were associated with more general measures of habitat quality and areas of shelter in poor habitat. This suggests that density may not accurately distinguish between high-quality 'source' areas and low-quality sites that merely provide refuges for effectively non-reproductive individuals. Our results indicate that density may be a misleading indicator of real estate value, particularly for populations that do not conform to an ideal free distribution. PMID:19708970

  13. CONTEXTUAL MEANING STUDY OF TRANSLATION OF CHILDRENS STORY THE LION KING FROM ENGLISH INTO INDONESIAN

    Djuria Suprato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed to present study on the translation of words, phrases, expressions and sentences in a children's story.The story of "The Lion King" was used as case and content analysis was applied as a reference for the study. The focus of this analysis was aimed to observe the appearance of the terms or meaning of certain words that are considered important and supports the goals of the research, in this case is the translation of words, phrases, sentences in the source language (English into the target language (Indonesian. As its criterion, dictionaries was used and rules of contextual translation was applied. It can be concluded that children's stories emphasize the style and meaning contained in it, so the translation is done must consider the context of the story.

  14. Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion

    BILLY CHRISTIANTO

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp. were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Two isolates (Myr7 and MyrB were found to possess quorum quenching activity. Isolates with quorum quenching activity were later identified employing 16S rRNA. Both isolates were similar to bacteria in the genus Aeromonas

  15. Loin Exposure as a Means of Complementing Thermoregulation in Kalahari Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1958

    Y. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork on the thermoregulatory behavior of a small pride of lions (Panthera leo, consisting of three adults and two cubs, was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, Namibia. Continuous daytime and nighttime observations of the pride were performed during winter (May-July 2003 and summer (February-March 2004. Temporal incidences of loin exposure showed a positive relationship with increasing temperature from winter to summer. Full belly loin exposures during both seasons occurred across the ambient temperature range, but empty belly loin exposures were only observed above 17°C. The frequency of loin exposure for both seasons on empty or full bellies rapidly increased from 28°C. The two males demonstrated a similar probability of loin exposure, possibly as a result of their similar shape and sex and the average orientation of loins into an oncoming breeze occurred 51 and 58% during winter and summer, respectively.

  16. Implications of diet for the extinction of saber-toothed cats and American lions.

    Desantis, Larisa R G; Schubert, Blaine W; Scott, Jessica R; Ungar, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    The saber-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, and American lion, Panthera atrox, were among the largest terrestrial carnivores that lived during the Pleistocene, going extinct along with other megafauna ?12,000 years ago. Previous work suggests that times were difficult at La Brea (California) during the late Pleistocene, as nearly all carnivores have greater incidences of tooth breakage (used to infer greater carcass utilization) compared to today. As Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA) can differentiate between levels of bone consumption in extant carnivores, we use DMTA to clarify the dietary niches of extinct carnivorans from La Brea. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that times were tough at La Brea with carnivorous taxa utilizing more of the carcasses. Our results show no evidence of bone crushing by P. atrox, with DMTA attributes most similar to the extant cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, which actively avoids bone. In contrast, S. fatalis has DMTA attributes most similar to the African lion Panthera leo, implying that S. fatalis did not avoid bone to the extent previously suggested by SEM microwear data. DMTA characters most indicative of bone consumption (i.e., complexity and textural fill volume) suggest that carcass utilization by the extinct carnivorans was not necessarily more complete during the Pleistocene at La Brea; thus, times may not have been "tougher" than the present. Additionally, minor to no significant differences in DMTA attributes from older (?30-35 Ka) to younger (?11.5 Ka) deposits offer little evidence that declining prey resources were a primary cause of extinction for these large cats. PMID:23300674

  17. Data from "Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus."

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data sets used to support analysis published by O'Corry-Crowe et al (2014) Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct...

  18. Using Reaction Time and Equal Latency Contours to Derive Auditory Weighting Functions in Sea Lions and Dolphins.

    Finneran, James J; Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E

    2016-01-01

    Subjective loudness measurements are used to create equal-loudness contours and auditory weighting functions for human noise-mitigation criteria; however, comparable direct measurements of subjective loudness with animal subjects are difficult to conduct. In this study, simple reaction time to pure tones was measured as a proxy for subjective loudness in a Tursiops truncatus and Zalophus californianus. Contours fit to equal reaction-time curves were then used to estimate the shapes of auditory weighting functions. PMID:26610970

  19. Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) type IIx single muscle fibre force and power exceed that of trained humans

    Kohn, Tertius A.; Noakes, Timothy D

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated for the first time maximum force production, shortening velocity (Vmax) and power output in permeabilised single muscle fibres at 12°C from lion, Panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758), and caracal, Caracal caracal (Schreber 1776), and compared the values with those from human cyclists. Additionally, the use and validation of previously frozen tissue for contractile experiments is reported. Only type IIx muscle fibres were identified in the caracal sample, whereas type IIx and o...

  20. Seasonal variability of the advective transport of particulate matter and organic carbon in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean)

    Lapouyade, Agnes; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Nine hydrographic cruises were performed on the Gulf of Lion continental margin between June 1993 and July 1996. These observations are analysed to quantify the fluxes of particulate matter and organic carbon transported along the slope by the Northern Current and to characterise their seasonal variability. Concentration of particulate matter and organic carbon are derived from light-transmission data and water sample analyses. The circulation is estimated from the geostrophic current field. ...

  1. «Sur la piste du lion», les itinéraires de Kessel, 1898-1979

    Claude IMBERT

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Le livre d'Yves Courrière (Sur la piste du lion, 1985 permet de suivre l'essentiel des grands voyages de Joseph Kessel (1898-1979 après avoir raconté la diaspora familiale. Ils constituent le support géographique de son œuvre, dans les domaines du reportage et de la littérature: une reconstitution à travers des cartes chronologiques.

  2. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates

    Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

  3. Innervation Patterns of Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris Mystacial Follicle-Sinus Complexes

    Christopher Douglas Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F-SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339±408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses¬.

  4. Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes.

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A

    2014-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses. PMID:25400554

  5. Electron collector and ion species experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    Studies of the effects of an electron collector on the electron flow in an ion diode and on diode impedance history are being done with an extractor geometry ion diode (B/sub r/ magnetic insulation field) on the LION accelerator (1.5 MV, 4?, 40 ns). The collector is a flux-penetrable metal protrusion on the inner radius of the anode that collects electrons. This device increases the diode operating impedance particularly during the later part of the pulse when the diode impedance collapses without the collector. In the present set of experiments, several thin wires are inserted into the anode and allowed to protrude a few millimeters into the A-K gap. These wires are damaged by the electron flow during the pulse and by measuring the length of the remaining wire, the distance of the electron layer from the anode can be inferred. The ion current density is also measured in three radial locations across the diode, giving a measure, through the Child-Langmuir law, of the effective gap spacing between the anode and the electron sheath. A simple model is proposed to account for the scaling of ion current density with the diode voltage observed in the experiment

  6. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  7. Alloparental Care and Auntie Behaviour in a Male Kalahari Lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758

    Y. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo consisting of a five year old male, a four year old male and female sibling pair and a male and female cub, held in a 500 ha enclosure, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Due to their continued contact since birth, the male and female sibling pair developed a strong bond and spent 57% of their time together, co-operating and sharing resources. At the arrival of the cubs, this association did not change and as a result, the male was included in all the activities between the female and cubs. He demonstrated great patience with them and took custody of them when darting procedures took place. On two separate occasions, he secured meat for them and defended the carcass while they fed. This type of egalitarianism, alloparenting and auntie roles has been described for females of the same pride, but males have never exhibited such behaviour. The behaviour may lie in kin selection or may be for agonistic buffering, reducing aggression from the older male.

  8. Development of feline microsatellites and SNPs for evaluating primary cataract candidate genes as cause for cataract in Angolan lions (Panthera leo bleyenberghi).

    Philipp, Ute; Steinmetz, Andrea; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    Primary cataracts (CAT) are characterized as any form of opacities of the eye lenses and are not accompanied by other diseases. CAT may impair vision depending on their size, location, and their state of progression. In order to investigate the cause of congenital or juvenile CAT in inbred Angolan lions kept in German zoos, we analyzed the genomic sequences of 4 crystalline genes CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBB2, and CRYBB1. In addition, 10 CAT candidate genes (GJA3, LIM2, CRYGA, CRYGB, CRYGC, CRYGD CRYGS, BFSP2, CRYBA4, and CRYBB1) were analyzed using adjacent microsatellites. We identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Angolan lion crystalline genes and 9 segregating microsatellites. Nonparametric and parametric linkage analyses did not reveal any linkage between one of the analyzed markers and CAT. So, we concluded that these genes can be excluded as causative for the familial primary cataract phenotype in these Angolan lions. PMID:20423916

  9. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy.

    Dupuis-Desormeaux, Marc; Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation. PMID:26893967

  10. Testing the effects of perimeter fencing and elephant exclosures on lion predation patterns in a Kenyan wildlife conservancy

    Davidson, Zeke; Pratt, Laura; Mwololo, Mary; MacDonald, Suzanne E.

    2016-01-01

    The use of fences to segregate wildlife can change predator and prey behaviour. Predators can learn to incorporate fencing into their hunting strategies and prey can learn to avoid foraging near fences. A twelve-strand electric predator-proof fence surrounds our study site. There are also porous one-strand electric fences used to create exclosures where elephant (and giraffe) cannot enter in order to protect blocs of browse vegetation for two critically endangered species, the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and the Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi). The denser vegetation in these exclosures attracts both browsing prey and ambush predators. In this study we examined if lion predation patterns differed near the perimeter fencing and inside the elephant exclosures by mapping the location of kills. We used a spatial analysis to compare the predation patterns near the perimeter fencing and inside the exclosures to predation in the rest of the conservancy. Predation was not over-represented near the perimeter fence but the pattern of predation near the fence suggests that fences may be a contributing factor to predation success. Overall, we found that predation was over-represented inside and within 50 m of the exclosures. However, by examining individual exclosures in greater detail using a hot spot analysis, we found that only a few exclosures contained lion predation hot spots. Although some exclosures provide good hunting grounds for lions, we concluded that exclosures did not necessarily create prey-traps per se and that managers could continue to use this type of exclusionary fencing to protect stands of dense vegetation. PMID:26893967

  11. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810 skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic

    Diedrich C G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical finds of bone remains of Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss from the Upper Pleistocene loess open air site at Praha-Podbaba (Czech Republic are reviewed. The largely complete cranium from Central Bohemia and finds from other sites in Czech Republic are also described. The bone proportions of the cranial and postcranial material from Podbaba indicate them to have come from an adult male lion carcass. One foreleg and lower jaw belonged to an adult female as evidenced by their much smaller proportions. A few additional bones were found at other loess pits around Praha along the Vltava River and at open air sites along the Berounka River close to Beroun. By undertaking a preliminary overview of these finds and other bones from cave sites in Central Bohemia, a first palaeobiogeographical distribution of these extinct carnivores can be presented. The lion remains from the open air sites, were found alongside the typical glacial cold-period macrofauna consisting of a few Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, but mainly Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach bones, which were often well-chewed by Ice Age spotted hyenas. Other faunal remains were found in the loess sites, and these appeared, in most cases, to be hyena prey depots or scavenging sites. These remains included Bison priscus (Bojanus, Equus ferus Boddaert [partly Equus przewalskii (Poljakoff], Equus hemionus (Pallas, Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, Capra ibex (Linnaeus and rarely Rupricapra rupricapra (Linnaeus. The latter two animals indicate that an alpine fauna existed in Central Bohemia during the early and middle Upper Pleistocene. Some lion remains and locations described here may be of Saalian Age, during which a similar fauna existed. The bone accumulations, including lion remains, are probably, in many cases, hyena prey deposits. Their presence in caves seems to have been mainly the result of hyena and lion conflicts, and lion kills which were imported, often as complete carcasses, into the hyena cave dens such as the one at Srbsko Chlum-Komín. Their carcasses seemed to have very often been imported by hyenas into their dens in loess along the Weichselian river valleys, the Vltava and Berounka Rivers. In some cases, lions may have been killed at the conflict site, and been scavenged there. The proven minimum number of individuals (MNI lions for the Weichselian in Central Bohemia can be estimated from cave and open air sites to be about 20 compared with a provable hyena MNI of more than twice this number at about 48 individuals.

  12. Atmospheric patterns driving Holocene productivity in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean): a multiproxy approach.

    Ausin, Blanca; Flores, Jose-Abel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Cacho, Isabel; Hernndez-Almeida, Ivn; Martrat, Beln; Grimalt, Joan

    2014-05-01

    This study is aimed to reconstruct productivity during the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean as well as to investigate what processes account for its short-term variability. Fossil coccolithophore assemblages have been studied along with Mg/Ca and Uk'37-estimated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental proxies. The study site is located in a semi-permanent area of upwelling in the Alboran Sea. This productive cell is of special interest since is closely related to local hydrological dynamics driven by the entering Atlantic Jet (AJ). The onset of this productive cell is suggested at 7.7 ka cal. B.P. and linked to the establishment of the anticyclonic gyres. From 7.7 ka cal. BP to present, the N ratio and accumulation rate of Florisphaera profunda show successive upwelling and stratification events. This alternation is simultaneous to changes in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation rate in the Gulf of Lions [Frigola et al., 2007], along with changes in Mg/Ca-estimated SST, relative abundance of reworked nannoliths, pollen grains record [Fletcher et al., 2012] and n-hexacosan-1-ol index. Two scenarios are proposed to explain short-term climatic and oceanographic variability: [1] Wetter climate and weaker north-westerlies blowing over the Gulf of Lions trigger a slackening of the WMDW formation. Consequently, a minor AJ inflows the Alboran Sea leading to less vertical mixing and a deepening of the nutricline and hence, long-term stratification events. [2] Arid climate and stronger north-westerlies enable WMDW reinforcement. In turn, increased AJ triggers vertical mixing and nutricline shoaling, and therefore, productive periods. Finally, changes in atmospheric patterns (e.g. the winter North Atlantic Oscillation; [Olsen et al., 2012]) prove to be useful in explaining the WMDW formation in the Gulf of Lions and associated short-term productivity variations in the Alboran Sea. References Fletcher, W. J., M. Debret, and M. F. Sanchez Goi (2012), Mid-Holocene emergence of a low-frequency millennial oscillation in western Mediterranean climate: Implications for past dynamics of the North Atlantic atmospheric westerlies, The Holocene, 23, 153-166. Frigola, J., A. Moreno, I. Cacho, M. Canals, F. J. Sierro, J. A. Flores, J. O. Grimalt, D. A. Hodell, and J. H. Curtis (2007), Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean region from a deepwater sediment record, Paleoceanography, 22, PA2209. Olsen, J., N. J. Anderson, and M. F. Knudsen (2012), Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the past 5,200 years, Nature Geosci, 5, 808-812.

  13. Impact of an intrusion by the Northern Current on the biogeochemistry in the eastern Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean

    Ross, Oliver N.; Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Pairaud, Ivane

    2016-03-01

    We present the results from the RHOMA2011-LEG2 campaign that took place in the eastern Gulf of Lion from 7 to 17 Oct 2011 and combine them with remote sensing observations and results from a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to study an intrusion event of the Northern Current (NC) onto the continental shelf in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean). Our analysis shows that during the intrusion, the previously upwelled nutrient-rich water present on the shelf is replaced by warmer and mostly oligotrophic NC water within a matter of 2-3 days. This has a marked impact on the local biogeochemistry in the Gulf with pre-intrusion Chl-a concentrations in the surface layer of over 0.5 mg m-3 dropping to near the detection limit within less than 72 h. The intrusion event leads to a dramatic albeit short-lived regime shift in the limiting nutrient for primary production: prior to the intrusion most of production on the shelf is nitrogen limited while the intrusion induces a shift to phosphorous limitation. The relatively high frequency of occurrence of these intrusions in combination with their impact on the local ecosystem make them primary targets for future study.

  14. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Western Ghats, India

    Mridula Singh; B A Krishna; Mewa Singh

    2006-09-01

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale. Grooming scores were also converted into interval scales using standard scores. Grooming received and grooming given correlated positively and negatively respectively with dominance ranks indicating that high ranking females received more and gave less grooming. Grooming was also positively related to encounter rates for dyads of females. More grooming among adjacent ranks, and grooming being more reciprocal, occurred only in the case of dominant females. The grooming patterns, therefore, appeared to be more of despotic than egalitarian nature. While ranking macaques into different Grades of social systems ranging from despotic to egalitarian, Thierry (2004) has placed lion-tailed macaques in Grade 3 corresponding to the ‘relaxed’ social system. Our results indicate that the grooming and dominance relationships in this species are more despotic, and hence, the Grade for this species requires to be shifted toward 2 or 1.

  15. Spatio-temporal separation between lions and leopards in the Kruger National Park and the Timbavati Private Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Nakedi W. Maputla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the underlying processes that drive coexistence among apex predators is of great importance to landscape managers overseeing their persistence. Two pressing questions stand out. These questions relate to whether space use by subordinate carnivores is a function of resource distribution and shifts in resource availability or fine scale movement associations with sympatric top predators that dominate them. We hypothesized that leopard movements were primarily resource-driven and secondarily, competition driven. Using data from leopards and lions collared in the Kruger National Park (Kruger and the neighboring Timbavati Private Nature Reserve (Timbavati, we investigated the associations between leopard GPS fixes and resource distribution. We built landscapes of movement activities of lions to investigate the relationships with leopard movements. Results suggested that leopard movements were strongly resource-driven. Lion influence did not come out strongly on leopards collared in the Kruger. In the Timbavati however, lion movements appeared to strongly influence the male leopard movements. We concluded that resources were the main driver of leopard movement behavior and that differences in observed behaviors between Kruger and Timbavati were as a result of different management regimes practiced in the two reserves.

  16. "Let there be wicked kings and beheadings": The Place and function of violence in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Witches and The Tulip Touch

    Skintveit, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is a study of the place and role of violence in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis, The Witches by Roald Dahl and The Tulip Touch by Anne Fine. Central in this study is how violence functions in the different novels with regards to the fictional universes presented, genre and the child reader.

  17. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  18. Mammals of the Sea.

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east Africa.

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Fehr, D.; Grob, M.; Elgizoli, M; Packer, C.; Martenson, J S; O'Brien, S J; Lutz, H.

    1996-01-01

    While viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus (FHV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvovirus (FPV), and immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting Tanzania's national...

  20. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  1. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a white lion cub (Panthera leo, with concomitant radiographic double cortical line : clinical communication

    V. Herz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A captive-bred white lion cub was presented with hindquarter pain, lameness and reluctance to move. Radiographs revealed generalised osteoapenia, multiple fractures, a severely collapsed pelvic girdle, bilateral lateral bowing of the scapulae and mild kyphosis of the caudal vertebrae.Adouble cortical line, a distinct sign of osteopaenia, was repeatedly seen on the pelvic limbs, most strikingly along both femurs. Based on radiographic findings and a history of an exclusive meat diet since weaning, a diagnosis of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism was made. The diet was changed to a commercial kitten food and the cub was given cage rest for 6 weeks. Signs of pain abated and the cub became more active.A guarded prognosis was given for full recovery, as changes to the pelvis were considered potentially irreversible.

  2. Comparison of methods for stock assessment of European hake Merluccius merluccius in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern mediterranean)

    Aldebert, Yvonne; Recasens, Laura

    1996-01-01

    Le merlu Merluccius merluccius est l'espèce démersale la plus importante du golfe du Lion (Méditerranée nord-occidentale). Il est exploité intensivement par deux flottilles chalutières française et espagnole ainsi que par deux types de métiers artisanaux, filets maillants et palangres de fond. Des données portant sur les quantités débarquées et la démographie des captures étant disponibles pour la période 1988–1991, l'évaluation du stock a été réalisée selon deux méthodes d'analyse des popula...

  3. Mitochondrial genome architecture of the giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus (Strongylocentrotidae, Echinoida).

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Californian giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus has been determined. It has a length of 15,650 bp and contains the same 37 genes found in other metazoans (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes). Only five tRNA genes and the Nad6 gene are coded on the minus strand. There were 14 identified small intergene regions (2 to 24 bp) and a large non-coding region (125 bp) located between the tRNA-T and tRNA-P. The overall base composition of this genome is 29.8% A, 27.6% T, 29.7% C, and 17.5% G, with a slight A + T bias of 59.4%. The most frequent start codon is ATG (11 genes) whereas TAA is the most frequent stop codon (10 genes). Overall, gene arrangement pattern, gene content and genome organization is similar to other echinoids. PMID:24724935

  4. Long-listening multichannel seismic profiles in the Valencia trough (Valsis 2) and the Gulf of Lions (ECORS): A comparison

    Mauffret, A.; Maillard, A.; Pascal, G.; Torné, M.; Buhl, P.; Pinet, B.

    1992-03-01

    The long listening Multichannel Seismic (MCS) profiles recorded during the Valsis and ECORS experiments were analysed in order to understand the rifting processes of a young passive margin. The seismic lines were interpreted within a geological framework which is considerably improved by the results from industrial wells. The disturbed upper crust off Catalonia is tentatively connected with a Variscan front. The origin of lamellae in the lower crust beneath the Valencia shelf is discussed: a Variscan origin is rejected and a relation to a Jurassic extensional event is proposed. A companion basin to the onshore Maestrazgo basin is located off-shore of Valencia and these two basins are probably connected by the left-lateral strike-slip Castellon fault. This fault is parallel to the North Pyrenean fault, which is the trace of the rotation of Spain relative to Europe. The Castellon fault may be connected with the Asturian fault, which is located on the Atlantic side of Spain. A contour map down to the Moho has revealed some new deep features and the results are compared with the previous refraction results. The sedimentary column of the deep north Balearic-ProvenÇal basin is much thicker than that of the eastern part of the Valencia trough and this diversity in the sedimentary infilling is probably related to a difference in the subsidence processes. A comparison of the Valencia trough to the Gulf of Lions shows that the thinning of the continental crust looks similar in both regions but the crust is thinner beneath the Valencia continental shelf than that below the Gulf of Lions. In both regions the Moho rises, possibly at the expense of the continental crust, by a process as yet unexplained (petrological or/and thermal variation?).

  5. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  6. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  7. Unusual 210Po/210Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions

    Concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of 210Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the 210Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have 210Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their 210Po/210Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of 210Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors)

  8. Parâmetros genéticos para coelhos da raça Califórnia criados no Brasil Genetic parameters for Californian rabbits raised in Brazil

    M.G. Paula

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Registros de pesos de 3.249 coelhos, nascidos de 1980 a 1996 e, dados de pedigree de 4.857 coelhos da raça Califórnia, criados no Campus da USP de Pirassununga, São Paulo, submetidos à seleção por três gerações, com base em valores genéticos de pesos à desmama (PD e à 10ª semana de idade (P10 e ganho de peso da desmama até 10 semanas de idade (GPD10, foram analisados pelo método de modelos mistos sob modelos animais para obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para as características consideradas como parte do critério de seleção. As estimativas do coeficiente de herdabilidade encontradas foram de 0,23 para PD, de 0,44 para P10 e 0,39 para GP10, mostrando ser possível haver ganhos genéticos se aplicados processos seletivos. A correlação genética entre PD e P10 foi de 0,66 e entre PD e GPD10 foi baixa, indicando que as variáveis são praticamente independentes. A proporção da variância fenotípica devida aos efeitos permanentes de ninhada foi importante para todas as características. Os resultados sugerem que a seleção para características ponderais pode ser eficiente.Genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters of a population of Californian rabbits submitted to selection for three generations were studied. Traits analyzed were individual weaning weight (PD, weight at 10 weeks (P10 and average daily gain from weaning to 10 weeks of age (GPD10 using 3,249 records of weights of rabbits and pedigree information of 4,857 animals, born from 1980 to 1996, and selected based on an index of estimated breeding values for PD, P10 and GPD10. Permanent effects of litters were as important as additive genetic effects. Heritabilities for the three traits were .23 (PD, .44 (P10 and .39 (GPD10. Genetic correlations between PD and P10 and between PD and GPD10 were high (.66 and very low, respectively.

  9. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  10. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  11. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  12. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for

  13. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  14. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to

  15. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  16. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and

  17. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents of 3- to…

  18. Onde bebem os leões: estudo de referências nos filmes vencedores do Cannes Lions Festival entre 2007 e 2010

    André Zambam Mattos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is the unusual association of contexts that bring to life the advertising ideas considered creative. Eco (2001 explains that the spectator facing a creative piece of communication feels invited to interpretation and rewarded by the comprehension of such association, that generated duplicity of meanings and is only fully understood by the observer who possesses a certain former knowledge. This article accepts the challenge of identifying possible references that generated creative processes in a sample formed by four commercials that won the Grand Prix or the Gold Lion in the Film area of the Cannes Lions Festival, the most celebrated festival when it comes to advertising or creativity. Therefore, this research intends to identify inferences from movies, literature, music, design, art and history in advertising commercials, by comparing the sample with probable verbal and visual inspirations.

  19. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  20. Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface

    Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loïc; Lefèvre, Dominique; Martini, Séverine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; André, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stéphane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C.; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, José; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Cârloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galatà, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gómez-González, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J.; Hello, Yann; Hernández-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hößl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Păvălaş, Gabriela E.; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Rivière, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G.; Salesa, Francisco; Sánchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schöck, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J. M.; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G. F.; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zúñiga, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as “open-sea convection”. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts. PMID:23874425

  1. Nuclear and mtDNA lineage diversity in wild and cultured Pacific lion-paw scallop, Nodipecten subnodosus (Baja California Peninsula, Mexico)

    Petersen, Jessica L.; Ibarra, Ana Maria; May, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    Pacific lion-paw scallops were collected from natural aggregations in Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Pacific Ocean), the Gulf of California, and from aquaculture facilities for genetic diversity analyses. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing uncovered two highly supported clades separated by 2.5% divergence. Data from ten microsatellite markers suggest individuals from these mitogroups are introgressed, raising questions about the mitotype origin. Some evidence suggests gene flow between La Paz and Ojo de Lie...

  2. Extinctions of Late Ice Age Cave Bears as a Result of Climate/Habitat Change and Large Carnivore Lion/Hyena/Wolf Predation Stress in Europe

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2013-01-01

    Predation onto cave bears (especially cubs) took place mainly by lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss), as nocturnal hunters deep in the dark caves in hibernation areas. Several cave bear vertebral columns in Sophie’s Cave have large carnivore bite damages. Different cave bear bones are chewed or punctured. Those lets reconstruct carcass decomposition and feeding technique caused only/mainly by Ice Age spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea, which are the only of all three predators that crush...

  3. Marketingová situační analýza BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec

    Hron, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to carry out an analysis of each part of marketing mix and the environment in which the BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec basketball club is situated. Suitable and applicable recommendations are suggested to make the marketing mix more effective based on analysis of marketing situation. The first part is focused on describing the marketing mix and marketing situational analysis at a theoretical level. The practical part describes particular marketing tools which ar...

  4. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S.; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N.; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species acr...

  5. Pre-Historic and Recent Vicariance Events Shape Genetic Structure and Diversity in Endangered Lion-Tailed Macaque in the Western Ghats: Implications for Conservation.

    Ram, Muthuvarmadam S; Marne, Minal; Gaur, Ajay; Kumara, Honnavalli N; Singh, Mewa; Kumar, Ajith; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Genetic isolation of populations is a potent force that helps shape the course of evolution. However, small populations in isolation, especially in fragmented landscapes, are known to lose genetic variability, suffer from inbreeding depression and become genetically differentiated among themselves. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of Anamalai hills and examined the genetic structure of the species across its distributional range in the Western Ghats. We sequenced around 900 bases of DNA covering two mitochondrial regions-hypervariable region-I and partial mitochondrial cytochrome b-from individuals sampled both from wild and captivity, constructed and dated phylogenetic trees. We found that the lion-tailed macaque troops in the isolated forest patches in Anamalai hills have depleted mitochondrial DNA diversity compared to troops in larger and continuous forests. Our results also revealed an ancient divergence in the lion-tailed macaque into two distinct populations across the Palghat gap, dating to 2.11 million years ago. In light of our findings, we make a few suggestions on the management of wild and captive populations. PMID:26561307

  6. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  7. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in high alpine regions the leopard Panthera pardus seem to have used the ecological niche of the absent hyenas (Diedrich 2009d, in review a). At open air sites cave bear scavenging by the largest Late Quaternary predators were proven, too (Diedrich 2006, 2009e). The predation stress caused by the three main and largest Late Quaternary predators seem to have provided cave bears to hibernate often deeply in many European caves, and here especially in larger and longer cave systems (e.g. Diedrich et al 2009, in review, Diedrich and Moldovan 2010) to protect themselves against the largest Quaternary predators. In conflicts with those large felids must have been killed by adult cave bears, which explains why those predator carcasses remained as complete skeletons or as partly disarticulated ones even deep in caves all over Europe which were finally not scavenged by the herbivorous cave bears (Diedrich in review). In such cave bear den caves the amount of lion bones generally take only 1-3% of the total bone amount being highly dominated by cave bear bones (Diedrich 2009c, in review). Lions and hyenas seem to have focussed onto the hunt of cave bears all over Europe, especially with the reduction of the biomass in the open environments at the maximum cold period during around 26.000-24.000 BP (Solutrean). The slow extinction of their largest prey was an important motor of the predation pressure onto cave bears. This might be one reason for the cave bear extinction in the final Late Quaternary (early Late Weichselian, maximum cold period) at least in northern Europe, but it seem to have happened in a combination of climatic change, and also human impact (cf. Diedrich, this volume). References Diedrich, C., 2005. Cracking and nibbling marks as indicators for the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena as a scavenger of cave bear (Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller, 1794) carcasses in the Perick Caves den of Northwest Germany. Abhandlungen der Naturhistorischen Gesellschaft Nürnberg, 45, 73-90. Diedrich, C., 2006. Ice age spotted hyenas ?hunting or only scavenging on a cave bear Ursus spelaeus Rosenmüller at the Ice Age spotted hyena freeland den and prey deposit site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hessia, Germany). Scientific Annals, School of Geology Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH) special volume, 98, 193-199. Diedrich, C., 2007b. The fairy tale about the "cave lions" Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) of Europe - Late Ice Age spotted hyenas and Ice Age steppe lions in conflict - lion killers and scavengers around Prague (Central Bohemia). Scripta Facultatis Scientiarum Universitatis Masarykianae Geology, 35 (2005), 107-112. Diedrich, C., 2009a. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in Northern Germany. Quaternary Research, 71 (3), 361-374. Diedrich, C., 2009b. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Bilstein Caves (Sauerland Karst) and contribution to the steppe lion taphonomy, palaeobiology and sexual dimorphism. Annales de Paléontologie, 95, 117-138. Diedrich, C. 2009c. Steppe lion predation - another reason for cave bears to protect during hibernation against carnivores in deepest parts of large cave systems in Europe. Abstractc 15th International Cave Bear Symposium, Spisska Nova Ves Slovakia, 8-9. Diedrich, C., 2009d. Cave bear killers, scavengers between the Scandinavian and Alpine Ice shields - the last hyenas and cave bears in antagonism - and the reason why cave bears hibernated deeply in caves. Stalactite, 58(2), 54-63. Diedrich, C. 2009e. Late Pleistocene Cave bear remains from the open air hyena den Emscher River terrace site Bottrop (NW Germany). - Stalactite, 58 (2): 42-47. Diedrich, C. 2010. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene Rösenbeck Cave den in NW Germany and contribution to the sexual dimorphism and palaeobiogeography of the last hyenas of Europe. - Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. (in review). Cave bear killers and scavengers from the last European Ice Age. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. Diedrich, C., Žák, K. 2006. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81 (4), 237-276. Diedrich, C., Robu, M., Dragusin, V., Constantin, S., Moldovan, O., 2009. New Upper Pleistocene steppe lion skeleton finds between the cave bear hibernation plateaus of the Ursilor Cave bear den, Romania. Abstractc 15th International Cave Bear Symposium, Spisska Nova Ves Slovakia, 10. Diedrich, C., Moldovan, O., Constantin, S. 2009. Cave bear tracks, scratch marks, hair traces and hibernation nests in the Ursilor Cave (Transylvania, Romania) - preliminary report from a famous European cave bear den. - Stalactite, 58 (2): 48-52. Diedrich, C., Moldovan, O. 2010. Ichnological and ethological studies in one of Europe's famous bear den in the Ursilor Cave (Carpathians, Romania). - Quarternary International (accepted). Rabeder, G., Nagel, D., Pacher, M., 2000. Der Höhlenbär. Stuttgart: Thorbecke.

  8. Reinforced Concrete Condition Assessment in Architectural Heritage. The Lion Chambers (Glasgow, UK) and the Theatre E. Duni (Matera, Italy)

    Guida, A.; Dimitrijevic, B.; Pagliuca, A.

    2012-04-01

    The research objective is to provide new qualitative information on the strength of reinforced concrete structures of two prominent examples of modern architecture by using innovative, non-invasive testing techniques. The first one is Lion Chambers in Glasgow (Scotland, United Kingdom) designed by the architects Salmon, Son and Gillespie and completed in 1907. It was the second example of the use of François Hennebique's reinforced concrete system in a building in Glasgow and one of the earliest in Britain. The second example is Duni Theatre in Matera (Southern Italy), designed by the architect Ettore Stella and completed in 1949. The tests on the internal reinforced concrete columns were undertaken by using "SonReb" (SONic + REBound) method that enables assessing the concrete resistance by combining the speed of ultrasound waves and the index of surface bounce through a scleorometric test. In fact, the sclerometer index only gives information regarding the surface layer of the building's structure. In fact, due to the effects of the natural ageing, catalysed by the presence of humidity, surface layers of concrete are affected over time by carbonatation, which increases surface rigidity, providing as a result a greatly "altered" rebound index (much greater than one would have under normal conditions). On the other hand, the ultrasound speed, on the contrary to resistance, is inversely proportional to the age of the concrete (this seems to be due to the cracks that occur and reduce the speed). The hardening process continues over time with a consequent increase in resistance, which diminishes with the passage of time. The paper provides the results of the tests run on the structure of the Lion Chambers and the Duni Theatre. The tests carried out are the basis of a diagnostic project that is possible to implement and monitor to guarantee a deeper knowledge, with the goal of attaining a level of thorough understanding aimed at the preservation of "Modern Architecture" in Europe. The analysis and qualification of the structures of built heritage show how this approach is useful for classifying the pathological events on each building and to implement the innovative solutions to improve the durability of a restoration intervention.

  9. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  10. The rotifer fauna of Arctic sea ice from the Barents Sea, Laptev Sea and Greenland Sea

    Friedrich, C; De Smet, W.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    Samples from arctic sea ice were studied for their rotifer fauna. Ice core samples were collected in the northern Barents Sea and the Laptev Sea from August to October 1993 and in the Greenland Sea from July to August 1994. Eight rotifer taxa, Encentrum graingeri, Proales reinhardti, Synchaeta bacillifera, S. cecilia, S. glacialis, S. hyperborea, S. tamara and S. sp., were found. The geographical as well as the vertical distribution and abundance of the taxa in the ice is discussed, with rega...

  11. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Chihi, H.

    1997-05-12

    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  12. Sea level rise

    Warrick, R. A.; J. Oerlemans

    1990-01-01

    This Section addresses three questions: Has global-mean sea level been rising during the last 100 years? What are the causal factors that could explain a past rise in sea level? And what increases in sea level can be expected in the future?

  13. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Hugo Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de medias mediante contrastes ortogonales. A las 25 semanas ambos sistemas redujeron la relación C/N a valores de 15,5 en vermicompost y de 17,1 en semi-compost, además se incrementó el contenido de N-total, N-NO3, Ca y de algunos micronutrimentos. La concentración de K, y Na fueron más altos en compost que en vermicompost. La media de pH presentó diferencia para los sistemas de descomposición. El índice de germinación usando semillas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro de los productos de descomposición se incrementó en la semana 25 indicando el grado de madurez alcanzado. El efecto del almacenamiento permitió alcanzar una mayor estabilidad de los productos al reducir la relación C/N a 8,13 para vermicompost y de 7,05 para compost, así como un incremento en el contenido de N disponible en forma de N-NO3 en el caso del compost y en el contenido de Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn y Cu en ambos sistemas.

  14. Comportamiento de lombriz roja californiana y lombriz silvestre en bosta bovina y rumia bovina como sustrato Behavior of californian red earthworm and wild earthworm in bovine dung and bovine rumination as substrate

    Manuel Loza Murguía

    Full Text Available En los Yungas del departamento de La Paz, Bolivia se ubica la comunidad Carmen Pampa, fuente de recursos naturales y biodiversidad exquisita, últimamente está siendo afectada por los chaqueos y actividades agrícolas convencionales, dado que no existen datos suficientes en la región para poder desarrollar alternativas agrícolas sostenibles que cuiden el medio ambiente, de ahí que este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar el comportamiento de la lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia spp. y la lombriz silvestre (Lumbricus spp. en dos sustratos a fin mejorar la calidad del vermicompost producido por estos anélidos. El trabajo se ha realizado en el módulo de Microbiología Ambiental, en instalaciones de la Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP, Campus Leahy, ubicado en Coroico Nor Yungas del Departamento de La Paz-Bolivia. Se ha estudiado su comportamiento en dos sustratos bosta bobina (estiércol y rumia bovina (rumia en 40 unidades experimentales de 0.2 m de ancho*0.25 m de largo*0.4 m de profundidad, cada unidad presentaba una densidad de 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 individuos con dos repeticiones de cada una en 1 000 g de sustrato. Se determinó el número de cocones, número de individuos a las 8 semanas, porcentaje de degradación del sustrato. Los resultados indican que los sustratos estiércol son mejores en la dinámica poblacional de Eisenia spp., en comparación con Lumbricus spp. Posiblemente las características físicas y químicas del estiércol y la rumia influyeron en este tipo de comportamiento de Eisenia spp.In Yungas of department of La Paz, Bolivia is located the community Carmen Pampas, source of natural resources and exquisite biodiversity, lately is being affected by the chaqueos and conventional agricultural activities, due there is not enough data in the region to develop sustainable agricultural alternatives that take care of environment. Taking this into account this work has as purpose to study the behavior of the californian red earthworm (Eisenia spp. and the wild earthworm (Lumbricus spp. in two substrates with the aim to improve the quality of vermicompost produced by these annelids. The work has been carried out in the module of Environmental Microbiology, in facilities of Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP, Campus Leahy, located in Coroico Nor Yungas of Departamento of La Paz-Bolivia. Their behavior has been studied in two substrates bovine dung (manure and bovine rumination (rumination in 40 experimental units of 0.2 m width*0.25 m length*0.4 m depth, each unit showed a density of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 individuals with two repetitions of each one in 1 000 g of substrate. The cocoons number, number of individuals at 8 weeks, and percentage of degradation of the substrate was determined. The results indicate that substrates manure is better in the population dynamics of Eisenia spp., in comparison with Lumbricus spp. The physical and chemical characteristics of manure and rumination possibly influenced in this type of behavior for Eisenia spp.

  15. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials / Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinmica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Hugo, Castillo; Adriana, Hernndez; David, Dominguez; Damaris, Ojeda.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se evalu la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adicin de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida) usando estircol de vacas lecheras para la generacin de abonos orgnicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parmetros fisicoqumicos tales como temperatura, pH, r [...] elacin C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente). En el anlisis estadstico se us un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluy como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realiz anlisis de varianza y comparacin de medias mediante contrastes ortogonales. A las 25 semanas ambos sistemas redujeron la relacin C/N a valores de 15,5 en vermicompost y de 17,1 en semi-compost, adems se increment el contenido de N-total, N-NO3, Ca y de algunos micronutrimentos. La concentracin de K, y Na fueron ms altos en compost que en vermicompost. La media de pH present diferencia para los sistemas de descomposicin. El ndice de germinacin usando semillas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) var. Grandes Lagos in vitro de los productos de descomposicin se increment en la semana 25 indicando el grado de madurez alcanzado. El efecto del almacenamiento permiti alcanzar una mayor estabilidad de los productos al reducir la relacin C/N a 8,13 para vermicompost y de 7,05 para compost, as como un incremento en el contenido de N disponible en forma de N-NO3 en el caso del compost y en el contenido de Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn y Cu en ambos sistemas. Abstract in english The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, ph [...] ytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.

  16. Multiple breeding females in captive groups of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas): causes and consequences.

    De Vleeschouwer, K; Van Elsacker, L; Leus, K

    2001-01-01

    In Callitrichidae, reproduction in subordinate females is generally inhibited but occurs in rare cases, possibly in association with the presence of an unrelated male, important food resources or low dispersal opportunities. This study investigates the occurrence of groups with multiple breeding females in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), the factors leading to their formation and the consequences for the group. Information obtained from studbook data on the world captive population during 1984-1998 revealed that polygynous groups in captivity are very rare: only 7 cases were discovered. Family groups in which daughters started breeding with a related male were larger than average, had a high number of sexually mature sons and eldest offspring that were well past the age of sexual maturity. Following a breeding attempt, severe aggression frequently occurred, especially if the infants were liveborn. Polygynous groups composed of two related females and an unrelated male tended to remain stable for a longer period than families with breeding daughters. Competition for infant care is probably an important factor determining whether the polygynous situation can persist and for how long. PMID:11275743

  17. Comparative analysis of the reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Marco A Angel-Dapa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated in a culturing system in Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur, Mexico during an annual cycle, comparing its response with data previously reported at other localities. High frequencies of ripe gonads throughout the year indicate that reproduction was continuous, with two main ripening/spawning events: July-September and December-March. A continuous breeding is also reported for the species in Bahía Magdalena, Bahía Juncalito, and Bahía de Los Angeles. These eutrophic areas are Biological Active Centers where gametogenesis appears to be regulated by the energy taken from recently ingested food following an opportunistic strategy. However, the digestive gland index decreased and the muscle indices increased during one of the breeding peaks, suggesting that some stored reserves are also used to sustain gametogenesis (conservative strategy partially. High incidences of atretic oocytes are likely associated with atypical daily variations in water temperature from May through September (12 to 33°C, or with stressful conditions in the culturing system in summer. Despite this, the culturing system set in Bahía Tortugas appears beneficial for a continuous reproduction of N. subnodosus.

  18. Regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea

    Cheng, Yongcun; Plag, Hans-Peter; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Xu, Qing; He, Yijun

    2015-12-01

    The regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) is investigated based on tide gauge, satellite altimeter data and an independent oceanic general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) model outputs. It is found that atmospheric forcing significantly affects local sea level variability in the BS and YS and local sea level variability at the Southern ECS is highly correlated with along-shore currents. Particularly, the annual sea level fluctuations potentially change inundation risk and the frequency and magnitude of flooding in regions with high annual sea level. Hence, the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is carried out to investigate the variations of annual sea level cycle amplitude. Similar spatial distribution characteristics of annual sea level amplitude fluctuations are presented from satellite altimeter data and model outputs. The variability of annual sea level amplitude estimated from the satellite altimeter data agrees well with that from the tide gauge data, and positively (negatively) correlates with Southern Oscillation Index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). The OFES model, however, underestimates the fluctuation of the annual cycle. After removing the annual signal, the low-passed (i.e., 13-month running mean) tide gauge data shows high correlations with SOI and PDO on time scales over 8 years in the BS and ECS.

  19. Sea level report

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 105 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  20. The Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal

    Demilecamps, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    The project to channel water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea has fascinated people for the past one hundred and fifty years. It was brought back to the fore in 2005 by the three neighbouring countries: Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The stated goals are to halt the decline of the Dead Sea (fig.?X.11) and to save it from environmental damage (fig.?X.12), to desalinate water and produce affordable energy for all three countries, creating a symbol of peace through a tripartite co...

  1. Eddy measurements, coastal turbulence and statistics in the gulf of Lions

    J. M. Redondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in radar sensors may be applied to study the flow in the Region of Fresh Water Influence (ROFI region of the ocean. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a useful tool that may be used to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution. Oil spills and natural slicks may be detected and processed with advanced computer techniques to reveal vortex dynamics and turbulence spectral characteristics of the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface, more than 300 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 1998 were analyzed. A total of 255 eddies were detected under convenient environmental conditions and we analyzed statistically the appearance, size, shape and position of vortices in the test area. We find that the maximum size of the eddies detected near the coast is limited by the Rossby deformation radius and that there is a decrease in size in the coastal waters in the direction of the Liguro-Provenzal current with the largest eddies occurring near the cape of Rosas. Near the Rhone and Ebro rivers, high discharges also contribute to eddy forcing, coastal radar measurements confirm the SAR observations. The role of submarine canyons in the vortex generation is also confirmed due to the asymmetry of their distribution with respect to the thalwegs. It is demonstrated that useful information of a geometrical nature obtained by SAR satellite images may be used to estimate relevant dynamical parameters of coastal flows.

  2. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  3. Food habits of California sea lions in Washington state, 1986-02-26 to 1999-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0145637)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  4. Phaeobacter leonis sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium from Mediterranean Sea sediments.

    Gaboyer, Frédéric; Tindall, Brian J; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Duthoit, Frédérique; Le Romancer, Marc; Alain, Karine

    2013-09-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated 306(T), was isolated from near-surface (109 cm below the sea floor) sediments of the Gulf of Lions, in the Mediterranean Sea. Strain 306(T) grew at temperatures between 4 and 32 °C (optimum 17-22 °C), from pH 6.5 to 9.0 (optimum 8.0-9.0) and between 0.5 and 6.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.0%). Its DNA G+C content was 58.8 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the novel isolate belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and is related to the genus Phaeobacter. It shares 98.7% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Phaeobacter arcticus, its closest phylogenetic relative. It contained Q-10 as the only respiratory quinone, C(18:1)ω7c and C(16:0) as major fatty acids (>5%) and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids and an aminolipid as polar lipids. The chemotaxonomic data are consistent with the affiliation of strain 306(T) to the genus Phaeobacter. Results of physiological experiments, biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridizations (with P. arcticus) indicate that strain 306(T) is genetically and phenotypically distinct from the five species of the genus Phaeobacter with validly published names. Strain 306(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Phaeobacter leonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 306(T) ( =DSM 25627(T) =CIP 110369(T) =UBOCC 3187(T)). PMID:23475346

  5. Descripcin Anatmica de la Inervacin del Miembro Plvico de Len Africano (Panthera leo) / Anatomical Description of Pelvic Limb Innervation of African Lion (Panthera leo)

    Rodemil, Medina Puentes; Pamela, Morales Muoz; Ismael, Concha Albornoz; Cintya, Borroni Gonzlez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El len africano (Panthera leo) pertenece a la familia felidae del orden carnvora, corresponde a un depredador de gran tamao, en Chile se encuentra nicamente en estado de cautiverio, sin embargo est presente en numerosos zoolgicos. La preocupacin e inters por el bienestar de estos animales ha [...] aumentado, por lo cual, cada vez se realizan procedimientos mdicos de mayor complejidad. Lo expuesto anteriormente genera la necesidad de profundizar los conocimientos anatmicos que existen de esta especie. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un estudio anatmico detallado de la inervacin del miembro plvico del len y describir sus relaciones topogrficas con el sistema msculo esqueltico y vascular. Se disec un cadver de len hembra, adulta, presentando la descripcin segn las regiones topogrficas: regin del cngulo miembro plvico, regin femoral, regin crural y regin del pie. Se realiz un registro fotogrfico de las disecciones, el cual fue complementada con ilustraciones anatmicas representativas de cada regin. Acorde a lo observado, podemos indicar que existe una gran similitud con lo descrito en el gato, destacando el gran desarrollo de los nervios y ramos musculares del len. La presente descripcin, permite, ampliar el conocimiento de la anatoma del miembro plvico del len africano, especficamente su inervacin y relaciones musculares y vasculares. Abstract in english The African Lion (Panthera leo) belongs to the felidae family of the order carnivore, corresponding to large predators. In Chile it is found only in a state of captivity and is present in many zoos. As the concern and interest in these animals has increased, more complex procedures are performed eac [...] h day. This generates the need for anatomical knowledge of this specie. This anatomical study was performed in order to describe the innervation of the pelvic limb of an African lion and topographical relationship with skeletal muscles and vascular structures. A corpse of an adult female lion, 130 kg, was dissected and described by topographical regions. Proximal to distal: cingulum pelvic limb region, femoral region, crural region and foot region. Descriptions of each region were complemented by photographs and drawings. According to the descriptive study of the innervation of the pelvic limb, it was observed that there is a great similarity with that described in the domestic cat, excepting the great development of their nerves and muscular branches. This study provides information about the innervation of the pelvic limb of the African lion, showing the relation with muscular and vascular structures. The anatomical information provided in this study can be useful for medical procedures in this species and other big cats.

  6. Characteristics of reproductive biology and proximate factors regulating seasonal breeding in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

    De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Leus, Kristin; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2003-08-01

    Reproduction is highly demanding in terms of energy expenditure, and the costs and benefits associated with postponing or investing in a reproductive effort are crucial determinants of an individual's fitness. Understanding the reproductive potential of a species under varying ecological conditions offers important insights into the dynamics of its social system. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive potential of wild- and captive-born golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) under captive conditions, based on studbook data compiled during 1984-2000. Litters produced by wild-born females breeding in captivity are similar in size to litters observed in the wild, but smaller than litters of captive-born females. The more stringent ecological conditions experienced by wild-born females during maturation may result in a lifelong effect on litter size. However, interbirth intervals are shorter for wild-born than captive-born females. The relatively smaller burden of infant care that results from having smaller litters may allow wild-born females to sustain the next pregnancy sooner. Reproduction in the Brazilian captive population is highly seasonal for both wild-born females and females born in captivity in Brazil. Changes in photoperiod over a year provide a proximate explanation for changes in the proportion of conceptions and births per month. Outside Brazil, breeding occurs year-round, and no clear birth peak is apparent. Information from field reports that could be used to relate this finding to ecological factors, such as resource availability, is unavailable. PMID:12910464

  7. Sea water magnetohydrodynamic thruster

    Magnetohydrodynamics is a possible mean to thrust directly a ship in sea water without propeller and mobile mechanical part. The combined action of a magnetic field and electric field produces a J x B forces field. Sea water is an electrolyte, thus applying current via electrodes produces an undesired electrolysis. Consequently three kinds of phenomena take place in a sea water thruster: hydrodynamics, electromagnetics and electrochemistry. The following presentation aims to classify these phenomena and their coupling in the frame of MHD sea water thruster. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  8. SEA and planning

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...... relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  9. In situ fluorescence measurements of protein-, humic- and HAP-like materials in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Tedetti, Marc; Bachet, Caroline; Germain, Chloé; Ferretto, Nicolas; Bhairy, Nagib; Guigue, Catherine; Besson, Florent; Beguery, Laurent; Goutx, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the biogeochemical functioning of the ocean requires high frequency measurements of dissolved organic matter (DOM) descriptors. For 10 years, the technological developments of fluorescence sensors try to cover this need. In this context, our laboratory developed the MiniFluo-UV sensor, a prototype of miniaturized submersible fluorometer for the detection of aromatic compounds that fluoresce in the UV spectral domain. The qualification of the sensor consisted in measurements of drift, linearity, repeatability, sensitivity to light, temperature and pressure, and detection limits of phenanthrene (HAP) and tryptophan (aromatic amino acid) in standard solutions. Measurements were also conducted in crude oil water soluble fractions (WSFs). The MiniFluo-UV sensor was then deployed in two distinct areas of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: 1) in the Gulf of Lion during the continuous monitoring of the surface water layer (DEWEX cruise, winter and spring 2013) and 2) in the Bay of Marseilles, heavily impacted by urban activities, where the sensor was mounted onto the SeaExplorer underwater glider and onto a CTD vertical profiler (July-December 2014). These platforms were also equipped with a humic-like fluorescence sensor and other sensors for hydrological and biogeochemical parameters (T, S, Chla, oxygen, turbidity). The patterns of fluorescence signatures enabled to distinguish interesting distributions of DOM in relation with hydrological features and spring biological production in the Gulf of Lion, and showed the accumulation of contaminants in marine areas under anthropogenic pressure. This work was conducted within the framework of the ANR-09-ECOT-009-01 "IBISCUS" in collaboration with ALSEAMAR-ALCEN (Aix-en-Provence) and MicroModule (Brest) companies. It is relevant to WP5 NEXOS objectives. The SACEUP team of the DEWEX-MERMEX experiment is warmly acknowledged.

  10. Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.

    Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

    2014-05-01

    Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

  11. River transport of radionuclides to the Arctic Seas, the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea

    This subtopic focuses on the transport of radionuclides from different sources to the rivers and the transport via the rivers to the sea. The rivers and seas included in the study were: Ob, Yenisey, Lena and Mackenzie, Finnish rivers, Bug-Vistula, Danube, Dnieper and Colombia, and Arctic seas, Baltic Sea, Black Sea and the Pacific Ocean

  12. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    In the Eemian to Early/Middle Weichselian (Late Pleistocene), when the Scandinavian and Alpine Glaciers were still small, and northern Germany under mammoth steppe to taiga palaoenvironment conditions, Late Quaternary steppe lions were well distributed in northern to central Germany, whereas generally all over Central Europe bones and rarely articulated skeletons were found less at open air but mainly at cave sites (Diedrich 2007a, 2008a-b, 2009a-b, 2010a-c, k, in review a-b; Diedrich and Rathgeber in review). A similar distribution, but more dense, is reported for the Late Quaternary Ice Age spotted hyenas (Diedrich 2005, 2006, 2007b-c, 2008a, c, 2010f-j, in review c-d, Diedrich and Žák 2006). The last lions of northern Europe were thought to have reached into the final Magdalénan (cf. Musil 1980). This can be not concluded with a restudy of the bone material from the Late Magdalenian (V-VI) Teufelsbrücke stone arch site near Saalfeld (Thuringia, Central Germany) and many other Magdalenian stations (open air and caves) in northern to central Germany (Münsterland Bay, Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Thuringian Karst). None of those sites yield remains of final Upper Pleistocene spotted hyenas or steppe lion bones anymore, nor in the few preserved Late Magdalenian mobile art can those be recognized in those regions. The last lion remains seem to reach into the Aurignacian or possibly into the Early Gravettian (early Late Weichselian) documented especially at the cave bear den, hyena den and overlapping Neandertalian to Modern human camp site Balve Cave (Sauerland Karst, cf. archaeology in Günther 1964) where still a mammoth fauna is documented for that time (Diedrich 2010a). The last and by archaeological layers dated hyena remains were also found in the Balve Cave and are from the Late Middle Palaeolithic cave site reaching a maximum Aurignacian age documenting an overlapping of hyena den and human camp site use (Diedrich 2010a, b). In northern Germany there are no records of indirectly dated hyena and lion remains being younger then even Aurignacian/Early Gravettian (35.000-28.000 BP). Those largest Late Quaternary predators must have got extinct in northern Germany with the Late Weichselian/Wuermian extending Skandinavian Glacier, which reached northern Europe between Hamburg and Berlin its maximum extension about 24.000 BP (Skupin et al. 1993). The two largest predators of the Late Quaternary of Europe seem to have been well represented in the Gravettian and up to Magdalénian Late Palaeolithic of southern Europe, in which mainly lions, but only rarely hyenas are well documented within the cave and mobile art (e.g Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995, Diedrich and Rathgeber in review, Diedrich 2005). Hyenas and lions must have been represented in the Gravettian, Early and Middle and possibly even ?Late Magdalenian in southern Europe, which must have resulted from a southern migration of those predators during the Late Weichselian/Wuermian together with the megafauna and humans. The disappearance of hyenas and lions also correlate with the extinction of mammoth and woolly rhinoceros in northern Germany. The large mammals such as elephants and rhinoceroses were highly important for hyenas and lions during the Late Quaternary. Hyenas had a systematic scavenging strategy on both large prey which was even "transferred" until today compared to modern spotted hyenas and lions of Africa (Diedrich 2010d, e, in prep). Where those Late Quaternary giant mammals such as woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were absent in middle mountainous regions (e.g. Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Bohemian Karst, Thuringian Karst) those had to kill other medium sized animals such as horse or steppe bison and those in larger amounts (Diedrich 2008, 2010c). Woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth seem to be not known in northern Germany after Aurignacian/?Early Gravettian times (Sauerland Karst and Münsterland Bay, Harz Mountain Karst) such as humans (archaeology cf. Günther 1988) but there are also lacking radiocarbon dating series or new excavations. Humans must have been in antagonism to the large predators about their prey and also their Late Palaeolithic sanctuaries - the large caves especially in southern Europe, in which they left thousands of animal figurations mainly during the Gravettian to Late Magdalenian periods (e.g. Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995). Therefore the extinction reason of the largest predators of the Late Quaternary seems to be a complex combination of climate change with resulting maximum glacier extension which finally caused a southern directed megafaunal migration and reduction of the available caves and habitat areas in general. Finally in those southern European regions a higher competition about larger caves as cave bear hibernation places, hyena den sites and human settlement/sanctuary sites must have happened. Therefore an active hunt onto lions and hyenas can not be excluded nor be proven well yet, even if there are finds of necklesses in Europe from Late Palaeolithic ages made of mainly carnivore teeth including rare lion and hyena teeth, which might have been only collected. The resettlement of the northern European region by humans and a reduced "reindeer fauna" and its main and largest predators such as wolves and wolverines after the maximum glacier extension in the middle Late Weichselian started not before the Late Magdalenian (Magdalénian V: e.g. Perick Caves, Martins Cave - Sauerland Karst; Rübeland Caves - Harz Mountain Karst, Teufelsbrücke stone arch - Thuringian Karst). Humans occupied at that post-maximum glaciation time many caves in the Sauerland Karst region and even at open air sites in the Münsterland Bay or central Germany (cf. Bosinski 1987, Günther 1988). Within this Late Magdalénian V-VI times in the record of ten thousands of bones from more then 100 sites no hyena or lion remains are recorded anymore in northern and central Germany, such as cave bears. References Begouen R. and Clottes J. 1987. Les Trois Frères after Breuil. Antiquity, 61: 180-187. Bosinski, G. 1987. Die große Zeit der Eiszeitjäger. Europa zwischen 40.000 und 10.000 v.Chr. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, 34: 13-139. Breuil, H. 1952. Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art. Montignac, Dordogne, 414 pp. Chauvet, J.-M., Deschamps B.E, and Hillaire C. 1995. Grotte Chauvet. Altsteinzeitliche Höhlenkunst im Tal der Ardèche. Thorbecke Speläo 1, Sigmaringen, 120 pp. Diedrich, C. 2005. Eine oberpleistozäne Population von Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) aus dem eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen von Hemer (Sauerland, NW Deutschland) und ihr Kannibalismus. Philippia, 12 (2): 93-115, Kassel. Diedrich, C. 2006. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) population from the early Upper Pleistocene hyena open air prey deposit site Biedensteg near Bad Wildungen (Hess, NW Germany) and the contribution to their phylogenetic position, coprolites and prey. Cranium, 23 (2): 39-53, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and the contribution to other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 82 (2), 99-117, Prague. Diedrich, C. 2007b. Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from the Upper Pleistocene hyaena Teufelskammer Cave den site near Hochdahl in the Neander valley (NRW, NW Germany). Cranium, 24 (2): 39-44, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2007c. The Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the gypsum karst den site Westeregeln near Magdeburg (Middle Germany). Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde, 30: 57-83, Magdeburg. Diedrich, C. 2008a. Late Pleistocene Hystrix (Acanthion) brachyura LINNAEUS 1758 from the Fuchsluken cave at the Rote Berg near Saalfeld (Thuringia, Germany) - a porcupine and hyena den and contribution to their palaeobiogeography. - The Open Palaeontological Journal, 2008 (1): 33-41. Diedrich, C. 2008b. The rediscovered holotypes of the Upper Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) and taphonomic discussion to the Zoolithen Cave hyena den at Geilenreuth (Bavaria, South-Germany). Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society London, 154, 822-831. Diedrich, C. 2008c. Late Pleistocene hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) from Upper Rhine valley open air sites and the contribution to skull shape variability. Cranium, 25-2: (in press), Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009a. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Bilstein Caves (Sauerland Karst) and contribution to the steppe lion taphonomy, palaeobiology and sexual dimorphism. Annales de Paléontologie, 95 (2009) 117-138, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2009b. Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in Northern Germany. Quaternary Research 71 (3): 361-374, Amsterdam. Diedrich, C. 2010a. Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the Balve Cave (NW Germany) - a hyena den and Middle Palaeolithic human site. - International Journal of Osteoarchaeology (acepted). Diedrich, C. 2010b. Ein Skelett einer kranken Löwin Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) und andere männliche Löwenreste aus Neumark-Nord. - Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderbad (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1810) remains from the Keppler Cave (Sauerland Karst, NW Germany). Cranium 26, Amsterdam (in press). Diedrich, C. 2010c. Specialized horse killers in Europe - foetal horse remains in the Late Pleistocene Srbsko Chlum-Komín Cave hyena den in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic) and actualistic comparisons to modern African spotted hyenas as zebra hunters. - Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. 2010d. Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) carcass destructors, bone collectors, crackers and gnawers of the Late Pleistocene in Central Europe - the Ice Age spotted hyenas and their feeding strategies on their largest prey - the mammoth. Abstract Vth International Conference on Mammoths and their relatives, Le Puy-en-Velay, France. Diedrich, C. 2010e. Späteiszeiliche Fleckenhyänen-Fressstrategien und Steppenlöwen an ihrer größte Beute - dem Waldelefanten Palaeoloxodon antiquus Falconer & Cautley 1845 in Neumark-Nord. Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010f. Die späteiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänen und deren Exkremente aus Neumark-Nord. Archäologie in Sachsen-Anhalt, Sonderband (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010g. Rare Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) remains from northern Czech Republic open air loess sites along the Elbe River. Cranium, (accepted). Diedrich, C. 2010h. Europe's first Upper Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) skeleton from a small cannibalistic hyena population found in the main dome of the Koněprusy Caves - a hyena cave prey depot site in the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (in review). Diedrich, C. 2010i. Periodical use of the Balve Cave (NW Germany) as a Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) den - hyena occupations and bone accumulations versa human Middle Palaeolithic activity. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. 2010j. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene Rösenbeck Cave den in NW Germany and contribution to the sexual dimorphism and palaeobiogeography of the last hyenas of Europe. Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. 2010k. Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss 1810) remains from an open air loess bone accumulation site in Freyburg a. U. (Central Germany). Jahresschrift für mitteldeutsche Vorgeschichte (accepted). Diedrich, C. in prep. Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach 1799) hunters and scavengers - the Late Pleistocene spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss 1823) and its feeding strategy on its most important prey in Europe. Diedrich, C. in review a. A diseased Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) lioness from a forest elephant graveyard in the Late Pleistocene (Eemian) interglacial lake at Neumark-Nord, Central Germany. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. in review b. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) remains from the open air hyena den Emscher River terrace site Bottrop and other sites of northern Germany - new proves for hyena-lion antagonism. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. DIEDRICH, C. in review c. The Crocuta crocuta spelaea (GOLDFUSS 1823) population and its prey from the Upper Pleistocene Teufelskammer Cave hyena den site in the Neandertal (NRW, NW Germany). Annales de Paléontologie. Diedrich, C. in review d. The Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) population from the Late Pleistocene hyena open air Emscher River terrace den near Bottrop (NWGermany) and other sites in the Westphalian Bay and its mammoth and woolly rhinoceros prey. Quaternary International. Diedrich, C. and Rathgeber, T. in review. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) skeleton remains of the Upper Rhine valley (SW Germany) and contribution to their palaeobiogeography, sexual dimorphism and palaeoecology. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. Diedrich, C. AND Žák, K. 2006. Prey deposits and den sites of the Upper Pleistocene hyena Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) in horizontal and vertical caves of the Bohemian Karst (Czech Republic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 81 (4), 237-276. Günther, K. 1964. Die altsteinzeitlichen Funde der Balve Höhle. Bodenaltertümer Westfalens, 8, 1-165. Günther, K. 1988. Alt- und Mittelsteinzeitliche Fundplätze in Westfalen. Teil 2. Einführung in die Vor- und Frühgeschichte Westfalens 6, 1-183. Musil, R. 1980. Die Großsäoger und Vögel der Teufelsbrücke. In: Feustel, R. Magdalénienstation Teufelsbrücke. II: Paläontologischer Teil. Weimarer Monographien zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte 3, 1-71. Skupin, K., Speetzen, E. and Zandstra, J.G. 1993. Die Eiszeit in Nordwestdeutschland. GLA Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld, 143 pp.

  13. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  14. Oceanography of marginal seas

    DileepKumar, M.

    dioxide in intermediate layers falls from approx. 1000 mu atm in the southern end to approx. 500 mu atm in the northern Red Sea. Temperature in Atlantis II deep and brine level in Discovery deep in the Red Sea seem to be increasing in recent years...

  15. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  16. Vitamin B12[c-lactone], a biologically inactive corrinoid compound, occurs in cultured and dried lion's mane mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) fruiting bodies.

    Teng, Fei; Bito, Tomohiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-02-19

    This study determined the vitamin B12 content of the edible medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus, lion's mane mushroom fruiting body, using a microbiological assay based on Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 7830. Trace levels (0.04-0.36 μg/100 g dry weight) of vitamin B12 were found in most of the dried mushroom samples, and two samples contained slightly higher levels (0.56 and 1.04 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively) of vitamin B12. We purified the corrinoid compounds from the extracts of dried lion's mane mushroom fruiting bodies using an immunoaffinity column and identified them as vitamin B12 or vitamin B12[c-lactone] (or both) based on LC/ESI-MS/MS chromatograms. This is the first report on an unnatural corrinoid, vitamin B12[c-lactone], occurring in foods. Vitamin B12[c-lactone] was simple to produce during incubation of authentic vitamin B12 and chloramine-T, an antimicrobial agent, at varying pH values (3.0-7.0) and was completely inactive in the vitamin B12-dependent bacteria that are generally used in vitamin B12 bioassays. PMID:24506286

  17. Effects of the toxic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium catenatum on hydrolytic and antioxidant enzymes, in tissues of the giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus.

    Estrada, Norma; de Jess Romero, Maria; Campa-Crdova, Angel; Luna, Antonio; Ascencio, Felipe

    2007-11-01

    This study documents effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a producer of paralytic shellfish poison, on juvenile farmed (5.9+/-0.39 cm) giant lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. Scallops were fed bloom concentrations of toxic dinoflagellate G. catenatum for 7 h. The effect of the toxic dinoflagellate in different tissues was determined by analysis of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, gluthathione peroxidase), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (lipid peroxidation), and hydrolytic enzymes (proteases, glycosidases, phosphatases, lipases, and esterases). Histopathological photos record the effects of the toxic dinoflagellate in various tissues. The results show that juvenile lions-paw scallops produce pseudo-feces, partially close their shell, increase melanization, and aggregate hemocytes. Several enzymes were affected and could serve as biological markers. In general, the adductor muscle was not affected. In the digestive gland, some enzymes could be the result of defensive and digestive processes. Gills and mantle tissue were markedly affected because these sites respond first to toxic dinoflagellates, leading to the idea that proteolytic cascades could be involved. PMID:17613278

  18. Black Sea in Bloom

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  19. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg; Melsheimer, Christian; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Schyberg, Harald; Tveter, Frank; Dahlgren, Per; Lundelius, Tomas; Gustafsson, Nils

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect and...... determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  20. Indicators and SEA

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation and if the...

  1. Co-existence of scimitar-toothed cats, lions and hominins in the European Pleistocene. Implications of the post-cranial anatomy of Homotherium latidens (Owen) for comparative palaeoecology

    Antn, Mauricio; Galobart, Angel; Turner, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Human occupants of Europe shared food resources with a number of larger Carnivora, and their coexistence with two lion-sized felids, the lion and the scimitar-toothed machairodont Homotherium latidens, poses intriguing paleoecological problems. We investigate the ecology of Homotherium latidens using an exceptional sample of postcrania from the Spanish Early Pleistocene site of Incarcal, making comparisons with modern cats and with other machairodont species. Evidence of cursorial adaptations in Homotherium suggests a hunting technique different from modern cats or smilodontine sabre-tooths. Some, like reduction of the claws, would have limited the ability of individual homotheres to bring down large prey, implying group action. Homotherium would also have been disadvantaged in direct confrontation with Pleistocene lions by smaller body mass, reduced forepaw muscle strength, smaller claws and more fragile dentition. Its hunting technique would have worked best in more open habitats, but competition from lions would have forced it to seek moderate cover. Among factors that could de-stabilise coexistence of the two big cat species in Pleistocene Europe we invoke a decrease in environmental mosaicism associated with stepped climatic change over the last million years, and the increased importance of humans within the larger predator guild.

  2. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    Mella-Flores, D.; Mazard, S.; Humily, F.; Partensky, F.; Mah, F.; Bariat, L.; Courties, C.; Marie, D.; Ras, J.; Mauriac, R.; Jeanthon, C.; Mahdi Bendif, E.; Ostrowski, M.; Scanlan, D. J.; Garczarek, L.

    2011-09-01

    Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (sub)tropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 0.11 C in average per decade, P genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise) and in June-July 2008 (BOUM cruise). Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (sub)tropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (sub)tropical counterparts.

  3. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have significantly risen over the last 25 years (0.50 ± 0.11 °C in average per decade, P Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined during two cruises through both eastern and western Mediterranean Sea basins held in September 1999 (PROSOPE cruise and in June–July 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and/or clone libraries of the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts.

  4. Simulation and analysis of the mesoscale circulation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    V. Echevin

    Full Text Available The large-scale and mesoscale circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are simulated with an eddy-resolving primitive-equation regional model (RM of 1/16° resolution embedded in a general circulation model (GM of the Mediterranean Sea of 1/8° resolution. The RM is forced by a monthly climatology of heat fluxes, precipitation and wind stress. The GM, which uses the same atmospheric forcing, provides initial and boundary conditions for the RM. Analysis of the RM results shows that several realistic features of the large-scale and mesoscale circulation are evident in this region. The mean cyclonic circulation is in good agreement with observations. Mesoscale variability is intense along the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Catalan Sea. The length scales of the Northern Current meanders along the Provence coast and in the Gulf of Lions’ shelf are in good agreement with observations. Winter Intermediate Water is formed along most of the north-coast shelves, between the Gulf of Genoa and Cape Creus. Advection of this water by the mean cyclonic circulation generates a complex eddy field in the Catalan Sea. Intense anticyclonic eddies are generated northeast of the Balearic Islands. These results are in good agreement with mesoscale activity inferred from satellite altimetric data. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a down-scaling system composed of a general-circulation, a regional and a coastal model, which is one of the goals of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project.

    Key words. Oceanography: physical (currents; eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation

  5. Dead sea water intoxication.

    Levy-Khademi, Floris; Brooks, Rebecca; Maayan, Channa; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Wexler, Isaiah D

    2012-08-01

    Near drowning in the Dead Sea is associated with both respiratory manifestations and severe electrolyte abnormalities. It is often difficult to distinguish between the contributions of sea water aspiration or ingestion to clinical manifestations. We present a unique case of accidental ingestion of a large amount of Dead Sea water through a gastrostomy tube in which a patient with familial dysautonomia presented with severe electrolyte disturbances. Forced diuresis with large amounts of intravenous fluids resulted in clinical and biochemical improvement. Full recovery was achieved after 2 days of treatment. PMID:22863826

  6. Sea Perch Project

    2010-01-01

    David Lalejini, an employee of the Naval Research Laboratory at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, helps a pair of teachers deploy a remotely-operated underwater Sea Perch robot during workshop activities Dec. 11. The Stennis Education Office teamed with Naval Research Laboratory counterparts to conduct a two-day workshop Dec. 10-11 for Louisiana and Mississippi teachers. During the no-cost workshop, teachers learned to build and operate Sea Perch robots. The teachers now can take the Sea Perch Program back to students.

  7. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  8. Sea level variation

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect estimates of global sea level acceleration for time spans of less than about 50 years. This means that tide gauges alone cannot serve as a reliable leading indicator of climate change in less than many decades. This time required can be significantly reduced if the interdecadal fluctuations of sea level can be understood in terms of their forcing mechanisms, and then removed from the tide gauge records.

  9. Sea Turtle Rehab Dispo

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This spreadsheet tracks all the sea turtles that are currently in rehabilitation, as well as all transports and releases that occur in the region. Information in...

  10. Pollution of coastal seas

    Varkey, M.J.

    cities. Various types of wastes, if not properly treated, would cause serious pollution of these shallow seas endangering marine life and spoiling recreational facilities. Different polluting agents like sewage, chemicals, industrial coolants etc...

  11. Black Sea aerosols

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m3, which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  12. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s....... Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout...... about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest...

  13. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  14. Sea Scallop Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution...

  15. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea's resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

  16. Sea level change

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    13.4 Projected Contributions to Global Mean Sea Level .......................................................................... 1161 13.4.1 Ocean Heat Uptake and Thermal Expansion............ 1161 13.4.2 Glaciers... natural oscillation (medium confidence). {13.3.6, Figures 13.4, 13.7, Table 13.1} 1140 Chapter 13 Sea Level Change 13 The Earth’s Energy Budget Independent estimates of effective RF of the climate system, the observed heat storage, and surface warming...

  17. Canterbury Basin Sea Level

    Fulthorpe, C. S.; Institute for Geophysics John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The University of Texas at Austin J.J. Pickle Research Campus, Building 196 (ROC) 10100 Burnet Road (R2200) Austin TX 78758-4445 USA; Hoyanagi, K.; Department of Geology Faculty of Science Shinshu University 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 Japan; Blum, P.; United States Implementing Organization Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Texas A&M University 1000 Discovery Drive College Station TX 77845 USA; Gurin, G.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Slagle, A. L.; Borehole Research Group Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University PO Box 1000, 61 Route 9W Palisades NY 10964 USA; Blair, S. A.; Department of Geological Sciences Florida State University 006 Carraway Building Tallahassee FL 32306 USA; Browne, G. H.; Hydrocarbon Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Carter, R. M.; Marine Geophysical Laboratory James Cook University of North Queensland Townsville QLD 4811 Australia; Ciobanu, M.; Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrmes CNRS UMR-6197 Institut Universitaire Europen de la Mer Technopole Brest-Iroise Plouzane 29280 France; Claypool, G. E.; Organic Geochemist 8910 West 2nd Avenue Lakewood CO 80226 USA; Crundwell, M. P.; New Zealand Observer/Paleontologist (foraminifers) Paleontology and Environmental Change Section GNS Science PO Box 30368 Lower Hutt New Zealand; Dinars-Turell, J.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma2, Roma, Italia; Ding, X.; School of Marine Sciences China University of Geosciences (Beijing) 29 XueYuan Road, Haidian District Beijing P.R. China; George, S. C.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences Macquarie University Sydney NSW 2109 Australia; Hepp, D. A.; MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Department of Geosciences University of Bremen Leobener Strasse MARUM Building, Room 2230 28359 Bremen Germany

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 317 was devoted to understanding the relative importance of global sea level (eustasy) versus local tectonic and sedimentary processes in controlling continental margin sedimentary cycles. The expedition recovered sediments from the Eocene to recent period, with a particular focus on the sequence stratigraphy of the late Miocene to recent, when global sea level change was dominated by glacioeustasy. Drilling in the Canterbury Basin,...

  18. Annual sea ice. An air-sea gas exchange moderator

    Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Arctic annual sea ice, particularly when it is relatively warm (> -15/sup 0/C) permits significant gas exchange between the sea and air throughout the entire year. Sea ice, particularly annual sea ice, differs from freshwater ice with respect to its permeability to gases. The presence of brine allows for significant air-sea-ice exchange of CO/sub 2/ throughout the winter, which may significantly affect the global carbon dioxide balance. Other trace gases are also noted to be enriched in sea ice, but less is known about their importance to air-sea-interactions at this time. Both physical and biological factors cause and modify evolution of gases from the surface of sea ice. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the nature and physical behavior of sea ice with respect to brine and gases are discussed.

  19. The White Sea, Russia

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  20. Continuity and change in subsistence harvests in five Bering Sea communities: Akutan, Emmonak, Savoonga, St. Paul, and Togiak

    Fall, James A.; Braem, Nicole S.; Brown, Caroline L.; Hutchinson-Scarbrough, Lisa B.; Koster, David S.; Krieg, Theodore M.

    2013-10-01

    To document and quantify subsistence harvests of fish and wildlife resources, and provide topics for subsequent key respondent interviews to collect local and traditional knowledge (LTK) about the Bering Sea ecosystem, comprehensive household harvest surveys were conducted in four Bering Sea Alaska Native communities: Akutan, Emmonak, Savoonga, and Togiak. In a fifth community, St. Paul, annual programs to document two key subsistence resources, fur seals and sea lions, continued. Surveys documented relatively high and diverse subsistence harvests, consistent with earlier research that demonstrated the continuing economic, social, and cultural importance of subsistence uses of wild resources. The research also found differences in subsistence use patterns compared to previous years' studies, such as harvest levels, harvest composition, and diversity of resources used, although differences between study years were not uniform across communities. Survey respondents, as well as key respondents in subsequent interviews, identified a complex range of personal, economic, and environmental factors when comparing subsistence uses in the study year with other years, such as increasing costs of fuel and purchased food, commercial fisheries harvests and bycatch, more persistent storms and less predictable winds, and reduced sea ice. Such conditions affect resource abundance and locations as well as access to fish and wildlife populations, and may shape long-term trends. So far, as in the past, families and communities have adapted to changing economic, social, and environmental conditions, but the future is less clear if such changes intensify or accelerate. Local community residents should be essential partners in future efforts to understand these complex processes that affect the natural resources of the Bering Sea.

  1. The Dead Sea

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Size: 18.5 by 48.1 kilometers (11.5 by 29.8 miles) Location: 31.4 degrees North latitude, 35.4 degrees East longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: May 3, 2005

  2. The lion that could

    2010-01-01

    Läti Rahvapartei esimees Andris Skele leiab, et Läti peaks rahvusvaheliste laenuandjatega läbirääkimisi pidama, kuna laenude tingimused ei ole riigi jaoks soodsad. Riigikontrolör Inguna Sudraba ja ökonomist Morten Hanseni arvamused

  3. Is the distribution of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus ecotypes in the Mediterranean Sea affected by global warming?

    M. Ostrowski

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biological communities populating the Mediterranean Sea, which is situated at the northern boundary of the subtropics, are often claimed to be particularly affected by global warming. This is indicated, for instance, by the introduction of (subtropical species of fish or invertebrates that can displace local species. This raises the question of whether microbial communities are similarly affected, especially in the Levantine basin where sea surface temperatures have risen in recent years. In this paper, the genetic diversity of the two most abundant members of the phytoplankton community, the picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, was examined on a transect from the South coast of France to Cyprus in the summer of 2008 (BOUM cruise. Diversity was studied using dot blot hybridization with clade-specific 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes and clone libraries of the 16S–23S ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS region. Data were compared with those obtained during the PROSOPE cruise held almost a decade earlier, with a focus on the abundance of clades that may constitute bioindicators of warm waters. During both cruises, the dominant Prochlorococcus clade in the upper mixed layer at all stations was HLI, a clade typical of temperate waters, whereas the HLII clade, the dominant group in (subtropical waters, was only present at very low concentrations. The Synechococcus community was dominated by clades I, III and IV in the northwestern waters of the Gulf of Lions and by clade III and groups genetically related to clades WPC1 and VI in the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, only a few sequences of clade II, a group typical of warm waters, were observed. These data indicate that local cyanobacterial populations have not yet been displaced by their (subtropical counterparts. This is discussed in the context of the low phosphorus concentrations found in surface waters in the eastern Mediterranean basin, as this may constitute a barrier to the colonization of these waters by alien picocyanobacterial groups.

  4. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other requirements and factors have been considered for the sustainability of the stations. The sea level stations have to potentially sustain very aggressive conditions of not only tsunamis, but on a more regular basis, hurricanes. Given the requirement that the data be available in near real time, for tsunami and other coastal hazard application, robust communication systems are also essential. For the local operator, the ability to be able to visualize the data is critical and tools like the IOC Sea level Monitoring Facility and the Tide Tool program are very useful. It has also been emphasized the need for these stations to serve multiple purposes. For climate and other research applications the data need to be archived, QC'd and analyzed. Increasing the user base for the sea level data has also been seen as an important goal to gain the local buy in; local weather and meteorological offices are considered as key stakeholders but for whom applications still need to be developed. The CARIBE EWS continues to look forward to working with other IOC partners including the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) and Sub-Commission for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IOCARIBE)/GOOS, as well as with local, national and global sea level station operators and agencies for the development of a sustainable sea level network.

  5. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  6. Irish Sea: British radioactivity

    British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) have recently taken the decision to invest several hundred million pounds in reducing the discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant into the Irish Sea. This report outlines the history of the plant and its operation up to the present day and its plans for the future. The attitude of the Irish regulatory authorities and of the public to the radioactive discharges is presented and the incidence of Downs Syndrome and certain specific cancer types on both sides of the Irish Sea is discussed

  7. Sub Sea Power Electronics

    Kristoffersen, Andreas Hoon Wenaas

    2007-01-01

    Sub sea compression for maintaining reservoir pressure in a gas field is important to have a steady production of gas as it is extracted from the field. Electrical drives in the several megawatt range are suitable to control the compressor motor since it is not desirable to have gears which need maintenance. Problems related to the location on the sea bed have so far been overcome by using massive pressure tanks which hold 1 atmosphere. A new approach would be to allow the pressure on t...

  8. SEA LEVEL (TOPEX/POSEIDON)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sea level rise is caused by the thermal expansion of sea water due to climate warming and widespread melting of land ice. The TOPEX/POSEIDON mission a joint...

  9. Sea water for cooling Koeberg

    The Koeberg-1 reactor under construction will house three separate water cooling systems. The third of these is the sea water cooling system, which draws sea water through the condensers to cool the low pressure steam exhausted by the turbine. The designs of the inlet basin, which provides sea water for the tertiary water cooling system, and the outfall point of the used water back into the sea are described

  10. Wadden Sea Mud

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  11. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  12. Solar Sea Power

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  13. The Sea Beside Us

    Watling, Carol; Hallard Raymond E.

    1974-01-01

    The Sea Beside Us for the Special Child is a project in Delaware with three goals: providing outdoor and overnight experiences for handicapped children; introducing these students to beach, bay, and marsh environments; and increasing the number of special education teachers incorporating seashore studies in their teaching curriculum. (LS)

  14. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this

  15. Dieta de um grupo de mico-leo-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, na Estao Ecolgica dos Caetetus, So Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Mammalia, Callitrichidae, in Caetetus Ecological Station, So Paulo

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudates and animal preys (67.9%, 22.8% and 8.9% respectively. Fruits varied monthly from 47.4 to 97.1 %, being consumed more during the rainy season, while tree exudates varied from 0 to 54.7%, and were consumed mainly during the dry season. The animal prey accounted for 0 to 15.8% of the diet. The most important dietary resource for the black lion tamarins was the fruit of Syagrus romanzoffiana Glass., representing 29.9% of the foraging observations. The diet exhibited pronounced differences among dry and rainy seasons, presumably as a consequence of the food shortage of fruits during dry season.

  16. Columbia River ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions, harbor seals, and California sea lions in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  17. Sea Ice Radiative Forcing, Sea Ice Area, and Climate Sensitivity

    Caldeira, K.; Cvijanovic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per unit area of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable the changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea-ice in the "pre-industrial" state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

  18. Dead Sea Rate of Evaporation

    Abdelaziz L. AL-Khlaifat

    2008-01-01

    The Dead Sea is exceptional by many standards. It is the saltiest and lowest lake in the world. Moreover it is a closed lake with very large variations in its water level caused by both man-made and natural oscillations of the components that make up the water balance. Most of the fundamental studies on the Dead Sea focused on the sea water contents, Dead Sea geology, salt origin, ground-water sea intrusion, and qualitative analysis of the material balance. The objective of the present paper ...

  19. The radioactivity of the sea

    Walker, M.I.; Rose, K.S.B. (AEA Enviroment and Energy, Harwell (UK). Environmental Safety Div.)

    1990-08-01

    The radioactivity in the world's surface sea water averages 13.6 Bq/kg of water. Over 88% of this activity arises from a single natural radionuclide, {sup 40}K, and 7% of the remainder results from nuclear weapon test fallout. Variations in the radioactivity occur due to changes in salinity, weapon test fallout and discharges of artificial radionuclides, and are examined here on the basis of published measurements. The most radioactive sea identified by these measurements is the Dead Sea, which averages 178 Bq/kg due to its high salinity. Other enclosed, highly saline waters can be expected to have similar levels. The radioactivity in open seas varies within a much narrower range, generally within 20% of the world average. The highest averages are found in the Persian Gulf (22 Bq/kg), the Red Sea (15 Bq/kg) and the Eastern Mediterranean (14.6 Bq/kg). The Irish Sea averaged 13.7 Bq/kg in 1987, with the effect of the Sellafield discharges being partly offset by lower than average salinity. Although higher levels occurred in the Irish Sea during the 1970s when the Sellafield discharges were higher, the average level has always been much less than that in the Dead Sea, so that the Irish Sea has never been the most radioactive sea in the world. Exceptionally low levels of radioactivity (4 Bq/kg) occur in the Baltic Sea due to dilution by fresh water. (author).

  20. The radioactivity of the sea

    The radioactivity in the world's surface sea water averages 13.6 Bq/kg of water. Over 88% of this activity arises from a single natural radionuclide, 40K, and 7% of the remainder results from nuclear weapon test fallout. Variations in the radioactivity occur due to changes in salinity, weapon test fallout and discharges of artificial radionuclides, and are examined here on the basis of published measurements. The most radioactive sea identified by these measurements is the Dead Sea, which averages 178 Bq/kg due to its high salinity. Other enclosed, highly saline waters can be expected to have similar levels. The radioactivity in open seas varies within a much narrower range, generally within 20% of the world average. The highest averages are found in the Persian Gulf (22 Bq/kg), the Red Sea (15 Bq/kg) and the Eastern Mediterranean (14.6 Bq/kg). The Irish Sea averaged 13.7 Bq/kg in 1987, with the effect of the Sellafield discharges being partly offset by lower than average salinity. Although higher levels occurred in the Irish Sea during the 1970s when the Sellafield discharges were higher, the average level has always been much less than that in the Dead Sea, so that the Irish Sea has never been the most radioactive sea in the world. Exceptionally low levels of radioactivity (4 Bq/kg) occur in the Baltic Sea due to dilution by fresh water. (author)

  1. Etude du mecanisme de predissociation de l'ion moleculaire de protoxyde d'azote par la mesure de l'energie cinetique des fragments de l'oxyde nitrique et de l'oxygene

    Delisle, Claude

    La reaction N2 + O+ ? NO + + N, laquelle joue un role important dans la physique de la haute atmosphere, a ete le sujet de plusieurs etudes. Bien que cette reaction ait ete l'objet d'une quantite importante de travaux, ces derniers ne permettent toutefois pas de comprendre entierement le mecanisme d'un point de vue quantique, particulierement les niveaux d'energie excites des fragments qui permettent cette reaction. Puisque cette reaction n'est pas tres facile a reproduire en laboratoire, nous avons utilise la spectroscopie laser sur faisceaux d'ions rapides afin d'explorer les limites de dissociation de l'ion moleculaire intermediaire de cette reaction, a savoir l'ion N2O+. Le faisceau d'ions N2O+ rapides, apres excitation de l'ion moleculaire vers un niveau predissocie de l'etat A2Sigma+, se dissocie pour produire les fragments ioniques O+ et NO+. Par la mesure de la variation du nombre de fragments ioniques en fonction de l'energie cinetique des ions N2O+, nous avons enregistre les spectres de predissociation de l'ion N2O+. Lorsque c'etait possible, nous avons procede a l'analyse de ces spectres de dissociation afin d'en tirer les constantes moleculaires. Pour certaines des transitions rotationnelles intenses, nous avons mesure l'energie cinetique acquise par les fragments lors de la predissociation de l'ion N 2O+. Afin d'analyser les distributions en energie cinetique, nous avons developpe une simulation de l'experience en considerant, entre autres choses, la position des niveaux de vibration et de rotation des fragments diatomiques de chacune des limites de dissociation de N2O+. Les resultats de l'analyse sont exprimes en termes de population des niveaux de vibration des fragments diatomiques pour une distribution donnee de la population des niveaux de rotation des fragments. Les resultats ainsi obtenus, montrent que les fragments diatomiques sont produits dans des niveaux de vibration fortement excites. De tels niveaux d'excitation ne correspondent pas aux conditions de la haute atmosphere. Ainsi, en tenant compte de ces resultats, nous contribuons a confirmer l'hypothese que la reaction enoncee precedemment implique preferentiellement un etat excite quadruplet de N2O+ se trouvant en dessous de l'etat A2Sigma+.

  2. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modelling combined approach

    P. A. Auger

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical modelling is developed to address main mechanisms that drive the particulate organic carbon (POC deposition in the Gulf of Lions (NW-Mediterranean. Low-salinity water (LSW, salinity <37.5 lenses detached from the Rhone River plume under specific wind conditions tend to favour the biological productivity and provide a good opportunity for validating a planktonic ecosystem modelling. A specific calibration dedicated to river plume ecosystems is then proposed and validated using in situ measurements within such LSW lens (BIOPRHOFI cruise – May 2006 and on the Gulf of Lions. During spring 2006, the POC deposition is maximal on the prodelta area and within the coastal area in the Gulf of Lions. Organic detritus mostly contribute to the total POC deposition (82–92% whereas the contribution of living organisms (microphytoplankton appears lower than 17%. Exploring both influences of terrestrial inputs from the Rhone River and planktonic ecosystems on the POC deposition on the shelf, we estimated that the contribution of terrestrial POM inputs to the total POC deposition is lower than 17% at the shelf scale during the study period, with maxima during peak discharges of the Rhone River. The main deposition area of terrestrial POC is found in the vicinity of the river mouth in agreement with sediment data. On the other hand, a remarkable influence of marine biological processes on the POC deposition is highlighted further on the shelf (from 60 to 80 m depth. A tight feedback between zooplankton and POM contents in the water column is proposed to explain the control of POC deposition by zooplankton: terrestrial POM inputs would favour the development of living organisms through photosynthesis and grazing processes increasing the retention of organic matter within the food web. By favouring the development of large-sized zooplankton, LSW lenses may have paradoxically a negative impact on the carbon deposition on the shelf. In the same way, peak discharges of the Rhone River finally increase the gradient of POC deposition between the prodelta and the offshore area in the Gulf of Lions. The biogenic elements from the Rhone River are then exported further offshore through advection of zooplankton communities on the Gulf of Lions shelf.

  3. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to increased use of shelf sea space.

  4. Dead Sea rhodopsins revisited.

    Bodaker, Idan; Suzuki, Marcelino T; Oren, Aharon; Bj, Oded

    2012-12-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique hypersaline ecosystem with near toxic magnesium levels (?2?M), dominance of divalent cations and a slightly acidic pH. Previously, we reported a haloarchaeon related to Halobacterium salinarum to dominate in a microbial bloom that developed in 1992 in the upper water layers of the lake following massive freshwater runoff. Whether this clade also dominated an earlier bloom in 1980-1982 cannot be ascertained as no samples for cultivation-independent analysis were preserved. The presence of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin was reported in the 1980-1982 bloom of prokaryotes that had developed in the Dead Sea. To test the hypothesis that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping may play a major role in determining what type of haloarchaea may dominate in specific bloom conditions, we compared rhodopsin genes recovered from Dead Sea biomass collected in different periods with genes coding for retinal proteins in isolated haloarchaea. Novel bacteriorhodopsin and sensory rhodopsin genes were found in samples collected in 2007 and 2010. The fact that no rhodopsin genes were recovered from samples collected during the 1992 bloom, which was dominated by a single species, suggests that different clades were present in the 1980-1982 and 1992 blooms, and that bacteriorhodopsin proton pumping did not necessarily play a determinative role in the dominance of specific halophiles in the blooms. PMID:23760932

  5. Importance of the variability of hydrographic preconditioning for deep convection in the Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean

    L. Grignon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the variability of hydrographic preconditioning defined as the heat and salt contents in the Ligurian Sea before convection. The stratification is found to reach a maximum in the intermediate layer in December, whose causes and consequences for the interannual variability of convection are investigated. Further study of the interannual variability and correlation tests between the properties of the deep water formed and the winter surface fluxes support the description of convection as a process that transfers the heat and salt contents from the top and intermediate layers to the deep layer. A proxy for the rate of transfer is given by the final convective mixed layer depth, that is shown to depend equally on the surface fluxes and on the preconditioning. In particular, it was found that deep convection in winter 2004–2005 would have happened even with normal winter conditions, due to low pre-winter stratification.

  6. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  7. 78 FR 42041 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17115

    2013-07-15

    ... 216). Permit No. 17115-00, issued on September 24, 2012 (77 FR 63296), authorizes the permit holder to... number of non-target sea lions may be captured and released without sampling. Up to 5,000 sea lions, 3... Nicolas Island and 80 animals at Monterey Bay). A limited number of non-target sea lions may be...

  8. Comparison of Subjective Well-Being and Personality Assessments in the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia), and African Lion (Panthera leo).

    Gartner, Marieke Cassia; Powell, David M; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of subjective well-being in nonhuman animals is growing in the field of psychology, but there are still only a few published studies and the focus is on primates. To consider whether the construct of subjective well-being could be found in another mammal, this study aimed to assess subjective well-being in felids and to examine its association with personality. Personality is one of the strongest and most consistent predictors of well-being in humans. This relationship could have important implications for other species, because personality has also been shown to affect health outcomes including stress, morbidity, and mortality. As in previous studies in nonhuman animals, the study results revealed that subjective well-being was related to agreeableness/openness and neuroticism in clouded leopards, neuroticism in snow leopards, and impulsiveness and neuroticism in African lions. The implications of these results for health outcomes and the welfare of animals in captivity are discussed. More research on any direct links among personality, subjective well-being, and these outcomes is important to advancing this field and adding another tool for improving captive animals' lives. PMID:26983676

  9. Pycnogonids associated with the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Sowerby) in Ojo de Liebre Bay, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    de León-Espinosa, Angel; de León-González, Jesus A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of epibenthic pycnogonids collected on the giant lion´s-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus are recorded. A new species of Eurycyde, Eurycyde bamberi, is described. Of the 19 species known in this genus; the new species is closest to Eurycyde hispida Kroyer, 1844 but differs from it in the absence of plumose spines and the shapes of the lateral process, first coxa, and ocular tubercle. The new species represents the third member of Eurycyde from the eastern Pacific in addition to Eurycyde spinosa Hilton, 1916 and Eurycyde clitellaria Stock, 1955. Besides Eurycyde bamberi, the following species were collected: Nymphopsis duodorsospinosa Hilton, 1942c; Callipallene californiensis (Hall, 1913); Nymphon lituus Child, 1979; and Pycnogonum rickettsi Schmitt, 1934. Pycnogonum rickettsi is recorded for first time from Mexican waters, as is Nymphon lituus from the western coast of Baja California Peninsula. Each of these four species are re-described and re-illustrated in order to fill in existing gaps in the literature of the region. PMID:26692802

  10. Long-term (1998-2010) large-scale comparison of the ecological quality status of gulf of lions (NW Mediterranean) benthic habitats.

    Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Bonifcio, Paulo; Labrune, Cline; Sard, Rafael; Amouroux, Jean Michel; Bellan, Grard; Duchne, Jean Claude; Hermand, Rachel; Karakassis, Ioannis; Dounas, Costas; Grmare, Antoine

    2016-01-15

    A comprehensive Mediterranean data set has been used to address 3 questions associated with the use of sensitivity/tolerance based biotic indices to infer the Ecological Quality status (EcoQs) of benthic habitats. Our results showed: (1) a significant effect of the reference database on derived sensitivity/tolerance measure (ES500.05) as well as associated Benthic Quality Index values and derived EcoQs; (2) a lack of correlation neither between BQI and AZTI Marine Biotic Index values nor between BQI and Multivariate-AZTI Marine Biotic Index values; (3) a lack of correlation between the values of the Benthic Habitat Quality Index (index derived from Sediment Profile Imagery) and those of either of the 3 tested biotic indices; and (4) a general agreement between the 3 tested biotic indices in describing the lack of global trend for the EcoQs of the Gulf of Lions despite the occurrence of significant changes in benthic macrofauna composition between 1998 and 2010. PMID:26675011

  11. L’iconographie ortodoxe du Sommeil de l’Enfant Jésus, endormi comme un lion, et ses variantes roumaines

    Constantin I. Ciobanu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L’image du Sommeil de Jésus porte des noms différents dans les Balkans et en Russie, sans se distinguer fondamentalement du point de vue iconographique. En Grèce l’image s’appelle Anapeson (gr. ό Άναπέσων: fr. Celui qui se couche – Genèse, 49 : 9 et porte parfois en titre le verset entier « Il ploie les genoux, il se couche, comme un lion, comme une lionne : qui le fera lever ?», alors que les icônes et les fresques russes du même type sont intitulées L’OEil qui veille et l’on y ajoute parfois l’inscription : « Le gardien d’Israël ne tombera pas en somnolence, il ne s’endormira pas» (Psaume 120 : 4 ». Le but de la présente étude est de relever l’importance des sources littéraires (y compris des textes liturgiques chantés aux matines du Samedi saint dans la constitution du type iconographique de l’image du Sommeil de Jésus et de faire une description des ses variantes roumaines.

  12. Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements

    This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sediment fraction. Background levels were successfully reached for Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb, compared to various literature references. Nevertheless, in the case of lead, the normalized data depicted a general enrichment in all samples, and the natural levels could only be reached when concentrations were corrected for the atmospheric contribution by analysing lead isotope ratios. Also for Zn, a general enrichment was found in our samples, although less important. - Among several potential normalizers, stable Cs (133Cs) depicted the best ability to correct for the grain-size effect of shelf sediments and was used to estimate regional background levels of heavy metals

  13. Inference by exclusion in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus), a hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), capuchins (Sapajus apella), and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Marsh, Heidi L; Vining, Alexander Q; Levendoski, Emma K; Judge, Peter G

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that several primate species may be capable of reasoning by exclusion based on the finding that they can locate a hidden object when given information about where the object is not. The present research replicated and extended the literature by testing 2 Old World monkey species, lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and a hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), and 2 New World species, capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). The New World monkeys were tested on the traditional 2-way object choice task, and all 4 species were also tested on a more complex 3-way object choice task. In addition, the squirrel monkeys were tested on a 2-way object choice task with auditory information. The results showed that, whereas the Old World species were able to infer by exclusion on the 3-object task, some of the capuchin monkeys had difficulty on each of the 2- and 3-cup tasks. All but 1 of the squirrel monkeys failed to infer successfully, and their strategies appeared to differ between the visual and auditory versions of the task. Taken together, this research suggests that the ability to succeed on this inference task may be present throughout Old World monkey species, but is fragile in the New World species tested thus far. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010194

  14. Dead Sea Rate of Evaporation

    Abdelaziz L. AL-Khlaifat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea is exceptional by many standards. It is the saltiest and lowest lake in the world. Moreover it is a closed lake with very large variations in its water level caused by both man-made and natural oscillations of the components that make up the water balance. Most of the fundamental studies on the Dead Sea focused on the sea water contents, Dead Sea geology, salt origin, ground-water sea intrusion, and qualitative analysis of the material balance. The objective of the present paper is to develop the needed mathematical model that can describe the Dead-Sea rate of evaporation. The model demonstrated a significant influence of relative humidity, air and water temperatures on the rate of evaporation.

  15. Bindin from a sea star

    Patiño, Susana; Aagaard, Jan E.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.; Hart, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The genetic basis for the evolution of development includes genes that encode proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs. Previous studies of the sperm acrosomal protein bindin have helped to characterize the adaptive evolution of gamete compatibility and speciation in sea urchins. The absence of evidence for bindin expression in taxa other than the Echinoidea has limited such studies to sea urchins, and led to the suggestion that bindin might be a sea urchin-specific molecule. Here...

  16. Experiencing the Full Research Process at Sea Education Association (SEA)

    Harris, S. E.; Joyce, P.; Jaroslow, G.; Graziano, L.; Lea, C.; Witting, J.; Bower, A.

    2003-12-01

    While some undergraduate research experiences include only a small piece of the research process, students attending Sea Education Association's SEA Semester complete all aspects of oceanographic research in an intensive 12 week program that earns a full semester's credit. In the first half of the program, students read and discuss background literature on a subject, ask questions, pose hypotheses, and develop a written research proposal, which they defend orally. The second half of the course takes place at sea on one of SEA's state-of-the-art oceanographic research vessels where students carry out their sampling plans, analyze samples and data, write a final paper and present their results before the vessel reaches port, completing the course. At sea, students participate in sample collection and analysis for all student projects in addition to learning the general oceanography along their cruise track. This structure exposes students to the realities of research from start to finish and allows them to take full ownership of their projects. In addition to honing writing, public speaking, and problem-solving skills, students learn that research requires dedication, flexibility, and creativity, particularly when their results are unexpected or negate their hypothesis. SEA's undergraduate research program has been developing since 1971. Over that time, SEA has collected an extensive historical oceanographic database in the western Atlantic and Caribbean, plus Pacific data since 2001. This database is available to both students and outside research scientists. Collaborations with scientists outside SEA enhance the student experience and help facilitate oceanographic research by providing "ship-of-opportunity" sampling in remote locations. SEA Semester provides an excellent model for undergraduate research experiences with over 5000 alumni, about 30% of whom enter graduate school. About half the students in SEA's undergraduate programs are non-science majors. Although their experience at SEA may be their only hands-on exposure to scientific research, they take away an understanding of the process and an ability to think critically about scientific problems.

  17. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  18. Sea Otter, River Otter. The Wonder Series.

    Robinson, Sandra Chisholm

    This curriculum guide is all about otters and provides information on both sea and river otters. Included are activities related to the diet of sea otters, the adaptations sea otters have made to live in the sea, their tool-using abilities, where they live and how to spot them, comparative anatomy of sea and river otters, and otter movement. The…

  19. Sea urchin feeding fronts

    Abraham, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Sea urchin feeding fronts are a striking example of spatial pattern formation in an ecological system. If it is assumed that urchins are asocial, and that they move randomly, then the formation of these dense fronts is an apparent paradox. The key lies in observations that urchins move further in areas where their algal food is less plentiful. This naturally leads to the accumulation of urchins in areas with abundant algae. If urchin movement is represented as a random walk, with a step size ...

  20. AIR / SEA RESCUE LAUNCHES

    W.H. Rice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Motor Boat Wing of the South African Air Force was inaugurated some thirty eight years ago.With its main base at Gordon's Bay, the wing was formed to operate the various marine craft used to provide a service to the flying component of the South African Air Force. Its main function was to be air/sea rescue, but it also had to man and maintain armoured target boats, seaplane tenders, marine tenders and the 'bomb scows', used for recovering practise bombs and missiles and for laying and lifting moorings.