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Sample records for californian sea lions

  1. Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Santokh Gill; Tracey Goldstein; Donna Situ; Zabka, Tanja S.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Mueller, Rudi W.

    2010-01-01

    Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs) speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid...

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus

    Santokh Gill

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

  3. Sea Lion Diet Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions pup and breed at four of the nine Channel Islands in southern California. Since 1981, SWFSC MMTD has been conducting a diet study of sea lions...

  4. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Pup Count Database

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  5. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  6. StellarSeaLion_CriticalHabitat_CA

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set depicts Designated Critical Habitat for Stellar Sea Lions in California. It is meant as a general locational reference for these designated areas. The...

  7. 50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. The... the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of firearms. Except as provided...

  8. Welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses

    Hopster, H.; Jong, de, T.

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke literatuur en opinies van deskundigen over het welzijn van zeeleeuwen in reizende circussen. Dit als basis voor beleidsontwikkeling.This report describes the scientific literature and expert views concerning the welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses with respect to Dutch animal welfare policy making.

  9. Welfare of sea lions in travelling circuses

    Hopster, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft een overzicht van de wetenschappelijke literatuur en opinies van deskundigen over het welzijn van zeeleeuwen in reizende circussen. Dit als basis voor beleidsontwikkeling.This report describes the scientific literature and expert views concerning the welfare of sea lions in travell

  10. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited

    Tanabe Shinsuke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

  11. 50 CFR 226.202 - Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions... Critical habitat for Stellar sea lions. Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (a) Alaska rookeries, haulouts, and associated areas. In Alaska, all major Steller sea lion rookeries identified in Table 1...

  12. Observations on sea lion harvest, Alaska Peninsula, summer, 1965

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers observations of a sea lion pup harvest on the Alaskan peninsula during the summer of 1965. Culling was kept to only 50 of the rookerys pups. The...

  13. Alaska Steller sea lion Count Database (Non-pups)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haulouts in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  14. Dive behaviour can predict metabolic expenditure in Steller sea lions

    Goundie, Elizabeth T.; Rosen, David A. S.; Andrew W Trites

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of costs associated with foraging contributes to understanding the energetic impact that changes in prey availability have on the energy balance of an animal and the fitness of populations. However, estimating the costs of foraging is difficult for breath-hold divers, such as Steller sea lions, that feed underwater. We developed models parameterized with data from free-diving captive Steller sea lions to estimate the costs incurred by wild animals while foraging. We measured di...

  15. Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Buckmaster, Paul S.; Wen, Xiling; TOYODA, Izumi; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Van Bonn, William

    2014-01-01

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Ni...

  16. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in.... 226, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea lion...: Northeast Point 1 57 15.0N 170 06.5W Sea Lion Rock 1 57 06.0N 170 17.5W St. George I: S Rookery 1 56...

  17. 50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1... Table 1 to Part 226—Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are... 168 02.0W Ogchul I.1 53 00.0N 168 24.0W Sea Lion Rocks. (Amak) 1 55 28.0N 163 12.0W Ugamak I.1 54...

  18. 77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions

    2012-04-18

    ... longitude. On April 10, 1990, the FWS took emergency action (55 FR 13488) to add the Steller sea lion to the... to list the Steller sea lion as a threatened species (55 FR 29793), and on November 26, 1990, we published the final rule listing the Steller sea lion as threatened under the ESA (55 FR 49204). On...

  19. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State ▿

    Kersh, Gilbert J.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Massung, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever.

  20. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions...

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  3. Diagnostic testing for Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Leptospirosis is a relatively common bacterial disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); however, there remain gaps in our understanding of maintenance hosts relative to animals demonstrating clinical disease. To effectively study the epidemiology of leptospirosis in any species, a s...

  4. A robotic platform for studying sea lion thrust production

    Leftwich, Megan; Patel, Rahi; Kulkarni, Aditya; Friedman, Chen

    California Sea Lions are agile swimmers and, uniquely, use their foreflippers (rather than hind flipper undulation) to generate thrust. Recently, a sea lion flipper from a deceased subject was externally scanned in high detail for fluid dynamics research. The flipper's geometry is used in this work to build an accurate scaled down flipper model (approximately 68% of the full size span). The flipper model is placed in a water flume to obtain lift and drag force measurements. The unique trailing edge features are then examined for their effect on the measured forces by comparing to similar flipper models with a smooth trailing edge, sinusoidal trailing edge, and a saw-tooth trailing edge. Additionally, a robotic flipper is being designed and built, replicating the sea lion foreflipper anatomical structure. The robot is actuated by a set of servo motors and replicates the sea lion flipper clap motion based on previously extracted kinematics. The flipper tip speed is designed to match typical full scale Reynolds numbers for an acceleration from rest maneuver. The model is tested in the water flume as well to obtain the forces and flow structures during the thrust production phase of the flipper motion.

  5. Impact of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in Monterey Bay, California

    Weise, Michael J; Harvey, James T.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the impact of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in the Monterey Bay region of California, the percentages of hooked fish taken by sea lions in commercial and recreational salmon fisheries were estimated from 1997 to 1999. Onboard surveys of sea lion interactions with the commercial and recreational f isheries and dockside interviews with fishermen after their return to port were conducted in the ports of Santa Cruz, Moss Landing, and Monterey. Appr...

  6. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Habitat Model Satellite Telemetry and Environmental Data, 2000-2012

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The at-sea habitat use of Steller sea lions was modeled from location and dive behavior data obtained from the deployment of satellite-linked telemetry tags on sea...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation...

  8. Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.

    Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

    2014-04-01

    Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis. PMID:24484486

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Euth...eria/Carnivora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_california...nus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  10. Lion

    Chaker, S.

    2012-01-01

    Le berbère connaît plusieurs dénominations du lion ; celle qui paraît être primitive repose sur le thème nominal war : elle est attestée, sinon usuelle, dans les dialectes suivants, surtout sahariens : -  Mozabite : war et twart (lionne) ; -  Ouargla : ar (vieilli ; Delheure précise : « vieux mot des contes ») - Touareg : ahar (lion), iharren (plur.) et tahart (lionne), tiharrin (pl.). La forme touarègue est conforme à une correspondance régulière Berbère Nord /w/ ↔ touareg /h/ (cf. Prasse 19...

  11. The hydrodynamics and kinematics of sea lion swimming

    Leftwich, Megan C.; Friedman, Chen

    2014-11-01

    A highly interactive, non-research, female sea lion was used for studying its thrust production mechanisms at the Smithsonian National Zoo in Washington, DC. Videography was used for flipper kinematics extraction by tracing the flipper center line and studying the flipper shape throughout the thrust phase. Acceleration from rest was studied with respect to flipper angular rate and flipper shape by digitizing the videos using 10 points spanning root to tip. Resulting functions reveal spanwise camber of up to 32%, with instantaneous angular rates as high as 20 rad/sec, generating thrust values in the range of 150-680 N. The sea lion flipper was scanned using several 3D scanning techniques to generate a 3D model which will be used to reproduce a scaled robotic flipper for testing in a controlled laboratory setting. Techniques included two highly accurate structured light based 3D scanner, an image based software, capable of generating 3D meshes, and a kinect based scanner. A silicone mold of the flipper was also created for reference and comparison. The 3D models are used to extract several section airfoils which aid in both modeling the flipper computationally and designing foreflipper based robotic platforms.

  12. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-08-15

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

  13. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups

    The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

  14. AFSC/REFM: Steller sea lion economic survey data, U.S., 2007, Lew

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project will produce a valuation function that depends on factors related to Steller sea lion (SSL) protection measures, and may include some combination of the...

  15. Alaska Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Argos Telemetry Data Archive

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Ecosystems Program of the NOAA Alaska Fisheries Science Center National Marine Mammal Laboratory conducts research and monitoring on Steller sea lions...

  16. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of Steller sea lions in Washington, 1993 - 1999

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1993 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples from Steller sea lions in...

  17. Steller sea lion sightings or recaptures of previously marked animals throughout their range, 1987-2014

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the sighting and capture of previously marked Steller sea lions from 1987 to the present. Marks are seen and documented...

  18. Steller sea lion capture, marking, and handling data across their range 1985-2014

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information on individual sea lions that were marked or handled from 1985-2014. Individuals were handled for various projects including vital...

  19. Steller sea lion haulout and rookery locations in the United States

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) use terrestrial sites for reproduction, resting, molting, and other activities. Sites used during the breeding season...

  20. Alaska Steller sea lion pup serum chemistry and hematology values, 1998-2011

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  1. The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Hexavalent Chromium in Steller Sea Lion Lung Fibroblasts Compared to Human Lung Fibroblasts

    Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie L.; LaCerte, Carolyne; Shaffiey, Fariba; Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim

    2010-01-01

    In this study we directly compared soluble and particulate chromate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human (Homo sapiens) and sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) lung fibroblasts. Our results show that hexavalent chromium induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in both human and sea lion cells with increasing intracellular chromium ion levels. The data further indicate that both sodium chromate and lead chromate are less cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea lion cells than human cells, based o...

  2. Food habits of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) and their impact on Salmonid Fisheries in Monterey Bay, California

    Weise, Michael, J.; Harvey, James

    1999-01-01

    In the ocean commercial troll and recreational salmon fishery in Monterey Bay California, California sea lions (Zalophus califomianus) will swim near or follow fishing boats and will depredate fish once hooked. The objectives of the study were to determine the percentage of salmon taken by pinnipeds in commercial and recreational fisheries, identify relative importance of prey items seasonally consumed by sea lions, and determine the proportion of salmonids in the sea lion diet on a seasonal ...

  3. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  4. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near

  5. Isolation by distance among California sea lion populations in Mexico: redefining management stocks.

    González-Suárez, M; Flatz, R; Aurioles-Gamboa, D; Hedrick, P W; Gerber, L R

    2009-03-01

    Understanding the spatial structure of a population is critical for effective assessment and management. However, direct observation of spatial dynamics is generally difficult, particularly for marine mammals. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are polygynous pinnipeds distributed along the Pacific coast of North America. The species' range has been subdivided into three management stocks based on differences in mitochondrial DNA, but to date no studies have considered nuclear genetic variation, and thus we lack a comprehensive understanding of gene flow patterns among sea lion colonies. In light of recent population declines in the Gulf of California, Mexico, it is important to understand spatial structure to determine if declining sea lion colonies are genetically isolated from others. To define population subdivision and identify sex biases in gene flow, we analysed a 355-bp sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 355 tissue samples collected from six colonies distributed along Mexican waters. Using a novel approach to estimate sex biases in gene flow, we found that male sea lions disperse on average 6.75 times more frequently than females. Analyses of population subdivision strongly suggest a pattern of isolation by distance among colonies and challenge current stock definitions. Based on these results, we propose an alternative classification that identifies three Mexican management units: Upper Gulf of California, Southern Baja Peninsula, and Upper Pacific Coast of Baja. This revised classification should be considered in future assessment and management of California sea lion populations in Mexican waters. PMID:19226320

  6. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  7. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea...

  8. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California.

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M; Vetter, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5-38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  9. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-01-01

    Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover). ISBN 9780520267268.

  10. Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific

    Ray Pierotti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

  11. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Karen Shapiro; Andrea E. Packham; Melli, Ann C.; Daphne Carlson-Bremer; Frances M. Gulland; Daniel Rejmanek; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated wi...

  12. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  13. Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)

    Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the ...

  14. Dissecting the Influences of Climate and Demography on the Dynamics of Leptospirosis in California Sea Lions

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection of global importance, yet its population dynamics remain poorly understood. We present the first empirically-motivated study of the dynamics of leptospirosis, drawing on a unique 24-year time series of disease in California sea lions (CSLs). Since the early 19...

  15. Antibiotic efficacy in eliminating leptospiruria in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) stranding with leptospirosis

    Infection of California sea lions with leptospirosis can result in stranding and death of the animals. Shedding of the infectious organism contributes to spread of the disease to other animals and also poses a threat to human health. This is both for the public interacting with stranded animals and ...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF TWO NOVEL COCCIDIAN SPECIES SHED BY CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K.; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Wasmuth, James D.; Colegrove, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst–forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal. PMID:22091999

  17. Determination of a sedative protocol for use in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with neurologic abnormalities undergoing electroencephalographic examination.

    Dennison, Sophie; Haulena, Martin; Williams, D Colette; Dawson, John; Yandell, Brian S; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-12-01

    Sedation in sea lions exhibiting abnormal neurologic signs may require modification of established sedatior protocols because of the likely interaction between effects of the sedative and physiologic changes in diseased animals The effects of two sedative combinations, 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.07 mg/kg medetomidine plus 0.2 mg/kg butorphanol, were compared between California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with signs of neurologic dysfunctior (n=33) and without neurologic signs (n=8). Sedation depth was scored on a scale of 0 (no effect) to 4 (profound sedation) assessed by response to auditory, tactile, and visual stimuli at the time of perceived maximal sedative effect In the medetomidine-alone group, sea lions with neurologic signs attained a median sedation score of 4 compared to a median sedation score of 1 in the clinically normal sea lions. Sea lions with and without neurologic signs giver medetomidine-butorphanol attained a median sedation score of 4. No statistically significant difference in time to induction and respiratory rate was found between the two sedation protocols in all sea lions. In the sea lions with neurologic signs, the recovery time from medetomidine-butorphanol sedation was prolonged (P < 0.01) and minimum recorded heart rates, although remaining within normal physiologic limits, were lower (P = 0.02) when compared to the sea lions administered medetomidine alone. Muscle jerks were observed in many animals given medetomidine-butorphanol and were detrimental to the diagnostic quality of the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording. Medetomidine alone at a dose rate of 0.07 mg/kg thus provides adequate and safe sedation in sea lions with neurologic signs undergoing EEG evaluation. PMID:19110694

  18. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  19. Messinian evaporite deposition during sea level rise in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean)

    Bache, François; Gargani, Julien; Suc, Jean-Pierre; Gorini, Christian; Rabineau, Marina; Popescu, Speranta-Maria; Leroux, Estelle; Do Couto, Damien; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Clauzon, Georges; Dos Reis, Antonio Tadeu; Aslanian, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    International audience The Messinian Salinity Crisis resulted from desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea after its isolation from the Atlantic Ocean at the end of the Miocene. Stratal geometry tied to borehole data in the Gulf of Lions show that the pre-crisis continental shelf has been eroded during a major sea-level fall and that sedi-ments from this erosion have been deposited in the basin. This detrital package is onlapped by high amplitude seismic reflectors overlain by the "Messinian ...

  20. The Complete Genome Sequence of the San Miguel Sea Lion Virus-8 Reveals that It Is Not a Member of the Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus/San Miguel Sea Lion Virus Species of the Caliciviridae

    Neill, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of the San Miguel sea lion virus-8 (SMSV-8) was determined in this study. A comparison of this sequence to other calicivirus sequences in GenBank showed that this virus is genetically distinct from the vesicular exanthema of swine virus/San Miguel sea lion virus (VESV/SMSV) strains and belongs to a novel clade within the Vesivirus genus.

  1. Atmospheric conditions of sea surges in the Gulf of Lions from 1900 to 2100

    Ullmann, Albin

    2008-01-01

    This PhD analyses variability of sea surges and extreme sea-level in the Gulf of Lion and its relationship with atmospheric conditions at different spatio-temporal scales from 1905 to 2100. Sea-level height time series at four stations (Port-Vendres, Sète, Grau-de-la-Dent and Marseille) are used, as well as wind speed and directions at these stations and sea-level pressure (SLP) fields observed during the 20th century and simulated by ARPEGE-climat for the 21st century, according to two SRES ...

  2. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  3. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989 to 2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The...

  4. Steller sea lion haulout and rookery locations in the United States for 2016-05-14 (NCEI Accession 0129877)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) use terrestrial sites for reproduction, resting, molting, and other activities. Sites used during the breeding season...

  5. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Survival Rate of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California from 1987-2009

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  6. Bottom-up forcing and the decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatas) in Alaska: Assessing the ocean climate hypothesis

    Trites, AW; Miller, AJ; Maschner, HDG; Alexander, MA; Bograd, SJ; Calder, JA; Capotondi, A; Coyle, KO; Lorenzo, ED; Finney, BP; Gregr, EJ; Grosch, CE; Hare, SR; Hunt, GL; Jahncke, J

    2007-01-01

    Declines of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska could be a consequence of physical oceanographic changes associated with the 1976-77 climate regime shift. Changes in ocean climate are hypothesized to have affected the quantity, quality, and accessibility of prey, which in turn may have affected the rates of birth and death of sea lions. Recent studies of the spatial and temporal variations in the ocean climate system of the North Pacifi...

  7. 50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites

    2010-10-01

    ... location is the base point. 2See 50 CFR 223.202(a)(2)(i) for regulations regarding 3 nm no transit zones... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 12 Table 12 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion Protection...

  8. Somatosensory brainstem, thalamus, and cortex of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Sawyer, Eva K; Turner, Emily C; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-06-15

    Pinnipeds (sea lions, seals, and walruses) are notable for many reasons, including their ape-sized brains, their adaptation to a coastal niche that combines mastery of the sea with strong ties to land, and the remarkable abilities of their trigeminal whisker system. However, little is known about the central nervous system of pinnipeds. Here we report on the somatosensory areas of the nervous system of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Using stains for Nissl, cytochrome oxidase, and vesicular glutamate transporters, we investigated the primary somatosensory areas in the brainstem, thalamus, and cortex in one sea lion pup and the external anatomy of the brain in a second pup. We find that the sea lion's impressive array of whiskers is matched by a large trigeminal representation in the brainstem with well-defined parcellation that resembles the barrelettes found in rodents but scaled upward in size. The dorsal column nuclei are large and distinct. The ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus has divisions, with a large area for the presumptive head representation. Primary somatosensory cortex is located in the neocortex just anterior to the main vertical fissure, and precisely locating it as we do here is useful for comparing the highly gyrified pinniped cortex with that of other carnivores. To our knowledge this work is the first comprehensive report on the central nervous system areas for any sensory system in a pinniped. The results may be useful both in the veterinary setting and for comparative studies related to brain evolution. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1957-1975, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878587

  9. Delayed onset of vocal recognition in Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea)

    Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Ahonen, Heidi; Harcourt, Robert G.; Charrier, Isabelle

    2009-08-01

    In pinnipeds, maternal care strategies and colony density may influence a species’ individual recognition system. We examined the onset of vocal recognition of mothers by Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea). At 2 months of age, pups responded significantly more to the calls of their own mothers than alien female calls demonstrating a finely tuned recognition system. However, newborn pups did not respond differentially to the calls of their mother from alien female calls suggesting that vocal recognition had not yet developed or is not yet expressed. These findings are in stark contrast to other otariid species where pups learn their mother’s voice before their first separation. Variance in colony density, pup movements, and natal site fidelity may have reduced selective pressures on call recognition in young sea lions, or alternatively, another sensory system may be used for recognition in the early stage of life.

  10. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California

    Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring

  11. Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus

    William George Van Bonn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

  12. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    Ippei Suzuki; Katsufumi Sato; Andreas Fahlman; Yasuhiko Naito; Nobuyuki Miyazaki; Andrew W Trites

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumet...

  13. The effect of submergence on heart rate and oxygen consumption of swimming seals and sea lions.

    Williams, T M; Kooyman, G L; Croll, D A

    1991-01-01

    Respiratory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to swimming were examined in two species of pinniped, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). 1. Harbor seals remained submerged for 82-92% of the time at swimming speeds below 1.2 m.s-1. At higher speeds, including simulated speeds above 1.4 m.s-1, the percentage of time spent submerged decreased, and was inversely related to body weight. In contrast, the percentage of time spent submerged did not change with speed for sea lions swimming from 0.5 m.s-1 to 4.0 m.s-1. 2. During swimming, harbor seals showed a distinct breathhold bradycardia and ventilatory tachycardia that were independent of swimming speed. Average heart rate was 137 beats.min-1 when swimming on the water surface and 50 beats.min-1 when submerged. A bimodal pattern of heart rate also occurred in sea lions, but was not as pronounced as in the seals. 3. The weighted average heart rate (WAHR), calculated from measured heart rate and the percentage time spent on the water surface or submerged, increased linearly with swimming speed for both species. The graded increase in heart rate with exercise load is similar to the response observed for terrestrial mammals. 4. The rate of oxygen consumption increased exponentially with swimming speed in both seals and sea lions. The minimum cost of transport calculated from these rates ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 J.m-1.kg-1, and was 2.5-4.0 times the level predicted for similarly-sized salmonids. Despite different modes of propulsion and physiological responses to swimming, these pinnipeds demonstrate similar transport costs. PMID:2045544

  14. Lung collapse in the diving sea lion: hold the nitrogen and save the oxygen

    Birgitte I McDonald; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as evidenced by abrupt changes in during descent and ascent, (ii) depth of lung collapse was positively related to maximum dive depth, suggesting that t...

  15. Non-invasive 3D geometry extraction of a Sea lion foreflipper

    Friedman, Chen; Watson, Martha; Zhang, Pamela; Leftwich, Megan

    2015-11-01

    We are interested in underwater propulsion that leaves little traceable wake structure while producing high levels of thrust. A potential biological model is the California sea lion, a highly maneuverable aquatic mammal that produces thrust primarily with its foreflippers without a characteristic flapping frequency. The foreflippers are used for thrust, stability, and control during swimming motions. Recently, the flipper's kinematics during the thrust phase was extracted using 2D video tracking. This work extends the tracking ability to 3D using a non-invasive Direct Linear Transformation technique employed on non-research sea lions. marker-less flipper tracking is carried out manually for complete dorsal-ventral flipper motions. Two cameras are used (3840 × 2160 pixels resolution), calibrated in space using a calibration target inserted into the sea lion habitat, and synchronized in time using a simple light flash. The repeatability and objectivity of the tracked data is assessed by having two people tracking the same clap and comparing the results. The number of points required to track a flipper with sufficient detail is also discussed. Changes in the flipper pitch angle during the clap, an important feature for fluid dynamics modeling, will also be presented.

  16. The kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during forward swimming

    To determine the two-dimensional kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during thrust generation, a digital, high-definition video is obtained using a non-research female sea lion at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. The observational videos are used to extract maneuvers of interest—forward acceleration from rest using the foreflippers and banked turns. Single camera videos are analyzed to digitize the flipper during the motions using 10 points spanning root to tip in each frame. Digitized shapes were then fitted with an empirical function that quantitatively allows for both comparison between different claps, and for extracting kinematic data. The resulting function shows a high degree of curvature (with a camber of up to 32%). Analysis of sea lion acceleration from rest shows thrust production in the range of 150–680 N and maximum flipper angular velocity (for rotation about the shoulder joint) as high as 20 rad s−1. Analysis of turning maneuvers indicate extreme agility and precision of movement driven by the foreflipper surfaces. (paper)

  17. Urban life of Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristobal Island, Ecuador: colony trends and threats

    Denkinger, Judith; Gordillo, Luis; Montero-Serra, Ignasi; Murillo, Juan Carlos; Guevara, Nataly; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Fietz, Katharina; Rubianes, Francisco; Dan, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Worldwide, pristine environments are influenced by human societies. In the Galapagos Islands, the endangered, endemic Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) has formed one of the biggest colonies within the town center of Puerto Baquerizo Moreno. About 8,000 people live there and human wildlife interactions occur daily. With colony counts and direct observations from 2008 to 2012, we analyze cause of death, injuries and disease of urban sea lion colonies at Wreck Bay. Population increase since 2008 can be attributed to an immigration of adult sea lions in 2010, resulting in an increase in the pup and juvenile production in 2011 and 2012. Pup mortality increased drastically to 2009 and again in 2011 and 2012. Besides pup mortality, most of the deaths are caused by increased disease incidences and human activity. Our observations suggest that overall 65% of the injuries observed are produced by human interaction. The increase in threats leading to death, injuries or disease can have long-term effects on the population. Although threats that cause physical injuries can be managed locally, sea lions range movements contributes to the spread of infectious pathogens, which may affect neighbor colonies and potentially have an impact on the survival of the species. Our study reveals the need of stronger efforts towards a more complete understanding of threats and especially disease spread among Galapagos Sea lions in urban environments and the establishment of more effective management measures.

  18. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2011-01-12

    ... INFORMATION: An interim final rule was published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535... regulatory tables was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2010 (75 FR 53272). The public... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

  19. A 500 kyr record of global sea level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea level variability

    J. Frigola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of Late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion which consists of five main sequences stacked during the sea level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles. The high sensitivity to sea level oscillations of the grain-size record along the borehole, favoured by the large width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, demonstrates that sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf are able to cyclically modify the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea level oscillations at millennial scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence ever for a one-to-one coupling of millennial-scale sea level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  20. A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability

    J. Frigola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

  1. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions

    Ippei Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus that made 186 dives. Our study animals were trained to dive to feed at fixed depths (10–50 m under artificially controlled buoyancy and drag conditions. Buoyancy and drag were manipulated using a pair of polyvinyl chloride (PVC tubes attached to harnesses worn by the sea lions, and buoyancy conditions were designed to fall within the natural range of wild animals (∼12–26% subcutaneous fat. Drag conditions were changed with and without the PVC tubes, and swim speeds were recorded and compared during descent and ascent phases using an accelerometer attached to the harnesses. Generalized linear mixed-effect models with the animal as the random variable and five explanatory variables (body mass, buoyancy, dive depth, dive phase, and drag showed that swim speed was best predicted by two variables, drag and dive phase (AIC = −139. Consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, the results of our study suggest that the optimal swim speed of Steller sea lions is a function of drag, and is independent of dive depth and buoyancy.

  2. Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions.

    Suzuki, Ippei; Sato, Katsufumi; Fahlman, Andreas; Naito, Yasuhiko; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Trites, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) that made 186 dives. Our study animals were trained to dive to feed at fixed depths (10-50 m) under artificially controlled buoyancy and drag conditions. Buoyancy and drag were manipulated using a pair of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes attached to harnesses worn by the sea lions, and buoyancy conditions were designed to fall within the natural range of wild animals (∼12-26% subcutaneous fat). Drag conditions were changed with and without the PVC tubes, and swim speeds were recorded and compared during descent and ascent phases using an accelerometer attached to the harnesses. Generalized linear mixed-effect models with the animal as the random variable and five explanatory variables (body mass, buoyancy, dive depth, dive phase, and drag) showed that swim speed was best predicted by two variables, drag and dive phase (AIC = -139). Consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, the results of our study suggest that the optimal swim speed of Steller sea lions is a function of drag, and is independent of dive depth and buoyancy. PMID:24771620

  3. Effects of age, colony, and sex on mercury concentrations in California sea lions

    McHuron, Elizibeth A; Peterson, Sarah H.; Ackerman, Josh; Melin, Sharon R.; Harris, Jeffrey D.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ 15N) and carbon (δ 13C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g−1 wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g−1 dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg−1 ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg−1 dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ 15N or δ 13C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife.

  4. Effects of Age, Colony, and Sex on Mercury Concentrations in California Sea Lions.

    McHuron, Elizabeth A; Peterson, Sarah H; Ackerman, Joshua T; Melin, Sharon R; Harris, Jeffrey D; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and examined how concentrations varied with age class, colony, and sex. Because Hg exposure is primarily via diet, we used nitrogen (δ (15)N) and carbon (δ (13)C) stable isotopes to determine if intraspecific differences in THg concentrations could be explained by feeding ecology. Blood and hair were collected from 21 adult females and 57 juveniles from three colonies in central and southern California (San Nicolas, San Miguel, and Año Nuevo Islands). Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 μg g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blood and 0.74 to 21.00 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw) in hair. Adult females had greater mean THg concentrations than juveniles in blood (0.15 vs. 0.03 μg(-1) ww) and hair (10.10 vs. 3.25 μg(-1) dw). Age class differences in THg concentrations did not appear to be driven by trophic level or habitat type because there were no differences in δ (15)N or δ (13)C values between adults and juveniles. Total Hg concentrations in adult females were 54 % (blood) and 24 % (hair) greater in females from San Miguel than females from San Nicolas Island, which may have been because sea lions from the two islands foraged in different areas. For juveniles, we detected some differences in THg concentrations with colony and sex, although these were likely due to sampling effects and not ecological differences. Overall, THg concentrations in California sea lions were within the range documented for other marine mammals and were generally below toxicity benchmarks for fish-eating wildlife. PMID:26259982

  5. Ectopic pregnancy with associated gestational choriocarcinoma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Lowenstine, Linda J; Koehne, Amanda

    2016-07-01

    A wild-born, captive-reared, 14 yr old, primiparous female California sea lion Zalophus californianus presented for anorexia of 14 d duration and abdominal distention. Routine complete blood cell count revealed leukocytosis with a neutrophilia, and serum chemistry revealed hypoalbumenemia and hyponatremia. Treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories were started, but the animal continued to decline. Abdominal radiographs revealed a mature mineralized fetal skull and spine in the caudal abdomen and abdominal ultrasound revealed ascites but could not confirm the fetus. The patient was taken to surgery where a full term fetus was found outside of the uterus but within the fetal membranes, representing a secondary ectopic pregnancy. The patient passed away during surgery and was taken to necropsy. Gross necropsy revealed a diffuse peritonitis with yellow deposits over the serosal surfaces of the abdominal organs. The uterus appeared intact grossly and the ovaries appeared abnormal. The mesenteric, renal, and sub-lumbar nodes were enlarged and edematous. Histopathology revealed choriocarcinoma in the right uterine horn with evidence of chronic uterine rupture and protrusion of the placental tissue into the abdomen. The choriocarcinoma had metastasized locally as well as to the liver, spleen and lung. Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm that is rare in domestic animals. This case represents, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of gestational choriocarcinoma causing secondary ectopic pregnancy in a California sea lion and presents questions regarding pregnancy monitoring and management in a population of captive, minimally trained California sea lions. PMID:27409239

  6. Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea exposed to varied levels of human interaction

    Tiffany C. Delport

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea, genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n = 271 in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n = 19. These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and β-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the β-giardin locus. Sequencing at the β-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25 km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations.

  7. Risk Functions of Dolphins and Sea Lions Exposed to Sonar Signals.

    Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Steven W; Finneran, James J

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic dose-response functions have been recommended as a means of predicting behavioral impacts on marine mammals from anthropogenic noise exposure. Thirty bottlenose dolphins and fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study to explore dose-response relationships to the received level of a simulated sonar signal. Both species showed an increase in the probability of response and in the severity of response with increased received levels. Differences in species sensitivity were noted in habituation and the impact of age on responsiveness. PMID:26610994

  8. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

  9. Equal latency contours for bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Mulsow, Jason; Schlundt, Carolyn E; Brandt, Lacey; Finneran, James J

    2015-11-01

    Loudness perception by non-human animals is difficult to study directly. Previous research efforts have instead focused on estimating loudness perception using simple reaction time (RT) data. These data are used to generate equal latency contours that serve as a proxy for equal loudness contours. To aid the design of auditory weighting functions for marine mammals, equal latency contours were generated using RT data for two marine mammal species that are representative of broader functional hearing groups: the bottlenose dolphin (under water) and California sea lion (in air). In all cases, median RT decreased with increasing tone sound pressure level (SPL). The equal latency contours corresponding to near-threshold SPLs were similar to audiograms for both species. The sea lion contours showed some compression at frequencies below 1 kHz; however, a similar pattern was not apparent in the more variable data for dolphins. Equal latency contours for SPLs greater than approximately 40 dB above threshold diverged from predicted equal loudness contours, likely due to the asymptotic nature of RT at the highest tested SPLs. The results suggest that auditory threshold data, potentially augmented with compression at low frequencies, may provide a useful way forward when designing auditory weighting functions for marine mammals. PMID:26627745

  10. Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline

    Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 μg/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

  11. 75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2010-12-13

    ... final rule for the Steller sea lion protection measures (68 FR 204, January 2, 2003). Because the RPA... measures. These protection measures were implemented in 2002 by emergency interim rule (67 FR 956, January 8, 2002; amended 67 FR 21600, May 1, 2002; corrected 67 FR 45671, July 10, 2002, 67 FR 47472,...

  12. PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones

    Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (ΣPCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣPCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

  13. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2010-12-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion... public comment for the interim final rule corrected by this action can be found in 75 FR 77535 (December... FR 77535). The corrections to Tables 5, 6, and 12 to 50 CFR part 679 are listed below....

  14. Stable Isotopes Reveal Long-Term Fidelity to Foraging Grounds in the Galapagos Sea Lion (Zalophus wollebaeki.

    Massimiliano Drago

    Full Text Available Most otariids have colony-specific foraging areas during the breeding season, when they behave as central place foragers. However, they may disperse over broad areas after the breeding season and individuals from different colonies may share foraging grounds at that time. Here, stable isotope ratios in the skull bone of adult Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki were used to assess the long-term fidelity of both sexes to foraging grounds across the different regions of the Galapagos archipelago. Results indicated that the stable isotope ratios (δ(13C and δ(15N of sea lion bone significantly differed among regions of the archipelago, without any significant difference between sexes and with a non significant interaction between sex and region. Moreover, standard ellipses, estimated by Bayesian inference and used as a measure of the isotopic resource use area at the population level, overlapped widely for the sea lions from the southern and central regions, whereas the overlap of the ellipses for sea lions from the central and western regions was small and non-existing for those from the western and southern regions. These results suggest that males and females from the same region within the archipelago use similar foraging grounds and have similar diets. Furthermore, they indicate that the exchange of adults between regions is limited, thus revealing a certain degree of foraging philopatry at a regional scale within the archipelago. The constraints imposed on males by an expanded reproductive season (~ 6 months, resulting from the weak reproductive synchrony among females, and those imposed on females by a very long lactation period (at least one year but up to three years, may explain the limited mobility of adult Galapagos sea lions of both sexes across the archipelago.

  15. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANCE DETERMINANTS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM THE ENDANGERED AUSTRALIAN SEA LION (NEOPHOCA CINEREA).

    Delport, Tiffany C; Harcourt, Robert G; Beaumont, Linda J; Webster, Koa N; Power, Michelle L

    2015-07-01

    Greater interaction between humans and wildlife populations poses significant risks of anthropogenic impact to natural ecosystems, especially in the marine environment. Understanding the spread of microorganisms at the marine interface is therefore important if we are to mitigate adverse effects on marine wildlife. We investigated the establishment of Escherichia coli in the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) by comparing fecal isolation from wild and captive sea lion populations. Fecal samples were collected from wild colonies March 2009-September 2010 and from captive individuals March 2011-May 2013. Using molecular screening, we assigned a phylotype to E. coli isolates and determined the presence of integrons, mobile genetic elements that capture gene cassettes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents common in fecal coliforms. Group B2 was the most abundant phylotype in all E. coli isolates (n = 37), with groups A, B1, and D also identified. Integrons were not observed in E. coli (n = 21) isolated from wild sea lions, but were identified in E. coli from captive animals (n = 16), from which class I integrases were detected in eight isolates. Sequencing of gene cassette arrays identified genes conferring resistance to streptomycin-spectinomycin (aadA1) and trimethoprim (dfrA17, dfrB4). Class II integrases were not detected in the E. coli isolates. The frequent detection in captive sea lions of E. coli with resistance genes commonly identified in human clinical cases suggests that conditions experienced in captivity may contribute to establishment. Identification of antibiotic resistance in the microbiota of Australian sea lions provides crucial information for disease management. Our data will inform conservation management strategies and provide a mechanism to monitor microorganism dissemination to sensitive pinniped populations. PMID:25919463

  16. Predictive equations for the estimation of body size in seals and sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia).

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Body size plays an important role in pinniped ecology and life history. However, body size data is often absent for historical, archaeological, and fossil specimens. To estimate the body size of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) for today and the past, we used 14 commonly preserved cranial measurements to develop sets of single variable and multivariate predictive equations for pinniped body mass and total length. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to test whether separate family specific regressions were more appropriate than single predictive equations for Pinnipedia. The influence of phylogeny was tested with phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). The accuracy of these regressions was then assessed using a combination of coefficient of determination, percent prediction error, and standard error of estimation. Three different methods of multivariate analysis were examined: bidirectional stepwise model selection using Akaike information criteria; all-subsets model selection using Bayesian information criteria (BIC); and partial least squares regression. The PCA showed clear discrimination between Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and Phocidae (earless seals) for the 14 measurements, indicating the need for family-specific regression equations. The PIC analysis found that phylogeny had a minor influence on relationship between morphological variables and body size. The regressions for total length were more accurate than those for body mass, and equations specific to Otariidae were more accurate than those for Phocidae. Of the three multivariate methods, the all-subsets approach required the fewest number of variables to estimate body size accurately. We then used the single variable predictive equations and the all-subsets approach to estimate the body size of two recently extinct pinniped taxa, the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus). Body size estimates using single variable regressions

  17. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska

    Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hong, Su-Myeong [National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Atkinson, Shannon [University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Juneau Center, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.ed [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 {mu}g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 {mu}g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

  18. Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska

    The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 μg/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 μg/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

  19. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  20. Validating the relationship between 3-dimensional body acceleration and oxygen consumption in trained Steller sea lions.

    Volpov, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-08-01

    We tested the ability of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) to predict the rate of oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) in freely diving Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) while resting at the surface and diving. The trained sea lions executed three dive types-single dives, bouts of multiple long dives with 4-6 dives per bout, or bouts of multiple short dives with 10-12 dives per bout-to depths of 40 m, resulting in a range of activity and oxygen consumption levels. Average metabolic rate (AMR) over the dive cycle or dive bout calculated was calculated from [Formula: see text]. We found that ODBA could statistically predict AMR when data from all dive types were combined, but that dive type was a significant model factor. However, there were no significant linear relationships between AMR and ODBA when data for each dive type were analyzed separately. The potential relationships between AMR and ODBA were not improved by including dive duration, food consumed, proportion of dive cycle spent submerged, or number of dives per bout. It is not clear whether the lack of predictive power within dive type was due to low statistical power, or whether it reflected a true absence of a relationship between ODBA and AMR. The average percent error for predicting AMR from ODBA was 7-11 %, and standard error of the estimated AMR was 5-32 %. Overall, the extensive range of dive behaviors and physiological conditions we tested indicated that ODBA was not suitable for estimating AMR in the field due to considerable error and the inconclusive effects of dive type. PMID:26002519

  1. INTRAPERITONEAL DEXTROSE ADMINISTRATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE EMERGENCY TREATMENT FOR HYPOGLYCEMIC YEARLING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Van Bonn, William; Gulland, Frances; Rios, Carlos; Fahlman, Andreas; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC) cares for malnourished California sea lion (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) pups and yearlings every year. Hypoglycemia is a common consequence of malnutrition in young CSLs. Administering dextrose during a hypoglycemic crisis is vital to recovery. Traditional veterinary approaches to treat hypoglycemia pose therapeutic challenges in otariids, as vascular access and catheter maintenance can be difficult. The current approach to a hypoglycemic episode at TMMC is to administer dextrose intravenously (i.v.) by medically trained personnel. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) dextrose administration is an attractive alternative to i.v. administration because volunteer staff with basic training can administer treatment instead of waiting for trained staff to treat. This study compares the effects of i.v., i.p., and no dextrose administration on serum glucose and insulin in clinically healthy, euglycemic CSL yearlings. Three groups of animals, consisting of five sea lions each, were treated with 500 mg/kg dextrose using one of the following routes: i.v., i.p., or no dextrose (control). A jugular catheter was placed, and blood samples were collected at times 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after dextrose administration. I.v. dextrose administration resulted in an increase of serum glucose concentrations from a baseline level of approximately 150 mg/dl to a peak of approximately 350 mg/dl. The resulting hyperglycemia persisted for approximately 2 hr and was associated with an attenuated plasma insulin response compared with most terrestrial mammals. Intraperitoneal dextrose administration resulted in increases of serum glucose to approximately 200 mg/dl, which gradually declined to baseline by 2 hr after dextrose administration. These data suggest that the initial treatment of a hypoglycemic crisis in young malnourished CSLs can be accomplished with i.p. dextrose, thus enabling minimally trained volunteer staff to respond immediately to a crisis

  2. Diving deeper into individual foraging specializations of a large marine predator, the southern sea lion.

    Baylis, A M M; Orben, R A; Arnould, J P Y; Peters, K; Knox, T; Costa, D P; Staniland, I J

    2015-12-01

    Despite global declines in the abundance of marine predators, knowledge of foraging ecology, necessary to predict the ecological consequences of large changes in marine predator abundance, remains enigmatic for many species. Given that populations suffering severe declines are of conservation concern, we examined the foraging ecology of southern sea lions (SSL) (Otaria flavescens)-one of the least studied otariids (fur seal and sea lions)-which have declined by over 90% at the Falkland Islands since the 1930s. Using a combination of biologging devices and stable isotope analysis of vibrissae, we redress major gaps in the knowledge of SSL ecology and quantify patterns of individual specialization. Specifically, we revealed two discrete foraging strategies, these being inshore (coastal) and offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). The majority of adult female SSL (72% or n = 21 of 29 SSL) foraged offshore. Adult female SSL that foraged offshore travelled further (92 ± 20 vs. 10 ± 4 km) and dived deeper (75 ± 23 vs. 21 ± 8 m) when compared to those that foraged inshore. Stable isotope analysis revealed long-term fidelity (years) to these discrete foraging habitats. In addition, we found further specialization within the offshore group, with adult female SSL separated into two clusters on the basis of benthic or mixed (benthic and pelagic) dive behavior (benthic dive proportion was 76 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8%, respectively). We suggest that foraging specialization in depleted populations such as SSL breeding at the Falkland Islands, are influenced by foraging site fidelity, and could be independent of intraspecific competition. Finally, the behavioral differences we describe are crucial to understanding population-level dynamics, impediments to population recovery, and threats to population persistence. PMID:26323982

  3. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Characterizing and quantifying California sea lion and Pacific harbor seal use of offshore oil and gas platforms in California, 2013-2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use offshore oil and gas platforms as resting and foraging areas. Both...

  4. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through 2008

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  5. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion pups conducted on rookeries in Alaska from 1961-06-22 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128189)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains counts of Steller sea lion pups on rookeries in Alaska made between 1961 and 2015. Pup counts are conducted in late June-July. Pups are...

  6. Capture and resight data of California sea lions in Washington State, 1989-02-15 to 2006-06-01 (NCEI Accession 0146259)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains data from the capture and recapture of over 1500 male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Washington between 1989-2006. The...

  7. Alaska Steller sea lion pups blood serum chemistry and hematology values measured from 1998-06-01 to 2011-07-15 (NCEI Accession 0137994)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were used for an analysis of Steller sea lion pup health and condition by Lander et al. (2013). Serum chemistry and hematological values were measured by...

  8. Applying principles of animal behavior to issues involving California sea lions interacting with Southern California fisheries and predation of endangered salmonids.

    Schakner, Zachary Adam

    2016-01-01

    The United States Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA 1972) resulted in federal protection and enhanced the recovery of California sea lion (CSL--Zalophus californianus) populations in the United States. As an unintended consequence of their protection, sea lion populations have expanded their range, negatively interacting with every commercial fishery on the west coast of the United States, predating endangered Pacific salmonids at upriver dams, and damaging docks/fishing vessels. Conservat...

  9. Feeding kinematics and performance of basal otariid pinnipeds, Steller sea lions and northern fur seals: implications for the evolution of mammalian feeding.

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

    2015-10-01

    Feeding performance studies can address questions relevant to feeding ecology and evolution. Our current understanding of feeding mechanisms for aquatic mammals is poor. Therefore, we characterized the feeding kinematics and performance of five Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and six northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). We tested the hypotheses that both species use suction as their primary feeding mode, and that rapid jaw opening was related to suction generation. Steller sea lions used suction as their primary feeding mode, but also used a biting feeding mode. In contrast, northern fur seals only used a biting feeding mode. Kinematic profiles of Steller sea lions were all indicative of suction feeding (i.e. a small gape, small gape angle, large depression of the hyolingual apparatus and lip pursing). However, jaw opening as measured by gape angle opening velocity (GAOV) was relatively slow in Steller sea lions. In contrast to Steller sea lions, the GAOV of northern fur seals was extremely fast, but their kinematic profiles indicated a biting feeding mode (i.e. northern fur seals exhibited a greater gape, a greater gape angle and minimal depression of the hyolingual apparatus compared with Steller sea lions). Steller sea lions produced both subambient and suprambient pressures at 45 kPa. In contrast, northern fur seals produced no detectable pressure measurements. Steller sea lions have a broader feeding repertoire than northern fur seals, which likely enables them to feed on a greater variety of prey, in more diverse habitats. Based on the basal phylogenetic position of northern fur seals, craniodental morphological data of the Callorhinus lineage, and the performance data provided in this study, we suggest that northern fur seals may be exhibiting their ancestral feeding mode. PMID:26449976

  10. The Effect of Novel Research Activities on Long-term Survival of Temporarily Captive Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Shuert, Courtney; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Two novel research approaches were developed to facilitate controlled access to, and long-term monitoring of, juvenile Steller sea lions for periods longer than typically afforded by traditional fieldwork. The Transient Juvenile Steller sea lion Project at the Alaska SeaLife Center facilitated nutritional, physiological, and behavioral studies on the platform of temporary captivity. Temporarily captive sea lions (TJs, n = 35) were studied, and were intraperitoneally implanted with Life History Transmitters (LHX tags) to determine causes of mortality post-release. Our goal was to evaluate the potential for long-term impacts of temporary captivity and telemetry implants on the survival of study individuals. A simple open-population Cormack-Jolly-Seber mark-recapture model was built in program MARK, incorporating resightings of uniquely branded study individuals gathered by several contributing institutions. A priori models were developed to weigh the evidence of effects of experimental treatment on survival with covariates of sex, age, capture age, cohort, and age class. We compared survival of experimental treatment to a control group of n = 27 free-ranging animals (FRs) that were sampled during capture events and immediately released. Sex has previously been show to differentially affect juvenile survival in Steller sea lions. Therefore, sex was included in all models to account for unbalanced sex ratios within the experimental group. Considerable support was identified for the effects of sex, accounting for over 71% of total weight for all a priori models with delta AICc <5, and over 91% of model weight after removal of pretending variables. Overall, most support was found for the most parsimonious model based on sex and excluding experimental treatment. Models including experimental treatment were not supported after post-hoc considerations of model selection criteria. However, given the limited sample size, alternate models including effects of experimental

  11. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene ( ˜ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ˜ 3 °C between 7000 and 1000 BP, and rapid warming from ˜ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal to centennial-scale cold events of ˜ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were quantified in the same sedimentary horizons to identify periods of high Rhone River discharge and compare them with regional flood reconstructions. Concentrations show a broad increase from the Early Holocene towards the present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the Late Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  12. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions

    B. Jalali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperatures (SSTs and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes, respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  13. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  14. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

  15. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ΣDDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 μg/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, 2.96 μg/g), chlordanes (0.12 μg/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 μg/g). The ΣDDTs/ΣPCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

  16. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion as Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm

    Andrew A Rouse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms—i.e., beat keeping—is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan’s performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced perturbations, altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan’s performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms.

  17. Beat Keeping in a Sea Lion As Coupled Oscillation: Implications for Comparative Understanding of Human Rhythm.

    Rouse, Andrew A; Cook, Peter F; Large, Edward W; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Human capacity for entraining movement to external rhythms-i.e., beat keeping-is ubiquitous, but its evolutionary history and neural underpinnings remain a mystery. Recent findings of entrainment to simple and complex rhythms in non-human animals pave the way for a novel comparative approach to assess the origins and mechanisms of rhythmic behavior. The most reliable non-human beat keeper to date is a California sea lion, Ronan, who was trained to match head movements to isochronous repeating stimuli and showed spontaneous generalization of this ability to novel tempos and to the complex rhythms of music. Does Ronan's performance rely on the same neural mechanisms as human rhythmic behavior? In the current study, we presented Ronan with simple rhythmic stimuli at novel tempos. On some trials, we introduced "perturbations," altering either tempo or phase in the middle of a presentation. Ronan quickly adjusted her behavior following all perturbations, recovering her consistent phase and tempo relationships to the stimulus within a few beats. Ronan's performance was consistent with predictions of mathematical models describing coupled oscillation: a model relying solely on phase coupling strongly matched her behavior, and the model was further improved with the addition of period coupling. These findings are the clearest evidence yet for parity in human and non-human beat keeping and support the view that the human ability to perceive and move in time to rhythm may be rooted in broadly conserved neural mechanisms. PMID:27375418

  18. At-sea and on-shore cycles of juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) derived from satellite dive recorders: A comparison between declining and increasing populations

    Call, Katherine A.; Fadely, Brian S.; Greig, Angie; Rehberg, Michael J.

    2007-02-01

    We calculated the durations of time on-shore and at-sea for juvenile Steller sea lions ( Eumetopias jubatus) using satellite dive recorders deployed between 2000 and 2002, and compared two genetically distinct populations; one increasing (eastern stock; n=42) and one that experienced an 80% decline in population since the mid-1970s (western stock; n=89). Data represented 24-h periods divided into 72 20-min increments indicating whether an animal was on-shore (dry) or at-sea (wet). Time apportioned between land and sea was described on a per-trip basis (rather than a 24-h cycle) and durations ranged from 20 min to several days. We tested differences in the durations of on-shore and at-sea events among sex, geographic region, year, and age at capture using mixed-effects models. Animal identifier was included as a random effect to account for repeated measures on the same individual. Sea lions from the eastern Aleutian Islands, central Aleutian Islands, and central Gulf of Alaska hauled out just after sunrise, and departure times coincided with dusk. For Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska animals, arrivals and departures occurred throughout the day and were not related to crepuscular period. Mean duration on-shore did not differ among sex, region, year or age, and was unrelated to previous trip duration. This may suggest a minimum rest period for juvenile Steller sea lions or that dependant animals are maximizing their time on-shore suckling. Time spent at-sea varied among individuals from both populations and development of maternal independence, inferred from significant increases in time spent at sea, occurred approximately 10 months later in individuals from Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska than in the other regions, suggesting environmental and developmental differences among regions.

  19. Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches.

    Mancia, Annalaura; Ryan, James C; Chapman, Robert W; Wu, Qingzhong; Warr, Gregory W; Gulland, Frances M D; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2012-04-01

    Conservation biologists face many challenges in assessing health, immune status and infectious diseases in protected species. These challenges include unpredictable sample populations, diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds of the animals, as well as the practical, legal and ethical issues involved in experimentation. The use of whole genome scale transcriptomics with animal samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner is an approach that shows promise for health assessment. In this study we assessed the utility of a microarray to identify changes in gene expression predictive of health status by interrogating blood samples from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in rehabilitation. A custom microarray was developed from the commercially available dog microarray (Canis familiaris) by selecting probes that demonstrated reliable cross-hybridization with RNA in sea lion blood. This custom microarray was used for the analysis of RNA from 73 sea lion blood samples, from animals with a broad spectrum of health changes. Both traditional classifying techniques and newer artificial neural network approaches correctly classified sea lions with respect to health status, primarily distinguishing between leptospirosis infection and domoic acid exposure. Real time PCR validation for a small set of genes, followed by sequencing, showed good correlation with array results and high identity (96-98%) between the dog and sea lion sequences. This approach to health status classification shows promise for disease identification in a clinical setting, and assessment of health status of wildlife. PMID:22067742

  20. Sexual segregation in juvenile New Zealand sea lion foraging ranges: implications for intraspecific competition, population dynamics and conservation.

    Elaine S Leung

    Full Text Available Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account

  1. A longitudinal study of Steller sea lion natality rates in the Gulf of Alaska with comparisons to census data.

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Parker, Pamela; Adkison, Milo D

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality) may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery. PMID:25383865

  2. Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

    2013-11-01

    Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (γ-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

  3. PATHOGENIC LEPTOSPIRA SEROVARS IN FREE-LIVING SEA LIONS IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA AND ALONG THE BAJA CALIFORNIA COAST OF MEXICO.

    Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Atilano-López, Daniel; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Ramírez-Delgado, David; Ramírez-Echenique, María F; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Suzán, Gerardo; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco

    2016-04-28

    The California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), a permanent inhabitant of the Gulf of California in Mexico, is susceptible to pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection, which can result in hepatic and renal damage and may lead to renal failure and death. During summer 2013, we used the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to investigate the prevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in blood of clinically healthy sea lion pups from seven rookery islands on the Pacific Coast of Baja California (Pacific Ocean) and in the Gulf of California. We also used PCR to examine blood for Leptospira DNA. Isolation of Leptospira in liquid media was unsuccessful. We found higher antibody prevalence in sea lions from the rookery islands in the gulf than in those from the Pacific Coast. Antibodies against 11 serovars were identified in the Gulf of California population; the most frequent reactions were against serovars Bataviae (90%), Pyrogenes (86%), Wolffi (86%), Celledoni (71%), and Pomona (65%). In the Pacific Ocean population, MAT was positive against eight serovars, where Wolffi (88%), Pomona (75%), and Bataviae (70%) were the most frequent. Serum samples agglutinated with more than one Leptospira serovar. The maximum titer was 3,200. Each island had a different serology profile, and islands combined showed a distinct profile for each region. We detected pathogenic Leptospira DNA in 63% of blood samples, but we found no saprophytic Leptospira. Positive PCR results were obtained in blood samples with high and low MAT titers. Together, these two methods enhance the diagnosis and interpretation of sea lion leptospirosis. Our results may be related to human activities or the presence of other reservoirs with which sea lions interact, and they may also be related to sea lion stranding. PMID:26967136

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE WITH DELAYED HYPERCALCEMIA SECONDARY TO SARCOCYSTIS NEURONA-INDUCED MYOSITIS AND RHABDOMYOLYSIS IN A CALIFORNIA SEA LION (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Alexander, Amy B; Hanley, Christopher S; Duncan, Mary C; Ulmer, Kyle; Padilla, Luis R

    2015-09-01

    A 3-yr-old captive-born California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) developed Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis and rhabdomyolysis that led to acute renal failure. The sea lion was successfully managed with fluid therapy, antiprotozoals, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, antiemetics, gastroprotectants, and diuretics, but developed severe delayed hypercalcemia, a syndrome identified in humans after traumatic or exertion-induced rhabdomyolysis. Treatment with calcitonin was added to the management, and the individual recovered fully. The case emphasizes that animals with rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure risk developing delayed hypercalcemia, which may be life threatening, and calcium levels should be closely monitored past the resolution of renal failure. PMID:26352981

  5. Long-lasting concentrations of cefovecin after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration to Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    García-Párraga, D; Gilabert, J A; García-Peña, F J; Álvaro, T; Ros-Rodríguez, J M; Valls, M; Encinas, T

    2016-02-01

    Cefovecin is a third-generation cephalosporin developed as an aqueous solution for use by the subcutaneous route in dogs and cats. This study evaluated the duration of cefovecin plasma concentrations after single intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) injection at different doses in 10 Patagonian sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Blood samples were collected serially from the day of the injection up to 60-90 days post-injection. Plasma drug concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-UV detection and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. No reactions or side effects associated with the drug were observed in any of the studied animals. Both routes showed very similar pharmacokinetic behaviour. Elimination half-life (11.3-21.6 days, SC; 13.1-15.9 days, IM) and mean residence time (17.6-36.8 days SC; 16.5-25.4 days IM) were, in all cases and doses, considerably longer than those previously reported for any other species. Based on these findings, and preliminary data on specific pathogen sensitivity, cefovecin was found to be a very promising antimicrobial for Patagonian sea lions, in particular those that are difficult to access or that are under certain rehabilitation conditions. PMID:26639826

  6. DISCOVERY OF THREE NOVEL COCCIDIAN PARASITES INFECTING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS), WITH EVIDENCE OF SEXUAL REPLICATION AND INTERSPECIES PATHOGENICITY

    Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Grigg, Michael E.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Barr, Bradd C.; Nordhausen, Robert; Melli, Ann C.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametocytes, macrogamonts) and asexual (schizonts, merozoites) coccidian stages were identified in enterocytes within parasitophorous vacuoles, consistent with apicomplexan development in a definitive host. Serology was negative for tissue cyst-forming coccidians, and immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii was inconclusive and negative for Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of ITS-1 gene sequences amplified from frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal sections identified DNA sequences with closest homology to Neospora sp. (80%); these novel sequences were referred to as belonging to coccidian parasites ‘‘A,’’ ‘‘B,’’ and ‘‘C.’’ Subsequent molecular analyses completed on a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with protozoal lymphadenitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis showed that it was infected with a coccidian parasite bearing the ‘‘C’’ sequence type. Our results indicate that sea lions likely serve as definitive hosts for 3 newly described coccidian parasites, at least 1 of which is pathogenic in a marine mammal intermediate host species. PMID:21495828

  7. Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity.

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Ferguson, David J P; Rejmanek, Daniel; Barr, Bradd C; Nordhausen, Robert; Melli, Ann C; Conrad, Patricia A

    2011-10-01

    Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametocytes, macrogamonts) and asexual (schizonts, merozoites) coccidian stages were identified in enterocytes within parasitophorous vacuoles, consistent with apicomplexan development in a definitive host. Serology was negative for tissue cyst-forming coccidians, and immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii was inconclusive and negative for Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of ITS-1 gene sequences amplified from frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal sections identified DNA sequences with closest homology to Neospora sp. (80%); these novel sequences were referred to as belonging to coccidian parasites "A," "B," and "C." Subsequent molecular analyses completed on a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with protozoal lymphadenitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis showed that it was infected with a coccidian parasite bearing the "C" sequence type. Our results indicate that sea lions likely serve as definitive hosts for 3 newly described coccidian parasites, at least 1 of which is pathogenic in a marine mammal intermediate host species. PMID:21495828

  8. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (pSpider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by a combination of bathymetry and ecological boundaries within LPRE. Regardless of their reproductive condition, females showed a strong fidelity to IL, and their foraging activity was

  9. Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)

    Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

    2013-04-01

    The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by

  10. Molecular Markers, MAT and Modeling: New Evidence for Leptospirosis Being Endemic in California Sea Lions, with Periodic Epizootics that Defy the Host-adapted Strain Paradigm

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally in humans and domestic dogs. Disease outbreaks have occurred periodically in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the central and northern coasts of California, with hundreds of a...

  11. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Plasma from California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus Reveals Apolipoprotein E as a Candidate Biomarker of Chronic Domoic Acid Toxicosis.

    Benjamin A Neely

    Full Text Available Domoic acid toxicosis (DAT in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus is caused by exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid and has been linked to massive stranding events and mortality. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs in addition to the presence of domoic acid in body fluids. Chronic DAT further is characterized by reoccurring seizures progressing to status epilepticus. Diagnosis of chronic DAT is often slow and problematic, and minimally invasive tests for DAT have been the focus of numerous recent biomarker studies. The goal of this study was to retrospectively profile plasma proteins in a population of sea lions with chronic DAT and those without DAT using two dimensional gel electrophoresis to discover whether individual, multiple, or combinations of protein and clinical data could be utilized to identify sea lions with DAT. Using a training set of 32 sea lion sera, 20 proteins and their isoforms were identified that were significantly different between the two groups (p<0.05. Interestingly, 11 apolipoprotein E (ApoE charge forms were decreased in DAT samples, indicating that ApoE charge form distributions may be important in the progression of DAT. In order to develop a classifier of chronic DAT, an independent blinded test set of 20 sea lions, seven with chronic DAT, was used to validate models utilizing ApoE charge forms and eosinophil counts. The resulting support vector machine had high sensitivity (85.7% with 92.3% negative predictive value and high specificity (92.3% with 85.7% positive predictive value. These results suggest that ApoE and eosinophil counts along with machine learning can perform as a robust and accurate tool to diagnose chronic DAT. Although this analysis is specifically focused on blood biomarkers and routine clinical data, the results demonstrate promise for future studies combining additional variables in multidimensional space to create robust classifiers.

  13. Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea

    Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

  14. Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations

    Brunner Sylvia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

  15. Pup Vibrissae Stable Isotopes Reveal Geographic Differences in Adult Female Southern Sea Lion Habitat Use during Gestation.

    Baylis, Alastair M M; Kowalski, Gabriele J; Voigt, Christian C; Orben, Rachael A; Trillmich, Fritz; Staniland, Iain J; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation. A previous study found that adult females from one breeding colony (Big Shag Island) foraged in two discrete habitats, inshore (coastal) or offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). However, as this species breeds at over 70 sites around the Falkland Islands, it is unclear if this pattern is representative of the Falkland Islands as a whole. In order to characterize habitat use, we therefore assayed carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) ratios from 65 southern sea lion pup vibrissae, sampled across 19 breeding colonies at the Falkland Islands. Model-based clustering of pup isotope ratios identified three distinct clusters, representing adult females that foraged inshore, offshore, and a cluster best described as intermediate. A significant difference was found in the use of inshore and offshore habitats between West and East Falkland and between the two colonies with the largest sample sizes, both of which are located in East Falkland. However, habitat use was unrelated to the proximity of breeding colonies to the Patagonian Shelf, a region associated with enhanced biological productivity. Our study thus points towards other factors, such as local oceanography and its influence on resource distribution, playing a prominent role in inshore and offshore habitat use. PMID:27304855

  16. Survival and natality rate observations of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1987-09-20 to 2014-09-25 (NCEI Accession 0145167)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains initial capture and marking data for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups at San Miguel Island, California and subsequent...

  17. Hookworm intensity of infection in California sea lion and northern fur seal pups collected at haulouts/rookeries in California from 1996-07-17 to 2003-01-16 (NCEI Accession 0141164)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are various causes of mortality for California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups. This dataset contains...

  18. California sea lion and northern fur seal censuses conducted at Channel Islands, California by Alaska Fisheries Science Center from 1969-07-31 to 2015-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0145165)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  19. Food habits studies of Steller sea lions in Washington, California conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 1993-05-01 to 1999-10-01 (NCEI Accession 0145304)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1993 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples from Steller sea lions in...

  20. Role of deep convection on anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.; Houpert, L.; de Madron, X. Durrieu; Lefèvre, D.; Stabholz, M.; Guglielmi, V.

    2016-07-01

    The most active deep convection area in the western Mediterranean Sea is located in the Gulf of Lions. Recent studies in this area provides some insights on the complexity of the physical dynamics of convective regions, but very little is known about their impacts on the biogeochemical properties. The CASCADE (CAscading, Surge, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events) cruise, planed in winter 2011, give us the opportunity to compare vertical profiles of properties sampled either during stratified conditions or after/during a convection event. In the present study, we focus on the distributions of the carbonate system properties (mainly total alkalinity, AT; and total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) because, in the context of the climate change, deep convection areas are suspected to significantly increase the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 (CANT). Given its limited size, the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the global carbon budget is probably minor but this marginal sea can be used as a laboratory to better understand carbon sequestration and its transfer to the basin interior by deep convection processes. Distributions of AT and CT, both measured from bottle samples, and that of CANT (estimated with the TrOCA approach) are first analyzed in the light of other key properties (salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen). An objective interpolation procedure is then applied to estimate CT and AT from CTD measured properties. With this procedure, the vertical resolution goes from a maximum of 32 samples per station to one property estimate every meter (more detailed distributions are obtained). Results provide arguments to conclude that CANT is rapidly transferred to the deepest layer due to deep convection events. During deep convection events, the increase of CANT in the water column is positively correlated to that of potential density and oxygen content. The challenge of quantifying the amount of sequestered carbon is however not resolved due to the

  1. Age-related change and distribution of cadmium and zinc concentrations in the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata) from the coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    Hamanaka, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Japan); Itoo, T.; Mishima, S.

    1982-02-01

    Tissue cadmium and zinc levels in Steller sea lions have been analysed to elucidate the body distribution of these metals and their age-related accumulation. A significant correlation between age (0.7-8.8 year old) and renal and hepatic cadmium concentration was noted. Of the tissues examined, the kidney manifested the highest cadmium content (mean: 20.9 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry wt). A similar zinc distribution pattern was observed; its concentration was more uniform among tissues than that of cadmium. The tissue cadmium concentration in the Steller sea lion was lower than in other pinnipeds from various areas, possibly due to their feeding habits which may represent a major pathway of metal accumulation.

  2. Determination of sound types and source levels of airborne vocalizations by California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, in rehabilitation at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California

    Schwalm, Afton Leigh

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly popular and easily recognized marine mammal in zoos, aquariums, circuses, and often seen by ocean visitors. They are highly vocal and gregarious on land. Surprisingly, little research has been performed on the vocalization types, source levels, acoustic properties, and functions of airborne sounds used by California sea lions. This research on airborne vocalizations of California sea lions will advance the understanding of this aspect of California sea lions communication, as well as examine the relationship between health condition and acoustic behavior. Using a PhillipsRTM digital recorder with attached microphone and a calibrated RadioShackRTM sound pressure level meter, acoustical data were recorded opportunistically on California sea lions during rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA. Vocalizations were analyzed using frequency, time, and amplitude variables with Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software Version 1.4 (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY). Five frequency, three time, and four amplitude variables were analyzed for each vocalization. Differences in frequency, time, and amplitude variables were not significant by sex. The older California sea lion group produced vocalizations that were significantly lower in four frequency variables, significantly longer in two time variables, significantly higher in calibrated maximum and minimum amplitude variables, and significantly lower in frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared with pups. Six call types were identified: bark, goat, growl/grumble, bark/grumble, bark/growl, and grumble/moan. The growl/grumble call was higher in dominant beginning, ending, and minimum frequency, as well as in the frequency at maximum amplitude compared with the bark, goat, bark/grumble calls in the first versus last vocalization sample. The goat call was significantly higher in first harmonic interval than any other call type

  3. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  4. Holistic approach to the evaluation of the anthropocentric influence on domoic acid production and the corresponding impact on the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) population

    Rieseberg, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by the harmful algae Pseudo-nitzschia that has been directly linked to mass stranding events of the California Sea Lion (CSL). The purpose of this paper is to review the anthropogenic influence on the production of this neurotoxin and examine how human activities are impacting this marine mammal species. A comprehensive and interdisciplinary literature review was conducted to evaluate the future sustainability of the CSL population. It was found that ...

  5. High natality rates of endangered Steller sea lions in Kenai Fjords, Alaska and perceptions of population status in the Gulf of Alaska.

    John M Maniscalco

    Full Text Available Steller sea lions experienced a dramatic population collapse of more than 80% in the late 1970s through the 1990s across their western range in Alaska. One of several competing hypotheses about the cause holds that reduced female reproductive rates (natality substantively contributed to the decline and continue to limit recovery in the Gulf of Alaska despite the fact that there have been very few attempts to directly measure natality in this species. We conducted a longitudinal study of natality among individual Steller sea lions (n = 151 at a rookery and nearby haulouts in Kenai Fjords, Gulf of Alaska during 2003-2009. Multi-state models were built and tested in Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. The models that most closely fit the data suggested that females which gave birth had a higher probability of surviving and giving birth in the following year compared to females that did not give birth, indicating some females are more fit than others. Natality, estimated at 69%, was similar to natality for Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska prior to their decline (67% and much greater than the published estimate for the 2000s (43% which was hypothesized from an inferential population dynamic model. Reasons for the disparity are discussed, and could be resolved by additional longitudinal estimates of natality at this and other rookeries over changing ocean climate regimes. Such estimates would provide an appropriate assessment of a key parameter of population dynamics in this endangered species which has heretofore been lacking. Without support for depressed natality as the explanation for a lack of recovery of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska, alternative hypotheses must be more seriously considered.

  6. High natality rates of endangered Steller sea lions in Kenai Fjords, Alaska and perceptions of population status in the Gulf of Alaska.

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Parker, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Steller sea lions experienced a dramatic population collapse of more than 80% in the late 1970s through the 1990s across their western range in Alaska. One of several competing hypotheses about the cause holds that reduced female reproductive rates (natality) substantively contributed to the decline and continue to limit recovery in the Gulf of Alaska despite the fact that there have been very few attempts to directly measure natality in this species. We conducted a longitudinal study of natality among individual Steller sea lions (n = 151) at a rookery and nearby haulouts in Kenai Fjords, Gulf of Alaska during 2003-2009. Multi-state models were built and tested in Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. The models that most closely fit the data suggested that females which gave birth had a higher probability of surviving and giving birth in the following year compared to females that did not give birth, indicating some females are more fit than others. Natality, estimated at 69%, was similar to natality for Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska prior to their decline (67%) and much greater than the published estimate for the 2000s (43%) which was hypothesized from an inferential population dynamic model. Reasons for the disparity are discussed, and could be resolved by additional longitudinal estimates of natality at this and other rookeries over changing ocean climate regimes. Such estimates would provide an appropriate assessment of a key parameter of population dynamics in this endangered species which has heretofore been lacking. Without support for depressed natality as the explanation for a lack of recovery of Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska, alternative hypotheses must be more seriously considered. PMID:20386691

  7. Atmospheric lead fallout over the last century recorded in Gulf of Lions sediments (Mediterranean Sea)

    Six marine sediment cores from the Gulf of Lions continental slope (700-1700 m water depth) were analyzed for stable lead isotopes and 21Pb geochronology in order to reconstruct lead atmospheric fallout pattern during the last century. The detrital lead contribution is 25 μg g-1 and the mean sediment anthropogenic inventory is 110 ± 7 μg cm-2, a little bit higher than atmospheric deposition estimate. Anthropogenic lead accumulation in sediments peaked in early 1970s (1973 ± 2) in agreement with lead emissions features. For the period 1986-1997, the sediment signal also reflect the decrease of atmospheric lead described by independent atmospheric fallout investigations. The anthropogenic Pb deposition in the late 1990s was similar to the 1950s deposition, attesting thus of the output of European environmental policies

  8. Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    Stegall, V.K.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Pitcher, K.W.; Rye, R.O.; Kester, C.L.; Stricker, C.A.; Bern, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Genetic Evidence of a Population Bottleneck and Inbreeding in the Endangered New Zealand Sea Lion, Phocarctos hookeri.

    Osborne, Amy J; Negro, Sandra S; Chilvers, B Louise; Robertson, Bruce C; Kennedy, Martin A; Gemmell, Neil J

    2016-09-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL) is of high conservation concern due to its limited distribution and its declining population size. Historically, it occupied most of coastal New Zealand, but is now restricted to a few coastal sites in southern mainland New Zealand and the sub-Antarctic Islands. NZSLs have experienced a recent reduction in population size due to sealing in the 1900s, which is expected to have resulted in increased inbreeding and a loss of genetic variation, potentially reducing the evolutionary capacity of the species and negatively impacting on its long-term prospects for survival. We used 17 microsatellite loci, previously shown to have cross-species applications in pinnipeds, to determine locus- and population-specific statistics for 1205 NZSLs from 7 consecutive breeding seasons. We show that the NZSL population has a moderate level of genetic diversity in comparison to other pinnipeds. We provide genetic evidence for a population reduction, likely caused by historical sealing, and a measure of allele sharing/parental relatedness (internal relatedness) that is suggestive of increased inbreeding in pups that died during recent epizootic episodes. We hypothesize that population bottlenecks and nonrandom mating have impacted on the population genetic architecture of NZSLs, affecting its population recovery. PMID:26995741

  10. Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.

    Kristine Meise

    Full Text Available Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6% and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%. Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%. In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance.

  11. The Use of Surrogate Data in Demographic Population Viability Analysis: A Case Study of California Sea Lions.

    Claudia J Hernández-Camacho

    Full Text Available Reliable data necessary to parameterize population models are seldom available for imperiled species. As an alternative, data from populations of the same species or from ecologically similar species have been used to construct models. In this study, we evaluated the use of demographic data collected at one California sea lion colony (Los Islotes to predict the population dynamics of the same species from two other colonies (San Jorge and Granito in the Gulf of California, Mexico, for which demographic data are lacking. To do so, we developed a stochastic demographic age-structured matrix model and conducted a population viability analysis for each colony. For the Los Islotes colony we used site-specific pup, juvenile, and adult survival probabilities, as well as birth rates for older females. For the other colonies, we used site-specific pup and juvenile survival probabilities, but used surrogate data from Los Islotes for adult survival probabilities and birth rates. We assessed these models by comparing simulated retrospective population trajectories to observed population trends based on count data. The projected population trajectories approximated the observed trends when surrogate data were used for one colony but failed to match for a second colony. Our results indicate that species-specific and even region-specific surrogate data may lead to erroneous conservation decisions. These results highlight the importance of using population-specific demographic data in assessing extinction risk. When vital rates are not available and immediate management actions must be taken, in particular for imperiled species, we recommend the use of surrogate data only when the populations appear to have similar population trends.

  12. Influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the population structure of a sea lion breeding colony in the Gulf of California

    Shirasago-Germán, Bernardo; Pérez-Lezama, Edgar L.; Chávez, Ernesto A.; García-Morales, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon has a significant influence on Pacific marine ecosystems from primary trophic levels to top predators that cause fluctuations in their populations. Based on this fact we analyzed the sea lion Zalophus californianus population structure variability using censuses performed from 1979 to 2004 in Los Islotes breeding colony located at La Paz Bay as well as concomitant the ENSO phenomenon variability. To discriminate variations in the population structure not ascribable to the population attributes, a virtual population was created and compared to the census population. The residuals obtained from this comparison were correlated with the MEI (Multivariate ENSO Index) and BEST (Bivariate ENSO Time Series) indices, descriptors of the ENSO variability. The results showed that the population structure is an adequate descriptor of the conditions of the population instead of the abundance, and the total population is affected by the ENSO. The adult, subadult and pup male groups were the most sensitive groups to this phenomenon due to their intrinsic development and behavior. Likewise the BEST index is a better descriptor than the MEI index of the ENSO influence in the region where the breeding colony Los Islotes resides. Therefore we demonstrate in this work that changes caused by the ENSO not directly affect the sea lion due to its homeothermic capacity but affects the habitat where this organism performs its biological functions, producing behavioral changes in the population.

  13. Origin and Depositional Processes of Coastal Sands Revealed by Grain-Size Analysis (golfe du Lion, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Braud, R.

    2014-12-01

    The study focused on the lower beach and nearshore zone of the Golfe du Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea -France). We looked at grain-size distribution in the berm, collision zone, inner and outer bars, lower shoreface applying parametric methods, grain-size modal analysis and a deconvolution program (LNDoGS).Results indicate a mixture of three recognizable sedimentary types (ST1 - ST3 - ST4) and explain grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sands in both multimodal and apparently unimodal GSDs. ST1 flows from the River Rhone, ST3 and 4 are local components originating from either fluvial input or nearshore reworking of Quaternary sediments.A fourth component (ST2), derived in situ from ST1, is found far from the overwhelming footprint of the Rhone river sands, westward in the lower shoreface.The mixing process entails significant variations in grain-size indices and skewness appears as a very sensitive and meaningful parameter. Skewness and bimodality, generated in all zones, are two aspects of the mixing process, depending on the relative proportions of STs.Using LNDoGS makes deciphering the STs a lot easier. It also reveals that some GSDs can result from a combination of 3 sedimentary variants (SVs) belonging to the same ST (monotype grain-size distributions). Monotype mixtures are very abundant on the lower shoreface, significantly present on the berm and inner bar but rare in the most dynamic zones. On the berm they tend towards a lognormal model for only bedload is present in the swash. This trend towards a lognormal model can also be observed on the lower shoreface, possibly indicating the occurrence of suspension as a dominant process.Thus, each segment of the nearshore - foreshore profile can be characterized using coarseness, skewness sign, the presence of locally generated ST2, abundance of bimodalities, occurrence of SVs. Finally, a more detailed description of the spatial properties of grain-size distributions could help explore possible mechanisms

  14. The response of SST to insolation and ice sheet variability from MIS 3 to MIS 11 in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José Abel; Martrat, Belen; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record based on the Uk'37 index from the PRGL1 borehole (Promess1) drilled on the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions (GL). This is the first continuous and high-resolution record in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea from marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS) 3 to MIS 11. Due the location of the GL, the SST proxy can be considered to be a reliable tool to study the climate link between high latitude and midlatitude. During glacial inceptions, the northern ice sheet signal via cold northwesterly winds was first recorded in our study area in comparison with southern locations, highlighting the strong sensitivity of this location to high-latitude dynamics. Moreover, the amplitude of the millennial-scale variability in the western Mediterranean basin seems to be the result of both ice sheet and insolation variability.

  15. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R.; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E.; Hiram Rosales-Nanduca; Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse; Julieta Sandoval-Sierra

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) conce...

  16. Trophic niche overlap of sprat and commercial small pelagic teleosts in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Le Bourg, B.; Bănaru, D.; Saraux, C.; Nowaczyk, A.; Le Luherne, E.; Jadaud, A.; Bigot, J. L.; Richard, P.

    2015-09-01

    Increasing abundance of non-commercial sprats and decreasing biomass and landings of commercial anchovies and sardines justify the need to study the feeding ecology and trophic niche overlap of these planktivorous species in the Gulf of Lions. Their diet has been investigated on the basis of stomach content and stable isotope analyses in 2011 and 2012 according to different depths and regions in the study area. The main prey were Corycaeidae copepods, Clauso/Paracalanus, Euterpina acutifrons and Microsetella, for sprats and small copepods, such as Microsetella, Oncaea and Corycaeidae, for anchovies and sardines. This is the first time that the diet of sprats is described in the Gulf of Lions. Sprats fed on a larger size spectrum of prey and seem to be more generalist feeders compared to anchovies and sardines. Ontogenetic changes as well as spatial and temporal variations of the diet occurred in the three species. Stable isotope analysis revealed mobility of sardines and sprats among feeding areas while anchovies exhibited preferred feeding areas. Sprats showed a higher relative condition assessed by C/N ratios than sardines and anchovies. Our results showed an overlap of the trophic niches for the three species, indicating a potential trophic competition in the Gulf of Lions.

  17. Ivermectin treatment of free-ranging endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups: effect on hookworm and lice infection status, haematological parameters, growth, and survival.

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    A placebo-controlled study was used to investigate the effectiveness of ivermectin to treat hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) and lice (Antarctophthirus microchir) infections in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups and to test the hypotheses that these parasitic infections cause anaemia, systemic inflammatory responses, and reduced growth, and contribute towards decreased pup survival. Ivermectin was identified as an effective and safe anthelmintic in this species. Pups administered ivermectin had significantly higher erythrocyte counts and significantly lower eosinophil counts compared to controls at 1-2 months post-treatment, confirming that U. sanguinis and/or A. microchir are causatively associated with disease and demonstrating the positive effect of ivermectin treatment on clinical health parameters. Higher growth rates were not seen in ivermectin-treated pups and, unexpectedly, relatively older pups treated with ivermectin demonstrated significantly reduced growth rates when compared to matched saline-control pups. Differences in survival were not identified between treatment groups; however, this was attributed to the unexpectedly low mortality rate of recruited pups, likely due to the unintended recruitment bias towards pups >1-2 months of age for which mortality due to hookworm infection is less likely. This finding highlights the logistical and practical challenges associated with treating pups of this species shortly after birth at a remote colony. This study informs the assessment of the use of anthelmintics as a tool for the conservation management of free-ranging wildlife and outlines essential steps to further the development of strategies to ensure the effective conservation of the Australian sea lion and its parasitic fauna. PMID:25911163

  18. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora).

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Perelman, Polina L; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Burkanov, Vladimir N; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus, Otariidae) and the endemic Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica, Phocidae) using combination of human, domestic dog and stone marten whole-chromosome painting probes. The earliest karyological studies of Pinnipedia showed that pinnipeds were characterized by a pronounced karyological conservatism that is confirmed here with species from Phocidae, Otariidae and Odobenidae sharing same low number of conserved human autosomal segments (32). Chromosome painting in Pinnipedia and comparison with non-pinniped carnivore karyotypes provide strong support for refined structure of ACK with 2n = 38. Constructed comparative chromosome maps show that pinniped karyotype evolution was characterized by few tandem fusions, seemingly absent inversions and slow rate of genome rearrangements (less then one rearrangement per 10 million years). Integrative comparative analyses with published chromosome painting of Phoca vitulina revealed common cytogenetic signature for Phoca/Pusa branch and supports Phocidae and Otaroidea (Otariidae/Odobenidae) as sister groups. We revealed rearrangements specific for walrus karyotype and found the chromosomal signature linking together families Otariidae and Odobenidae. The Steller sea lion karyotype is the most conserved among three studied species and differs from the ACK by single fusion. The study underlined the strikingly slow karyotype evolution of the Pinnipedia in general and the Otariidae in particular. PMID:26821159

  19. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope trophic enrichment factors for Steller sea lion vibrissae relative to milk and fish/invertebrate diets

    Stricker, Craig A.; Christ, Aaron M.; Wunder, Michael B.; Doll, Andrew C.; Farley, Sean D.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Rosen, David A. S.; Scherer, R. D.; Tollit, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional constraints have been proposed as a contributor to population declines in the endangered Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in some regions of the North Pacific. Isotopic analysis of vibrissae (whiskers) is a potentially useful approach to resolving the nutritional ecology of this species because long-term (up to 8 yr) dietary information is sequentially recorded and metabolically inert once formed. Additionally, vibrissae are grown in utero, potentially offering indirect inference on maternal diet. However, diet reconstruction using isotopic techniques requires a priori knowledge of trophic enrichment factors (TEFs), which can vary relative to diet quality and among animal species. In this study, we provide new TEF estimates for (1) maternal relative to pup vibrissae during both gestation and nursing and (2) adult vibrissae relative to a complex diet. Further, we refine vibrissa-milk TEFs based on an additional 76 animals with an age distribution ranging from 1 to 20 mo. Mother-pup vibrissae TEF values during gestation and nursing were near zero for δ13C and averaged 0.8 and 1.6‰, respectively, for δ15N. In contrast, vibrissa-fish/invertebrate TEFs averaged 3.3 (± 0.3 SD) and 3.7‰ (±0.3) for lipid-free δ13C and δ15N, respectively. Average lipid-free δ13C and δ15N vibrissa-milk TEFs were 2.5 (±0.9) and 1.8‰ (±0.8), respectively, and did not differ among metapopulations. Empirically determined TEFs are critical for accurate retrospective diet modeling, particularly for evaluating the hypothesis of nutritional deficiency contributing to the lack of Steller sea lion population recovery in some regions of Alaska.

  20. Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa

    M. Florencia Grandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American sea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predatorio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica.

  1. Budget and residence time of 210Pb along the Gulf of Lion's continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Concentration of 210Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion's continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk 210Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of 210Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of 210Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for 210Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of 210Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the 210Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author)

  2. Population structure and historical demography of South American sea lions provide insights into the catastrophic decline of a marine mammal population.

    Hoffman, J I; Kowalski, G J; Klimova, A; Eberhart-Phillips, L J; Staniland, I J; Baylis, A M M

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the causes of population decline is crucial for conservation management. We therefore used genetic analysis both to provide baseline data on population structure and to evaluate hypotheses for the catastrophic decline of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) in the South Atlantic. We genotyped 259 animals from 23 colonies across the Falklands at 281 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region and 22 microsatellites. A weak signature of population structure was detected, genetic diversity was moderately high in comparison with other pinniped species, and no evidence was found for the decline being associated with a strong demographic bottleneck. By combining our mitochondrial data with published sequences from Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru, we also uncovered strong maternally directed population structure across the geographical range of the species. In particular, very few shared haplotypes were found between the Falklands and South America, and this was reflected in correspondingly low migration rate estimates. These findings do not support the prominent hypothesis that the decline was caused by migration to Argentina, where large-scale commercial harvesting operations claimed over half a million animals. Thus, our study not only provides baseline data for conservation management but also reveals the potential for genetic studies to shed light upon long-standing questions pertaining to the history and fate of natural populations. PMID:27493782

  3. Population structure and historical demography of South American sea lions provide insights into the catastrophic decline of a marine mammal population

    Hoffman, J. I.; Kowalski, G. J.; Klimova, A.; Staniland, I. J.; Baylis, A. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causes of population decline is crucial for conservation management. We therefore used genetic analysis both to provide baseline data on population structure and to evaluate hypotheses for the catastrophic decline of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at the Falkland Islands (Malvinas) in the South Atlantic. We genotyped 259 animals from 23 colonies across the Falklands at 281 bp of the mitochondrial hypervariable region and 22 microsatellites. A weak signature of population structure was detected, genetic diversity was moderately high in comparison with other pinniped species, and no evidence was found for the decline being associated with a strong demographic bottleneck. By combining our mitochondrial data with published sequences from Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru, we also uncovered strong maternally directed population structure across the geographical range of the species. In particular, very few shared haplotypes were found between the Falklands and South America, and this was reflected in correspondingly low migration rate estimates. These findings do not support the prominent hypothesis that the decline was caused by migration to Argentina, where large-scale commercial harvesting operations claimed over half a million animals. Thus, our study not only provides baseline data for conservation management but also reveals the potential for genetic studies to shed light upon long-standing questions pertaining to the history and fate of natural populations. PMID:27493782

  4. The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period

    Raimundo L. Bustos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

  5. Transformation of PBDE mixtures during sediment transport and resuspension in marine environments (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion were studied. They were largely predominated by BDE 209 (98.7% of all PBDEs) indicating that the main source of these pollutants was the commercial mixture deca-BDE. This compound and the less brominated BDE exhibited a southwestward decreasing concentration gradient following the dominant marine currents and bottom relief, e.g. the Mud Belt, the submarine canyons and the Open Continental Slope. All PBDEs exhibited statistically significant correlations confirming the common origin. However, a progressive transformation of the dumped BDE 209 was identified showing a depletion paralleled by increases of the less brominated BDEs (from 8.6% to 22%). These less brominated compounds were accumulated at about 100–140 km away from the Rhone prodelta, e.g. at the end of the submarine canyons, evidencing that these transformation compounds can be accumulated at long distances from the dumping sites in the marine system. Highlights: ► Polybromodiphenyl ethers are associated to organic carbon in marine sediments. ► PBDEs in marine sediments can accumulate further away than 140 km from the spill site. ► BDE-209 in marine sediments generate congeners found in banned commercial mixtures. ► BDE-209 in marine sediments generates new congeners not found in commercial mixtures. ► Submarine canyons channel PBDEs from the continental platform to the deep shelf. - Decomposition of decabromodiphenyl ether in marine sediments generates congeners found in banned mixtures in areas located far away from the discharge sites.

  6. ETHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON CALIFORNIAN RABBIT FEMALES

    M. Botha; I. BUD; ŞTEFAN REKA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to underline different ethological aspects on Californianrabbit females, aspects which have important technological involves and definespecific approach of this breed, his temperament being net different from other breeds.Studies shows, that the Californian rabbit females demonstrate almost withoutexceptions that, they gets extremely lively and nervous temperament with its kind andhumans alike. This behavior determinates difficult approaches in breeding andreproducti...

  7. Examining the role of components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1 in the susceptibility of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri to disease.

    Amy J Osborne

    Full Text Available The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1 plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance.

  8. Examining the Role of Components of Slc11a1 (Nramp1) in the Susceptibility of New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) to Disease

    Osborne, Amy J.; Pearson, John; Chilvers, B. Louise; Kennedy, Martin A.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand sea lion (NZSL, Phocarctos hookeri) is a Threatened marine mammal with a restricted distribution and a small, declining, population size. The species is susceptible to bacterial pathogens, having suffered three mass mortality events since 1998. Understanding the genetic factors linked to this susceptibility is important in mitigating population decline. The gene solute carrier family 11 member a1 (Slc11a1) plays an important role in mammalian resistance or susceptibility to a wide range of bacterial pathogens. At present, Slc11a1 has not been characterised in many taxa, and despite its known roles in mediating the effects of infectious disease agents, has not been examined as a candidate gene in susceptibility or resistance in any wild population of conservation concern. Here we examine components of Slc11a1 in NZSLs and identify: i) a polymorphic nucleotide in the promoter region; ii) putative shared transcription factor binding motifs between canids and NZSLs; and iii) a conserved polymorphic microsatellite in the first intron of Slc11a1, which together suggest conservation of Slc11a1 gene structure in otariids. At the promoter polymorphism, we demonstrate a shift away from normal allele frequency distributions and an increased likelihood of death from infectious causes with one allelic variant. While this increased likelihood is not statistically significant, lack of significance is potentially due to the complexity of genetic susceptibility to disease in wild populations. Our preliminary data highlight the potential significance of this gene in disease resistance in wild populations; further exploration of Slc11a1 will aid the understanding of susceptibility to infection in mammalian species of conservation significance. PMID:25874773

  9. Using Satellite Tracking and Isotopic Information to Characterize the Impact of South American Sea Lions on Salmonid Aquaculture in Southern Chile.

    Maritza Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Apex marine predators alter their foraging behavior in response to spatial and/or seasonal changes in natural prey distribution and abundance. However, few studies have identified the impacts of aquaculture that represents a spatially and temporally predictable and abundant resource on their foraging behavior. Using satellite telemetry and stable isotope analysis we examined the degree of spatial overlap between the South American sea lion (SASL and salmon farms, and quantify the amount of native prey versus farmed salmonids in SASL diets. We instrumented eight SASL individuals with SRDL-GPS tags. Vibrissae, hair and skin samples were collected for δ13C and δ15N analyses from five of the tagged individuals and from four males captured in a haul-out located adjacent to salmon farms. Tracking results showed that almost all the foraging areas of SASL are within close proximity to salmon farms. The most important prey for the individuals analyzed was farmed salmonids, with an estimated median (±SD contribution of 19.7 ± 13.5‰ and 15.3 ± 9.6‰ for hair and skin, respectively. Using vibrissae as a temporal record of diet for each individual, we observed a remarkable switch in diet composition in two SASL, from farmed salmonids to pelagic fishes, which coincided with the decrease of salmon production due to the infectious salmon anemia virus that affected salmon farms in Chile at the end of 2008. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of integrating stable isotope derived dietary data with movement patterns to characterize the impacts of a non-native prey on the foraging ecology of an apex marine predator, providing important applied implications in situations where interactions between aquaculture and wildlife are common.

  10. Analysis of riverine suspended particulate matter fluxes (Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea) using a synergy of ocean color observations with a 3-D hydrodynamic sediment transport model

    Le Fouest, Vincent; Chami, Malik; Verney, Romaric

    2015-02-01

    The export of riverine suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the coastal ocean has major implications for the biogeochemical cycles. In the Mediterranean Sea (France), the Rhone River inputs of SPM into the Gulf of Lion (GoL) are highly variable in time, which severely impedes the assessment of SPM fluxes. The objectives of this study are (i) to investigate the prediction of the land-to-ocean flux of SPM using the complementarity (i.e., synergy) between a hydrodynamic sediment transport model and satellite observations, and (ii) to analyze the spatial distribution of the SPM export. An original approach that combines the MARS-3D model with satellite ocean color data is proposed. Satellite-derived SPM and light penetration depth are used to initialize MARS-3D and to validate its predictions. A sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the impact of riverine SPM size composition and settling rate on the horizontal export of SPM. The best agreement between the model and the satellite in terms of SPM spatial distribution and export is obtained for two conditions: (i) when the relative proportion of "heavy and fast" settling particles significantly increases relative to the "light and slow" ones, and (ii) when the settling rate of heavy and light SPM increases by fivefold. The synergy between MARS-3D and the satellite data improved the SPM flux predictions by 48% near the Rhone River mouth. Our results corroborate the importance of implementing satellite observations within initialization procedures of ocean models since data assimilation techniques may fail for river floods showing strong seasonal variability.

  11. Population Trend and Elasticities of Vital Rates for Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Eastern Gulf of Alaska: A New Life-History Table Analysis.

    Maniscalco, John M; Springer, Alan M; Adkison, Milo D; Parker, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers are beginning to recover across most of the western distinct population segment following catastrophic declines that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. This study makes use of contemporary vital rate estimates from a trend-site rookery in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (a sub-region of the western population) in a matrix population model to estimate the trend and strength of the recovery across this region between 2003 and 2013. The modeled population trend was projected into the future based on observed variation in vital rates and a prospective elasticity analysis was conducted to determine future trends and which vital rates pose the greatest threats to recovery. The modeled population grew at a mean rate of 3.5% per yr between 2003 and 2013 and was correlated with census count data from the local rookery and throughout the eastern Gulf of Alaska. If recent vital rate estimates continue with little change, the eastern Gulf of Alaska population could be fully recovered to pre-decline levels within 23 years. With density dependent growth, the population would need another 45 years to fully recover. Elasticity analysis showed that, as expected, population growth rate (λ) was most sensitive to changes in adult survival, less sensitive to changes in juvenile survival, and least sensitive to changes in fecundity. A population decline could be expected with only a 6% decrease in adult survival, whereas a 32% decrease in fecundity would be necessary to bring about a population decline. These results have important implications for population management and suggest current research priorities should be shifted to a greater emphasis on survival rates and causes of mortality. PMID:26488901

  12. Californian science students' perceptions of their classroom environments

    den Brok, P.; Fisher, D.; Rickards, T.; Bull, E.

    2006-01-01

    This study utilised the What Is Happening In this Class (WIHIC) questionnaire to examine factors that influence Californian student perceptions of their learning environment. Data were collected from 665 USA middle school science students in 11 Californian schools. Several background variables were

  13. Upwelling in the Gulf of Lions

    Millot, Claude; Wald, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    International audience The hydrological and meteorological characteristics of the Gulf of Lions are such that upwelling occurs with no bias due to tides or strong longshore circulation. The sky is generally cloud-free, an uncommon feature in an upwelling area that allows extensive use of satellite infrared data. The observations are adequate to compute mean maps of the sea-surface temperature during upwelling events. Undoubtedly upwelling is much more intense along straitght coastal segmen...

  14. 圈养南非海狮血液生理生化指标初探%A Preliminary Survey of Main Physiological and Biochemical Indice of Blood in Captive South African Sea Lions

    黄淑芳; 胡新波; 江志

    2012-01-01

    南非海狮是目前国内外动物园、水族馆中饲养比较普遍的动物,但经常出现一些细菌性、病毒性和寄生虫等疾病,在海狮健康状况监测和疾病诊断中需要有生理生化指标正常值作为参考。但目前南非海狮的正常生理生化指标报道较少。杭州动物园先后对6只成年南非海狮进行采血,共收集20个(12雄8雌)血液常规样本测定了15项主要生理指标和6个(4雄2雌)血清生化标本对18项主要生化指标进行检测。在测定项目中WBC、RBC、MCH、MCV、RDW、HCT、MPV、PCT、ALT、TP、ALB、TBIL、GLU、Ca2+、Pi、Mg2+、K+、Na+测定值个体间差异不大,而HGB、MCHC、PLT、GGT、ALP、Cr、UA测定值个体间差异较大。在血液常规指标中只有HGB和Lymph(%)雌雄间的差异显著(P〈0.05)。WBC、HGB、PIJT的测定值与斑海豹报道的参考值比较接近,红细胞大小、MCV与人的参考值较接近。这些指标的测定对于海狮的健康状况监测和疾病诊断等工作都将有一定的参考价值。%South African sea lion (Arctocephalus pusillus) is commonly raised in zoos and aquariums around the world. Captive sea lions are often infected by bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Health monitoring and diagnoses are re- quired to reference normal blood physiological and biochemical indexes. However, such indexes are rarely reported. We took 20 blood samples from 6 adult African sea lions in Hangzhou Zoo, 12 from males and 8 from females. We quantified 15 main physiological indexes and 6 (4 male and 2 female) serum biochemical samples using 18 main biochemical indicators. WBC, RBC, MCH, MCV, RDW, HCT, MPV, PCT, ALT, TP, ALB, TBIL, GLU, Ca2+ , Pi, Mg2+ , K+ and Na+ showed very slight variation between individuals, while HGB, MCHC, PLT, GGT, ALP, Cr, UA varied greatly between individuals. HGB and Lymph ( % ) showed significant differences ( P 〈 0. 05 ) between male and female. The

  15. Impact of winter storms on sediment erosion in the Rhone River prodelta and fate of sediment in the Gulf of Lions (North Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Dufois, Francois; Verney, Romaric; Le Hir, Pierre; Dumas, Franck; Charmasson, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    In this study a three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed. The model accounts for both current and wave forcing on the sediment and was implemented over the Gulf of Lions. A two-way nesting technique was used to focus on the Rhone River prodelta which is considered as a sink for riverine sediment. In addition, to understand the resuspension of trapped sediment over the Rhone prodelta, an in situ experiment, called SCOPE, was conducted during the winter 2007/2008. The experiment...

  16. The Lion King

    齐玉俊; 温静

    2005-01-01

    Cultural Background of the Film The Lion King, released by Walt Disney Picture in 1994, was one of the top blockbusters in the past ten yesars in the US. There are at least two reasons for its popularity. One is the charm of Shakespeare's theme: Hamlet, and the other is the attraction of African scencry.

  17. Structure and oil and gas perspectives of the Californian borderland

    Zabanbark, A.

    2008-02-01

    The Californian borderland is the largest oil and gas region of the Pacific coast of the United States. Here, a series of large and minor sedimentary basins with established or inferred oil and gas bearing properties are recognized. The Californian borderland is located on a Nevadan-type active continental margin. The bodies of such margins are composed of giant accretion formations and occupy not only their underwater parts but also vast land areas. The accretion formations are dominated by rocks of a deep-water origin. The Californian borderland represents a system of basins and ranges that compose the underwater margin and the Coastal Ranges of California and the basement within the Great Valley. In the depressions of the accretion orogen, which are small in size but feature high subsidence rates, significant thicknesses of deposits are accumulated (up to 6-8 km). In the depressions of the Californian borderland, they are represented by young Neogene (rarer Eocene-Oligocene) formations of mainly terrigenous or siliceous-terrigenous compositions. The active tectonic regime resulted in a sharp reduction of the age range of the oil and gas bearing deposits, which are represented only by Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks. Full-scale oil and gas production here is performed in the Santa Barbara-Ventura and Santa Maria basins. The principal oil and gas bearing unit is the Monterrey Formation of the Middle Miocene. By January 2006, the production on the Californian borderland comprised about 17.8 million tons of oil and over 1 billion m3 of gas. Up to 1.4 billion tons of oil and 200 billion m3 of gas reserves are regarded to be not recovered on the Pacific coast of the United States in the region of the Californian borderland.

  18. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton–zooplankton–anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    The transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on 210Po, 210Pb activity concentrations and 210Po/210Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that 210Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while 210Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and 210Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence 210Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. - Highlights: • 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in plankton vary up to a factor of two in the Gulf of Lion (East vs West). • 210Po and 210Pb variability is connected to local specific pelagic habitats. • Bio-magnification of 210Po is evidenced in anchovy/sardine foodwebs

  19. Impact of the 2015 El Nino-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    Fernando R Elorriaga-Verplancken

    Full Text Available The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus (CSLs and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi (GFSs from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators (SIAR/SIBER-R. Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll (Chl-a concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015. Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014 and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg. The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs. This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters.

  20. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico.

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014-2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  1. Impact of the 2015 El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the Abundance and Foraging Habits of Guadalupe Fur Seals and California Sea Lions from the San Benito Archipelago, Mexico

    Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R.; Sierra-Rodríguez, Gema E.; Rosales-Nanduca, Hiram; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Sandoval-Sierra, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSLs) and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus philippii townsendi) (GFSs) from the San Benito Archipelago (SBA) was determined through nine monthly surveys in 2014–2015. Assessment of their foraging habits was examined based on the isotopic analysis of pups (maternal indicators) (SIAR/SIBER-R). Environmental variability between 2014 and 2015 was also analyzed, in terms of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll (Chl-a) concentration. Both otariids reached their highest abundance in July of both years; however, relative to 2014, the 2015 survey showed a 59.7% decline in the total GFS abundance and a 42.9% decrease of GFS pups, while total CSL abundance decreased 52.0% and CSL pup presence decreased in 61.7%. All monthly surveys for both otariids showed a similar trend (>50% decrease in 2015). Compared to 2014, the 2015 GFSs isotopic niche was three times larger (2.0 in 2015, 0.6 in 2014) and the δ13C was significantly lower. CSLs also showed significantly lower δ13C and higher δ15N in 2015. Interannual segregation was greater for CSLs, and their pup body mass was also significantly lower during the 2015 breeding season (mean = 8.7 kg) than in the same season of 2014 (mean = 9.9 kg). The decrease in δ13C for both otariids reflected a more oceanic foraging; most likely associated with the decline in primary productivity in surrounding areas to the SBA, related to a higher SST caused by the 2015 ENSO, with a subsequent increase in foraging effort. These would explain the fewer observed individuals on land, especially pups, which showed diminished body condition (CSLs). This study highlights the importance of marine mammals as sentinel species that respond dynamically to changes in environment, providing valuable information on the effect of ENSO on pinnipeds in Mexican waters. PMID:27171473

  2. Magnetosheath lion roars

    Lion roars, which are intense packets of electromagnetic waves characteristically found in the magneosheath, have been studied. On the basis of these observations, several possible wave generation mechanisms are examined. Landau resonance is considered to be an unlikely source because this mechanism requires a substantial component of the wave electric field paralle to B, and the observation that the waves propagate along the ambient field is contrary to this requirement. It is not obvious that electron cyclotron resonance is responsible, because the field magnitude decreases should cause T/sub parallel//T/sub perpendicular/ to increase, and this rise could lead to wave damping rather than wave growth. A model which is consistent with all the observations of this study is a proton cyclotron overstability involving 10-keV protons streaming through the magnetosheath. It appears possible that the streaming protons could produce both the waves and the field decreases and that all three would be coincident

  3. The Ancestral Carnivore Karyotype As Substantiated by Comparative Chromosome Painting of Three Pinnipeds, the Walrus, the Steller Sea Lion and the Baikal Seal (Pinnipedia, Carnivora)

    Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Perelman, Polina L.; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.; Alexander S Graphodatsky

    2016-01-01

    Karyotype evolution in Carnivora is thoroughly studied by classical and molecular cytogenetics and supplemented by reconstructions of Ancestral Carnivora Karyotype (ACK). However chromosome painting information from two pinniped families (Odobenidae and Otariidae) is noticeably missing. We report on the construction of the comparative chromosome map for species from each of the three pinniped families: the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus, Odobenidae-monotypic family), near threatened Steller sea li...

  4. 'Lion and man' : upper and lower bounds

    Alonso, Laurent; Goldstein, Arthur S.; Reingold, Edward M.

    1992-01-01

    Given a lion and a man, their initial position, and restrictions on their ranges and speeds, how quickly can the lion get within a given distance from the man? We consider the case in which the lion and man are restricted to the interior of a circle and each is limited to the same speed

  5. Lion King Surveys Homeland

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon. The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

  6. Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

  7. Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

  8. I am like a lion to Ephraim

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The article gives examples from the Old Testament of the lion as image of God and shows how this image is part of various stories about lions, shepherds and sheep. It is discussed whether Yahweh was ever worshipped in the image of an animal and it is argued that the combination of anthropomorphic...

  9. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using 210 Po et le 210 Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins

    210 Po and 210 Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of 210 Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, 210 Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than 210 Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a 210 Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of 210 Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. 210 Po and 210 Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, 210 Po and 210 Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author)

  10. 78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v... and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable...

  11. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  12. A Lion of a Stone

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

  13. Lion and Man -- Can Both Win?

    Bollobás, B; Walters, M

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with continuous-time pursuit and evasion games. Typically, we have a lion and a man in a metric space: they have the same speed, and the lion wishes to catch the man while the man tries to evade capture. We are interested in questions of the following form: is it the case that exactly one of the man and the lion has a winning strategy? As we shall see, in a compact metric space at least one of the players has a winning strategy. We show that, perhaps surprisingly, there are examples in which both players have winning strategies. We also construct a metric space in which, for the game with two lions versus one man, neither player has a winning strategy. We prove various other (positive and negative) related results, and pose some open problems.

  14. The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land

    Catala-Luque, Rosa

    This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a

  15. Embargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation?

    Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre; Doamba, Benoit; Kidjo, Ferdinand Claude; Vermeulen, Cédric; Chardonnet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230–648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123–498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. PMID:27182985

  16. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.

    Myers, D L; Zurbriggen, A.; Lutz, H.; Pospischil, A.

    1997-01-01

    In light of recent canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of CDV infection in captive lions and tigers in Switzerland. The retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. Necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. All existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against CDV. The results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classif...

  17. Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

  18. Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology

    This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  19. The Cantonese lion head: the process of making a lion head in Guangzhou

    Mo, Cuiyu.; 莫翠瑜.

    2013-01-01

    The lion dance is a traditional form of Chinese culture with thousands of years of history. From the historical record, the lion dance tradition was started in the Han Dynasty. Similar to the dragon dance, the lion dance is a spiritual activity. It is a symbol that brings good fortune to people. Nowadays, the tradition is practiced in China, particularly in Guangdong Province (廣東省), Fujian Province (福建省) and spread by the Cantonese, together with good fortune, to Asia, the United States and ...

  20. 77 FR 22750 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    2012-04-17

    ... public of this proposed action and alternatives, present issues and potential impacts, and gather public... harvest to reduce potential impacts from the groundfish fisheries on Steller sea lions and on their... Steller sea lions and fishing vessels and to reduce potential impacts on prey resources in...

  1. Mac OS X Lion portable genius

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Two e-books, Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius and MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition, bundled in one package Books in the Portable Genius series provide readers with the most accessible, useful information possible, including plenty of tips and techniques for the most-used features in a product or software. These e-books will show you what you may not find out by just working with your MacBook Pro and OS X Lion. Genius icons present smart or innovative ways to do something, saving time and hassle. Easy-to-find information gives you the essentials plus insightful tips on how to navigate

  2. Mastitis diagnosis in dairy goats through somatic cell counts and Californian Mastitis Test. Preliminary results

    Mendonça, Álvaro; Valentim, Ramiro; Nunes, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Trigo, Margarida; Maurício, Raimundo; Costa, Cristina; Coelho, Alípio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) and Californian mastitis test (CMT) reliability as methods to survey mastitis in Serrana goats. Microbiological diagnosis, SCC and CTM were performed on 2028 samples, collected from individual glands during a lactation period. According to results CMT (predictive negative value = 69.5%) may be used as a cheap and practical method for sub clinical mastitis survey in Serrana goats. Decision on SCC use will depend on additional resear...

  3. The Initial State for Californian English Learners of Spanish and Portuguese Vowels

    Vasiliev, Polina

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) learners often struggle with achieving native-like production and perception of L2 sounds. While there is ample research on the non-native perception of English vowels by native speakers of languages with smaller vowel inventories, scant research exists up-to-date on the opposite scenario. The aim of the present study is to investigate the initial state for Californian English (CE) listeners' perception of two different smaller vowel inventories, namely Spanish and Portug...

  4. Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins; Etude du transfert et du depot du materiel particulaire par le {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application aux marges continentales du Golfe de Gascogne (NE Atlantique) et du Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranee)

    Radakovitch, O.

    1995-07-07

    {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of {sup 210} Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, {sup 210} Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than {sup 210} Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a {sup 210} Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of {sup 210} Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on {sup 210} Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author). 243 refs.

  5. Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes

    Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

  6. Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya.

    Hazzah, Leela; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Naughton-Treves, Lisa; Naughton, Lisa; Edwards, Charles T T; Mwebi, Ogeto; Kearney, Fiachra; Frank, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing. PMID:24527992

  7. Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo

    F. C Eloff

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

  8. "The Lion and the Mouse"教学案例

    欧阳胜美

    2010-01-01

    @@ 一、教学内容(Teaching content) There is a lion. He is big. He is very strong. His teeth are big and sharp. This is a mouse. She is small. Her teeth are small and sharp. The lion is hungryv. The mouse is afraid, "Don't eat me,please." Oh! The lion is in the net! He is very afraid, "Help! Help! Who can help me?"

  9. The lion in Ghana: its historical and current status

    Angelici, F. M.; Mahama, A.; Rossi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the lion (Panthera leo) population in Ghana has been little studied and its status is poorly documented. Currently, after recent unsuccessful attempts to find signs of the presence of the species, many authors believe that the Ghanaian lion population is most likely extinct. In an attempt to gather more data, since 2005 we have been carrying out lion surveys in the most important parks and other protected areas of Ghana, mainly focusing on Mole National Park (MNP). We have also ...

  10. Divided infraorbital foramen in the lion (Panthera leo): its implications for colonisation history, population bottlenecks, and conservation of the Asian lion (P. l. persica)

    Yamaguchi, N; Kitchener, A.C.; Driscoll, C.A.; Macdonald, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    A divided infraorbital foramen is an important morphological feature in lion taxonomy and has previously been considered to occur only in the Asian lion, Panthera leo persica. Based on an examination of 498 lion skulls from museum collections in Europe and southern Africa, we report for the first time on the prevalence of the divided infraorbital foramen in African lions, as well as its occurrence in the tiger, P. tigris and the extinct Pleistocene European cave lion, P. leo spelaea. The high...

  11. Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo

    Eloff, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting succes...

  12. Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion

    McFedries, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

  13. The LIONS code (version 1.0)

    The new LIONS code (Lancement d'IONS or Ion Launching), a dynamical code implemented in the SPIRaL project for the CIME cyclotron studies, is presented. The various software involves a 3D magnetostatic code, 2D or 3D electrostatic codes for generation of realistic field maps, and several dynamical codes for studying the behaviour of the reference particle from the cyclotron center up to the ejection and for launching particles packets complying with given correlations. Its interactions with the other codes are described. The LIONS code, written in Fortran 90 is already used in studying the CIME cyclotron, from the center to the ejection. It is designed to be used, with minor modifications, in other contexts such as for the simulation of mass spectrometer facilities

  14. On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars

    A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant (because of the high electron speed along the magnetic field). Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, the authors can show that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. The present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature

  15. On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars

    Lee, L. C.; Wu, C. S.; Price, C. P.

    1987-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant. Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, it can be shown that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. Then present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature.

  16. Erosional processes and paleo-environmental changes in the Western Gulf of Lions (SW France) during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Lofi, Johanna; Gorini, Christian; Berne, Serge; Clauzon, Georges; Dos Reis, A.tadeu; Ryan, William; Steckler, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Current interpretation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) involves partial "clesiccation" of the Mediterranean Sea coupled with the deposition of thick evaporites in the deep basins. New sets of seismic reflection profiles in the western part of the Gulf of Lions confirm the basinward extension of the Messinian erosion and enable the mapping of distinctive seismic markers indicating the Messinian Erosional Surface (or Messinian unconformity), the basin-margin detrital deposits, and the de...

  17. La crise de la salinité messinienne dans le Golfe du Lion : de la marge érodée au bassin évaporitique

    Bache, Francois; Gorini, C.; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Baztan, Juan; Moulin, Maryline

    2006-01-01

    The Messinian erosional surface that can be observed on the Mediterranean margins is a good marker of the relative lowering of the sea level which happened during the Messinian salinity crisis. The estimate of the volume of Miocene sediments on the Gulf of Lion platform gives a minimum eroded volume of 5 300 Km . The eroded layer reaches one kilometre in numerous places (Figures 2 and 3). This volume demonstrates the erosion of the continental shelf in the Gulf of Lion and does not include th...

  18. Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay

    Maas, M.; Kooten, van P.J.S.; Schreuder, J.; Morar, D.; Tijhaar, E.; Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB stat

  19. The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.; Elendt, I.; P. Rusznyak; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.; M.; Witte

    1997-01-01

    A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION) instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP), which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC).

  20. Phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in Serengeti's lions.

    T.C. Harder (Timm); M.J.H. Kenter (Marcel); M.J.G. Appel (Max); M.E. Roelke-Parker (Melody); T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificat

  1. Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    María Alejandra Romero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals

  2. Strong intrusions of the Northern Mediterranean Current on the eastern Gulf of Lion: insights from in-situ observations and high resolution numerical modelling

    Barrier, Nicolas; Petrenko, Anne A.; Ourmières, Yann

    2016-03-01

    The Northern Mediterranean Current is the return branch of the cyclonic circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Because of geostrophic constraints, this warm and oligotrophic current is forced to flow westward along the continental slope of the Gulf of Lion. But, occasionally, it penetrates on the shelf and strongly impacts the local biogeochemistry and in turn the primary production. By combining in situ observations and high-resolution modelling, it is shown that intrusions on the eastern part of the gulf are mainly forced by easterly or northwesterly wind events, through physical mechanisms that are very different in nature. Easterlies induce a piling of water along the Gulf of Lion coast that drives, through geostrophy, an alongshore shelf-intruding current. This intrusive current occurs independently of the stratification and is concomitant with the wind forcing. On the other hand, intrusions due to northwesterlies only occur during stratified conditions and are related to the development of upwellings along the Gulf of Lion coasts. When the upwelling develops, a northwestward alongshore pressure force balances the Coriolis force associated with the onshore flow at depth. When the winds drop, the upwelling relaxes and the onshore flow weakens. Consequently, the Coriolis force no longer counterbalances the pressure force that ultimately dominates the momentum balance, causing the displacement of the Northern Current on the Gulf of Lion shelf approximately 1 day after the wind relaxation. This time lag between the northwesterlies decrease and the intrusions permits to anticipate possible changes in the biogeochemistry of the Gulf of Lion.

  3. Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)

    Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

    1975-12-01

    Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

  4. Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies

    Rizzo, John

    2011-01-01

    The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

  5. Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions

    Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

    2005-09-01

    Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

  6. A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo).

    Roelke-Parker, M E; Munson, L; Packer, C; Kock, R; Cleaveland, S; Carpenter, M; O'Brien, S J; Pospischil, A; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mwamengele, G L; Mgasa, M N; Machange, G A; Summers, B A; Appel, M J

    1996-02-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem of East Africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 (ref. 1), and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in 1991 (refs 2, 3). The large, closely monitored Serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. However, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV emerged abruptly in the lion population of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in early 1994, resulting in fatal neurological disease characterized by grand mal seizures and myoclonus; the lions that died had encephalitis and pneumonia. Here we report the identification of CDV from these lions, and the close phylogenetic relationship between CDV isolates from lions and domestic dogs. By August 1994, 85% of the Serengeti lion population had anti-CDV antibodies, and the epidemic spread north to lions in the Maasai Mara National reserve, Kenya, and uncounted hyaenas, bat-eared foxes, and leopards were also affected. PMID:8559247

  7. Scale and diversity following manipulation of productivity and disturbance in Californian coastal grasslands

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    known. We ask whether the response of species richness to experimental manipulation of productivity and disturbance varies across small spatial scales (0.016–4 m2). We show that species–area relationships are well suited to summarize cross-scale responses of species richness, and ask whether the...... responses of species–area relationships to experimental manipulations are more consistent than richness at any single scale. Location Northern Californian coastal grasslands. Methods We applied disturbance and productivity reduction treatments over 4 yr at two sites. We assessed changes in species richness...... over five grain sizes, encompassing a 256-fold range of plot size. This allowed us to construct a species–area relationship for each experimental plot in each sampling year. We used the slope of the species–area relationship to summarize changes in species richness across multiple spatial scales...

  8. On the First Case of Pre-action Injunction Granted in Beijing: Red Lion Paint Co., Ltd. v. Red Lion Jing Paint Trading Co., Ltd.

    2006-01-01

    The case in brief The Beijing Red Lion Paint Co., Ltd. (the RL for short) is a business that manufactures and markets paint, and the proprietor of several registered trademarks of the "RED LION" words, device and the combination thereof. The registered "RED LION" trademark has been, on several occasions, rewarded by the relevant departments the title of Famous Trademark in Beijing.

  9. Phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in Serengeti's lions.

    Harder, Timm; Kenter, Marcel; Appel, Max; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Barrett, Thomas,; Osterhaus, Albert

    1995-01-01

    textabstractRecently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificates and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that a wild-type strain of canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) was involved. Vaccination of the local domestic dog population with proven safe CDV ...

  10. Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath

    Masood, W.; Schwartz, S.J.; Maksimovic, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies...

  11. Fibroblastic osteosarcoma in a lion (Panthera leo

    L. Leonardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a case of spontaneous fibroblastic osteosarcoma in the humerus of a lion from a private park in Perugia, Italy. The tumor had an irregular, smooth, brown surface and a generally firm, rubbery consistence with gritty to hard areas interspersed. The mass was poorly vascularized with areas of necrosis at the periphery. The cut surface showed a multilobulated mass that had breached the humeral cortex, with periosteal production of reactive bone. The mass invaded the epiphysis, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule and ligaments. A mild hemorrhagic effusion appeared in the joint space. Clinical signs, gross and histopathologic findings are described in this rare case of a malignant bone tumor.

  12. OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius

    Spivey, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

  13. Prof. F.N. Lion-Cachet

    Editorial Office

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Die Redaksie van In die Skriflig het besluit om hierdie uitgawe van die tydskrif op te dra aan prof. F.N. Lion-Cachet, wat aan die einde van 1996 na ses en twintig en ’n half jaar aan die Teologiese Skool en die PU vir CHO geëmeriteer het. Hy was en is steeds ’n gewaardeerde kollega wat op baie terreine ’n besondere bydrae gelewer het. Op hierdie manier wil die Redaksie sê: baie dankie vir hierdie bydrae. Dat sy optrede en bydrae erkenning geniet het, blyk uit die verskeidenheid van kollegas wat ’n bydrae tot hierdie bundel gelewer het.

  14. Waveform and packet structure of lion roars

    W. Baumjohann

    Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence

  15. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez; Eric Mellink

    2015-01-01

    The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services inc...

  16. PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model

    Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis

  17. A Horse Frightened by a Lion in a Rocky Wooded Landscape

    Barret, George, the younger (British painter, ca. 1767 - 1842)

    1987-01-01

    This picture is almost certainly inspired by Stubbs' painting of a horse frightened by a lion (see 'Stubbs', Tate Gallery, 1984, no 62, p 94; in a private collection). The horse and lion are possibly painted by Sawrey Gilpin.

  18. Spatial and temporal interactions of sympatric mountain lions in Arizona

    Nicholson, Kerry L.; Krausman, Paul R.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal interactions among individual members of populations can have direct applications to habitat management of mountain lions (Puma concolor). Our objectives were to evaluate home range overlap and spatial/temporal use of overlap zones (OZ) of mountain lions in Arizona. We incorporated spatial data with genetic analyses to assess relatedness between mountain lions with overlapping home ranges. We recorded the space use patterns of 29 radio-collared mountain lions in Arizona from August 2005 to August 2008. We genotyped 28 mountain lions and estimated the degree of relatedness among individuals. For 26 pairs of temporally overlapping mountain lions, 18 overlapped spatially and temporally and eight had corresponding genetic information. Home range overlap ranged from 1.18% to 46.38% (x̄=2443, SE = 2.96). Male–male pairs were located within 1 km of each other on average, 0.04% of the time, whereas male–female pairs on average were 3.0%. Two male–male pairs exhibited symmetrical spatial avoidance and two symmetrical spatial attractions to the OZ. We observed simultaneous temporal attraction in three male–male pairs and four male–female pairs. Individuals from Tucson were slightly related to one another within the population (n = 13, mean R = 0.0373 ± 0.0151) whereas lions from Payson (n = 6, mean R = -0.0079 ± 0.0356) and Prescott (n = 9, mean R = -0.0242 ± 0.0452) were not as related. Overall, males were less related to other males (n = 20, mean R = -0.0495 ± 0.0161) than females were related to other females (n = 8, mean R = 0.0015 ± 0.0839). Genetic distance was positively correlated with geographic distance (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.001). Spatial requirements and interactions influence social behavior and can play a role in determining population density.

  19. Building an infrastructure to prevent falls in older Californians: the Fall Prevention Center of Excellence.

    Rose, Debra J; Alkema, Gretchen E; Choi, In Hee; Nishita, Christy M; Pynoos, Jon

    2007-10-01

    The Fall Prevention Center of Excellence (Center), a consortium of federal, state, and private organizations, was established in 2005 to guide the implementation of a statewide initiative to prevent falls among older Californians. The process began with the convening of a representative group of recognized leaders in California's health and human services in 2003. This group engaged in a 2-day strategic planning process that culminated in the development of the California Blueprint for Fall Prevention. The overarching goal of the Blueprint is to build a statewide infrastructure for fall prevention services and programs that will serve as a model for the rest of the country. The specific goals of the Center are to establish fall prevention as a key public health priority in California; create, test, and evaluate effective and sustainable fall prevention programs; and build a comprehensive and sustainable fall prevention system in California. To accomplish these goals, the Center is currently engaged in developing and disseminating fall prevention tools and informational resources directed at the needs of both consumer and professional audiences; linking organizations involved in fall prevention while increasing awareness of fall prevention as an important public health issue; and helping communities build their capacity to effectively address falls in older adults through the delivery of integrated fall prevention services and "best practice" programs. PMID:17986582

  20. Evolutionary and demographic history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex: an integrative approach.

    Ortego, Joaquín; Noguerales, Víctor; Gugger, Paul F; Sork, Victoria L

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the factors promoting species formation is a major task in evolutionary research. Here, we employ an integrative approach to study the evolutionary history of the Californian scrub white oak species complex (genus Quercus). To infer the relative importance of geographical isolation and ecological divergence in driving the speciation process, we (i) analysed inter- and intraspecific patterns of genetic differentiation and employed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) framework to evaluate different plausible scenarios of species divergence. In a second step, we (ii) linked the inferred divergence pathways with current and past species distribution models (SDMs) and (iii) tested for niche differentiation and phylogenetic niche conservatism across taxa. ABC analyses showed that the most plausible scenario is the one considering the divergence of two main lineages followed by a more recent pulse of speciation. Genotypic data in conjunction with SDMs and niche differentiation analyses support that different factors (geography vs. environment) and modes of speciation (parapatry, allopatry and maybe sympatry) have played a role in the divergence process within this complex. We found no significant relationship between genetic differentiation and niche overlap, which probably reflects niche lability and/or that multiple factors, have contributed to speciation. Our study shows that different mechanisms can drive divergence even among closely related taxa representing early stages of species formation and exemplifies the importance of adopting integrative approaches to get a better understanding of the speciation process. PMID:26547661

  1. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El... 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies, requested that the Commission grant a temporary waiver...

  2. Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

  3. Lions of West Africa : ecology of lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus 1975) populations and human-lion conflicts in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, North Benin

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé Aïkpémi

    2011-01-01

    The Earth’s biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate in the last decades. Many species, including carnivores, are becoming endangered. The lion was one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals and is today restricted to Gir ecosystem in India and to more or less fragmented populati

  4. LIONs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    The term LION is an acronym for Long Ionization Chamber. This is a distributed ion chamber which is used to monitor secondary ionization along the shield walls of a beam line resulting from incorrectly steered charged particle beams in lieu of the use of many discrete ion chambers. A cone of ionizing radiation emanating from a point source as a result of incorrect steering intercepts a portion of 1-5/8 inch Heliax cable (about 100 meters in length) filled with Argon gas at 20 psi and induces a pulsed current which is proportional to the ionizing charge. This signal is transmitted via the cable to an integrator circuit whose output is directed to an electronic comparators, which in turn is used to turn off the accelerated primary beam when preset limits are exceeded. This device is used in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Beam Containment System (BCS) to prevent potentially hazardous ionizing radiation resulting from incorrectly steered beams in areas that might be occupied by people. This paper describes the design parameters and experience in use in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) area of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  5. Lions and prions and deer demise.

    Michael W Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contagious prion diseases--scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease of several species in the deer family--give rise to epidemics that seem capable of compromising host population viability. Despite this prospect, the ecological consequences of prion disease epidemics in natural populations have received little consideration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a cohort study design, we found that prion infection dramatically lowered survival of free-ranging adult (>2-year-old mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus: estimated average life expectancy was 5.2 additional years for uninfected deer but only 1.6 additional years for infected deer. Prion infection also increased nearly fourfold the rate of mountain lions (Puma concolor preying on deer, suggesting that epidemics may alter predator-prey dynamics by facilitating hunting success. Despite selective predation, about one fourth of the adult deer we sampled were infected. High prevalence and low survival of infected deer provided a plausible explanation for the marked decline in this deer population since the 1980s. CONCLUSION: Remarkably high infection rates sustained in the face of intense predation show that even seemingly complete ecosystems may offer little resistance to the spread and persistence of contagious prion diseases. Moreover, the depression of infected populations may lead to local imbalances in food webs and nutrient cycling in ecosystems in which deer are important herbivores.

  6. In situ measurements of KZ and ɛ compared to numerical models in the Gulf of Lion.

    Costa, Andrea; Doglioli, Andrea; Dekeyser, Ivan; Jullion, Loic; Malengros, Deny; Petrenko, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Vertical diffusivity and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate play an essential role in the parametrization of physical and biogeochemical models. Coastal environment is particularly important because expected to contribute in a substantial way to the balance of kinetic energy in the ocean. In situ measurements have a crucial importance in driving the models. We present a multi-annual dataset performed with SCAMP (Self Contained Autonomous Profiler) field measurements of KZ and ɛ in a variety of meteorological and oceanic conditions in the Gulf of Lion (Mediterranean Sea). The results are compared with respect to similar measurements in coastal waters described in literature. Moreover, a comparison to numerical circulation models is proposed in order to show the dependency of the depth of the mixing layer on the wind forcing.

  7. Population genetics features for persistent, but transient, Botryllus schlosseri (Urochordata) congregations in a central Californian marina.

    Karahan, Arzu; Douek, Jacob; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2016-08-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a globally distributed, invasive ascidian that has colonized the Californian coasts of the USA during the mid-late 1940s and has, since the late 1980s, spread north to Washington. This study analyzes the population genetic characteristics of transient populations residing at the Elkhorn Yacht-Club (EYC), in central California (seven sessions, 1996-2008), which suffered periodic catastrophes caused by episodic fresh-water floods and a single sampling session (in the year 2001) of five West-Coast populations using the mtDNA COI gene and five microsatellite markers. EYC microsatellite results were further compared with the closely situated but persistent population of the Santa Cruz Harbor (SCH) to understand the impact on EYC population regeneration processes after the 2005-flood catastrophe. All microsatellites were highly polymorphic, revealing a large number of unique alleles at different sampling dates. Whereas pairwise θ did not reveal significant differences between the EYC time-series samplings, the overall θ was significant, as it was between all the 2001 West Coast populations. The most likely cluster number was 3 for the EYC samples whereas two K values were obtained (2 and 5) for the 2001 samples. Tajima's D and Fu's/Fs tests did not reject the null hypothesis for COI neutral evolution, except for in the EYC-2000, 2007 and two 2001 samplings. The wide geographical range of the analyses has indicated that following the EYC 2005-flood catastrophe, newcomers could have originated from neighboring populations, from deep-water colonies that may have escaped the 2005 low salinity event, or less expectedly, from far away West-Coast populations, while revealing that the SCH population is the most probable source for the EYC population. PMID:27154209

  8. Stratigraphical links between Miocene Alpine Foreland basin and Gulf of Lion Passive Margin during lowstands

    Rubino, Jean-Loup; Gorini, Christian; Leroux, Estelle; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Parize, Olivier; Besson, David

    2015-04-01

    Miocene peri-alpine foreland basin is connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water molassic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional sequences are recorded and partly preserved in this basin and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. One of the most surprising feature of the stratigraphic infill is the total lack of lowstand deposits within the foreland basin ; All superimposed sequences only includes transgressive and highstand System Tracts separated by erosional sequence boundaries and the development of incised valley networks filled by tidal deposits during transgression; Besson et al. 2005. It means that the entire foreland basin in SE France is exposed during lowstand periods without any preservation of fluvial deposits. By place few forced regression wedges are preserved at the transition between the foreland and the passive margin, close to the present day coastline. To date no real lowstand wedges have never been reported in the offshore of the Gulf of Lion. A reinterpretation of the best old vintage 2D dip seismic profiles along the passive margin validates the idea that the foreland basin is entirely exposed as well as the proximal part of the passive margin; first because some incised valleys can be occasionally picked on the shelf and second mainly because well defined superimposed or juxtaposed prograding lowstand wedges with nicely defined clinoforms onlapping the sequence boundaries can be recognized on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian. Their ages being constrains by the Calmar well calibration. Unfortunately, they can't be continuously mapped all along the shelf break because of the strong erosion related to the Messinian Unconformity and the associated huge sea level fall.So we have to explain why during the lowstands, exceptionally long fluvial valley networks (more than 300km) can

  9. Water use by the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi

    F.C. Eloff

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which the Kalahari lion can survive without having to drink water was investigated in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. It was found that while they may drink regularly where water is available, they may become completely independent of water under extreme desert conditions. Sufficient moisture for their needs seems to be obtained from the blood and body fluids of their prey and the vegetable components of theirdiet. Loss of water through evaporation is reduced by the lion'sleisurely way of life.

  10. Lions (Panthera leo) solve, learn, and remember a novel resource acquisition problem.

    Borrego, Natalia; Dowling, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The social intelligence hypothesis proposes that the challenges of complex social life bolster the evolution of intelligence, and accordingly, advanced cognition has convergently evolved in several social lineages. Lions (Panthera leo) offer an ideal model system for cognitive research in a highly social species with an egalitarian social structure. We investigated cognition in lions using a novel resource task: the suspended puzzle box. The task required lions (n = 12) to solve a novel problem, learn the techniques used to solve the problem, and remember techniques for use in future trials. The majority of lions demonstrated novel problem-solving and learning; lions (11/12) solved the task, repeated success in multiple trials, and significantly reduced the latency to success across trials. Lions also demonstrated cognitive abilities associated with memory and solved the task after up to a 7-month testing interval. We also observed limited evidence for social facilitation of the task solution. Four of five initially unsuccessful lions achieved success after being partnered with a successful lion. Overall, our results support the presence of cognition associated with novel problem-solving, learning, and memory in lions. To date, our study is only the second experimental investigation of cognition in lions and further supports expanding cognitive research to lions. PMID:27311315

  11. Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River

    Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

  12. George Bernard Shaw's "Androcles and the Lion": A Postmodernist Study

    Hooti, Noorbakhsh; Jeihouni, Mojtaba

    2012-01-01

    This study makes an attempt to analyze the manifold aspects of Shaw's "Androcles and the Lion" on a postmodernist standpoint, meanwhile, demonstrates the dominion of modernism, which is portrayed through the vehicle of comedy with a bitter ironic language through the play. Regardless of the historical period in which the play occurs, the…

  13. Severe intestinal coccidiosis in a newborn lion (Panthera leo)

    Severe coccidiosis was found in sections of small intestine of a less than 2 day old lion (Panthera leo) born in captivity. Schizonts, merozoites, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were located in epithelial cells of ileum. Ultrastructural examination indicated that schizonts divided by schizogony. ...

  14. Terrorism, Violence, and the Collision of Masculinities in "Four Lions"

    Labidi, Imed

    2011-01-01

    Many critics hailed the new film, "Four Lions," by director Chris Morris as "provocative, incendiary, audacious, and shocking" and "one of the funniest and boldest comedies of the year." As a satirist, Morris already established his wit signature with the production of the mockumentary series, "Brass Eye." Using the same absurdist approach, he…

  15. Lions of West Africa: ecology of lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus 1975) populations and human-lion conflicts in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, North Benin

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé Aïkpémi

    2011-01-01

    The Earth’s biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate in the last decades. Many species, including carnivores, are becoming endangered. The lion was one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals and is today restricted to Gir ecosystem in India and to more or less fragmented populations in sub-saharan Africa. The species is considered as Vulnerable on IUCN Red List. In West Africa, due to its small and fragmented populations, the species is listed as Regionally Endangered. Whi...

  16. Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo.

    Joseph Saragusty

    Full Text Available Lion (Panthera leo populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512 and captive (N = 63 origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH, FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm. There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm and captive (18.56±1.64 mm tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2% had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm, this was evident in 40.4% (23/57 of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.

  17. Reconstruction of the Gulf of Lions margin during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Steckler, M. S.; Lofi, J.; Mountain, G. S.; Ryan, W. B. F.; Berné, S.; Gorini, C.

    2003-04-01

    The desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian Salinity Crisis from 5.9 to 5.3 Ma subaerially exposed its continental margins. In regions near major rivers, the margins were eroded into dissected subaerial ramps. Farther seaward, the deep Mediterranean basin received extensive evaporitic deposits along with clastic debris shed from the margins. The fluvial landscape at the former continental margins and the deep evaporite basins were then rapidly resubmerged at by the flooding of the Mediterranean at the end of the crisis. Since that time, rivers have fed a continuous supply of sediment, rebuilt the margins and buried the erosion surface and Messinian sediments. The geometry of the Messinian erosion surfaces and strata has been progressively deformed by subsidence, compaction, sediment loading and tectonics. Seismic reflection profiles show a large sag in the Messinian erosion surface beneath the Gulf of Lions margin that was clearly not present at 5.3 Ma. This geometry highlights the need to reconstruct the past bathymetry and stratigraphy. In order to address this problem, we have performed preliminary 2D backstripping of several profiles constructed from a TotalFinaElf MCS survey on the shelf and the CALMAR project survey farther offshore. Our reconstructions provide estimates of the geometry of the margin during the Salinity Crisis and support a two-stage model for the desiccation of the Western Mediterranean. During the first stage the Western Mediterranean was drawn down to the depth of a sill separating the Eastern and Western basins; during the second phase the Western basin was fully desiccated and the upper salt was deposited. Our reconstructions indicate the presence of two erosion surfaces that correspond to these two phases. We have used river thalwegs in the reconstructed profiles to define the incised lower erosion surface as a concave up surface that averages ˜0.6^o dip and ends at the evaporites at a depth of 1800--1900 m. The first

  18. An Analysis of Allegory found in C. S. Lewis’ The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe

    Panjaitan, Yosi Renata

    2010-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Allegory found in C. S. Lewis’ The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Di dalam skripsi ini secara keseluruhan, penulis ingin membuktikan apakah benar novel yang berjudul The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe yang merupakan karya C. S. Lewis merupakan alegori ditinjau dari kepercayaan Kristen. Adapun metode yang dipakai penulis dalam penulisan skripsi ini adalah metode analisis deskriptif. Kesimpulan dari skripsi ini adalah novel berjudul The Lion, the Witc...

  19. Multi-approach quantification of denudation rates in the Gulf of Lion source-to-sink system (SE France)

    Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Leroux, E.; Bourlès, D. L.; Authemayou, C.; Aslanian, D.; Chauvet, F.; Civet, F.; Jouët, G.

    2016-06-01

    During the Pliocene and the Quaternary, the Gulf of Lion, the northern passive margin of the Liguro-Provençal basin in the western Mediterranean Sea, received sediments from a 120 000 km2 drainage area constituted by several structural domains. The denudation of mountainous areas, source of this sedimentary supply, results from complex interactions between tectonics, climate, morphology, and rock erodibility. In this study, denudation rates from the present-day and ranging back to the Quaternary and the Pliocene are quantified using four independent methods allowing an investigation over different time scales: 1) compilation of present-day measured sediment fluxes, 2) determination of catchment-scale cosmogenic denudation rates through measurements of in situ-produced 10Be concentrations in sands sampled at the outlet of present-day rivers, 3) estimation of eroded volumes within catchments using a DEM to quantify long-term averaged Quaternary denudation rates, and 4) quantification of sediment volumes deposited within the marine realm of the Gulf of Lion. The results obtained by these four methods are in agreement within the range of uncertainties. The internal part of the Alps exhibits significantly higher denudation rates (∼700 mm ka-1) than those estimated in the other structural domains: 150-250 mm ka-1 in the foreland Alps, ∼100 mm ka-1 in the Pyrenees, and 55-75 mm ka-1 in the Massif Central. The Alpine domain provides at least 80% of the total eroded volume supplied towards the Gulf of Lion. A quantitative geomorphological approach shows that denudation rates are controlled at the first order by catchment morphologies (slope, relief) over different time scales, suggesting glacial conditioning to be the main driver on denudation from the Quaternary to present-day. Throughout the Pliocene-Quaternary, a doubling of denudation rates related to the mid-Pleistocene Revolution (∼0.9 Ma) is highlighted.

  20. Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.

    Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

    2011-02-01

    Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . PMID:20825444

  1. Terrestrial lion roars and non-Maxwellian distribution

    Qureshi, M. N. S.; Nasir, Warda; Masood, W.; Yoon, P. H.; Shah, H. A.; Schwartz, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Lion roars are low-frequency (˜100 Hz) whistler waves frequently observed in the Earth's magnetosheath. By analyzing both wave and electron data from the Cluster spacecraft, and comparing with linear Vlasov kinetic theory, Masood et al. (2006) investigated the underlying cause of the lion roar generation. However, the analysis based upon the bi-Maxwellian distribution function did not adequately explain the observations qualitatively as well as quantitatively. This outstanding problem is revisited in the present paper, and a resolution is put forth in which, the flat-top non-Maxwellian distribution function with a velocity power law energetic tail, known as the (r,q) distribution, or the generalized kappa distribution is employed. Upon carrying out the linear stability analysis of the (r,q) distribution against the whistler wave perturbation, and upon comparison with the Cluster data, good qualitative and quantitative agreements are found between theory and data.

  2. Conducting Mountain Lion Research: A Citizen Science Project

    Patterson, Barbara; Hunter, Don; Krunn, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Cat Conservancy, a Colorado-based conservation group dedicated to promoting wild cat conservation through research and community stewardship, seeks to mitigate human-mountain lion conflicts through an innovative community stewardship project that engages local students and volunteers in citizen science research. In addition to establishing a permanent, outdoor, wildlife-based curriculum at Front Range Community College - Larimer Campus, Communities, Cameras and Conservation est...

  3. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    Vercammen, F.; J. Brandt; Van Brantegem, L; L. Bosseler; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, th...

  4. Ein Humboldt-Brief in der Autographensammlung Lion Feuchtwangers

    Ingo Schwarz

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.The paper deals with a letter from Alexander von Humboldt, which has been part of Lion Feuchtwanger's Autograph Collection since 1958. An investigation of the contents of the letter brought to light new details, chiefly of Humboldt's activities in promoting young talents. Emil Naumann (1827-1888, composer, teacher and author, was clearly identified as the letter's recipient.

  5. A Major Fan of Oz, but Not a Cowardly Lion

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2004-01-01

    The nooks and crannies in the office of Bill McNeal, superintendent in Wake County, NC, suggest the occupant is one wildly enthusiastic follower of The Wizard of Oz. It is chock full of memorabilia of Dorothy Gale, the Tin Man, the Scarecrow and the Cowardly Lion, a carousel of the Emerald City and various books on the subject--most of the items…

  6. Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath

    A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T-/sub perpendicular//T-/sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B2/8πN, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ω/sub max/ = A-Ω-/(A-+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated

  7. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography and space-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005-2006. The mean times lions were inactive was similar between the...... three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions...... spent most of their time on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgets were similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the...

  8. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    H. Adams

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo. Although lion lentivirus (FIVple infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

  9. Dimensions of a human-lion conflict: the ecology of human predation and persecution of African lions Panthera leo in Tanzania

    Ikanda, Dennis Kyabwasi

    2009-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation issue worldwide. On the one hand it leads to loss of life and property, but on the other leads to the killing of animal species of conservation concern. Lions have the innate potential to kill humans, creating the most serious form of human-wildlife conflicts today. But lion persecution is also common and the number of lions in Africa has declined drastically over the past two decades as a result. Tanzania holds over 50% of the global population...

  10. 78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...

    2013-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK... Commission amends the Table of FM Allotments by removing Channel 221C0 at Port Lions, Alaska; Channel 247C3...(b), the Table of FM Allotments, is amended by: 0 a. Under Alaska, removing Port Lions, Channel...

  11. Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species

    Boer, de W.F.; Vis, M.J.P.; Knegt, de H.J.; Rowles, C.; Kohi, E.; Langevelde, van F.; Peel, M.J.S.; Pretorius, Y.; Skidmore, A.K.; Slotow, R.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2010-01-01

    Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer goo

  12. Evaluation of microsatellite markers for populations studies and forensic identification of African lions (Panthera leo).

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The South African lion (Panthera leo) population is highly fragmented. One-third of its wild lions occur in small (<1000 km(2)) reserves. These lions were reintroduced from other areas of the species' historical range. Management practices on these reserves have not prioritized genetic provenance or heterozygosity. These trends potentially constrain the conservation value of these lions. To ensure the best management and long-term survival of these subpopulations as a viable collective population, the provenance and current genetic diversity must be described. Concurrently, poaching of lions to supply a growing market for lion bones in Asia may become a serious conservation challenge in the future. Having a standardized, validated method for matching confiscated lion parts with carcasses will be a key tool in investigating these crimes. We evaluated 28 microsatellites in the African lion using samples from 18 small reserves and 1 captive facility in South Africa, two conservancies in Zimbabwe, and Kruger National and Kgalagadi Transfrontier Parks to determine the loci most suited for population management and forensic genetic applications. Twelve microsatellite loci with a match probability of 1.1×10(-5) between siblings were identified for forensics. A further 10 could be added for population genetics studies. PMID:25151647

  13. Traditional Culture into Interactive Arts: The Cases of Lion Dance in Temple Lecture

    Lee, Wen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Tung; He, Ming-Yu; Hsu, Tao-I.

    The lion dance in Chinese culture is one of profound arts. This work aims to bridge traditional culture and modern multimedia technology and application of network cameras for the interactive tool to design a set of activities to promote the lion as the main body. There consists of the imaging systems and interactive multimedia applications.

  14. Roar into Reading: A Guide for First Grade Teachers from "Between the Lions[TM]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is an award-winning PBS television series based on a comprehensive literacy curriculum that combines phonics and whole language. This guide has been created to help first grade teachers use "Between the Lions" in their classrooms to enhance their reading lessons. The guide is filled with engaging activities, classroom literacy…

  15. Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948)

    Eloff, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

  16. Get Wild about Reading! A Guide for Kindergarten Teachers from "Between the Lions."

    Cerier, Laura

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide is designed to help kindergarten teachers integrate "Between the Lions" and its curriculum…

  17. Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948

    F. C Eloff

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

  18. Plio-Quaternary prograding clinoform wedges of the western Gulf of Lion continental margin (NW Mediterranean) after the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Lofi, Johanna; Rabineau, Marina; Gorini, Christian; Berne, Serge; Clauzon, Georges; De Clarens, Philippe; Dos Reis, Tadeu; Mountain, Gregory; Ryan, William; Steckler, Michael; Fouchet, Christine

    2003-01-01

    In contrast to the much-studied onshore and deep offshore post-Messinian sedimentary history of the Gulf of Lion, the continental shelf had been poorly explored until recently. New seismic data, acquired by ELF Oil Company on the Languedoc-Roussillon shelf (Western Mediterranean Sea), from Cap Creus in the SW to Cap d'Agde in the NE, together with data from previously drilled exploratory wells, allow us to propose a scenario for margin reconstruction following the Messinian Salinity Crisis. T...

  19. The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.

    Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their

  20. Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval

    Garrity, Caren; Lubin, Dan; Kern, Stefan; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2002-01-01

    cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19...... misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice...

  1. Understanding shallow gas occurrences in the Gulf of Lions

    Garcia-Garcia, Ana; Tesi, Tommaso; Orange, Daniel L.; Lorenson, T.; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, L.; Herbert, I.; Dougherty, J.

    2007-01-01

    New coring data have been acquired along the western Gulf of Lions showing anomalous concentrations of methane (up to 95,700 ppm) off the Rho??ne prodelta and the head of the southern canyons Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus. Sediment cores were acquired with box and kasten cores during 2004-2005 on several EuroSTRATAFORM cruises. Anomalous methane concentrations are discussed and integrated with organic carbon data. Sampled sites include locations where previous surveys identified acoustic anomalies in high-resolution seismic profiles, which may be related to the presence of gas. Interpretation of the collected data has enabled us to discuss the nature of shallow gas along the Gulf of Lions, and its association with recent sedimentary dynamics. The Rho??ne prodelta flood deposits deliver significant amounts of terrigenous organic matter that can be rapidly buried, effectively removing this organic matter from aerobic oxidation and biological uptake, and leading to the potential for methanogenesis with burial. Away from the flood-related sediments off the Rho??ne delta, the organic matter is being reworked and remineralized on its way along the western coast of the Gulf of Lions, with the result that the recent deposits in the canyon contain little reactive carbon. In the southernmost canyons, Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus, the gas analyses show relatively little shallow gas in the core samples. Samples with anomalous gas (up to 5,000 ppm methane) are limited to local areas where the samples also show higher amounts of organic matter. The anomalous samples at the head of the southern canyons may be related to methanogenesis of recent drape or of older sidewall canyon infills. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  2. Morphological and genetic identification and isotopic study of the hair of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss, 1810) from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Chernova, O. F.; Kirillova, I. V.; Shapiro, B.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.; Soares, A. E. R.; Levchenko, V. A.; Bertuch, F.

    2016-06-01

    We present the first detailed analyses of the preserved hair of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss, 1810). The hair was found in association with a skeleton that was recovered recently from perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia). We extract mitochondrial DNA from the hair to confirm its taxonomic identity, and perform detailed morphological analyses of the color and structure of the hair using light optical microscopy and SEM. In addition, we compare the cave lion hair to hair taken from the back and mane of an African lion. We find that cave lion hair is similar but not identical to that of the present-day lion. In addition to slightly different coloration, cave lions had a very thick and dense undercoat comprising closed and compressed wavy downy hair with a medulla. In addition, while the microstructures of the medulla and cortex of cave lion hair are similar in extinct and living lions, the cuticular scales of cave lion hair are higher than those in living lions, suggesting that cave lion hair is stronger and more robust than that of living lions. We hypothesize that the differences between cave lion hair and present-day lion hair may be due to adaptations of cave lions to the harsh climatic and environmental conditions of the Pleistocene Ice Ages.

  3. Of the Helmholtz Club, South-Californian seedbed for visual and cognitive neuroscience, and its patron Francis Crick.

    Aicardi, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Taking up the view that semi-institutional gatherings such as clubs, societies, research schools, have been instrumental in creating sheltered spaces from which many a 20th-century project-driven interdisciplinary research programme could develop and become established within the institutions of science, the paper explores the history of one such gathering from its inception in the early 1980s into the 2000s, the Helmholtz Club, which brought together scientists from such various research fields as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, psychophysics, computer science and engineering, who all had an interest in the study of the visual system and of higher cognitive functions relying on visual perception such as visual consciousness. It argues that British molecular biologist turned South Californian neuroscientist Francis Crick had an early and lasting influence over the Helmholtz Club of which he was a founding pillar, and that from its inception, the club served as a constitutive element in his long-term plans for a neuroscience of vision and of cognition. Further, it argues that in this role, the Helmholtz Club served many purposes, the primary of which was to be a social forum for interdisciplinary discussion, where 'discussion' was not mere talk but was imbued with an epistemic value and as such, carefully cultivated. Finally, it questions what counts as 'doing science' and in turn, definitions of success and failure-and provides some material evidence towards re-appraising the successfulness of Crick's contribution to the neurosciences. PMID:24384229

  4. One Shared Region and Two Different Change Patterns: Land Use Change in the Binational Californian Mediterranean Region

    Ricardo Eaton-Gonzalez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Californian Floristic Province, ranging from Northern California, USA, to the northwestern portion of the state of Baja California, Mexico, is a region of great biological richness that has a high risk of loss of species due to the effect of human activities. The main stressor that threatens its biodiversity is the change in land use and vegetation cover, which severely impacts the environmental and socio-economic systems’ functioning, affecting the provision of environmental services including the maintenance of biodiversity. The Tijuana River Watershed (TRW is located within this floristic province. It has experienced rapid population growth during the last 50 years, demanding development of infrastructure in areas where native vegetation existed. As a binational watershed, it is an ideal area to study the processes involved in fragmentation and connectivity of natural environments, since both countries, while sharing the same environment, contrast greatly in their economic and social systems, which impose different pressures to these shared natural resources. Our research addresses change in vegetation cover and land use in the TRW, analyzing the changes and differences between Mexico and the United States. This analysis will be a basis to propose future management strategies for the conservation of ecological processes and biodiversity, according to the policies and actions for land management and conservation in both countries.

  5. Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India

    Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

    2013-01-01

    Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km2. Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km2–31/km2 with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n = 165), predation events (n = 180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions’ biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis’ traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a

  6. First results from the SARDINIA deep seismic cruise on the Western Sardinia and Gulf of Lions conjugate margin pair

    Gailler, A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Beslier, M.; Olivet, J.; Aslanian, D.; Bache, F.; Moulin, M.; Matias, L.; Afilhado, A.; Nouze, H.

    2008-12-01

    The deep North-Western Mediterranean (or Provencal) basin was formed by thinning and rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block which started 30-20 Ma ago. It is bounded by the Gulf of Lions to the north, the Catalan margin to the west, the Ligurian Sea to the east, and the Valencia Trough to the south-west, in which rifting started at roughly the same time as in the Provencal basin. The basin has a depth of up to 2.8 km and a sedimentary layer thickness of up to 8 km. The central part of the basin is presumed to be underlain by a crust of oceanic nature, while the neighboring Valencia Trough is situated on thinned continental crust. During the SARDINIA cruise of the R/V Atalante in December 2006, three wide-angle seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Lions area and three profiles on the conjugate margin offshore Sardinia. The main goals of the SARDINIA project were to image the deep structure of the conjugate margin pair, to characterize the nature of the crust, detect any exhumed upper mantle materiel and to define the geometry of the basins to better constrain the opening history of the basin. During the cruise, a total of 57 ocean bottom seismometers/hydrophones (OBS/OBH) from Ifremer, the University of Brest and Geomar, Kiel were deployed in the Gulf of Lions region and 47 OBS and OBH offshore Sardinia. The lines perpendicular to the margins were recorded by landstations onshore, thus prolonging the profiles. Tomographic and forward wide-angle seismic models of the deep seismic data from the margin perpendicular profile located in the Gulf of Lions image a sedimentary layer up to 8 km thickness, which is locally strongly disturbed by salt tectonics. They indicate, that crustal thinning in the Gulf of Lions area occurs within a 100 km wide zone. East of this zone of crustal thinning is a zone characterized by high velocities in the lower crust (7.2-7.4 km/s) atypical for either thinned continental or normal oceanic crust. The boundary of this layer

  7. Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions.

    Gilfillan, Geoffrey; Vitale, Jessica; McNutt, John Weldon; McComb, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed during natural social interactions. We address this question by testing audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions (Panthera leo) using an expectancy-violation paradigm. When presented with a scenario where the playback of a loud-call (roaring) broadcast from behind a visual block is incongruent with the conspecific previously seen there, subjects responded more strongly than during the congruent scenario where the call and individual matched. These findings suggest that lions are capable of audio-visual cross-modal individual recognition and provide a useful method for studying this ability in wild populations. PMID:27555649

  8. Lion king or Aslan: a tale from Narnia!

    Battista, Renaldo

    2011-01-01

    In the Chronicles of Narnia series by C.S. Lewis, Aslan the all-powerful but benevolent lion does not need to have his tail twisted; rather, he twists tails to create convergence and harmony in his dream world. In this issue's lead article, "Twisting the Lion's Tail: Collaborative Health Policy Making in British Columbia," the authors discuss the problems regarding better coordination of health services research, knowledge translation and policy making. The roles of academia, health authorities and government are presently unclear, with leadership differences, power discrepancies, conflicting agendas, lag times and systemic structural complexity. Exploring these issues in British Columbia, Lindstrom, MacLeod and Levy advocate a change in perspective from practice gaps to bridging knowledge boundaries. Recommendations include networking of academia, action research and strengthening of relationships between stakeholders. However, a key cohesive element seems missing. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a formidable, dynamic driving force. With over 20 years' experience in HTA, Canada has a number of world-class innovative agencies federally and provincially that actively involve academia to generate evidence for informed policy making. Increased use of evidence-based medicine in research and the clinic may be achieved by augmenting HTA's scientific capacity through the creation of pan-Canadian exchange forums and by boosting the demand for knowledge translation. PMID:21677516

  9. Study of the PTW microLion chamber temperature dependence

    The use of liquid ionization chambers in radiotherapy has grown during the past few years. While for air ionization chambers the kTP correction for air mass density due to pressure and temperature variations is well known, less work has been done on the case of liquid ionization chambers, where there is still the need to take into account the influence of temperature in the free ion yield. We have measured the PTW microLion isooctane-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence in a ∼ ±10 °C interval around the standard 20 °C room temperature for three operation voltages, including the manufacturer recommended voltage, and two beam qualities, 60Co and 50 kV x-rays. Within the measured temperature range, the microLion signal exhibits a positive linear dependence, which is around 0.24% K−1 at 800 V with 60Co irradiation. This effect is of the same order of magnitude as the T dependence found in air ionization chambers, but its nature is completely different and its sign opposite to that of an air chamber. Onsager theory has been used to model the results and is consistent with this linear behaviour. However, some inconsistencies in the modelling of the 50 kV x-ray results have been found that are attributed to the failure of Onsager's isolated pair assumption for such radiation quality. (paper)

  10. Toxaemia secondary to pyloric foreign body obstruction in two African lion(Panther leo) cubs

    David; Squarre; John; Yabe; Chisoni; Mumba; Maxwel; Mwase; Katendi; Changula; Wizaso; Mwasinga; Musso; Munyeme

    2015-01-01

    A case of toxaemia secondary to pyloric foreign body obstruction in two four-month-old African lion cubs were presented in this article. The lion cubs were presented to the school of veterinary medicine with a complaint of weight loss and stunted growth despite having a normal appetite and seizures. Defi nitive diagnosis was made based on gross pathology after attempting various symptomatic treatments. This article therefore is meant to discourage the use of blankets as bedding in holding enclosures for warmth and comfort post-weaning in captive lion cubs and indeed wild cats in general as they tend to eat bedding that has been soiled with food.

  11. Lions-liiton www-sivuston kehittämistyö

    Koskinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Tässä ylemmän ammattikorkeakoulun opinnäytetyössä tehtiin kehittämistyö Suomen Lions-liiton internet sivuston uudistamisesta. Kehittämistyö tehtiin projektimuotoisena ja tilaajana toimi Suomen Lions-liitto. Kehittämistyö saavuttaa kehittämistutkimuksen vaateet, kun kehittämistyössä lopputuotteena syntyy jotain konkreettista. Tämän kehittämistyön tavoitteeksi asetettiin se, että suunnittelutyön lopputuotteena tehdään Lions-liitolle uusi toimivampi konsepti internetsivustosta. Kehittämistut...

  12. Generalized Lions-Peetre interpolation construction and optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces

    In the paper, a new description of the generalized Lions-Peetre method of means is found, which enables one to evaluate the interpolation orbits of spaces constructed by this method. The list of these spaces includes all Lorentz spaces with functional parameters, Orlicz spaces, and spaces close to them. This leads in turn to new optimal embedding theorems for Sobolev spaces produced using the Lions-Peetre construction in rearrangement invariant spaces. It turns out that the optimal space of the embedding is also a generalized Lions-Peetre space whose parameters are explicitly evaluated. Bibliography: 18 titles

  13. Offshore and onshore stratigraphic constraints to rebuild the evolution of the two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia) over the last 30 Myr

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Blanpied, Christian; Taillepierre, Rachel; Haq, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    Principles of seismic and sequential stratigraphy [Vail et al., 1977] are applied onto an extensive set of seismic reflection and drilling data in the Provençal Basin to correlate post-rift Miocene and Plio-Quaternary chronostratigraphic markers at the basin-wide scale. Stratigraphic, sedimentological and micropaleontological studies [Cravatte et al., 1974] for some of the boreholes provide additional information on the depositional environments and the chronostratigraphy of the drilled series. Synthesis of previous onshore studies on the both conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia), and new fieldwork [Rueda, 2014] enable us to establish the stratigraphical link between onshore and offshore syn-rift and post-rift sequences. Miocene peri-Alpine foreland basin is particularly connected toward the south with the Gulf of Lion passive margin and is predominantly filled by marine shallow water siliciclastic deposits ranging from lower Miocene to Pliocene in age. Nine to ten depositional onshore sequences are identified [Besson et al., 2005, Rubino et al., 2015] and can be traced into the post rift part of the Gulf of Lion. The recognition of these sequences on the distal part of the shelf from the Burdigalian to the Messinian with a good well calibration is fully consistent and integrated in a chronostratigraphic history of the Provençal Basin over the last 30 Myr. We quantify, model and discuss the evolution of vertical movements and sediment budgets since the rifting. This study also allows us to construct a complete sea-level change curve for the western Mediterranean Neogene. Besson, D. (2005). Architecture du bassin rhodano-provençal miocène (Alpes, SE France). Relations entre déformation, physiographie et sédimentation dans un bassin molassique d'avant-pays (Doctoral dissertation, Paris, ENMP). Rueda, T. (2014). Analyse sédimentologique et stratigraphique du remplissage Oligo-Aquitanien du fossé du Campidano - Comparaison avec le remplissage

  14. Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km2137Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km2. Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137Cs and 210Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7Be and 234Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth. Results showed

  15. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  16. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  17. The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

  18. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Mountain Lion

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of mountain lion, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  19. Messinian Events: View from the Provence Basin (Gulf of Lion,Western Mediterranean)

    Bache, François; Gorini, C.; Olivet, Jean-Louis; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Suc, J.p.

    2009-01-01

    Though the late Miocene "Messinian Salinity Crisis" has been intensely researched along the circum- Mediterranean basins, few studies have focused on the central part of the Mediterranean Basin and, especially, the pre-salt deposits. Within the Western Mediterranean, the Gulf of Lion is exceptional in that its sedimentary strata have not been significantly deformed. In addition, the Gulf of Lion is characterized by a relatively constant subsidence with continuous accommodation space for sedim...

  20. Some population characteristics of the Lion Panthera Leo in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    M.G.L. Mills

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of estimating the number of lions in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Republic of South Africa, are described; the first gives a minimum figure (113 and the second a more realistic one (140. Data are presented on sex and age ratios and pride composition. The factors contributing to the low density are briefly discussed and some management practices in connection with lions trespassing out of the Park are suggested.

  1. Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma (Collagenous Fibroma in an African Lion

    S. H. Yun, H. S. Jang, S. K. Ku1, J. S. Park, T. H. Oh, K. W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (DF is a rare, benign, slowly growing, soft tissue tumor which originated from fibroblast. Although this type tumor has been occasionally reported in human beings, there was case report that was diagnosed as the DF in animal species. This report describes a case of DF that developed on the left flank of an 8-year-old female African lion. The mass was gradually enlarged for 5~6 months and the size was 25 x 16 x 8 cm3. Surgical excision of the mass was carried out. The mass was relatively hypocellular and showed proliferation of spindle and stellate shaped cells embedded in a fibromyxoid to densely fibrotic collagenous stroma. Six months after performing a surgical excision, no sign of any tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed.

  2. Individual identification and genetic variation of lions (Panthera leo from two protected areas in Nigeria.

    Talatu Tende

    Full Text Available This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR spanned through a period of five years (2008 -2012, whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012. We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST  = 0.17 with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS  = 0.49, KLNP FIS  = 0.38. The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild.

  3. Mountain Lions of the Flagstaff Uplands: 2003-2006 Progress Report

    Mattson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Stakeholders in management of mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands of northern Arizona have expressed increasing concern about both potential impacts of humans on lions and potential risks posed by lions to humans. A series of human-mountain lion encounters during 2000-2001 on Mt. Elden, immediately adjacent to Flagstaff, and similar incidents during 2004 near Tucson brought increased attention to management of human safety in mountain lion range. These human-centered concerns, together with long-standing questions about how the human infrastructure centered on Flagstaff might be affecting lion movements led us to initiate a mountain lion study in 2003 which we plan to continue through 2009. Our study focuses on movements and other behaviors of mountain lions, with the goal of providing information that can be used to increase human safety, decrease human impacts, and, overall, provide insight into the ecology of lions in this region. To serve this goal, we have focused on collecting data that will be the basis of explanatory models that can provide spatially-explicit predictions of mountain lion activity, specify the effects of human facilities, such as highways and urban areas, and provide insight into when, where, and how often different kinds of lions kill different kinds of prey. During 2003-2006, we captured six female and five male mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands, 10 of which we fitted with collars that collected up to six high-precision GPS fixes per day, transmitted daily to our offices via Argos satellites. This timely delivery of data allowed us to visit kill sites and other foci of localized activity to collect detailed information on lion behavior. By June 2006 we had obtained 9357 GPS locations and visited 394 sites, at which we documented 218 kills, 165 of which were by five females and 53 by five males. These data were the basis for preliminary analyses presented in this report. All lions during all seasons exhibited a

  4. Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.

    Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

    2006-04-25

    The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus. PMID:16442580

  5. Genetic Evidence for Contrasting Wetland and Savannah Habitat Specializations in Different Populations of Lions (Panthera leo).

    Moore, Andy E; Cotterill, Fenton P D Woody; Winterbach, Christiaan W; Winterbach, Hanlie E K; Antunes, Agostinho; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    South-central Africa is characterized by an archipelago of wetlands, which has evolved in time and space since at least the Miocene, providing refugia for animal species during Pleistocene arid episodes. Their importance for biodiversity in the region is reflected in the evolution of a variety of specialist mammal and bird species, adapted to exploit these wetland habitats. Populations of lions (Panthera leo) across south-central and east Africa have contrasting signatures of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and biparental nuclear DNA in wetland and savannah habitats, respectively, pointing to the evolution of distinct habitat preferences. This explains the absence of genetic admixture of populations from the Kalahari savannah of southwest Botswana and the Okavango wetland of northern Botswana, despite separation by only 500 km. We postulate that ancestral lions were wetland specialists and that the savannah lions evolved from populations that were isolated during arid Pleistocene episodes. Expansion of grasslands and the resultant increase in herbivore populations during mesic Pleistocene climatic episodes provided the stimulus for the rapid population expansion and diversification of the highly successful savannah lion specialists. Our model has important implications for lion conservation. PMID:26695079

  6. Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos

    Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

    2013-05-01

    The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

  7. Immobilizing wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride.

    Logan, K A; Thorne, E T; Irwin, L L; Skinner, R

    1986-01-01

    A mixture of 120 mg ketamine hydrochloride (KHCL)/20 mg xylazine hydrochloride (XHCL)/ml was used to immobilize 37 wild mountain lions (Felis concolor) 46 times. Observations were recorded during 37 trials that included kittens, adult females, and adult males. Dosages were based on 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg estimated body weight. Actual doses for 24 lions requiring a single injection for immobilization ranged from 4.7-15.8 mg KHCL/kg and 0.8-2.6 mg XHCL/kg. Induction, duration, and recovery times did not differ (P greater than 0.05) between the sex and age classes. Two kittens were overdosed with the drug combination, but the effects were not life threatening. Eleven other lions, nine of which were initially underdosed, required additional injections of the drug combination for safe handling. Immobilization was characterized initially by semi-consciousness, open eyelids, pupillary dilation, and muscle rigidity. Later, most lions appeared unconscious, muscles relaxed, and breathing slowed considerably. No convulsions or hypersalivation occurred. The KHCL/XHCL mixture given at approximately 11 mg KHCL and 1.8 mg XHCL/kg body weight proved useful for immobilizing wild mountain lions for research purposes. Suggestions for case of immobilized cats are included. PMID:3951066

  8. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. PMID:27111059

  9. 75 FR 28642 - Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...

    2010-05-21

    ... in the Federal Register (74 FR 38667; August 4, 2009). We received 220 responses during the comment... Fish and Wildlife Service Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National... significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for limiting mountain lion (Puma...

  10. Field Tests and Simulation of Lion-Head River Bridge

    Yao-Min Fang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lion-Head River Bridge is a twin bridge in parallel position. The east-bounded was designed and constructed as a traditional prestress concrete box girder bridge with pot bearings; and the west-bounded was installed with seismic isolation devices of lead rubber bearings. The behavior of the isolated bridge is compared with that of the traditional bridge through several field tests including the ambient vibration test, the force vibration test induced by shakers, the free vibration test induced by a push and fast release system, and the truck test. The bridges suffered from various extents of damage due to the Chi-Chi and the Chi-I earthquakes of great strength during the construction and had been retrofitted. The damage was reflected by the change of the bridges' natural frequencies obtained from the ambient vibration tests. The models of the two bridges are simulated by the finite element method based on the original design drawings. Soil-structure interaction was also scrutinized in this study. The simulation was then modified based on the results from the field tests. Dynamic parameters of bridges are identified and compared with those from theoretical simulation. The efficiency is also verified to be better for an isolated bridge.

  11. Ampfion-hybrid diode on the Cornell LION accelerator

    An ampfion hybrid diode, previously run on the HYDRAMITE accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has recently been installed on the Cornell LION accelerator (1 TW, 1.8 MV, 40 ns pulse). The ampfion hybrid diode is magnetically insulated by means of a field coil in series with the cathode structure of the diode. An epoxy dielectric flashboard on the anode provides an anode plasma to supply the extracted ions. The diode has a geometric focal length of 20 cm. The experiment is equipped with plasma erosion opening switches on the anode stock to eliminate prepulse and improve the generator voltage risetime. Diagnostics include magnetic pickup loops to measure currents in the diode structure and non-neutral beam currents, biased charge collectors, and damage targets. An alpha particle pin hole camera utilizing the p,α reaction of fast (>500 kV) protons on boron or lithium is being developed to measure focus quality and proton current. Plastic track detector will be used to image the alpha particles coming from a boron or lithium target. A second pin hole camera uses a plastic scintillator and light detector to give time resolved focused ion intensity

  12. Can a lamb reach a haven before being eaten by diffusing lions?

    Gabel, Alan; Majumdar, Satya N.; Panduranga, Nagendra K.; Redner, S.

    2012-05-01

    We study the survival of a single diffusing lamb on the positive half line in the presence of N diffusing lions that all start at the same position L to the right of the lamb and a haven at x = 0. If the lamb reaches this haven before meeting any lion, the lamb survives. We investigate the survival probability of the lamb, SN(x, L), as a function of N and the respective initial positions of the lamb and the lions, x and L. We determine SN(x, L) analytically for the special cases of N = 1 and N\\rightarrow \\infty . For large but finite N, we determine the unusual asymptotic form whose leading behavior is SN(z) ~ N-z2, with z = x/L. Simulations of the capture process very slowly converge to this asymptotic prediction as N reaches 10500.

  13. Can a Lamb Reach a Haven Before Being Eaten by Diffusing Lions?

    Gabel, Alan; Panduranga, Nagendra K; Redner, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the survival of a single diffusing lamb on the positive half line in the presence of N diffusing lions that all start at the same position L to the right of the lamb and a haven at x=0. If the lamb reaches this haven before meeting any lion, the lamb survives. We investigate the survival probability of the lamb, S_N(x,L), as a function of N and the respective initial positions of the lamb and the lions, x and L. We determine S_N(x,L) analytically for the special cases of N=1 and N--->oo. For large but finite N, we determine the unusual asymptotic form whose leading behavior is S_N(z)\\simN^{-z^2}, with z=x/L. Simulations of the capture process very slowly converge to this asymptotic prediction as N reaches 10^{500}.

  14. Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin

    Sogbohossou, Etotépé A.; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J.; De Snoo, Geert R.; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2014-01-01

    Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

  15. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis. PMID:23272363

  16. Social structure of lions (Panthera leo is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.

    Etotépé A Sogbohossou

    Full Text Available Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n = 296, it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n = 168 than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n = 128. Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67 in the National Park and towards males (1.67 in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

  17. Bayesian estimates of male and female African lion mortality for future use in population management

    Barthold, Julia A; Loveridge, Andrew; Macdonald, David; Packer, Craig; Colchero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    1. The global population size of African lions is plummeting, and many small fragmented populations face local extinction. Extinction risks are amplified through the common practice of trophy hunting for males, which makes setting sustainable hunting quotas a vital task. 2. Various demographic...... models evaluate consequences of hunting on lion population growth. However, none of the models use unbiased estimates of male age-specific mortality because such estimates do not exist. Until now, estimating mortality from resighting records of marked males has been impossible due to the uncertain fates...... of disappeared individuals: dispersal or death. 3. We develop a new method and infer mortality for male and female lions from two popula- tions that are typical with respect to their experienced levels of human impact. 4. We found that mortality of both sexes differed between the populations and that...

  18. Alegoria californiana Californian allegory

    Julio Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrategias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formulated strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

  19. Alegoria californiana Californian allegory

    Julio Ramos

    2012-01-01

    O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constitu...

  20. Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval

    Garrity, Caren; Lubin, Dan; Kern, Stefan;

    2002-01-01

    cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19...... misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice...... and 37 GHz) traditionally used for sea ice remote sensing. A self-adjusting algorithm that performs a nonlinear correction for atmospheric moisture, without explicit atmospheric input data, yields the best accuracy over total sea ice concentrations greater than 30%. However, this algorithm can...

  1. New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona

    Paul R. Krausman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus cooleyi, a species about which little is known.

  2. Evidence for pre-Messinian submarine canyons on the Gulf of Lions slope (Western Mediterranean)

    Lofi, J.; Berne, Serge

    2008-01-01

    On the Gulf of Lions margin, the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) event led to a significant and widespread erosion of the Miocene shelf and slope. It is thus difficult nowadays to restore the morphology of the margin at the beginning of the crisis, and to study the Middle-Upper Miocene series rarely preserved from erosion. In this study, thanks to the use of multichannel seismic reflection data from the Gulf of Lions western slope, it has been possible to image the Miocene slope deposits. Int...

  3. Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Konsumen Pada Maskapai Penerbangan Lion Air

    Tarigan, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to know the effect of service quality on satisfication and customer loyalty on Lion Air. Respondent of this research at least 17 years old who use the services of Lion Air at least two times. The number of respondent on this research defined 100 respondent by using sampling technique is accidental sampling. The research used path analysis with the help of SPSS program. The result of this research showed the hypothesis are supported : 1) service quality has posit...

  4. Kewajiban Perusahaan Terhadap Karyawan dan Pelanggan (Studi Etika Pada PT. Lion Air Medan)

    Margaretha, Septiyana Agnes

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine and analyze the influence of ethics (obligation and right of corporation) on the of employees of Lion Air Medan and employees ethic on the of customers on Lion Air Medan. The data which used in this study by using using primary and secondary data. This study involves population amount to 874 employees and customers who can not identified, so the study sample using the formula Slovin and Supramono to 90 employees and 93 customers. Data analysis methods use descr...

  5. Impedance characteristics of the Bz diode on the LION accelerator

    The LION accelerator at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of the applied B/sub z/, or 'barrel' diode. This 0.8 TW, 4 ohm, ion accelerator has the ability to take several shots per day, and hence alloys systematic scans to be performed. An important result of a recent series of experiments is that the diode impedance remains relatively constant, decaying only slowly, during the 50 nsec pulse. When the diode is operated with a 4.5 mm gap and a 21 kG insulating magnetic field, the typical diode parameters, are a voltage of 1 MV and a total current of 250 kA, leading to a diode impedance of 4 ohms and power of 0.25 TW. The diode impedance decays with a 100 nsec time constant. The ion beams have peak currents of roughly 125 kA and typical impedances of Bohms, which decays with a time constant of 25 nsec. The Child-Langmuir gap was approximately 2 mm and closed with a velocity of roughly 2X10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Current experimental work is aimed at characterizing the impedance of the B/sub z/ diode as a function of the applied magnetic field, the A-K gap, the anode curvature, and the anode groove parameters. In addition, the effect of changing the voltage rise with a plasma opening switch and of adding an electron limiter is examined. The ion beam quality is examined at the focus of the barrel diode with a swept Thomson parabola and various Rutherford scattering diagnostics

  6. Conserving connectivity: some lessons from mountain lions in southern California.

    Morrison, Scott A; Boyce, Walter M

    2009-04-01

    Habitat corridors can be essential for persistence of wildlife populations in fragmented landscapes. Although much research has focused on identifying species and places critical for conservation action, the conservation literature contains surprisingly few examples of corridors that actually have been protected and so provides little guidance for moving from planning through implementation. We examined a case study from southern California that combines monitoring of radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor) with an assessment of land-protection efforts to illustrate lessons learned while attempting to maintain ecological connectivity in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. As in many places, conservation scientists have provided science-based maps of where conservation efforts should focus. But implementing corridors is a business decision based not solely on ecological information but also on cost, opportunity cost, investment risk, and other feasibility considerations. Here, the type and pattern of development is such that key connections will be lost unless they are explicitly protected. Keeping pace with conversion, however, has been difficult, especially because conservation efforts have been limited to traditional parcel-by-parcel land-protection techniques. The challenges of and trade-offs in implementation make it clear that in southern California, connectivity cannot be bought one parcel at a time. Effective land-use plans and policies that incorporate conservation principles, such as California's Natural Communities Conservation Planning program, are needed to support the retention of landscape permeability. Lessons from this study have broad application, especially as a precautionary tale for places where such extensive and intensive development has not yet occurred. Given how limiting resources are for biodiversity conservation, conservationists must be disciplined about where and how they attempt corridor protection: in rapidly fragmenting landscapes

  7. STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.

    Daud Sudradjad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

  8. Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).

    Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2007-11-01

    The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

  9. Exploring Experimental Design: An Excel-Based Simulation Using Steller Sea Lion Behavior

    Ryan, Wendy L.; St. Iago-McRae, Ezry

    2016-01-01

    Experimentation is the foundation of science and an important process for students to understand and experience. However, it can be difficult to teach some aspects of experimentation within the time and resource constraints of an academic semester. Interactive models can be a useful tool in bridging this gap. This freely accessible simulation…

  10. Sexual harassment and female gregariousness in the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens

    Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Túnez, Juan I.; Cassini, Marcelo H.

    2008-07-01

    Most colonial pinnipeds form extreme clusters of breeding females that cannot be entirely explained by the distribution of sites for reproduction. Avoidance of male harassment has been postulated as an important determinant of reproductive aggregation in this group of mammals. Female gregariousness can reduce harassment by resident males by two mechanisms; directly by the ‘dilution effect’ or indirectly because resident males that defend large female groups are less harassing. In order to investigate the relationship between male harassment and female gregariousness in relation to the size of breeding groups, we analysed the behaviour of dominant males and their females in a breeding colony of Otaria flavescens. Females in large breeding groups received less harassment by resident males due to dilution effects and because males that defended a large group interacted less frequently with females than males with small groups.

  11. Geographical Dissemination of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona During Seasonal Migration of California Sea Lions

    Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses in the world, and affects both terrestrial and marine mammals. Little information is available describing the geographical spread of leptospirosis, but it is logical to assume that animal migrations contribute to this process. There ha...

  12. Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae

    Carolina Loch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

  13. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of California sea lions in Washington, 1986 - 1999

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  14. Sea Lions and Honors Students: More in Common than You May Think

    Lindemann-Biolsi, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    One can easily find a link between the general principles of learning in relation to both nonhuman and human animals. What may be a more difficult but equally important parallel is how these learning principles are applied to the training of animals and the teaching of honors students. The author considers what teachers can learn from observing…

  15. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

  16. Individual behaviors dominate the dynamics of an urban mountain lion population isolated by roads.

    Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pollinger, John P; Sikich, Jeffrey A; Dalbeck, Lisa; Wayne, Robert K; Ernest, Holly B

    2014-09-01

    Large carnivores can be particularly sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity [1, 2]. The Santa Monica Mountains (SMMs), a large natural area within Greater Los Angeles, is completely isolated by urban development and the 101 freeway to the north. Yet the SMMs support a population of mountain lions (Puma concolor), a very rare example of a large carnivore persisting within the boundaries of a megacity. GPS locations of radio-collared lions indicate that freeways are a near-absolute barrier to movement. We genotyped 42 lions using 54 microsatellite loci and found that genetic diversity in SMM lions, prior to 2009, was lower than that for any population in North America except in southern Florida, where inbreeding depression led to reproductive failure [3-5]. We document multiple instances of father-daughter inbreeding and high levels of intraspecific strife, including the unexpected behavior of a male killing two of his offspring and a mate and his son killing two of his brothers. Overall, no individuals from the SMMs have successfully dispersed. Gene flow is critical for this population, and we show that a single male immigrated in 2009, successfully mated, and substantially enhanced genetic diversity. Our results imply that individual behaviors, most likely caused by limited area and reduced opportunities to disperse, may dominate the fate of small, isolated populations of large carnivores. Consequently, comprehensive behavioral monitoring can suggest novel solutions for the persistence of small populations, such as the transfer of individuals across dispersal barriers. PMID:25131676

  17. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  18. Home range utilisation and territorial behaviour of lions (Panthera leo on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa.

    Monika B Lehmann

    Full Text Available Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo after reintroduction onto the 85 km(2 Karongwe Game Reserve, from 1999-2005, using radio-telemetry. In 2002 one male was removed from the paired coalition which had been present for the first three years. A second pride and male were in a fenced reserve adjacent of them to the east. This made it possible to separate social and resource factors in both a coalition and single male scenario, and the driving factors these seem to have on spatial ecology. Male ranging behaviour was not affected by coalition size, being driven more by resource rather than social factors. The females responded to the lions on the adjacent reserve by avoiding the area closest to them, therefore females may be more driven by social factors. Home range size and the resource response to water are important factors to consider when reintroducing lions to a small reserve, and it is hoped that these findings lead to other similar studies which will contribute to sound decisions regarding the management of lions on small reserves.

  19. Fear of darkness, the full moon and the nocturnal ecology of African lions.

    Craig Packer

    Full Text Available Nocturnal carnivores are widely believed to have played an important role in human evolution, driving the need for night-time shelter, the control of fire and our innate fear of darkness. However, no empirical data are available on the effects of darkness on the risks of predation in humans. We performed an extensive analysis of predatory behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when hunting humans as when hunting herbivores and that lions are most dangerous to humans when the moon is faint or below the horizon. At night, people are most active between dusk and 10:00 pm, thus most lion attacks occur in the first weeks following the full moon (when the moon rises at least an hour after sunset. Consequently, the full moon is a reliable indicator of impending danger, perhaps helping to explain why the full moon has been the subject of so many myths and misconceptions.

  20. Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil

    Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental…

  1. A Rare Case of Gastric Myiasis in a Lion Caused by Gasterophilus intestinalis (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)-Case Report.

    Ganjali, Maryam; Keighobadi, Mojtaba

    2016-09-01

    Myiasis is the infection caused by a variety of dipterous (fly) larvae in vertebrate's tissue (man and domestic or wild animals). Species of Gasterophilus are obligate parasite of horses, donkeys, zebras, elephants and rhinoceroses. There are records worldwide, but mostly, in tropical and subtropical regions. This case report describes a type of gastric myiasis caused by G. intestinalis in an old lion in a zoo in Sistan, southeast Iran. Myiasis in lions is rarely reported and this is the first report of gastric myiasis in lion. PMID:27308300

  2. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    M.-C. Ciobanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence

  3. Physiological features of Halomonas lionensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a Mediterranean Sea sediment

    Gaboyer, Frederic; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, Odile; Cao, Junwei; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Romancer, Marc; Alain, Karine

    2014-01-01

    A novel halophilic bacterium, strain RHS90T, was isolated from marine sediments from the Gulf of Lions, in the Mediterranean Sea. Its metabolic and physiological characteristics were examined under various cultural conditions, including exposure to stressful ones (oligotrophy, high pressure and high concentrations of metals). Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, the strain was found to belong to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives are H....

  4. Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2011-07-01

    Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

  5. Genetic diversity in the lion (panthera leo (Linnaeus 1758)): unravelling the past and prospects for the future

    Bertola, Laura Diana

    2015-01-01

    Insights into the spatial distribution of genetic diversity is key for understanding the evolutionary history and for effective species conservation. For the lion, all African populations are considered to belong to one subspecies, while the Asiatic subspecies is confined to a single population in India. However, it is suggested that the genetic diversity is greater than the taxonomy implies. Notably the West and Central African lion represents a unique clade, which is relevant because the po...

  6. Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.

    Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2014-11-01

    In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz. PMID:25249386

  7. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild

    Sondgeroth Kerry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion

  8. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discret...

  9. Effects of simulated mountain lion caching on decomposition of ungulate carcasses

    Bischoff-Mattson, Z.; Mattson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Caching of animal remains is common among carnivorous species of all sizes, yet the effects of caching on larger prey are unstudied. We conducted a summer field experiment designed to test the effects of simulated mountain lion (Puma concolor) caching on mass loss, relative temperature, and odor dissemination of 9 prey-like carcasses. We deployed all but one of the carcasses in pairs, with one of each pair exposed and the other shaded and shallowly buried (cached). Caching substantially reduced wastage during dry and hot (drought) but not wet and cool (monsoon) periods, and it also reduced temperature and discernable odor to some degree during both seasons. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that caching serves to both reduce competition from arthropods and microbes and reduce odds of detection by larger vertebrates such as bears (Ursus spp.), wolves (Canis lupus), or other lions.

  10. Nasal, oral and rectal microbiota of Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus

    Vania M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysopygus are endangered callithrichids. Their conservation may require future translocations or reintroductions; however these approaches involve risks of pathogen introduction in the environment and stress-related opportunistic infections in these animals. In order to screen for opportunistic and potential pathogenic bacterial and fungal microbiota, ten free-ranging and ten captive Black lion tamarins were studied and the results compared. Nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected and cultured for aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria and fungi, and a total 203 bacterial and 84 fungal isolates were obtained. Overall, the most frequent organisms were Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. Microbiota of free-ranging and captive animals were similar in composition. A number of potentially pathogenic organisms were identified, emphasizing the importance of microbiological screening in future translocation or reintroduction conservation management programs.

  11. COMPARATIVE RESEARCHE REGARDING METABOLIC PROFILE OF THE CALIFORNIAN, NEW ZEALAND WHITE, GRAND CHINCHILLA MEAT RABIT BREEDS AND THE F1 NZCH HYBRIDS

    DANIELA-MARCELA TOBĂ (GOINA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Precious biological characteristics of rabbits make their breeding a very profitable occupation. The rabbit meat, organoleptically same to the white meat, is rich in proteins, but low in fats. Biological researched done in direction to elucidate the biochemical systems that are the basis for organism physiological processes, have revealed that the level in which this process are develop directly influence the rabbits productivity capacity. 60 rabbit’s heads was used as biological material, distributed in: 15 Californian, 15 New Zeeland White, 15 Grand Chinchilla and 15 F1NZCH hybrids obtained from cross-breeding the New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form. Blood was sampled from the rabbit and was biochemical analyzed. The studied indices were: total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubine, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose. The experimental lot formed from F1 NZCH hybrids registered a concentration of 2.1 mg/dl uric acid, and in the other three lots the concentration was under 2 mg/dl. In all four lots, uric acid value was in normal limits. The determined creatinine registered very low values, under 1 mg/dl, at the low limit of reference values. At hybrids from New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form, in equal environmental conditions, the serum biochemical analysis haven’t registered significant differences compared to pure breeds individuals.

  12. Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion

    BILLY CHRISTIANTO; YOGIARA

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp.) were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an...

  13. [Mercury pollution of the superficial sediments of the Gulf of Lion].

    Arnoux, A; Gilles, G; Ramonda, G

    1975-09-15

    Mercury pollution in the superficial sediments of the continental shelf of the golfe du Lion, is characterized by an important extension in its eastern part, which is under the direct influence of the Rhône river, and more limited and fragmented in itw western part. Between both these zones, territories with low contamination persist, of which the hydrodynamism prevents the advance of dense particles containing mercury. PMID:813846

  14. A service evaluation: EllenorLions Hospices Children and Young Peoples Service: Executive Summary

    Teasdale, D.; Summers, K; Ruston, A.

    2011-01-01

    Between January and June 2011, the EllenorLions Hospices commissioned a team from Canterbury Christ Church University to independently review the Children and Young Peoples Service to evaluate the integrated service model which delivers both palliative care and community oncology to children and young people with life threatening and life limiting illnesses. The project brief was conducted in two phases. In Phase 1 an information review was undertaken and in Phase 2 the effectiveness and usab...

  15. Effects of Vegetation Structure on the Location of Lion Kill Sites in African Thicket

    Davies, Andrew B.; Tambling, Craig J.; Kerley, Graham I. H.; Asner, Gregory P.

    2016-01-01

    Predator-prey relationships are integral to ecosystem stability and functioning. These relationships are, however, difficult to maintain in protected areas where large predators are increasingly being reintroduced and confined. Where predators make kills has a profound influence on their role in ecosystems, but the relative importance of environmental variables in determining kill sites, and how these might vary across ecosystems is poorly known. We investigated kill sites for lions in South Africa’s thicket biome, testing the importance of vegetation structure for kill site locations compared to other environmental variables. Kill sites were located over four years using GPS telemetry and compared to non-kill sites that had been occupied by lions, as well as to random sites within lion ranges. Measurements of 3D vegetation structure obtained from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) were used to calculate the visible area (viewshed) around each site and, along with wind and moonlight data, used to compare kill sites between lion sexes, prey species and prey sexes. Viewshed area was the most important predictor of kill sites (sites in dense vegetation were twice as likely to be kill sites compared to open areas), followed by wind speed and, less so, moonlight. Kill sites for different prey species varied with vegetation structure, and male prey were killed when wind speeds were higher compared to female prey of the same species. Our results demonstrate that vegetation structure is an important component of predator-prey interactions, with varying effects across ecosystems. Such differences require consideration in terms of the ecological roles performed by predators, and in predator and prey conservation. PMID:26910832

  16. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-Sá, Luiz G.; Rodrigo C. Benedet; de Freitas, Thales R. O.

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, o...

  17. DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

    Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.

    2015-09-01

    We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.

  18. Climate extremes promote fatal co-infections during canine distemper epidemics in African lions.

    Linda Munson

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host-pathogen relationships and synchronize the temporal and spatial convergence of multiple infectious agents, triggering epidemics with far greater mortality than those due to single pathogens. Here we present the first data to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic pathogens that are normally tolerated in isolation, but with co-infection, result in catastrophic mortality. A 1994 canine distemper virus (CDV epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo coincided with the death of a third of the population, and a second high-mortality CDV epidemic struck the nearby Ngorongoro Crater lion population in 2001. The extent of adult mortalities was unusual for CDV and prompted an investigation into contributing factors. Serological analyses indicated that at least five "silent" CDV epidemics swept through the same two lion populations between 1976 and 2006 without clinical signs or measurable mortality, indicating that CDV was not necessarily fatal. Clinical and pathology findings suggested that hemoparsitism was a major contributing factor during fatal epidemics. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured the magnitude of hemoparasite infections in these populations over 22 years and demonstrated significantly higher levels of Babesia during the 1994 and 2001 epidemics. Babesia levels correlated with mortalities and extent of CDV exposure within prides. The common event preceding the two high mortality CDV outbreaks was extreme drought conditions with wide-spread herbivore die-offs, most notably of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer. As a consequence of high tick numbers after the resumption of rains and heavy tick infestations of starving buffalo, the lions were infected by unusually high numbers of Babesia, infections that were magnified by the immunosuppressive effects of coincident CDV, leading to unprecedented mortality. Such mass mortality

  19. Eleanor Anne Porden's Coeur de Lion (1822): History, Epic and Romance

    Johns-Putra, A

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the medievalist epic Coeur de Lion (1822), by Eleanor Anne Porden (1795-1825). The author reads this poem not simply for the way it draws on exhaustive research, but for the way it treats this research, invoking yet sidestepping the demands of historical accuracy. Specifically, Porden grapples with the challenges of representing Britain's chivalric past, exploring whether to adopt the feminized trappings of romance or to align herself with the objectivity of historical e...

  20. Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)

    Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

  1. Lions as Bone Accumulators? Paleontological and Ecological Implications of a Modern Bone Assemblage from Olduvai Gorge

    Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Yravedra, José; Baquedano, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Analytic models have been developed to reconstruct early hominin behaviour, especially their subsistence patterns, revealed mainly through taphonomic analyses of archaeofaunal assemblages. Taphonomic research is used to discern which agents (carnivores, humans or both) generate the bone assemblages recovered at archaeological sites. Taphonomic frameworks developed during the last decades show that the only large-sized carnivores in African biomes able to create bone assemblages are leopards and hyenas. A carnivore-made bone assemblage located in the short-grassland ecological unit of the Serengeti (within Olduvai Gorge) was studied. Taphonomic analyses of this assemblage including skeletal part representation, bone density, breakage patterns and anatomical distribution of tooth marks, along with an ecological approach to the prey selection made by large carnivores of the Serengeti, were carried out. The results show that this bone assemblage may be the first lion-accumulated assemblage documented, although other carnivores (namely spotted hyenas) may have also intervened through postdepositional ravaging. This first faunal assemblage potentially created by lions constitutes a new framework for neotaphonomic studies. Since lions may accumulate carcasses under exceptional circumstances, such as those documented at the site reported here, this finding may have important consequences for interpretations of early archaeological and paleontological sites, which provide key information about human evolution. PMID:27144649

  2. Predicting mountain lion activity using radiocollars equipped with mercury tip-sensors

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.; Johnson, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Radiotelemetry collars with tip-sensors have long been used to monitor wildlife activity. However, comparatively few researchers have tested the reliability of the technique on the species being studied. To evaluate the efficacy of using tip-sensors to assess mountain lion (Puma concolor) activity, we radiocollared 2 hand-reared mountain lions and simultaneously recorded their behavior and the associated telemetry signal characteristics. We noted both the number of pulse-rate changes and the percentage of time the transmitter emitted a fast pulse rate (i.e., head up) within sampling intervals ranging from 1-5 minutes. Based on 27 hours of observations, we were able to correctly distinguish between active and inactive behaviors >93% of the time using a logistic regression model. We present several models to predict activity of mountain lions; the selection of which to us would depend on study objectives and logistics. Our results indicate that field protocols that use only pulse-rate changes to indicate activity can lead to significant classification errors.

  3. Of lion manes and human beards: some unusual effects of the interaction between aggression and sociality

    D. Caroline Blanchard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin (1871 suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights. Recent experimental studies on wild lions have emphasized the role of female selection, but analyses of specific attack behaviors and targets, and the social consequences of manelessness for lions living in very hot climates suggest that male manes may indeed mitigate the outcomes of intraspecific male attack and thus serve a permissive function for multimale + female groups, facilitating protection of prides against takeovers and infanticide by nomadic males. Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion’s mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social lifestyle, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors.

  4. Impact of severe climate variability on lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya

    J.H. Tuqa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we were interested in understanding if droughts influence the home range of predators such as lions, and if it does, in what ways the droughts influenced lions to adjust their home range, in response to prey availability. We monitored movements of ten lions fitted with GPS-GSM collars in order to analyze their home range and movement patterns over a six year period (2007–2012. We assessed the impact of a severe drought on the lion home range and movement patterns in the Amboseli ecosystem. There was a strong positive correlation between the home range size and distance moved in 24 h before and during the drought (2007–2009, while after the drought there was a significant negative correlation. A weak positive correlation was evident between the lion home range and rainfall amounts (2010–2012. The male and female home ranges varied over the study period. The home range size and movement patterns coincided with permanent swamps and areas of high prey density inside the protected area. Over the course of the dry season and following the drought, the ranges initially shrank and then expanded in response to decreasing prey densities. The lions spent considerable time outside the park boundaries, particularly after severe the drought. We conclude that under conditions of fragmented habitats, severe climate conditions create new challenges for lion conservation due to effects on prey availability and subsequent influences on carnivore species ranging patterns. Stochastic weather patterns can force wide-ranging species beyond current reserve boundaries, into areas where there will be greater conflicts with humans.

  5. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    Zeke Davidson

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56% and female (33% lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.

  6. On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams

    Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambers, containing isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane [Si(CH3)4] as the sensitive media, and a NACP-02 monitor chamber. An initial activity of approximately 250 GBq 18F was employed as the radiation source in the experiments. The initial dose rate in each measurement series was estimated to 1.0 Gy min−1 by Monte Carlo simulations and the measurements were carried out during the decay of the radioactive source. In the investigation of general recombination losses, employing the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, the liquid ionization chambers were operated at polarizing voltages 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 V. Furthermore, measurements were also performed at 500 V polarizing voltage in the investigation of the sensitivity of the microLion chamber to ambient electric fields. Results: The measurement results from the liquid ionization chambers, corrected for general recombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of

  7. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  8. Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft

    K. H. Yearby

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

  9. The Research on Materials and Technique of “The lion rolling ball” parcel cloth of Qing Dynasty

    Ren Xueling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By studying on the little cotton textures from relics excavation, there is not a clear answer to when the China cotton planting started. Although Qiru area was the north weaving center, there were not so much unearthed fabrics. “The lion rolling ball” parcel cloth of Qing Dynasty is one of the seldom printed cottons. It contains rich culture, life custom and the information of weaving technology with cotton in the Qilu region. From the view of history, this paper analyzes the pattern model, fiber material, weaving technology of “The lion rolling ball” parcel cloth of Qing Dynasty. By comparing it with modern Lu brocade using empirical analysis method, we found that the yarns in fabric is cotton, one of ancient Asia cottons, which showed “The lion rolling ball” parcel cloth of Qing Dynasty played an important role in the history of cotton clothes.

  10. Application of the Lion's integral to calculate heat transfer with the N2O4 turbulent flow in a tube

    When carrying out engineering calculation of heat transfer in the case of turbulent flow of non-equilibrium reacting gas in a tube, it is necessary to dispose of criterion dependence to calculate Nusselt number. As a rule, dependences obtained by empirical methods are not widely adopted. It is proposed that the integral of Lion type be used for the heat transfer calculation in the form of which an expression for Nusselt number has been written under the conditions of turbulent flow with a non-equilibrium chemical reaction. On calculating turbulent fluctuations Millionshchikov two-layer model is used. A simple approximation of source-discharge of the mass of mixture components is suggested for the sake of simplification of Lion integral. The proposed theoretical dependences for the heat transfer calculation when chemical reactions are available substantially extend the field of application of Lion integral and may be used designing equipment with a chemically reacting coolant

  11. Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera leo.

    Macdonald, David W; Jacobsen, Kim S; Burnham, Dawn; Johnson, Paul J; Loveridge, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed "Cecil", a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University's Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified using a Boolean search for the terms Cecil AND lion in 127 languages. Stories about Cecil the Lion in the editorial media increased from approximately 15 per day to nearly 12,000 at its peak, and mentions of Cecil the Lion in social media reached 87,533 at its peak. We found that, while there were clear regional differences in the level of media saturation of the Cecil story, the patterns of the development of the coverage of this story were remarkably similar across the globe, and that there was no evidence of a lag between the social media and the editorial media. Further, all the main social media platforms appeared to react in synchrony. This story appears to have spread synchronously across media channels and geographically across the globe over the span of about two days. For lion conservation in particular, and perhaps for wildlife conservation more generally, we speculate that the atmosphere may have been changed significantly. We consider the possible reasons why this incident provoked a reaction unprecedented in the conservation sector. PMID:27120625

  12. Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park

    M.G.L. Mills

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the population, seem to be related to changes in prey populations, particularly to a decline in numbers and condition of buffalo Syncerus cafer.

  13. Cecil: A moment or a movement? Analysis of media coverage of the death of a lion, Panthera leo

    Macdonald, DW; Jacobsen, KS; Burnham, D.; Loveridge, AJ; Johnson, PJ

    2016-01-01

    The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed “Cecil”, a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified usi...

  14. Cecil: A Moment or a Movement? Analysis of Media Coverage of the Death of a Lion, Panthera Leo

    Macdonald, David W. (David Whyte); Kim S. Jacobsen; Dawn Burnham; Johnson, Paul J; Loveridge, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The killing of a satellite-tagged male lion by a trophy hunter in Zimbabwe in July 2015 provoked an unprecedented media reaction. We analyse the global media response to the trophy hunting of the lion, nicknamed “Cecil”, a study animal in a long-term project run by Oxford University’s Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU). We collaborated with a media-monitoring company to investigate the development of the media coverage spatially and temporally. Relevant articles were identified usi...

  15. A case of adrenal tumour in a lion (Panthera leo: tomographic and ultrasonographic findings.

    Maurizio Longo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal gland tumors are common in humans and in several animal species. Studies concerning this neoplasia in human medicine indicate that clinical signs have a high variability. Adrenal adenomas can be occasionally observed in asymptomatic patients during tomographic studies while estrogen-secreting tumors, known as "feminizing adrenal tumors" (FATs, have been rarely reported. The aim of this study is to describe for the first time the Imaging findings of a captivity lion affected by a neoplastic secreting adrenal tumour. An 8 year-old male lion with progressive lack of secondary sex characteristics, disorexia and weight loss was referred to our Institution. The patient was chemically immobilized to undergo general clinical evaluation, hematologic, serum biochemical and hormonal profile, FIV and FeLV tests. Three months later a total body computed tomography and abdominal ultrasonography were performed. Liver and left adrenal lesions FNABs were performed. Imaging findings showed the presence of an extended expansive neoplastic lesion on the left adrenal gland (40x39x37 mm with right adrenal gland atrophy. Generalized hepatopathy associated with a suspected intrahepatic cholestasis was confirmed by ultrasonography. Cytological evaluation ruled out the presence of neuroendocrine cells without malignancy evidences compatible with the adenomatous nature of the lesion, associated with moderate degenerative hepatopathy. Blood tests reported an estradiol concentration of 462 ng/dl. To our knowledge, this is the first description of adrenal mass in a lion associated with secondary feminization, inappetence and high values of hematic estradiol, referable to a feminizing adrenal tumor (FAT. 

  16. Exploding metal film active anode source experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    In this paper the authors report results using an extractor geometry magnetically insulated ion diode on the 0.5 TW LION accelerator. Experiments with an exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS) have shown that intense beams with significantly improved turn-on time compared to epoxy-filled-groove anodes can be produced. A new geometry, in which a plasma switch is used to provide the current path that explodes the thin film anode, has improved the ion efficiency (to typically 70%) compared with the previous scheme in which an electron collector on the anode provided this current. Leakage electron current is reduced when no collector is used

  17. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Boretti Tanya; Fairer-Wessels Felicité

    2014-01-01

    Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT) volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro env...

  18. On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry and Lions

    Caffarelli, Luis A.

    2011-06-01

    We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry and Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary. 2011 Académie des sciences.

  19. LIONS: a new set of Fortran90 codes for the SPIRAL project at GANIL

    In this paper a set of new computer programs developed at GANIL is presented. These codes are used to study different parts of the SPIRAL project, in particular the dynamics in the CIME cyclotron and the new extraction system of the ECR ion sources. Three important modules are described: CHA3D for the evaluation of 3D electric fields with or without space charge effects, LIONS for the motion of ions and EXTRACT for the ECRIS extraction. These modules are written in Fortran90 in a ''data parallel scheme''. They work either on UNIX workstations or parallel and vectorial computers. (orig.)

  20. LIONS: a new set of Fortran 90 codes for the SPIRAL project at GANIL

    A set of new computer programs developed at GANIL is presented; these codes are used to study different parts of the SPIRAL project (a new radioactive ion beam facility), and particularly the dynamics in the CIME cyclotron, its injection inflector, and the new extraction system of the ECR ion sources. Three important modules are described: CHA3D for the evaluation of 3D electric fields with or without space charge effects, LIONS for the motion of ions and EXTRACT for the ECRIS extraction. These modules are written in Fortran 90 in a ''data parallel scheme''. They work either on UNIX workstations or parallel and vectorial computers. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs

  1. Pollutant lead deposition in the Gulf of Lions over the last century reconstructed from sedimentary records

    Six sedimentary cores from the Gulf of Lions continental margin collected in the framework of the IVth MTP-MATER project were investigated for stable lead isotopes and 210Pb aspects in order to determine the relevance of marine sediments as liable atmospheric fallout recorders. The mean sedimentary pollutant lead inventory is 110 ± 7 μg/cm2 (102-121, n=6), in good agreement with atmospheric fallout over the last century established from salt marshes sediments study in Camargue. All sedimentary pollutant lead accumulations put back in time evidence maximum values in the mid 70s, in good agreement with anthropogenic emissions. (author)

  2. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp): an 11-year follow-up.

    Lisboa, Cristiane Varella; Monteiro, Rafael Veríssimo; Martins, Andreia Fonseca; Xavier, Samantha Cristina das Chagas; Lima, Valdirene Dos Santos; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin) and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin) from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials) that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU) level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42) Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i) the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii) the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii) both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI. PMID:25946156

  3. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  4. Random Seas

    Liu, Z.; Frigaard, Peter

    Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considering in the design of coastal and offshore structures.......Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considering in the design of coastal and offshore structures....

  5. Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)

    Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

    2009-01-01

    sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm

  6. Use of enclosure space by captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) housed in Indian zoos.

    Mallapur, Avanti; Waran, Natalie; Sinha, Anindya

    2005-01-01

    Captive nonhuman animals use enclosure space differentially. Enclosure features strongly influence this. This study recorded both the enclosure space used by 47 captive lion-tailed macaques housed in 13 zoos across India and the behavior of the macaques. The exhibition of abnormal behaviors, food-related behaviors, and social interactions correlated significantly with the use of the edge zone (the part of the enclosure closest to the visitor area). Animals housed in barren enclosures used the edge zone to a significantly greater percentage than did those housed in complex exhibits. Percentages of autogrooming, social interactions, and food-related behaviors significantly correlated with the use of the enrich zone. Space use studies assist in recognizing areas within the enclosure, which captive animals actively use. Conversely, the studies can identify areas infrequently used and show how to make maximum use of these enclosure areas. Further studies targeting both the increase in percentages of natural behaviors exhibited and use of the enrich zone used the current study on captive lion-tailed macaques for their design. PMID:16468946

  7. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  8. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Boretti Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

  9. Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse

    Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R; Ringleb, J;

    2012-01-01

    follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed...

  10. Why are lions killing us? Human-wildlife conflict and social discontent in Mbire District, northern Zimbabwe

    Matema, S.; Andersson, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Early in 2010, lions killed four people and over a hundred livestock in Mbire district, northern Zimbabwe, an area bordering a complex of protected wildlife areas of global conservation importance. The events prompted a local outcry, prominent media coverage, and even calls for the translocation of

  11. Linear system identification - The application of Lion's identification scheme to a third order system with noisy input-output measurements

    Brown, C. M., Jr.; Monopoli, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    A linear system identification technique developed by Lion is adapted for use on a third-order system with six unknown parameters and noisy input-output measurements. A digital computer is employed so that rapid identification takes place with only two state variable filters. Bias in the parameter estimates is partially eliminated by a signal-to-noise ratio testing procedure.

  12. Dynamic of suspended matter within the Rhône river plume (western mediterranean sea) based on ocean colour remote sensing

    Lorthiois, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Coastal waters impacted by riverine inputs play a main role in the export and burial of terrigeneous particles. Ocean colour remote remote sensing allows to retrieve surface suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations. To improve spatial and temporal resolutions, it can be combined with bio-optical in situ measurements and numerical modelling. The Rhône river is the main source of freshwater and particulate inputs in the Gulf of Lion (Western Mediterranean Sea). The aim of the thesis is...

  13. The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon

    Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

    2014-03-01

    The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful

  14. The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986

    Ames J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986Pages 21 - 25 (ReportJack AmesAbstract:It has proved difficult to devise a population census method that is reliable, and the efforts to do so are reviewed. Whether the population has remained stable or declined slightly, the fact remains that a population that had been growing at a rate of approximately five percent per year has not grown for more than a decade. This lack of population growth remains a significant point of concern. However, new net fishing restrictions and the fact that the geographic range of the sea otter in California has continued to increase, lead us to conclude that future increases in population size in California are likely. In the worst of all scenarios, were the Californian population of sea otters to be exterminated, a new population could be started from Alaskan sea otters. Such transplanted populations currently thrive in British Columbia, Canada and the state of Washington.

  15. Californians & Education. PPIC Statewide Survey

    Baldassare, Mark; Bonner, Dean; Petek, Sonja; Shrestha, Jui

    2014-01-01

    The Public Policy Institute of California (PPIC) Statewide Survey provides policymakers, the media, and the public with objective, advocacy-free information on the perceptions, opinions, and public policy preferences of California residents. This is the 141st PPIC Statewide Survey in a series that was inaugurated in April 1998 and has generated a…

  16. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  17. Serengeti real estate: density vs. fitness-based indicators of lion habitat quality.

    Mosser, Anna; Fryxell, John M; Eberly, Lynn; Packer, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Habitat quality is typically inferred by assuming a direct relationship between consumer density and resource abundance, although it has been suggested that consumer fitness may be a more accurate measure of habitat quality. We examined density vs. fitness-based measures of habitat quality for lions in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. A 40-year average of female reproductive success (yearling cubs per female) was best explained by proximity to river confluences, whereas patterns of productivity (yearling cubs per km(2)) and adult female density (individuals per km(2)) were associated with more general measures of habitat quality and areas of shelter in poor habitat. This suggests that density may not accurately distinguish between high-quality 'source' areas and low-quality sites that merely provide refuges for effectively non-reproductive individuals. Our results indicate that density may be a misleading indicator of real estate value, particularly for populations that do not conform to an ideal free distribution. PMID:19708970

  18. Embedding and Maximal Regular Differential Operators in Sobolev-Lions Spaces

    Veli B. SHAKHMUROV

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on vector-valued anisotropic Sobolev-Lions spaces associated with Banach spaces E0, E. Several conditions are found that ensure the continuity and compactness of embedding operators that are optimal regular in these spaces in terms of interpolations of spaces E0 and E. In particular, the most regular class of interpolation spaces Eα between E0, E depending on α and the order of space are found and the boundedness of differential operators Dα from this space to Eα -valued Lp,γ spaces is proved. These results are applied to partial differential-operator equationswith parameters to obtain conditions that guarantee the maximal Lp,γ regularity and R-positivity uniformly with respect to these parameters.

  19. : La part du lion : les dessous du ralentissement économique chinois

    Fabre, Guilhem

    2013-01-01

    Le plan de relance qui a suivi la crise globale, en 2009-2010, avec une expansion considérable du crédit, a marqué la fin de la " Chine bon marché ", avec la sous-évaluation du travail, du capital, du terrain, de l'énergie, et de la monnaie, tout en déséquilibrant fortement la croissance au profit du secteur public et de l'immobilier, la part du lion de l'État-Parti. Le processus actuel de désendettement doit régler les problèmes d'inégalités majeures qui dérivent des distorsions dans l'alloc...

  20. CONTEXTUAL MEANING STUDY OF TRANSLATION OF CHILDRENS STORY THE LION KING FROM ENGLISH INTO INDONESIAN

    Djuria Suprato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed to present study on the translation of words, phrases, expressions and sentences in a children's story.The story of "The Lion King" was used as case and content analysis was applied as a reference for the study. The focus of this analysis was aimed to observe the appearance of the terms or meaning of certain words that are considered important and supports the goals of the research, in this case is the translation of words, phrases, sentences in the source language (English into the target language (Indonesian. As its criterion, dictionaries was used and rules of contextual translation was applied. It can be concluded that children's stories emphasize the style and meaning contained in it, so the translation is done must consider the context of the story.

  1. Focusing studies of an applied Br extraction diode on the LION accelerator

    The LION Accelerator, 1.5 MV, 4 Ω, is being used to study the characteristics of an applied Br extraction diode. The diode utilizes both an inner and outer cathode and has been observed to operate at high ion current efficiencies compared to previous extraction diodes. Typical efficiencies were measured to be ∼80% which compares very favorably with the efficiencies seen in applied Bz diodes. In this paper, the authors report the results of a series of experiments examining the role of the inner cathode in electron loss and ion emission. In addition, operation with an argon gas cell is reported. The ion beam appears to be space-charge neutralized by the gas cell foil alone, and current neutralized when the gas cell pressure is above 100 mT

  2. Characterization of aluminum x-pinch plasmas driven by the 0.5 TW Lion accelerator

    The x-pinch, obtained by crossing two fine wires at one or more points as the load for the 0.5 TW Lion accelerator, has been used as a bright x-ray source. High density and temperature hot spots are observed at the crossing point(s). From these hot spots, an intense, spatially confined burst of x-rays is emitted which can serve as a pump for resonant photo-pumping lasers. The authors present experimental results concerning the radiation emission using Al x-pinches. The optimum mass loading for different ionization stages of Al ions and the total x-ray energy yields are examined. The density and temperature of the plasma and the size of the hot spots are measures. Based upon the results of these experiments, the authors evaluate resonant photopumping schemes such as those involving Be-like ions, using the Al x-pinch emission as the pump source

  3. Prey foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan 1823) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae).

    Keuroghlian, A; Passos, F C

    2001-08-01

    Foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, South-eastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. For the full dry season we found that animal prey represented 11.2% of the black lion tamarin diet, while during the wet season they represented 1.9%. Foraging behavior made up 19.8% of their total activity in the dry season and only 12.8% in the wet season. These results point out that animal prey are relatively more important during the dry season, due to reduced availability of other resources, e.g. fruits, and that a greater foraging effort is required when a larger proportion of the diet is animal prey. PMID:11706573

  4. Development of a real-time PCR for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in California sea lions

    Rapid detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in marine mammals is challenging: microbiological culture can take 3-6 months and has low sensitivity, immunohistochemical staining of kidney to detect leptospires is invasive and time consuming, and serological methods, such as the microscopic agglutina...

  5. Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation

    Elaine S Leung; B Louise Chilvers; Shinichi Nakagawa; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly unde...

  6. Data from "Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct populations of Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus."

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data sets used to support analysis published by O'Corry-Crowe et al (2014) Crossing to safety: Dispersal, colonization and mate choice in evolutionarily distinct...

  7. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient.

    Benson, John F; Sikich, Jeff A; Riley, Seth P D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  8. Individual and Population Level Resource Selection Patterns of Mountain Lions Preying on Mule Deer along an Urban-Wildland Gradient

    Benson, John F.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Riley, Seth P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. However, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. We quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to urban, suburban, and rural areas in greater Los Angeles. We documented intersexual and individual-level variation in the environmental conditions present at mule deer feeding sites relative to their availability across home ranges. Males selected riparian woodlands and areas closer to water more than females, whereas females selected developed areas marginally more than males. Females fed on mule deer closer to developed areas and farther from riparian woodlands than expected based on the availability of these features across their home ranges. We suggest that mortality risk for females and their offspring associated with encounters with males may have influenced the different resource selection patterns between sexes. Males appeared to select mule deer feeding sites mainly in response to natural landscape features, while females may have made kills closer to developed areas in part because these are alternative sites where deer are abundant. Individual mountain lions of both sexes selected developed areas more strongly within home ranges where development occurred less frequently. Thus, areas near development may represent a trade-off for mountain lions such that they may benefit from foraging near development because of abundant prey, but as the landscape becomes highly urbanized these benefits may be outweighed by human disturbance. PMID:27411098

  9. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Ralf Christopher Buckley; Fernanda ede Vasconcellos Pegas

    2015-01-01

    Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Ja...

  10. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin in Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Buckley, Ralf C.; de Vasconcellos Pegas, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social, and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Jane...

  11. Diagnosis and surgical treatment of a Chiari I-like malformation in an African lion (Panthera leo).

    McCain, Stephanie; Souza, Marcy; Ramsay, Ed; Schumacher, Juergen; Hecht, Silke; Thomas, William

    2008-09-01

    A 13-mo-old intact male African lion (Panthera leo) presented with a 3-mo history of lethargy, ventral flexion of the neck, abnormal vocalization, and ataxia. Hemogram and serum biochemistries were within normal limits except for the presence of hypokalemia (2.7 mEq/L) and hypochloridemia (108 mEq/L). When no improvement was noted with oral potassium gluconate supplementation, a computed tomography scan of the brain and skull was performed, and no abnormalities were noted. However, magnetic resonance imaging detected occipital bone thickening, crowding of the caudal cranial fossa with cerebellar compression and herniation, and cervical syringohydromyelia, which was consistent with a Chiari I-like malformation. Foramen magnum decompression was performed to relieve the compression of the cerebellum. The animal recovered well with subsequent resolution of clinical signs. Hypovitaminosis A has been proposed previously as the underlying etiology for this malformation in lions with similar clinical presentations. This lion's serum and liver vitamin A concentrations were low (100 ng/ml and 25.31 microg/g, respectively) compared to concentrations reported for domestic carnivores and support hypovitaminosis A as the underlying cause of this animal's Chiari I-like malformation. PMID:18817006

  12. Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates

    Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

  13. Innervation Patterns of Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris Mystacial Follicle-Sinus Complexes

    Christopher Douglas Marshall

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F-SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339±408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses¬.

  14. Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes.

    Marshall, Christopher D; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A

    2014-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7-8 rows and 9-13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses. PMID:25400554

  15. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Castilho, Camila S; Marins-Sá, Luiz G; Benedet, Rodrigo C; Freitas, Thales R O

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F(IS), effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software), we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk. PMID:22481876

  16. Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    Camila S. Castilho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

  17. Electron collector and ion species experiments on the LION extractor ion diode

    Studies of the effects of an electron collector on the electron flow in an ion diode and on diode impedance history are being done with an extractor geometry ion diode (B/sub r/ magnetic insulation field) on the LION accelerator (1.5 MV, 4Ω, 40 ns). The collector is a flux-penetrable metal protrusion on the inner radius of the anode that collects electrons. This device increases the diode operating impedance particularly during the later part of the pulse when the diode impedance collapses without the collector. In the present set of experiments, several thin wires are inserted into the anode and allowed to protrude a few millimeters into the A-K gap. These wires are damaged by the electron flow during the pulse and by measuring the length of the remaining wire, the distance of the electron layer from the anode can be inferred. The ion current density is also measured in three radial locations across the diode, giving a measure, through the Child-Langmuir law, of the effective gap spacing between the anode and the electron sheath. A simple model is proposed to account for the scaling of ion current density with the diode voltage observed in the experiment

  18. Plasma opening switch studies of the applied Bz diode on the LION accelerator

    The LION accelerator, 1.5 MV, 4Ω, at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of an applied Bz, or, barrel diode. A plasma opening switch (POS) has been used to shape the voltage pulse seen by the diode. The results of a series of experiments utilizing a POS are presented. The plasma switch geometry is unique, with the plasma source located inside the center conductor of a coaxial transmission line. The switch region is located between the 17 cm radius anode and the 23 cm radius cathode. The switch is constructed of a flashboard plasma source bent into an azimuthally symmetric ring. The axial length of the plasma is only about 2 cm; which is much smaller than the switch radius. The plasma diffuses into the anode-cathode space through axially oriented slots in the anode. The plasma in the switch region has been characterized during static testing (no generator pulse) using Faraday cups. By using time of flight calculations, the Faraday cups give rough estimates of both the plasma density and velocity. Since the generator pulse is so short (100 ns) these static characterizations are indicative of the plasma when the voltage pulse is present. This low density, fast plasma produced the best results for the diode voltage pulse. Results from recently constructed Langmuir probes are also presented

  19. Interpolation functions and the Lions-Peetre interpolation construction

    The generalization of the Lions-Peetre interpolation method of means considered in the present survey is less general than the generalizations known since the 1970s. However, our level of generalization is sufficient to encompass spaces that are most natural from the point of view of applications, like the Lorentz spaces, Orlicz spaces, and their analogues. The spaces φ(X0,X1)p0,p1 considered here have three parameters: two positive numerical parameters p0 and p1 of equal standing, and a function parameter φ. For p0≠p1 these spaces can be regarded as analogues of Orlicz spaces under the real interpolation method. Embedding criteria are established for the family of spaces φ(X0,X1)p0,p1, together with optimal interpolation theorems that refine all the known interpolation theorems for operators acting on couples of weighted spaces Lp and that extend these theorems beyond scales of spaces. The main specific feature is that the function parameter φ can be an arbitrary natural functional parameter in the interpolation. Bibliography: 43 titles

  20. Pollutant lead deposition in the Gulf of Lions over the last century reconstructed from sedimentary records

    Investigation of the transient evolution of pollutant lead deposition to the Mediterranean are limited by the lack of continuous records. Indeed, most studies are restricted to limited periods (a few days to a few months) that do not allow a precise monitoring of the marine response to anthropogenic input. We have collected 6 cores sediment cores as part of the MATER ECC program in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) to reconstruct high resolution pollutant lead deposition over the past century. We coupled pollutant Pb inventories along with isotopic tracers (excess 210Pb and stable lead isotopes). The mean anthropogenic lead inventory is equal to 101±17 μg/cm2, in good agreement first with lead inventories already calculated in this area, and with the atmospheric fallout over the nearby continental area (as estimated from saltmarsh cores in Camargue. Transient pollutant Pb deposition evidences significant patterns with an increase from 1900 to mid-70's that is consistent with anthropogenic regional emissions. The recent anthropogenic decrease in Pb input is also in agreement with trends in anthropogenic emissions. This decrease in sedimentary inventories is of the same order of magnitude than the atmospheric decrease evidenced by direct measurements , i.e. 31μ12% in sediments and 30% in the atmosphere at the Cap Ferrat for the period 1986-1992. Marine margin sediments appear here as relevant proxies to reconstruct past environmental contaminations over the past century owing to the use of several efficient tracers

  1. Sea Ice

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  2. Sea level change

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  3. La France des Plantagenêts et l’emblème héraldique du lion dans les pièces historiques de Shakespeare

    Gardette, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    Dans la saga historique shakespearienne, de King John à Henry VIII, les fiefs plantagenêts, conquis, perdus, reconquis, définitivement abandonnés, demeurent une obsession commune aux souverains anglais en succession. L’emblème héraldique du lion, associé au semis de fleurs de lys, orne le blason des successeurs de Richard Coeur de Lion. Les rites de la chevalerie, en usage au cours des guerres de France, perdurent jusqu’à la démise de Richard II, qui scelle le début de l’ère moderne. La guerr...

  4. Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?

    Vera Sabatini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

  5. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    Leandro Abade

    Full Text Available Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2 emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2 was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other

  6. Metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: the original animal model of rickets

    Chesney Russell W; Hedberg Gail

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In 1889 Dr. John Bland-Sutton, a prominent London surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the London Zoo. He evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. He recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. Thirty years later, in classic control...

  7. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Western Mediterranean Sea waters.

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Karásková, Pavlína; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the open Western Mediterranean Sea waters was investigated in this study for the first time. In addition to surface water samples, a deep water sample (1390 m depth) collected in the center of the western basin was analyzed. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in all samples and were the dominant PFASs found. The sum of PFAS concentrations (ΣPFASs) ranged 246-515 pg/L for surface water samples. PFASs in surface water had a relatively homogeneous distribution with levels similar to those previously measured in the Atlantic near the Strait of Gibraltar, in water masses feeding the inflow to the Mediterranean Sea. Higher concentrations of PFHxA, PFHpA and PFHxS were, however, found in the present study. Inflowing Atlantic water and river/coastal discharges are likely the major sources of PFASs to the Western Mediterranean basin. Slightly lower (factor of 2) ΣPFASs was found in the deep water sample (141 pg/L). Such a relatively high contamination of deep water is likely to be linked to recurring deep water renewal fed by downwelling events in the Gulf of Lion and/or Ligurian Sea. PMID:27314632

  8. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  9. Four hurdles for conservation on private land: the case of the golden lion tamarin, Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    Ralf Christopher Buckley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many threatened species worldwide rely on patches of remnant vegetation in private landholdings. To establish private reserves that contribute effectively to conservation involves a wide range of complex and interacting ecological, legal, social and financial factors. These can be seen as a series of successive hurdles, each with multiple bars, which must all be surmounted. The golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, is restricted to the Atlantic Forest biome in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This forest is largely cleared. There are many small remnant patches on private lands, able to support tamarins. Local NGO’s have successfully used limited funds to contribute to tamarin conservation in a highly cost effective way. We examined the mechanisms by analysing documents and interviewing landholders and other stakeholders. We found that the local NGOs successfully identified landholdings where ecological, legal, social and some financial hurdles had already been crossed, and helped landholders over the final financial hurdle by funding critical cost components. This cost <5% of the price of outright land purchase. This approach is scaleable for golden lion tamarin elsewhere within the Atlantic Forest biome, and applicable for other species and ecosystems worldwide.

  10. Dominance hierarchy and social grooming in female lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Western Ghats, India

    Mridula Singh; B A Krishna; Mewa Singh

    2006-09-01

    This article reports the structure of dominance and its relationship with social grooming in wild lion-tailed macaque females. The strength of dominance hierarchy was 0.79 on a scale of 0 to 1 indicating a moderate linearity in the ranking system. Dominance scores were converted into an ordinal as well as an interval scale. Grooming scores were also converted into interval scales using standard scores. Grooming received and grooming given correlated positively and negatively respectively with dominance ranks indicating that high ranking females received more and gave less grooming. Grooming was also positively related to encounter rates for dyads of females. More grooming among adjacent ranks, and grooming being more reciprocal, occurred only in the case of dominant females. The grooming patterns, therefore, appeared to be more of despotic than egalitarian nature. While ranking macaques into different Grades of social systems ranging from despotic to egalitarian, Thierry (2004) has placed lion-tailed macaques in Grade 3 corresponding to the ‘relaxed’ social system. Our results indicate that the grooming and dominance relationships in this species are more despotic, and hence, the Grade for this species requires to be shifted toward 2 or 1.

  11. Improved semen collection method for wild felids: urethral catheterization yields high sperm quality in African lions (Panthera leo).

    Lueders, I; Luther, I; Scheepers, G; van der Horst, G

    2012-08-01

    For wild and domestic felids, electroejaculation (EE) is the most common semen collection method. However, the equipment is expensive, there is a risk of urine contamination and animals usually show strong muscular contraction despite general anesthesia. Accordingly, we tested the feasibility of a different approach using urethral catheterization (UC) in seven African lions, previously described for domestic cats only. After general anesthesia with the α2-agonist medetomidine (which also stimulates semen release into the urethra) and ketamine, a transrectal ultrasound was performed to locate the prostate. A commercial dog urinary catheter (2.6 or 3.3 mm in diameter) was advanced approximately 30 cm into the urethra to allow semen collection into the lumen of the catheter by capillary forces. After retraction, sperm volumes between of 422.86 ± 296.07 μl yielded motility of 88.83 ± 13.27% (mean ± SD) with a mean sperm concentration of 1.94 × 10(9)/ml. Here we describe a simple, field friendly and effective method to attain highly concentrated semen samples with excellent motility in lions and potentially other wild felid species as an alternative to electroejaculation. PMID:22538007

  12. Geologic, geochemical, and isotopic studies of a carbonate- and siliciclastic-hosted Pb-Zn deposit at Lion Hill, Vermont

    Foley, Nora K.; Clark, Sandra H.B.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Mosier, Elwin L.

    1995-01-01

    Zn-, Pb-, Cu-, and Fe-bearing rocks of the Lion Hill area in western Vermont formed during the Early Cambrian by syngenetic sedimentary-exhalative and diagenetic replacement processes. Sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and, locally, magnetite form stratabound and broadly stratiform lenticular zones, -300 meters long and 25-50 meters thick, which are uneconomic at the present time. The lenses are structurally disrupted and metamorphosed to greenschist facies, probably due to the Taconic orogeny. Textural evidence suggests that mineralizing fluids permeated the sediments prior to lithification and that a dilatant fracture zone, possibly a feeder zone, contains some of the discordant veins at Lion Hill. The veins may have formed when the sediments were in a plastic, semiconsolidated state. The association of layered iron formation containing base-metal sulfide minerals provides possible lithologic evidence for syngenetic mineralization by submarine exhalative activity. Sand bars and tidal channels present in the sedimentary section could have acted as permeable pathways for movement of mineralizing fluids. The complex interlayering in the sedimentary sequence of carbonate and siliciclastic rock types having widely varying permeabilities created numerous fluid traps.

  13. Impact of an intrusion by the Northern Current on the biogeochemistry in the eastern Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean

    Ross, Oliver N.; Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Pairaud, Ivane

    2016-03-01

    We present the results from the RHOMA2011-LEG2 campaign that took place in the eastern Gulf of Lion from 7 to 17 Oct 2011 and combine them with remote sensing observations and results from a 3D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to study an intrusion event of the Northern Current (NC) onto the continental shelf in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean). Our analysis shows that during the intrusion, the previously upwelled nutrient-rich water present on the shelf is replaced by warmer and mostly oligotrophic NC water within a matter of 2-3 days. This has a marked impact on the local biogeochemistry in the Gulf with pre-intrusion Chl-a concentrations in the surface layer of over 0.5 mg m-3 dropping to near the detection limit within less than 72 h. The intrusion event leads to a dramatic albeit short-lived regime shift in the limiting nutrient for primary production: prior to the intrusion most of production on the shelf is nitrogen limited while the intrusion induces a shift to phosphorous limitation. The relatively high frequency of occurrence of these intrusions in combination with their impact on the local ecosystem make them primary targets for future study.

  14. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    M. W. Strassburg; B. D. Hamlington; R. R. Leben; P. Manurung; J. Lumban Gaol; B. Nababan; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated...

  15. A social network analysis of social cohesion in a constructed pride: implications for ex situ reintroduction of the African lion (Panthera leo.

    Jackie Abell

    Full Text Available Animal conservation practices include the grouping of captive related and unrelated individuals to form a social structure which is characteristic of that species in the wild. In response to the rapid decline of wild African lion (Panthera leo populations, an array of conservational strategies have been adopted. Ex situ reintroduction of the African lion requires the construction of socially cohesive pride structures prior to wild release. This pilot study adopted a social network theory approach to quantitatively assess a captive pride's social structure and the relationships between individuals within them. Group composition (who is present in a group and social interaction data (social licking, greeting, play was observed and recorded to assess social cohesion within a released semi-wild pride. UCINET and SOCPROG software was utilised to represent and analyse these social networks. Results indicate that the pride is socially cohesive, does not exhibit random associations, and the role of socially influential keystone individuals is important for maintaining social bondedness within a lion pride. These results are potentially informative for the structure of lion prides, in captivity and in the wild, and could have implications for captive and wild-founder reintroductions.

  16. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana

    Ramsauer, S; Bay, G.; Meli, M; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Lutz, H.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  17. A social network analysis of social cohesion in a constructed pride: implications for ex situ reintroduction of the African lion (Panthera leo).

    Abell, Jackie; Kirzinger, Morgan W B; Gordon, Yvonne; Kirk, Jacqui; Kokeŝ, Rae; Lynas, Kirsty; Mandinyenya, Bob; Youldon, David

    2013-01-01

    Animal conservation practices include the grouping of captive related and unrelated individuals to form a social structure which is characteristic of that species in the wild. In response to the rapid decline of wild African lion (Panthera leo) populations, an array of conservational strategies have been adopted. Ex situ reintroduction of the African lion requires the construction of socially cohesive pride structures prior to wild release. This pilot study adopted a social network theory approach to quantitatively assess a captive pride's social structure and the relationships between individuals within them. Group composition (who is present in a group) and social interaction data (social licking, greeting, play) was observed and recorded to assess social cohesion within a released semi-wild pride. UCINET and SOCPROG software was utilised to represent and analyse these social networks. Results indicate that the pride is socially cohesive, does not exhibit random associations, and the role of socially influential keystone individuals is important for maintaining social bondedness within a lion pride. These results are potentially informative for the structure of lion prides, in captivity and in the wild, and could have implications for captive and wild-founder reintroductions. PMID:24376544

  18. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids. PMID:22779227

  19. 打猎的狮子与兔子--埃塞俄比亚传说%The Lion and the Hare Go Hunting--An Ethiopian Tale

    2005-01-01

    @@ In Ethiopia the hare,like the jackal1 and the monkey,is known by all of the other animals for his cleverness. His reputation is widespread through the mountains and the grasslands. Even the largest beasts2,such as the lion and the leopard3,respect him.

  20. When Lions Write History: Black History Textbooks, African-American Educators, & the Alternative Black Curriculum in Social Studies Education, 1890-1940

    King, LaGarrett J.

    2014-01-01

    The African proverb, "Until the lions have their historians, tales of the hunt shall always glorify the hunter," is used to metaphorically describe how dominant groups inscribe power through historical narrative. In this article the author discusses how African-American educators between the years of 1890-1940 conceptualized citizenship…

  1. Accuracy of ARGOS locations of Pinnipeds at-sea estimated using Fastloc GPS.

    Daniel P Costa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ARGOS satellite telemetry is one of the most widely used methods to track the movements of free-ranging marine and terrestrial animals and is fundamental to studies of foraging ecology, migratory behavior and habitat-use. ARGOS location estimates do not include complete error estimations, and for many marine organisms, the most commonly acquired locations (Location Class 0, A, B, or Z are provided with no declared error estimate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the accuracy of ARGOS Locations to those obtained using Fastloc GPS from the same electronic tags on five species of pinnipeds: 9 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, 4 Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki, 6 Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, 3 Australian fur seals (A. p. doriferus and 5 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris. These species encompass a range of marine habitats (highly pelagic vs coastal, diving behaviors (mean dive durations 2-21 min and range of latitudes (equator to temperate. A total of 7,318 ARGOS positions and 27,046 GPS positions were collected. Of these, 1,105 ARGOS positions were obtained within five minutes of a GPS position and were used for comparison. The 68(th percentile ARGOS location errors as measured in this study were LC-3 0.49 km, LC-2 1.01 km, LC-1 1.20 km, LC-0 4.18 km, LC-A 6.19 km, LC-B 10.28 km. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The ARGOS errors measured here are greater than those provided by ARGOS, but within the range of other studies. The error was non-normally distributed with each LC highly right-skewed. Locations of species that make short duration dives and spend extended periods on the surface (sea lions and fur seals had less error than species like elephant seals that spend more time underwater and have shorter surface intervals. Supplemental data (S1 are provided allowing the creation of density distributions that can be used in a variety of filtering algorithms to improve the

  2. Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east Africa.

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Fehr, D.; Grob, M.; Elgizoli, M; Packer, C.; Martenson, J S; O'Brien, S J; Lutz, H.

    1996-01-01

    While viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus (FHV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvovirus (FPV), and immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting Tanzania's national...

  3. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  4. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a white lion cub (Panthera leo, with concomitant radiographic double cortical line : clinical communication

    V. Herz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A captive-bred white lion cub was presented with hindquarter pain, lameness and reluctance to move. Radiographs revealed generalised osteoapenia, multiple fractures, a severely collapsed pelvic girdle, bilateral lateral bowing of the scapulae and mild kyphosis of the caudal vertebrae.Adouble cortical line, a distinct sign of osteopaenia, was repeatedly seen on the pelvic limbs, most strikingly along both femurs. Based on radiographic findings and a history of an exclusive meat diet since weaning, a diagnosis of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism was made. The diet was changed to a commercial kitten food and the cub was given cage rest for 6 weeks. Signs of pain abated and the cub became more active.A guarded prognosis was given for full recovery, as changes to the pelvis were considered potentially irreversible.

  5. Continental breakup and the dynamics of rifting in back-arc basins: The Gulf of Lion margin

    Jolivet, Laurent; Gorini, Christian; Smit, Jeroen; Leroy, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Deep seismic profiles and subsidence history of the Gulf of Lion margin reveal an intense stretching of the distal margin and strong postrift subsidence, despite weak extension of the onshore and shallow offshore portions of the margin. We revisit this evolution from the geological interpretation of an unpublished multichannel seismic profile and other published geophysical data. We show that an 80 km wide domain of thin lower continental crust, the "Gulf of Lion metamorphic core complex," is present in the ocean-continent transition zone and exhumed mantle makes the transition with oceanic crust. The exhumed lower continental crust is bounded upward and downward by shallow north dipping detachments. The presence of exhumed lower crust in the deep margin explains the discrepancy between the amount of extension deduced from normal faults in the upper crust and total extension. We discuss the mechanism responsible for exhumation and present two scenarios: the first one involving a simple coupling between mantle extension due to slab retreat and crustal extension and the second one involving extraction of the lower crust and mantle from below the margin by the southeastward flow of hot asthenosphere in the back-arc region during slab rollback. In both scenarios, the combination of Eocene crustal thickening related to the Pyrenees, the nearby volcanic arc, and a shallow lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary weakened the upper mantle and lower crust enough to make them flow southeastward. The overall hot geodynamic environment also explains the subaerial conditions during most of the rifting stage and the delayed subsidence after breakup.

  6. Unusual 210Po/210Pb ratios in the surface water of the Gulf of Lions

    Concentrations of 210Po and 210Pb have been measured in sea water collected in the Grand Rhone Canyon. Concentrations of 210Pb are at similar levels to those found in other Mediterranean sea water samples, and are at the levels which would be expected in comparison with global sea water data. The same applies to the 210Po concentrations in samples from below 100 m depth. Surface samples from above 100 m have 210Po at levels rather higher than expected, and their 210Po/210Pb ratios are about 1 or more as compared with the usual open ocean ratio 0.5. These data can be interpreted as indicating another source of supply of 210Po to the surface layer in addition to the normal atmospheric input. We suggest that an episodic advective particulate input, probably originating in the output of the Rhone river and perhaps involving resuspension of fine particulates from the bottom sediments as a result of storm conditions, is he most likely candidate for this additional source. (authors)

  7. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  8. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  9. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

  10. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

  11. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2011-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  12. Baltic Sea: Radionuclides

    Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria; Ilus, Erkki; Outola, Iisa; Ikäheimonen, Tarja; Mattila, Jukka; Herrmann, Jürgen; Kanisch, Günter; Osvath, Iolanda

    2010-01-01

    The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radi...... seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea....

  13. Faecal helminth egg and oocyst counts of a small population of African lions (Panthera leo in the southwestern Kalahari, Namibia : research communication

    Y. Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An endoparasite survey of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter and summer of 2003 and 2004, respectively. Overall, 23 fresh lion scats were collected opportunistically during fieldwork trials. A flotation technique was employed for the diagnosis of parasites. Three nematodes, Ancylostoma braziliense, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Uncinaria stenocephala and two coccidians, Toxoplasma gondii and Isospora felis were recorded. By using the McMaster method for quantification, a maximum number of 14 866 oocysts per gram of faeces was obtained for I. felis during winter 2003. Endoparasite taxa carried by the different individuals in the pride were found to be related to their levels of association. Rates of infection were relatively low as a result of the habitat, semi-captive conditions and earlier sporadic deworming.

  14. Onde bebem os leões: estudo de referências nos filmes vencedores do Cannes Lions Festival entre 2007 e 2010

    André Zambam Mattos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is the unusual association of contexts that bring to life the advertising ideas considered creative. Eco (2001 explains that the spectator facing a creative piece of communication feels invited to interpretation and rewarded by the comprehension of such association, that generated duplicity of meanings and is only fully understood by the observer who possesses a certain former knowledge. This article accepts the challenge of identifying possible references that generated creative processes in a sample formed by four commercials that won the Grand Prix or the Gold Lion in the Film area of the Cannes Lions Festival, the most celebrated festival when it comes to advertising or creativity. Therefore, this research intends to identify inferences from movies, literature, music, design, art and history in advertising commercials, by comparing the sample with probable verbal and visual inspirations.

  15. Parâmetros genéticos para coelhos da raça Califórnia criados no Brasil Genetic parameters for Californian rabbits raised in Brazil

    M.G. Paula

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Registros de pesos de 3.249 coelhos, nascidos de 1980 a 1996 e, dados de pedigree de 4.857 coelhos da raça Califórnia, criados no Campus da USP de Pirassununga, São Paulo, submetidos à seleção por três gerações, com base em valores genéticos de pesos à desmama (PD e à 10ª semana de idade (P10 e ganho de peso da desmama até 10 semanas de idade (GPD10, foram analisados pelo método de modelos mistos sob modelos animais para obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para as características consideradas como parte do critério de seleção. As estimativas do coeficiente de herdabilidade encontradas foram de 0,23 para PD, de 0,44 para P10 e 0,39 para GP10, mostrando ser possível haver ganhos genéticos se aplicados processos seletivos. A correlação genética entre PD e P10 foi de 0,66 e entre PD e GPD10 foi baixa, indicando que as variáveis são praticamente independentes. A proporção da variância fenotípica devida aos efeitos permanentes de ninhada foi importante para todas as características. Os resultados sugerem que a seleção para características ponderais pode ser eficiente.Genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters of a population of Californian rabbits submitted to selection for three generations were studied. Traits analyzed were individual weaning weight (PD, weight at 10 weeks (P10 and average daily gain from weaning to 10 weeks of age (GPD10 using 3,249 records of weights of rabbits and pedigree information of 4,857 animals, born from 1980 to 1996, and selected based on an index of estimated breeding values for PD, P10 and GPD10. Permanent effects of litters were as important as additive genetic effects. Heritabilities for the three traits were .23 (PD, .44 (P10 and .39 (GPD10. Genetic correlations between PD and P10 and between PD and GPD10 were high (.66 and very low, respectively.

  16. Lidar Observations of Low-level Wind Reversals over the Gulf of Lion and Characterization of Their Impact on the Water Vapour Variability

    Di Girolamo Paolo; Flamant Cyrille; Cacciani Marco; Summa Donato; Stelitano Dario; Mancini Ignazio; Richard Evelyne; Ducrocq Véronique; Nuret Mathieu; Said Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    International audience Water vapour measurements from a ground-based Raman lidar and an airborne differential absorption lidar, complemented by high resolution numerical simulations from two mesoscale models (Arome-WMED and MESO-NH), are considered to investigate transition events from Mistral/Tramontane to southerly marine flow taking place over the Gulf of Lion in Southern France in the time frame September-October 2012, during the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMe...

  17. Marketingová situační analýza BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec

    Hron, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to carry out an analysis of each part of marketing mix and the environment in which the BK Lions Jindřichův Hradec basketball club is situated. Suitable and applicable recommendations are suggested to make the marketing mix more effective based on analysis of marketing situation. The first part is focused on describing the marketing mix and marketing situational analysis at a theoretical level. The practical part describes particular marketing tools which ar...

  18. Human presence increases parasitic load in endangered lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus in its fragmented rainforest habitats in Southern India.

    Shaik Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding changes in the host-parasite relationship due to habitat fragmentation is necessary for better management and conservation of endangered species in fragmented landscapes. Pathogens and parasites can pose severe threat to species in restricted environments such as forest fragments where there is increased contact of wildlife with human and livestock populations. Environmental stress and reduced nutritional level in forest fragments can influence parasite infection and intensity on the native species. In this study, we examine the impact of habitat fragmentation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaques in a fragmented rainforest in Western Ghats. METHODS: The prevalence of different gastrointestinal parasites was estimated from 91 fecal samples collected from 9 lion-tailed macaque groups in nine forest fragments. The parasites were identified up to genus level on the basis of the morphology and coloration of the egg, larva and cyst. The covariates included forest fragment area, group size and the presence/absence of human settlements and livestock in proximity. We used a linear regression model to identify the covariates that significantly influenced the prevalence of different parasite taxa. RESULTS: Nine gastrointestinal parasite taxa were detected in lion-tailed macaque groups. The groups near human settlements had greater prevalence and number of taxa, and these variables also had significant positive correlations with group size. We found that these parameters were also greater in groups near human settlements after controlling for group size. Livestock were present in all five fragments that had human settlements in proximity. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that high prevalence and species richness of gastrointestinal parasites in lion-tailed macaque groups are directly related to habitat fragmentation, high anthropogenic activities and high host density. The parasite load

  19. Nuclear and mtDNA lineage diversity in wild and cultured Pacific lion-paw scallop, Nodipecten subnodosus (Baja California Peninsula, Mexico)

    Petersen, Jessica L; Ibarra, Ana Maria; May, Bernie

    2010-01-01

    Pacific lion-paw scallops were collected from natural aggregations in Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Pacific Ocean), the Gulf of California, and from aquaculture facilities for genetic diversity analyses. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing uncovered two highly supported clades separated by 2.5% divergence. Data from ten microsatellite markers suggest individuals from these mitogroups are introgressed, raising questions about the mitotype origin. Some evidence suggests gene flow between La Paz and Ojo de Lie...

  20. Deep-sea bioluminescence blooms after dense water formation at the ocean surface.

    Christian Tamburini

    Full Text Available The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as "open-sea convection". It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

  1. Improving classification accuracy using multi-date IRS/LISS data and development of thermal stress index for Asiatic lion habitat

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    The increase in lion and leopard population in the GIR wild life sanctuary and National Park (Gir Protected Area) demands periodic and precision monitoring of habitat at close intervals using space based remote sensing data. Besides characterizing the different forest classes, remote sensing needs to support for the assessment of thermal stress zones and identification of possible corridors for lion dispersion to new home ranges. The study focuses on assessing the thematic forest classification accuracies in percentage terms(CA) attainable using single date post-monsoon (CA=60, kappa = 0.514) as well as leaf shedding (CA=48.4, kappa = 0.372) season data in visible and Near-IR spectral bands of IRS/LISS-III at 23.5 m spatial resolution; and improvement of CA by using joint two date (multi-temporal) data sets (CA=87.2, kappa = 0.843) in the classification. The 188 m spatial resolution IRS/WiFS and 23.5 m spatial resolution LISS-III data were used to study the possible corridors for dispersion of Lions from GIR protected areas (PA). A relative thermal stress index (RTSI) for Gir PA has been developed using NOAA/ AVHRR data sets of post-monsoon, leaf shedded and summer seasons. The paper discusses the role of RTSI as a tool to work out forest management plans using leaf shedded season data to combat the thermal stress in the habitat, by identifying locations for artificial water holes during the ensuing summer season.

  2. The Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus (Primates: Cercopithecidae: conservation history and status of a flagship species of the tropical rainforests of the Western Ghats, India

    M. Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus is a threatened species inhabiting the rainforests of the Western Ghats mountain range in southern India. Once assessed to be less than a thousand individuals remaining in the wild habitats, the population is now estimated to be between 3000 and 3500 individuals. However, the rainforest habitats of the species are highly fragmented. During the past three decades or less, the population of this species has severely declined due to habitat degradation and illegal hunting in several areas of its occurrence. In situ conservation programs included notification of certain areas as Lion-tailed Macaque conservation regions. Several captive breeding programs have been initiated in order to have a viable captive population of the species. However, the analysis reveals that both in situ and ex situ conservation programs have not achieved the desired success and the species is even more endangered than it was a few decades ago. In this article, we discuss these conservation programs and suggest further measures for effective conservation of Lion-tailed Macaques.

  3. Stratigraphy of two conjugate margins (Gulf of Lion and West Sardinia): modeling of vertical movements and sediment budgets

    Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup; Robin, Cécile; Granjeon, Didier; Taillepierre, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The post-rift (~20-0 Ma) vertical movements of the Provence Basin (West Mediterranean) are quantified on its both conjugate (the Gulf of Lion and the West Sardinia) margins. This work is based on the stratigraphic study of sedimentary markers using a large 3D grid of seismic data, correlations with existing drillings and refraction data. The post-rift subsidence is measured by the direct use of sedimentary geometries analysed in 3D [Gorini et al., 2015; Rabineau et al., 2014] and validated by numerical stratigraphic modelling. Three domains were found: on the platform (1) and slope (2), the subsidence takes the form of a seaward tilting with different amplitudes, whereas the deep basin (3) subsides purely vertically [Leroux et al., 2015a]. These domains correspond to the deeper crustal domains respectively highlighted by wide angle seismic data. The continental crust (1) and the thinned continental crust (2) are tilted, whereas the intermediate crust, identified as lower continental exhumed crust [Moulin et al., 2015, Afhilado et al., 2015] (3) sagged. The post-break-up subsidence re-uses the initial hinge lines of the rifting phase. This striking correlation between surface geologic processes and deep earth dynamic processes emphasizes that the sedimentary record and sedimentary markers is a window into deep geodynamic processes and dynamic topography. Pliocene-Pleistocene seismic markers enabled high resolution quantification of sediment budgets over the past 6 Myr [Leroux et al., in press]. Sediment budget history is here completed on the Miocene interval. Thus, the controlling factors (climate, tectonics and eustasy) are discussed. Afilhado, A., Moulin, M., Aslanian, D., Schnürle, P., Klingelhoefer, F., Nouzé, H., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E. & Beslier, M.-O. (2015). Deep crustal structure across a young 1 passive margin from wide-angle and reflection seismic data (The SARDINIA Experiment) - II. Sardinia's margin. Bull. Soc. géol. France, 186, ILP Spec. issue, 4

  4. Reinforced Concrete Condition Assessment in Architectural Heritage. The Lion Chambers (Glasgow, UK) and the Theatre E. Duni (Matera, Italy)

    Guida, A.; Dimitrijevic, B.; Pagliuca, A.

    2012-04-01

    The research objective is to provide new qualitative information on the strength of reinforced concrete structures of two prominent examples of modern architecture by using innovative, non-invasive testing techniques. The first one is Lion Chambers in Glasgow (Scotland, United Kingdom) designed by the architects Salmon, Son and Gillespie and completed in 1907. It was the second example of the use of François Hennebique's reinforced concrete system in a building in Glasgow and one of the earliest in Britain. The second example is Duni Theatre in Matera (Southern Italy), designed by the architect Ettore Stella and completed in 1949. The tests on the internal reinforced concrete columns were undertaken by using "SonReb" (SONic + REBound) method that enables assessing the concrete resistance by combining the speed of ultrasound waves and the index of surface bounce through a scleorometric test. In fact, the sclerometer index only gives information regarding the surface layer of the building's structure. In fact, due to the effects of the natural ageing, catalysed by the presence of humidity, surface layers of concrete are affected over time by carbonatation, which increases surface rigidity, providing as a result a greatly "altered" rebound index (much greater than one would have under normal conditions). On the other hand, the ultrasound speed, on the contrary to resistance, is inversely proportional to the age of the concrete (this seems to be due to the cracks that occur and reduce the speed). The hardening process continues over time with a consequent increase in resistance, which diminishes with the passage of time. The paper provides the results of the tests run on the structure of the Lion Chambers and the Duni Theatre. The tests carried out are the basis of a diagnostic project that is possible to implement and monitor to guarantee a deeper knowledge, with the goal of attaining a level of thorough understanding aimed at the preservation of "Modern Architecture

  5. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral. PMID:17626470

  6. 3D modeling of stratigraphic units and simulation of seismic facies in the Lion gulf margin; Modelisation 3D des unites stratigraphiques et simulation des facies sismiques dans la marge du golfe du Lion

    Chihi, H.

    1997-05-12

    This work aims at providing a contribution to the studies carried out on reservoir characterization by use of seismic data. The study mainly consisted in the use of geostatistical methods in order to model the geometry of stratigraphic units of the Golfe du Lion margin and to simulate the seismic facies from high resolution seismic data. We propose, for the geometric modelling, a methodology based on the estimation of the surfaces and calculation afterwards of the thicknesses, if the modelling of the depth is possible. On the other hand the method consists in estimating the thickness variable directly and in deducing the boundary surfaces afterwards. In order to simulate the distribution of seismic facies within the units of the western domain, we used the truncated Gaussian method. The used approach gave a satisfactory results, when the seismic facies present slightly dipping reflectors with respect to the reference level. Otherwise the method reaches its limits because of the problems of definition of a reference level which allows to follow the clino-forms. In spite of these difficulties, this simulation allows us to estimate the distribution of seismic facies within the units and then to deduce their probable extension. (author) 150 refs.

  7. 7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value...

  8. Sea Turtle Interaction Report

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Turtle Interaction Report is a report sent out in pdf format to authorized individuals that summarizes sea turtle interactions in the longline fishery. The...

  9. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  10. Peer Production and the Californian ideology

    Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    This session is aimed at exploring and discussing different political issues around P2P. Peer production (short for mass-online commons-based peer production) refers to the particular way of open collaboration behind information-centred initiates like free software and Wikipedia, though in the late years it has been exported to other production realms (from hardware to building and farming). Many authors believe it represents in fact an emerging mode of production with disruptive consequences...

  11. Are Aftershocks of Large Californian Earthquakes Diffusing?

    Helmstetter, A; Sornette, D; Helmstetter, Agnes; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    We analyze 21 aftershock sequences of California to test for evidence of space-time diffusion. Aftershock diffusion may result from stress diffusion and is also predicted by any mechanism of stress weakening. Here, we test an alternative mechanism to explain aftershock diffusion, based on multiple cascades of triggering. In order to characterize aftershock diffusion, we develop two methods, one based on a suitable time and space windowing that has been calibrated on the ETAS model of triggered seismicity, the other using a wavelet transform adapted to the removal of background seismicity. Both methods confirm that diffusion of seismic activity is very weak, much weaker than reported in previous studies. A possible mechanism explaining the weakness of observed diffusion is the effect of geometry, including the localization of aftershocks on a fractal fault network and the impact of extended rupture lengths which control the typical distances of interaction between earthquakes.

  12. Trends in the Health of Older Californians

    Wallace, Steven P.; Lee, Jennifer H.; Jawad, May Aydin

    2008-01-01

    California's population is getting older. By 2026 the elderly population will double to nearly 8 million. This report examines health statistics on the elderly from three California Health Interview Survey cycles (2001, 2003 and 2005) in order to spotlight current challenges and predict future trends. The report found that older adults were more likely to report cancer, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and the need for help with emotional problems. The use of medical c...

  13. Sea level rise

    Warrick, R. A.; Oerlemans, J.

    1990-01-01

    This Section addresses three questions: Has global-mean sea level been rising during the last 100 years? What are the causal factors that could explain a past rise in sea level? And what increases in sea level can be expected in the future?

  14. Comparative analysis of the reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Marco A Angel-Dapa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated in a culturing system in Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur, Mexico during an annual cycle, comparing its response with data previously reported at other localities. High frequencies of ripe gonads throughout the year indicate that reproduction was continuous, with two main ripening/spawning events: July-September and December-March. A continuous breeding is also reported for the species in Bahía Magdalena, Bahía Juncalito, and Bahía de Los Angeles. These eutrophic areas are Biological Active Centers where gametogenesis appears to be regulated by the energy taken from recently ingested food following an opportunistic strategy. However, the digestive gland index decreased and the muscle indices increased during one of the breeding peaks, suggesting that some stored reserves are also used to sustain gametogenesis (conservative strategy partially. High incidences of atretic oocytes are likely associated with atypical daily variations in water temperature from May through September (12 to 33°C, or with stressful conditions in the culturing system in summer. Despite this, the culturing system set in Bahía Tortugas appears beneficial for a continuous reproduction of N. subnodosus.

  15. Prevalence of Depression among Type 2 Diabetic Outpatients in Black Lion General Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The emotional consequences of diabetes have been scrutinized by a number of investigative teams and there are varying reports about the association of depression with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is limited data about this in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of comorbid depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients. Methods and Materials. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted on a random sample of 276 type 2 diabetic outpatients from Black Lion General Specialized Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to get these individual patients from 920 type 2 diabetic outpatients who have an appointment during the data collection period. Patients’ depression status was measured using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ 9. Result. Totally 264 type 2 diabetic outpatients were interviewed with a response rate of 95.6%. The prevalence of depression among type 2 diabetic outpatients was 13%. Based on PHQ 9 score, 28.4% (75 fulfilled the criteria for mild depression, 12.1% (32 for moderate depression, 2.7% (7 for moderately severe depression, and 1.5% (4 for severe depression. But 45.8% (121 of patients had no clinically significant depression. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that depression is a common comorbid health problem in type 2 diabetic outpatients with a prevalence rate of 13%.

  16. Multiple breeding females in captive groups of golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas): causes and consequences.

    De Vleeschouwer, K; Van Elsacker, L; Leus, K

    2001-01-01

    In Callitrichidae, reproduction in subordinate females is generally inhibited but occurs in rare cases, possibly in association with the presence of an unrelated male, important food resources or low dispersal opportunities. This study investigates the occurrence of groups with multiple breeding females in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), the factors leading to their formation and the consequences for the group. Information obtained from studbook data on the world captive population during 1984-1998 revealed that polygynous groups in captivity are very rare: only 7 cases were discovered. Family groups in which daughters started breeding with a related male were larger than average, had a high number of sexually mature sons and eldest offspring that were well past the age of sexual maturity. Following a breeding attempt, severe aggression frequently occurred, especially if the infants were liveborn. Polygynous groups composed of two related females and an unrelated male tended to remain stable for a longer period than families with breeding daughters. Competition for infant care is probably an important factor determining whether the polygynous situation can persist and for how long. PMID:11275743

  17. Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados

    Hugo Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de

  18. Waves in the seas

    Varkey, M.J.

    of wave-energy for generation of electricty. Wind while blowing over the sea surface trans- fers huge amounts of energy into the sea by imparting oscillatory motion to the surface. This includes both ki- netic and potential Chaotic sea surface; (inset) a... stimulation and excite- ment since it has much complexity and scope for further developments. The recently developed wonder-tool of mathematics, 'fractals' can also be used to model sea surfaces. Generation of waves on the sea surface is a very complex process...

  19. Sea level report

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 105 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  20. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have...

  1. Sea piracy and law of the sea

    Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

    2010-01-01

    As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this ...

  2. Eddy measurements, coastal turbulence and statistics in the gulf of Lions

    J. M. Redondo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in radar sensors may be applied to study the flow in the Region of Fresh Water Influence (ROFI region of the ocean. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a useful tool that may be used to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution. Oil spills and natural slicks may be detected and processed with advanced computer techniques to reveal vortex dynamics and turbulence spectral characteristics of the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface, more than 300 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 1998 were analyzed. A total of 255 eddies were detected under convenient environmental conditions and we analyzed statistically the appearance, size, shape and position of vortices in the test area. We find that the maximum size of the eddies detected near the coast is limited by the Rossby deformation radius and that there is a decrease in size in the coastal waters in the direction of the Liguro-Provenzal current with the largest eddies occurring near the cape of Rosas. Near the Rhone and Ebro rivers, high discharges also contribute to eddy forcing, coastal radar measurements confirm the SAR observations. The role of submarine canyons in the vortex generation is also confirmed due to the asymmetry of their distribution with respect to the thalwegs. It is demonstrated that useful information of a geometrical nature obtained by SAR satellite images may be used to estimate relevant dynamical parameters of coastal flows.

  3. Salish Sea Genetics - Salish Sea genetic inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Salish Sea comprises most of the Puget Sound water area. Marine species are generally assemblages of discrete populations occupying various ecological niches....

  4. Variable Nucleotide Tandem-Repeat Analysis Revealing a Unique Group of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Pomona Isolates Associated with California Sea Lions

    Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is commonly isolated from a variety of wildlife and domesticated livestock. It is difficult to assess whether disease outbreaks with serovar Pomona in given animal populations are due to endemic infections or accidental exposure. Unlike many leptospiral serovars...

  5. Food habits of California sea lions in Washington state, 1986-02-26 to 1999-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0145637)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  6. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Raw telemetry data for California sea lions and northern fur seals in waters off California, Oregon, and Washington during 2002-2007

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project was to obtain data that are pertinent to assessing aspects of the distribution and foraging ecology of pinnipeds inhabiting the...

  7. Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhone river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea)

    The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhone freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhone river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on 137Cs, 106Ru, 60Co, 238Pu and 239+240Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (238Pu and 239+240Pu and have no significance on 137Cs flux

  8. Summer Arctic sea fog

    2001-01-01

    Synchronous or quasi-synchronous sea-land-air observations were conducted using advanced sea ice, atmospheric and marine instruments during China' s First Arctic Expedition. Based on the Precious data from the expedition, it was found that in the Arctic Ocean, most part of which is covered with ice or is mixed with ice, various kinds of sea fog formed such as advection fog, radiation fog and vapor fog. Each kind has its own characteristic and mechanics of creation. In the southern part of the Arctic Ocean, due to the sufficient warm and wet flow there, it is favorable for advection fog to form,which is dense and lasts a long time. On ice cap or vast floating ice, due to the strong radiation cooling effect, stable radiating fog is likely to form. In floating ice area there forms vapor fog with the appearance of masses of vapor from a boiling pot, which is different from short-lasting land fog. The study indicates that the reason why there are many kinds of sea fog form in the Arctic Ocean is because of the complicated cushion and the consequent sea-air interaction caused by the sea ice distribution and its unique physical characteristics. Sea fog is the atmospheric phenomenon of sea-air heat exchange. Especially, due to the high albedo of ice and snow surface, it is diffcult to absorb great amount of solar radiation during the polar days. Besides, ice is a poor conductor of heat; it blocks the sea-air heat exchange.The sea-air exchange is active in floating ice area where the ice is broken. The sea sends heat to the atmosphere in form of latent heat; vapor fog is a way of sea-air heat exchange influencing the climate and an indicator of the extent of the exchange. The study also indicates that the sea also transports heat to the atmosphere in form of sensible heat when vapor fog occurs.

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns of key exploited marine species in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Marie Morfin

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the temporal variability/stability of the spatial distributions of key exploited species in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. To do so, we analyzed data from the MEDITS bottom-trawl scientific surveys from 1994 to 2010 at 66 fixed stations and selected 12 key exploited species. We proposed a geostatistical approach to handle zero-inflated and non-stationary distributions and to test for the temporal stability of the spatial structures. Empirical Orthogonal Functions and other descriptors were then applied to investigate the temporal persistence and the characteristics of the spatial patterns. The spatial structure of the distribution (i.e. the pattern of spatial autocorrelation of the 12 key species studied remained highly stable over the time period sampled. The spatial distributions of all species obtained through kriging also appeared to be stable over time, while each species displayed a specific spatial distribution. Furthermore, adults were generally more densely concentrated than juveniles and occupied areas included in the distribution of juveniles. Despite the strong persistence of spatial distributions, we also observed that the area occupied by each species was correlated to its abundance: the more abundant the species, the larger the occupation area. Such a result tends to support MacCall's basin theory, according to which density-dependence responses would drive the expansion of those 12 key species in the Gulf of Lions. Further analyses showed that these species never saturated their habitats, suggesting that they are below their carrying capacity; an assumption in agreement with the overexploitation of several of these species. Finally, the stability of their spatial distributions over time and their potential ability to diffuse outside their main habitats give support to Marine Protected Areas as a potential pertinent management tool.

  10. The response of the frugivorous lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) to a period of fruit scarcity.

    Krishnadas, Meghna; Chandrasekhara, K; Kumar, Ajith

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rainforests show seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of fruits resulting in periods of resource scarcity for frugivores. We examined the response of an obligate frugivore, the lion-tailed macaque (LTM) (Macaca silenus), to a period of fruit scarcity in a rainforest in the Western Ghats, India. We estimated the abundance and distribution of fruit resources from food tree densities obtained from 348 point centered quadrats, and fruit availability from phenological monitoring of 195 trees of 15 reported major food species. Macronutrient content was estimated for fruits of 15 major food species. We estimated time spent feeding on different food items from 1,853 individual scans spanning 120 hr of observation of one habituated study group. There was a distinct period of fruit scarcity during the drier months of February to mid-March (Period 1) compared with late March and April (Period 2), separated by summer showers. Fruits available in Period 1 had lower soluble carbohydrate and lipid content and overall caloric value compared with Period 2. During the lean period, the LTM fed more on fruits of Drypetes wightii, which had the highest carbohydrate content, than on nectar of Palaquium ellipticum or Ficus spp., which had low carbohydrate content. During this period, the resource availability in a location significantly influenced the occurrence of feeding there. In Period 2, the group fed most on the seeds of Cullenia exarillata, the most abundant tree in the home-range and with the highest content of soluble carbohydrates. During this period, the abundance of food trees in fruit in a location did not seem to influence the occurrence of feeding. Low abundance, stochastic fruiting and, low quality might make Ficus spp. a poor fallback option for the LTM. PMID:21898517

  11. Characteristics of reproductive biology and proximate factors regulating seasonal breeding in captive golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas).

    De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Leus, Kristin; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2003-08-01

    Reproduction is highly demanding in terms of energy expenditure, and the costs and benefits associated with postponing or investing in a reproductive effort are crucial determinants of an individual's fitness. Understanding the reproductive potential of a species under varying ecological conditions offers important insights into the dynamics of its social system. This study provides the first detailed analysis of the reproductive potential of wild- and captive-born golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) under captive conditions, based on studbook data compiled during 1984-2000. Litters produced by wild-born females breeding in captivity are similar in size to litters observed in the wild, but smaller than litters of captive-born females. The more stringent ecological conditions experienced by wild-born females during maturation may result in a lifelong effect on litter size. However, interbirth intervals are shorter for wild-born than captive-born females. The relatively smaller burden of infant care that results from having smaller litters may allow wild-born females to sustain the next pregnancy sooner. Reproduction in the Brazilian captive population is highly seasonal for both wild-born females and females born in captivity in Brazil. Changes in photoperiod over a year provide a proximate explanation for changes in the proportion of conceptions and births per month. Outside Brazil, breeding occurs year-round, and no clear birth peak is apparent. Information from field reports that could be used to relate this finding to ecological factors, such as resource availability, is unavailable. PMID:12910464

  12. South China Sea Challenge

    2006-01-01

    China's attempts to solve disputes with ASEAN over the South China Sea help regional peace China's marine economy and security are currently faced with new challenges, requiring careful handling, especially in disputes with ASEAN countries and in promoting common development of the South China Sea. The outcome of how this is dealt with could undoubtedly pave the way for solutions to other oceanic disputes. The South China Sea is located south of

  13. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    In the Eemian to Early/Middle Weichselian (Late Pleistocene), when the Scandinavian and Alpine Glaciers were still small, and northern Germany under mammoth steppe to taiga palaoenvironment conditions, Late Quaternary steppe lions were well distributed in northern to central Germany, whereas generally all over Central Europe bones and rarely articulated skeletons were found less at open air but mainly at cave sites (Diedrich 2007a, 2008a-b, 2009a-b, 2010a-c, k, in review a-b; Diedrich and Rathgeber in review). A similar distribution, but more dense, is reported for the Late Quaternary Ice Age spotted hyenas (Diedrich 2005, 2006, 2007b-c, 2008a, c, 2010f-j, in review c-d, Diedrich and Žák 2006). The last lions of northern Europe were thought to have reached into the final Magdalénan (cf. Musil 1980). This can be not concluded with a restudy of the bone material from the Late Magdalenian (V-VI) Teufelsbrücke stone arch site near Saalfeld (Thuringia, Central Germany) and many other Magdalenian stations (open air and caves) in northern to central Germany (Münsterland Bay, Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Thuringian Karst). None of those sites yield remains of final Upper Pleistocene spotted hyenas or steppe lion bones anymore, nor in the few preserved Late Magdalenian mobile art can those be recognized in those regions. The last lion remains seem to reach into the Aurignacian or possibly into the Early Gravettian (early Late Weichselian) documented especially at the cave bear den, hyena den and overlapping Neandertalian to Modern human camp site Balve Cave (Sauerland Karst, cf. archaeology in Günther 1964) where still a mammoth fauna is documented for that time (Diedrich 2010a). The last and by archaeological layers dated hyena remains were also found in the Balve Cave and are from the Late Middle Palaeolithic cave site reaching a maximum Aurignacian age documenting an overlapping of hyena den and human camp site use (Diedrich 2010a, b). In northern Germany

  14. Interspecies nuclear transfer using fibroblasts from leopard, tiger, and lion ear piece collected postmortem as donor cells and rabbit oocytes as recipients.

    Yelisetti, Uma Mahesh; Komjeti, Suman; Katari, Venu Charan; Sisinthy, Shivaji; Brahmasani, Sambasiva Rao

    2016-06-01

    Skin fibroblast cells were obtained from a small piece of an ear of leopard, lion, and tiger collected postmortem and attempts were made to synchronize the skin fibroblasts at G0/G1 of cell cycle using three different approaches. Efficiency of the approaches was tested following interspecies nuclear transfer with rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting revealed that the proportion of G0/G1 cells increased significantly (P sodium butyrate (NaBu) treatment when compared with cycling cells. However, 3 mM NaBu treatment caused alterations in cell morphology and increase in dead cells. Thus, interspecies nuclear transfer was carried out using fibroblast cells subjected to contact inhibition for 72 h, serum starvation for 48 h, and cells treated with 1.0 mM NaBu for 48 h. The fusion rates, the proportion of fused couplets that cleaved to two-cell and developed to blastocyst, were highest in all three species when the donor cells were treated with 1.0 mM NaBu for 48 h. But, the blastocyst percentage of interspecies nuclear embryos (5-6%) was significantly lower when compared with rabbit-rabbit nuclear transfer embryos (22.9%). In conclusion, fibroblast cells of leopard, lion, and tiger were successfully synchronized and used for the development of blastocysts using rabbit oocytes as recipient cytoplasm. PMID:27071624

  15. Spotted hyena and steppe lion predation behaviours on cave bears of Europe - ?Late Quaternary cave bear extinction as result of predator stress

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    Cave bears hibernated in caves all over Eurasia (e.g. Rabeder et al., 2000) including alpine regions using mainly larger caves for this purpose. Late Quaternary spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta spelaea instead occupied mainly areas close to the cave entrances as their dens (Diedrich and Žák 2006, Diedrich 2010). The largest predator, the steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea was only a sporadic cave dweller (Diedrich 2007b, 2009b). His presence and its remains from caves all over Europe can be recently explained best as result of imported carcasses after killing by their largest antagonists, the Late Quaternary spotted hyenas. In some cases the kill might have happened in the hyena den cave itself during the theft of prey remains by lions (Diedrich 2009a). Another reason of their remains in caves of Europe is the hunting onto the herbivorous cave bears, especially during hibernation times, when megafauna prey was less available in the open environments (Diedrich 2009c). These lion remains from caves of Europe, nearly all of which were from adult animals, provide evidence of active predation by lions onto cave bears even in medium high alpine regions (Diedrich 2009b, in review). Lion skeletons in European cave bear dens were therefore often found amongst originally articulated cave bear skeletons or scattered cave bear remains and even close to their hibernation nests (Diedrich et al. 2009c, in review). Not only lions fed on cave bears documented mainly by the large quantities of chewed, punctured and crushed cave bear long-bones; even damaged skulls reveal that hyenas scavenged primarily on cave bear carcasses which were mainly responsible for the destruction of their carcasses and bones (Diedrich 2005, 2009d). Predation and scavenging on cave bears by the two largest Late Quaternary predators C. c. spelaea and P. l. spelaea explains well the large quantity of fragmented cave bear bones over all European caves in low to medium high mountainous elevations, whereas in

  16. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  17. Oceanography of marginal seas

    DileepKumar, M.

    . The Andaman Sea remains the least studied basin in this region. Physical and chemical signatures suggest that the deep basin of the Andaman Sea are largely influenced by intermediate circulation. Deep waters are warmer and low in oxygen than those at similar...

  18. SEA and planning

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper...

  19. Dilemmas in SEA application

    Lyhne, Ivar

    Dilemmas in SEA Application: The DK Energy SectorIvar Lyhne - lyhne@plan.aau.dk. Based on three years of collaborative research, this paper outlines dilemmas in the application of SEA in the strategic development of the Danish energy sector. The dilemmas are based on concrete examples from practice...

  20. Motorways of the Sea

    Ionita Profir

    2011-01-01

    In its communication aim, the European Commission presents the following definition: short distance shipping means the movement of cargo and passengers by sea between ports situated in Europe geographical area or between those ports and ports situated in non-European countries located at closed seas on the border of Europe