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1

2004 LEPTOSPIROSIS OUTBREAK AMONGST CALIFORNIAN SEA LIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Leptospirosis outbreaks among marine mammals, and specifically California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), have resulted in large scale, cyclic epizootics since the early 1970s, with a distinct 3-4 year periodicity. During 2004 over 300 sea lions died along the central California coas...

2

Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL). Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki), the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus) as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is under the general protection of the habitat it lives in.

Wolf Jochen BW; Tautz Diethard; Trillmich Fritz

2007-01-01

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Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs) speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

Santokh Gill; Tracey Goldstein; Donna Situ; Tanja S. Zabka; Frances M. D. Gulland; Rudi W. Mueller

2010-01-01

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Cloning and characterization of glutamate receptors in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs) speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

Gill S; Goldstein T; Situ D; Zabka TS; Gulland FM; Mueller RW

2010-01-01

5

Sea Lion Skeleton - Skull  

Science.gov (United States)

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

6

Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils  

Science.gov (United States)

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

7

Stellar Sea Lion Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

8

Sea Lion Configuration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea Lion Number 1 has been mechanically reconfigured and refurbished in order to make the vehicle sea worthy and capable of meeting NRL's needs as a research and development platform. The hull has been extended by 16 inches and the electronics bay modifie...

1996-01-01

9

Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-27

10

Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-15

11

Sea Lion Telemetry Systems Analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In support of the Naval Research Laboratory's Sea Lion Program to instrument the remotely operated vehicles with multibeam bathymetry and imagery systems, it is necessary to demonstrate a telemetry system capable of handling the high data rates characteri...

1994-01-01

12

Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, B)

2007-07-14

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Steller Sea Lion: Analyze and Graph This Population Decline  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will analyze Steller sea lion population trends using real data from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory's Alaska Fisheries Science Center. The objectives in this activity are to identify the differences between seals and sea lions, name factors contributing to the population decline of Steller sea lions and compare and graph Steller sea lion population numbers.

Lawrence, Lisa A.

2012-07-11

14

Radiographic Atlas of the California Sea Lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A radiographic reference atlas of the California sea lion complete with an evaluation of techniques for all of the standard positions was developed. Photographs and drawings of the normal radiographic anatomy are presented. The radiographic technique has ...

J. C. Sweeney

1974-01-01

15

Leptospirosis Epizootic Among California Sea Lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Leptospira species is suspected of being the etiological agent in a recent epizootic among California sea lions. The disease was condined to subadult males of the species Zalophus c. californianus. (Author)

A. W. Smith G. Migaki J. Schonewald N. A. Vedros R. C. Hubbard

1971-01-01

16

San Miguel sea lion virus fed to mink and pigs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mink became infected with San Miguel sea lion virus when fed ground meat from seal carcasses showing vesicular-like lesions in the skin. The mink also contracted the infection when they were fed San Miguel sea lion virus infected pig meat or cell culture propagated virus. San Miguel sea lion virus i...

Wilder, F W; Dardiri, A H

17

Sea Lion Skeleton - Hind limb (flipper)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions use their hind flippers to steer themselves through water. The anatomy of their limbs are very similar to humans in that they both have several joints, such as ball and socket (shoulder) and a gliding joint (wrist). They also have five toe-like digits.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-06-18

18

Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE) and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD) and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

Le Boeuf Burney J; Giesy John P; Kannan Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara Natsuko; Tanabe Shinsuke; Debier Cathy

2002-01-01

19

Premature parturition in the California sea lion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty percent of the California sea lion pups born on San Miguel Island die due to premature parturition. Specimens collected from premature-partus animals resulted in recovery of a virus, San Miguel Sea Lion Virus, indistinguishable from Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus, and Leptospira pomona from some of the premature cows and pups. The age range of 10 females delivering healthy pups in June was 10-14 years. With one exception, the ages in 10 aborting females was 6-8 years. The p,p'-DDE levels of the premature parturient cows' blubber and liver were 7.6 and 4.8 times greater, respectively, than corresponding tissue concentrations in the full-term animals. Polychlorinated biphenyls residues were 4.4 and 3.8 times greater in aborting animals' blubber and liver than in the same tissues of full-term sea lions. Premature-partus females had tissue imbalances of mercury, selenium, cadmium and bromine. Pathology, parasitology, serum enzyme and hormone results are also presented. These data suggest an interrelationship of disease agents and environmental contaminants as the cause of premature parturition.

Gilmartin WG; Delong RL; Smith AW; Sweeney JC; De Lappe BW; Risebrough RW; Griner LA; Dailey MD; Peakall DB

1976-01-01

20

San Miguel sea lion virus fed to mink and pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mink became infected with San Miguel sea lion virus when fed ground meat from seal carcasses showing vesicular-like lesions in the skin. The mink also contracted the infection when they were fed San Miguel sea lion virus infected pig meat or cell culture propagated virus. San Miguel sea lion virus infection in mink was inapparent but the virus was isolated from blood and rectal swabs. Pigs treated similarly with the same virus preparations given to mink developed a severe vesicular disease syndrome similar to that produced by vesicular exanthema of swine. In a separate trial, pigs fed a large sample of commercial ground seal meat did not develop disease signs or antibodies. Further work is needed to assess the hazard of introducing San Miguel sea lion virus into swine on the same premises when potentially San Miguel sea lion virus infective seal meat is fed to mink.

Wilder FW; Dardiri AH

1978-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

The fecal viral flora of California sea lions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

California sea lions are one of the major marine mammal species along the Pacific coast of North America. Sea lions are susceptible to a wide variety of viruses, some of which can be transmitted to or from terrestrial mammals. Using an unbiased viral metagenomic approach, we surveyed the fecal virome in California sea lions of different ages and health statuses. Averages of 1.6 and 2.5 distinct mammalian viral species were shed by pups and juvenile sea lions, respectively. Previously undescribed mammalian viruses from four RNA virus families (Astroviridae, Picornaviridae, Caliciviridae, and Reoviridae) and one DNA virus family (Parvoviridae) were characterized. The first complete or partial genomes of sapeloviruses, sapoviruses, noroviruses, and bocavirus in marine mammals are reported. Astroviruses and bocaviruses showed the highest prevalence and abundance in California sea lion feces. The diversity of bacteriophages was higher in unweaned sea lion pups than in juveniles and animals in rehabilitation, where the phage community consisted largely of phages related to the family Microviridae. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in marine mammals, highlights the high rate of enteric viral infections in these highly social carnivores, and may be used as a baseline viral survey for comparison with samples from California sea lions during unexplained disease outbreaks.

Li L; Shan T; Wang C; Côté C; Kolman J; Onions D; Gulland FM; Delwart E

2011-10-01

22

76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering...December 13, 2010, to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that...FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure...

2011-01-12

23

75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering...interim final rule to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to insure that...competition for important Steller sea lion prey species in waters adjacent...

2010-12-13

24

75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering...FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure...

2010-12-29

25

Coxiella burnetii infection of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) found in Washington State.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever. PMID:20592144

Kersh, Gilbert J; Lambourn, Dyanna M; Self, Joshua S; Akmajian, Adrianne M; Stanton, James B; Baszler, Timothy V; Raverty, Stephen A; Massung, Robert F

2010-06-30

26

Coxiella burnetii infection of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) found in Washington State.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever.

Kersh GJ; Lambourn DM; Self JS; Akmajian AM; Stanton JB; Baszler TV; Raverty SA; Massung RF

2010-09-01

27

Successfully treated dermatomycosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe clinical cases caused by Microsporum gypseum in two subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Dermatomycosis is uncommonly reported in pinnipeds, including this species. In these cases, skin lesions were multifocal to coalescing, involved all flippers, and were most pronounced on the ventral surfaces of flippers. They were well-demarcated, depigmented, and covered with crusts. The definitive diagnosis was obtained through microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin scrapings. Oral terbinafine and topical enilconazole were used as treatments for 65 days, and complete recovery was subsequently achieved. California sea lion, dermatomycosis, Microsporum gypseum, terbinafine, enilconazole PMID:23805567

Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Lajos, Zoltán; Koroknai, Viktória; Gál, János

2013-06-01

28

Successfully treated dermatomycosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe clinical cases caused by Microsporum gypseum in two subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Dermatomycosis is uncommonly reported in pinnipeds, including this species. In these cases, skin lesions were multifocal to coalescing, involved all flippers, and were most pronounced on the ventral surfaces of flippers. They were well-demarcated, depigmented, and covered with crusts. The definitive diagnosis was obtained through microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin scrapings. Oral terbinafine and topical enilconazole were used as treatments for 65 days, and complete recovery was subsequently achieved. California sea lion, dermatomycosis, Microsporum gypseum, terbinafine, enilconazole

Sós E; Molnár V; Lajos Z; Koroknai V; Gál J

2013-06-01

29

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

2004-10-01

30

Diagnostic testing for Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is a relatively common bacterial disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); however, there remain gaps in our understanding of maintenance hosts relative to animals demonstrating clinical disease. To effectively study the epidemiology of leptospirosis in any species, a s...

31

Sea Lion Skeleton - Hind limb (Ball and Socket Joint)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions use their hind flippers to steer themselves in water. The anatomy of their limbs is very similar to humans in that they have several joints, such as ball and socket (shoulder) and a gliding joint (wrist). They also have five toe-like digits.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

32

Sea Lion Skeleton - Front limb (Ball and Socket Joint)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions use their front flippers to pull themselves through water. The anatomy of their limbs is similar to humans in that they have several joints, such as ball and socket (shoulder) and a gliding joint (wrist). They also have five finger-like digits.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

33

Uncinariasis in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups from California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on San Miguel Island (California, USA), were examined for adult Uncinaria spp. Prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. Mean intensity of Uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the free-living third stage larva occurred within the egg. This study provided some specific information on hookworm infections in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island. High prevalence rate of Uncinaria spp. in both species of pinnipeds was documented and much higher numbers (2X) of hookworms were present in sea lion than fur seal pups.

Lyons ET; DeLong RL; Melin SR; Tolliver SC

1997-10-01

34

50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and... Figure 20 to Part 679âSteller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea ER28JA02.073 [67 FR 4134,...

2009-10-01

35

DDT in endangered Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We characterize for the first time the presence of DDT and its metabolites in tropical Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wolleabeki). ?DDT concentrations in Galapagos sea lion pups sampled in 2005 and 2008 ranged from 16 to 3070 ?g/kg lipid. Concentrations of ?DDT in pups in 2008 averaged 525 ?g/kg lipid and were 1.9 times higher than that (281 ?g/kg lipid) detected in pups in 2005. These concentrations are lower than those reported in many pinnipeds elsewhere, comparable to those in Hawaiian monk seals, and higher than those in southern elephant seals. The health risk characterization showed that 1% of the male pups exceeded the p,p'-DDE toxic effect concentration associated with anti-androgenic effects reported in rats. The findings provide preliminary guidance on the relationship between DDT use and ecological impacts, serving as a reference point against which possible future impact of tropical DDT use can be assessed.

Alava JJ; Ross PS; Ikonomou MG; Cruz M; Jimenez-Uzcátegui G; Dubetz C; Salazar S; Costa DP; Villegas-Amtmann S; Howorth P; Gobas FA

2011-04-01

36

Cryptococcus albidus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporadic cases of cryptococcosis have been reported in marine mammals, typically due to Cryptococcus neoformans and, more recently, to Cryptococcus gattii in cetaceans. Cryptococcus albidus, a ubiquitous fungal species not typically considered to be pathogenic, was recovered from a juvenile California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) rescued near San Francisco Bay, California. Yeast morphologically consistent with a Cryptococcus sp. was identified histologically in a lymph node and C. albidus was identified by an rDNA sequence from the lung. Infection with C. albidus was thought to have contributed to mortality in this sea lion, along with concurrent bacterial pneumonia. Cryptococcus albidus should be considered as a potential pathogen with a role in marine mammal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23060504

Mcleland, Shannon; Duncan, Colleen; Spraker, Terry; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Lockhart, Shawn R; Gulland, Frances

2012-10-01

37

Cryptococcus albidus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sporadic cases of cryptococcosis have been reported in marine mammals, typically due to Cryptococcus neoformans and, more recently, to Cryptococcus gattii in cetaceans. Cryptococcus albidus, a ubiquitous fungal species not typically considered to be pathogenic, was recovered from a juvenile California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) rescued near San Francisco Bay, California. Yeast morphologically consistent with a Cryptococcus sp. was identified histologically in a lymph node and C. albidus was identified by an rDNA sequence from the lung. Infection with C. albidus was thought to have contributed to mortality in this sea lion, along with concurrent bacterial pneumonia. Cryptococcus albidus should be considered as a potential pathogen with a role in marine mammal morbidity and mortality.

Mcleland S; Duncan C; Spraker T; Wheeler E; Lockhart SR; Gulland F

2012-10-01

38

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type. PMID:20959994

Gläser, Nele; Wieskotten, Sven; Otter, Christian; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

2010-10-20

39

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type.

Gläser N; Wieskotten S; Otter C; Dehnhardt G; Hanke W

2011-02-01

40

Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years.

Prager KC; Greig DJ; Alt DP; Galloway RL; Hornsby RL; Palmer LJ; Soper J; Wu Q; Zuerner RL; Gulland FM; Lloyd-Smith JO

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario González; Maria Paz Villanueva; Lies Debruyne; Peter Vandamme; Heriberto Fernández

2011-01-01

42

Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

González, Mario; Villanueva, Maria Paz; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fernández, Heriberto

2011-03-01

43

Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years. PMID:23419822

Prager, K C; Greig, Denise J; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Hornsby, Richard L; Palmer, Lauren J; Soper, Jennifer; Wu, Qingzhong; Zuerner, Richard L; Gulland, Frances M D; Lloyd-Smith, James O

2013-02-04

44

Isoflurane anesthesia in free ranging sea lion pups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

California sea lion pups, Zalophus californianus, (n = 115), were captured and anesthetized for (mean +/- SD) 17.6 +/- 7.8 min on San Miguel Island, California (USA) in November of 1992. Mask isoflurane anesthesia allowed intubation in 7.1 +/- 2.74 min. Pups recovered and walked in 7.32 +/- 4.8 min. Mask anesthesia in pups resulted in relaxation in 45 +/- 14 sec. Safe, brief anesthesia was delivered in support of weighing, medical evaluation, and short surgical procedures. Recovery character of all pups was sufficient to permit release to the free ranging state immediately after surgery, saving labor, supervision personnel, and postoperative time.

Heath RB; DeLong R; Jameson V; Bradley D; Spraker T

1997-04-01

45

Aerial audiograms of several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) measured using single and multiple simultaneous auditory steady-state response methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measurements of the electrophysiological auditory steady-state response (ASSR) have proven to be efficient for evaluating hearing sensitivity in odontocete cetaceans. In an effort to expand these methods to pinnipeds, ASSRs elicited by single and multiple simultaneous tones were used to measure aerial hearing thresholds in several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). There were no significant differences between thresholds measured using the single and multiple ASSR methods, despite the more rapid nature of data collection using the multiple ASSR method. There was a high degree of variability in ASSR thresholds among subjects; thresholds covered a range of ?40 dB at each tested frequency. As expected, ASSR thresholds were elevated relative to previously reported psychophysical thresholds for California and Steller sea lions. The features of high-frequency hearing limit and relative sensitivity of most ASSR audiograms were, however, similar to those of psychophysical audiograms, suggesting that ASSR methods can be used to improve understanding of hearing demographics in sea lions, especially with respect to high-frequency hearing. Thresholds for one Steller sea lion were substantially elevated relative to all other subjects, demonstrating that ASSR methods can be used to detect hearing loss in sea lions.

Mulsow J; Reichmuth C; Gulland F; Rosen DA; Finneran JJ

2011-04-01

46

Evaluation of circulating eosinophil count and adrenal gland function in California sea lions naturally exposed to domoic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of natural exposure to domoic acid (DA) on eosinophil counts and adrenal gland function in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). DESIGN: Cross-sectional prospective study. ANIMALS: 39 California sea lions. PROCEDURES: Adult female sea lions admitted to a rehabilitation hospital during 2009 were classified into 1 of 3 groups (acute DA toxicosis, chronic DA toxicosis, or no DA exposure) on the basis of clinical signs, DA concentration in urine or feces, and hippocampal morphology. Endoparasite burden, eosinophil count, and serum cortisol and plasma ACTH concentrations were determined for each sea lion. For a subset of 8 sea lions, fecal glucocorticoid concentration after IM administration of cosyntropin was determined. RESULTS: Sea lions exposed to DA (acute DA toxicosis, n = 11; chronic DA toxicosis, 19) had higher eosinophil counts and lower serum cortisol concentrations, compared with values for sea lions with no DA exposure (9). Eosinophil count was not associated with endoparasite burden. Serum cortisol concentration was associated with plasma ACTH concentrations in sea lions from the no DA exposure group but not in sea lions in the acute or chronic DA toxicosis groups. Following cosyntropin injection, fecal glucocorticoid concentrations increased in all sea lions evaluated except 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In adult sea lions, eosinophilia may be a cost-effective biomarker for DA exposure and may reflect alterations in hypothalamic, pituitary gland, or adrenal gland function. Domoic acid exposure may have subtle health effects on marine animals in addition to induction of neurologic signs.

Gulland FM; Hall AJ; Greig DJ; Frame ER; Colegrove KM; Booth RK; Wasser SK; Scott-Moncrieff JC

2012-10-01

47

Spatial patterns and scaling behaviors of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) distributions and their environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fractal geometry and other multi-scale analyses have become popular tools for investigating spatial patterns of animal distributions in heterogeneous environments. In theory, changes in patterns of animal distributions with changes in scale reflect transitions between the controlling influences of one environmental factor or process over another. In an effort to find linkages between Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their environment, the objective of this study was to determine if the spatial distribution of Steller sea lions at sea displayed similar scaling properties to the variation of two environmental features, including bathymetry and sea surface temperature (SST). Additionally, distributions of Steller sea lion point patterns were examined with respect to measurements of bathymetric complexity. From February 2000 to May 2004, satellite transmitters were deployed on 10 groups of juvenile Steller sea lions (n=52) at eight different locations within the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Indices of fractal dimension were calculated for each group of sea lions using a unit square box-counting method, whereas indices of bathymetry and SST patchiness were derived by conducting a variance ratio analysis over the same scales. Distributions of Steller sea lions at sea displayed self-similar fractal patterns, suggesting that individuals were distributed in a continuous hierarchical set of clumps within clumps across scales, and foraging behavior was likely influenced by a scale invariant mechanism. Patterns of bathymetric variability also were self-similar, whereas patterns of SST variability were scale dependent and failed to retain self-similar spatial structure at larger scales. These results indicate that the distributions of Steller sea lions at sea were more influenced by bathymetry than SST at the scales examined, but scale-dependent patterns in the distribution of Steller sea lions at sea or linkages with SST may have been apparent if analyses were conducted at finer spatial scales.

Lander ME; Logsdon ML; Loughlin TR; Van Blaricom GR

2011-04-01

48

Spatial patterns and scaling behaviors of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) distributions and their environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractal geometry and other multi-scale analyses have become popular tools for investigating spatial patterns of animal distributions in heterogeneous environments. In theory, changes in patterns of animal distributions with changes in scale reflect transitions between the controlling influences of one environmental factor or process over another. In an effort to find linkages between Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and their environment, the objective of this study was to determine if the spatial distribution of Steller sea lions at sea displayed similar scaling properties to the variation of two environmental features, including bathymetry and sea surface temperature (SST). Additionally, distributions of Steller sea lion point patterns were examined with respect to measurements of bathymetric complexity. From February 2000 to May 2004, satellite transmitters were deployed on 10 groups of juvenile Steller sea lions (n=52) at eight different locations within the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska. Indices of fractal dimension were calculated for each group of sea lions using a unit square box-counting method, whereas indices of bathymetry and SST patchiness were derived by conducting a variance ratio analysis over the same scales. Distributions of Steller sea lions at sea displayed self-similar fractal patterns, suggesting that individuals were distributed in a continuous hierarchical set of clumps within clumps across scales, and foraging behavior was likely influenced by a scale invariant mechanism. Patterns of bathymetric variability also were self-similar, whereas patterns of SST variability were scale dependent and failed to retain self-similar spatial structure at larger scales. These results indicate that the distributions of Steller sea lions at sea were more influenced by bathymetry than SST at the scales examined, but scale-dependent patterns in the distribution of Steller sea lions at sea or linkages with SST may have been apparent if analyses were conducted at finer spatial scales. PMID:21241711

Lander, Michelle E; Logsdon, Miles L; Loughlin, Thomas R; Van Blaricom, Glenn R

2011-01-15

49

First isolation of a calicivirus from the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A calicivirus was isolated from the rectum of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pup on Rogue Reef, off the southern Oregon coast. Based on the results of neutralization tests with specific typing antisera, the isolate was identified as San Miguel sea lion virus serotype 6 (SMSV-6). Blood obtained from nine of 37 pups (24%) during virus sample collection procedures had specific neutralizing antibodies to SMSV-6. The isolation of SMSV-6 from a Steller sea lion represents, to our knowledge, the first isolation of any virus from this widely distributed marine mammal species, and serves to reconfirm the host-nonspecificity of yet another calicivirus of marine origin.

Skilling DE; Barlough JE; Berry ES; Brown RF; Smith AW

1987-10-01

50

Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

2008-08-15

51

Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

2008-01-01

52

Vesicular exanthema of swine and San Miguel sea lion virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV), recently isolated from marine mammals, and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV), which caused epizootics of vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) over a period of 24 years (1932 to 1956), may be the same virus. This finding is of particular interest because the source of the original VES epizootic was never identified, swine were the only known natural host of VESV, and VESV was thought to have been eradicated. The SMSV has been shown to be enzootic in 2 species of marine mammals found off the coast of California and to cause lesions in swine that are indistinguishable from those caused by VESV. Therefore, we should be alert to recognize situations in which swine might become exposed to SMSV and to consider SMSV in differential diagnoses of vesicular conditions.

Sawyer JC

1976-10-01

53

77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

...delisting. The first criterion requires that the population increase at an average annual growth rate of three percent...illegally taken sea lions. Given the sustained population increase over the past 30 years, the current level of...

2012-04-18

54

Multicentric neurofibromatosis with rectal prolapse in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

An approximately 31-yr-old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a history of chronic visual impairment and corneal disease presented with slow onset, progressive neurologic deficits. Treatment for rear flipper paresis was not effective and the animal was euthanatized. Histopathologic findings included hepatocellular and biliary neoplasia, ocular amyloidosis, adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, and spinal cord changes consistent with multicentric neurofibromatosis. This is the first documentation of these conditions in a California sea lion. PMID:22448517

Rush, Elizabeth M; Ogburn, Anna L; Garner, Michael M

2012-03-01

55

Multicentric neurofibromatosis with rectal prolapse in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An approximately 31-yr-old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a history of chronic visual impairment and corneal disease presented with slow onset, progressive neurologic deficits. Treatment for rear flipper paresis was not effective and the animal was euthanatized. Histopathologic findings included hepatocellular and biliary neoplasia, ocular amyloidosis, adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, and spinal cord changes consistent with multicentric neurofibromatosis. This is the first documentation of these conditions in a California sea lion.

Rush EM; Ogburn AL; Garner MM

2012-03-01

56

DIGENETIC TREMATODES IN SOUTH AMERICAN SEA LIONS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN WATERS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lion from Southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four south American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011 were collected. The animals were necropsied on the beach, and the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and gallbladder, heart, lungs and respiratory tract, and kidneys were inspected for the presence of flukes. Only two trematodes species were found in the intestines, Stephanophrora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). No trematodes were found in the other organs studied. Ascocotyle (P.) longa was found in the small intestine of eight sea lions, prevalence of 33.33% and mean intensity of 248,500 worms whereas S. uruguayense showed prevalence of 4.17% and mean intensity of 202 trematodes, also in the intestine. Mullets that commonly harbor Heterophyidae metacercariae, may be an important cause of infection by these trematodes in sea lions. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. Trematodes from Echinostomatidae and Heterophydae may have a zoonotic potential and their presence in sea lions suggests caution in feeding unbaked fish from the studied area because fish species (specially mullets) preyed by the sea lions are also consumed by humans. PMID:23421418

Pereira, Eliane Machado; Müller, Gertrud; Secchi, Eduardo; Pereira Jr, Joaber; Valente, Ana Luisa Schifino

2013-02-19

57

Isolation of a novel adenovirus from California sea lions Zalophus californianus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Viral hepatitis associated with adenoviral infection has been reported in California sea lions Zalophus californianus admitted to rehabilitation centers along the California coast since the 1970s. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) causes viral hepatitis in dogs and infects a number of wildlife species. Attempts to isolate the virus from previous sea lion hepatitis cases were unsuccessful, but as the hepatitis had morphologic features resembling canine infectious hepatitis, and since the virus has a wide host range, it was thought that perhaps the etiologic agent was CAdV-1. Here, we identify a novel adenovirus in 2 stranded California sea lions and associate the infection with viral hepatitis and endothelial cell infection. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the classification of the sea lion adenovirus in the Mastadenovirus genus with the most similarity to tree shrew adenovirus 1 (TSAdV-1, 77%). However, as the sea lion adenovirus appeared to be equally distant from the other Mastadenovirus species based on phylogenetic analysis, results indicate that it represents an independent lineage and species. Although sequences from this novel virus, otarine adenovirus 1 (OtAdV-1), show some similarity to CAdV-1 and 2, it is clearly distinct and likely the cause of the viral hepatitis in the stranded California sea lions.

Goldstein T; Colegrove KM; Hanson M; Gulland FM

2011-05-01

58

On colony behaviour of Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens): mother-pup recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mothers of colonial breeding South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) regularly reunite promptly with their pup, after sometimes days of absence, making foraging trips at sea. This performance is astonishing, as during the absence of their mothers, pups may move over considerable distances withi...

De Pooter, D.

59

INCURSION OF LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, SEROVAR POMONA INTO THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST WITH MIGRATORY SUBADULT AND ADULT CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS)  

Science.gov (United States)

There are historic and anecdotal reports of adult and subadult male sea lions succumbing to leptospirosis during northern migration from rockeries in California along the western seaboard of the United States and British Columbia. A large leptospirosis outbreak among sea lions occurred along the no...

60

Antemortem diagnosis of a ventricular septal defect in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A yearling California sea lion Zalophus californianus stranded in poor body condition, and on physical examination a heart murmur was audible bilaterally. The sea lion was diagnosed with a left-to-right shunting membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) using B-mode, color-flow Doppler and continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. A left-to-right intracardiac shunting lesion was confirmed during cardiac angiographic computed tomography. The VSD defect was verified during the necropsy examination. On histologic examination concurrent mild multifocal myocarditis with focal mild ventricular free-wall myocardial necrosis were identified. A specific cause for the myocarditis and myocardial necrosis was not found, and association with the VSD and resultant myocardial dysfunction was presumed. This is the first report of the antemortem diagnosis of a VSD in a marine mammal and the first report of a VSD in a California sea lion.

Dennison SE; Van Bonn W; Boor M; Adams J; Pussini N; Spraker T; Gulland FM

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Antemortem diagnosis of a ventricular septal defect in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A yearling California sea lion Zalophus californianus stranded in poor body condition, and on physical examination a heart murmur was audible bilaterally. The sea lion was diagnosed with a left-to-right shunting membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) using B-mode, color-flow Doppler and continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. A left-to-right intracardiac shunting lesion was confirmed during cardiac angiographic computed tomography. The VSD defect was verified during the necropsy examination. On histologic examination concurrent mild multifocal myocarditis with focal mild ventricular free-wall myocardial necrosis were identified. A specific cause for the myocarditis and myocardial necrosis was not found, and association with the VSD and resultant myocardial dysfunction was presumed. This is the first report of the antemortem diagnosis of a VSD in a marine mammal and the first report of a VSD in a California sea lion. PMID:21553571

Dennison, Sophie E; Van Bonn, William; Boor, Marjorie; Adams, James; Pussini, Nicola; Spraker, Terry; Gulland, Frances M D

2011-03-16

62

Discovery of an orthoreovirus in the aborted fetus of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

An aborted mid-gestational male Steller sea lion fetus with an attached placenta was recovered on the floor of an open floating capture trap located off Norris Rock near Denman Island, British Columbia. Viral culture of the placenta demonstrated cytopathic effect. Although no specific signal was obtained in microarray experiments using RNA obtained from viral culture, elution and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a reovirus. Complete genome pyrosequencing led to the identification of an orthoreovirus that we have tentatively named Steller sea lion reovirus (SSRV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed similarities between SSRV and orthoreoviruses of birds, bats and other mammals that suggests potential for interspecies transmission. PMID:21795475

Palacios, Gustavo; Wellehan, James F X; Raverty, Stephen; Bussetti, Ana V; Hui, Jeffrey; Savji, Nazir; Nollens, Hendrik H; Lambourn, Dyanna; Celone, Christopher; Hutchison, Stephen; Calisher, Charles H; Nielsen, Ole; Lipkin, W Ian

2011-07-27

63

Discovery of an orthoreovirus in the aborted fetus of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An aborted mid-gestational male Steller sea lion fetus with an attached placenta was recovered on the floor of an open floating capture trap located off Norris Rock near Denman Island, British Columbia. Viral culture of the placenta demonstrated cytopathic effect. Although no specific signal was obtained in microarray experiments using RNA obtained from viral culture, elution and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a reovirus. Complete genome pyrosequencing led to the identification of an orthoreovirus that we have tentatively named Steller sea lion reovirus (SSRV). Phylogenetic analysis revealed similarities between SSRV and orthoreoviruses of birds, bats and other mammals that suggests potential for interspecies transmission.

Palacios G; Wellehan JF Jr; Raverty S; Bussetti AV; Hui J; Savji N; Nollens HH; Lambourn D; Celone C; Hutchison S; Calisher CH; Nielsen O; Lipkin WI

2011-11-01

64

Characterization of two new serotypes of San Miguel sea lion virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new virus isolates, one from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus) and the other from a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) were partially characterized. Their physicochemical characteristics were similar to those of vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) and San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV). The virion morphology was in both instances typically calicivirus. On the basis of this and the serum cross-neutralization testing, these isolates were classed as two new types of SMSV and were designated serotypes SMSV-4 and SMSV-5.

Smith AW; Prato CM; Skilling DE

1977-01-01

65

Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern that DA may exert chronic effects, such as immunomodulation, which may potentially increase an individual's susceptibility to a number of opportunistic infections following nonlethal exposure. We investigated the effects of DA on innate (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and adaptive (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation) immune functions with the use of peripheral blood leukocytes collected from healthy California sea lions and southern sea otters upon in vitro exposure to 0 (unexposed control), 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 microM DA. Domoic acid did not significantly modulate phagocytosis or respiratory burst in either species. For California sea lions, DA significantly increased ConA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation upon exposure to DA concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 10 microM, resulting in a nonlinear dose-response curve. There was no effect on lymphocyte proliferation at the highest concentration of DA tested. No effects on lymphocyte proliferation were observed in southern sea otters. Importantly, the in vitro DA concentrations affecting T-cell proliferation were within or below the range of DA in serum measured in free-ranging California sea lions following natural exposure, suggesting a risk for immunomodulation in free-ranging animals. Understanding the risk for immunomodulation upon DA exposure will contribute in the health assessment and management of California sea lions and southern sea otters, as well as guide veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators in caring for and treating afflicted animals.

Levin M; Joshi D; Draghi A 2nd; Gulland FM; Jessup D; De Guise S

2010-04-01

66

Insights from venous oxygen profiles: oxygen utilization and management in diving California sea lions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The management and depletion of O2 stores underlie the aerobic dive capacities of marine mammals. The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presumably optimizes O2 store management during all dives, but approaches its physiological limits during deep dives to greater than 300 m depth. Blood O2 comprises the largest component of total body O2 stores in adult sea lions. Therefore, we investigated venous blood O2 depletion during dives of California sea lions during maternal foraging trips to sea by: (1) recording venous partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles during dives, (2) characterizing the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of sea lion Hb and (3) converting the PO2 profiles into percent Hb saturation (SO2) profiles using the dissociation curve. The O2-Hb dissociation curve was typical of other pinnipeds (P50=28±2 mmHg at pH 7.4). In 43% of dives, initial venous SO2 values were greater than 78% (estimated resting venous SO2), indicative of arterialization of venous blood. Blood O2 was far from depleted during routine shallow dives, with minimum venous SO2 values routinely greater than 50%. However, in deep dives greater than 4 min in duration, venous SO2 reached minimum values below 5% prior to the end of the dive, but then increased during the last 30-60 s of ascent. These deep dive profiles were consistent with transient venous blood O2 depletion followed by partial restoration of venous O2 through pulmonary gas exchange and peripheral blood flow during ascent. These differences in venous O2 profiles between shallow and deep dives of sea lions reflect distinct strategies of O2 store management and suggest that underlying cardiovascular responses will also differ.

McDonald BI; Ponganis PJ

2013-09-01

67

Dissecting the Influences of Climate and Demography on the Dynamics of Leptospirosis in California Sea Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection of global importance, yet its population dynamics remain poorly understood. We present the first empirically-motivated study of the dynamics of leptospirosis, drawing on a unique 24-year time series of disease in California sea lions (CSLs). Since the early 19...

68

Risk factors for an outbreak of leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in California, 2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis has been reported in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) since 1970; however, the source of infection and mode of transmission remain unknown. To elucidate these features, demographic and environmental risk factors for leptospirosis were evaluated. California sea lion stranding records from northern California for 2004 were used to identify cases of leptospirosis (n = 316) and controls (n = 143). Demographic characteristics (age class, sex) and environmental factors, representing surrogates for exposure to dogs, cattle, rainfall, and freshwater sources, were compared between cases and controls with the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and logistic regression. Multivariate analyses revealed that summer and autumn seasons, juvenile age class, male sex, high dog-park density, and close proximity to dog parks were significantly associated with leptospirosis in sea lions, whereas county farmland cattle density, rainfall levels 30 days prior to stranding, human density, and proximity to freshwater sources were not associated. Thus, dogs and dog parks, or factors associated with them, might be further investigated to assess their relationship to leptospirosis in sea lions. PMID:18957639

Norman, Stephanie A; DiGiacomo, Ronald F; Gulland, Frances M D; Meschke, John Scott; Lowry, Mark S

2008-10-01

69

Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst-forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal.

Carlson-Bremer D; Johnson CK; Miller RH; Gulland FM; Conrad PA; Wasmuth JD; Colegrove KM; Grigg ME

2012-04-01

70

Premature births in California sea lions: association with high organochlorine pollutant residue levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Premature pupping in California sea lions has been noted on the breeding islands since 1968. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues were two to eight times higher in tissues of premature parturient females and pups than in similar tissues of full-term parturient females and pups collected on San Miguel Island in 1970.

DeLong R; Gilmartin WG; Simpson JG

1973-09-01

71

The pathogenesis of vesicular exanthema of swine virus and San Miguel sea lion virus in swine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vesicular exanthema of swine virus type A48 or San Miguel sea lion virus type 2, when inoculated intradermally into swine, resulted in fluid-filled vesicles at the sites of inoculation in the snout, coronary band, and tongue. Pigs that developed vesicles also had fevers. Secondary vesicle formation varied, depending on virus serotype. Viremia was found in one pig infected with San Miguel sea lion virus five days after infection. Virus was recovered from nasal-oral passages for up to five days after infection in both groups of pigs and from the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts of pigs infected with San Miguel sea lion virus. Neutralizing antibodies began to increase three days after inoculation and reached peak titers in seven to ten days. In the absence of secondary bacterial infection, healing was well advanced by ten days after inoculation. Lesions usually were limited to nonhaired portions of the integument and tongue. Individual epithelial cells became infected when a break in the skin allowed virus access to susceptible epithelial cells from either exogenous or endogenous sources. Individual infected cells ruptured and adjacent cells were infected, resulting in the formation of multiple microvesicles. Centrifugal coalescence of microvesicles led to formation of grossly visible macrovesicles. Lesions rarely developed from viral contamination of intact hair follicles. A mild virus-induced encephalitis was seen in pigs infected with vesicular exanthema of swine virus, and virus was recovered from brain tissue of pigs infected with San Miguel sea lion virus.

Gelberg HB; Lewis RM

1982-07-01

72

Field Studies of Steller Sea Lions ('Eumetopias jubatus') at Marmot Island, Alaska, 1979 through 1994.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Alaska Department of Fish and Game and the National Marine Fisheries Service conducted field studies of Stellar sea lions (eumetopias jubatus) on Marmot Island, Alaska, from 1979 through 1994. Marmot Island is one of 15 trend sites and four trend rook...

K. Chumbley J. Sease M. Strick R. Towell

1997-01-01

73

Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An adult female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) that stranded in central California was found to have a small glossal polypoid mass on gross necropsy. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a fibropapilloma, and intranuclear inclusions were found within endothelial cells lining small arterioles within the mass. Electron microscopy revealed 40-nm virions within endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Rolling circle amplification was used to obtain a partial viral genomic sequence. Sequence analysis identified the virus as a novel polyomavirus, tentatively named California sea lion polyomavirus 1. In addition, the sea lion had a severely thickened small intestine and swollen pale kidneys on gross examination. Severe renal amyloidosis with chronic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed histologically as well as T-cell intestinal lymphoma, which was confirmed via immunophenotyping and molecular clonality. The relationship, if any, between polyomavirus infection and the other disease processes in this sea lion is not known, but it is considered unlikely that the polyomavirus induced the lymphoma.

Colegrove KM; Wellehan JF Jr; Rivera R; Moore PF; Gulland FM; Lowenstine LJ; Nordhausen RW; Nollens HH

2010-07-01

74

Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

An adult female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) that stranded in central California was found to have a small glossal polypoid mass on gross necropsy. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a fibropapilloma, and intranuclear inclusions were found within endothelial cells lining small arterioles within the mass. Electron microscopy revealed 40-nm virions within endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Rolling circle amplification was used to obtain a partial viral genomic sequence. Sequence analysis identified the virus as a novel polyomavirus, tentatively named California sea lion polyomavirus 1. In addition, the sea lion had a severely thickened small intestine and swollen pale kidneys on gross examination. Severe renal amyloidosis with chronic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed histologically as well as T-cell intestinal lymphoma, which was confirmed via immunophenotyping and molecular clonality. The relationship, if any, between polyomavirus infection and the other disease processes in this sea lion is not known, but it is considered unlikely that the polyomavirus induced the lymphoma. PMID:20622238

Colegrove, Kathleen M; Wellehan, James F X; Rivera, Rebecca; Moore, Peter F; Gulland, Frances M D; Lowenstine, Linda J; Nordhausen, Robert W; Nollens, Hendrik H

2010-07-01

75

The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hexavalent chromium in Steller sea lion lung fibroblasts compared to human lung fibroblasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we directly compared soluble and particulate chromate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human (Homo sapiens) and sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) lung fibroblasts. Our results show that hexavalent chromium induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in both human and sea lion cells with increasing intracellular chromium ion levels. The data further indicate that both sodium chromate and lead chromate are less cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea lion cells than human cells, based on an administered dose. Differences in chromium ion uptake explained some but not all of the reduced amounts of sodium chromate-induced cell death. By contrast, uptake differences could explain the differences in sodium chromate-induced chromosome damage and particulate chromate-induced toxicity. Altogether they indicate that while hexavalent chromium induces similar toxic effects in sea lion and human cells, there are different mechanisms underlying the toxic outcomes.

Wise JP Sr; Wise SS; Holmes AL; LaCerte C; Shaffiey F; Aboueissa AM

2010-06-01

76

Foraging behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in contrasting environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat). We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) and time-depth recorders (TDRs) on 2-3 year-old females at AI (2007-2010) and Otago (2009-2010). Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can alter food availability such as potential resource competition with fisheries.

Leung ES; Augé AA; Chilvers BL; Moore AB; Robertson BC

2013-01-01

77

Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3) was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coats from 87 stranded and managed collection sea lions. Stranded sea lions had a higher prevalence of OtHV3 compared to managed collection sea lions (34.9% versus 12.5%; p = 0.04), and among the stranded sea lions, yearlings were most likely to be positive. Future epidemiological studies comparing the presence and viral loads of OtHV3 among a larger population of California sea lions with and without lymphoid neoplasia or esophageal ulcers would help elucidate the relevance of OtHV3-associated pathologies to these groups.

Venn-Watson Stephanie; Benham Celeste; Gulland Frances M; Smith Cynthia R; St Leger Judy; Yochem Pam; Nollens Hendrik; Blas-Machado Uriel; Saliki Jeremiah; Colegrove Katie; Wellehan James FX; Rivera Rebecca

2012-01-01

78

Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT: Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3) was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coats from 87 stranded and managed collection sea lions. Stranded sea lions had a higher prevalence of OtHV3 compared to managed collection sea lions (34.9% versus 12.5%; p = 0.04), and among the stranded sea lions, yearlings were most likely to be positive. Future epidemiological studies comparing the presence and viral loads of OtHV3 among a larger population of California sea lions with and without lymphoid neoplasia or esophageal ulcers would help elucidate the relevance of OtHV3-associated pathologies to these groups.

Venn-Watson S; Benham C; Gulland FM; Smith CR; St Leger J; Yochem P; Nollens H; Blas-Machado U; Saliki J; Colegrove K; Wellehan JF Jr; Rivera R

2012-01-01

79

Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in alaska with implications for population separation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East. PMID:23940543

Jemison, Lauri A; Pendleton, Grey W; Fritz, Lowell W; Hastings, Kelly K; Maniscalco, John M; Trites, Andrew W; Gelatt, Tom S

2013-08-05

80

Inter-population movements of steller sea lions in alaska with implications for population separation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Genetic studies and differing population trends support the separation of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) into a western distinct population segment (WDPS) and an eastern DPS (EDPS) with the dividing line between populations at 144° W. Despite little exchange for thousands of years, the gap between the breeding ranges narrowed during the past 15-30 years with the formation of new rookeries near the DPS boundary. We analyzed >22,000 sightings of 4,172 sea lions branded as pups in each DPS from 2000-2010 to estimate probabilities of a sea lion born in one DPS being seen within the range of the other DPS (either 'West' or 'East'). Males from both populations regularly traveled across the DPS boundary; probabilities were highest at ages 2-5 and for males born in Prince William Sound and southern Southeast Alaska. The probability of WDPS females being in the East at age 5 was 0.067 but 0 for EDPS females which rarely traveled to the West. Prince William Sound-born females had high probabilities of being in the East during breeding and non-breeding seasons. We present strong evidence that WDPS females have permanently emigrated to the East, reproducing at two 'mixing zone' rookeries. We documented breeding bulls that traveled >6,500 km round trip from their natal rookery in southern Alaska to the northern Bering Sea and central Aleutian Islands and back within one year. WDPS animals began moving East in the 1990s, following steep population declines in the central Gulf of Alaska. Results of our study, and others documenting high survival and rapid population growth in northern Southeast Alaska suggest that conditions in this mixing zone region have been optimal for sea lions. It is unclear whether eastward movement across the DPS boundary is due to less-optimal conditions in the West or a reflection of favorable conditions in the East.

Jemison LA; Pendleton GW; Fritz LW; Hastings KK; Maniscalco JM; Trites AW; Gelatt TS

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A tumour located in the pectoral region and the left front flipper was observed in a 29-year-old female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) that died following signs of respiratory disease and inappetence. Metastases were present in the lung and adrenal gland. The histological pattern of the tumour was variable. In some areas the tumour consisted of pleomorphic fibroblast-like cells arranged in a storiform pattern, while in other areas it comprised oval or polygonal cells with round to oval nuclei and some bizarre cells arranged in an alveolar pattern. Occasionally, multinucleated giant cells were observed. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells only expressed vimentin. On the basis of the microscopical and immunohistochemical features the tumour was diagnosed as an undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma. This type of neoplasm with disseminated involvement of other organs is rare in all species and has never been reported in California sea lions.

Martínez-Fernández B; García-Iglesias MJ; Borragán-Santos S; Espinosa-Alvarez J; Pérez-Martínez C

2011-02-01

82

Delayed onset of vocal recognition in Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea)  

Science.gov (United States)

In pinnipeds, maternal care strategies and colony density may influence a species’ individual recognition system. We examined the onset of vocal recognition of mothers by Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea). At 2 months of age, pups responded significantly more to the calls of their own mothers than alien female calls demonstrating a finely tuned recognition system. However, newborn pups did not respond differentially to the calls of their mother from alien female calls suggesting that vocal recognition had not yet developed or is not yet expressed. These findings are in stark contrast to other otariid species where pups learn their mother’s voice before their first separation. Variance in colony density, pup movements, and natal site fidelity may have reduced selective pressures on call recognition in young sea lions, or alternatively, another sensory system may be used for recognition in the early stage of life.

Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Ahonen, Heidi; Harcourt, Robert G.; Charrier, Isabelle

2009-08-01

83

Lung collapse in the diving sea lion: hold the nitrogen and save the oxygen.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as evidenced by abrupt changes in during descent and ascent, (ii) depth of lung collapse was positively related to maximum dive depth, suggesting that the sea lion increased inhaled air volume in deeper dives and (iii) lung collapse at depth preserved a pulmonary oxygen reservoir that supplemented blood oxygen during ascent so that mean end-of-dive arterial was 74 ± 17 mmHg (greater than 85% haemoglobin saturation). Such information is critical to the understanding and the modelling of both nitrogen and oxygen transport in diving marine mammals.

McDonald BI; Ponganis PJ

2012-12-01

84

Lung collapse in the diving sea lion: hold the nitrogen and save the oxygen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung collapse is considered the primary mechanism that limits nitrogen absorption and decreases the risk of decompression sickness in deep-diving marine mammals. Continuous arterial partial pressure of oxygen profiles in a free-diving female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) revealed that (i) depth of lung collapse was near 225 m as evidenced by abrupt changes in during descent and ascent, (ii) depth of lung collapse was positively related to maximum dive depth, suggesting that the sea lion increased inhaled air volume in deeper dives and (iii) lung collapse at depth preserved a pulmonary oxygen reservoir that supplemented blood oxygen during ascent so that mean end-of-dive arterial was 74 ± 17 mmHg (greater than 85% haemoglobin saturation). Such information is critical to the understanding and the modelling of both nitrogen and oxygen transport in diving marine mammals. PMID:22993241

McDonald, Birgitte I; Ponganis, Paul J

2012-09-19

85

Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A tumour located in the pectoral region and the left front flipper was observed in a 29-year-old female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) that died following signs of respiratory disease and inappetence. Metastases were present in the lung and adrenal gland. The histological pattern of the tumour was variable. In some areas the tumour consisted of pleomorphic fibroblast-like cells arranged in a storiform pattern, while in other areas it comprised oval or polygonal cells with round to oval nuclei and some bizarre cells arranged in an alveolar pattern. Occasionally, multinucleated giant cells were observed. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells only expressed vimentin. On the basis of the microscopical and immunohistochemical features the tumour was diagnosed as an undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma. This type of neoplasm with disseminated involvement of other organs is rare in all species and has never been reported in California sea lions. PMID:20708196

Martínez-Fernández, B; García-Iglesias, M J; Borragán-Santos, S; Espinosa-Alvarez, J; Pérez-Martínez, C

2010-08-12

86

Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring

2007-01-01

87

Gas Bubble Disease in the Brain of a Living California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of 4?months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. In humans, the cerebellum is known to be essential for automating practiced movement patterns (e.g., learning to touch-type), also known as procedural learning or the consolidation of "motor memory." To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

Van Bonn W; Dennison S; Cook P; Fahlman A

2013-01-01

88

Gas Bubble Disease in the Brain of a Living California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of 4?months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. In humans, the cerebellum is known to be essential for automating practiced movement patterns (e.g., learning to touch-type), also known as procedural learning or the consolidation of "motor memory." To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events. PMID:23372553

Van Bonn, William; Dennison, Sophie; Cook, Peter; Fahlman, Andreas

2013-01-29

89

Classification across the senses: Auditory-visual cognitive performance in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)  

Science.gov (United States)

The model of stimulus equivalence describes how perceptually dissimilar stimuli can become interrelated to form useful categories both within and between the sensory modalities. A recent experiment expanded upon prior work with a California sea lion by examining stimulus classification across the auditory and visual modalities. Acoustic stimuli were associated with an exemplar from one of two pre-existing visual classes in a matching-to-sample paradigm. After direct training of these associations, the sea lion showed spontaneous transfer of the new auditory stimuli to the remaining members of the visual classes. The sea lion's performance on this cross-modal equivalence task was similar to that shown by human subjects in studies of emergent word learning and reading comprehension. Current research with the same animal further examines how stimulus classes can be expanded across modalities. Fast-mapping techniques are used to rapidly establish new auditory-visual relationships between acoustic cues and multiple arbitrary visual stimuli. Collectively, this research illustrates complex cross-modal performances in a highly experienced subject and provides insight into how animals organize information from multiple sensory modalities into meaningful representations.

Lindemann, Kristy L.; Reichmuth-Kastak, Colleen; Schusterman, Ronald J.

2005-09-01

90

Temporal summation of airborne tones in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The trade-off between sound level and duration on hearing sensitivity (temporal summation) was investigated in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) using airborne pure-tone stimuli. Thresholds were behaviorally measured using the method of constant stimuli at 2.5, 5, and 10 kHz for nine signal durations ranging from 25 to 500 ms. In general, thresholds decreased as duration increased up to 300 ms, beyond which thresholds did not significantly improve. When these data were fitted separately to two versions of an exponential model, the estimated time constants (92-167 ms) were generally consistent between the two fits. However, the model with more free parameters generated fits with consistently higher R(2) values, while avoiding potential arbitrary decisions about which data to include. The time constants derived for the California sea lion were generally consistent with those reported for other mammals, including other pinnipeds. The current study did not show a clear correlation between time constant and test frequency. The results should be considered when conducting audiometric work, assessing communications ranges, and evaluating potential noise impacts of airborne tonal signals on California sea lions.

Holt MM; Ghoul A; Reichmuth C

2012-11-01

91

Underwater psychophysical audiogram of a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data are commonly obtained in air while sea lions are under gas anesthesia; a procedure that precludes the measurement of underwater hearing sensitivity. This is a substantial limitation considering the importance of underwater hearing data in designing criteria aimed at mitigating the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure. To determine if some aspects of underwater hearing sensitivity can be predicted using rapid aerial AEP methods, this study measured underwater psychophysical thresholds for a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) for which previously published aerial AEP thresholds exist. Underwater thresholds were measured in an aboveground pool at frequencies between 1 and 38 kHz. The underwater audiogram was very similar to those previously published for California sea lions, suggesting that the current and previously obtained psychophysical data are representative for this species. The psychophysical and previously measured AEP audiograms were most similar in terms of high-frequency hearing limit (HFHL), although the underwater HFHL was sharper and occurred at a higher frequency. Aerial AEP methods are useful for predicting reductions in the HFHL that are potentially independent of the testing medium, such as those due to age-related sensorineural hearing loss.

Mulsow J; Houser DS; Finneran JJ

2012-05-01

92

Psychophysical and electrophysiological aerial audiograms of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A within-subject comparison of auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and psychophysical measurements of aerial hearing sensitivity was conducted with an individual of the largest otariid species, the Steller sea lion. Psychophysical methods were used to obtain an unmasked aerial audiogram at 13 frequencies, spanning a range of 0.125-34 kHz. The subject had a hearing range (frequencies audible at 60 dB(rms) re 20 microPa) of about 0.250-30 kHz, and a region of best hearing sensitivity from 5-14.1 kHz. The psychophysical aerial audiogram of this Steller sea lion was remarkably similar to aerial audiograms previously obtained for California sea lions and northern fur seals, suggesting that the otariid pinnipeds form a functional hearing group. ASSR thresholds, measured at frequencies of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 32 kHz, were elevated relative to corresponding psychophysical thresholds, ranging from +1 dB at 20 kHz, to +31 dB at 1 kHz. The ASSR audiogram accurately predicted the subject's high-frequency cutoff, and provided a reasonable estimate of hearing sensitivity at frequencies above 2 kHz. In testing situations where psychophysical methods are not possible, ASSR methods may provide an objective and efficient estimate of behavioral hearing sensitivity in otariid pinnipeds.

Mulsow J; Reichmuth C

2010-04-01

93

Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

Lowther AD; Harcourt RG; Page B; Goldsworthy SD

2013-01-01

94

Steady as He Goes: At-Sea Movement of Adult Male Australian Sea Lions in a Dynamic Marine Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

The southern coastline of Australia forms part of the worlds' only northern boundary current system. The Bonney Upwelling occurs every austral summer along the south-eastern South Australian coastline, a region that hosts over 80% of the worlds population of an endangered endemic otariid, the Australian sea lion. We present the first data on the movement characteristics and foraging behaviour of adult male Australian sea lions across their South Australian range. Synthesizing telemetric, oceanographic and isotopic datasets collected from seven individuals enabled us to characterise individual foraging behaviour over an approximate two year time period. Data suggested seasonal variability in stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes that could not be otherwise explained by changes in animal movement patterns. Similarly, animals did not change their foraging patterns despite fine-scale spatial and temporal variability of the upwelling event. Individual males tended to return to the same colony at which they were tagged and utilized the same at-sea regions for foraging irrespective of oceanographic conditions or time of year. Our study contrasts current general assumptions that male otariid life history strategies should result in greater dispersal, with adult male Australian sea lions displaying central place foraging behaviour similar to males of other otariid species in the region.

Lowther, Andrew D.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Page, Bradley; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

2013-01-01

95

A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

J. Frigola; M. Canals; I. Cacho; A. Moreno; F. J. Sierro; J. A. Flores; S. Berné; G. Jouet; B. Dennielou; G. Herrera; C. Pasqual; J. O. Grimalt; M. Galavazi; R. Schneider

2012-01-01

96

A 500 kyr record of global sea level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea level variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of Late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion which consists of five main sequences stacked during the sea level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles. The high sensitivity to sea level oscillations of the grain-size record along the borehole, favoured by the large width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, demonstrates that sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf are able to cyclically modify the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea level oscillations at millennial scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence ever for a one-to-one coupling of millennial-scale sea level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

J. Frigola; M. Canals; I. Cacho; A. Moreno; F. J. Sierro; J. A. Flores; S. Berné; G. Jouet; B. Dennielou; G. Herrera; C. Pasqual; J. O. Grimalt; M. Galavazi; R. Schneider

2011-01-01

97

Underwater hearing sensitivity of a male and a female Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)  

Science.gov (United States)

The unmasked underwater hearing sensitivities of an 8-year-old male and a 7-year-old female Steller sea lion were measured in a pool, by using behavioral psychophysics. The animals were trained with positive reinforcement to respond when they detected an acoustic signal and not to respond when they did not. The signals were narrow-band, frequency-modulated stimuli with a duration of 600 ms and center frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 32 kHz for the male and from 4 to 32 kHz for the female. Detection thresholds at each frequency were measured by varying signal amplitude according to the up-down staircase method. The resulting underwater audiogram (50% detection thresholds) for the male Steller sea lion showed the typical mammalian U-shape. His maximum sensitivity (77 dB re: 1 ?Pa, rms) occurred at 1 kHz. The range of best hearing (10 dB from the maximum sensitivity) was from 1 to 16 kHz (4 octaves). Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed below 1 kHz and above 16 kHz. The maximum sensitivity of the female (73 dB re: 1 ?Pa, rms) occurred at 25 kHz. Higher hearing thresholds (indicating poorer sensitivity) were observed for signals below 16 kHz and above 25 kHz. At frequencies for which both subjects were tested, hearing thresholds of the male were significantly higher than those of the female. The hearing sensitivity differences between the male and female Steller sea lion in this study may be due to individual differences in sensitivity between the subjects or due to sexual dimorphism in hearing.

Kastelein, Ronald A.; van Schie, Robbert; Verboom, Wim C.; de Haan, Dick

2005-09-01

98

Same size - same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics.

Jeglinski JW; Goetz KT; Werner C; Costa DP; Trillmich F

2013-01-01

99

Same size - same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics. PMID:23351022

Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

2013-01-25

100

Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CASE DESCRIPTION: An underweight, lethargic adult female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) became stranded along the California shore and was captured and transported to a rehabilitation hospital for assessment and care. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Initial physical assessment revealed the sea lion was lethargic and in poor body condition. Active myositis was diagnosed on the basis of concurrent elevations in activities of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase detected during serum biochemical analysis. Infection with Sarcocystis neurona was diagnosed after serologic titers increased 4-fold over a 3-week period. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histopathologic findings, positive results on immunohistochemical staining, and results of quantitative PCR assay on biopsy specimens obtained from the diaphragm and muscles of the dorsal cervical region. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Anticoccidial treatment was instituted with ponazuril (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and continued for 28 days. Prednisone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was administered for 2 days and then every 24 hours for 5 days to treat associated inflammation. At the end of treatment, the sea lion was clinically normal, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase values were within reference limits, and antibody titers against S neurona had decreased 6-fold. The sea lion was released approximately 3 months after becoming stranded. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: S neurona-induced myositis was diagnosed in a free-ranging California sea lion. On the basis of the successful treatment and release of this sea lion, anticoccidial treatment should be considered for marine mammals in which protozoal disease is diagnosed.

Carlson-Bremer DP; Gulland FM; Johnson CK; Colegrove KM; Van Bonn WG

2012-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of an ovarian tumor is reported in an 8-yr-old South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) kept in a marine park in Malta (35.57 degrees N, 14.25 degrees E). The neoplasm was a solid mass of dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral, irregularly shaped cells with abundant, finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The nuclei were uniformly small and round to oval. The supporting stroma contained thecal cells. The tumor cells were positive for positive inhibin and vimentin and focally positive for cytokeratin by immunohistochemistry. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically an interstitial cell tumor. PMID:20688715

Biancani, Barbara; Lacave, Geraldine; Magi, Gian Enrico; Rossi, Giacomo

2010-07-01

102

Ovarian interstitial cell tumor in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of an ovarian tumor is reported in an 8-yr-old South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) kept in a marine park in Malta (35.57 degrees N, 14.25 degrees E). The neoplasm was a solid mass of dense sheets and nests of round to polyhedral, irregularly shaped cells with abundant, finely vacuolated cytoplasm. The nuclei were uniformly small and round to oval. The supporting stroma contained thecal cells. The tumor cells were positive for positive inhibin and vimentin and focally positive for cytokeratin by immunohistochemistry. The neoplasm was diagnosed as an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, specifically an interstitial cell tumor.

Biancani B; Lacave G; Magi GE; Rossi G

2010-07-01

103

Hookworm enteritis with bacteremia in California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large breeding populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are located on San Miguel and San Nicolas Islands in the Southern California Bight. In 2001, there was a substantial increase in pup mortality in late summer and fall. From June 2002 to January 2003, 208 freshly dead pups were examined on San Miguel Island, the most western of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. Tissues from 186 of these pups were examined histologically. The primary lesions in 133 (72%) of the pups were an enteritis associated with hookworms and infections in major organs. Emaciation/starvation in 43 pups (26%) was the second most important cause of death.

Spraker TR; DeLong RL; Lyons ET; Melin SR

2007-04-01

104

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environme (more) ntal contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

Artico, L.O.; Bianchini, A.; Grubel, K.S.; Monteiro, D.S.; Estima, S.C.; de Oliveira, L.R.; Bonatto, S.L.; Marins, L.F.

2010-09-01

105

Antibodies against Leptospira interrogans in California sea lion pups from Gulf of California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred and twenty-five serum samples from California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus) pups, and one from an adult female from eight reproductive rookeries located in seven islands in the Gulf of California (Mexico), were collected during the 1994-96 reproductive seasons. These were tested for antibodies to 19 serovars of Leptospira interrogans using a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Forty-one samples (32%) had antibody levels from 1:20 to 1:320 to one or more serovars. The most frequently detected serotypes were Leptospira interrogans hardjo (n = 13), cynopteri (8), ballum (6), and szwajizak (5). Serovars with the highest prevalence were Leptospira interrogans hardjo and serjoe (1:320), ballum (1:160), and cynopteri, girppotyphosa, and tarassovi (1:80). Based on these results, exposure of sea lions to L. interrogans serovar hardjo seems to be relatively common among colonies located in the islands of the Gulf of California in contrast with those located on the Pacific coast, where the most frequently detected serovar is L. interrogans serovar pomona.

Godínez CR; Zelaya de Romillo B; Aurioles-Gamboa D; Verdugo-Rodríguez A; Rodríguez-Reyes EA; De la Peña-Moctezuma A

1999-01-01

106

Characterization of San Miguel sea lion virus populations using pyrosequencing-based methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

San Miguel Sea Lion Virus (SMSV) is a small RNA virus in the genus Vesivirus with an unusually broad host range. Three populations of SMSV were examined by PCR amplification of the capsid precursor and putative helicase genes, followed by pyrosequencing. The populations were nasal swabs from two SMSV infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from two different years, and a virus isolate from the earlier swab that was passaged in cell culture five times. In the capsid precursor, extensive deletions were prevalent in the passaged virus but uncommon in the clinical samples. A greater prevalence of point mutations was seen in the capsid precursor gene than in the putative helicase gene. In culture, the minority sequence in the capsid precursor at nucleotide position 5826 rapidly shifted after five passages to become the majority sequence. Levels of diversity at individual sites showed much more similarity between the two clinical samples than between the earlier clinical sample and the passaged culture from the same sample. SMSV appears to behave as a quasispecies. Assessment of original patient samples is preferable for understanding clinical SMSV populations.

Wellehan JF Jr; Yu F; Venn-Watson SK; Jensen ED; Smith CR; Farmerie WG; Nollens HH

2010-03-01

107

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).  

Science.gov (United States)

The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions. PMID:20838754

Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

2010-07-30

108

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

L.O. Artico; A. Bianchini; K.S. Grubel; D.S. Monteiro; S.C. Estima; L.R. de Oliveira; S.L. Bonatto; L.F. Marins

2010-01-01

109

The binaural click-evoked auditory brainstem response of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by high-amplitude [100 dB re 20 ?Pa, peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL)] aerial broadband clicks were collected from seven California sea lions in order to provide a basic description of short-latency auditory evoked potentials in this species. The waveform of the ABR was similar to that of other mammals, comprising seven positive and six negative characteristic waves. Variability in the amplitudes and latencies of waves was higher among subjects than the variability in within-subject repeated measurements. ABRs to progressively attenuated clicks were collected for three additional sea lions. Wave amplitudes decreased and latencies increased with decreasing stimulus level, with only the sixth positive wave visible near threshold (35-40 dB peSPL). Based on observations of wave latency as a function of stimulus amplitude, the sixth positive wave of the ABR is equivalent to the clinically important "wave V" identified in studies with humans. The current results provide information on the basic electrophysiology of the pinniped auditory system, including the processes that underlie brainstem auditory steady-state responses used to measure frequency-specific hearing sensitivity.

Mulsow J; Reichmuth C

2013-01-01

110

Reversible anesthesia of captive California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with medetomidine, midazolam, butorphanol, and isoflurane.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were effectively anesthetized 13 times with medetomidine (0.010-0.013 mg/kg), midazolam (0.2-0.26 mg/kg), and butorphanol (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) by i.m. hand or pole syringe injection. For each anesthetic event, atropine (0.02 mg/kg, i.m.) was administered 6-20 min after initial injections, and oxygen administration via face mask or nasal insufflation began at the same time. Light anesthesia was induced in 8-22 min and lasted 13-78 min. During eight of the procedures, isoflurane (0.5-2.0%) was administered via face mask or endotracheal tube for an additional 30-120 min to facilitate longer procedures or surgery. Anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (0.05-0.06 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) in seven events, with the addition of flumazenil (0.0002-0.002 mg/kg) in six events. The antagonists were administered by i.m. injection 42-149 min after administration of the induction agents. All sea lions recovered to mild sedation within 4-17 min after administration of the antagonists.

Spelman LH

2004-03-01

111

Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of San Miguel sea lion virus: an animal calicivirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Caliciviridae is a family of nonenveloped, icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. This family of viruses consists of both animal and human pathogens. Adapting human caliciviruses to cell culture has not been successful, whereas some animal caliciviruses, including San Miguel sea lion virus, have been successfully propagated in vitro. Here we report the crystallization of San Miguel sea lion virus serotype 4 (SMSV4) and the preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the crystals. SMSV4 have been crystallized using the hanging-drop method. These crystals diffracted to approximately 3A resolution using a synchrotron radiation source. A single crystal under cryo-conditions yielded a complete set of diffraction data. Data processing of the diffraction patterns showed that SMSV crystals belong to I23 space group with cell dimensions a=b=c=457 A. The crystallographic asymmetric unit includes five icosahedral asymmetric units, each consisting of three capsid protein subunits. In the space group I23, given the icosahedral symmetry and the size of the virus particle, the location of the particle is constrained to be at the point where the crystallographic 2- and 3-fold axes intersect. The orientation of the virus particle in the unit cell was ascertained by self-rotation function calculations.

Chen R; Neill JD; Prasad BV

2003-02-01

112

PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (?PCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ?PCBs and ?PCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

2005-01-01

113

50 CFR Table 12 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

50 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç 11 Ç 2011-10-01 Ç 2011-10-01 Ç false Ç Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas, 3nm No Groundfish Fishing Sites Ç 12 Ç Table 12 to Part 679 Ç Wildlife and Fisheries Ç FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-10-01

114

Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genome of a novel polyomavirus first identified in a proliferative tongue lesion of a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is reported. This is only the third described polyomavirus of laurasiatherian mammals, is the first of the three associated with a lesion, and is the first known polyomavirus of a host in the order Carnivora. Predicted large T, small t, VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes were identified based on homology to proteins of known polyomaviruses, and a putative agnoprotein was identified based upon its location in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted late region proteins found that the laurasiatherian polyomaviruses, together with Squirrel monkey polyomavirus and Murine pneumotropic virus, form a monophyletic clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the early region was more ambiguous. The noncoding control region of California sea lion polyomavirus 1 is unusual in that only two apparent large T binding sites are present; this is less than any other known polyomavirus. The VP1 of this virus has an unusually long carboxy-terminal region. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed and utilized on various samples from 79 additional animals from either managed or wild stranded California sea lion populations, and California sea lion polyomavirus 1 infection was found in 24% of stranded animals. Sequence of additional samples identified four sites of variation in the t antigens, three of which resulted in predicted coding changes.

Wellehan JF Jr; Rivera R; Archer LL; Benham C; Muller JK; Colegrove KM; Gulland FM; St Leger JA; Venn-Watson SK; Nollens HH

2011-07-01

115

Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of a novel polyomavirus first identified in a proliferative tongue lesion of a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is reported. This is only the third described polyomavirus of laurasiatherian mammals, is the first of the three associated with a lesion, and is the first known polyomavirus of a host in the order Carnivora. Predicted large T, small t, VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes were identified based on homology to proteins of known polyomaviruses, and a putative agnoprotein was identified based upon its location in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted late region proteins found that the laurasiatherian polyomaviruses, together with Squirrel monkey polyomavirus and Murine pneumotropic virus, form a monophyletic clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the early region was more ambiguous. The noncoding control region of California sea lion polyomavirus 1 is unusual in that only two apparent large T binding sites are present; this is less than any other known polyomavirus. The VP1 of this virus has an unusually long carboxy-terminal region. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed and utilized on various samples from 79 additional animals from either managed or wild stranded California sea lion populations, and California sea lion polyomavirus 1 infection was found in 24% of stranded animals. Sequence of additional samples identified four sites of variation in the t antigens, three of which resulted in predicted coding changes. PMID:21453794

Wellehan, James F X; Rivera, Rebecca; Archer, Linda L; Benham, Celeste; Muller, Jennifer K; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; St Leger, Judy A; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Nollens, Hendrik H

2011-03-29

116

Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California sea lions that stranded alive on the California coast, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We evaluated seroprevalence among yearlings as a measure of incidence in the population, and characterized antibody persistence times based on temporal changes in the distribution of titer scores. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to determine individual risk factors for seropositivity with high and low titers. Results The serosurvey revealed cyclical patterns in seroprevalence to L. interrogans serovar Pomona, with 4–5 year periodicity and peak seroprevalence above 50%. Seroprevalence in yearling sea lions was an accurate index of exposure among all age classses, and indicated on-going exposure to leptospires in non-outbreak years. Analysis of titer decay rates showed that some individuals probably maintain high titers for more than a year following exposure. Conclusion This study presents results of an unprecedented long-term serosurveillance program in marine mammals. Our results suggest that leptospirosis is endemic in California sea lions, but also causes periodic epidemics of acute disease. The findings call into question the classical dichotomy between maintenance hosts of leptospirosis, which experience chronic but largely asymptomatic infections, and accidental hosts, which suffer acute illness or death as a result of disease spillover from reservoir species.

Lloyd-Smith James O; Greig Denise J; Hietala Sharon; Ghneim George S; Palmer Lauren; St Leger Judy; Grenfell Bryan T; Gulland Frances MD

2007-01-01

117

Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 {mu}g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 {mu}g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hong, Su-Myeong [National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Atkinson, Shannon [University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Juneau Center, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.ed [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2011-01-15

118

Entanglement of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in marine debris: identifying causes and finding solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entanglement in marine debris is a contributing factor in Steller sea lion (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) injury and mortality. We quantified SSL entanglement by debris type, sex and age class, entanglement incidence, and estimated population level effects. Surveys of SSL haul-outs were conducted from 2000-2007 in Southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. We recorded 386 individuals of all age classes as being either entangled in marine debris or having ingested fishing gear. Packing bands were the most common neck entangling material (54%), followed by rubber bands (30%), net (7%), rope (7%), and monofilament line (2%). Ingested fishing gear included salmon fishery flashers (lures: 80%), longline gear (12%), hook and line (4%), spinners/spoons (2%), and bait hooks (2%). Entanglement incidence was 0.26% (SD=0.0064, n=69 sites). "Lose the Loop!" Simple procedures such as cutting entangling loops of synthetic material and eliminating the use of packing bands can prevent entanglements. PMID:19631950

Raum-Suryan, Kimberly L; Jemison, Lauri A; Pitcher, Kenneth W

2009-07-24

119

Entanglement of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in marine debris: identifying causes and finding solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entanglement in marine debris is a contributing factor in Steller sea lion (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) injury and mortality. We quantified SSL entanglement by debris type, sex and age class, entanglement incidence, and estimated population level effects. Surveys of SSL haul-outs were conducted from 2000-2007 in Southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. We recorded 386 individuals of all age classes as being either entangled in marine debris or having ingested fishing gear. Packing bands were the most common neck entangling material (54%), followed by rubber bands (30%), net (7%), rope (7%), and monofilament line (2%). Ingested fishing gear included salmon fishery flashers (lures: 80%), longline gear (12%), hook and line (4%), spinners/spoons (2%), and bait hooks (2%). Entanglement incidence was 0.26% (SD=0.0064, n=69 sites). "Lose the Loop!" Simple procedures such as cutting entangling loops of synthetic material and eliminating the use of packing bands can prevent entanglements.

Raum-Suryan KL; Jemison LA; Pitcher KW

2009-10-01

120

Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. PMID:23545490

Rea, Lorrie D; Castellini, J Margaret; Correa, Lucero; Fadely, Brian S; O'Hara, Todd M

2013-03-29

 
 
 
 
121

What makes an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) male's bark threatening?  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, vocal signals are produced in many social contexts and convey diverse information about the emitter (social rank, individual identity, body size-condition). To understand their biological function, the authors find it is not only important to estimate the information about the signaler encoded in the signal but also to determine if and how this information is perceived by the receiver. In male pinnipeds (phocids, otariids, and odobenids) vocal signaling plays an important role in the breeding season during the defense of territories, females, or both. In this article, the authors investigated 2 key acoustic features that Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) males most likely rely on to assess the threat level posed by potential rivals, by manipulating bark rhythmicity and spectral characteristics. Bark series that show accelerated rhythmicity and higher formants elicited stronger responses. PMID:21767004

Charrier, Isabelle; Ahonen, Heidi; Harcourt, Robert G

2011-07-18

122

Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation.

Rea LD; Castellini JM; Correa L; Fadely BS; O'Hara TM

2013-06-01

123

What makes an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) male's bark threatening?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In mammals, vocal signals are produced in many social contexts and convey diverse information about the emitter (social rank, individual identity, body size-condition). To understand their biological function, the authors find it is not only important to estimate the information about the signaler encoded in the signal but also to determine if and how this information is perceived by the receiver. In male pinnipeds (phocids, otariids, and odobenids) vocal signaling plays an important role in the breeding season during the defense of territories, females, or both. In this article, the authors investigated 2 key acoustic features that Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) males most likely rely on to assess the threat level posed by potential rivals, by manipulating bark rhythmicity and spectral characteristics. Bark series that show accelerated rhythmicity and higher formants elicited stronger responses.

Charrier I; Ahonen H; Harcourt RG

2011-11-01

124

Relationship of San Miguel sea lion virus to other members of the calicivirus group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) is indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema virus (VEV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) in its morphology and in possessing a single capsid polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 65 X 10(3). Neutralization tests readily differentiate the three viruses, but immunodiffusion tests show that SMSV is closely related serologically to VEV but not to FCV. Although the RNAs of the three caliciviruses have similar base compositions, homology tests show that SMSV is closely related to VEV but is not related to FCV. Tryptic peptide maps of the single major polypeptide comprising the capsid of each virus also show that SMSV and VEV are more closely related to each other than to FCV.

Burroughs N; Doel T; Brown F

1978-01-01

125

Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

Wolf Jochen BW; Harrod Chris; Brunner Sylvia; Salazar Sandie; Trillmich Fritz; Tautz Diethard

2008-01-01

126

Rapid onset of maternal vocal recognition in a colonially breeding mammal, the Australian sea lion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In many gregarious mammals, mothers and offspring have developed the abilities to recognise each other using acoustic signals. Such capacity may develop at different rates after birth/parturition, varying between species and between the participants, i.e., mothers and young. Differences in selective pressures between species, and between mothers and offspring, are likely to drive the timing of the onset of mother-young recognition. We tested the ability of Australian sea lion mothers to identify their offspring by vocalisation, and examined the onset of this behaviour in these females. We hypothesise that a rapid onset of recognition may reflect an adaptation to a colonial lifestyle. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a playback study maternal responses to own pup and non-filial vocalisations were compared at 12, 24 and every subsequent 24 hours until the females' first departure post-partum. Mothers showed a clear ability to recognise their pup's voice by 48 hours of age. At 24 hours mothers called more, at 48 hours they called sooner and at 72 hours they looked sooner in response to their own pup's vocalisations compared to those of non-filial pups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Australian sea lion females can vocally identify offspring within two days of birth and before mothers leave to forage post-partum. We suggest that this rapid onset is a result of selection pressures imposed by a colonial lifestyle and may be seen in other colonial vertebrates. This is the first demonstration of the timing of the onset of maternal vocal recognition in a pinniped species.

Pitcher BJ; Harcourt RG; Charrier I

2010-01-01

127

High diving metabolism results in a short aerobic dive limit for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diving capacity of marine mammals is typically defined by the aerobic dive limit (ADL) which, in lieu of direct measurements, can be calculated (cADL) from total body oxygen stores (TBO) and diving metabolic rate (DMR). To estimate cADL, we measured blood oxygen stores, and combined this with diving oxygen consumption rates (VO2) recorded from 4 trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean to depths of 10 or 40 m. We also examined the effect of diving exercise on O2 stores by comparing blood O2 stores of our diving animals to non-diving individuals at an aquarium. Mass-specific blood volume of the non-diving individuals was higher in the winter than in summer, but there was no overall difference in blood O2 stores between the diving and non-diving groups. Estimated TBO (35.9 ml O2 kg(-1)) was slightly lower than previously reported for Steller sea lions and other Otariids. Calculated ADL was 3.0 min (based on an average DMR of 2.24 L O2 min(-1)) and was significantly shorter than the average 4.4 min dives our study animals performed when making single long dives-but was similar to the times recorded during diving bouts (a series of 4 dives followed by a recovery period on the surface), as well as the dive times of wild animals. Our study is the first to estimate cADL based on direct measures of VO2 and blood oxygen stores for an Otariid and indicates they have a much shorter ADL than previously thought.

Gerlinsky CD; Rosen DA; Trites AW

2013-07-01

128

Steller Sea Lion and Northern Fur Seal Research. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 1. Executive Summary, Chapters 1-9.  

Science.gov (United States)

This executive summary provides an overview of the findings contained in the Steller Sea Lion (SSL), 'Eumetopias jubatus', and Northern Fur Seal (NFS), 'Callorhinus ursinus', Research Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). This PEIS evaluates...

2007-01-01

129

High nutrient transport and cycling potential revealed in the microbial metagenome of Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) faeces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metagenomic analysis was used to examine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) gut microbiome. Bacteria comprised 98% of classifiable sequences and of these matches to Firmicutes (80%) were dominant, with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria representing 8% and 2% of matches respectively. The relative proportion of Firmicutes (80%) to Bacteriodetes (2%) is similar to that in previous studies of obese humans and obese mice, suggesting the gut microbiome may confer a predisposition towards the excess body fat that is needed for thermoregulation within the cold oceanic habitats foraged by Australian sea lions. Core metabolic functions, including carbohydrate utilisation (14%), protein metabolism (9%) and DNA metabolism (7%) dominated the metagenome, but in comparison to human and fish gut microbiomes there was a significantly higher proportion of genes involved in phosphorus metabolism (2.4%) and iron scavenging mechanisms (1%). When sea lions defecate at sea, the relatively high nutrient metabolism potential of bacteria in their faeces may accelerate the dissolution of nutrients from faecal particles, enhancing their persistence in the euphotic zone where they are available to stimulate marine production.

Lavery TJ; Roudnew B; Seymour J; Mitchell JG; Jeffries T

2012-01-01

130

High nutrient transport and cycling potential revealed in the microbial metagenome of Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) faeces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metagenomic analysis was used to examine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) gut microbiome. Bacteria comprised 98% of classifiable sequences and of these matches to Firmicutes (80%) were dominant, with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria representing 8% and 2% of matches respectively. The relative proportion of Firmicutes (80%) to Bacteriodetes (2%) is similar to that in previous studies of obese humans and obese mice, suggesting the gut microbiome may confer a predisposition towards the excess body fat that is needed for thermoregulation within the cold oceanic habitats foraged by Australian sea lions. Core metabolic functions, including carbohydrate utilisation (14%), protein metabolism (9%) and DNA metabolism (7%) dominated the metagenome, but in comparison to human and fish gut microbiomes there was a significantly higher proportion of genes involved in phosphorus metabolism (2.4%) and iron scavenging mechanisms (1%). When sea lions defecate at sea, the relatively high nutrient metabolism potential of bacteria in their faeces may accelerate the dissolution of nutrients from faecal particles, enhancing their persistence in the euphotic zone where they are available to stimulate marine production. PMID:22606263

Lavery, Trish J; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin; Mitchell, James G; Jeffries, Thomas

2012-05-11

131

Budget and residence time of {sup 210}Pb along the Gulf of Lion`s continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentration of {sup 210}Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion`s continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk {sup 210}Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of {sup 210}Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of {sup 210}Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for {sup 210}Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of {sup 210}Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the {sup 210}Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author) 12 refs.

Abassi, A.; Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Monaco, A. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines

1997-12-31

132

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report concentrations of several classes of organochlorines (OCs) in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from the Gulf of California. Summed OC levels measured in 34 wild-ranging animals were, in general, lower than those previously reported in sea lions from the eastern Pacific. The rank order of OCs was SigmaDDTs (mean=3400 ng g(-1 ) lipid weight [lw]) > SigmaPCBs (1400 ng g(-1 ) lw) > SigmaHCHs (50 ng g(-1 ) lw) >or= SigmaCHLORs (46 ng g(-1 ) lw). The most abundant OC measured was the DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE. No significant differences in OC profiles were found between genders or rookeries. Although the mean concentrations of OCs measured in adult males and females were similar, only adult females had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean blubber concentrations of summation SigmaDDTs and summation SigmaHCHs than pups.

Niño-Torres CA; Gardner SC; Zenteno-Savín T; Ylitalo GM

2009-02-01

133

Total removal of a falcotentorial junction meningioma by biparietooccipital craniotomy in the sea lion position: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The successful total removal of a huge falcotentorial junction meningioma in a 59-year-old woman by biparietooccipital craniotomy with the patient in the sea lion position (prone with a hyperextended neck and with 20 degrees elevation of the upper and lower halves of the body) is reported, with some comments on the advantages of this approach and position. Taking advantage of the exposure of the dural sinus, the confluens sinuum pressure was measured by direct catheterization with the patient in various positions. The pressure was 3.6 cm H2O in the sea lion position, 2.4 cm H2O in the reverse jackknife position (supine with 20 degrees elevation of the upper and lower halves of the body), and -12 cm H2O in the sitting position. PMID:6504289

Suzuki, M; Sobata, E; Hatanaka, M; Suzuki, S; Iwabuchi, T; Makiguchi, K

1984-11-01

134

Differentiating between Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) scats through analysis of faecal DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a method to determine the species of pinniped from faeces collected from sympatric Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) rookeries using newly developed species-specific primers that amplify a 667-669-base pair segment from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome B (cytB) gene region. The primers yielded the correct species in 100% of tissue samples from 10 known animals and 100% of faecal samples from 13 known animals. Species could be identified unequivocally for 87.7% of faecal samples from 122 unknown individuals. The ability to differentiate between scats of sympatrically breeding Steller sea lions and northern fur seals will contribute to the range-wide knowledge of the foraging strategies of both species as well as allow researchers to examine the niche partitioning and potential resource competition between the two predators.

Waite JN; Waits LP; Bozza M; Andrews RD

2011-01-01

135

Differentiating between Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) scats through analysis of faecal DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a method to determine the species of pinniped from faeces collected from sympatric Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) rookeries using newly developed species-specific primers that amplify a 667-669-base pair segment from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome B (cytB) gene region. The primers yielded the correct species in 100% of tissue samples from 10 known animals and 100% of faecal samples from 13 known animals. Species could be identified unequivocally for 87.7% of faecal samples from 122 unknown individuals. The ability to differentiate between scats of sympatrically breeding Steller sea lions and northern fur seals will contribute to the range-wide knowledge of the foraging strategies of both species as well as allow researchers to examine the niche partitioning and potential resource competition between the two predators. PMID:21429117

Waite, Jason N; Waits, Lisette P; Bozza, Mary; Andrews, Russel D

2011-01-01

136

Penetration of the small intestine of a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pup by adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During a study on the mortality of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups born on San Miguel Island, California in 2002, two adult female hookworms (Uncinaria spp) were found penetrating the serosal surface of the intestinal wall and protruding into the peritoneal cavity of one pup. Documentation and a description of this unexpected finding and associated lesions are presented here. Also, adult hookworms were found in the peritoneal fluid of two other dead Z. californianus pups.

Spraker TR; Lyons ET; DeLong RL; Zink RR

2004-03-01

137

Foraging behavior of lactating South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and spatial-temporal resource overlap with the Uruguayan fisheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource competition between fisheries and marine mammal continue to raise concern worldwide. Understanding this complex conflict requires data on spatial and dietary overlap of marine mammal and fisheries. In Uruguay the South American sea lions population has been dramatically declining over the past decade. The reasons for this population decline are unknown but may include the following: (1) direct harvesting; (2) reduced prey availability and distribution as a consequence of environmental change; or (3) biological interaction with fisheries. This study aims to determine resource overlap and competition between South American sea lions (SASL, Otaria flavescens, n=10) and the artisanal fisheries (AF), and the coastal bottom trawl fisheries (CBTF). We integrated data on sea lions diet (scat analysis), spatial and annual consumption estimates; and foraging behavior-satellite-tracking data from lactating SASL with data on fishing effort areas and fisheries landings. We found that lactating SASL are benthic divers and forage in shallow water within the continental shelf. SASL's foraging areas overlapped with CBTF and AF fisheries operational areas. Dietary analysis indicated a high degree of overlap between the diet of SASL and the AF and CBTF fisheries catch. The results of our work show differing degrees of spatial resource overlap with AF and CBTF, highlighting that there are differences in potential impact from each fishery; and that different management/conservation approaches may need to be taken to solve the fisheries-SASL conflict.

Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Costa, Daniel P.; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Marín, Yamandú; Chocca, Julio; González, Bernardo; Beathyate, Gastón; Louise Chilvers, B.; Hückstadt, Luis A.

2013-04-01

138

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ?DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 ?g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCBs, 2.96 ?g/g), chlordanes (0.12 ?g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 ?g/g). The ?DDTs/?PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

2006-01-01

139

An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions (Neophoca cinerea).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA (withdrawal) experimental design over a 30-day period (180 hr). The study expected extrinsically reinforcing objects to be more effective than intrinsically reinforcing objects in reducing pattern swimming. The male sea lion spent more than 45% of scans engaged in pattern swimming during the initial baseline, which was reduced by at least 25% when enrichment items were present. However, there was no evidence of stereotypic behavior in the female sea lion, indicating that individual differences may exist. When enrichment was present, the study observed more active behaviors in both nonhuman animals. They spent more time interacting with the non-food-related objects overall. Therefore, introducing simple enrichment devices offers a cheap, practical, and effective method of adding complexity to the environment, which is likely to benefit the animals' welfare and enhance the zoo-visitor experience.

Smith BP; Litchfield CA

2010-01-01

140

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. {sigma}DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 {mu}g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls ({sigma}PCBs, 2.96 {mu}g/g), chlordanes (0.12 {mu}g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 {mu}g/g). The {sigma}DDTs/{sigma}PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA.

Del Toro, Ligeia [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico); Heckel, Gisela [Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico) and Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, B.C. Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gheckel@cicese.mx; Camacho-Ibar, Victor F. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, UABC, Apdo. Postal 453, Ensenada, Baja California 22860 (Mexico); Schramm, Yolanda [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Investigacion y Conservacion de Mamiferos Marinos de Ensenada, A.C., Placido Mata 2309 Depto. D-5, Condominio Las Fincas, Ensenada, Baja California 22810 (Mexico)

2006-07-15

 
 
 
 
141

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

John S. Ramsdell; Tanja S. Zabka

2008-01-01

142

Evidence of injury caused by gas bubbles in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A yearling male California sea lion Zalophus californianus with hypermetric ataxia and bilateral negative menace reflexes was brought to The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, U.S.A., in late 2009 for medical assessment and treatment. The clinical signs were due to multiple gas bubbles within the cerebellum. These lesions were intraparenchymal, multifocal to coalescing, spherical to ovoid, and varied from 0.5 to 2.4 cm diameter. The gas composed 21.3% of the total cerebellum volume. Three rib fractures were also noted during diagnostic evaluation and were presumed to be associated with the gas bubbles in the brain. The progression of clinical signs and lesion appearance were monitored with magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive function testing and computed tomography. Gas filled voids in the cerebellum were filled with fluid on follow up images. Clinical signs resolved and the sea lion was released with a satellite tag attached. Post release the animal travelled approximately 75 km north and 80 km south of the release site and the tag recorded dives of over 150 m depth. The animal re-stranded 25 d following release and died of a subacute bronchopneumonia and pleuritis. This is the first instance of clinical injury due to gas bubble formation described in a living pinniped and the first sea lion with quantifiable cerebellar damage to take part in spatial learning and memory testing.

Van Bonn W; Montie E; Dennison S; Pussini N; Cook P; Greig D; Barakos J; Colegrove K; Gulland F

2011-09-01

143

Evidence of injury caused by gas bubbles in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A yearling male California sea lion Zalophus californianus with hypermetric ataxia and bilateral negative menace reflexes was brought to The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, U.S.A., in late 2009 for medical assessment and treatment. The clinical signs were due to multiple gas bubbles within the cerebellum. These lesions were intraparenchymal, multifocal to coalescing, spherical to ovoid, and varied from 0.5 to 2.4 cm diameter. The gas composed 21.3% of the total cerebellum volume. Three rib fractures were also noted during diagnostic evaluation and were presumed to be associated with the gas bubbles in the brain. The progression of clinical signs and lesion appearance were monitored with magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive function testing and computed tomography. Gas filled voids in the cerebellum were filled with fluid on follow up images. Clinical signs resolved and the sea lion was released with a satellite tag attached. Post release the animal travelled approximately 75 km north and 80 km south of the release site and the tag recorded dives of over 150 m depth. The animal re-stranded 25 d following release and died of a subacute bronchopneumonia and pleuritis. This is the first instance of clinical injury due to gas bubble formation described in a living pinniped and the first sea lion with quantifiable cerebellar damage to take part in spatial learning and memory testing. PMID:22013748

Van Bonn, W; Montie, E; Dennison, S; Pussini, N; Cook, P; Greig, D; Barakos, J; Colegrove, K; Gulland, F

2011-09-01

144

Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of helminth species is often lacking in parasitological surveys on otariids and other marine vertebrates, but it is of significance to improve precision in parascript studies or ecological meta-analyses. PMID:22967801

Hernández-Orts, J S; Montero, F E; Juan-García, A; García, N A; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

2012-09-12

145

Intestinal helminth fauna of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and fur seal Arctocephalus australis from northern Patagonia, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the intestinal helminth fauna of 56 South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, and 5 South American fur seals, Arctocephalus australis, from northern Patagonia, Argentina. A total of 97,325 helminth specimens were collected from sea lions. Gravid individuals were represented by 6 species of parasites: 1 digenean (Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis), 1 cestode (Diphyllobothrium spp.), 3 nematodes (Uncinaria hamiltoni, Contracaecum ogmorhini s.s., Pseudoterranova cattani) and 1 acanthocephalan (Corynosoma australe). In addition, third-stage larvae of 2 nematodes (Contracaecum sp. and Anisakis sp. type I) and 3 juvenile acanthocephalans (Andracantha sp., Profilicollis chasmagnathi and Corynosoma cetaceum) were also collected. Andracantha sp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and P. chasmagnathi represent new host records. A total of 1516 helminth specimens were collected from fur seals. Gravid individuals were represented by three species of parasites, namely, Diphyllobothrium spp., C. ogmorhini s.s. and C. australe. In addition, larvae of Contracaecum sp. and P. cattani, juveniles of C. cetaceum and immature cestodes (Tetrabothriidae gen. sp.) were also collected. Corynosoma australe was the most prevalent and abundant parasite in both hosts, accounting for >90% of all specimens. Sea lions and furs seals from northern Patagonia harbour the intestinal helminth communities that could be predicted for otariids, i.e. the combination of species of the genera Corynosoma, Diphyllobothrium, Pseudoterranova, Contracaecum and, in pups, Uncinaria. Additionally, both species of otariid are apparently unsuitable hosts (i.e. non-hosts) for as many as five parasite taxa. The inclusion or exclusion of these species affects estimation of species richness at both component community (11 versus 6 species in sea lions; 7 versus 3 species in fur seals) and infracommunity (mean: 3.1 versus 2.6 in sea lions; 2.2 versus 1.7 species) levels. Information about the reproductive status of helminth species is often lacking in parasitological surveys on otariids and other marine vertebrates, but it is of significance to improve precision in parascript studies or ecological meta-analyses.

Hernández-Orts JS; Montero FE; Juan-García A; García NA; Crespo EA; Raga JA; Aznar FJ

2013-09-01

146

Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is [corrected] one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 ?g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects, further [corrected] suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock.

Wang J; Hülck K; Hong SM; Atkinson S; Li QX

2011-01-01

147

Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seals and Steller sea lions of Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coxiella burnetii, a zoonotic bacterium, has recently been identified in several marine mammal species on the Pacific Coast of North America, but little is known about the epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis in these species. We tested sera archived from northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus; n=236) and Steller sea lions (SSL, Eumetopias jubatus; n=72) sampled in Alaska for C. burnetii antibodies, and vaginal swabs from NFS (n=40) for C. burnetii by qPCR. The antibody prevalence in NFS samples from 2009 and 2011 (69%) was significantly higher than in 1994 (49%). The antibody prevalence of SSL samples from 2007 to 2011 was 59%. All NFS vaginal swabs were negative for C. burnetii, despite an 80% antibody prevalence in the matched sera. The significant increase in antibody prevalence in NFS from 1994 to 2011 suggests that the pathogen may be increasingly common or that there is marked temporal variation within the vulnerable NFS population. The high antibody prevalence in SSL suggests that this pathogen may also be significant in the endangered SSL population. These results confirm that C. burnetii is more prevalent within these populations than previously known. More research is needed to determine how this bacterium may affect individual, population, and reproductive health of marine mammals. PMID:23568925

Minor, Cody; Kersh, Gilbert J; Gelatt, Tom; Kondas, Ashley V; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Weller, Christina B; Dickerson, Bobette R; Duncan, Colleen G

2013-04-01

148

Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seals and Steller sea lions of Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coxiella burnetii, a zoonotic bacterium, has recently been identified in several marine mammal species on the Pacific Coast of North America, but little is known about the epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis in these species. We tested sera archived from northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus; n=236) and Steller sea lions (SSL, Eumetopias jubatus; n=72) sampled in Alaska for C. burnetii antibodies, and vaginal swabs from NFS (n=40) for C. burnetii by qPCR. The antibody prevalence in NFS samples from 2009 and 2011 (69%) was significantly higher than in 1994 (49%). The antibody prevalence of SSL samples from 2007 to 2011 was 59%. All NFS vaginal swabs were negative for C. burnetii, despite an 80% antibody prevalence in the matched sera. The significant increase in antibody prevalence in NFS from 1994 to 2011 suggests that the pathogen may be increasingly common or that there is marked temporal variation within the vulnerable NFS population. The high antibody prevalence in SSL suggests that this pathogen may also be significant in the endangered SSL population. These results confirm that C. burnetii is more prevalent within these populations than previously known. More research is needed to determine how this bacterium may affect individual, population, and reproductive health of marine mammals.

Minor C; Kersh GJ; Gelatt T; Kondas AV; Pabilonia KL; Weller CB; Dickerson BR; Duncan CG

2013-04-01

149

Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

French SS; González-Suárez M; Young JK; Durham S; Gerber LR

2011-01-01

150

Systemic mycosis in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with detection of cystofilobasidiales DNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 6-yr-old, intact male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a systemic mycosis died after 5 wk of antifungal drug therapy. Antemortem clinical findings included hind flipper swelling, ring-lesions on skin of the flippers, and dermal nodules that increased in size and number spreading from the hind flippers and ventral abdomen to the foreflippers and muzzle. Lesions were accompanied by severe lymphadenopathy and development of systemic clinical signs despite therapy using itraconazole and later voriconazole. Histopathologic evaluation of biopsies revealed granulomatous dermatitis due to infection by fungus-producing yeast cells in tissue. Isolation attempts, using biopsied skin and tissue samples collected at necropsy, failed to yield growth of a fungus producing yeast cells like those in histologic section. Consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of biopsied skin for fungal DNA produced an amplicon having significant sequence identity with a Cystofilobasidiales, a fungus belonging to a subclade that includes several Cryptococcus spp. Histopathologic evaluation of necropsy tissues revealed a systemic mycosis with yeast cells disseminated throughout subcutis, lymph nodes, and viscera. Hepatic necrosis was identified associated with acute liver failure, possibly from the voriconazole administration. This is the first report documenting the clinical presentation, treatment, and pathologic findings of infection associated with Cystofilobasidiales in a marine mammal and serves to expand the understanding of mycoses in pinnipeds. PMID:22448522

Field, Cara L; Tuttle, Allison D; Sidor, Inga F; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Deering, Kathleen M; Gilbert-Marcheterre, Kelly; Risatti, Guillermo; Spoon, Tracey; Meegan, Jenny; Romano, Tracy A; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

2012-03-01

151

Dolphin and sea lion auditory evoked potentials in response to single and multiple swept amplitude tones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Measurement of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is increasingly used to assess marine mammal hearing. These tests normally entail measuring the ASSR to a sequence of sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones, so that the ASSR amplitude function can be defined and the auditory threshold estimated. In this study, an alternative method was employed, where the ASSR was elicited by an amplitude modulated stimulus whose sound pressure level was slowly varied, or "swept," over a range of levels believed to bracket the threshold. The ASSR amplitude function was obtained by analyzing the resulting grand average evoked potential using a short-time Fourier transform. The suitability of this technique for hearing assessment of bottlenose dolphins and California sea lions was evaluated by comparing ASSR amplitude functions and thresholds obtained with swept amplitude and discrete, constant amplitude stimuli. When factors such as the number of simultaneous tones, the number of averages, and the frequency analysis window length were taken into account, the performance and time required for the swept-amplitude and discrete stimulus techniques were similar. The decision to use one technique over another depends on the relative importance of obtaining suprathreshold information versus the lowest possible thresholds.

Finneran JJ; Mulsow J; Schlundt CE; Houser DS

2011-08-01

152

Testing Bergmann's rule and the Rosenzweig hypothesis with craniometric studies of the South American sea lion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We tested the validity of Bergmann's rule and Rosenzweig's hypothesis through an analysis of the geographical variation of the skull size of Otaria flavescens along the entire distribution range of the species (except Brazil). We quantified the sizes of 606 adult South American sea lion skulls measured in seven localities of Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Geographical and environmental variables included latitude, longitude, and monthly minimum, maximum, and mean air and ocean temperatures. We also included information on fish landings as a proxy for productivity. Males showed a positive relationship between condylobasal length (CBL) and latitude, and between CBL and the six temperature variables. By contrast, females showed a negative relationship between CBL and the same variables. Finally, female skull size showed a significant and positive correlation with fish landings, while males did not show any relationship with this variable. The body size of males conformed to Bergmann's rule, with larger individuals found in southern localities of South America. Females followed the converse of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level, but showed a positive relationship with the proxy for productivity, thus supporting Rosenzweig's hypothesis. Differences in the factors that drive body size in females and males may be explained by their different life-history strategies. Our analyses demonstrate that latitude and temperature are not the only factors that explain spatial variation in body size: others such as food availability are also important for explaining the ecogeographical patterns found in O. flavescens.

Sepúlveda M; Oliva D; Duran LR; Urra A; Pedraza SN; Majluf P; Goodall N; Crespo EA

2013-04-01

153

Testing Bergmann's rule and the Rosenzweig hypothesis with craniometric studies of the South American sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the validity of Bergmann's rule and Rosenzweig's hypothesis through an analysis of the geographical variation of the skull size of Otaria flavescens along the entire distribution range of the species (except Brazil). We quantified the sizes of 606 adult South American sea lion skulls measured in seven localities of Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Geographical and environmental variables included latitude, longitude, and monthly minimum, maximum, and mean air and ocean temperatures. We also included information on fish landings as a proxy for productivity. Males showed a positive relationship between condylobasal length (CBL) and latitude, and between CBL and the six temperature variables. By contrast, females showed a negative relationship between CBL and the same variables. Finally, female skull size showed a significant and positive correlation with fish landings, while males did not show any relationship with this variable. The body size of males conformed to Bergmann's rule, with larger individuals found in southern localities of South America. Females followed the converse of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level, but showed a positive relationship with the proxy for productivity, thus supporting Rosenzweig's hypothesis. Differences in the factors that drive body size in females and males may be explained by their different life-history strategies. Our analyses demonstrate that latitude and temperature are not the only factors that explain spatial variation in body size: others such as food availability are also important for explaining the ecogeographical patterns found in O. flavescens. PMID:23053224

Sepúlveda, Maritza; Oliva, Doris; Duran, L René; Urra, Alejandra; Pedraza, Susana N; Majluf, Patrícia; Goodall, Natalie; Crespo, Enrique A

2012-09-28

154

Systemic mycosis in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with detection of cystofilobasidiales DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 6-yr-old, intact male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a systemic mycosis died after 5 wk of antifungal drug therapy. Antemortem clinical findings included hind flipper swelling, ring-lesions on skin of the flippers, and dermal nodules that increased in size and number spreading from the hind flippers and ventral abdomen to the foreflippers and muzzle. Lesions were accompanied by severe lymphadenopathy and development of systemic clinical signs despite therapy using itraconazole and later voriconazole. Histopathologic evaluation of biopsies revealed granulomatous dermatitis due to infection by fungus-producing yeast cells in tissue. Isolation attempts, using biopsied skin and tissue samples collected at necropsy, failed to yield growth of a fungus producing yeast cells like those in histologic section. Consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of biopsied skin for fungal DNA produced an amplicon having significant sequence identity with a Cystofilobasidiales, a fungus belonging to a subclade that includes several Cryptococcus spp. Histopathologic evaluation of necropsy tissues revealed a systemic mycosis with yeast cells disseminated throughout subcutis, lymph nodes, and viscera. Hepatic necrosis was identified associated with acute liver failure, possibly from the voriconazole administration. This is the first report documenting the clinical presentation, treatment, and pathologic findings of infection associated with Cystofilobasidiales in a marine mammal and serves to expand the understanding of mycoses in pinnipeds.

Field CL; Tuttle AD; Sidor IF; Nyaoke A; Deering KM; Gilbert-Marcheterre K; Risatti G; Spoon T; Meegan J; Romano TA; Frasca S Jr; Dunn JL

2012-03-01

155

Social olfaction in marine mammals: wild female Australian sea lions can identify their pup's scent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historically, anatomical evidence has suggested that marine mammals are anosmic or at best microsmatic, i.e. absent or reduced olfactory capabilities. However, these neuroanatomical considerations may not be appropriate predictors for the use of olfaction in social interactions. Observations suggest that pinnipeds may use olfaction in mother-pup interactions, accepting or rejecting pups after naso-nasal contact. Such maternal-offspring recognition is a favourable area for investigating the involvement of odours in social recognition and selectivity, as females are evolutionarily constrained to direct resources to filial young. However, there is no experimental, morphological or chemical evidence to date for the use of olfaction in social contexts and for individual odour recognition abilities in pinnipeds. Here, we report unequivocal evidence that Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) females can differentiate between the odour of their own pup and that of another, in the absence of any other distinguishing cues. This study demonstrates individual olfactory recognition in a free-ranging wild mammal and is clear evidence of the social function of olfaction in a marine mammal.

Pitcher BJ; Harcourt RG; Schaal B; Charrier I

2011-02-01

156

Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conservation biologists face many challenges in assessing health, immune status and infectious diseases in protected species. These challenges include unpredictable sample populations, diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds of the animals, as well as the practical, legal and ethical issues involved in experimentation. The use of whole genome scale transcriptomics with animal samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner is an approach that shows promise for health assessment. In this study we assessed the utility of a microarray to identify changes in gene expression predictive of health status by interrogating blood samples from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in rehabilitation. A custom microarray was developed from the commercially available dog microarray (Canis familiaris) by selecting probes that demonstrated reliable cross-hybridization with RNA in sea lion blood. This custom microarray was used for the analysis of RNA from 73 sea lion blood samples, from animals with a broad spectrum of health changes. Both traditional classifying techniques and newer artificial neural network approaches correctly classified sea lions with respect to health status, primarily distinguishing between leptospirosis infection and domoic acid exposure. Real time PCR validation for a small set of genes, followed by sequencing, showed good correlation with array results and high identity (96-98%) between the dog and sea lion sequences. This approach to health status classification shows promise for disease identification in a clinical setting, and assessment of health status of wildlife.

Mancia A; Ryan JC; Chapman RW; Wu Q; Warr GW; Gulland FM; Van Dolah FM

2012-04-01

157

Vesicular exanthema of swine and San Miguel sea lion virus: experimental and field studies in otarid seals, feeding trials in swine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The naturally occurring disease caused by San Miguel sea lion virus in fur seals was characterized by small fluid-filled vesicles 1 to 25 mm in diameter on the nonhaired portions of the flippers. Early epithelial lesions contained multifocal sites of cell lysis. The resultant microvesicles enlarged and coalesced, forming grossly visible macrovesicles. Mature vesicles progressed to involve all layers of the epithelium but did not involve the underlying dermis. Intradermal inoculation of vesicular exanthema of swine virus type A48 or San Miguel sea lion virus type 2 into otarid (fur) seal pups caused plaque-like lesions around inoculated coronary bands. These swellings regressed without rupture by 96 hours postinoculation. One seal inoculated with San Miguel sea lion virus had a linear lingual erosion at ten days postinoculation. Virus was isolated from this site and from two uninoculated sites, the tonsil and testicle. Contact controls showed no evidence of infection. Virus was isolated in low titers from some sites of inoculation and draining lymph nodes from seals infected with vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Virus was recovered more easily, in higher titers, and from more tissues, from seals infected with San Miguel sea lion virus. Inoculated seals tested after four to ten days seroconverted. Feeding swine seal tissues from the inoculation experiments resulted in seroconversion in swine which were fed tissues from seals infected with vesicular exanthema of swine virus but not in those which were fed tissues from seals infected with San Miguel sea lion virus.

Gelberg HB; Dieterich RA; Lewis RM

1982-07-01

158

Contaminant exposure and effects in pinnipeds: implications for Steller sea lion declines in Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

After nearly 3 decades of decline, the western stock of Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) was listed as an endangered species in 1997. While the cause of the decline in the 1970s and 1980s has been attributed to nutritional stress, recent declines are unexplained and may result from other factors including the presence of environmental contaminants. SSL tissues show accumulation of butyltins, mercury, PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes and hexachlorobenzene. SSL habitats and prey are contaminated with additional chemicals including mirex, endrin, dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds, cadmium and lead. In addition, many SSL haulouts and rookeries are located near other hazards including radioactivity, solvents, ordnance and chemical weapon dumps. PCB and DDT concentrations measured in a few SSL during the 1980s were the highest recorded for any Alaskan pinniped. Some contaminant exposures in SSL appear to be elevated in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea compared to southeast Alaska, but there are insufficient data to evaluate geospatial relationships with any certainty. Based on very limited blubber data, current levels of PCBs may not pose a risk to SSL based on comparison to immunotoxicity tissue benchmarks, but SSL may have been at risk from pre-1990 PCB exposures. While exposure to PCBs and DDTs may be declining, SSL are likely exposed to a multitude of other contaminants that have not been monitored. The impacts of these exposures on SSL remain unknown because causal effects have not been established. Field studies with SSL have been limited in scope and have not yet linked contaminant exposures to adverse animal health or population effects. Several biomarkers may prove useful for monitoring exposure and additional research is needed to evaluate their utility in SSL. We conclude that there are insufficient data to reject the hypothesis that contaminants play a role in the continued decline of SSL, and suggest that a coordinated monitoring program be developed which can be related to key biological, ecological and laboratory toxicity data. PMID:12826388

Barron, Mace G; Heintz, Ron; Krahn, Margaret M

2003-07-20

159

Contaminant exposure and effects in pinnipeds: implications for Steller sea lion declines in Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After nearly 3 decades of decline, the western stock of Steller sea lions (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus) was listed as an endangered species in 1997. While the cause of the decline in the 1970s and 1980s has been attributed to nutritional stress, recent declines are unexplained and may result from other factors including the presence of environmental contaminants. SSL tissues show accumulation of butyltins, mercury, PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes and hexachlorobenzene. SSL habitats and prey are contaminated with additional chemicals including mirex, endrin, dieldrin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds, cadmium and lead. In addition, many SSL haulouts and rookeries are located near other hazards including radioactivity, solvents, ordnance and chemical weapon dumps. PCB and DDT concentrations measured in a few SSL during the 1980s were the highest recorded for any Alaskan pinniped. Some contaminant exposures in SSL appear to be elevated in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea compared to southeast Alaska, but there are insufficient data to evaluate geospatial relationships with any certainty. Based on very limited blubber data, current levels of PCBs may not pose a risk to SSL based on comparison to immunotoxicity tissue benchmarks, but SSL may have been at risk from pre-1990 PCB exposures. While exposure to PCBs and DDTs may be declining, SSL are likely exposed to a multitude of other contaminants that have not been monitored. The impacts of these exposures on SSL remain unknown because causal effects have not been established. Field studies with SSL have been limited in scope and have not yet linked contaminant exposures to adverse animal health or population effects. Several biomarkers may prove useful for monitoring exposure and additional research is needed to evaluate their utility in SSL. We conclude that there are insufficient data to reject the hypothesis that contaminants play a role in the continued decline of SSL, and suggest that a coordinated monitoring program be developed which can be related to key biological, ecological and laboratory toxicity data.

Barron MG; Heintz R; Krahn MM

2003-07-01

160

Sexual segregation in juvenile New Zealand sea lion foraging ranges: implications for intraspecific competition, population dynamics and conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch.

Leung ES; Chilvers BL; Nakagawa S; Moore AB; Robertson BC

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sexual segregation in juvenile New Zealand sea lion foraging ranges: implications for intraspecific competition, population dynamics and conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch. PMID:23028978

Leung, Elaine S; Chilvers, B Louise; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Antoni B; Robertson, Bruce C

2012-09-18

162

Life begins when the sea lion is ashore: microhabitat use by a louse living on a diving mammal host.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among Anoplura, the family Echinophthiriidae includes species that infest pinnipeds and otters. Previous evidence obtained from pinnipeds infested by echinophthiriids, specifically from seals, indicates that flippers are the preferred infestation sites, while lice from fur seals select areas in the pelage. We studied habitat selection of Antarctophthirus microchir on South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens Shaw, 1800) from Patagonia, Argentina, during the austral summer of 2009. We found a clear pattern of habitat selection: eggs are laid on the dorsal surface; nymphs 1 hatch there and then migrate to the belly, where they develop into adults and copulate; and then ovigerous females return to the dorsal surface. On the one hand, nymphs 1 are characterised by their low locomotory ability; therefore, the fact that they migrate as soon as they hatch suggests a clear pressure leading to microhabitat restriction. On the other hand, the described pattern of microhabitat selection seems to respond to the physiological requirements of each stage, which vary according to the physiological process considered, e.g. oviposition, morphogenesis, hatching and development. Accordingly, it appears that A. microchir would prefer the host's ventral area for development and copulation and the dorsal area for oviposition. However, the causes of this pattern are not clear, and many factors could be involved. Considering that sea lion pups periodically soak at high tides, and that prolonged immersion and very high humidity are known to be lethal for lice eggs, selecting the dorsal area would be advantageous for oviposition because it dries much faster. Furthermore, because humidity should be retained for longer periods on the ventral surface of the pup, wetter conditions on the sea lion would prevent desiccation of the nymphs in the very arid environment where O. flavescens breeds. PMID:22244156

Leonardi, M S; Crespo, E A; Vales, D G; Feijoo, M; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J

2012-01-16

163

Life begins when the sea lion is ashore: microhabitat use by a louse living on a diving mammal host.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among Anoplura, the family Echinophthiriidae includes species that infest pinnipeds and otters. Previous evidence obtained from pinnipeds infested by echinophthiriids, specifically from seals, indicates that flippers are the preferred infestation sites, while lice from fur seals select areas in the pelage. We studied habitat selection of Antarctophthirus microchir on South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens Shaw, 1800) from Patagonia, Argentina, during the austral summer of 2009. We found a clear pattern of habitat selection: eggs are laid on the dorsal surface; nymphs 1 hatch there and then migrate to the belly, where they develop into adults and copulate; and then ovigerous females return to the dorsal surface. On the one hand, nymphs 1 are characterised by their low locomotory ability; therefore, the fact that they migrate as soon as they hatch suggests a clear pressure leading to microhabitat restriction. On the other hand, the described pattern of microhabitat selection seems to respond to the physiological requirements of each stage, which vary according to the physiological process considered, e.g. oviposition, morphogenesis, hatching and development. Accordingly, it appears that A. microchir would prefer the host's ventral area for development and copulation and the dorsal area for oviposition. However, the causes of this pattern are not clear, and many factors could be involved. Considering that sea lion pups periodically soak at high tides, and that prolonged immersion and very high humidity are known to be lethal for lice eggs, selecting the dorsal area would be advantageous for oviposition because it dries much faster. Furthermore, because humidity should be retained for longer periods on the ventral surface of the pup, wetter conditions on the sea lion would prevent desiccation of the nymphs in the very arid environment where O. flavescens breeds.

Leonardi MS; Crespo EA; Vales DG; Feijoo M; Raga JA; Aznar FJ

2012-01-01

164

The role of domoic acid in abortion and premature parturition of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on San Miguel Island, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Domoic acid is a glutaminergic neurotoxin produced by marine algae such as Pseudo-nitzschia australis. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) ingest the toxin when foraging on planktivorous fish. Adult females comprise 60% of stranded animals admitted for rehabilitation due to acute domoic acid toxicosis and commonly suffer from reproductive failure, including abortions and premature live births. Domoic acid has been shown to cross the placenta exposing the fetus to the toxin. To determine whether domoic acid was playing a role in reproductive failure in sea lion rookeries, 67 aborted and live-born premature pups were sampled on San Miguel Island in 2005 and 2006 to investigate the causes for reproductive failure. Analyses included domoic acid, contaminant and infectious disease testing, and histologic examination. Pseudo-nitzschia spp. were present both in the environment and in sea lion feces, and domoic acid was detected in the sea lion feces and in 17% of pup samples tested. Histopathologic findings included systemic and localized inflammation and bacterial infections of amniotic origin, placental abruption, and brain edema. The primary lesion in five animals with measurable domoic acid concentrations was brain edema, a common finding and, in some cases, the only lesion observed in aborted premature pups born to domoic acid-intoxicated females in rehabilitation. Blubber organochlorine concentrations were lower than those measured previously in premature sea lion pups collected in the 1970s. While the etiology of abortion and premature parturition was varied in this study, these results suggest that domoic acid contributes to reproductive failure on California sea lion rookeries.

Goldstein T; Zabka TS; Delong RL; Wheeler EA; Ylitalo G; Bargu S; Silver M; Leighfield T; Van Dolah F; Langlois G; Sidor I; Dunn JL; Gulland FM

2009-01-01

165

Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males across two breeding rookeries (San Jorge and Los Islotes) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fathers could be identified for 30% of pups sampled at San Jorge across three breeding seasons and 15% of sampled pups at Los Islotes across two breeding seasons. Analysis of paternal relatedness between the pups for which no fathers were identified (sampled over four breeding seasons at San Jorge and two at Los Islotes) revealed that few pups were likely to share a father. Thirty-one percent of the sampled males on San Jorge and 15% of the sampled males on Los Islotes were assigned at least one paternity. With one exception, no male was identified as the father of more than two pups. Furthermore, at Los Islotes rookery there were significantly fewer pups assigned paternity than expected given the pool of sampled males (p<0.0001). Overall, we found considerably lower variation in male reproductive success than expected in a species that exhibits behavior associated with strongly polygynous mating. Low variation in male reproductive success may result from heightened mobility among receptive females in the Gulf of California, which reduces the ability of males to monopolize groups of females. Our results raise important questions regarding the adaptive role of territoriality and the potential for alternative mating tactics in this species.

Flatz R; González-Suárez M; Young JK; Hernández-Camacho CJ; Immel AJ; Gerber LR

2012-01-01

166

Effects of hot-iron branding on heart rate, breathing rate and behaviour of anaesthetised Steller sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the heart rate, breathing rate and behavioural responses of 12 juvenile Steller sea lions during hot-iron branding under isoflurane anaesthesia. Physiological and behavioural measures were recorded in four periods: baseline (five minutes), sham branding (one minute), branding (approximately 2.7 minutes) and postbranding (five minutes). No difference in heart rate was noted from baseline to sham branding, but heart rate increased from mean (sem) 78.3 (2.4) bpm in the baseline period to 85.6 (2.5) bpm in the branding period. Heart rate remained elevated in the postbranding period, averaging 84.7 (2.5) bpm. Breathing rate averaged 2.5 (1.0) breaths/minute in the baseline and sham branding periods increased to 8.9 (1.0) breaths/minute during branding, but returned to baseline by the postbranding period. Behaviourally, half of the sea lions exhibited trembling and head and shoulder movements during branding. PMID:21881020

Walker, K A; Mellish, J E; Weary, D M

2011-08-31

167

Effects of hot-iron branding on heart rate, breathing rate and behaviour of anaesthetised Steller sea lions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed the heart rate, breathing rate and behavioural responses of 12 juvenile Steller sea lions during hot-iron branding under isoflurane anaesthesia. Physiological and behavioural measures were recorded in four periods: baseline (five minutes), sham branding (one minute), branding (approximately 2.7 minutes) and postbranding (five minutes). No difference in heart rate was noted from baseline to sham branding, but heart rate increased from mean (sem) 78.3 (2.4) bpm in the baseline period to 85.6 (2.5) bpm in the branding period. Heart rate remained elevated in the postbranding period, averaging 84.7 (2.5) bpm. Breathing rate averaged 2.5 (1.0) breaths/minute in the baseline and sham branding periods increased to 8.9 (1.0) breaths/minute during branding, but returned to baseline by the postbranding period. Behaviourally, half of the sea lions exhibited trembling and head and shoulder movements during branding.

Walker KA; Mellish JE; Weary DM

2011-10-01

168

Male reproductive success and its behavioural correlates in a polygynous mammal, the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual selection theory predicts competitive males and choosy females. Nevertheless, since molecular marker-based studies, paternity outside the expected mating patterns has increasingly been described. Even in highly polygynous systems, where paternity is expected to be strongly skewed towards large, dominant males, alternative mating tactics have been suggested. We examined reproductive success in the polygynous Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki). Semiaquatic territoriality allows females to move freely and may lower the degree of polygyny otherwise suggested by both territorial behaviour and strong sexual dimorphism. We assigned paternities with 22 microsatellites and analysed how male reproductive success was related to size, dominance status, intra-sexual agonistic behaviour, proximity to females, and attendance in the colony. Male behaviour was consistent across two seasons for all parameters under consideration. Attendance was by far the most important determinant of paternal success. Skew in reproductive success towards large, dominant males was weak and dominance status played no role. This appears to be caused by an extremely long reproductive season lasting five or more months, making it difficult for any male to monopolize receptive females. Females seem to choose displaying males that were present in the colony for a long time rather than dominance per se. Sexual dimorphism in Galápagos sea lions may thus be more influenced by selection for fasting than fighting ability. Our data provide further evidence for alternative mating tactics, as several males gained relatively high reproductive success despite short attendance and hardly any involvement in agonistic interactions.

Pörschmann U; Trillmich F; Mueller B; Wolf JB

2010-06-01

169

JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800) IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU  

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Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals) rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

Davis Cortegana-Arias; José Iannacone

2012-01-01

170

Characterization of a novel papillomavirus species (ZcPV1) from two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A seven-year old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presented with focally extensive, bilaterally symmetric, proliferative axillary skin lesions and preputial lesions. A second California sea lion in the same population presented with similar proliferative lesions on the underside of the tail. Histopathology revealed epidermal hyperplasia with severe hyperkeratosis, with proliferating keratinocytes forming broad, branching pegs that extended into the dermis. Pan-papillomaviral consensus PCR was used to obtain initial E1 sequence template and the complete genome was determined using a combination of rolling circle amplification and specific-primer PCR. Analysis revealed a novel papillomavirus, Zalophus californianus papillomavirus 1 (ZcPV1), with seven open reading frames encoding five early proteins (E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4) and two late proteins (L1 and L2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that (ZcPV1) is most closely related to Equine papillomavirus 1 (EcPV1) in the genus Zetapapillomavirus, and Canine papillomaviruses 3 and 4 (CPV3, CPV4) in the genus Chipapillomavirus. The lesions regressed without intervention over a period of several months.

Rivera R; Robles-Sikisaka R; Hoffman EM; Stacy BA; Jensen ED; Nollens HH; Wellehan JF Jr

2012-03-01

171

Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametocytes, macrogamonts) and asexual (schizonts, merozoites) coccidian stages were identified in enterocytes within parasitophorous vacuoles, consistent with apicomplexan development in a definitive host. Serology was negative for tissue cyst-forming coccidians, and immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii was inconclusive and negative for Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of ITS-1 gene sequences amplified from frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal sections identified DNA sequences with closest homology to Neospora sp. (80%); these novel sequences were referred to as belonging to coccidian parasites "A," "B," and "C." Subsequent molecular analyses completed on a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with protozoal lymphadenitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis showed that it was infected with a coccidian parasite bearing the "C" sequence type. Our results indicate that sea lions likely serve as definitive hosts for 3 newly described coccidian parasites, at least 1 of which is pathogenic in a marine mammal intermediate host species.

Colegrove KM; Grigg ME; Carlson-Bremer D; Miller RH; Gulland FM; Ferguson DJ; Rejmanek D; Barr BC; Nordhausen R; Melli AC; Conrad PA

2011-10-01

172

Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)  

Science.gov (United States)

The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01?28”S-54°52?59”W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (pSSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by a combination of bathymetry and ecological boundaries within LPRE. Regardless of their reproductive condition, females showed a strong fidelity to IL, and their foraging activity was restricted to relatively shallow areas (10-100 m) on the continental shelf. During autumn and winter, SSL females made significantly longer FTs than during the breeding season, when lactating females decrease FT duration by increasing transit speed but maintain a similar spatial coverage compared with FT later in lactation. Although several aquatic areas of high priority for conservation in LPRE have been identified and proposed, only 15% of the foraging habitat of SSL females is currently included in these areas. This emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of the at-sea foraging distributions of central point foragers in marine protected areas. If conservation efforts focus only on coastal breeding concentrations, key elements of the life cycle are excluded with potential unpredictable effects.

Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

2013-04-01

173

Molecular Markers, MAT and Modeling: New Evidence for Leptospirosis Being Endemic in California Sea Lions, with Periodic Epizootics that Defy the Host-adapted Strain Paradigm  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally in humans and domestic dogs. Disease outbreaks have occurred periodically in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the central and northern coasts of California, with hundreds of a...

174

Aerial and Land-Based Surveys of Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from the Western Stock in Alaska, June and July 2001 and 2002.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) conducted aerial and land-based surveys of the western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska during June and July of 2001 and 2002 at all sites from 144 degrees W to 172 degrees E, the weste...

C. J. Gudmundson J. L. Sease

2002-01-01

175

Genetic relatedness of the caliciviruses: San Miguel sea lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses constitute a single genotype within the Caliciviridae.  

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The San Miguel sea lion viruses (SMSV) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (VESV) are related morphologically and antigenically, but little has been done to determine their genotypic relationship to each other and to other caliciviruses. To examine this relationship, reverse transcriptase PCRs ...

Neill, J D; Meyer, R F; Seal, B S

176

Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintoré, Joaquin

2012-09-01

177

A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive. PMID:22375817

Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Montero, Francisco Esteban; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Néstor Aníbal; Raga, Juan Antonio; Aznar, Francisco Javier

2012-02-29

178

A new species of Ascocotyle (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) from the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, off Patagonia, Argentina.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a new heterophyid species, Ascocotyle (Ascocotyle) patagoniensis n. sp., based on specimens collected from the intestines of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Patagonia (Argentina). Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is distinguished from the other species of the subgenus by the number of circumoral spines, which are arranged in 2 rows of 18 to 23. The new species also differs from the other species in having a gonotyl without papillae. The specimens exhibited the widest seminal receptacle described for a species of this subgenus. Species of the subgenus Ascocotyle usually infect fish-eating birds or mammals in freshwater or brackish habitats. Ascocotyle (A.) patagoniensis n. sp. is the first species of the subgenus described from a marine mammal. However, no metacercariae of Ascocotyle spp. were found in 542 marine teleosts from 20 species collected in the same locality. The life cycle of the marine species from the Ascocotyle -complex infecting pinnipeds remains elusive.

Hernández-Orts JS; Montero FE; Crespo EA; García NA; Raga JA; Aznar FJ

2012-08-01

179

Comparative resistance of San Miguel sea lion virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus to chemical disinfectants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two similar calici agents, San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) are susceptible to the virucidal activity of disinfectants of differing formulation. Ten of 12 compounds were effective against six log10 plaque forming units (PFU) of SMSV in a 2-min exposure at 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. However, only seven of these 10 SMSV-positive compounds inactivated VESV under the same conditions of temperature and time. Two compounds were not effective against SMSV in a 20-min exposure at 4 and 25 degrees C, but were effective at 37 degrees C. Two of the three compounds not effective against VESV in a 20-min exposure at 4 and 25 degrees C were also effective at 37 degrees C. The test iodophor compound inactivated SMSV completely but had only minimal inactivating activity against VESV at the three temperatures tested.

Blackwell JH

1978-07-01

180

Age-related change and distribution of cadmium and zinc concentrations in the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata) from the coast of Hokkaido, Japan  

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Tissue cadmium and zinc levels in Steller sea lions have been analysed to elucidate the body distribution of these metals and their age-related accumulation. A significant correlation between age (0.7-8.8 year old) and renal and hepatic cadmium concentration was noted. Of the tissues examined, the kidney manifested the highest cadmium content (mean: 20.9 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry wt). A similar zinc distribution pattern was observed; its concentration was more uniform among tissues than that of cadmium. The tissue cadmium concentration in the Steller sea lion was lower than in other pinnipeds from various areas, possibly due to their feeding habits which may represent a major pathway of metal accumulation.

Hamanaka, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Japan); Itoo, T.; Mishima, S.

1982-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel sea lion virus type 5.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the sea lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful.

Smith AW; Skilling DE; Brown RJ

1980-11-01

182

Isolation of San Miguel Sea Lion Virus from Samples of an animal food product produced from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) carcasses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A virus was isolated from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) in 1972. It was later named San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV). State and federal livestock disease control agencies became concerned, because SMSV was found to be indistinguishable from vesicular exanthema of swine virus and to cause (in laboratory trials) clinical signs in swine similar to those produced by vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Ground carcasses of northern fur seals, salvaged after harvesting pelts, are fed to mink on ranches in the United States. Domestic swine are kept on some of these same ranches. Samples withheld from lots of this seal carcass mink food were found to contain SMSV (serotype 5) in titers of 10(6.1) and 10(6.8) tissue culture infective doses.

Sawyer JC; Madin SH; Skilling DE

1978-01-01

183

Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA hypotheses using a dataset on Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). We statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea surface temperature, SST, a correlate of marine productivity) at three developmental stages, the perinatal phase (1st month), the main lactation period (1st year), and the weaning period (2nd year). Supporting the FM hypothesis, we found that, early in life (1st month), at equal birth mass, males survived less well than females. During the remainder of the first year of life, male survival was actually less sensitive to harsh environmental conditions than that of females, contradicting the FM hypothesis and supporting the MBA hypothesis. During the second year of life, only male survival suffered with high SSTs as predicted by the FM hypothesis. At each developmental stage, observed survival rates were almost equal for both sexes, suggesting that mothers buffer against the inherent fragility of male offspring through increased allocation, thereby masking the differences in survival prospects between the sexes.

Kraus C; Mueller B; Meise K; Piedrahita P; Pörschmann U; Trillmich F

2013-04-01

184

Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA hypotheses using a dataset on Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). We statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea surface temperature, SST, a correlate of marine productivity) at three developmental stages, the perinatal phase (1st month), the main lactation period (1st year), and the weaning period (2nd year). Supporting the FM hypothesis, we found that, early in life (1st month), at equal birth mass, males survived less well than females. During the remainder of the first year of life, male survival was actually less sensitive to harsh environmental conditions than that of females, contradicting the FM hypothesis and supporting the MBA hypothesis. During the second year of life, only male survival suffered with high SSTs as predicted by the FM hypothesis. At each developmental stage, observed survival rates were almost equal for both sexes, suggesting that mothers buffer against the inherent fragility of male offspring through increased allocation, thereby masking the differences in survival prospects between the sexes. PMID:23053230

Kraus, C; Mueller, B; Meise, K; Piedrahita, P; Pörschmann, U; Trillmich, F

2012-10-02

185

Expression and immunohistochemical detection of leptin-like peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study provides an immunohistochemical approach to the expression of leptin in the gastrointestinal tract of the monogastric South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), and the poligastric bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The specific organization of the gastrointestinal tract is examined in relation to the neuroendocrine regulation of the gut exerted by leptin. In the South American sea lion some leptin-like-immunoreactive (ir) cells, and endocrine type cells, were found in the pit of gastric mucosal folds and in the epithelium of duodenum as well as numerous neurons were detected in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the stomach. In the bottlenose dolphin, many leptin-like-ir cells, and exocrine type cells, were identified in the mucosal layer of the main stomach as well as several neurons and nervous fibers were detected in nervous plexuses of main stomach, pyloric stomach, proximal, and middle intestine. Our data suggest that the distribution of leptin-like peptides is similar in the two species, notwithstanding the different anatomical organization of the gastrointestinal apparatus of South American sea lion and bottlenose dolphin. These findings "suggest" the presence of a basal plan in the regulation of food intake, body weight, energy balance and of the gastrointestinal functions in general also in marine mammals with different and specific feeding habits.

Russo F; Gatta C; De Girolamo P; Cozzi B; Giurisato M; Lucini C; Varricchio E

2012-09-01

186

Expression and immunohistochemical detection of leptin-like peptide in the gastrointestinal tract of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) and the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides an immunohistochemical approach to the expression of leptin in the gastrointestinal tract of the monogastric South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens), and the poligastric bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). The specific organization of the gastrointestinal tract is examined in relation to the neuroendocrine regulation of the gut exerted by leptin. In the South American sea lion some leptin-like-immunoreactive (ir) cells, and endocrine type cells, were found in the pit of gastric mucosal folds and in the epithelium of duodenum as well as numerous neurons were detected in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of the stomach. In the bottlenose dolphin, many leptin-like-ir cells, and exocrine type cells, were identified in the mucosal layer of the main stomach as well as several neurons and nervous fibers were detected in nervous plexuses of main stomach, pyloric stomach, proximal, and middle intestine. Our data suggest that the distribution of leptin-like peptides is similar in the two species, notwithstanding the different anatomical organization of the gastrointestinal apparatus of South American sea lion and bottlenose dolphin. These findings "suggest" the presence of a basal plan in the regulation of food intake, body weight, energy balance and of the gastrointestinal functions in general also in marine mammals with different and specific feeding habits. PMID:22791650

Russo, Finizia; Gatta, Claudia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Cozzi, Bruno; Giurisato, Maristella; Lucini, Carla; Varricchio, Ettore

2012-07-13

187

Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

Lyons ET; Melin SR; DeLong RL; Orr AJ; Gulland FM; Tolliver SC

2001-06-01

188

Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

Stegall, V. K.; Farley, S. D.; Rea, L. D.; Pitcher, K. W.; Rye, R. O.; Kester, C. L.; Stricker, C. A.; Bern, C. R.

2008-01-01

189

Body condition and endocrine profiles of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups during the early postnatal period.  

Science.gov (United States)

Body condition indices have been useful in assessing the health of domestic and free ranging populations of terrestrial mammals. Given the high energy demand and rapid growth during the postnatal period of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (SSL) pups, body condition was expected to be related to concentrations of a suite of hormones (cortisol, aldosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, leptin) previously associated with changes in body mass and composition in developing pinnipeds. Blood samples were collected from free ranging SSL pups of known ages and sex. A body condition index (BCI) previously developed for SSL pups based on a mass and length relationship was applied to 61 SSL pups ranging in age from 5 to 38days old. BCI was not related to pup age. Overall, male pups were larger than females and older pups were larger than younger pups. Aldosterone was negatively correlated with BCI only in female pups, whereas no relationship was observed between aldosterone and BCI in males. Further, male pups had higher aldosterone concentrations than females. Concentrations of cortisol, total and free thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased when regressed against the elapsed time between researchers' arrival on the rookery and removal of pup from the holding corral for blood collection. While the overall variation attributed to the rookery disturbance was low (r(2)SSL pups by providing ranges of the BCI and several hormone concentrations from an apparently stable population. PMID:23313076

Keogh, Mandy J; Atkinson, Shannon; Maniscalco, John M

2013-01-09

190

California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) aerial hearing sensitivity measured using auditory steady-state response and psychophysical methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although electrophysiological methods of measuring the hearing sensitivity of pinnipeds are not yet as refined as those for dolphins and porpoises, they appear to be a promising supplement to traditional psychophysical procedures. In order to further standardize electrophysiological methods with pinnipeds, a within-subject comparison of psychophysical and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures of aerial hearing sensitivity was conducted with a 1.5-yr-old California sea lion. The psychophysical audiogram was similar to those previously reported for otariids, with a U-shape, and thresholds near 10 dB re 20 ?Pa at 8 and 16 kHz. ASSR thresholds measured using both single and multiple simultaneous amplitude-modulated tones closely reproduced the psychophysical audiogram, although the mean ASSR thresholds were elevated relative to psychophysical thresholds. Differences between psychophysical and ASSR thresholds were greatest at the low- and high-frequency ends of the audiogram. Thresholds measured using the multiple ASSR method were not different from those measured using the single ASSR method. The multiple ASSR method was more rapid than the single ASSR method, and allowed for threshold measurements at seven frequencies in less than 20 min. The multiple ASSR method may be especially advantageous for hearing sensitivity measurements with otariid subjects that are untrained for psychophysical procedures.

Mulsow J; Finneran JJ; Houser DS

2011-04-01

191

Aerobic oral and rectal bacteria of free-ranging Steller sea lion pups and juveniles (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bacteriologic cultures from oral, rectal, and lesion samples from free-ranging Steller sea lion (SSL, Eumetopias jubatus) pups and juveniles in Alaska (2001-2005) were examined to determine frequency of infection by a specific subset of common and pathogenic aerobic bacteria. Associations between isolated bacteria and age, sex, body condition, location, and sampling season were investigated. Salmonella spp. isolates were further evaluated to determine spatial clustering (n=48) and to identify serovars (n=13) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (n=11). We sampled 356 SSL pups (n=272) and juveniles (n=84), and identified 988 isolates of 13 bacterial genera of specific interest. Pasteurella spp. (43.8%), beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. (30.6%), and Mannheimia spp. (18.2%) were the most commonly isolated oral bacteria (n=499 isolates), whereas Escherichia coli (47.6%), beta-hemolytic E. coli (32.4%), Salmonella spp. (10.4%), and Campylobacter spp. (7.8%) were the most frequently isolated rectal bacteria (n=460 isolates). Salmonella was most commonly found in pups from western stocks and in samples collected during fall/winter seasons. A significant Salmonella cluster was detected at the Perry Island haulout. Five serovars were isolated: Enteritidis, Infantis, Newport, Reading, and Stanley. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis provided evidence that Salmonella isolates were most likely being maintained within the SSL population in Alaska.

Carrasco SE; Burek KA; Beckmen KB; Oaks JL; Davis MA; Baker KN; Mazet JA

2011-10-01

192

Population genetic structure and historical population dynamics of the South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, in north-central Patagonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The north-central Patagonian coast is the sea lions most abundant area in Argentina. As occurs along the entire Atlantic coast, the distribution of breeding colonies at this smaller geographical scale is also patchy, showing at least three areas with breeding activity. We study the genetic structure and historical population dynamics of the species in five colonies in this area, analysing a 508 base-pair segment of the D-loop control region. Otaria flavescens showed 10 haplotypes with 12 polymorphic sites. The genealogical relationship between haplotypes revealed a shallow pattern of phylogeographic structure. The analysis of molecular variance showed significant differences between colonies, however, pairwise comparisons only indicate significant differences between a pair of colonies belonging to different breeding areas. The pattern of haplotype differentiation and the mismatch distribution analysis suggest a possible bottleneck that would have occurred 64,000 years ago, followed by a demographic expansion of the three southernmost colonies. Thus, the historical population dynamics of O. flavescens in north-central Patagonia appears to be closely related with the dynamics of the Late Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:20526799

Túnez, Juan I; Cappozzo, Humberto L; Nardelli, Maximiliano; Cassini, Marcelo H

2010-06-06

193

Aerobic oral and rectal bacteria of free-ranging Steller sea lion pups and juveniles (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteriologic cultures from oral, rectal, and lesion samples from free-ranging Steller sea lion (SSL, Eumetopias jubatus) pups and juveniles in Alaska (2001-2005) were examined to determine frequency of infection by a specific subset of common and pathogenic aerobic bacteria. Associations between isolated bacteria and age, sex, body condition, location, and sampling season were investigated. Salmonella spp. isolates were further evaluated to determine spatial clustering (n=48) and to identify serovars (n=13) and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (n=11). We sampled 356 SSL pups (n=272) and juveniles (n=84), and identified 988 isolates of 13 bacterial genera of specific interest. Pasteurella spp. (43.8%), beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp. (30.6%), and Mannheimia spp. (18.2%) were the most commonly isolated oral bacteria (n=499 isolates), whereas Escherichia coli (47.6%), beta-hemolytic E. coli (32.4%), Salmonella spp. (10.4%), and Campylobacter spp. (7.8%) were the most frequently isolated rectal bacteria (n=460 isolates). Salmonella was most commonly found in pups from western stocks and in samples collected during fall/winter seasons. A significant Salmonella cluster was detected at the Perry Island haulout. Five serovars were isolated: Enteritidis, Infantis, Newport, Reading, and Stanley. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis provided evidence that Salmonella isolates were most likely being maintained within the SSL population in Alaska. PMID:22102651

Carrasco, Sebastian E; Burek, Kathleen A; Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Oaks, J Lindsay; Davis, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine N K; Mazet, Jonna A K

2011-10-01

194

Isolation of caliciviruses from skunks that are antigenically and genotypically related to San Miguel sea lion virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Caliciviruses were isolated from feces of skunks imported from the north central United States to Canada. Virus isolation was accomplished using adenovirus-transformed human kidney (293) cells, swine testes and Vero cells. Plaque size variants were presented, but there was no apparent difference in virus morphology by negative stain or immune electron microscopy. Pigs infected with skunk calicivirus had a slightly elevated body temperature at 3 days postinfection. Although the infected animals seroconverted, no overt clinical signs were observed. Purified infectious genomic skunk calicivirus RNA behaved exactly as San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) 1 and 4 genomic RNA in cell culture transfection studies. Of the cell types examined, only primary porcine kidney, 293 and Vero cells supported viral replication. No viral replication was detected in cells of bovine, equine, ovine, caprine or feline origin. The skunk caliciviruses contained a single capsid protein with a relative mobility similar to SMSV virus 1 and 4 capsid proteins. The capsid protein was positive by Western blot analysis with SMSV and vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) antisera. Purified RNA from skunk calicivirus infected cells was subjected to reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequences were identified that had greater than 85% similarity to the 2C and RNA polymerase gene regions of SMSV 1 and 4 and VESV A48. Predicted amino acid sequences of these regions were greater than 95% similar and the partial coding sequence of the polymerase gene contained the YGDD sequence common to positive-strand RNA virus polymerases.

Seal BS; Lutze-Wallace C; Kreutz LC; Sapp T; Dulac GC; Neill JD

1995-06-01

195

Above-water measurements of reflectance and chlorophyll-a algorithms in the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Above-water reflectance and surface chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) were measured in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean Sea in 2000 and 2001 in order to test Chl a inversion algorithms. Surface waters were separated in Case 2 waters in the Rhône River plume and proximal Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) stations, and Case 1 waters at all the other stations. Case 2 waters were characterized by R443/R555 < R443/R510 < R490/R555 < R490/R510 < 1. In the first part, we compared the concurrent reflectance measurements made with a scanning polarization radiometer (SIMBAD) and a hyperspectral Ocean Optics radiometer. The comparison of the remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) values at SIMBAD wavelengths shows excellent agreement for Rrs values higher than 0.01 sr-1. Between the two instruments, reflectance ratios, commonly used in Chl a algorithms, show differences smaller than 2% in the Case 2 waters, and smaller than 20% in the Case 1 waters. In the second part, concurrent measurements of Chl a and of hyperspectral reflectance from 6 cruises were used to analyze the statistical performance of global (OC2, OC4) and regional regression algorithms using mainly SeaWiFS bands. The algorithms were tested first over the entire domain, then separately over the Case 1 and Case 2 waters. Chl a algorithms using band ratios such as the one presented in Bricaud et al. (2002) are suitable for the Case 1 waters. However, taking into account the large dispersion of Chl a for very close reflectance ratios in the Case 2 waters, single band ratios are not suitable for deriving Chl a. The use of a 4-wavelength parameter such as Xc, defined by Tassan (1994), leads to better results in the plume and proximal Rhône ROFI. PMID:19495144

Ouillon, Sylvain; Petrenko, Anne

2005-04-01

196

Above-water measurements of reflectance and chlorophyll-a algorithms in the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Above-water reflectance and surface chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) were measured in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean Sea in 2000 and 2001 in order to test Chl a inversion algorithms. Surface waters were separated in Case 2 waters in the Rhône River plume and proximal Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) stations, and Case 1 waters at all the other stations. Case 2 waters were characterized by R443/R555 < R443/R510 < R490/R555 < R490/R510 < 1. In the first part, we compared the concurrent reflectance measurements made with a scanning polarization radiometer (SIMBAD) and a hyperspectral Ocean Optics radiometer. The comparison of the remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) values at SIMBAD wavelengths shows excellent agreement for Rrs values higher than 0.01 sr-1. Between the two instruments, reflectance ratios, commonly used in Chl a algorithms, show differences smaller than 2% in the Case 2 waters, and smaller than 20% in the Case 1 waters. In the second part, concurrent measurements of Chl a and of hyperspectral reflectance from 6 cruises were used to analyze the statistical performance of global (OC2, OC4) and regional regression algorithms using mainly SeaWiFS bands. The algorithms were tested first over the entire domain, then separately over the Case 1 and Case 2 waters. Chl a algorithms using band ratios such as the one presented in Bricaud et al. (2002) are suitable for the Case 1 waters. However, taking into account the large dispersion of Chl a for very close reflectance ratios in the Case 2 waters, single band ratios are not suitable for deriving Chl a. The use of a 4-wavelength parameter such as Xc, defined by Tassan (1994), leads to better results in the plume and proximal Rhône ROFI.

Ouillon S; Petrenko A

2005-04-01

197

Why do Californian striders fly?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Discerning the adaptive significance of migratory strategies poses significant challenges, not the least of which is measuring migratory capability in natural populations. We take advantage of a visible migratory dimorphism to study variation in migratory capability in the stream-dwelling water strider, Aquarius remigis. Theory predicts loss of migratory capability in this species because streams have been viewed as stable and persistent habitats. As expected, A. remigis lack wings throughout most of North America. However, Californian populations are noted for unexpectedly high frequencies of winged, migratory morphs. To deduce the adaptive significance of this anomalous regional variation, we compare proportion winged among 37 Californian populations. We discover a strong, positive correlation with altitude, but no correlations with latitude, rainfall or stream size. A common garden experiment reveals that both proportion winged and its reaction norm to temperature differ genetically among populations, and a half-sibling experiment demonstrates that wing morph has high heritability, moderate genetic correlations across environments and a significant genotype by environment interaction. These results support the hypothesis that proportion winged and its reaction norm to temperature have diverged genetically in California. We conclude that high migratory capability is an evolutionary adaptation to the unusual harshness and instability of Californian stream habitats, and particularly to the high elevational gradients and extreme seasonal variation characteristic of montane streams.

Fairbairn DJ; King E

2009-01-01

198

Predation on an upper trophic marine predator, the Steller sea lion: evaluating high juvenile mortality in a density dependent conceptual framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

The endangered western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)--the largest of the eared seals--has declined by 80% from population levels encountered four decades ago. Current overall trends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Aleutian Islands appear neutral with strong regional heterogeneities. A published inferential model has been used to hypothesize a continuous decline in natality and depressed juvenile survival during the height of the decline in the mid-late 1980's, followed by the recent recovery of juvenile survival to pre-decline rates. However, these hypotheses have not been tested by direct means, and causes underlying past and present population trajectories remain unresolved and controversial. We determined post-weaning juvenile survival and causes of mortality using data received post-mortem via satellite from telemetry transmitters implanted into 36 juvenile Steller sea lions from 2005 through 2011. Data show high post-weaning mortality by predation in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. To evaluate the impact of such high levels of predation, we developed a conceptual framework to integrate density dependent with density independent effects on vital rates and population trajectories. Our data and model do not support the hypothesized recent recovery of juvenile survival rates and reduced natality. Instead, our data demonstrate continued low juvenile survival in the Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords region of the Gulf of Alaska. Our results on contemporary predation rates combined with the density dependent conceptual framework suggest predation on juvenile sea lions as the largest impediment to recovery of the species in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. The framework also highlights the necessity for demographic models based on age-structured census data to incorporate the differential impact of predation on multiple vital rates. PMID:22272296

Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

2012-01-17

199

Predation on an upper trophic marine predator, the Steller sea lion: evaluating high juvenile mortality in a density dependent conceptual framework.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The endangered western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)--the largest of the eared seals--has declined by 80% from population levels encountered four decades ago. Current overall trends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Aleutian Islands appear neutral with strong regional heterogeneities. A published inferential model has been used to hypothesize a continuous decline in natality and depressed juvenile survival during the height of the decline in the mid-late 1980's, followed by the recent recovery of juvenile survival to pre-decline rates. However, these hypotheses have not been tested by direct means, and causes underlying past and present population trajectories remain unresolved and controversial. We determined post-weaning juvenile survival and causes of mortality using data received post-mortem via satellite from telemetry transmitters implanted into 36 juvenile Steller sea lions from 2005 through 2011. Data show high post-weaning mortality by predation in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. To evaluate the impact of such high levels of predation, we developed a conceptual framework to integrate density dependent with density independent effects on vital rates and population trajectories. Our data and model do not support the hypothesized recent recovery of juvenile survival rates and reduced natality. Instead, our data demonstrate continued low juvenile survival in the Prince William Sound and Kenai Fjords region of the Gulf of Alaska. Our results on contemporary predation rates combined with the density dependent conceptual framework suggest predation on juvenile sea lions as the largest impediment to recovery of the species in the eastern Gulf of Alaska region. The framework also highlights the necessity for demographic models based on age-structured census data to incorporate the differential impact of predation on multiple vital rates.

Horning M; Mellish JA

2012-01-01

200

Body condition and endocrine profiles of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups during the early postnatal period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Body condition indices have been useful in assessing the health of domestic and free ranging populations of terrestrial mammals. Given the high energy demand and rapid growth during the postnatal period of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) (SSL) pups, body condition was expected to be related to concentrations of a suite of hormones (cortisol, aldosterone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, leptin) previously associated with changes in body mass and composition in developing pinnipeds. Blood samples were collected from free ranging SSL pups of known ages and sex. A body condition index (BCI) previously developed for SSL pups based on a mass and length relationship was applied to 61 SSL pups ranging in age from 5 to 38days old. BCI was not related to pup age. Overall, male pups were larger than females and older pups were larger than younger pups. Aldosterone was negatively correlated with BCI only in female pups, whereas no relationship was observed between aldosterone and BCI in males. Further, male pups had higher aldosterone concentrations than females. Concentrations of cortisol, total and free thyroxine (T4), and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased when regressed against the elapsed time between researchers' arrival on the rookery and removal of pup from the holding corral for blood collection. While the overall variation attributed to the rookery disturbance was low (r(2)<0.293), it may be of significance for future studies on free ranging pinnipeds. This study adds to the current knowledge of the postnatal changes in free ranging SSL pups by providing ranges of the BCI and several hormone concentrations from an apparently stable population.

Keogh MJ; Atkinson S; Maniscalco JM

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Extensive variation at MHC DRB in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marine mammals are often reported to possess reduced variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We evaluated diversity at two MHC class II B genes, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, NZSL) a species that has suffered high mortality owing to bacterial epizootics, using Sanger sequencing and haplotype reconstruction, together with next-generation sequencing. Despite this species' prolonged history of small population size and highly restricted distribution, we demonstrate extensive diversity at MHC DRB with 26 alleles, whereas MHC DQB is dimorphic. We identify four DRB codons, predicted to be involved in antigen binding, that are evolving under adaptive evolution. Our data suggest diversity at DRB may be maintained by balancing selection, consistent with the role of this locus as an antigen-binding region and the species' recent history of mass mortality during a series of bacterial epizootics. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB and DRB sequences from pinnipeds and other carnivores revealed significant allelic diversity, but little phylogenetic depth or structure among pinniped alleles; thus, we could neither confirm nor refute the possibility of trans-species polymorphism in this group. The phylogenetic pattern observed however, suggests some significant evolutionary constraint on these loci in the recent past, with the pattern consistent with that expected following an epizootic event. These data may help further elucidate some of the genetic factors underlying the unusually high susceptibility to bacterial infection of the threatened NZSL, and help us to better understand the extent and pattern of MHC diversity in pinnipeds.

Osborne AJ; Zavodna M; Chilvers BL; Robertson BC; Negro SS; Kennedy MA; Gemmell NJ

2013-07-01

202

Extensive variation at MHC DRB in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine mammals are often reported to possess reduced variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We evaluated diversity at two MHC class II B genes, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, NZSL) a species that has suffered high mortality owing to bacterial epizootics, using Sanger sequencing and haplotype reconstruction, together with next-generation sequencing. Despite this species' prolonged history of small population size and highly restricted distribution, we demonstrate extensive diversity at MHC DRB with 26 alleles, whereas MHC DQB is dimorphic. We identify four DRB codons, predicted to be involved in antigen binding, that are evolving under adaptive evolution. Our data suggest diversity at DRB may be maintained by balancing selection, consistent with the role of this locus as an antigen-binding region and the species' recent history of mass mortality during a series of bacterial epizootics. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB and DRB sequences from pinnipeds and other carnivores revealed significant allelic diversity, but little phylogenetic depth or structure among pinniped alleles; thus, we could neither confirm nor refute the possibility of trans-species polymorphism in this group. The phylogenetic pattern observed however, suggests some significant evolutionary constraint on these loci in the recent past, with the pattern consistent with that expected following an epizootic event. These data may help further elucidate some of the genetic factors underlying the unusually high susceptibility to bacterial infection of the threatened NZSL, and help us to better understand the extent and pattern of MHC diversity in pinnipeds. PMID:23572124

Osborne, A J; Zavodna, M; Chilvers, B L; Robertson, B C; Negro, S S; Kennedy, M A; Gemmell, N J

2013-04-10

203

Movement and diving behavior of male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during anomalous oceanographic conditions of 2005 compared to those of 2004  

Science.gov (United States)

During the highly anomalous conditions in early 2005, characterized by increased water temperatures and decreased productivity, male California sea lions adopted previously undocumented foraging behaviors. We investigated the movement and spatially explicit foraging behavior of males using satellite-linked data loggers and compared foraging behavior and effort between 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Males foraged almost exclusively over the continental shelf during short trips in 2003-2004, while during anomalous conditions in 2004-2005 they altered their foraging effort by spending more time at sea and venturing up to 450 km offshore. Foraging trips in 2004-2005 were more than twice the distance and three times the duration of trips during 2003-2004. Our data indicated that the effects of climatic shifts during 2005 extended beyond the physical oceanography and lower trophic levels, to an apex predator; providing insight into the plasticity of foraging behavior and movement patterns of sea lions as they respond to environmental perturbations.

Weise, Michael J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Kudela, Raphael M.

2006-11-01

204

Especies de la familia Enterobacteriaceae en heces de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens establecido en el río Valdivia/ Species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in feces of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens settled in the Valdivia River  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This study aims to establish the isolation frequency of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of South American common sea lion (Otaria flavescens). Thirty fecal samples were collected from the resting ground of an urban sea lions colony in Valdivia, southern Chile. The bacteria species and their isolation frequencies were Edwarsiella tarda (73%), Escherichia coli (70%), Hafnia alvei (33%), Morganella morganii (7%), Proteus mirabilis (7%), Klebsiella p (more) nuemoniae subsp. pneumoniae (3%), Serratia rubidea (3%), Providencia rustigianii (3%) and Citrobacter braakii (3%).

González-Fuentes, Mario; Latif, Fadua; Fernández, Fabiola; Villanueva, María P; Ulloa, Jorge; Fernández, Heriberto

2010-08-01

205

Effects of the 1997-1998 El Niño and 1998-1999 La Niña events on breeding waterbirds and sea lions in the Upper Gulf of California, México  

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Full Text Available During 1998 and 1999 I monitored waterbirds nesting on Isla San Jorge, at La Purinera and on Isla Montague, in the northern Gulf of California, as well as sea lions on Isla San Jorge. During El Niño the brown boobies on San Jorge ceased breeding and left the island, coinciding with an influx of several thousand blue-footed boobies. El Niño conditions coincided with an increase in the numbers of nesting least, elegant, and royal terns and black skimmers on Montague. Double-crested cormorants on San Jorge, least terns on La Purinera, and snowy egrets, black-crowned night-herons, laughing gulls, and gull-billed terns on Montague did not seem affected by this event. Sea lions at San Jorge about doubled their number, but the number of pups did not increase. La Niña conditions coincided with a return to population levels before El Niño in all these species. During 1999 Heermann’s gulls and Brandt’s cormorants nested on San Jorge. Heermann’s gulls had stopped breeding there long ago, and Brandt’s cormorants had never been know to nest there.

Eric Mellink

2003-01-01

206

Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements.

Page B; McKenzie J; McIntosh R; Baylis A; Morrissey A; Calvert N; Haase T; Berris M; Dowie D; Shaughnessy PD; Goldsworthy SD

2004-07-01

207

Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements. PMID:15234872

Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

2004-07-01

208

Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American sea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predatorio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica.

M. Florencia Grandi; Rocío Loizaga de Castro; Enrique A Crespo

2012-01-01

209

Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median?=?3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median?=?2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median?=?931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median?=?643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts. These molecular data revealed that U. lucasi (hookworm of C. ursinus) and Uncinaria species A (of Z. californianus) infrequently mature in the intestine of the opposite host species in California rookeries. However, there is no support from molecular data for the hypothesis that cross-infection with "the wrong" Uncinaria species is a contributing factor in these cases of host peritonitis. The major significance of this research is the unusual finding of adult hookworms in the PNC of so many dead pups. No obvious explanation for this occurrence could be determined. Further research, like in the present study, should help understand and monitor the apparent ever changing role of hookworm disease in the health of northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on SMI.

Lyons ET; Delong RL; Nadler SA; Laake JL; Orr AJ; Delong BL; Pagan C

2011-09-01

210

Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).  

Science.gov (United States)

The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median?=?3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median?=?2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median?=?931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median?=?643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts. These molecular data revealed that U. lucasi (hookworm of C. ursinus) and Uncinaria species A (of Z. californianus) infrequently mature in the intestine of the opposite host species in California rookeries. However, there is no support from molecular data for the hypothesis that cross-infection with "the wrong" Uncinaria species is a contributing factor in these cases of host peritonitis. The major significance of this research is the unusual finding of adult hookworms in the PNC of so many dead pups. No obvious explanation for this occurrence could be determined. Further research, like in the present study, should help understand and monitor the apparent ever changing role of hookworm disease in the health of northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on SMI. PMID:21347520

Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

2011-02-24

211

Attendance patterns of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) females and pups during the non-breeding season at San Miguel Island  

Science.gov (United States)

The attendance patterns of California sea lions were studied during the non-breeding seasons from 1991 to 1994. Lactating females frequented the rookery to nurse their pups until weaning; most non-lactating females left the rookery for the season. Females spent over 70% of their time at sea except in 1993 when they spent 59% of their time at sea. The mean foraging trip length in the winter and spring ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 d; the mean nursing visit ranged from 1.2 to 1.4 d. The duration of foraging trips and nursing visits was variable over the season for individuals but no pattern of change was detected. Interannual and seasonal differences were not significant for time at sea, visits ashore, or foraging-trip duration before, during, or after the 1992-1993 El Nino event. Pups spent an average of 66.6% of their time ashore and up to three days away from the rookery during their mother's absence. Most females and pups stayed associated until April or May. The results suggest that seasonal movement of prey is more important in determining attendance patterns late in the lactation period than increasing energy demands of the pup.

Melin, S. R.; DeLong, R. L.; Thomason, J. R.; Vanblaricom, G. R.

2000-01-01

212

Seasonal variation in blood and muscle oxygen stores attributed to diving behavior, environmental temperature and pregnancy in a marine predator, the California sea lion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores.

Villegas-Amtmann S; Atkinson S; Paras-Garcia A; Costa DP

2012-08-01

213

Seasonal variation in blood and muscle oxygen stores attributed to diving behavior, environmental temperature and pregnancy in a marine predator, the California sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores. PMID:22561663

Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Atkinson, Shannon; Paras-Garcia, Alberto; Costa, Daniel P

2012-04-27

214

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

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Full Text Available The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375) en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas). Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio.

MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS OLIVA; ALEJANDRA URRA; MARÍA J PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ; RODRIGO MORAGA; DANIEL SCHRADER; PATRICIA INOSTROZA; ANGELA MELO; HUMBERTO DÍAZ; WALTER SIELFELD

2011-01-01

215

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile/ Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375) en 33 colonias (6 repr (more) oductivas y 27 no reproductivas). Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to acc (more) ount for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.

SEPÚLVEDA, MARITZA; OLIVA, DORIS; URRA, ALEJANDRA; PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ, MARÍA J; MORAGA, RODRIGO; SCHRADER, DANIEL; INOSTROZA, PATRICIA; MELO, ANGELA; DÍAZ, HUMBERTO; SIELFELD, WALTER

2011-03-01

216

Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds.

Scharpegge J; Hartmann MG; Eulenberger K

2012-06-01

217

Lion lifestyle logic  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most puzzling things about lion lifestyles is that lion populations in the Serengeti stay pretty much the same size for years and then suddenly get larger or smaller. Understanding what causes lion populations to grow and shrink should be important for protecting the lions, since these animals are also threatened by human activities.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-01-21

218

Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics/ Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predatorio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trab (more) ajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica. Abstract in english Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American sea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group (more) attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.

Grandi, M. Florencia; Loizaga de Castro, Rocío; Crespo, Enrique A

2012-11-01

219

Aislamiento de Plesiomonas shigelloides y Aeromonas veronii biotipo sobria en heces de lobo marino común sudamericano, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)/ Isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) feces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. are Gram negative bacteria vastly distributed in the environment, being isolated from aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial and marine animals. The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is the most frequent marine mammal of the Chilean coasts, living in beaches, rocks or coastline of rivers. In this work we determined the isolation frequency of P. shigelloides and A. veronii biotype sobria in fecal samples of South American s (more) ea lions belonging to a colony established at the urban South coastline of Valdivia River, southern Chile. From the 30 samples under study, P. shigelloides was isolated in 27 (90.0%) and A. veronii biotype sobria in 17 (56.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of P. shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. from South American sea lions in Chile. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these bacteria play any role in producing disease, or are merely commensals, in these marine mammals.

González, Mario J; Villanueva, María P; Latif, Fadua; Fernández, Fabiola; Fernández, Heriberto

2009-12-01

220

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups undergo a decrease in circulating white blood cells and the ability of T cells to proliferate during early postnatal development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postnatal changes in circulating immune components and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation were assessed in Steller sea lion pups (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus). Blood samples were collected for complete blood cell counts including total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts from 46 pups ranging in age from 5 to 38 days old. Total WBC and neutrophil counts decreased in association with increased age of the pups. The ability of PBMC to proliferate was assessed by in vitro exposure to concanavalin A (ConA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 21 pups ranging in age from 7 to 32 days old. All SSL pups responded to in vitro stimulation with ConA and LPS 055:B5 indicating peripheral T and B cells are capable of responding to an antigenic challenge. ConA-induced T cell proliferation decreased with age while there was no change in spontaneous proliferation of PBMC or B cells exposed to LPS. The decreases in total WBC, neutrophil counts and T cell proliferation indicates that SSL undergo a period of postnatal development in cell-mediated immune function which is comparatively longer than phocid pups and consistent with other otariids. PMID:20816245

Keogh, Mandy J; Maniscalco, John M; Atkinson, Shannon

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

A California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) Can Keep the Beat: Motor Entrainment to Rhythmic Auditory Stimuli in a Non Vocal Mimic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Cook P; Rouse A; Wilson M; Reichmuth C

2013-04-01

222

A California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) Can Keep the Beat: Motor Entrainment to Rhythmic Auditory Stimuli in a Non Vocal Mimic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23544769

Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

2013-04-01

223

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups undergo a decrease in circulating white blood cells and the ability of T cells to proliferate during early postnatal development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postnatal changes in circulating immune components and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation were assessed in Steller sea lion pups (SSL; Eumetopias jubatus). Blood samples were collected for complete blood cell counts including total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts from 46 pups ranging in age from 5 to 38 days old. Total WBC and neutrophil counts decreased in association with increased age of the pups. The ability of PBMC to proliferate was assessed by in vitro exposure to concanavalin A (ConA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in 21 pups ranging in age from 7 to 32 days old. All SSL pups responded to in vitro stimulation with ConA and LPS 055:B5 indicating peripheral T and B cells are capable of responding to an antigenic challenge. ConA-induced T cell proliferation decreased with age while there was no change in spontaneous proliferation of PBMC or B cells exposed to LPS. The decreases in total WBC, neutrophil counts and T cell proliferation indicates that SSL undergo a period of postnatal development in cell-mediated immune function which is comparatively longer than phocid pups and consistent with other otariids.

Keogh MJ; Maniscalco JM; Atkinson S

2010-10-01

224

Genetic relatedness of the caliciviruses: San Miguel sea lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses constitute a single genotype within the Caliciviridae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The San Miguel sea lion viruses (SMSV) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (VESV) are related morphologically and antigenically, but little has been done to determine their genotypic relationship to each other and to other caliciviruses. To examine this relationship, reverse transcriptase PCRs were performed by using oligonucleotide primer sets designed to amplify portions of the 2C RNA helicase-like and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase regions with total cellular RNA purified from virus-infected cell cultures as a template. The 2C RNA helicase primers directed the amplification of this region from eight SMSV serotypes, five VESV serotypes, and four related viruses. The RNA polymerase primer sets amplified products from all these viruses except one. Phylogenetic comparison of the caliciviruses demonstrated that SMSV, VESV, and four related viruses are closely related while being distinct from feline calicivirus, the human caliciviruses (small, round-structured viruses), and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and that they should be classified as a single genotype within the Caliciviridae.

Neill JD; Meyer RF; Seal BS

1995-07-01

225

Seasonal prevalence and intensity of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups born in 2002 on San Miguel Island, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intestines of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups (n= 204), born in 2002 on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) as part of a seasonal mortality study from June through December 2002 and January 2003. The investigation was planned to coincide with most of the previously established hookworm infection period of the pups. Prevalence of hookworms in dead pups was 100% for each month of the study. The geometric mean intensity of infections per month was: 94.03 (n=30) for June, 629.09 (n=50) for July, 319.90 (n=31) for August, 159.90 (n=30) for October, 109.03 (n=30) for November, 37.84 (n=24) for December 2002 and 11.05 (n=9) for January 2003. In addition to the temporal pattern, the infection intensity was higher for pups in good condition and for male pups. An inter-year comparison of hookworm counts from dead pups collected in July of 1996, 2000, and 2002 also demonstrated higher intensity in pups in better condition but sex-differences in intensity were inconsistent across years. The inter-year comparison also demonstrated higher intensities in dead pups collected from portions of the rookery with sandy substrate versus rocky substrate. No annual differences in intensity were found after adjusting for substrate and condition.

Lyons ET; Delong RL; Spraker TR; Melin SR; Laake JL; Tolliver SC

2005-05-01

226

Development of PCR primers for specific amplification of two distinct regions of the genomes of San Miguel sea-lion and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The San Miguel sea-lion viruses (SMSV) and vesicular exanthema of swine viruses (VESV) are members of the calicivirus family and aetiologic agents of vesicular disease in susceptible hosts. These two virus groups have been shown by several serological methods to be closely related antigenically. To further examine their relatedness, two sets of non-degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed for the specific amplification of two distinct regions of the SMSV and VESV genomes using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol. The sequence of the primers were based on the nucleotide sequence of SMSV serotypes 1 and 4. The RNAs from a number of SMSV serotypes and a single VESV isolate were used as template in this study. These included SMSV serotypes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13 and 14 and VESV serotype A48. Also included in this study were Tillamook calicivirus (Bos-1 calicivirus, BCV) and a recently isolated skunk calicivirus (SCV). The first primer set amplified a 357-bp fragment from the 2C-like or RNA-helicase-encoding region (11 of 11 viruses) and the second set amplified a fragment from the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase region (520 bp, 9 of 11 viruses). These primer sets did not amplify product from either feline calicivirus or mink calicivirus. The results of this study demonstrate the genetic relatedness of SMSV and VESV and the potential usefulness of RT-PCR to detect and identify these viruses in diagnostic and routine screening applications.

Neill JD; Seal BS

1995-02-01

227

Budget and residence time of 210Pb along the Gulf of Lion's continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentration of 210Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion's continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk 210Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of 210Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of 210Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for 210Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of 210Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the 210Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author)

1997-01-01

228

Behavioral response of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens to tourist disturbance during the breeding season/ Respuesta conductual del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens a la perturbación por turistas durante la época reproductiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los pinípedos muestran una alta predictibilidad en su distribución, tanto espacial como temporal, y tienden a congregarse en parches, lo que permite un fácil acceso de turistas. Sin embargo, la presencia de dichos turistas puede generar un impacto negativo sobre los animales. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar, por primera vez en Chile, el efecto del ecoturismo sobre el comportamiento del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens durante la época reproductiva. Registr (more) amos un total de 44 visitas de embarcaciones a la lobera reproductiva de Isla Chañaral. La mayoría de los turistas mostró una actitud de calma, seguida por moderada y perturbadora. La respuesta de los lobos marinos fue mayoritariamente de escape, seguida de inactiva y alerta. La respuesta de los lobos marinos se relacionó negativamente con la distancia de aproximación de la embarcación a la colonia, pero no se relacionó ni con el tiempo de permanencia de la embarcación en la colonia ni con la conducta de los turistas. Nuestros resultados indican que el lobo marino común es afectado negativamente por la presencia de turistas, especialmente debido al escape de los individuos desde la colonia al mar. Dichos escapes pueden generar efectos fisiológicos negativos sobre el animal, lo que puede incidir sobre su adecuación biológica. Sugerimos que futuros estudios evalúen el comportamiento de respuesta de los lobos marinos durante la época reproductiva y en otros periodos del año, además de analizar posibles diferencias entre clases de edad y sexo, lo que permita contar con herramientas adecuadas para el manejo del turismo sobre el lobo marino común en Chile. Abstract in english Pinnipeds have a high predictability, both spatial and temporal, and tend to be distributed in patches, which permitting tourists easy access to them. However, the presence of tourists may generate a negative impact on the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Chile, the effect of ecotourism activities on the behavior of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens during the reproductive season. We recorded a total of 44 visiting bo (more) ats to the reproductive colony of this species on Isla Chañaral. The attitude of the majority of the tourists was a quiet one; however this was followed by moderate and disturbing behavior. The response of sea lions was mainly to escape, followed by a period of inactive and alert. The response of sea lions was negatively related to the distance at which the boats approached the colony, but was not related to the time boats remained in the colony or the behavior of tourists. Our results show that the South American sea lion is negatively affected by human presence, shown by the escape of individuals from the colony to the sea. Escaping from the colony may generate negative physiological effects on an animal physiological effects on an animal, and ultimately affect the fitness of the individual. We suggest that future studies should evaluate changes in behavior during the reproductive season and in other periods, and the behavior of sea lions at different ages and sexes, to provide tools to improve the management of tourist activities on the South American sea lion in Chile.

Pavez, Guido; Muñoz, Lily; Inostroza, Patricia; Sepúlveda, Maritza

2011-08-01

229

Presencia de cepas diarreogénicas de Escherichia coli y estudio de genes de virulencia en aislados desde fecas de dos poblaciones de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens en el norte de Chile/ Presence of diarrheagenic strains of Escherichia coli and virulence genes study in isolates from feces of two populations of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens in Northern Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This research analyzed the effect of fecal contamination caused by sewage, and its relationship with the presence of enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli in the feces of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) from Iquique Bay and surrounding waters. The E. coli strains isolated from the water column of the bay and sewage outlet, showed the presence of the gene eae. In the strains isolated from the feces of both sea lion colonies no presence of virulent diarr (more) heagenic genes was detected. The genotyping of strains resulted in clusters according to their origin and showed separation of the samples of E. coli population of the colonies of sea lions and those of the strains isolated from the column water of Iquique Bay.

Salinas C, Paula; Moraga M, Rubén; Santander P, Edgardo; Sielfeld K, Walter

2010-04-01

230

Changes in planktic and benthic foraminifer assemblages in the Gulf of Lions, off south France: Response to climate and sea level change from MIS 6 to MIS 11  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidisciplinary study involving micropaleontological and geochemical tools was carried out in borehole PRGL1 (Promess 1), with the aim of reconstructing the impact of climate change and sea level variation between 133 ka and 406 ka in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lions. We used factor analysis to obtain three main benthic assemblages related to eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oxygenated environments; planktic foraminifers were grouped as warm-water and cold-turbulent species. These results were compared with records of CaCO3 and major and trace elements (Al, Ca, K, Sr) as well as the C/N ratio of organic matter. Power and cross-spectral analysis showed a straightforward relationship between precession minima and thermal stratification of the water column as well as the occurrence of eutrophic bottom conditions during lowstand periods and mesotrophic environments at times of highstand. These eutrophic-mesotrophic oscillations, usually driven by global eustatic change, also involved regional variations in CaCO3 source to this environment. During periods of precession maxima, enhancement of northwesterly winds increased primary productivity by mixing, enhancing the percentage of cold-turbulent species in the water column and the proportion of oxygenated benthic species on the bottom. During interglacial stages, these events were recorded by lower biogenic carbonate at the expense of higher silicate-related components most likely due to a higher supply from Pyrenees rivers. The record of oxygenated benthic species can be a good proxy to monitor past changes in Winter Intermediate Water dynamics driven by northwesterly winds.

Cortina, Aleix; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Filippelli, Gabriel; Flores, José Abel; Berné, Serge

2013-04-01

231

La explotación histórica del lobo marino de California no causó un cuello de botella genético en el Golfo de California/ Past exploitation of California sea lions did not lead to a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La explotación humana puede causar cuellos de botella genéticos asociados con una variabilidad genética reducida y menor aptitud. La población del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) en el Golfo de California, México, fue objeto de una explotación prolongada durante los siglos XIX y XX que pudo haber causado un cuello de botella genético. Sin embargo, la explotación que deriva tamaños poblacionales bajos no siempre causa cuellos de botella genétic (more) os. El conocimiento de las consecuencias genéticas de la caza del lobo marino de California es crítico para la conservación de la población del Golfo de California, que está en declive y es genéticamente distinta de otras poblaciones. En este estudio usamos una base de datos de 10 marcadores polimórficos de microsatélite amplificados en 355 individuos pertenecientes a seis colonias mexicanas. Estos datos fueron analizados con diversos métodos (BOTTLENECK y razón M) para determinar si ocurrió un cuello de botella genético. Nuestros resultados indican que la explotación histórica del lobo marino no causó un cuello de botella genético en la población del Golfo de California; sin embargo, las simulaciones sugieren que si la población hubiese sido reducida a menos de 100 individuos sí hubiésemos detectado una reducción de la variabilidad genética. Con base en estos resultados concluimos que la explotación histórica de esta población no fue tan intensa como se pensaba previamente y, por tanto, no causó un cuello de botella genético. No obstante, la explotación se concentró en machos adultos y este sesgo podría haber afectado la dinámica poblacional de estas colonias y su aptitud general. Abstract in english Human exploitation can lead to genetic bottlenecks associated with reduced genetic variability and lower fitness. The population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, was hunted during the 19th and 20th centuries, potentially leading to a genetic bottleneck; however, even exploitation that leads to low population sizes does not always cause genetic bottlenecks. Understanding the genetic consequences of past sea lion hunts is c (more) ritical to the conservation of the Gulf of California sea lion population, which is currently declining and is genetically distinct from other populations. We used available data from 10 amplified polymorphic microsatellite loci in 355 individuals from six Mexican colonies. Microsatellite data were analyzed using diverse approaches (BOTTLENECK and M-ratio) to determine if a genetic bottleneck had occurred. Our results indicate that human exploitation did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the sea lion population of the Gulf of California. Simulation analyses revealed that a reduction in genetic variability would have been detected if fewer than 100 individuals had remained after exploitation. We conclude that past exploitation was not as severe as previously thought and did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California sea lion population. Nevertheless, historical hunts specifically targeted adult males and this sex-biased exploitation may have influenced the population dynamics and overall fitness.

González-Suárez, M; Aurioles-Gamboa, D; Gerber, LR

2010-06-01

232

Underestimation of weight status in Californian adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obese adolescents commonly underestimate their weight status, considering themselves to be at a healthy weight or underweight. These adolescents are more likely to be male, older, and Latino, black, or Native American. Associations with acculturation have not been previously assessed. The goal of this study was to identify the prevalence of underestimation of weight status in Californian adolescents and to identify factors associated with this underestimation, in particular examining relationships with race/ethnicity and acculturation. METHODS: Secondary data analysis of the 2005 Adolescent California Health Interview Survey. RESULTS: A total of 36.6% of overweight and obese Californian adolescents underestimated their weight status. Adolescents not born in the United States had increased odds of underestimating their weight status compared to those born in the United States [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 3.49; p=0.03]. No significant associations with race/ethnicity were found. An age-sex interaction was observed with older adolescent males having increased odds compared to younger females. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of individuals at increased odds of underestimating their weight status may be important in developing and targeting appropriate counseling and interventions to ameliorate long-term health risks of excess weight.

Gee L; Peebles R; Storfer-Isser A; Golden NH; Horwitz SM

2013-04-01

233

Eventos reproductivos del león marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), en el norte de Chile (Pacífico suroriental)/ Reproductive events of southern sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), in the north of Chile (eastern south Pacific)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Estudios sobre el desarrollo de la temporada de reproducción del león marino común han sido largamente realizados en poblaciones de Uruguay y Argentina, Atlántico suroriental, disponiéndose de escasa información en Perú y Chile. El objetivo de esta contribución es dar a conocer el desarrollo de la temporada de reproducción del león marino del sur, durante dos períodos consecutivos en la lobera de Punta Negra, norte de Chile. El desarrollo de los eventos reprodu (more) ctivos en la lobera de Punta Negra presentó una sincronización anual, extendiéndose desde la tercera semana de diciembre hasta mayo, con un clímax de los eventos reproductivos en febrero, siendo la dinámica del período de reproducción similar a la informada para otras colonias estudiadas, aunque con un desfase en el tiempo en contraste con las poblaciones de la costa atlántica. Se concluye que el desarrollo de los eventos durante ambas temporadas de reproducción presentó una alta sincronización anual, con un desfase promedio de 2,0 - 2,5 días, pudiendo ser generalizada como representativa para la zona norte de Chile, en el Pacífico suroriental Abstract in english Studies on the development of the breeding season of southern sea lions have been carried out primarily in populations from Uruguay and Argentina, western south Atlantic; scarce information has been published from populations of Peru and Chile. The objective of this contribution is to describe the development of the breeding season of the southern sea lion, during two consecutive seasons in the area of Punta Negra, north of Chile. The development of the reproductive event (more) s in the Punta Negra colony presented a high annual synchronization, extending from the third week of December till May, with a climax of the reproductive events in February, being the dynamics during the breeding period similar to that informed for other colonies, although with an out of fase in the breeding season with the Atlantic populations of sea lion. We conclude that the development of the reproductive events during the both breeding seasons presented a high annual synchronization, with an average out of fase of 2.0-2.5 days, being representative for most of the northern area of Chile, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean

Acevedo R, Jorge; Aguayo-Lobo, Anelio; Sielfeld K, Walter

2003-12-01

234

Nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two serotypes of San Miguel sea lion virus: identification of conserved and non-conserved amino acid sequences among calicivirus capsid proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The San Miguel sea lion viruses, members of the calicivirus family, are closely related to the vesicular disease of swine viruses which can cause severe disease in swine. In order to begin the molecular characterization of these viruses, the nucleotide sequence of the capsid protein gene of two San Miguel sea lion viruses (SMSV), serotypes 1 and 4, was determined. The coding sequences for the capsid precursor protein were located within the 3' terminal 2620 bases of the genomic RNAs of both viruses. The encoded capsid precursor proteins were 79,500 and 77,634 Da for SMSV 1 and SMSV 4, respectively. The SMSV 1 protein was 47.7% and SMSV 4 was 48.6% homologous to the feline calicivirus (FCV) capsid precursor protein while the two SMSV capsid precursors were 73% homologous to each other. Six distinct regions within the capsid precursors (denoted as regions A-F) were identified based on amino acid sequence alignment analysis of the two SMSV serotypes with FCV and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) capsid protein. Three regions showed similarity among all four viruses (regions B, D and F) and one region showed a very high degree of homology between the SMSV serotypes but only limited similarity with FCV (region A). RHDV contained only a truncated region A. A fifth region, consisting of approximately 100 residues, was not conserved among any of the viruses (region E) and, in SMSV, may contain the serotype-specific determinants. Another small region (region C) contained between 15 and 27 amino acids and showed little sequence conservation. Region B showed the highest degree of conservation among the four viruses and contained the residues which had homology to the picornavirus VP3 structural protein. An open reading frame, found in the 3' terminal 514 bases of the SMSV genomes, encoded small proteins (12,575 and 12,522 Da, respectively for SMSV 1 and SMSV 4) of which 32% of the conserved amino acids were basic residues, implying a possible nucleic acid-binding function.

Neill JD

1992-07-01

235

Mac OS X Lion Simplified  

CERN Multimedia

Simply the easiest way for visual learners to get up and running with Mac OS X Lion OS X Lion is the latest version of the Mac desktop operating system, offering cool new features for more than 25 million Mac OS X users. For visual learners who are switching to a Mac, upgrading from an earlier OS, or just getting started with computers, Mac OS X Lion Simplified provides all the necessary information in the simplest way possible. Task-based spreads provide step-by-step instructions with full color illustrations that show exactly how to accomplish a wide variety of tasks with Mac OS X Lion.Looks

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

236

Magnetospheric lion roars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate normally of 128 Hz. The high sampling rate for the first time allows detection of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dawnside magnetosphere. The characteristics of these waves are virtually identical to the lion roars typically seen at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves. The magnetospheric lion roars are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.2 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is nearly always smaller than 1°.Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and instabilities; plasma waves and instabilities)

W. Baumjohann; E. Georgescu; K.-H. Fornacon; H. U. Auster; R. A. Treumann; G. Haerendel

0000-01-01

237

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO; XIMENA URRUTIA

2000-01-01

238

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile/ Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales Abstract in english The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillae

GEORGE-NASCIMENTO, MARIO; URRUTIA, XIMENA

2000-03-01

239

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens)/ First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anoplura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que An (more) tarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur. Abstract in english The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the existent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographica (more) l distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

Crovetto, A; Franjola, R; Silva, R

2008-01-01

240

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anoplura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur.The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the existent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

A Crovetto; R Franjola; R Silva

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Analysis of the serologic relationship among San Miguel sea lion virus and vesicular exanthema of swine virus isolates. Application of the western blot assay for detection of antibodies in swine sera to these virus types.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Caliciviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with a single capsid protein. The serotypes of the marine mammal calicivirus, San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV), are antigenically related to vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) and are potentially hazardous to swine. Western blot assays using purified SMSV serotypes 1 and 4 were used to further examine the serologic relationship among SMSV and VESV isolates. With the exception of SMSV 8 and SMSV 12, rabbit polyclonal antisera generated against all the available SMSV and VESV isolates reacted positively, as assessed by western blot, with purified capsid protein from SMSV 1 and SMSV 4. Consequently, the SMSV 8 and SMSV 12 virus isolates may not be members of the SMSV/VESV calicivirus group. Using antisera from pigs experimentally inoculated with SMSV and VESV as positive controls, a western blot assay for these virus types was utilized to check for the presence of antibodies to calciviruses in swine sera. Sera from colostrum-deprived gnotobiotic pigs were used as a negative control in all experiments. Examination of sera from domestic and feral swine collected in Iowa, California, and Florida was completed using this technique. The presence of antibodies to these virus types was not detected in any of the porcine sera tested.

Seal BS; House JA; Whetstone CA; Neill JD

1995-04-01

242

Mac OS X Lion Bible  

CERN Document Server

A comprehensive guide to all aspects of Mac's newest operating system, OS X Lion The latest Mac operating system takes full advantage of the latest multi-touch trackpads, the new App Store for the desktop, and a host of upgrades that incorporate some of the best elements of the iPad experience. This book covers every new feature as well as all the basic Mac information for every level of expertise. Beginners will learn all about Mac OS X Lion and how to use it, while more advanced users can delve into tips, tricks, and higher-end professional information.Looks at Mac OS X Lion, the latest vers

Gruman, Galen

2011-01-01

243

Seasonal variation in the abundance of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) in Chañaral Island, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile/ Variación estacional de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) en Isla Chañaral, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Desde enero de 2007 y hasta marzo de 2008 se analizó la variación de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la lobera reproductiva Isla Chañaral, de acuerdo al sexo, clase de edad y estación reproductiva. El mayor número de lobos marinos en la lobera se registró durante el período reproductivo. Esta variación se debió principalmente a la fluctuación del número de hembras, ya que esta clase de edad fue la más importante en la colonia y mostr? (more) ? un aumento en su abundancia durante este período. No se registraron fluctuaciones estacionales en el número de machos adultos, machos subadultos y juveniles. La proporción de sexos durante la estación reproductiva estuvo fuertemente sesgada hacia las hembras, mientras que fue cercana a 1:1 durante el resto del año. Este estudio demuestra que la variación en la abundancia y composición por sexo y clase de edad del lobo marino común en Isla Chañaral se relaciona principalmente con la actividad reproductiva. Abstract in english From January 2007 to March 2008, we examined variation in the abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens in Chañaral Island breeding colony by sex, age-class, and reproductive seasonality. The number of sea lions on land was highest during the breeding season. This variation was mainly influenced by the number of adult females, because this age class was the most important in the colony and showed an increase in abundance during this period. No seasonal v (more) ariation in the number of adult males, subadult males, and juveniles was detected. The sex ratio during the breeding season was highly biased towards females, while it was close to 1:1 during the rest of the year. This study demonstrates that variation in the abundance and sex/age class composition of sea lions at Chañaral Island colony is largely influenced by reproductive activity.

Sepúlveda, Maritza; Inostroza, Patricia; Pérez-Alvarez, M. José; Oliva, Doris; Moraga, Rodrigo

2009-12-01

244

Magnetosheath lion roars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lion roars, which are intense packets of electromagnetic waves characteristically found in the magneosheath, have been studied. On the basis of these observations, several possible wave generation mechanisms are examined. Landau resonance is considered to be an unlikely source because this mechanism requires a substantial component of the wave electric field paralle to B, and the observation that the waves propagate along the ambient field is contrary to this requirement. It is not obvious that electron cyclotron resonance is responsible, because the field magnitude decreases should cause T/sub parallel//T/sub perpendicular/ to increase, and this rise could lead to wave damping rather than wave growth. A model which is consistent with all the observations of this study is a proton cyclotron overstability involving 10-keV protons streaming through the magnetosheath. It appears possible that the streaming protons could produce both the waves and the field decreases and that all three would be coincident.

1976-01-01

245

78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. RP13-436-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v...Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M....

2013-01-11

246

78 FR 2393 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...QF03-76-003; QF03-80-003] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v...Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M....

2013-01-11

247

78 FR 2390 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Pacific Gas and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. EL13-32-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey...Regulatory Commission (FERC), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M....

2013-01-11

248

75 FR 76453 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Docket No. EL11-9-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National...18 CFR 385.206, (2010), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) and Barbara Durkin...

2010-12-08

249

76 FR 44901 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. EL11-52-000] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v...notice that on July 12, 2011, Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE), acting on behalf of its...

2011-07-27

250

Comparison of behavioral patterns of South American sea lions between breeding and non-breeding seasons/ Comparación de los patrones conductuales del lobo marino común en época reproductiva y no reproductiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se han descrito tácticas reproductivas para machos y hembras en sistemas reproductivos poligínicos, dentro de las cuales, una respuesta conductual sexo-específico sería esperable para maximizar el ixito reproductivo. El presente estudio da cuenta de un seguimiento conductual del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens durante la época reproductiva (ER) y no reproductiva (ENR) en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Lobería Cobquecura, Chile central. Se registraron patrones co (more) nductuales de machos, hembras, juveniles y crías entre mayo de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. Los machos presentaron mas registros de conductas asociadas a agresión, desplazamiento y reconocimiento durante ER, mientras que la conducta descanso fue mayor durante ENR. Hembras y juveniles presentaron mayores registros de reconocimiento durante ENR mientras que las otras categorías conductuales no presentaron diferencias entre ER y ENR. Las conductas agresivas por parte de los machos así como las relacionadas al cuidado parental por parte de las hembras podrían ser estrategias conductuales desarrolladas por ambos sexos para asegurar la viabilidad poblacional. Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de los patrones conductuales reproductivos de la especie y forma parte de uno de los seguimientos conductuales reproductivos mas continuos desarrollados en la actualidad en el lobo marino común. Dado que el estudio se realiza en un area protegida dentro del marco legal de Santuario de la Naturaleza, los resultados expuestos serán de utilidad para futuras comparaciones con loberas reproductivas afectadas por actividad antrópica. Abstract in english In a polygynous mating system males and females have different reproductive strategies; so it is expectable that both sexes have evolved different reproductive behavioral responses to maximize their reproductive success. We analyze the behavior of different sex/age classes of Otaria flavescens during breeding (BS) and non-breeding seasons (NBS) at a Nature Sanctuary breeding colony, central Chilean coast. From May 2008 to December 2009 data of males, females, juveniles an (more) d pups were recorded. Males performed more aggression, locomotion and recognizing behaviors during the BS, while they mostly rested during the NBS. Females and juveniles performed more recognizing behavior in the NBS, while the other behavior categories did not show differences between the NBS and the BS. As reproductive behavioral strategies, male aggression and maternal care may increase the overall population viability. This study contributed to a better understanding of the reproductive behavior patterns of this species based on what is to our knowledge the most continuous monitoring of a South American sea lion breeding colony. Since the study has been undertaken in a Nature Sanctuary, the results may be used as a baseline to compare with behavioral data from colonies perturbed by human activities.

Pérez-Alvarez, M. José; Carrasco, Pablo; Sepúlveda, Maritza; Quiñones, Renato A

2013-04-01

251

Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

2004-01-01

252

Cannes Lions 2005 / Hando Sinisalu  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Artiklis esitletakse võidutöö "Grr" autori Sean Thompson'i ning žüriiliikmete John Hunt'i, Mark Stewart ning Fred Koblinger'i avaldatud mõtteid reklaamivõistluselt Cannes'is, kus osales ligi 500 tööd 38 riigist. Vt. samas: Cannes Lions 2005 winners

Sinisalu, Hando, 1970-

2005-01-01

253

OS X Mountain Lion bible  

CERN Document Server

The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

Gruman, Galen

2012-01-01

254

Sensory properties of Californian and imported extra virgin olive oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of?thick?and?citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: ? Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.

Delgado C; Guinard JX

2011-04-01

255

Teach Yourself VISUALLY Mac OS X Lion  

CERN Multimedia

Visual learners will quickly see how to take full advantage of Mac OS X Lion The latest Mac desktop operating system adds iPad functionality, a desktop App Store, and many more cool features. This guide combines step-by-step instructions with full-color illustrations to show visual learners how to take advantage of everything Lion has to offer. Plenty of screen shots show you just what to expect at every step, so you can get going quickly whether you're new to the Mac or upgrading from an earlier OS.Reviews how Lion incorporates all-new features including a multi-touch trackpad, Mission Contro

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

256

Daily and annual circarhythms activity in the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) at the central zone of Chile/ Circaritmos de actividad diarios y anuales en el lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la zona central de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En otáridos se han estudiado la presencia de circaritmos de actividad sobre la base de cambios en las densidades poblacionales en las loberas. En este trabajo, se estudiaron los ritmos circadiano (24 h) y circanual (1 año) del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en las loberas de Cochoa y Punta Curaumilla en Chile Central. El ritmo circadiano fue estudiado en ambas loberas. En cada una de ellas se realizaron censos cada 45 min durante 3 días de observación continuos (more) (72 h). Los resultados demuestran que se produce un aumento del número de animales en tierra en horarios diurnos y una disminución en los nocturnos. Dichas fluctuaciones están asociadas a un ciclo de 24 h, y demuestran la existencia de un ritmo circadiano en estas loberas. El ritmo circanual fue estudiado en la lobera de Cochoa. Para ello se realizaron 145 observaciones durante 3 años consecutivos (1995-1998). Los resultados muestran un aumento de la población en los meses de otoño a primavera, y una disminución brusca en el verano. Estas fluctuaciones se asocian a un ciclo de un año, y demuestran la existencia de un ritmo circanual en esta especie. Abstract in english In otariids the presence of circarhythms activity has been studied on the basis of population density changes in sea lion colonies. In this work, the circadian rhythm (24 h) and the circannual rhythm (a year) of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Cochoa and Punta Curaumilla colonies in Central Chile were studied. The circadian rhythm was studied in both colonies. In each one, census were performed every 45 minute during three days (72 h) of continuous obse (more) rvation. The results show that the number of animals on land increases during day times and decreases in the night. Such fluctuations are associated to a 24 h cycle and show the existence of a circadian rhythm in these colonies. The circannual rhythm was studied at Cochoa colony. With this purpose 145 observations were performed during three consecutive years (1995-1998). The results show a population increase during Autumn and Spring and a sudden decrease in the Summer. These fluctuations are associated to a one year cycle showing the existence of a circannual rhythm in this species.

Sepúlveda, Maritza; Oliva, Doris P; Palma, Francisco J

2001-12-01

257

Lion and Man -- Can Both Win?  

CERN Multimedia

This paper is concerned with continuous-time pursuit and evasion games. Typically, we have a lion and a man in a metric space: they have the same speed, and the lion wishes to catch the man while the man tries to evade capture. We are interested in questions of the following form: is it the case that exactly one of the man and the lion has a winning strategy? As we shall see, in a compact metric space at least one of the players has a winning strategy. We show that, perhaps surprisingly, there are examples in which both players have winning strategies. We also construct a metric space in which, for the game with two lions versus one man, neither player has a winning strategy. We prove various other (positive and negative) related results, and pose some open problems.

Bollobás, B; Walters, M

2009-01-01

258

Extension of some Lions-Magenes theorems  

CERN Multimedia

A general form of the Lions-Magenes theorems on solvability of an elliptic boundary-value problem in the spaces of nonregular distributions is proved. We find a general condition on the space of right-hand sides of the elliptic equation under which the operator of the problem is bounded and has a finite index on the corresponding couple of Hilbert spaces. Extensive classes of the spaces satisfying this condition are constructed. They contain the spaces used by Lions and Magenes.

Murach, Aleksandr A

2009-01-01

259

Independent Lens: A Lion's Trail  

Science.gov (United States)

The road to creating a popular song can take decades and often includes a number of incarnations before the listening public finally becomes interested. Such is the complex and at times painful story of the song "Mbube" (which is perhaps best known in the United States by the version titled "The Lion Sleeps Tonight"), which was first recorded by Solomon Linda and the Evening Birds in 1939 in South Africa. This compelling website, designed to complement an Independent Lens/PBS documentary, provides substantive background into the stories of the people associated with this song, and its rather nuanced history during the past seven decades. On the site, visitors can learn about the filmmakers, the song itself, and also provide their own feedback on the controversy surrounding the song and the documentary itself.

260

Mastitis diagnosis in dairy goats through somatic cell counts and Californian Mastitis Test. Preliminary results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) and Californian mastitis test (CMT) reliability as methods to survey mastitis in Serrana goats. Microbiological diagnosis, SCC and CTM were performed on 2028 samples, collected from individual goat glands during a lactation period. Accord...

Mendonça, Álvaro; Valentim, Ramiro; Nunes, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Trigo, Margarida; Maurício, Raimundo

 
 
 
 
261

Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

1992-10-28

262

Actualización sobre el estado del apostadero de lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria Flavescens) en la Isla Trinidad, estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina/ Update on the status of South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) colony from Trinidad Island, Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) se distribuye en la costa argentina desde Mar del Plata hasta Tierra del Fuego e Islas Malvinas con unas 70 colonias descriptas. En Buenos Aires existe una colonia reproductiva en Banco Culebra y tres no reproductivas en Mar del Plata, Quequén e Isla Trinidad. Esta última fue comunicada en 1952; desde ese año no se publicaron nuevos registros y en consecuencia la información citada posteriormente es confusa. E (more) n la presente nota se dan a conocer observaciones inéditas sobre su tamaño desde 1990. Se contaron entre 0 y 150 machos adultos y subadultos con variaciones según la época del año. Abstract in english The South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) is distributed along the Argentinean coast, from Mar del Plata to Tierra del Fuego and Malvinas Islands, with 70 reporte colonies. In Buenos Aires there is one breeding colony in Banco Culebra and three non reproductive settlements in Mar del Plata, Quequén and Trinidad Island. The latter was reported for the first time in 1952, since then no further records were published about its current status and the information cited (more) by many authors is confusing. Here we provide new observations about the population size of this colony from 1990. Seal counts ranged between 0-150 males and sub-adults depending on the season.

Petracci, Pablo F; Sotelo, Martín; Massola, Victoria; Carrizo, Martín; Scorolli, Alberto; Zalba, Sergio; Delhey, Valdemar

2010-06-01

263

Mac OS X Lion portable genius  

CERN Document Server

Two e-books, Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius and MacBook Pro Portable Genius, Third Edition, bundled in one package Books in the Portable Genius series provide readers with the most accessible, useful information possible, including plenty of tips and techniques for the most-used features in a product or software. These e-books will show you what you may not find out by just working with your MacBook Pro and OS X Lion. Genius icons present smart or innovative ways to do something, saving time and hassle. Easy-to-find information gives you the essentials plus insightful tip

Spivey, Dwight

2012-01-01

264

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina) es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

María Alejandra Romero; Silvana Dans; Raúl González; Guillermo Svendsen; Néstor García; Enrique Crespo

2011-01-01

265

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina/ Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina) es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios pa (more) rticulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías. Abstract in english As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fish (more) ery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

Romero, María Alejandra; Dans, Silvana; González, Raúl; Svendsen, Guillermo; García, Néstor; Crespo, Enrique

2011-07-01

266

Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes  

Science.gov (United States)

Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

2011-01-01

267

77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Docket No. OR12-13-000] Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc...Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc...Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies, requested that the...

2012-06-01

268

PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis also enables to identify key parameters and assumptions which control contamination pathways in the Gulf of Lions. Thus, this work is based on coupling such complex biogeochemical model (Eco3M), with a PCBs transport model and a model of hydrodynamics (MARS3D) in order to test a scientific exploration tool for the assessment of PCB dispersion in space and time in the Gulf of Lion and of their transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. In this work we estimate PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between the different species of PCB, namely: dissolved total, available dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption (equilibrium partitioning), bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization. References Auger P.A., Diaz F., Ulses C., Estornel C., Neveux J., Joux F., Pujo-Pay M. and Naudin J.J., 2011. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean) during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modeling combined approach. Biogeosciences, 8, 3231-3261. André, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V. and Fraunié, P., 2005. Modeled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 294-308. Andre, G., Garreau, P., Fraune, P.,2009. Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimentional model. Continental Shelf Research, 2, 407-423. Carpenter, D.O., 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Rev. Environ. Health, 21, 1-23. Dufois F., Garreau P., Le Hir P., Forget P., 2008. Wave- and current-induced bottom shear stress distribution in the Gulf of Lions. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 1920-1934. Lohmann, R.;Breivik, K.; Dachs, J.; Muir, D., 2007. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150: 150-165. Ulses C., Estourne

Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

2013-04-01

269

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo vernayi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

F. C Eloff

1984-01-01

270

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

F. C Eloff

1984-01-01

271

Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion  

CERN Multimedia

Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

McFedries, Paul

2012-01-01

272

On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant (because of the high electron speed along the magnetic field). Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, the authors can show that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. The present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature.

1987-01-01

273

The LIONS code (version 1.0)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The new LIONS code (Lancement d'IONS or Ion Launching), a dynamical code implemented in the SPIRaL project for the CIME cyclotron studies, is presented. The various software involves a 3D magnetostatic code, 2D or 3D electrostatic codes for generation of realistic field maps, and several dynamical codes for studying the behaviour of the reference particle from the cyclotron center up to the ejection and for launching particles packets complying with given correlations. Its interactions with the other codes are described. The LIONS code, written in Fortran 90 is already used in studying the CIME cyclotron, from the center to the ejection. It is designed to be used, with minor modifications, in other contexts such as for the simulation of mass spectrometer facilities

1993-01-01

274

On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant (because of the high electron speed along the magnetic field). Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, the authors can show that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. The present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature.

Lee, L.C.; Wu, C.S.; Price, C.P. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1987-03-01

275

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7) and numbers (29.6%) respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%), whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) was the most abundant (77%). The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7) y abundancia numérica (29,6%) respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%), mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) fue el mas abundante (77%). La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

Raimundo L. Bustos; Gustavo A. Daneri; Alejandra V. Volpedo; Ana Harrington; Esperanza A. Varela

2012-01-01

276

Phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in Serengeti's lions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificates and subse...

Harder, T.C.; Kenter, M.J.H.; Appel, M.J.G.; Roelke-Parker, M.E.; Barrett, T.; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.

277

The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION) instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP), which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC).

S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor; I. Elendt; P. Rusznyak; H. Kunow; R. Müller-Mellin; M. Witte

0000-01-01

278

Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies  

CERN Multimedia

The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

Rizzo, John

2011-01-01

279

Mac OS X Lion Server Portable Genius  

CERN Multimedia

A practical guide to helping users get along with the latest Mac OS X Server To tame Apple's newest big cat, server OS (Lion), you need a serious, big-game book, and here it is. This guide explains how to administer, deploy, and update the much-anticipated next generation of Mac's OS X Server. Thoroughly covering both hardware and software, this book shows you how to configure services, set up account authentication, use open directory, manage accounts, use Apple Remote Desktop, and much more. You'll also learn how to navigate apps such as iChat Theater, Mail, iCal, Podcast Producer—and

Wentk, Richard

2012-01-01

280

The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several nondomestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo). Although lion lentivirus (FIVple) infection is endem...

Adams, Hayley R.; Van Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Keet, D.F.; New, John; Kennedy, Melissa A.

 
 
 
 
281

Californians newly eligible for Medi-Cal under health care reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

About 2.13 million nonelderly Californians who were uninsured for all or part of 2009 are newly-eligible for Medi-Cal under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Analysis of the 2009 California Health Interview Survey indicates that this newly-eligible population is often single, working-age and employed. Their rates of most chronic conditions are similar to those currently enrolled in Medi-Cal, but they have less access to care. The characteristics of the population of the newly-eligible for Medi-Cal under ACA are likely to change by 2014 when the major provisions of the law are fully implemented. However, coverage of this newly-eligible low-income population is likely to improve their access to health services. PMID:21688694

Pourat, Nadereh; Martinez, Ana E; Kominski, Gerald F

2011-05-01

282

Californians newly eligible for Medi-Cal under health care reform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

About 2.13 million nonelderly Californians who were uninsured for all or part of 2009 are newly-eligible for Medi-Cal under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Analysis of the 2009 California Health Interview Survey indicates that this newly-eligible population is often single, working-age and employed. Their rates of most chronic conditions are similar to those currently enrolled in Medi-Cal, but they have less access to care. The characteristics of the population of the newly-eligible for Medi-Cal under ACA are likely to change by 2014 when the major provisions of the law are fully implemented. However, coverage of this newly-eligible low-income population is likely to improve their access to health services.

Pourat N; Martinez AE; Kominski GF

2011-05-01

283

Survival of child after lion attack.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Injuries to humans caused by attacks from large predators are very rare, especially in the United States, Europe, or Latin America. A few cases were reported on accidents in zoos or animal farms, being very uncommon in children. The purposes of this report include describing the case of a child who sustained an attack by a lion named "Bang-Bang", which resulted in injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen, as well as the subsequent neurosurgical treatment and providing a review of the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of an 8-year-old boy who was attacked by a lion during a circus show. The patient underwent an emergent neurosurgical procedure, including parietal craniectomy, cleaning, and extensive surgical debridement of the wounds. Despite open severe head trauma with brain damage as well as thorax and abdomen trauma, the child survived, with minimal neurological sequelae. CONCLUSIONS: Human injury resulting from encounters with nondomesticated animals is increasingly rising throughout the world. This case highlights the potentially violent and aggressive nature of wild mammals held in captivity. Unusual wild animal attacks and the complex injuries that result may pose a challenge to surgeons practicing in resource-limited settings. In this sense, the best treatment in the mentioned case is the prevention of human injuries by these animals. In addition, to attend to these infrequent cases, the authors emphasize the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to achieve the best cosmetic and functional results.

Dabdoub CF; Dabdoub CB; Chavez M; Molina F

2013-01-01

284

Disparities in hepatocellular carcinoma survival among Californians of Asian ancestry, 1988 to 2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a significant health disparity affecting Asian Americans, a population comprised of distinct ethnic groups. The purpose of this article is to analyze Californians of Asian ancestry with HCC with respect to socioeconomic status, demographic factors, stage of disease, treatment received, and survival. METHODS: To investigate ethnic differences in survival, we analyzed ethnically disaggregated data from 6,068 Californians of Asian ancestry with HCC diagnosed in 1988 to 2007 and reported to the California Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Compared with the average of all ethnic groups, cause-specific mortality was significantly higher among Laotian/Hmong [hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.78-2.44] and Cambodian patients (hazard ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06-1.51), groups with higher proportions of their populations at low levels of socioeconomic status; in addition, Laotian/Hmong patients disproportionately presented at later stages of disease, with only 3% receiving local surgical treatment, resection, or liver transplantation. After adjustment for time of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, gender, geographic region, stage at diagnosis, type of surgery, and socioeconomic status, survival disparities remained for both groups (Laotian/Hmong hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.28-1.79; Cambodian hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.48). CONCLUSIONS: Our hypothesis that survival outcomes would differ by ethnicity was verified. IMPACT: Research is needed not only to develop more effective treatments for HCC but also to develop community-based interventions to recruit Asian Americans, particularly Laotian/Hmong and Cambodians, for hepatitis B screening and into medical management to prevent or detect this tumor at an early stage.

Kwong SL; Stewart SL; Aoki CA; Chen MS Jr

2010-11-01

285

Threatened, Endangered, and Depleted Seals and Sea Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Information about the characteristics of various pinnipeds with highlights on five species determined to be threatened, endangered or depleted. Covers historical and current management and species status information and includes photos. Also describes species distribution, population estimates, and threats to survival.

286

A Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) nurses a pup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, lactation has important effects on maternal and offspring fitness. Pinnipeds (fin-footed mammals) are a good mammalian group for research studies that focus on lactation because in pinniped species, the high energy investment of lactation is not complicated by paternal or alloparental care. A recent study measured 12 life history and ecological traits across pinniped species to test hypotheses concerning the influence of phylogeny, maternal body size, breeding substrate, and other factors on the evolution of lactation strategies. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Monographs (75:2) in May of 2005.

Baldwin, J. D.

2010-02-15

287

Desarrollo de un indicador no invasivo de la salud de pinípedos: Comportamiento y crecimiento de neonatos del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus)/ Developing a non-invasive indicator of pinniped health: Neonate behavior and growth in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Evaluar la salud de poblaciones silvestres es crítico para alcanzar metas de conservación; sin embargo, resulta complicado realizar evaluaciones apropiadas cuando los sitios de estudio son de acceso difícil o cuando la especie en cuestión es sensible al disturbio humano. La condición y el crecimiento de las crías pueden ser indicadores de la salud de una población, pero obtener tales datos generalmente requiere de técnicas invasivas. En este estudio se evalúa has (more) ta que punto se pueden utilizar las observaciones no invasivas del comportamiento de neonatos en lugar de los métodos tradicionales utilizados para estimar la condición corporal y el crecimiento de un pinípedo en vida libre, el lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus), en el Golfo de California, México. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados y regresiones lineales múltiples para evaluar el efecto del sexo, la isla de reproducción, el año y el comportamiento de neonatos (e.g., actividad, amamantamiento) en la condición corporal y las tasas de crecimiento. Se encontró una fuerte correlación entre las tasas de crecimiento individual y el comportamiento de los neonatos machos. Los machos que se involucraron más en comportamientos activos tuvieron menores tasas de crecimiento (?= -0.0005), mientras que los machos que participaron más en eventos de amamantamiento tuvieron mayores tasas de crecimiento (? = 0.002). No se observó una relación entre el comportamiento de los neonatos y la condición para ningún sexo, ni entre el comportamiento y las tasas de crecimiento de las crías hembras. Estos resultados proporcionan información sobre la posibilidad de utilizar el comportamiento como un indicador del estatus individual de los machos, la cual podría facilitar la evaluación del estatus de la población e ilustrar la importancia del uso de métodos alternativos para medir la condición de los animales para la conservación de las especies. Abstract in english Assessing the health of wildlife populations is critical to achieving conservation goals; however, proper assessments can be complicated when study sites are difficult to reach or when focal species are sensitive to human disturbance. Condition and growth of offspring may indicate population health, but obtaining such data generally relies on invasive techniques. Here, we examine the extent to which non-invasive observations of neonate behaviors could serve as a proxy for (more) traditional approaches to estimating neonate body condition and growth of a wild pinniped, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Generalized linear models and multiple linear regressions were used to examine the effect of sex, breeding island, year, and neonate behaviors (e.g., nursing, active) on body condition and growth rates. We found a strong correlation between individual growth rates and behaviors of male neonates. Males engaged in proportionally more active behaviors had lower growth rates (? = -0.0005), whereas males engaged in proportionally more nursing events had higher growth rates (? = 0.002). There was no relationship between neonate behavior and condition for either sex, nor between behavior and growth rates of female pups. These results provide insight into the possibility of using behavior as an indicator of individual status of males that could facilitate assessments of population status and illustrate the importance of using alternative approaches to measure animal condition for species conservation

Green, DS; Young, JK; Hernández-Camacho, CJ; Gerber, LR

2010-09-01

288

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies the details of the electron velocity distribution function as measured by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) in order to investigate the underlying causes for the different types of lion roars found in the data. Our results show that while some instances of lion roars could be locally generated, the source of others must be more remote regions of the magnetosheath.

W. Masood; S. J. Schwartz; M. Maksimovic; A. N. Fazakerley

2006-01-01

289

Geomorphological feedback between watershed erosion and marine sedimentation in the Gulf of Lion margin (SE France).  

Science.gov (United States)

Margins are the place of transfer, deposit and accumulation of sediment whose geometry is controlled by sea level fluctuation, subsidence and sedimentary fluxes. Surface processes (sedimentation, erosion), vertical movements and deep dynamic are also intimacy linked. Due to the numerous data acquired over the last 10 years, the Gulf of Lion can be considered as a privileged area to understand the feedback between erosion, sedimentation and associated vertical displacements. We tried to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial evolution of erosion processes in the sedimentation and therefore in the geodynamic evolution of the Gulf of Lion margin during the Quaternary, using available offshore data and comparing them with data from the continental domain. A compilation of offshore seismic profiles allowed us to determine the spatial and temporal evolution of the sedimentary volumes through the Quaternary. In the continental domain, the quantification of eroded volumes allowed us to estimate the respective part of each structural domain within the sedimentation of the Gulf of Lion. Marine and continental data are consistent and show a strong increase of erosion rates since 900 ka, resulting from global climatic changes. 75% of the quaternary sedimentation come from the alpine domain, where erosion rates are 2 or 3 times higher than other orogenic domains as the Pyrenees or the Massif Central mountain belts. A quantitative geomorphology analysis suggests that erosion processes are more consistent with climatic than tectonic parameters. The relationship between marine subsidence and continental uplift is also studied. Vertical displacements of the margin are mainly controlled by isostasic processes, at least during the last 900 ka.

Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Leroux, E.; Aslanian, D.; Chauvet, F.; Bourlès, D.; Révillon, S.; Jouët, G.

2012-04-01

290

Waveform and packet structure of lion roars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence)

W. Baumjohann; R. A. Treumann; E. Georgescu; G. Haerendel; K.-H. Fornacon; U. Auster

0000-01-01

291

OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

Spivey, Dwight

2012-01-01

292

77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse”  

Science.gov (United States)

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the...15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul...

2012-07-13

293

Health behaviors and cancer screening among Californians with a family history of cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose:The purpose of this study was to compare health behaviors and cancer screening among Californians with and without a family history of cancer.Methods:We analyzed data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey to ascertain cancer screening test use and to estimate the prevalence of health behaviors that may reduce the risk of cancer. We used logistic regression to control for demographic factors and health-care access.Results:Women with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer were more likely to be up to date with mammography as compared with women with no family history of cancer (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (1.39, 2.04)); their health behaviors were similar to other women. Men and women with a family history of colorectal cancer were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening as compared with individuals with no family history of cancer (odds ratio = 2.77, 95% confidence interval (2.20, 3.49)) but were less likely to have a body mass index <25?kg/m(2) (odds ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (0.67, 0.94)).Conclusion:Innovative methods are needed to encourage those with a moderate-to-strong familial risk for breast cancer and colorectal cancer to increase their physical activity levels, strive to maintain a healthy weight, quit smoking, and reduce alcohol use.Genet Med 2013:15(3):212-221.

Townsend JS; Steele CB; Richardson LC; Stewart SL

2013-03-01

294

Complete mitogenome of Asiatic lion resolves phylogenetic status within Panthera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The origin, evolution and speciation of the lion, has been subject of interest, debate and study. The present surviving lions of the genus Panthera comprise of eight sub-species inclusive of Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica of India's Gir forest. Except for the Asiatic lion, the other seven subspecies are found in different parts of Africa. There have been different opinions regarding the phylogenetic status of Panthera leo, as well as classifying lions of different geographic regions into subspecies and races. In the present study, mitogenome sequence of P. leo persica deduced, using Ion Torrent PGM to assess phylogeny and evolution which may play an increasingly important role in conservation biology. RESULTS: The mtDNA sequence of P. leo persica is 17,057 bp in length with 40.8% GC content. Annotation of mitogenome revealed total 37 genes, including 13 protein coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole mitogenome, suggests Panthera pardus as a neighbouring species to P. leo with species divergence at ~2.96 mya. CONCLUSION: This work presents first report on complete mitogenome of Panthera leo persica. It sheds light on the phylogenetic and evolutionary status within and across Felidae members. The result compared and evaluated with earlier reports of Felidae shows alteration of phylogenetic status and species evolution. This study may provide information on genetic diversity and population stability.

Bagatharia SB; Joshi MN; Pandya RV; Pandit AS; Patel RP; Desai SM; Sharma A; Panchal O; Jasmani FP; Saxena AK

2013-01-01

295

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items.

Krumm CE; Conner MM; Hobbs NT; Hunter DO; Miller MW

2010-04-01

296

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Hobbs, N Thompson; Hunter, Don O; Miller, Michael W

2009-10-28

297

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with (more) histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

Lobetti, Remo G.; Caldwell, Peter

2012-01-01

298

Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 109/?. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometricanalysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

L. Du Plessis

2010-01-01

299

Archaeology: a lion found in the Egyptian tomb of Maia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lions are mentioned by classical scholars and in pharaonic inscriptions as being among the sacred animals that were bred and buried in the Nile valley. And yet no specimens have been found in Egypt - until the excavation of the Bubasteion necropolis at Saqqara. Here we describe a complete skeleton, once a mummy, of a male lion (Panthera leo) that was discovered there, buried among the cats' catacombs created during the last centuries bc and occupying the much older tomb of Maïa, wet-nurse to the king Tutankhamun (from the New Kingdom, fourteenth century bc). This important find at a site that was dedicated to the feline goddess Bastet (also known as Bubastis) confirms the status of the lion as a sacred animal during the Late and Greek periods.

Callou C; Samzun A; Zivie A

2004-01-01

300

Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo). The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

Cagnini Didier Q; Salgado Breno S; Linardi Juliana L; Grandi Fabrizio; Rocha Rafael M; Rocha Noeme S; Teixeira Carlos R; Del Piero Fabio; Sequeira Julio L

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Scale and diversity following manipulation of productivity and disturbance in Californian coastal grasslands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Question Relationships between species richness and environmental drivers such as productivity and disturbance are sensitive to the scale over which they are measured, but the extent to which this scale-dependence is important for experimental studies conducted over small scale ranges is not well known. We ask whether the response of species richness to experimental manipulation of productivity and disturbance varies across small spatial scales (0.016–4 m2). We show that species–area relationships are well suited to summarize cross-scale responses of species richness, and ask whether the responses of species–area relationships to experimental manipulations are more consistent than richness at any single scale. Location Northern Californian coastal grasslands. Methods We applied disturbance and productivity reduction treatments over 4 yr at two sites. We assessed changes in species richness over five grain sizes, encompassing a 256-fold range of plot size. This allowed us to construct a species–arearelationship for each experimental plot in each sampling year. We used the slope of the species–area relationship to summarize changes in species richness across multiple spatial scales. Results Richness responses were scale-dependent and complex, causing changes at any one scale to be difficult to interpret. Disturbance either increased or had no effect on richness, while reducing productivity had idiosyncratic effects among sites, scales and years. Both treatments, however, had consistent and interpretable effects on the species–area relationship. Reducing productivity increased the slope of the species–area relationship, while disturbance decreased it. Conclusions Our results suggest that the productivity–richness and disturbance–richness relationships are scale-dependent, and that improved generality could be achieved by focusing attention on the response of the species–area relationship to these factors.

Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeff

2012-01-01

302

Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

2008-01-01

303

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King) debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2012-01-01

304

Cooperation and individuality among man-eating lions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cooperation is the cornerstone of lion social behavior. In a notorious case, a coalition of two adult male lions from Tsavo, southern Kenya, cooperatively killed dozens of railway workers in 1898. The "man-eaters of Tsavo" have since become the subject of numerous popular accounts, including three Hollywood films. Yet the full extent of the lions' man-eating behavior is unknown; estimates range widely from 28 to 135 victims. Here we use stable isotope ratios to quantify increasing dietary specialization on novel prey during a time of food limitation. For one lion, the delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of bone collagen and hair keratin (which reflect dietary inputs over years and months, respectively) reveal isotopic changes that are consistent with a progressive dietary specialization on humans. These findings not only support the hypothesis that prey scarcity drives individual dietary specialization, but also demonstrate that sustained dietary individuality can exist within a cooperative framework. The intensity of human predation (up to 30% reliance during the final months of 1898) is also associated with severe craniodental infirmities, which may have further promoted the inclusion of unconventional prey under perturbed environmental conditions.

Yeakel JD; Patterson BD; Fox-Dobbs K; Okumura MM; Cerling TE; Moore JW; Koch PL; Dominy NJ

2009-11-01

305

Why dissect a frog when you can simulate a lion?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are concerned with creating computer-based learning environments which provide students with opportunities to develop causal explanations of complex phenomena through experimentation and observation. We combine video and simulation to facilitate such exploration in high school biology classrooms. Specifically, we focus on issues in behavioral ecology and the predation behaviors of the Serengeti lion.

Smith, B.K. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

306

Infrared remote sensing in the Gulf of Lions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatial and temporal variabilities of the upwelling in the Gulf of Lions and some characteristics of the Ligurian current are studied by thermal infrared satellite imagery. Upwelling develops along straight coastal segments of some ten to twenty kilometers in length. On-offshore jets of cool water d...

Millot, Claude; Wald, Lucien

307

The GOLD project - Drilling in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The "GOLD" IODP Project aims to recover the complete history of the Gulf of Lion (25-30 Ma) with a specific focus on Global Climate and Sea-level Changes, Extreme Events, Margin formation, Natural Resources and the Deep Biosphere using dedicated drilling Platform (MSP, Joides and Chikyu). It should ...

Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Alain, Karine; Gorini, Christian

308

Investigation of roadside fine particulate matter concentration surrounding major arterials in five Southern Californian cities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The built environment surrounding arterials affects the dispersion of vehicular emissions in urban areas, modifying the potential risks to public health. In order to study the influence of urban morphometry on flow and dispersion of vehicular fine particulate matter emissions, in the summer of 2008 field measurements were performed in major arterials located in five Southern Californian cities with different building geometries. In each city, local mean wind, turbulence, virtual temperature, roadside DustTrak Fine Particles (DTFP) concentration, and traffic flow data were collected in 2-hr measurement periods during morning and evening rush hours and lighter midday traffic, over a period of 3 days. The calculated Monin-Obukhov length, L, suggests that near-neutral and slightly unstable conditions were present at both street and roof levels. The nondimensional forms of turbulent wind and temperature fluctuations show,that the data at street level within the urban canopy can be represented using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Generalized additive models were applied to analyze the impact of meteorological and traffic-related variables on fine particle concentrations at street level Compared to other variables, urban-scale background concentrations were the most important variables in all five models. The results confirmed that turbulent mixing in urban areas dominated the variation of roadside particle concentrations regardless of urban geometry. The distance from the local sites to the nearby monitoring stations affected model performance when urban-scale concentrations were used to predict middle-scale concentrations by generalized additive models (GAMs). A radius ofinfluence for background concentrations was 6-10 km. There were also relationships between concentration and other variables affecting the local components of the concentrations, such as wind direction, sensible heat flux, and vertical wind fluctuation, although the influences were much weaker Implications: The built environment surrounding major arterials affects the dispersion of vehicular emissions in urban areas, modifying the potential risks to public health. Dispersion of pollutants within the urban canopy is governed by flow and turbulence characteristics caused by building morphometry. Current dispersion models used for regulatory purposes have difficulties simulating the flow and dispersion for complex building cases, especially when fine resolution is needed. Urban planning strategies, such as limitation of building height, pedestrian-friendly community design, or zoning of building structures, modify concentrations of vehicular emissions in built environments surrounding major arterials, which may modify health risks for adjacent communities. PMID:23687733

Pan, Hansheng; Bartolome, Christian; Gutierrez, Eric; Princevac, Marko; Edwards, Rufus; Boarnet, Marlon G; Houston, Douglas

2013-04-01

309

Investigation of roadside fine particulate matter concentration surrounding major arterials in five Southern Californian cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The built environment surrounding arterials affects the dispersion of vehicular emissions in urban areas, modifying the potential risks to public health. In order to study the influence of urban morphometry on flow and dispersion of vehicular fine particulate matter emissions, in the summer of 2008 field measurements were performed in major arterials located in five Southern Californian cities with different building geometries. In each city, local mean wind, turbulence, virtual temperature, roadside DustTrak Fine Particles (DTFP) concentration, and traffic flow data were collected in 2-hr measurement periods during morning and evening rush hours and lighter midday traffic, over a period of 3 days. The calculated Monin-Obukhov length, L, suggests that near-neutral and slightly unstable conditions were present at both street and roof levels. The nondimensional forms of turbulent wind and temperature fluctuations show,that the data at street level within the urban canopy can be represented using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Generalized additive models were applied to analyze the impact of meteorological and traffic-related variables on fine particle concentrations at street level Compared to other variables, urban-scale background concentrations were the most important variables in all five models. The results confirmed that turbulent mixing in urban areas dominated the variation of roadside particle concentrations regardless of urban geometry. The distance from the local sites to the nearby monitoring stations affected model performance when urban-scale concentrations were used to predict middle-scale concentrations by generalized additive models (GAMs). A radius ofinfluence for background concentrations was 6-10 km. There were also relationships between concentration and other variables affecting the local components of the concentrations, such as wind direction, sensible heat flux, and vertical wind fluctuation, although the influences were much weaker Implications: The built environment surrounding major arterials affects the dispersion of vehicular emissions in urban areas, modifying the potential risks to public health. Dispersion of pollutants within the urban canopy is governed by flow and turbulence characteristics caused by building morphometry. Current dispersion models used for regulatory purposes have difficulties simulating the flow and dispersion for complex building cases, especially when fine resolution is needed. Urban planning strategies, such as limitation of building height, pedestrian-friendly community design, or zoning of building structures, modify concentrations of vehicular emissions in built environments surrounding major arterials, which may modify health risks for adjacent communities.

Pan H; Bartolome C; Gutierrez E; Princevac M; Edwards R; Boarnet MG; Houston D

2013-04-01

310

Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging lions (Panthera leo).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hematologic and serum chemistry values are used by veterinarians and wildlife researchers to assess health status and to identify abnormally high or low levels of a particular blood parameter in a target species. For free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) information about these values is scarce. In this study 7 hematologic and 11 serum biochemistry values were evaluated from 485 lions from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Significant differences between sexes and sub-adult (? 36 months) and adult (>36 months) lions were found for most of the blood parameters and separate reference intervals were made for those values. The obtained reference intervals include the means of the various blood parameter values measured in captive lions, except for alkaline phosphatase in the subadult group. These reference intervals can be utilized for free-ranging lions, and may likely also be used as reference intervals for captive lions.

Maas M; Keet DF; Nielen M

2013-08-01

311

Hematologic and serum chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Hematologic and serum chemistry values are used by veterinarians and wildlife researchers to assess health status and to identify abnormally high or low levels of a particular blood parameter in a target species. For free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) information about these values is scarce. In this study 7 hematologic and 11 serum biochemistry values were evaluated from 485 lions from the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Significant differences between sexes and sub-adult (? 36 months) and adult (>36 months) lions were found for most of the blood parameters and separate reference intervals were made for those values. The obtained reference intervals include the means of the various blood parameter values measured in captive lions, except for alkaline phosphatase in the subadult group. These reference intervals can be utilized for free-ranging lions, and may likely also be used as reference intervals for captive lions. PMID:23415881

Maas, Miriam; Keet, Dewald F; Nielen, Mirjam

2013-02-14

312

Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract of the captive female African lion (Panthera leo).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of transabdominal ultrasonography to assess the oestrous cycle has not been previously described in the African lion (Panthera leo). Twelve sexually mature lionesses and five female cubs had their reproductive organs assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Ovarian findings were compared to laparoscopic findings while performing laparoscopic ovariectomy or salpingectomy. Vaginal cytology was performed and serum progesterone levels were determined. By combining all data the oestrous cycle stage of each lion was determined. One lion was far pregnant and was not operated on. In adults a uterine body could be seen ultrasonographically in 67% of lions while mural structures could be distinguished in 44% of lions. Five uterine horns could be seen in 3 lions. In 12 adults 10 ovaries were found of which eight had discernable follicles or luteal structures. During laparoscopy 12 active ovaries were seen with luteal structures seen in 11 ovaries and follicles in 2 ovaries. Using laparoscopy as the gold standard, ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 83% to detect ovarian reproductive activity. Two uterine cysts and a cluster of periovarian cysts were seen in three different lions. Three lions were pregnant, two were in oestrus, three in a luteal phase (dioestrus), and four were in anoestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound in combination with serum progesterone levels and vaginal cytology can be used to assess ovarian cyclical activity with reasonable accuracy in captive bred lions.

Kirberger RM; Schulman ML; Hartman MJ

2011-09-01

313

Lion (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) IFN-gamma sequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cloning and sequencing of the full length lion and cheetah interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) transcript will enable the expression of the recombinant cytokine, to be used for production of monoclonal antibodies and to set up lion and cheetah-specific IFN-gamma ELISAs. These are relevant in blood-based diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, an important threat to lions in the Kruger National Park. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lion and cheetah and that of domestic cats showed homologies of 97-100%.

Maas M; Van Rhijn I; Allsopp MT; Rutten VP

2010-04-01

314

Lion (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) IFN-gamma sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloning and sequencing of the full length lion and cheetah interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) transcript will enable the expression of the recombinant cytokine, to be used for production of monoclonal antibodies and to set up lion and cheetah-specific IFN-gamma ELISAs. These are relevant in blood-based diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, an important threat to lions in the Kruger National Park. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lion and cheetah and that of domestic cats showed homologies of 97-100%. PMID:19913304

Maas, Miriam; Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Allsopp, Maria T E P; Rutten, Victor P M G

2009-10-12

315

Census and distribution of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During 1990-1992, a survey of the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, was carried out throughout its known distribution area. Forest remnants were identified by visual interpretation of Landsat-TM satellite images. Localities occupied by L. rosalia were first identified by interviews with local people. All forests more than 20 ha in size, and for which two or more interviews suggested the presence of the species, were surveyed using "play-back" recordings of lion tamarin long calls. The total wild population of L. rosalia, including that of the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, was estimated to be 562 individuals in 109 groups. The lion tamarins were generally found in four major areas of forest (six or more groups per forest, not including Poço das Antas), with a further 12 groups isolated in small forest patches. Currently the species' distribution is restricted to just four municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro: Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Araruama. Although they are typically confined to lowland forest of <300 m altitude, L. rosalia was recorded at an altitude of 550 m in one locality. Average group size varied from 3.6 to 5.7 individuals, and densities from 0.39 groups/km(2) to 2.35 groups/km(2) (2.17 individuals/ km(2) to 8.53 individuals/km(2)). Six of the isolated groups found during the survey were successfully translocated to a forest of 2400 ha. There is now also a significant population of reintroduced lion tamarins. Overall, however, the possibilities for further expansion of the wild population are severely limited.

Kierulff MC; Rylands AB

2003-01-01

316

Census and distribution of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1990-1992, a survey of the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, was carried out throughout its known distribution area. Forest remnants were identified by visual interpretation of Landsat-TM satellite images. Localities occupied by L. rosalia were first identified by interviews with local people. All forests more than 20 ha in size, and for which two or more interviews suggested the presence of the species, were surveyed using "play-back" recordings of lion tamarin long calls. The total wild population of L. rosalia, including that of the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, was estimated to be 562 individuals in 109 groups. The lion tamarins were generally found in four major areas of forest (six or more groups per forest, not including Poço das Antas), with a further 12 groups isolated in small forest patches. Currently the species' distribution is restricted to just four municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro: Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Araruama. Although they are typically confined to lowland forest of <300 m altitude, L. rosalia was recorded at an altitude of 550 m in one locality. Average group size varied from 3.6 to 5.7 individuals, and densities from 0.39 groups/km(2) to 2.35 groups/km(2) (2.17 individuals/ km(2) to 8.53 individuals/km(2)). Six of the isolated groups found during the survey were successfully translocated to a forest of 2400 ha. There is now also a significant population of reintroduced lion tamarins. Overall, however, the possibilities for further expansion of the wild population are severely limited. PMID:12526037

Kierulff, M Cecília M; Rylands, Anthony B

2003-01-01

317

A Major Fan of Oz, but Not a Cowardly Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

The nooks and crannies in the office of Bill McNeal, superintendent in Wake County, NC, suggest the occupant is one wildly enthusiastic follower of The Wizard of Oz. It is chock full of memorabilia of Dorothy Gale, the Tin Man, the Scarecrow and the Cowardly Lion, a carousel of the Emerald City and various books on the subject--most of the items…

Goldman, Jay P.

2004-01-01

318

A Major Fan of Oz, but Not a Cowardly Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

|The nooks and crannies in the office of Bill McNeal, superintendent in Wake County, NC, suggest the occupant is one wildly enthusiastic follower of The Wizard of Oz. It is chock full of memorabilia of Dorothy Gale, the Tin Man, the Scarecrow and the Cowardly Lion, a carousel of the Emerald City and various books on the subject--most of the items…

Goldman, Jay P.

2004-01-01

319

Ein Humboldt-Brief in der Autographensammlung Lion Feuchtwangers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.The paper deals with a letter from Alexander von Humboldt, which has been part of Lion Feuchtwanger's Autograph Collection since 1958. An investigation of the contents of the letter brought to light new details, chiefly of Humboldt's activities in promoting young talents. Emil Naumann (1827-1888), composer, teacher and author, was clearly identified as the letter's recipient.

Ingo Schwarz

2006-01-01

320

Two Practical and Provably Secure Block Ciphers: BEAR and LION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we suggest two new provably secure block ciphers, called BEAR and LION. They both have large block sizes, and are based on the Luby-Rackoff construction. Their underlying components are a hash function and a stream cipher, and they are provably secure in the sense that attacks which find their keys would yield attacks on one or both of the underlying components. They also have the potential to be much faster than existing block ciphers in many applications.

Ross Anderson

 
 
 
 
321

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T-/sub perpendicular//T-/sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B2/8?N, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ?/sub max/ = A-?-/(A-+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated.

1982-01-01

322

Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; namely osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50%of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a). The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors’ knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions.

Adrian S.W. Tordiffe; Nicky Cassel; Emily P. Lane; Fred Reyers

2013-01-01

323

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T/sup -//sub perpendicular//T/sup -//sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B/sup 2//8..pi..N, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ..omega../sub max/ = A/sup -/..cap omega../sup -//(A/sup -/+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated.

Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Scudder, J.D.; Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.

1982-08-01

324

The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo). Although lion lentivirus (FIVple) infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

H. Adams; M. Van Vuuren; A-M. Bosman; D. Keet; J. New; M. Kennedy

2012-01-01

325

Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63) and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

R.J. Power

2002-01-01

326

The study of Delsarte-Lions type binary transformations, their differential-geometric and operator structure with applications. Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Gelfand-Levitan integral equations for Delsarte-Lions type transformations in multidimension are studied. The corresponding spectral and analytical properties of Delsarte-Lions transformed operators are analyzed by means of the differential-geometric and topological tools. An approach for constructing Delsarte-Lions type transmutation operators for multidimensional differential expressions is devised.

Yarema A. Prykarpatsky; Anatoliy M. Samoilenko

2007-01-01

327

The impact of burning on lion Panthera leo habitat choice in an African savanna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carnivores play a central role in ecosystem processes by exerting top-down control, while fire exerts bottom-up control in ecosystems throughout the world, yet, little is known about how fire affects short-term carnivore distributions across the landscape. Through the use of a long-term data set we investigated the distribution of lions, during the daytime, in relation to burned areas in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We found that lions avoid burned areas despite the fact that herbivores, their prey, are attracted to burned areas. Prey attraction, however, likely results from the reduction in cover caused by burning, that may thereby decrease lion hunting success. Lions also do not preferentially utilize the edges of burned areas over unburned areas despite the possibility that edges would combine the benefit of cover with proximity to abundant prey. Despite the fact that lions avoid burned areas, lion territory size and reproductive success were not affected by the proportion of the territory burned each year. Therefore, burning does not seem to reduce lion fitness perhaps because of the heterogeneity of burned areas across the landscape or because it is possible that when hunting at night lions visit burned areas despite their daytime avoidance of these areas [Current Zoology 59 (3): 335–339, 2013].

Stephanie EBY, Anna MOSSER, Craig PACKER, Mark RITCHIE, Ali SWANSON

2013-01-01

328

Birth Timing for Mountain Lions (Puma concolor); Testing the Prey Availability Hypothesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion ...

Jansen, Brian D.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

329

Lion (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) IFN-y sequences.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloning and sequencing of the full length lion and cheetah interferon-gamma (IFN-g) transcript will enable the expression of the recombinant cytokine, to be used for production ofmonoclonal antibodies and to set up lion and cheetah-specific IFN-g ELISAs. These are relevant in blood-based diagnosis o...

Maas, M.; Rhijn, I. van; Allsopp, M.T.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.

330

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

F. C Eloff

1980-01-01

331

Supersection takes lion's share, more than doubling earlier output  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A general account on supersection mining operation at the Lion Mining Co., Pennsylvania, USA. Essentially, supersection at Lion is dual miner sections operating side by side. Its main advantages are lower manpower requirement and greater concentration of equipment utilization than ordinary mining method. In addition, productivity is enhanced by improved communications between the two sections. 4 figs.

Brezovec, D.

1987-12-01

332

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

F. C Eloff

1980-01-01

333

Conserving large populations of lions - the argument for fences has holes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Packer et al. reported that fenced lion populations attain densities closer to carrying capacity than unfenced populations. However, fenced populations are often maintained above carrying capacity, and most are small. Many more lions are conserved per dollar invested in unfenced ecosystems, which avoid the ecological and economic costs of fencing. PMID:23837659

Creel, S; Becker, M S; Durant, S M; M'soka, J; Matandiko, W; Dickman, A J; Christianson, D; Dröge, E; Mweetwa, T; Pettorelli, N; Rosenblatt, E; Schuette, P; Woodroffe, R; Bashir, S; Beudels-Jamar, R C; Blake, S; Borner, M; Breitenmoser, C; Broekhuis, F; Cozzi, G; Davenport, T R B; Deutsch, J; Dollar, L; Dolrenry, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Fitzherbert, E; Foley, C; Hazzah, L; Henschel, P; Hilborn, R; Hopcraft, J G C; Ikanda, D; Jacobson, A; Joubert, B; Joubert, D; Kelly, M S; Lichtenfeld, L; Mace, G M; Milanzi, J; Mitchell, N; Msuha, M; Muir, R; Nyahongo, J; Pimm, S; Purchase, G; Schenck, C; Sillero-Zubiri, C; Sinclair, A R E; Songorwa, A N; Stanley-Price, M; Tehou, C A; Trout, C; Wall, J; Wittemyer, G; Zimmermann, A

2013-07-09

334

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. (more) The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Ferreira, Sam M.; Maruping, Nkabeng T.; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R.

2013-01-01

335

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Sam M. Ferreira; Nkabeng T. Maruping; Darius Schoultz; Travis R. Smit

2013-01-01

336

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: a lion case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Ferreira SM; Maruping NT; Schoultz D; Smit TR

2013-01-01

337

The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion trophy imports. We assessed the significance of lions to the financial viability of trophy hunting across five countries to help determine the financial impact and advisability of the proposed trade restrictions. Lion hunts attract the highest mean prices (US$24,000-US$71,000) of all trophy species. Lions generate 5-17% of gross trophy hunting income on national levels, the proportional significance highest in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. If lion hunting was effectively precluded, trophy hunting could potentially become financially unviable across at least 59,538 km(2) that could result in a concomitant loss of habitat. However, the loss of lion hunting could have other potentially broader negative impacts including reduction of competitiveness of wildlife-based land uses relative to ecologically unfavourable alternatives. Restrictions on lion hunting may also reduce tolerance for the species among communities where local people benefit from trophy hunting, and may reduce funds available for anti-poaching. If lion off-takes were reduced to recommended maximums (0.5/1000 km(2)), the loss of viability and reduction in profitability would be much lower than if lion hunting was stopped altogether (7,005 km(2)). We recommend that interventions focus on reducing off-takes to sustainable levels, implementing age-based regulations and improving governance of trophy hunting. Such measures could ensure sustainability, while retaining incentives for the conservation of lions and their habitat from hunting.

Lindsey PA; Balme GA; Booth VR; Midlane N

2012-01-01

338

Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km2. Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km2–31/km2 with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n?=?165), predation events (n?=?180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions’ biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis’ traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a crucial element needed for human-carnivore coexistence.

Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

2013-01-01

339

The trophy hunting of african lions: scale, current management practices and factors undermining sustainability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ?558,000 km(2), which comprises 27-32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

Lindsey PA; Balme GA; Funston P; Henschel P; Hunter L; Madzikanda H; Midlane N; Nyirenda V

2013-01-01

340

Living with lions: the economics of coexistence in the Gir forests, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km(2). Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km(2)-31/km(2) with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n = 165), predation events (n = 180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions' biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis' traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a crucial element needed for human-carnivore coexistence. PMID:23341871

Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Chauhan, Kartikeya S; Dave, Chittranjan V

2013-01-16

 
 
 
 
341

The Trophy Hunting of African Lions: Scale, Current Management Practices and Factors Undermining Sustainability  

Science.gov (United States)

The trophy hunting of lions Panthera leo is contentious due to uncertainty concerning conservation impacts and because of highly polarised opinions about the practice. African lions are hunted across at least ?558,000 km2, which comprises 27–32% of the lion range in countries where trophy hunting of the species is permitted. Consequently, trophy hunting has potential to impart significant positive or negative impacts on lions. Several studies have demonstrated that excessive trophy harvests have driven lion population declines. There have been several attempts by protectionist non-governmental organisations to reduce or preclude trophy hunting via restrictions on the import and export of lion trophies. We document the management of lion hunting in Africa and highlight challenges which need addressing to achieve sustainability. Problems include: unscientific bases for quota setting; excessive quotas and off-takes in some countries; fixed quotas which encourage over-harvest; and lack of restrictions on the age of lions that can be hunted. Key interventions needed to make lion hunting more sustainable, include implementation of: enforced age restrictions; improved trophy monitoring; adaptive management of quotas and a minimum length of lion hunts of at least 21 days. Some range states have made important steps towards implementing such improved management and off-takes have fallen steeply in recent years. For example age restrictions have been introduced in Tanzania and in Niassa in Mozambique, and are being considered for Benin and Zimbabwe, several states have reduced quotas, and Zimbabwe is implementing trophy monitoring. However, further reforms are needed to ensure sustainability and reduce conservation problems associated with the practice while allowing retention of associated financial incentives for conservation.

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Funston, Paul; Henschel, Philipp; Hunter, Luke; Madzikanda, Hilary; Midlane, Neil; Nyirenda, Vincent

2013-01-01

342

Risk factors for exposure to feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary challenge to mountain lion population viability in California is habitat loss and fragmentation. These habitat impacts could enhance disease risk by increasing contact with domestic animals and by altering patterns of exposure to other wild felids. We performed a serologic survey for feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) using 490 samples from 45 counties collected from 1990 to 2008. Most mountain lions sampled were killed because of depredation or public safety concerns and 75% were adults. Pathogens detected by serosurvey in sampled mountain lions included feline panleukopenia virus (39.0%), feline calicivirus (33.0%), feline coronavirus (FCoV, 15.1%), feline herpesvirus (13.0%), heartworm (12.4%), feline leukemia virus (5.4%), and canine distemper virus (3%). An outbreak of heartworm exposure occurred from 1995 to 2003 and higher than expected levels of FCoV-antibody-positive mountain lions were observed from 2005 to 2008, with foci in southern Mendocino and eastern Lake counties. We show that the majority of mountain lions were exposed to feline pathogens and may be at risk of illness or fatality, particularly kittens. Combined with other stressors, such as ongoing habitat loss, infectious disease deserves recognition for potential negative impact on mountain lion health and population viability.

Foley JE; Swift P; Fleer KA; Torres S; Girard YA; Johnson CK

2013-04-01

343

Risk factors for exposure to feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor).  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary challenge to mountain lion population viability in California is habitat loss and fragmentation. These habitat impacts could enhance disease risk by increasing contact with domestic animals and by altering patterns of exposure to other wild felids. We performed a serologic survey for feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) using 490 samples from 45 counties collected from 1990 to 2008. Most mountain lions sampled were killed because of depredation or public safety concerns and 75% were adults. Pathogens detected by serosurvey in sampled mountain lions included feline panleukopenia virus (39.0%), feline calicivirus (33.0%), feline coronavirus (FCoV, 15.1%), feline herpesvirus (13.0%), heartworm (12.4%), feline leukemia virus (5.4%), and canine distemper virus (3%). An outbreak of heartworm exposure occurred from 1995 to 2003 and higher than expected levels of FCoV-antibody-positive mountain lions were observed from 2005 to 2008, with foci in southern Mendocino and eastern Lake counties. We show that the majority of mountain lions were exposed to feline pathogens and may be at risk of illness or fatality, particularly kittens. Combined with other stressors, such as ongoing habitat loss, infectious disease deserves recognition for potential negative impact on mountain lion health and population viability. PMID:23568903

Foley, Janet E; Swift, Pamela; Fleer, Katryna A; Torres, Steve; Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K

2013-04-01

344

Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lions rarely prey on elephants. Botswana’s Savuti lions, however, switch to preying on elephants during the late dry season (August–November), and the frequency of this has increased in the last two decades (1985–2005). An opportunity to document this phenomenon was made possible with infrared viewing and filming equipment. A pride of 30 lions killed one elephant every three days. Seven of eight elephants killed were between four and 11 years old, as deduced from molar teeth ageing, and this age group represented over half the kills recorded by Joubert (2006). It is suggested that this weaned, maternally less dependent age class, may be more vulnerable to lion predation. Lions prey on elephants since the density of conventional ungulate prey is reduced as a result of an annual migration, and artificial water provisioning has prompted an increasingly sedentary population of elephants. Notes are presented on the lion’s behaviour in hunting elephants and the evolutionary significance of this.

R. John Power; R.X. Shem Compion

2011-01-01

345

Responses to clomazone and 5-ketoclomazone by Echinochloa phyllopogon resistant to multiple herbicides in Californian rice fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Late watergrass [Echinochloa phyllopogon (Stapf.) Koss.] is a major weed of Californian rice that has evolved P450-mediated metabolic resistance to multiple herbicides. Resistant (R) populations are also poorly controlled by the recently introduced herbicide clomazone. The authors assessed whether this cross-resistance was also P450 mediated, and whether R plants also had reduced sensitivity to photooxidation. Understanding mechanism(s) of resistance facilitates the design of herbicide management strategies to delay resistance evolution. RESULTS: Ratios (R/S) of R to susceptible (S) GR(50) were near 2.0. [(14)C]Clomazone uptake was similar in R and S plants. Clomazone and its metabolite 5-ketoclomazone reduced chlorophyll and carotenoids in S more than in R plants. The P450 inhibitors disulfoton and 1-aminobenzo-triazole (ABT) safened clomazone in R and S plants. Disulfoton safened 5-ketoclomazone only in S plants, while ABT synergized 5-ketoclomazone mostly against S plants. Paraquat was more toxic in S than in R plants. CONCLUSION: Cross-resistance to clomazone explains failures to control R plants in rice fields, and safening by P450 inhibitors suggests that oxidative activation of clomazone is needed for toxicity to E. phyllopogon. Clomazone resistance requires mitigation of 5-ketoclomazone toxicity, but P450 detoxification may not significantly confer resistance, as P450 inhibitors poorly synergized 5-ketoclopmazone in R plants. Responses to paraquat suggest research on mechanisms to mitigate photooxidation in R and S plants is needed.

Yasuor H; TenBrook PL; Tjeerdema RS; Fischer AJ

2008-10-01

346

Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two mountain lions (Puma con-color) were found dead in the Simi Hills area of southern California (Ventura County). Postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. In addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by Notoedres cati. The diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. Histologically, the affected skin showed acanthotic epidermis with parakeratosis and parasitic tunnels in the stratum corneum. This is the first report of the pathological changes associated with notoedric mange in free-ranging mountain lions. PMID:17495313

Uzal, Francisco A; Houston, Robin S; Riley, Seth P D; Poppenga, Robert; Odani, Jenee; Boyce, Walter

2007-04-01

347

Notoedric mange in two free-ranging mountain lions (Puma concolor).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two mountain lions (Puma con-color) were found dead in the Simi Hills area of southern California (Ventura County). Postmortem examination and toxicological analyses indicated that the cause of death was anticoagulant rodenticide intoxication. In addition, both lions had marked alopecia and skin crusts, caused by Notoedres cati. The diagnosis of notoedric mange was confirmed by histology and direct examination of mites obtained from skin scrapings of the two animals. Histologically, the affected skin showed acanthotic epidermis with parakeratosis and parasitic tunnels in the stratum corneum. This is the first report of the pathological changes associated with notoedric mange in free-ranging mountain lions.

Uzal FA; Houston RS; Riley SP; Poppenga R; Odani J; Boyce W

2007-04-01

348

Kinetics of a diffusive capture process lamb besieged by a pride of lions  

CERN Multimedia

The survival probability, S_N(t), of a diffusing prey (``lamb'') in the proximity of N diffusing predators (a ``pride of lions'') in one dimension is investigated. When the lions are all to one side of the lamb, the survival probability decays as a non-universal power law, S_N(t) is proportional to t^{-beta_N}, with the decay exponent beta_N proportional to ln N. The crossover behavior as a function of the relative diffusivities of the lions and the lamb is also discussed. When N--->oo, the lamb survival probability exhibits a log-normal decay, exp(-ln^2 t).

Krapivsky, P L

1996-01-01

349

Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km2 137Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km2. Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137Cs and 210Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7Be and 234Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth. Results showed that the sediment remobilization was very important in this area but that the exports of suspended solid matters towards the Gulf of Lions were weak, or even deposited in fine on the pro-delta. (author)

2010-01-01

350

Acoustical and functional analysis of Mountain lion (Puma concolor) vocalizations  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year study resulted in acoustic analysis of the structure of over 900 mountain lion vocalizations recorded in a seminatural setting at Wildlife Prairie Park near Peoria, Illinois. A vocal repertoire was obtained by describing quantitative variables about the sounds, i.e., frequency of the dominant part of the sound (beginning, ending, maximum, and minimum), duration, and number of components. Other variables described the tonal, harmonic, and wideband qualities of the sounds. Behavioral data were collected during the same period. Further analysis of both acoustic and behavioral data was completed to develop a correlation matrix between vocalizations and behavior. This study also looked at the effects of seasons on vocal behavior. Correlations were found between vocalization types and rates of usage with specific behaviors. Vocalization type and the usage rate also varied by season.

Potter, Jacquelyn

2002-05-01

351

George Bernard Shaw's Androcles and the Lion: A Postmodernist Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study makes an attempt to analyze the manifold aspects of Shaw's Androcles and the Lion on a postmodernist standpoint, meanwhile, demonstrates the dominion of modernism, which is portrayed through the vehicle of comedy with a bitter ironic language through the play. Regardless of the historical period in which the play occurs, the term postmodernism with its lineaments can aptly scrutinize the clash between modernism and postmodernism, and define the notion of freedom in a world where man is in fetters, either physically or mentally or both at the same time. This study tries to show how two Christian prisoners find their way to freedom by resisting against the suppression and oppression of an empire, whose glory rests on silencing the opposing voices.

Noorbakhsh Hooti; Mojtaba Jeihouni

2012-01-01

352

Two Practical and Provably Secure Block Ciphers: BEAR and LION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we suggest two new provably secure block ciphers,called BEAR and LION. They both have large block sizes, and arebased on the Luby-Rackoff construction. Their underlying componentsare a hash function and a stream cipher, and they are provably secure inthe sense that attacks which find their keys would yield attacks on oneor both of the underlying components. They also have the potential tobe much faster than existing block ciphers in many applications.1 IntroductionThere are a number of ways in which cryptographic primitives can be transformedby composition, such as output feedback mode which transforms a blockcipher into a stream cipher, and feedforward mode which transforms it into ahash function [P]. A number of these reductions are provable, in the sense thatcertain kinds of attack on the composite function would yield an attack on theunderlying primitive; a recent example is the proof that the ANSI message authenticationcode is as secure as the underl...

Ross Anderson

353

On the provable security of BEAR and LION schemes  

CERN Document Server

BEAR, LION and LIONESS are block ciphers presented by Biham and Anderson (1996), inspired by the famous Luby-Rackoff constructions of block ciphers from other cryptographic primitives (1988). The ciphers proposed by Biham and Anderson are based on one stream cipher and one hash function. Good properties of the primitives ensure good properties of the block cipher. In particular, they are able to prove that their ciphers are immune to any efficient known-plaintext key-recovery attack that can use as input only one plaintext-ciphertext pair. Our contribution is showing that these ciphers are actually immune to any efficient known-plaintext key-recovery attack that can use as input any number of plaintext-ciphertext pairs. We are able to get this improvement by using slightly weaker hypotheses on the primitives. We also discuss the attack by Morin (1996).

Maines, Lara; Rimoldi, Anna; Sala, Massimiliano

2011-01-01

354

Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma (Collagenous Fibroma) in an African Lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (DF) is a rare, benign, slowly growing, soft tissue tumor which originated from fibroblast. Although this type tumor has been occasionally reported in human beings, there was case report that was diagnosed as the DF in animal species. This report describes a case of DF that developed on the left flank of an 8-year-old female African lion. The mass was gradually enlarged for 5~6 months and the size was 25 x 16 x 8 cm3. Surgical excision of the mass was carried out. The mass was relatively hypocellular and showed proliferation of spindle and stellate shaped cells embedded in a fibromyxoid to densely fibrotic collagenous stroma. Six months after performing a surgical excision, no sign of any tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed.

S. H. Yun, H. S. Jang, S. K. Ku1, J. S. Park, T. H. Oh, K. W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

2012-01-01

355

Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lion prey selection was studied on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km2 ), Limpopo Province, South Africa, in order to assist with management strategies. Monitoring was carried out between February 1998 and December 2001. Lion killed 15 species, with warthog, blue wildebeest, Burchell’s zebra, kudu and waterbuck constituting approximately 75% of their diet. Between 2.2% and 3.1% of the available prey biomass was killed yearly, while each female equivalent unit (FEQ) killed between 3 kg and 3.2 kg daily. Lion predation was greater for warthog, wildebeest and waterbuck and less for impala than expected. When male lion were present, a greater number of warthog and giraffe were killed, while number of females had a significant effect on medium-sized prey species and total prey species killed. Significantly more warthog, wildebeest and kudu were killed in winter than summer. More prey than expected was killed in open habitats and less than expected in thickets. Managers of small, enclosed reserves need to constantly monitor prey populations, especially medium-sized prey and may be able to reduce predation on large prey species by manipulating male lion numbers. Reserves also need to contain adequate open habitats for lion to make use of these areas for hunting.

Dave Druce; Heleen Genis; Jonathan Braak; Sophie Greatwood; Audrey Delsink; Ross Kettles; Luke Hunter; Rob Slotow

2011-01-01

356

Examining the extinction of the Barbary lion and its implications for felid conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estimations of species extinction dates are rarely definitive, yet declarations of extinction or extirpation are important as they define when conservation efforts may cease. Erroneous declarations of extinctions not only destabilize conservation efforts but also corrode local community support. Mismatches in perceptions by the scientific and local communities risk undermining sensitive, but important partnerships. We examine observations relating to the decline and extinction of Barbary lions in North Africa. Whilst the extinction predates the era of the scientific conservation movement, the decline is relatively well documented in historical records. Recently unearthed accounts suggest Barbary lions survived later than previously assumed. We use probabilistic methods to estimate a more recent extinction date for the subspecies. The evidence presented for a much later persistence of lions in North Africa, including generations when sightings were nil, suggests caution when considering felid populations as extinct in the wild. The case raises the possibility that captive animals descended from the Moroccan royal collection are closer contemporaries to wild Barbary lions. Furthermore, our results highlight the vulnerability of very small lion populations and the significance of continued conservation of remnant lion populations in Central and West Africa.

Black SA; Fellous A; Yamaguchi N; Roberts DL

2013-01-01

357

The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from across their entire range. We find the sub-Saharan African lions are basal among modern lions, supporting a single African origin model of modern lion evolution, equivalent to the 'recent African origin' model of modern human evolution. We also find the greatest variety of mtDNA haplotypes in the centre of Africa, which may be due to the distribution of physical barriers and continental-scale habitat changes caused by Pleistocene glacial oscillations. Our results suggest that the modern lion may currently consist of three geographic populations on the basis of their recent evolutionary history: North African-Asian, southern African and middle African. Future conservation strategies should take these evolutionary subdivisions into consideration.

Barnett R; Yamaguchi N; Barnes I; Cooper A

2006-09-01

358

Structural analysis during the development of the Ford Lion V6 engine; Strukturanalysen bei der Entwicklung des neuen Ford-Lion-V6-Dieselmotors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ford and PSA Peugeot Citroen have recently launched their new 2.7 litre Lion V6-HSDI engine for installation into the Jaguar 'S' type platform. The engine was developed to provide market leading noise, vibration and harshness whilst simultaneously providing high power density and meeting the Euro 4 emissions requirements. This paper describes the advanced computer based predictive analysis that was used to support and validate the design of core engine components at each of the individual Ford Product Development System (FPDS) phases for the Lion V6 engine. (orig.)

Parker, M.J.; Moore, D.S. [Perkins Engines Co., Peterborough (United Kingdom); Gill, S. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Rowley, J. [Ford Motor Co. Ltd., Basildon (United Kingdom)

2006-04-15

359

The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declines in large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systems where carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes in carnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography and space-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005-2006. The mean times lions were inactive was similar between the three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions spent most of their time on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgets were similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the reserve. We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands.

Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.

2011-01-01

360

T-lymphocyte profiles in FIV-infected wild lions and pumas reveal CD4 depletion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes feline AIDS in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Serological surveys indicate that at least 25 other species of cat possess antibodies that cross-react with domestic cat FIV. Most infected nondomestic cat species are without major symptoms of disease. Long-term studies of FIV genome variation and pathogenesis reveal patterns consistent with coadaptation of virus and host in free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected African lions (Panthera leo) and FIV-Pco-infected pumas (Puma concolor) populations. This report examined correlates of immunodeficiency in wild and captive lions and pumas by quantifying CD5(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T-cell subsets. Free-ranging FIV-Ple-infected lions had immunofluorescence flow cytometry (IFC) profiles marked by a dramatic decline in CD4(+) subsets, a reduction of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, reduction of CD8(+)beta(high) cells, and expansion of the CD8(+)beta(low) subset relative to uninfected lions. An overall significant depletion in CD5(+) T-cells in seropositive lions was linked with a compensatory increase in total CD5(-) lymphocytes. The IFC profiles were altered significantly in 50% of the seropositive individuals examined. The FIV-Pco-infected pumas had a more generalized response of lymphopenia expressed as a significant decline in total lymphocytes, CD5(+) T-cells, and CD5(-) lymphocytes as well as a significant reduction in CD4(+) T-cells. Like lions, seropositive pumas had a significant decline in CD8(+)beta(high) cells but differed by not having compensatory expansion of CD8(+)beta(low) cells relative to controls. Results from FIV-infected lions and pumas parallel human and Asian monkey CD4(+) diminution in HIV and SIV infection, respectively, and suggest there may be unrecognized immunological consequences of FIV infection in these two species of large cats. PMID:16870846

Roelke, M E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Taylor, S; Citino, S; Brown, E; Packer, C; Vandewoude, S; O'Brien, S J

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combination of medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with subsequent antagonism by atipamezole was evaluated for reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo). Twenty-one anaesthetic events of 17 free-ranging lions (5 males and 12 females, body weight 105-211 kg) were studied in Zimbabwe. Medetomidine at 0.027-0.055 mg / kg (total dose 4-11 mg) and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.38-1.32 mg / kg (total dose 50-275 mg) were administered i.m. by dart injection. The doses were gradually decreased to improve recovery. Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and relative haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded every 15 min. Arterial blood samples were collected from 5 lions for analysis of blood gases and acid-base status. For anaesthetic reversal, atipamezole was administered i.m. at 2.5 or 5 times the medetomidine dose. Induction was smooth and all lions were anaesthetised with good muscle relaxation within 3.4-9.5 min after darting. The predictable working time was a minimum of 1 h and no additional drug doses were needed. Respiratory and heart rates and SpO2 were stable throughout anaesthesia, whereas rectal temperature changed significantly over time. Atipamezole at 2.5 times the medetomidine dose was sufficient for reversal and recoveries were smooth and calm in all lions independent of the atipamezole dose. First sign of recovery was observed 3-27 min after reversal. The animals were up walking 8-26 min after reversal when zolazepamtiletamine doses <1 mg / kg were used. In practice, a total dose of 6 mg medetomidine and 80 mg zolazepam-tiletamine and reversal with 15 mg atipamezole can be used for either sex of an adult or subadult lion. The drugs and doses used in this study provided a reliable, safe and reversible anaesthesia protocol for free-ranging lions.

A. Fahlman; A. Loveridge; C. Wenham; C. Foggin; J.M. Arnemo; G. Nyman

2012-01-01

362

78 FR 43148 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the specified activities: Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus monteriensis), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus californianus...with the exception of the Steller sea lion, which is typically present...

2013-07-19

363

78 FR 36527 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction at Bremerton Ferry...  

Science.gov (United States)

...vitulina richardsi), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), killer whale...documented California and Steller sea lion haulout sites to the Bremerton...

2013-06-18

364

Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos  

Science.gov (United States)

The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

2013-05-01

365

The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declinesin large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systemswhere carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes incarnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography andspace-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve andthe adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005–2006. The meantimes lions were inactive was similar between the three prides except when the ranch lionswere severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate theirkills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushesand abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions spent most of theirtime on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgetswere similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the typebut the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to thereserve.We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands.

Niels L. Mogensen; Joseph O. Ogutu; Torben Dabelsteen

2011-01-01

366

New records of a threatened population of lion (Panthera leo) in a National Park in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In West Africa, the lion is currently characterized by small populations, fragmented and often isolated each another, with a virtual lack of ecological connection. Populations are generally declining. In some recent notes, it was declared that the lion in Ghana is functionally extinct, if not completely eradicated, and some recent surveys concluded about the probable extinction of lions from the Mole National Park (MNP), in Ghana’s Northern Territory. Aim of this note is to emphasize that the lion is still present in MNP, and this area must be still considered for species conservation, and therefore be studied carefully. In April 2011, using camera traps, a short movie of a young male lion was recorded, and  a roar has been clearly heard. The choice of areas where camera traps (n = 20) were placed derived from an habitat suitability model which was developed using lion records collected over 41 years. Our data show that MNP could still be regarded as a considerable area for western lion conservation, even considering the important results that, based on molecular-biology, show how lions in West and Central Africa are clearly differentiated from the other African ones.

Francesco Maria Angelici

2013-01-01

367

The study of Delsarte-Lions type binary transformations, their differential-geometric and operator structure with applications. Part 2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Gelfand-Levitan integral equations for Delsarte-Lions type transformations in multidimension are studied. The corresponding spectral and analytical properties of Delsarte-Lions transformed operators are analyzed by means of the differential-geometric and topological tools. An approach for constr...

Yarema A. Prykarpatsky; Anatoliy M. Samoilenko

368

Ampfion-hybrid diode on the Cornell LION accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ampfion hybrid diode, previously run on the HYDRAMITE accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has recently been installed on the Cornell LION accelerator (1 TW, 1.8 MV, 40 ns pulse). The ampfion hybrid diode is magnetically insulated by means of a field coil in series with the cathode structure of the diode. An epoxy dielectric flashboard on the anode provides an anode plasma to supply the extracted ions. The diode has a geometric focal length of 20 cm. The experiment is equipped with plasma erosion opening switches on the anode stock to eliminate prepulse and improve the generator voltage risetime. Diagnostics include magnetic pickup loops to measure currents in the diode structure and non-neutral beam currents, biased charge collectors, and damage targets. An alpha particle pin hole camera utilizing the p,? reaction of fast (>500 kV) protons on boron or lithium is being developed to measure focus quality and proton current. Plastic track detector will be used to image the alpha particles coming from a boron or lithium target. A second pin hole camera uses a plastic scintillator and light detector to give time resolved focused ion intensity.

1984-01-01

369

Embryo retrieval after hormonal treatment to control ovarian function and non-surgical artificial insemination in African lions (Panthera leo).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for propagating endangered wild felids. Artificial insemination (AI) has been reported in several wild feline species, but pregnancy rates are low, partially owing to failures of current hormonal stimulation protocols. Therefore, this study describes the application of reliable methods to monitor ovarian activity and the development of an effective hormonal protocol to induce oestrus and ovulation in African lions. Application of porcine FSH and porcine LH was shown to be effective for inducing follicular growth and ovulation, and this regimen appeared to be superior to protocols described earlier in terms of ovulation and fertilization rates. Furthermore, non-surgical AI was performed successfully in lions, and uterine-stage embryos were collected and cryopreserved. African lions may serve as a valuable model to develop assisted reproduction for propagation of relic zoo populations in the critically endangered Asian lion or Barbary lion.

Goeritz F; Painer J; Jewgenow K; Hermes R; Rasmussen K; Dehnhard M; Hildebrandt T

2012-12-01

370

Occurrence, prevalence and intensity of internal parasite infections of African lions (Panthera leo) in enclosures at a recreation park in Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A coprological survey was conducted to determine the types, prevalence, and intensity of infection of internal parasites in a population of captive African lions (Panthera leo) at a recreational game park in Zimbabwe. Individual fecal samples were collected on three occasions over a 4-month period from each of 30 lions (55%) out of 55 animals held. The samples were examined using flotation and sedimentation techniques to assess the presence and count of parasite eggs, oocysts, and cysts per gram of feces as well as larvae identification. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 100% (30/30), and 80% (24/30) of fecal samples also were positive for protozoan parasite forms. Eggs of Ancylostoma spp. were found in the feces of 23 (76.7%) lions, Physaloptera sp. in 14 (46.7%) lions, Toxascaris leonina in 13 (43.3%) lions, Toxocara cati in 12 (40%) lions, and Gnathostoma spinigerum and Toxocara canis in 2 (6.7%) lions. Furthermore, eggs of Cylicospirura subequalis, Gnathostoma spp., Lagochilascaris major, Acanthocephalan and Linguatula spp. as well as larvae of Aelurostrongylus sp. were identified in the feces of one lion. Oocysts of five apicomplexan parasites and cysts of one mastigophoran protozoan parasite were recorded, namely, Cystoisospora leonina in 11 (36.7%) lions' feces, Cystoisospora spp. in 9 (30.0%) lions, Cystoisospora felis in 5 (16.7%) lions; Toxoplasma-like spp. in 5 (16.7 %) lions, and Giardia spp. in 8 (26.7%) lions. The majority of lions (28/30) showed mixed infections with different internal parasites, whereas only two animals had single parasite infections. The intensity of infection was relatively low. Some parasite forms observed and identified, such as Eimeria spp. oocysts, were spurious and probably originated from the prey species for the lions. Among the parasites identified were some of zoonotic importance that have health implications for at-risk personnel and visitors who get into contact with the animals. PMID:24063097

Mukarati, Norman L; Vassilev, George D; Tagwireyi, Whatmore M; Tavengwa, Michael

2013-09-01

371

Occurrence, prevalence and intensity of internal parasite infections of African lions (Panthera leo) in enclosures at a recreation park in Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A coprological survey was conducted to determine the types, prevalence, and intensity of infection of internal parasites in a population of captive African lions (Panthera leo) at a recreational game park in Zimbabwe. Individual fecal samples were collected on three occasions over a 4-month period from each of 30 lions (55%) out of 55 animals held. The samples were examined using flotation and sedimentation techniques to assess the presence and count of parasite eggs, oocysts, and cysts per gram of feces as well as larvae identification. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 100% (30/30), and 80% (24/30) of fecal samples also were positive for protozoan parasite forms. Eggs of Ancylostoma spp. were found in the feces of 23 (76.7%) lions, Physaloptera sp. in 14 (46.7%) lions, Toxascaris leonina in 13 (43.3%) lions, Toxocara cati in 12 (40%) lions, and Gnathostoma spinigerum and Toxocara canis in 2 (6.7%) lions. Furthermore, eggs of Cylicospirura subequalis, Gnathostoma spp., Lagochilascaris major, Acanthocephalan and Linguatula spp. as well as larvae of Aelurostrongylus sp. were identified in the feces of one lion. Oocysts of five apicomplexan parasites and cysts of one mastigophoran protozoan parasite were recorded, namely, Cystoisospora leonina in 11 (36.7%) lions' feces, Cystoisospora spp. in 9 (30.0%) lions, Cystoisospora felis in 5 (16.7%) lions; Toxoplasma-like spp. in 5 (16.7 %) lions, and Giardia spp. in 8 (26.7%) lions. The majority of lions (28/30) showed mixed infections with different internal parasites, whereas only two animals had single parasite infections. The intensity of infection was relatively low. Some parasite forms observed and identified, such as Eimeria spp. oocysts, were spurious and probably originated from the prey species for the lions. Among the parasites identified were some of zoonotic importance that have health implications for at-risk personnel and visitors who get into contact with the animals.

Mukarati NL; Vassilev GD; Tagwireyi WM; Tavengwa M

2013-09-01

372

The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species.

Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-Min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-Ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-uk; Luo, Shu-Jin; Johnson, Warren E.; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Schmidt-Kuntzel, Anne; Turner, Jason A.; Marker, Laurie; Harper, Cindy; Miller, Susan M.; Jacobs, Wilhelm; Bertola, Laura D.; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Sunghoon; Zhou, Qian; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Xu, Xiao; Gadhvi, Priyvrat; Xu, Pengwei; Xiong, Yingqi; Luo, Yadan; Pan, Shengkai; Gou, Caiyun; Chu, Xiuhui; Zhang, Jilin; Liu, Sanyang; He, Jing; Chen, Ying; Yang, Linfeng; Yang, Yulan; He, Jiaju; Liu, Sha; Wang, Junyi; Kim, Chul Hong; Kwak, Hwanjong; Kim, Jong-Soo; Hwang, Seungwoo; Ko, Junsu; Kim, Chang-Bae; Kim, Sangtae; Bayarlkhagva, Damdin; Paek, Woon Kee; Kim, Seong-Jin; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Wang, Jun; Bhak, Jong

2013-01-01

373

The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world's most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats' hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We report a snow leopard-specific genetic determinant in EGLN1 (Met39>Lys39), which is likely to be associated with adaptation to high altitude. We also detect a TYR260G>A mutation likely responsible for the white lion coat colour. Tiger and cat genomes show similar repeat composition and an appreciably conserved synteny. Genomic data from the five big cats provide an invaluable resource for resolving easily identifiable phenotypes evident in very close, but distinct, species.

Cho YS; Hu L; Hou H; Lee H; Xu J; Kwon S; Oh S; Kim HM; Jho S; Kim S; Shin YA; Kim BC; Kim H; Kim CU; Luo SJ; Johnson WE; Koepfli KP; Schmidt-Küntzel A; Turner JA; Marker L; Harper C; Miller SM; Jacobs W; Bertola LD; Kim TH; Lee S; Zhou Q; Jung HJ; Xu X; Gadhvi P; Xu P; Xiong Y; Luo Y; Pan S; Gou C; Chu X; Zhang J; Liu S; He J; Chen Y; Yang L; Yang Y; He J; Liu S; Wang J; Kim CH; Kwak H; Kim JS; Hwang S; Ko J; Kim CB; Kim S; Bayarlkhagva D; Paek WK; Kim SJ; O'Brien SJ; Wang J; Bhak J

2013-09-01

374

Sub-occipital craniectomy in a lion (Panthera leo) with occipital bone malformation and hypovitaminosis A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurologic dysfunction accompanied by malformation of both the skull and the cervical vertebrae has been previously described in lions kept in captivity worldwide, and this dysfunction and malformation were most often related to vitamin A deficiency. Diagnosis of the bone malformation and its effects on the neural tissue was until recently limited to postmortem examination, with characteristic thickening of the bones of the cranial vault, cerebellar herniation, compression of the foramen magnum, and enlargement of the lateral ventricles. For some mildly affected lion cubs with neurologic signs, improvement was reported with excessive vitamin A supplementation. However, definitive diagnosis was only available for those that eventually died or were euthanized. This case documents the antemortem diagnosis of the disease using computed tomographic imaging and liver biopsy. While conservative treatment failed, suboccipital craniectomy removed the thickened occipital bone and was demonstrated to be a successful surgical intervention that can be used to treat more severely affected lions. PMID:18817011

Shamir, Merav H; Shilo, Yael; Fridman, Alon; Chai, Orit; Reifen, Ram; Miara, Limor

2008-09-01

375

Can a Lamb Reach a Haven Before Being Eaten by Diffusing Lions?  

CERN Multimedia

We study the survival of a single diffusing lamb on the positive half line in the presence of N diffusing lions that all start at the same position L to the right of the lamb and a haven at x=0. If the lamb reaches this haven before meeting any lion, the lamb survives. We investigate the survival probability of the lamb, S_N(x,L), as a function of N and the respective initial positions of the lamb and the lions, x and L. We determine S_N(x,L) analytically for the special cases of N=1 and N--->oo. For large but finite N, we determine the unusual asymptotic form whose leading behavior is S_N(z)\\simN^{-z^2}, with z=x/L. Simulations of the capture process very slowly converge to this asymptotic prediction as N reaches 10^{500}.

Gabel, Alan; Panduranga, Nagendra K; Redner, S

2012-01-01

376

Cholangiocarcinoma of intrahepatic bile ducts with disseminated metastases in an African lion (Panthera leo).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cholangiocarcinoma is reported in an 18-yr-old, female African lion (Panthera leo). The primary tumor consisted of multifocal to coalescing, hepatic, white-yellow masses distributed throughout the liver lobes. Metastases were present in regional lymph nodes, peritoneal surface, and lungs. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a tubular pattern with alcian- and periodic acid-Schiff-positive secretory material in cystic spaces. The neoplastic cells were positive to broad-spectrum cytokeratins. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains were consistent with bile duct carcinoma. Biliary tumors arising from the gallbladder have been reported in lions. However, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma reported in an African lion.

Lepri E; Sforna M; Brachelente C; Chiara B; Vitellozzi G; Giovanni V

2013-06-01

377

Impact of open-ocean convection on particle fluxes and sediment dynamics in the deep margin of the Gulf of Lions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deep outer margin of the Gulf of Lions and the adjacent basin, in the Western Mediterranean Sea, are regularly impacted by open-ocean convection, a major hydrodynamic event responsible for the ventilation of the deep water in the Western Mediterranean Basin. However, the impact of open-ocean convection on the flux and transport of particulate matter remains poorly understood. The variability of water mass properties (i.e. temperature and salinity), currents, and particle fluxes was monitored between September 2007 and April 2009 at five instrumented mooring lines deployed between 2050 and 2350 m-depth in the deepest continental margin and adjacent basin. Four of the lines followed a NW–SE transect, while the fifth one was located on a sediment wave field to the west. The results of the main, central line SC2350 ("LION"), located at 42° 02.5? N and 4° 41? E, at 2350 m-depth, show that open-ocean convection reached mid-water depth (? 1000 m-depth) during winter 2007–2008, and reached the seabed (? 2350 m-depth) during winter 2008–2009. Horizontal currents were unusually strong with speeds up to 39 cm s?1 during winter 2008–2009. The measurements at all 5 different locations indicate that mid-depth and near-bottom currents and particle fluxes gave relatively consistent values of similar magnitude across the study area except during winter 2008–2009, when near-bottom fluxes abruptly increased by one to two orders of magnitude. Particulate organic carbon contents, which generally vary between 3 and 5%, were abnormally low (? 1%) during winter 2008–2009 and approached those observed in surface sediments (? 0.6%). Turbidity profiles made in the region demonstrated the existence of a bottom nepheloid layer, several hundred meters thick, and related to the resuspension of bottom sediments. These observations support the view that open-ocean deep convection events in the Gulf of Lions can cause significant remobilization of sediments in the deep outer margin and the basin, with a subsequent alteration of the seabed likely impacting the functioning of the deep-sea ecosystem.

M. Stabholz; X. Durrieu de Madron; M. Canals; A. Khripounoff; I. Taupier-Letage; P. Testor; S. Heussner; P. Kerhervé; N. Delsaut; L. Houpert; G. Lastras; B. Denneliou

2012-01-01

378

Impact of open-ocean convection on particle fluxes and sediment dynamics in the deep margin of the Gulf of Lions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deep outer margin of the Gulf of Lions and the adjacent basin, in the western Mediterranean Sea, are regularly impacted by open-ocean convection, a major hydrodynamic event responsible for the ventilation of the deep water in the western Mediterranean Basin. However, the impact of open-ocean convection on the flux and transport of particulate matter remains poorly understood. The variability of water mass properties (i.e., temperature and salinity), currents, and particle fluxes were monitored between September 2007 and April 2009 at five instrumented mooring lines deployed between 2050 and 2350-m depth in the deepest continental margin and adjacent basin. Four of the lines followed a NW–SE transect, while the fifth one was located on a sediment wave field to the west. The results of the main, central line SC2350 ("LION") located at 42°02.5? N, 4°41? E, at 2350-m depth, show that open-ocean convection reached mid-water depth (? 1000-m depth) during winter 2007–2008, and reached the seabed (? 2350-m depth) during winter 2008–2009. Horizontal currents were unusually strong with speeds up to 39 cm s?1 during winter 2008–2009. The measurements at all 5 different locations indicate that mid-depth and near-bottom currents and particle fluxes gave relatively consistent values of similar magnitude across the study area except during winter 2008–2009, when near-bottom fluxes abruptly increased by one to two orders of magnitude. Particulate organic carbon contents, which generally vary between 3 and 5%, were abnormally low (? 1%) during winter 2008–2009 and approached those observed in surface sediments (? 0.6%). Turbidity profiles made in the region demonstrated the existence of a bottom nepheloid layer, several hundred meters thick, and related to the resuspension of bottom sediments. These observations support the view that open-ocean deep convection events in the Gulf of Lions can cause significant remobilization of sediments in the deep outer margin and the basin, with a subsequent alteration of the seabed likely impacting the functioning of the deep-sea ecosystem.

M. Stabholz; X. Durrieu de Madron; M. Canals; A. Khripounoff; I. Taupier-Letage; P. Testor; S. Heussner; P. Kerhervé; N. Delsaut; L. Houpert; G. Lastras; B. Dennielou

2013-01-01