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Domoic acid toxicity in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus): clinical signs, treatment and survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty-one Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with signs of domoic acid toxicity stranded along the coast of California in 1998 when there were blooms of the domoic acid-producing alga Pseudonitzschia australis off-shore. In 2000, a further 184 sea lions stranded with similar clinical signs, but the strandings occurred both during detectable algal blooms and after the blooms had subsided. The clinical signs in these 265 Californian sea lions included seizures, ataxia, head weaving, decreased responsiveness to stimuli and scratching behaviour. Affected animals had high haematocrits, and eosinophil counts, and high activities of serum creatine kinase. They were treated supportively by using fluid therapy, diazepam, lorazepam and phenobarbitone. Fifty-five of the 81 sea lions (68 per cent) affected in 1998 and 81 of the 184 (44 per cent) affected in 2000 died despite the treatment. Three of the 23 sea lions which survived in 1998 were tracked with satellite and radiotransmitters; they travelled as far south as San Miguel Island, California, and survived for at least three months. Eleven of the 129 animals which were released stranded within four months of being released. PMID:11995679

Gulland, F M D; Haulena, M; Fauquier, D; Langlois, G; Lander, M E; Zabka, T; Duerr, R

2002-04-13

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Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus  

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Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

Santokh Gill

2010-05-01

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Cloning and characterization of glutamate receptors in Californian sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs) speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances. PMID:20559490

Gill, Santokh; Goldstein, Tracey; Situ, Donna; Zabka, Tanja S; Gulland, Frances M D; Mueller, Rudi W

2010-01-01

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Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

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Background: Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within ...

Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Tautz, Diethard; Trillmich, Fritz

2007-01-01

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Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

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Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxono...

Bw, Wolf Jochen; Tautz Diethard; Trillmich Fritz

2007-01-01

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Sea Lion Skeleton - Nostrils  

Science.gov (United States)

The carnivorous sea lion uses its sharp pointed teeth and large mouth to shred and tear its prey. The large nose and large eyes on either side of the skull help the sea lion to detect prey. The skull protects the brain from damage and injury.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-26

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Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-27

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Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-15

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Sea Lion Skeleton - Hind limb (flipper)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions use their hind flippers to steer themselves through water. The anatomy of their limbs are very similar to humans in that they both have several joints, such as ball and socket (shoulder) and a gliding joint (wrist). They also have five toe-like digits.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-06-18

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Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

Tanabe Shinsuke

2002-12-01

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Successfully treated dermatomycosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe clinical cases caused by Microsporum gypseum in two subadult male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Dermatomycosis is uncommonly reported in pinnipeds, including this species. In these cases, skin lesions were multifocal to coalescing, involved all flippers, and were most pronounced on the ventral surfaces of flippers. They were well-demarcated, depigmented, and covered with crusts. The definitive diagnosis was obtained through microscopic examination and fungal culture of skin scrapings. Oral terbinafine and topical enilconazole were used as treatments for 65 days, and complete recovery was subsequently achieved. California sea lion, dermatomycosis, Microsporum gypseum, terbinafine, enilconazole PMID:23805567

Sós, Endre; Molnár, Viktor; Lajos, Zoltán; Koroknai, Viktória; Gál, János

2013-06-01

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Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few ?g/g to several hundreds of ?g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several ?g/g on a lipid weight basis

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Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

2004-10-01

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Sea Lion Skeleton - Hind limb (Ball and Socket Joint)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions use their hind flippers to steer themselves in water. The anatomy of their limbs is very similar to humans in that they have several joints, such as ball and socket (shoulder) and a gliding joint (wrist). They also have five toe-like digits.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

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Sea Lion Skeleton - Front limb (Ball and Socket Joint)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions use their front flippers to pull themselves through water. The anatomy of their limbs is similar to humans in that they have several joints, such as ball and socket (shoulder) and a gliding joint (wrist). They also have five finger-like digits.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Science)

2007-07-14

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Cryptococcus albidus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sporadic cases of cryptococcosis have been reported in marine mammals, typically due to Cryptococcus neoformans and, more recently, to Cryptococcus gattii in cetaceans. Cryptococcus albidus, a ubiquitous fungal species not typically considered to be pathogenic, was recovered from a juvenile California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) rescued near San Francisco Bay, California. Yeast morphologically consistent with a Cryptococcus sp. was identified histologically in a lymph node and C. albidus was identified by an rDNA sequence from the lung. Infection with C. albidus was thought to have contributed to mortality in this sea lion, along with concurrent bacterial pneumonia. Cryptococcus albidus should be considered as a potential pathogen with a role in marine mammal morbidity and mortality. PMID:23060504

Mcleland, Shannon; Duncan, Colleen; Spraker, Terry; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Lockhart, Shawn R; Gulland, Frances

2012-10-01

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Lead in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis was conducted on tissue samples taken from nineteen organs in the California sea lion, Zalophus californianus, to determine the distribution and concentration of the heavy metal lead. Lead was found to be accumulated in significantly higher concentrations in hard tissue, bone and teeth, than in soft tissue such as fat and muscle. These results are comparable with those found in man, suggesting that exposure levels of lead may be similar for terrestrial and coastal environmental communities.

Braham, H.W.

1973-01-01

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An epizootic of leptospirosis in California sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between May and December 1984, an epizootic of leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) occurred along the west coast of the United States from Monterey County, Calif, northward to Seattle, Wash. Clinical signs observed were severe depression, excessive thirst, and tucked-up posturing, with associated leukocytosis and increased globulin, BUN, and creatinine values. Effective antibiotic therapy consisted of tetracycline (22 mg/kg of body weight every 8 hours, orally) or potassium penicillin G (44,000 U/kg every 12 hours, orally or IM) for 10 to 14 days. Sixty-six sea lions were treated successfully and released. Necropsies of animals that died indicated marked kidney swelling, darkened reniculi, and poorly differentiated cortices and medullae, thick, black bile in gallbladders, thick, pale yellow pericardial fluid, and friable hemorrhagic mesentery. Primary histologic lesions were tubular nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Darkfield microscopy of kidney macerates and/or urine, and results of the microscopic agglutination test, using Leptospira serovar pomona-killed antigen led to a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis. Bacteriologic isolation and identification is ongoing. The epizootic primarily affected juvenile or subadult male California sea lions migrating northward from breeding rookeries of southern California's Channel Islands. PMID:4077625

Dierauf, L A; Vandenbroek, D J; Roletto, J; Koski, M; Amaya, L; Gage, L J

1985-12-01

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Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type. PMID:20959994

Gläser, Nele; Wieskotten, Sven; Otter, Christian; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

2011-02-01

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800  

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Full Text Available Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario González

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario González; Maria Paz Villanueva; Lies Debruyne; Peter Vandamme; Heriberto Fernández

2011-01-01

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Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3-5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years. PMID:23419822

Prager, K C; Greig, Denise J; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Hornsby, Richard L; Palmer, Lauren J; Soper, Jennifer; Wu, Qingzhong; Zuerner, Richard L; Gulland, Frances M D; Lloyd-Smith, James O

2013-05-31

23

Aerial audiograms of several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) measured using single and multiple simultaneous auditory steady-state response methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of the electrophysiological auditory steady-state response (ASSR) have proven to be efficient for evaluating hearing sensitivity in odontocete cetaceans. In an effort to expand these methods to pinnipeds, ASSRs elicited by single and multiple simultaneous tones were used to measure aerial hearing thresholds in several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). There were no significant differences between thresholds measured using the single and multiple ASSR methods, despite the more rapid nature of data collection using the multiple ASSR method. There was a high degree of variability in ASSR thresholds among subjects; thresholds covered a range of ?40 dB at each tested frequency. As expected, ASSR thresholds were elevated relative to previously reported psychophysical thresholds for California and Steller sea lions. The features of high-frequency hearing limit and relative sensitivity of most ASSR audiograms were, however, similar to those of psychophysical audiograms, suggesting that ASSR methods can be used to improve understanding of hearing demographics in sea lions, especially with respect to high-frequency hearing. Thresholds for one Steller sea lion were substantially elevated relative to all other subjects, demonstrating that ASSR methods can be used to detect hearing loss in sea lions. PMID:21389199

Mulsow, Jason; Reichmuth, Colleen; Gulland, Frances; Rosen, David A S; Finneran, James J

2011-04-01

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No evidence of metabolic depression in Western Alaskan juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N?=?91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d(-1) and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

Hoopes, Lisa A; Rea, Lorrie D; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A J

2014-01-01

25

Geographical dissemination of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona during seasonal migration of California sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread bacterial zoonoses in the world and affects most mammalian species. Although leptospirosis is well documented and characterized in terrestrial species, less information is available regarding the distribution and impact of leptospirosis in marine mammals. Additionally, the role of animal migrations on the geographical spread of leptospirosis has not been reported. Periodic epizootic outbreaks of acute leptospirosis among California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have been reported since 1971. In this study, we collected samples from California sea lions stranded along the Pacific coast of North America during the most recent epidemic in 2004, and maintained leptospirosis surveillance of the California sea lion population along the California coast through 2007. Several isolates of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona were obtained from kidney and urine samples collected during this study, a finding consistent with serological evidence that California sea lions are persistently exposed to this leptospiral serovar. Combined, these data support a model whereby California sea lions are maintenance hosts for L. interrogans serovar Pomona, yet periodically undergo outbreaks of acute infection. During the 2004 outbreak, the incidence of new leptospirosis cases among California sea lions coincided with the seasonal movement of male sea lions from rookeries along the coast of central and southern California north as far as British Columbia. These data show that seasonal animal movement contributes to the distribution of leptospirosis across a large geographical region. PMID:19186009

Zuerner, Richard L; Cameron, Caroline E; Raverty, Stephen; Robinson, John; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Norman, Stephanie A; Lambourn, Dyanna; Jeffries, Steven; Alt, David P; Gulland, Frances

2009-05-28

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Novel anellovirus discovered from a mortality event of captive California sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A viral metagenomic study was performed to investigate potential viral pathogens associated with a mortality event of three captive California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). This study identified a novel California sea lion anellovirus (ZcAV), with 35 % amino acid identity in the ORF1 region to feline anelloviruses. The double-stranded replicative form of ZcAV was detected in lung tissue, suggesting that ZcAV replicates in sea lion lungs. Specific PCR revealed the presence of ZcAV in the lung tissue of all three sea lions involved in the mortality event, but not in three other sea lions from the same zoo. In addition, ZcAV was detected at low frequency (11 %) in the lungs of wild sea lions. The higher prevalence of ZcAV and presence of the double-stranded replicative form in the lungs of sea lions from the mortality event suggest that ZcAV was associated with the death of these animals. PMID:19264590

Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Suedmeyer, Wm Kirk; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Gulland, Frances; Breitbart, Mya

2009-05-01

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Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Nissl-stained neurons per hippocampus in the granule cell layer, hilus, and pyramidal cell layer of CA3, CA2, and CA1 subfields. Adjacent sections were processed for somatostatin immunoreactivity or Timm-stained, and the extent of mossy fiber sprouting was measured stereologically. Chronic DA sea lions displayed hippocampal neuron loss in patterns and extents similar but not identical to those reported previously for human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similar to human patients, hippocampal sclerosis in sea lions was unilateral in 79% of cases, mossy fiber sprouting was a common neuropathological abnormality, and somatostatin-immunoreactive axons were exuberant in the dentate gyrus despite loss of immunopositive hilar neurons. Thus, hippocampal neuropathology of chronic DA sea lions is similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24638960

Buckmaster, Paul S; Wen, Xiling; Toyoda, Izumi; Gulland, Frances M D; Van Bonn, William

2014-05-01

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Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Science.gov (United States)

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are abundant human-sized carnivores with large gyrencephalic brains. They develop epilepsy after experiencing status epilepticus when naturally exposed to domoic acid. We tested whether sea lions previously exposed to DA (chronic DA sea lions) display hippocampal neuropathology similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Hippocampi were obtained from control and chronic DA sea lions. Stereology was used to estimate numbers of Nissl-stained neurons per hippocampus in the granule cell layer, hilus, and the pyramidal cell layer of CA3, CA2, and CA1 subfields. Adjacent sections were processed for somatostatin-immunoreactivity or Timm-stained, and the extent of mossy fiber sprouting was measured stereologically. Chronic DA sea lions displayed hippocampal neuron loss in patterns and extents similar but not identical to those reported previously for human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similar to human patients, hippocampal sclerosis in sea lions was unilateral in 79% of cases, mossy fiber sprouting was a common neuropathological abnormality, and somatostatin-immunoreactive axons were exuberant in the dentate gyrus despite loss of immunopositive hilar neurons. Thus, hippocampal neuropathology of chronic DA sea lions is similar to that of human patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24638960

Buckmaster, Paul S.; Wen, Xiling; Toyoda, Izumi; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Van Bonn, William

2014-01-01

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Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

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Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including dioxin-like congeners, as well as DDTs and hexachlorobenzene. Summed values of PCBs (sigmaPCBs), of DDTs (sigmaDDTs), and of PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were calculated from these data. The ratios of mean blubber concentrations of fetal sigmaPCBs to maternal blubber concentrations of sigmaPCBs were 0.45 by wet weight and 0.97 by lipid weight, but these ratios varied widely among mother-fetus pairs. Mean ratios of fetal sigmaDDTs to maternal sigmaDDTs were 0.53 by wet weight and 1.12 by lipid weight. Fetuses were classified into two age groups, based on date of recovery, to examine differences in OC transfer because of gestational age. Fetal to maternal ratios for individual PCB congeners, DDT compounds, and sigmaPCBs, sigmaDDTs, and sigmaPCB TEQs were lower among premature compared with late-term fetuses. These ratios increased for both groups as the logarithmic n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) for each compound decreased. Linear predictions for sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in fetal blubber could be obtained using the sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in maternal blubber, maternal and fetal blubber lipid content, maternal mass, and maternal age. Fetal TEQ was explained by maternal TEQ and maternal age. The ability to predict contaminant concentrations in fetal blubber from maternal parameters is important for developing risk assessment models for marine mammals. PMID:17269457

Greig, Denise J; Ylitalo, Gina M; Hall, Ailsa J; Fauquier, Deborah A; Gulland, Frances

2007-01-01

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and [...] molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario, González; Maria Paz, Villanueva; Lies, Debruyne; Peter, Vandamme; Heriberto, Fernández.

2011-03-01

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and [...] molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario, González; Maria Paz, Villanueva; Lies, Debruyne; Peter, Vandamme; Heriberto, Fernández.

33

Multicentric neurofibromatosis with rectal prolapse in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

An approximately 31-yr-old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a history of chronic visual impairment and corneal disease presented with slow onset, progressive neurologic deficits. Treatment for rear flipper paresis was not effective and the animal was euthanatized. Histopathologic findings included hepatocellular and biliary neoplasia, ocular amyloidosis, adrenal adenoma and pheochromocytoma, and spinal cord changes consistent with multicentric neurofibromatosis. This is the first documentation of these conditions in a California sea lion. PMID:22448517

Rush, Elizabeth M; Ogburn, Anna L; Garner, Michael M

2012-03-01

34

Isolation of a novel adenovirus from California sea lions Zalophus californianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viral hepatitis associated with adenoviral infection has been reported in California sea lions Zalophus californianus admitted to rehabilitation centers along the California coast since the 1970s. Canine adenovirus 1 (CAdV-1) causes viral hepatitis in dogs and infects a number of wildlife species. Attempts to isolate the virus from previous sea lion hepatitis cases were unsuccessful, but as the hepatitis had morphologic features resembling canine infectious hepatitis, and since the virus has a wide host range, it was thought that perhaps the etiologic agent was CAdV-1. Here, we identify a novel adenovirus in 2 stranded California sea lions and associate the infection with viral hepatitis and endothelial cell infection. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the classification of the sea lion adenovirus in the Mastadenovirus genus with the most similarity to tree shrew adenovirus 1 (TSAdV-1, 77%). However, as the sea lion adenovirus appeared to be equally distant from the other Mastadenovirus species based on phylogenetic analysis, results indicate that it represents an independent lineage and species. Although sequences from this novel virus, otarine adenovirus 1 (OtAdV-1), show some similarity to CAdV-1 and 2, it is clearly distinct and likely the cause of the viral hepatitis in the stranded California sea lions. PMID:21790072

Goldstein, T; Colegrove, K M; Hanson, M; Gulland, F M D

2011-05-01

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The SeaLion has Landed: An IDE for Answer-Set Programming---Preliminary Report  

CERN Document Server

We report about the current state and designated features of the tool SeaLion, aimed to serve as an integrated development environment (IDE) for answer-set programming (ASP). A main goal of SeaLion is to provide a user-friendly environment for supporting a developer to write, evaluate, debug, and test answer-set programs. To this end, new support techniques have to be developed that suit the requirements of the answer-set semantics and meet the constraints of practical applicability. In this respect, SeaLion benefits from the research results of a project on methods and methodologies for answer-set program development in whose context SeaLion is realised. Currently, the tool provides source-code editors for the languages of Gringo and DLV that offer syntax highlighting, syntax checking, and a visual program outline. Further implemented features are support for external solvers and visualisation as well as visual editing of answer sets. SeaLion comes as a plugin of the popular Eclipse platform and provides its...

Oetsch, Johannes; Tompits, Hans

2011-01-01

36

Antemortem diagnosis of a ventricular septal defect in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus.  

Science.gov (United States)

A yearling California sea lion Zalophus californianus stranded in poor body condition, and on physical examination a heart murmur was audible bilaterally. The sea lion was diagnosed with a left-to-right shunting membranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) using B-mode, color-flow Doppler and continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. A left-to-right intracardiac shunting lesion was confirmed during cardiac angiographic computed tomography. The VSD defect was verified during the necropsy examination. On histologic examination concurrent mild multifocal myocarditis with focal mild ventricular free-wall myocardial necrosis were identified. A specific cause for the myocarditis and myocardial necrosis was not found, and association with the VSD and resultant myocardial dysfunction was presumed. This is the first report of the antemortem diagnosis of a VSD in a marine mammal and the first report of a VSD in a California sea lion. PMID:21553571

Dennison, Sophie E; Van Bonn, William; Boor, Marjorie; Adams, James; Pussini, Nicola; Spraker, Terry; Gulland, Frances M D

2011-03-16

37

Dental pathology of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Skulls from 1,085 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined macroscopically according to defined criteria. The museum specimens, 61.8% male and 37.3% female, were acquired from strandings and varied in age from juvenile to adult. The majority of teeth were available for examination (95.7%); 3.8% of teeth were artefactually absent, 0.4% deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.1% were congenitally absent. Acquired tooth loss was associated significantly with sex (P = 0.004) with males having more tooth loss than females and total ante-mortem tooth loss was associated significantly with age (P <0.0001) with adults having more tooth loss than young adults and juveniles. Eleven teeth were malformed and 81 teeth were observed to have two roots. Supernumerary teeth (usually maxillary molar teeth) were associated with 1.3% of teeth, some specimens demonstrating up to four supernumerary teeth. Thirteen persistent deciduous teeth were identified. A total of 713 specimens showed attrition or abrasion, with 42.4% of teeth affected. A significant association was detected between sex and incidence of abrasion and age and the incidence of abrasion (P <0.0001 for both associations). Males showed more abrasion than females and adults showed more abrasion than young adults or juveniles. Two hundred and sixteen fractured teeth were observed, with root fractures being most prevalent. Fractures were associated significantly with sex and with age (P <0.0001 for each association). Males had more fractures than females and adults had more fractures than young adults and juveniles. Bony changes consistent with periodontitis were found, affecting 19.4% of teeth. Males were shown to have more periodontitis than females and adults were shown to have more periodontitis than young adults and juveniles. Sixty-three periapical lesions were noted. PMID:24725510

Sinai, N L; Dadaian, R H; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

2014-07-01

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The Foraging Ecology of South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens) on the Patagonian Shelf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to elucidate the foraging ecology of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) on the Patagonian shelf. Data from satellite tags revealed that male sea lions use a much larger part of the shelf than females and often reach areas close to the shelf break, which may be related to the highly productive shelf break front. The data also showed a high site fidelity, both towards feeding grounds and haul-out sites. Calculations of food consumption revealed that the impac...

Mu?ller, Gabriele

2004-01-01

39

77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

...management should specifically consider sea lion needs in their...Monitoring Plan that we consider adequate mechanisms for...National Wildlife Refuge, Olympic National Park, Farallon...Department of Fish and Game discussed the Recovery...Department of Fish and Game have outreach...

2012-04-18

40

Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst-forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal. PMID:22091999

Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Wasmuth, James D; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

An adult female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) that stranded in central California was found to have a small glossal polypoid mass on gross necropsy. Histologically, the mass was consistent with a fibropapilloma, and intranuclear inclusions were found within endothelial cells lining small arterioles within the mass. Electron microscopy revealed 40-nm virions within endothelial intranuclear inclusions. Rolling circle amplification was used to obtain a partial viral genomic sequence. Sequence analysis identified the virus as a novel polyomavirus, tentatively named California sea lion polyomavirus 1. In addition, the sea lion had a severely thickened small intestine and swollen pale kidneys on gross examination. Severe renal amyloidosis with chronic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed histologically as well as T-cell intestinal lymphoma, which was confirmed via immunophenotyping and molecular clonality. The relationship, if any, between polyomavirus infection and the other disease processes in this sea lion is not known, but it is considered unlikely that the polyomavirus induced the lymphoma. PMID:20622238

Colegrove, Kathleen M; Wellehan, James F X; Rivera, Rebecca; Moore, Peter F; Gulland, Frances M D; Lowenstine, Linda J; Nordhausen, Robert W; Nollens, Hendrik H

2010-07-01

42

p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely that the sediments impacted by the Whites Point outfall were the source of much of the DDE and PCBs in these animals.

Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

2002-05-01

43

JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800) IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)...

Davis Cortegana-Arias; José Iannacone

2012-01-01

44

Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73). Artificial neural networks (ANN) were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20). <...

Neely Benjamin A; Soper Jennifer L; Greig Denise J; Carlin Kevin P; Favre Elizabeth G; Md, Gulland Frances; Almeida Jonas S; Janech Michael G

2012-01-01

45

Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus: lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3 was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus, and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coats from 87 stranded and managed collection sea lions. Stranded sea lions had a higher prevalence of OtHV3 compared to managed collection sea lions (34.9% versus 12.5%; p = 0.04, and among the stranded sea lions, yearlings were most likely to be positive. Future epidemiological studies comparing the presence and viral loads of OtHV3 among a larger population of California sea lions with and without lymphoid neoplasia or esophageal ulcers would help elucidate the relevance of OtHV3-associated pathologies to these groups.

Venn-Watson Stephanie

2012-12-01

46

Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3) was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coats from 87 stranded and managed collection sea lions. Stranded sea lions had a higher prevalence of OtHV3 compared to managed collection sea lions (34.9% versus 12.5%; p = 0.04), and among the stranded sea lions, yearlings were most likely to be positive. Future epidemiological studies comparing the presence and viral loads of OtHV3 among a larger population of California sea lions with and without lymphoid neoplasia or esophageal ulcers would help elucidate the relevance of OtHV3-associated pathologies to these groups. PMID:23234600

Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Benham, Celeste; Gulland, Frances M; Smith, Cynthia R; St Leger, Judy; Yochem, Pam; Nollens, Hendrik; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Saliki, Jeremiah; Colegrove, Katie; Wellehan, James Fx; Rivera, Rebecca

2012-01-01

47

Delayed onset of vocal recognition in Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea)  

Science.gov (United States)

In pinnipeds, maternal care strategies and colony density may influence a species’ individual recognition system. We examined the onset of vocal recognition of mothers by Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea). At 2 months of age, pups responded significantly more to the calls of their own mothers than alien female calls demonstrating a finely tuned recognition system. However, newborn pups did not respond differentially to the calls of their mother from alien female calls suggesting that vocal recognition had not yet developed or is not yet expressed. These findings are in stark contrast to other otariid species where pups learn their mother’s voice before their first separation. Variance in colony density, pup movements, and natal site fidelity may have reduced selective pressures on call recognition in young sea lions, or alternatively, another sensory system may be used for recognition in the early stage of life.

Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Ahonen, Heidi; Harcourt, Robert G.; Charrier, Isabelle

2009-08-01

48

Normal morphology and hormone receptor expression in the male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) genital tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histomorphology and estrogen alpha (ER alpha), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and PRs were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In some tissues, ER alpha expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone-mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER alpha and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract. PMID:19768750

Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

2009-11-01

49

Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A tumour located in the pectoral region and the left front flipper was observed in a 29-year-old female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) that died following signs of respiratory disease and inappetence. Metastases were present in the lung and adrenal gland. The histological pattern of the tumour was variable. In some areas the tumour consisted of pleomorphic fibroblast-like cells arranged in a storiform pattern, while in other areas it comprised oval or polygonal cells with round to oval nuclei and some bizarre cells arranged in an alveolar pattern. Occasionally, multinucleated giant cells were observed. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells only expressed vimentin. On the basis of the microscopical and immunohistochemical features the tumour was diagnosed as an undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma. This type of neoplasm with disseminated involvement of other organs is rare in all species and has never been reported in California sea lions. PMID:20708196

Martínez-Fernández, B; García-Iglesias, M J; Borragán-Santos, S; Espinosa-Alvarez, J; Pérez-Martínez, C

2011-01-01

50

Infection of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with terrestrial Brucella spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections with Brucella ceti and pinnipedialis are prevalent in marine mammals worldwide. A total of 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined to determine their exposure to Brucella spp. at San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in June and July 2011. Although samples of blood, vaginal mucus and milk cultured negative for these bacteria, the application of rose Bengal, agar gel immunodiffusion, PCR and modified fluorescence polarization assays found that five animals (22.7%) had evidence of exposure to Brucella strains. The data also suggested that in two of these five sea lions the strains involved were of terrestrial origin, a novel finding in marine mammals. Further work will be required to validate and determine the epidemiological significance of this finding. PMID:25066000

Avalos-Téllez, Rosalía; Ramírez-Pfeiffer, Carlos; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén; Sánchez-Domínguez, Carlos; Zavala-Norzagaray, Alan; Arellano-Reynoso, Beatriz; Suárez-Güemes, Francisco; Aguirre, A Alonso; Aurioles-Gamboa, David

2014-10-01

51

Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring.

Harper, Erin R. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States)]. E-mail: erin-harper@hotmail.com; St Leger, Judy A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Westberg, Jody A. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Mazzaro, Lisa [Mystic Aquarium and Institute for Exploration, 55 Coogan Blvd, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Schmitt, Todd [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Reidarson, Tom H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Tucker, Melinda [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Cross, Dee H. [SeaWorld San Diego, 500 SeaWorld Drive, San Diego, CA 92109 (United States); Puschner, Birgit [California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2007-06-15

52

Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring

53

Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

WilliamGeorgeVan Bonn

2013-01-01

54

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination wi...

Artico, L. O.; Bianchini, A.; Grubel, K. S.; Monteiro, D. S.; Estima, S. C.; Oliveira, L. R.; Bonatto, S. L.; Marins, L. F.

2010-01-01

55

Deep-diving sea lions exhibit extreme bradycardia in long-duration dives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart rate and peripheral blood flow distribution are the primary determinants of the rate and pattern of oxygen store utilisation and ultimately breath-hold duration in marine endotherms. Despite this, little is known about how otariids (sea lions and fur seals) regulate heart rate (fH) while diving. We investigated dive fH in five adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) during foraging trips by instrumenting them with digital electrocardiogram (ECG) loggers and time depth recorders. In all dives, dive fH (number of beats/duration; 50±9 beats min(-1)) decreased compared with surface rates (113±5 beats min(-1)), with all dives exhibiting an instantaneous fH below resting (100 m) consisted of: (1) an initial rapid decline in fH resulting in the lowest instantaneous fH of the dive at the end of descent, often below 10 beats min(-1) in dives longer than 6 min in duration; (2) a slight increase in fH to ~10-40 beats min(-1) during the bottom portion of the dive; and (3) a gradual increase in fH during ascent with a rapid increase prior to surfacing. Thus, fH regulation in deep-diving sea lions is not simply a progressive bradycardia. Extreme bradycardia and the presumed associated reductions in pulmonary and peripheral blood flow during late descent of deep dives should (a) contribute to preservation of the lung oxygen store, (b) increase dependence of muscle on the myoglobin-bound oxygen store, (c) conserve the blood oxygen store and (d) help limit the absorption of nitrogen at depth. This fH profile during deep dives of sea lions may be characteristic of deep-diving marine endotherms that dive on inspiration as similar fH profiles have been recently documented in the emperor penguin, another deep diver that dives on inspiration. PMID:24790100

McDonald, Birgitte I; Ponganis, Paul J

2014-05-01

56

Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria sanguinis) infection in free-ranging Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the fundamental factors influencing the epidemiology of wildlife disease is essential to determining the impact of disease on individual health and population dynamics. The host-pathogen-environment relationship of the endangered Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) and the parasitic hookworm, Uncinaria sanguinis, was investigated in neonatal pups during summer and winter breeding seasons at two biogeographically disparate colonies in South Australia. The endemic occurrence of hookworm infection in Australian sea lion pups at these sites was 100% and post-parturient transmammary transmission is likely the predominant route of hookworm infection for pups. The prepatent period for U. sanguinis in Australian sea lion pups was determined to be 11-14 days and the duration of infection approximately 2-3 months. The mean hookworm infection intensity in pups found dead was 2138?±?552 (n?=?86), but a significant relationship between infection intensity and faecal egg count was not identified; infection intensity in live pups could not be estimated from faecal samples. Fluctuations in infection intensity corresponded to oscillations in the magnitude of colony pup mortality, that is, higher infection intensity was significantly associated with higher colony pup mortality and reduced pup body condition. The dynamic interaction between colony, season, and host behaviour is hypothesised to modulate hookworm infection intensity in this species. This study provides a new perspective to understanding the dynamics of otariid hookworm infection and provides evidence that U. sanguinis is a significant agent of disease in Australian sea lion pups and could play a role in population regulation in this species. PMID:25056940

Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gray, Rachael

2014-09-01

57

Gas Bubble Disease in the Brain of a Living California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of 4?months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. In humans, the cerebellum is known to be essential for automating practiced movement patterns (e.g., learning to touch-type), also known as procedural learning or the consolidation of "motor memory." To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events. PMID:23372553

Van Bonn, William; Dennison, Sophie; Cook, Peter; Fahlman, Andreas

2013-01-01

58

Artificial language comprehension and size transposition by a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A variation of the conditional discrimination procedure defines relations between stimuli (for example, gestural signs and their referents), and it has been used to study language comprehension in California sea lions. The animals followed instructions given by a trainer's gestures designating properties of size, brightness, and location (adjectives), types of objects (nouns), and actions (verbs). The signs can be combined and recombined according to a conditional sequence or syntax. In this study, we sought to determine whether adjectives for size had an absolute meaning, that is, small and large, as well as a comparative meaning, that is, smaller and larger. A sea lion, Rocky, was given experience with signs designating standard small and large spheres in commands like LARGE BALL MOUTH. On transposition tests, the small ball was removed and the previously designated large ball was paired with an even larger one. The results showed that the adjectives had both an absolute and a relative meaning. Object choices and searching behavior revealed that the sea lion processed information about the relation of size as well as about the specific characteristics of the sizes of spheres that instantiated the relations. PMID:3802779

Schusterman, R J; Krieger, K

1986-12-01

59

The kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during forward swimming.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the two-dimensional kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during thrust generation, a digital, high-definition video is obtained using a non-research female sea lion at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. The observational videos are used to extract maneuvers of interest-forward acceleration from rest using the foreflippers and banked turns. Single camera videos are analyzed to digitize the flipper during the motions using 10 points spanning root to tip in each frame. Digitized shapes were then fitted with an empirical function that quantitatively allows for both comparison between different claps, and for extracting kinematic data. The resulting function shows a high degree of curvature (with a camber of up to 32%). Analysis of sea lion acceleration from rest shows thrust production in the range of [Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text] and maximum flipper angular velocity (for rotation about the shoulder joint) as high as [Formula: see text]. Analysis of turning maneuvers indicate extreme agility and precision of movement driven by the foreflipper surfaces. PMID:25378293

Friedman, C; Leftwich, M C

2014-01-01

60

Methods for estimating spatial trends in Steller sea lion pup production using the Kalman filter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many species exhibit spatially varying trends in population size and status, often driven by differences among factors affecting individual subpopulations. Estimation and differentiation of such trends may be important for management, and a driving force for monitoring programs. The ability to estimate spatial differences in population trend may depend on assumptions regarding connectivity among subpopulations (stock structure or spatial overlap in stressors), information that is often poorly known. Linear state-space models using the Kalman filter were developed, tested, and applied for trend estimation of pup production for the western Alaska stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), given only count data. Models were able to estimate trends and abundance even when data were missing. Models that assumed spatial correlation in trend among rookeries were more robust to stock structure assumptions when the stock structure was potentially mis-specified. High levels of spatial correlation among rookeries estimated from Steller sea lion pup count data are consistent with large-scale covariance of population trend within the Steller sea lion metapopulation. PMID:24147416

Fay, Gavin; Punt, André E

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Cross-modal transitivity in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of an experimentally experienced female California sea lion to form transitive relations across sensory modalities was tested using a matching-to-sample procedure. The subject was trained by trial-and-error, using differential reinforcement, to relate an acoustic sample stimulus to one member from each of two previously established visual classes. Once the two auditory-visual relations were formed, she was tested to determine whether untrained transitive relations would emerge between each of the acoustic stimuli and the remaining stimuli of each 10-member visual class. During testing, the sea lion demonstrated immediate transfer by responding correctly on 89% of the 18 novel transfer trials compared to 88% on familiar baseline trials. We then repeated this training and transfer procedure twice more with new auditory-visual pairings with similar positive results. Finally, the six explicitly trained auditory-visual relations and the 56 derived auditory-visual relations were intermixed in a single session, and the subject's performance remained stable at high levels. This sea lion's transfer performance indicates that a nonhuman animal is capable of forming new associations through cross-modal transitivity. PMID:24337783

Lindemann-Biolsi, Kristy L; Reichmuth, Colleen

2014-07-01

62

Classification across the senses: Auditory-visual cognitive performance in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)  

Science.gov (United States)

The model of stimulus equivalence describes how perceptually dissimilar stimuli can become interrelated to form useful categories both within and between the sensory modalities. A recent experiment expanded upon prior work with a California sea lion by examining stimulus classification across the auditory and visual modalities. Acoustic stimuli were associated with an exemplar from one of two pre-existing visual classes in a matching-to-sample paradigm. After direct training of these associations, the sea lion showed spontaneous transfer of the new auditory stimuli to the remaining members of the visual classes. The sea lion's performance on this cross-modal equivalence task was similar to that shown by human subjects in studies of emergent word learning and reading comprehension. Current research with the same animal further examines how stimulus classes can be expanded across modalities. Fast-mapping techniques are used to rapidly establish new auditory-visual relationships between acoustic cues and multiple arbitrary visual stimuli. Collectively, this research illustrates complex cross-modal performances in a highly experienced subject and provides insight into how animals organize information from multiple sensory modalities into meaningful representations.

Lindemann, Kristy L.; Reichmuth-Kastak, Colleen; Schusterman, Ronald J.

2005-09-01

63

PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (?PCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ?PCBs and ?PCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between nia sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

64

Novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemoplasmas are the trivial name for a group of erythrocyte-parasitizing, non-cultivable in vitro bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma that have been described in several mammalian hosts worldwide. This study is the first report of hemoplasmas in marine mammals. EDTA anticoagulated whole blood samples from 137 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and 20 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to the Marine Mammal Center (Sausalito, CA; www.marinemammalcenter.org) or live captured in Oregon were collected during 2008. Hemoplasma-specific genomic DNA was detected in blood samples from 12.4% California sea lions tested using PCR. Hemoplasma PCR positive blood specimens also were tested in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the hemoplasma-specific primers for the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. The RT-PCR showed the presence the hemoplasmal rRNA, strongly suggesting the presence of potentially viable hemoplasmas in the bloodstream of the animals. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences of the hemoplasma from California sea lions revealed that the organism is a novel hemoplasma species with only 92.1% of its nucleotide similarity to the 16S rRNA gene of the previously described hemoplasma species of alpacas, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae. Thus, due to low level of genetic similarity of the hemoplasma to other described hemoplasmas and the mammalian host in which the hemoplasma was detected we propose that this novel hemoplasma species has been given the provisional name Candidatus Mycoplasma haemozalophi sp. nov. PMID:21111543

Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Norris, Tenaya; Rios, Carlos; Davidson, Maureen K; Messick, Joanne B; Gulland, Frances M; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

2011-04-21

65

Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics. PMID:23351022

Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

2013-05-01

66

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium occurrence in Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) exposed to varied levels of human interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Giardia and Cryptosporidium are amongst the most common protozoan parasites identified as causing enteric disease in pinnipeds. A number of Giardia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes are common in humans and terrestrial mammals and have also been identified in marine mammals. To investigate the occurrence of these parasites in an endangered marine mammal, the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea), genomic DNA was extracted from faecal samples collected from wild populations (n?=?271) in Southern and Western Australia and three Australian captive populations (n?=?19). These were screened using PCR targeting the 18S rRNA of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Giardia duodenalis was detected in 28 wild sea lions and in seven captive individuals. Successful sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene assigned 27 Giardia isolates to assemblage B and one to assemblage A, both assemblages commonly found in humans. Subsequent screening at the gdh and ?-giardin loci resulted in amplification of only one of the 35 18S rRNA positive samples at the ?-giardin locus. Sequencing at the ?-giardin locus assigned the assemblage B 18S rRNA confirmed isolate to assemblage AI. The geographic distribution of sea lion populations sampled in relation to human settlements indicated that Giardia presence in sea lions was highest in populations less than 25?km from humans. Cryptosporidium was not detected by PCR screening in either wild colonies or captive sea lion populations. These data suggest that the presence of G. duodenalis in the endangered Australian sea lion is likely the result of dispersal from human sources. Multilocus molecular analyses are essential for the determination of G. duodenalis assemblages and subsequent inferences on transmission routes to endangered marine mammal populations. PMID:25426423

Delport, Tiffany C.; Asher, Amy J.; Beaumont, Linda J.; Webster, Koa N.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Power, Michelle L.

2014-01-01

67

Neuroanatomy and volumes of brain structures of a live California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) from magnetic resonance images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) has been a focal point for sensory, communication, cognition, and neurological disease studies in marine mammals. However, as a scientific community, we lack a noninvasive approach to investigate the anatomy and size of brain structures in this species and other free-ranging, live marine mammals. In this article, we provide the first anatomically labeled, magnetic resonance imaging-based atlas derived from a live marine mammal, the California sea lion. The brain of the California seal lion contained more secondary gyri and sulci than the brains of terrestrial carnivores. The olfactory bulb was present but small. The hippocampus of the California sea lion was found mostly in the ventral position with very little extension dorsally, quite unlike the canids and the mustelids, in which the hippocampus is present in the ventral position but extends dorsally above the thalamus. In contrast to the canids and the mustelids, the pineal gland of the California sea lion was strikingly large. In addition, we report three-dimensional reconstructions and volumes of cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral ventricles, total white matter (WM), total gray matter (GM), cerebral hemispheres (WM and GM), cerebellum and brainstem combined (WM and GM), and hippocampal structures all derived from magnetic resonance images. These measurements are the first to be determined for any pinniped species. In California sea lions, this approach can be used not only to relate cognitive and sensory capabilities to brain size but also to investigate the neurological effects of exposure to neurotoxins such as domoic acid. PMID:19768743

Montie, Eric W; Pussini, Nicola; Schneider, Gerald E; Battey, Thomas W K; Dennison, Sophie; Barakos, Jerome; Gulland, Frances

2009-10-01

68

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe L [...] este da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

L.O., Artico; A., Bianchini; K.S., Grubel; D.S., Monteiro; S.C., Estima; L.R., de Oliveira; S.L., Bonatto; L.F., Marins.

2010-09-01

69

Senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy in an aged California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Senile plaques (SPs) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) consisting of ?-amyloid (A?) are major features in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and elderly humans and animals. In this study, we report the finding of SPs and CAA in an aged sea lion (30 years), which is the first demonstration of AD-related pathological changes in a marine animal. Histologically, SPs were observed at the cerebral cortex, most frequently at the frontal lobe, with two morphologically different types: the small round type and the large granular type. Only the small round SPs were positive for Congo red staining. The SPs were equally immunoreactive to A?40 and A?42 and were mainly composed of A? with an N-terminal pyroglutamate residue at position 3. Amyloid depositions at vessel walls were noted at the meninges and within the parenchyma. Interestingly, double immunofluorescence staining for A?40 and A?42 showed that the two subtypes were deposited segmentally in different parts of the vessel walls. The lesions observed in the sea lion suggest that A? deposition is widely present in various animal species, including marine mammals; however, the peculiar deposits similar to cotton wool plaques and the specific pattern of CAA are characteristic features of this animal. PMID:24779910

Takahashi, Erika; Kuribayashi, Hiroyuki; Chambers, James Kenn; Imamura, Emi; Une, Yumi

2014-09-01

70

Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

2013-06-01

71

The binaural click-evoked auditory brainstem response of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) elicited by high-amplitude [100 dB re 20 ?Pa, peak-to-peak equivalent sound pressure level (peSPL)] aerial broadband clicks were collected from seven California sea lions in order to provide a basic description of short-latency auditory evoked potentials in this species. The waveform of the ABR was similar to that of other mammals, comprising seven positive and six negative characteristic waves. Variability in the amplitudes and latencies of waves was higher among subjects than the variability in within-subject repeated measurements. ABRs to progressively attenuated clicks were collected for three additional sea lions. Wave amplitudes decreased and latencies increased with decreasing stimulus level, with only the sixth positive wave visible near threshold (35-40 dB peSPL). Based on observations of wave latency as a function of stimulus amplitude, the sixth positive wave of the ABR is equivalent to the clinically important "wave V" identified in studies with humans. The current results provide information on the basic electrophysiology of the pinniped auditory system, including the processes that underlie brainstem auditory steady-state responses used to measure frequency-specific hearing sensitivity. PMID:23297929

Mulsow, Jason; Reichmuth, Colleen

2013-01-01

72

Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

73

Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Military sonar has the potential to negatively impact marine mammals. To investigate factors affecting behavioral disruption in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study using a simulated tactical sonar signal (1 s duration, 3250-3450 Hz) as a stimulus. Subjects were placed into groups of three and each group received a stimulus exposure of 125, 140, 155, 170, or 185 dB re: 1 ?Pa (rms). Each subject was trained to swim across an enclosure, touch a paddle, and return to the start location. Sound exposures occurred at the mid-point of the enclosure. Control and exposure sessions were run consecutively and each consisted of ten, 30-s trials. The occurrence and severity of behavioral responses were used to create acoustic dose-response and dose-severity functions. Age of the subject significantly affected the dose-response relationship, but not the dose-severity relationship. Repetitive exposures did not affect the dose-response relationship. PMID:24183102

Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Stephen W; Finneran, James J

2013-12-01

74

Characterization of San Miguel sea lion virus populations using pyrosequencing-based methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

San Miguel Sea Lion Virus (SMSV) is a small RNA virus in the genus Vesivirus with an unusually broad host range. Three populations of SMSV were examined by PCR amplification of the capsid precursor and putative helicase genes, followed by pyrosequencing. The populations were nasal swabs from two SMSV infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from two different years, and a virus isolate from the earlier swab that was passaged in cell culture five times. In the capsid precursor, extensive deletions were prevalent in the passaged virus but uncommon in the clinical samples. A greater prevalence of point mutations was seen in the capsid precursor gene than in the putative helicase gene. In culture, the minority sequence in the capsid precursor at nucleotide position 5826 rapidly shifted after five passages to become the majority sequence. Levels of diversity at individual sites showed much more similarity between the two clinical samples than between the earlier clinical sample and the passaged culture from the same sample. SMSV appears to behave as a quasispecies. Assessment of original patient samples is preferable for understanding clinical SMSV populations. PMID:19931646

Wellehan, James F X; Yu, Fahong; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Farmerie, William G; Nollens, Hendrik H

2010-03-01

75

Auditory detection of ultrasonic coded transmitters by seals and sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ultrasonic coded transmitters (UCTs) are high-frequency acoustic tags that are often used to conduct survivorship studies of vulnerable fish species. Recent observations of differential mortality in tag control studies suggest that fish instrumented with UCTs may be selectively targeted by marine mammal predators, thereby skewing valuable survivorship data. In order to better understand the ability of pinnipeds to detect UCT outputs, behavioral high-frequency hearing thresholds were obtained from a trained harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a trained California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Thresholds were measured for extended (500?ms) and brief (10?ms) 69?kHz narrowband stimuli, as well as for a stimulus recorded directly from a Vemco V16-3H UCT, which consisted of eight 10?ms, 69?kHz pure-tone pulses. Detection thresholds for the harbor seal were as expected based on existing audiometric data for this species, while the California sea lion was much more sensitive than predicted. Given measured detection thresholds of 113?dB re 1??Pa and 124?dB re 1??Pa, respectively, both species are likely able to detect acoustic outputs of the Vemco V16-3H under water from distances exceeding 200?m in typical natural conditions, suggesting that these species are capable of using UCTs to detect free-ranging fish. PMID:25234996

Cunningham, Kane A; Hayes, Sean A; Michelle Wargo Rub, A; Reichmuth, Colleen

2014-04-01

76

Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of a novel polyomavirus first identified in a proliferative tongue lesion of a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is reported. This is only the third described polyomavirus of laurasiatherian mammals, is the first of the three associated with a lesion, and is the first known polyomavirus of a host in the order Carnivora. Predicted large T, small t, VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes were identified based on homology to proteins of known polyomaviruses, and a putative agnoprotein was identified based upon its location in the genome. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted late region proteins found that the laurasiatherian polyomaviruses, together with Squirrel monkey polyomavirus and Murine pneumotropic virus, form a monophyletic clade. Phylogenetic analysis of the early region was more ambiguous. The noncoding control region of California sea lion polyomavirus 1 is unusual in that only two apparent large T binding sites are present; this is less than any other known polyomavirus. The VP1 of this virus has an unusually long carboxy-terminal region. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed and utilized on various samples from 79 additional animals from either managed or wild stranded California sea lion populations, and California sea lion polyomavirus 1 infection was found in 24% of stranded animals. Sequence of additional samples identified four sites of variation in the t antigens, three of which resulted in predicted coding changes. PMID:21453794

Wellehan, James F X; Rivera, Rebecca; Archer, Linda L; Benham, Celeste; Muller, Jennifer K; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; St Leger, Judy A; Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Nollens, Hendrik H

2011-07-01

77

Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California sea lions that stranded alive on the California coast, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We evaluated seroprevalence among yearlings as a measure of incidence in the population, and characterized antibody persistence times based on temporal changes in the distribution of titer scores. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to determine individual risk factors for seropositivity with high and low titers. Results The serosurvey revealed cyclical patterns in seroprevalence to L. interrogans serovar Pomona, with 4–5 year periodicity and peak seroprevalence above 50%. Seroprevalence in yearling sea lions was an accurate index of exposure among all age classses, and indicated on-going exposure to leptospires in non-outbreak years. Analysis of titer decay rates showed that some individuals probably maintain high titers for more than a year following exposure. Conclusion This study presents results of an unprecedented long-term serosurveillance program in marine mammals. Our results suggest that leptospirosis is endemic in California sea lions, but also causes periodic epidemics of acute disease. The findings call into question the classical dichotomy between maintenance hosts of leptospirosis, which experience chronic but largely asymptomatic infections, and accidental hosts, which suffer acute illness or death as a result of disease spillover from reservoir species.

St Leger Judy

2007-11-01

78

Predictive equations for the estimation of body size in seals and sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia).  

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Body size plays an important role in pinniped ecology and life history. However, body size data is often absent for historical, archaeological, and fossil specimens. To estimate the body size of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) for today and the past, we used 14 commonly preserved cranial measurements to develop sets of single variable and multivariate predictive equations for pinniped body mass and total length. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to test whether separate family specific regressions were more appropriate than single predictive equations for Pinnipedia. The influence of phylogeny was tested with phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). The accuracy of these regressions was then assessed using a combination of coefficient of determination, percent prediction error, and standard error of estimation. Three different methods of multivariate analysis were examined: bidirectional stepwise model selection using Akaike information criteria; all-subsets model selection using Bayesian information criteria (BIC); and partial least squares regression. The PCA showed clear discrimination between Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and Phocidae (earless seals) for the 14 measurements, indicating the need for family-specific regression equations. The PIC analysis found that phylogeny had a minor influence on relationship between morphological variables and body size. The regressions for total length were more accurate than those for body mass, and equations specific to Otariidae were more accurate than those for Phocidae. Of the three multivariate methods, the all-subsets approach required the fewest number of variables to estimate body size accurately. We then used the single variable predictive equations and the all-subsets approach to estimate the body size of two recently extinct pinniped taxa, the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus). Body size estimates using single variable regressions generally under or over-estimated body size; however, the all-subset regression produced body size estimates that were close to historically recorded body length for these two species. This indicates that the all-subset regression equations developed in this study can estimate body size accurately. PMID:24916814

Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

2014-08-01

79

Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska  

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The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 {mu}g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 {mu}g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hong, Su-Myeong [National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Atkinson, Shannon [University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Juneau Center, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.ed [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2011-01-15

80

Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 ?g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 ?g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

 
 
 
 
81

Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

Brunner Sylvia

2008-05-01

82

High diving metabolism results in a short aerobic dive limit for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  

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The diving capacity of marine mammals is typically defined by the aerobic dive limit (ADL) which, in lieu of direct measurements, can be calculated (cADL) from total body oxygen stores (TBO) and diving metabolic rate (DMR). To estimate cADL, we measured blood oxygen stores, and combined this with diving oxygen consumption rates (VO2) recorded from 4 trained Steller sea lions diving in the open ocean to depths of 10 or 40 m. We also examined the effect of diving exercise on O2 stores by comparing blood O2 stores of our diving animals to non-diving individuals at an aquarium. Mass-specific blood volume of the non-diving individuals was higher in the winter than in summer, but there was no overall difference in blood O2 stores between the diving and non-diving groups. Estimated TBO (35.9 ml O2 kg(-1)) was slightly lower than previously reported for Steller sea lions and other Otariids. Calculated ADL was 3.0 min (based on an average DMR of 2.24 L O2 min(-1)) and was significantly shorter than the average 4.4 min dives our study animals performed when making single long dives-but was similar to the times recorded during diving bouts (a series of 4 dives followed by a recovery period on the surface), as well as the dive times of wild animals. Our study is the first to estimate cADL based on direct measures of VO2 and blood oxygen stores for an Otariid and indicates they have a much shorter ADL than previously thought. PMID:23354410

Gerlinsky, Carling D; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

2013-07-01

83

Standardized protocols for plasma clearance of iohexol are not appropriate for determination of glomerular filtration rates in anesthetized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

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Abstract: Plasma clearance of iohexol was evaluated in eight anesthetized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), without evidence of renal dysfunction, to determine if the one-compartment model and the sample protocol used in dogs and cats could be applied to this species. Nonlinearity between samples in 75% (6/8) of sea lions voided those results. An additional two anesthetized sea lions were sampled at 5, 30, 45, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 360 min post iohexol injection and semi-logarithmic curves calculated. Plasma iohexol clearance values calculated by one-, two-, and noncompartment models were in poor agreement, suggesting that the standardized protocol described for dogs and cats cannot simply be applied to California sea lions, probably due to the effects of the dive reflex induced during anesthesia. PMID:20722269

Dennison, Sophie E; Gulland, Frances M D; Braselton, W Emmett

2010-03-01

84

Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis.  

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Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions. PMID:21133324

Montie, Eric W; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Pussini, Nicola; Battey, Thomas W K; Barakos, Jerome; Dennison, Sophie; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances

2010-09-17

85

Characterisation of whisker control in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during a complex, dynamic sensorimotor task.  

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Studies in pinniped whisker use have shown that their whiskers are extremely sensitive to tactile and hydrodynamic signals. While pinnipeds position their whiskers on to objects and have some control over their whisker protractions, it has always been thought that head movements are more responsible for whisker positioning than the movement of the whiskers themselves. This study uses ball balancing, a dynamic sensorimotor skill that is often used in human and robotic coordination studies, to promote sea lion whisker movements during the task. For the first time, using tracked video footage, we show that sea lion whisker movements respond quickly (26.70 ms) and mirror the movement of the ball, much more so than the head. We show that whisker asymmetry and spread are both altered to help sense and control the ball during balancing. We believe that by designing more dynamic sensorimotor tasks we can start to characterise the active nature of this specialised sensory system in pinnipeds. PMID:25138923

Milne, Alyx O; Grant, Robyn A

2014-10-01

86

Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) from the Gulf of California, México.  

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We report concentrations of several classes of organochlorines (OCs) in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from the Gulf of California. Summed OC levels measured in 34 wild-ranging animals were, in general, lower than those previously reported in sea lions from the eastern Pacific. The rank order of OCs was SigmaDDTs (mean=3400 ng g(-1 ) lipid weight [lw]) > SigmaPCBs (1400 ng g(-1 ) lw) > SigmaHCHs (50 ng g(-1 ) lw) >or= SigmaCHLORs (46 ng g(-1 ) lw). The most abundant OC measured was the DDT metabolite, p,p'-DDE. No significant differences in OC profiles were found between genders or rookeries. Although the mean concentrations of OCs measured in adult males and females were similar, only adult females had significantly higher (p<0.05) mean blubber concentrations of summation SigmaDDTs and summation SigmaHCHs than pups. PMID:18560925

Niño-Torres, Carlos Alberto; Gardner, Susan C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Ylitalo, Gina M

2009-02-01

87

The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

2005-01-01

88

Foraging behavior of lactating South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and spatial-temporal resource overlap with the Uruguayan fisheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource competition between fisheries and marine mammal continue to raise concern worldwide. Understanding this complex conflict requires data on spatial and dietary overlap of marine mammal and fisheries. In Uruguay the South American sea lions population has been dramatically declining over the past decade. The reasons for this population decline are unknown but may include the following: (1) direct harvesting; (2) reduced prey availability and distribution as a consequence of environmental change; or (3) biological interaction with fisheries. This study aims to determine resource overlap and competition between South American sea lions (SASL, Otaria flavescens, n=10) and the artisanal fisheries (AF), and the coastal bottom trawl fisheries (CBTF). We integrated data on sea lions diet (scat analysis), spatial and annual consumption estimates; and foraging behavior-satellite-tracking data from lactating SASL with data on fishing effort areas and fisheries landings. We found that lactating SASL are benthic divers and forage in shallow water within the continental shelf. SASL's foraging areas overlapped with CBTF and AF fisheries operational areas. Dietary analysis indicated a high degree of overlap between the diet of SASL and the AF and CBTF fisheries catch. The results of our work show differing degrees of spatial resource overlap with AF and CBTF, highlighting that there are differences in potential impact from each fishery; and that different management/conservation approaches may need to be taken to solve the fisheries-SASL conflict.

Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Costa, Daniel P.; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Marín, Yamandú; Chocca, Julio; González, Bernardo; Beathyate, Gastón; Louise Chilvers, B.; Hückstadt, Luis A.

2013-04-01

89

California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) have lower chlorinated hydrocarbon contents in northern Baja California, Mexico, than in California, USA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined in blubber samples of 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) that stranded dead along Todos Santos Bay, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, January 2000-November 2001. ?DDTs were the dominant group (geometric mean 3.8 ?g/g lipid weight), followed by polychlorinated biphenyls (?PCBs, 2.96 ?g/g), chlordanes (0.12 ?g/g) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (0.06 ?g/g). The ?DDTs/?PCBs ratio was 1.3. We found CH levels more than one order of magnitude lower than those reported for California sea lion samples collected along the California coast, USA, during the same period as our study. This sharp north-south gradient suggests that Z. californianus stranded in Ensenada (most of them males) would probably have foraged during the summer near rookeries 500-1000 km south of Ensenada and the rest of the year migrate northwards, foraging along the Baja California peninsula, including Ensenada, and probably farther north. - Results suggest that sea lion prey must also have lower hydrocarbons in Baja California than in California in the USA

90

Risk factors associated with perianesthetic mortality of stranded free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.  

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The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with perianesthetic mortality of stranded free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. Hospital records of California sea lions that underwent heavy sedation or general anesthesia from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed, including records from 419 anesthetic events. Procedures that resulted in death during or in the subsequent 72 hr of anesthesia were classified as cases (n = 15). Procedures in which the animal survived were classified as controls (n = 334). Procedures that resulted in euthanasia (n = 70) were removed from subsequent analysis. The following risk factors were reviewed: gender, age class, health status, duration of anesthetic period, atropine premedication, induction protocols, maintenance protocols, and history of prior anesthesia. The prevalence of fatalities during anesthesia was 3.4% (n = 12) over the 5-yr period. With the inclusion of animals that died within 72 hr after anesthesia, the total mortality prevalence rose to 4.3% (n = 15). The most common time of death was during anesthetic maintenance. Health status was the single best predictor of anesthetic outcome, and sea lions premedicated with atropine had increased odds of anesthetic-related death. PMID:22779225

Stringer, Elizabeth M; Van Bonn, William; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Gulland, Frances M D

2012-06-01

91

The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution.  

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Changes in reproductive tract histomorphology, and estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression throughout the breeding cycle were evaluated in free-ranging stranded female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression in the ovaries, uterus, cervix, and vagina was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. During a large portion of the cycle, ovaries contained both a corpora lutea (CL) and follicles in varying stages of development. In the periods of pupping and estrus during June and July, and in the spring morphologic features of the endometrium suggested estrogen influence. There were areas of squamous differentiation in the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the cervix and vagina in some animals during estrus and in the spring. Estrogen receptor immunohistochemical scores were highest during pupping and estrus and in the spring and lowest during embryonic diapause. Cyclic changes in uterine PR expression throughout the cycle were minimal. Both ERalpha and PR were expressed in epithelial and stromal cells throughout the cervix and vagina, however, receptor expression was typically higher in the stroma. Stromal cell hormone receptors may play an important role in epithelial responses to circulating sex hormones. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of California sea lion reproduction and establish baseline information on reproductive tract hormone receptors that will aid in determining the factors involved in urogenital cancer development in sea lions. PMID:19768749

Colegrove, Kathleen M; Gulland, Frances M D; Naydan, Diane K; Lowenstine, Linda J

2009-11-01

92

Evidence of injury caused by gas bubbles in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus.  

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A yearling male California sea lion Zalophus californianus with hypermetric ataxia and bilateral negative menace reflexes was brought to The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, U.S.A., in late 2009 for medical assessment and treatment. The clinical signs were due to multiple gas bubbles within the cerebellum. These lesions were intraparenchymal, multifocal to coalescing, spherical to ovoid, and varied from 0.5 to 2.4 cm diameter. The gas composed 21.3% of the total cerebellum volume. Three rib fractures were also noted during diagnostic evaluation and were presumed to be associated with the gas bubbles in the brain. The progression of clinical signs and lesion appearance were monitored with magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive function testing and computed tomography. Gas filled voids in the cerebellum were filled with fluid on follow up images. Clinical signs resolved and the sea lion was released with a satellite tag attached. Post release the animal travelled approximately 75 km north and 80 km south of the release site and the tag recorded dives of over 150 m depth. The animal re-stranded 25 d following release and died of a subacute bronchopneumonia and pleuritis. This is the first instance of clinical injury due to gas bubble formation described in a living pinniped and the first sea lion with quantifiable cerebellar damage to take part in spatial learning and memory testing. PMID:22013748

Van Bonn, W; Montie, E; Dennison, S; Pussini, N; Cook, P; Greig, D; Barakos, J; Colegrove, K; Gulland, F

2011-09-01

93

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus  

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Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

Tanja S. Zabka

2008-06-01

94

In utero domoic acid toxicity: a fetal basis to adult disease in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion. PMID:18728728

Ramsdell, John S; Zabka, Tanja S

2008-01-01

95

Climate variability in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean Sea) over the last 2 thousand years  

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We present a new high-resolution of Sea Surface Temperature (SSTs) over the last 2000 years obtained from alkenones preserved in the core KSGC31 retrieved in the mud belt from the Gulf of Lions. This record represents a continuous and undisturbed sediment timeseries documenting climate variability at a temporal resolution of ~ 10 years from 0 to 1905 AD. SST values calculated from the unsaturation index of C37 alkenones range from 15 to 18 ° C (mean value = 16.5° C+0.5° C). They rise from ~ 950 AD and remain warm till about 1300-1350° C AD that broadly coincides with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA). Then, they declined till the late 1500's marking the onset of an outstanding warm period of several decades with values similar to those of the MCA and Roman warm Period. After a sharp decrease ending this warm spell ~1700 yrs AD, SSTs gradually rise again (~ 1° C/100 yrs) over the last three centuries. This record differs from published data in the North Atlantic that indicate cooling over the last two millennia. We suggest that the Mediterranean recent warming reflects feedbacks from the vegetation and land use around the basin through albedo changes.

Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jalali, Bassem; Kallel, Nejib; Ezat, Ullah; Bassetti, Maria-Angela

2013-04-01

96

Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh fe [...] ces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

Araceli, Fernández; María, Paz Villanueva; Mario, González; Fabiola, Fernández; Fadua, Latif; Sandra Nonier, Flores; Heriberto, Fernández.

1095-10-01

97

Social olfaction in marine mammals: wild female Australian sea lions can identify their pup's scent  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, anatomical evidence has suggested that marine mammals are anosmic or at best microsmatic, i.e. absent or reduced olfactory capabilities. However, these neuroanatomical considerations may not be appropriate predictors for the use of olfaction in social interactions. Observations suggest that pinnipeds may use olfaction in mother–pup interactions, accepting or rejecting pups after naso-nasal contact. Such maternal–offspring recognition is a favourable area for investigating the involvement of odours in social recognition and selectivity, as females are evolutionarily constrained to direct resources to filial young. However, there is no experimental, morphological or chemical evidence to date for the use of olfaction in social contexts and for individual odour recognition abilities in pinnipeds. Here, we report unequivocal evidence that Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) females can differentiate between the odour of their own pup and that of another, in the absence of any other distinguishing cues. This study demonstrates individual olfactory recognition in a free-ranging wild mammal and is clear evidence of the social function of olfaction in a marine mammal. PMID:20685695

Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Harcourt, Robert G.; Schaal, Benoist; Charrier, Isabelle

2011-01-01

98

Testing Bergmann's rule and the Rosenzweig hypothesis with craniometric studies of the South American sea lion.  

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We tested the validity of Bergmann's rule and Rosenzweig's hypothesis through an analysis of the geographical variation of the skull size of Otaria flavescens along the entire distribution range of the species (except Brazil). We quantified the sizes of 606 adult South American sea lion skulls measured in seven localities of Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Geographical and environmental variables included latitude, longitude, and monthly minimum, maximum, and mean air and ocean temperatures. We also included information on fish landings as a proxy for productivity. Males showed a positive relationship between condylobasal length (CBL) and latitude, and between CBL and the six temperature variables. By contrast, females showed a negative relationship between CBL and the same variables. Finally, female skull size showed a significant and positive correlation with fish landings, while males did not show any relationship with this variable. The body size of males conformed to Bergmann's rule, with larger individuals found in southern localities of South America. Females followed the converse of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level, but showed a positive relationship with the proxy for productivity, thus supporting Rosenzweig's hypothesis. Differences in the factors that drive body size in females and males may be explained by their different life-history strategies. Our analyses demonstrate that latitude and temperature are not the only factors that explain spatial variation in body size: others such as food availability are also important for explaining the ecogeographical patterns found in O. flavescens. PMID:23053224

Sepúlveda, Maritza; Oliva, Doris; Duran, L René; Urra, Alejandra; Pedraza, Susana N; Majluf, Patrícia; Goodall, Natalie; Crespo, Enrique A

2013-04-01

99

Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh fe [...] ces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

Araceli, Fernández; María, Paz Villanueva; Mario, González; Fabiola, Fernández; Fadua, Latif; Sandra Nonier, Flores; Heriberto, Fernández.

100

Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change) and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification) scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups) for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources). Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations. PMID:21436887

French, Susannah S; González-Suárez, Manuela; Young, Julie K; Durham, Susan; Gerber, Leah R

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Systemic mycosis in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with detection of cystofilobasidiales DNA.  

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A 6-yr-old, intact male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a systemic mycosis died after 5 wk of antifungal drug therapy. Antemortem clinical findings included hind flipper swelling, ring-lesions on skin of the flippers, and dermal nodules that increased in size and number spreading from the hind flippers and ventral abdomen to the foreflippers and muzzle. Lesions were accompanied by severe lymphadenopathy and development of systemic clinical signs despite therapy using itraconazole and later voriconazole. Histopathologic evaluation of biopsies revealed granulomatous dermatitis due to infection by fungus-producing yeast cells in tissue. Isolation attempts, using biopsied skin and tissue samples collected at necropsy, failed to yield growth of a fungus producing yeast cells like those in histologic section. Consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of biopsied skin for fungal DNA produced an amplicon having significant sequence identity with a Cystofilobasidiales, a fungus belonging to a subclade that includes several Cryptococcus spp. Histopathologic evaluation of necropsy tissues revealed a systemic mycosis with yeast cells disseminated throughout subcutis, lymph nodes, and viscera. Hepatic necrosis was identified associated with acute liver failure, possibly from the voriconazole administration. This is the first report documenting the clinical presentation, treatment, and pathologic findings of infection associated with Cystofilobasidiales in a marine mammal and serves to expand the understanding of mycoses in pinnipeds. PMID:22448522

Field, Cara L; Tuttle, Allison D; Sidor, Inga F; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Deering, Kathleen M; Gilbert-Marcheterre, Kelly; Risatti, Guillermo; Spoon, Tracey; Meegan, Jenny; Romano, Tracy A; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence

2012-03-01

102

The cost of male aggression and polygyny in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

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In polygynous mating systems, males often increase their fecundity via aggressive defense of mates and/or resources necessary for successful mating. Here we show that both male and female reproductive behavior during the breeding season (June-August) affect female fecundity, a vital rate that is an important determinant of population growth rate and viability. By using 4 years of data on behavior and demography of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), we found that male behavior and spatial dynamics--aggression and territory size--are significantly related to female fecundity. Higher rates of male aggression and larger territory sizes were associated with lower estimates of female fecundity within the same year. Female aggression was significantly and positively related to fecundity both within the same year as the behavior was measured and in the following year. These results indicate that while male aggression and defense of territories may increase male fecundity, such interactions may cause a reduction in the overall population growth rate by lowering female fecundity. Females may attempt to offset male-related reductions in female fecundity by increasing their own aggression-perhaps to defend pups from incidental injury or mortality. Thus in polygynous mating systems, male aggression may increase male fitness at the cost of female fitness and overall population viability. PMID:20808931

Gerber, Leah R; González-Suárez, Manuela; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Young, Julie K; Sabo, John L

2010-01-01

103

Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

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Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (?-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

104

Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches.  

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Conservation biologists face many challenges in assessing health, immune status and infectious diseases in protected species. These challenges include unpredictable sample populations, diverse genetic and environmental backgrounds of the animals, as well as the practical, legal and ethical issues involved in experimentation. The use of whole genome scale transcriptomics with animal samples obtained in a minimally invasive manner is an approach that shows promise for health assessment. In this study we assessed the utility of a microarray to identify changes in gene expression predictive of health status by interrogating blood samples from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in rehabilitation. A custom microarray was developed from the commercially available dog microarray (Canis familiaris) by selecting probes that demonstrated reliable cross-hybridization with RNA in sea lion blood. This custom microarray was used for the analysis of RNA from 73 sea lion blood samples, from animals with a broad spectrum of health changes. Both traditional classifying techniques and newer artificial neural network approaches correctly classified sea lions with respect to health status, primarily distinguishing between leptospirosis infection and domoic acid exposure. Real time PCR validation for a small set of genes, followed by sequencing, showed good correlation with array results and high identity (96-98%) between the dog and sea lion sequences. This approach to health status classification shows promise for disease identification in a clinical setting, and assessment of health status of wildlife. PMID:22067742

Mancia, Annalaura; Ryan, James C; Chapman, Robert W; Wu, Qingzhong; Warr, Gregory W; Gulland, Frances M D; Van Dolah, Frances M

2012-04-01

105

A Longitudinal Study of Steller Sea Lion Natality Rates in the Gulf of Alaska with Comparisons to Census Data  

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Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) numbers in the Western Distinct Population Segment are beginning to recover following the dramatic decline that began in the 1970s and ended around the turn of the century. Low female reproductive rates (natality) may have contributed to the decline and remain an issue of concern for this population. During the 2000s we found high natality among Steller sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska indicating a healthy population. This study extends these previous estimates over an additional three years and tests for interannual variations and long-term trends. We further examine the proportions of pups to adult females observed on the rookery and nearby haulouts during the birthing season to assess whether census data can be used to estimate natality. Open robust design multistate models were built and tested using Program MARK to estimate survival, resighting, and state transition probabilities in addition to other parameters dependent on whether or not a female gave birth in the previous year. Natality was estimated at 70% with some evidence of interannual variation but a long-term increasing or decreasing trend was not supported by the data. Bootstrap and regression comparisons of census data with natality estimates revealed no correlation between the two methods suggesting that census data are not an appropriate proxy for natality in this species. Longitudinal studies of individual animals are an appropriate method for estimating vital rates in species with variable detection over time such as the Steller sea lion. This work indicates that natality remains high in this region and is consistent with a population in recovery. PMID:25383865

Maniscalco, John M.; Springer, Alan M.; Parker, Pamela; Adkison, Milo D.

2014-01-01

106

Body regional distribution and stratification of fatty acids in the blubber of New Zealand sea lions: implications for diet predictions.  

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Fatty acids (FAs) from blubber are often analysed to assess the diet of marine mammals. However, distribution of blubber FAs is not necessarily uniform along the body. It is therefore important to understand the deposition of dietary fat to be able to estimate the diet. We analysed the FA compositions of the thoracic ventral (T region) blubber of 28 New Zealand (NZ) sea lions Phocarctos hookeri by-caught by the southern arrow squid Nototodarus sloani fishery. Each blubber sample was divided into an inner and an outer layer. For 16 of these 28 animals, the pelvic dorsal (P) region was also sampled. The influence of body region and layer was statistically tested on the distribution of blubber FAs. We found minimal differences between the P and T regions (3 out of 29 FAs). The outer blubber layer was more concentrated in short-chain monounsaturated FAs, and less concentrated in saturated FAs, but the degree of stratification was small. Diet predictions from quantitative FA signature analysis (QFASA) applied on different body regions were similar. When applied to different blubber layers, QFASA gave some variation in the contribution of rattails (~25 % in outer blubber vs. ~12 % in inner blubber). Nonetheless, diet predicted from both layers was dominated by similar prey species: octopus, hoki and rattails. Hoki and rattails shared a similar ecological niche. Therefore, feeding ecology of NZ sea lions inferred from the inner or the outer blubber would lead to the same conclusions. In the case of NZ sea lions, the outer layer of blubber, if the only sample accessible, could be a useful tissue for diet inference from FAs. PMID:22847500

Lambert, Antoine; Meynier, Laureline; Donaldson, Laura C; Roe, Wendi D; Morel, Patrick C H

2013-01-01

107

JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800 IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU  

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Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

Davis Cortegana-Arias

2012-12-01

108

Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73. Artificial neural networks (ANN were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20. Results No single peak was a good classifier of acute DAT, and ANN models were the best predictors of acute DAT. Performance measures for a single median ANN were: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60%; positive predictive value, 71%; negative predictive value, 100%. When 101 ANNs were combined and allowed to vote for the outcome, the performance measures were: sensitivity, 30%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 59%. Conclusions These results suggest that MALDI-TOF peptide profiling and neural networks can perform either as a highly sensitive (100% negative predictive value or a highly specific (100% positive predictive value diagnostic tool for acute DAT. This also suggests that machine learning directed by populations of predictive models offer the ability to modulate the predictive effort into a specific type of error.

Neely Benjamin A

2012-03-01

109

Development of a real-time PCR for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in California sea lions.  

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Several real-time PCR assays are currently used for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp.; however, few methods have been described for the successful evaluation of clinical urine samples. This study reports a rapid assay for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in California sea lions Zalophus californianus using real-time PCR with primers and a probe targeting the lipL32 gene. The PCR assay had high analytic sensitivity-the limit of detection was 3 genome copies per PCR volume using L. interrogans serovar Pomona DNA and 100% analytic specificity; it detected all pathogenic leptospiral serovars tested and none of the non-pathogenic Leptospira species (L. biflexa and L. meyeri serovar Semaranga), the intermediate species L. inadai, or the non-Leptospira pathogens tested. Our assay had an amplification efficiency of 1.00. Comparisons between the real-time PCR assay and culture isolation for detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in urine and kidney tissue samples from California sea lions showed that samples were more often positive by real-time PCR than by culture methods. Inclusion of an internal amplification control in the real-time PCR assay showed no inhibitory effects in PCR negative samples. These studies indicated that our real-time PCR assay has high analytic sensitivity and specificity for the rapid detection of pathogenic Leptospira species in urine and kidney tissue samples. PMID:25114040

Wu, Qingzhong; Prager, Katherine C; Goldstein, Tracey; Alt, David P; Galloway, Renee L; Zuerner, Richard L; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Schwacke, Lori

2014-08-11

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Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity.  

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Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametocytes, macrogamonts) and asexual (schizonts, merozoites) coccidian stages were identified in enterocytes within parasitophorous vacuoles, consistent with apicomplexan development in a definitive host. Serology was negative for tissue cyst-forming coccidians, and immunohistochemistry for Toxoplasma gondii was inconclusive and negative for Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona. Analysis of ITS-1 gene sequences amplified from frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal sections identified DNA sequences with closest homology to Neospora sp. (80%); these novel sequences were referred to as belonging to coccidian parasites "A," "B," and "C." Subsequent molecular analyses completed on a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) with protozoal lymphadenitis, hepatitis, myocarditis, and encephalitis showed that it was infected with a coccidian parasite bearing the "C" sequence type. Our results indicate that sea lions likely serve as definitive hosts for 3 newly described coccidian parasites, at least 1 of which is pathogenic in a marine mammal intermediate host species. PMID:21495828

Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Ferguson, David J P; Rejmanek, Daniel; Barr, Bradd C; Nordhausen, Robert; Melli, Ann C; Conrad, Patricia A

2011-10-01

111

Characterization of a novel papillomavirus species (ZcPV1) from two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

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A seven-year old California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) presented with focally extensive, bilaterally symmetric, proliferative axillary skin lesions and preputial lesions. A second California sea lion in the same population presented with similar proliferative lesions on the underside of the tail. Histopathology revealed epidermal hyperplasia with severe hyperkeratosis, with proliferating keratinocytes forming broad, branching pegs that extended into the dermis. Pan-papillomaviral consensus PCR was used to obtain initial E1 sequence template and the complete genome was determined using a combination of rolling circle amplification and specific-primer PCR. Analysis revealed a novel papillomavirus, Zalophus californianus papillomavirus 1 (ZcPV1), with seven open reading frames encoding five early proteins (E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4) and two late proteins (L1 and L2). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that (ZcPV1) is most closely related to Equine papillomavirus 1 (EcPV1) in the genus Zetapapillomavirus, and Canine papillomaviruses 3 and 4 (CPV3, CPV4) in the genus Chipapillomavirus. The lesions regressed without intervention over a period of several months. PMID:22005176

Rivera, Rebecca; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Hoffman, Elizabeth M; Stacy, Brian A; Jensen, Eric D; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wellehan, James F X

2012-03-23

112

Development, comparison, and validation using ELISAs for the determination of domoic acid in California sea lion body fluids.  

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Mortalities of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) attributed to the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia have occurred repeatedly along the U.S. west coast since the late 1990s. Quantifying the amount of DA in these animals and correlating this information with the presence of DA in phytoplankton and the local food web has become a research focus for many scientists. However, differences in materials, equipment, technical capability, budgets, and objectives of the various groups and/or agencies involved in this work have influenced the DA quantification platforms used. The goal of the present study was to compare the performance of two commercially available ELISAs for the determination of DA in a spectrum of California sea lion body fluids and to compare the results with LC/MS of the same samples. The results indicated differences among these approaches, presumably owing to matrix effects (particularly urine) and antibody reactivities. This information implies that care should be taken in attempting to compare datasets generated using different analytical platforms and interpreting the results of published studies. PMID:24830146

Seubert, Erica L; Howard, Meredith D A; Kudela, Raphael M; Stewart, Thomas N; Litaker, R Wayne; Evans, Richard; Caron, David A

2014-01-01

113

Coastal Ocean Modelling of The Golf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea : Wintertime 1998-1999  

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The 3D hydrodynamic coastal model Symphonie developed at Laboratoire d'Aerologie (Toulouse) is used to analyse the set of data collected during the French Moogli3 cruise (11-21 January 1999). This modelling uses a 3km horizontal grid spacing. At the free-surface, realistic forcings are applied: air-sea fluxes are calculated thanks to a bulk formulae parameterisation using the meteorological outputs of the Meteo-France's forecasting model Aladin and the surface ocean temperature given by Symphonie. Concerning the discharge of rivers, three-hours measurements are prescribed. The initial state is performed thanks to an inverse method using the large-scale velocity fields, extracted from MOM (1/8 deg.). This simulation of the winter 98-99 follows two objectives: (1) Taking advantage of the Moogli3 experiment, which gives the opportunity to validate the simulation and (2) studying an event of dense water formation, and cascading, which was detected in late winter (mid-February). This feature was evidenced by an important decrease of temperature recorded at 500m and 1000m in the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (Béthoux et al., 2002).Concerning the Moogli3 period, the simulated dynamic of the Gulf of Lions (GoL) shows a great accordance with the observed one. Meanders are detected along the Northern Current vein, both in simulated and observed currents. Numerous phenomena could explain their origin: baroclinic instabilities developing around the offshore convection zone, interaction between topography and the along-slope flow, secondary circulation generated in submarine canyons, etc. A sensibility study shows that several processes are involved to obtain a complete explanation of this meso-scale activity. A potential vorticity theory is then applied to achieve a characterisation of these instabilities. In the late winter simulation, the dense water flow observed in the western part of the GoL appears to originate from the Roussillon's coast. It was due to large heat fluxes associated to persistent strong winds and cold weather all the February month long. A numerical study of the dense water propagation on the shelf and near canyons is in progress.

Dufau-Julliand, C.; Marsaleix, P.; Dekeyser, I.; Petrenko, A.

2003-04-01

114

The effects of water temperature on the energetic costs of juvenile and adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): the importance of skeletal muscle thermogenesis for thermal balance.  

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As highly mobile marine predators, many pinniped species routinely encounter a wide range of water temperatures during foraging and in association with seasonal, geographical and climatic changes. To determine how such variation in environmental temperature may impact energetic costs in otariids, we determined the thermal neutral zone of adult and juvenile California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) by measuring resting metabolic rate using open-flow respirometry. Five adult female (body mass range =82.2-107.2 kg) and four juvenile (body mass=26.2-36.5 kg) sea lions were examined over experimental water temperatures ranging from 0 to 20 degrees C (adults) or 5 to 20 degrees C (juveniles). The metabolic rate of adult sea lions averaged 6.4+/-0.64 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1) when resting within the thermal neutral zone. The lower critical temperature of adults was 6.4+/-2.2 degrees C, approximately 4 degrees C lower than sea surface temperatures routinely encountered off coastal California. In comparison, juvenile sea lions did not demonstrate thermal neutrality within the range of water temperatures examined. Resting metabolic rate of the younger animals, 6.3+/-0.53 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1), increased as water temperature approached 12 degrees C, and suggested a potential thermal limitation in the wild. To determine whether muscle thermogenesis during activity could mitigate this limitation, we measured the active metabolic rate of juveniles swimming at water temperature (T(water))=5, 12 and 20 degrees C. No significant difference (F=0.377, P=0.583) in swimming metabolic rate was found among water temperatures, suggesting that thermal disadvantages due to small body size in juvenile sea lions may be circumvented by recycling endogenous heat during locomotor activity. PMID:19946075

Liwanag, H E M; Williams, T M; Costa, D P; Kanatous, S B; Davis, R W; Boyd, I L

2009-12-01

115

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

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The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proporti...

MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS OLIVA; ALEJANDRA URRA; Pe?rez-a?lvarez, Mari?a J.; RODRIGO MORAGA; DANIEL SCHRADER; PATRICIA INOSTROZA; ANGELA MELO; HUMBERTO DÍAZ; WALTER SIELFELD

2011-01-01

116

Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health  

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Harmful algal blooms are increasing worldwide, including those of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. producing domoic acid off the California coast. This neurotoxin was first shown to cause mortality of marine mammals in 1998. A decade of monitoring California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) health since then has indicated that changes in the symptomatology and epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in this species are associated with the increase in toxigenic blooms. Two separate clinical syndromes now ...

Goldstein, T.; Mazet, J. A. K.; Zabka, T. S.; Langlois, G.; Colegrove, K. M.; Silver, M; Bargu, S.; Dolah, F.; Leighfield, T.; Conrad, P. A.; Barakos, J.; Williams, D. C.; Dennison, S.; Haulena, M.; Gulland, F. M. D.

2008-01-01

117

Tuberculosis in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) - diagnostic options and its epidemiologic importance for other mammals within the zoological garden  

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Tuberculosis is a widely spread zoonotic disease caused by acid-fast bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in a variety of mammalian species. In pinnipeds, tuberculosis has been reported in different captive and wild sea lions and fur seals. The causative agent, Mycobacterium pinnipedii, is part of the M. tuberculosis complex and has shown pathogenicity in other mammalian species including human beings. Since 2000 the Heidelberg zoo has been dealing with tuberculosis in its...

Jurczynski, Kerstin

2012-01-01

118

Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings  

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Abstract Herpesviruses have been recognized in marine mammals, but their clinical relevance is not always easy to assess. A novel otarine herpesvirus-3 (OtHV3) was detected in a geriatric California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), and using a newly developed quantitative PCR assay paired with histology, OtHV3 was associated with esophageal ulcers and B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in this animal. The prevalence and quantities of OtHV3 were then determined among buffy coat...

Venn-Watson Stephanie; Benham Celeste; Gulland Frances M; Smith Cynthia R; St Leger Judy; Yochem Pam; Nollens Hendrik; Blas-Machado Uriel; Saliki Jeremiah; Colegrove Katie; Fx, Wellehan James; Rivera Rebecca

2012-01-01

119

Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion.  

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In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA hypotheses using a dataset on Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). We statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea surface temperature, SST, a correlate of marine productivity) at three developmental stages, the perinatal phase (1st month), the main lactation period (1st year), and the weaning period (2nd year). Supporting the FM hypothesis, we found that, early in life (1st month), at equal birth mass, males survived less well than females. During the remainder of the first year of life, male survival was actually less sensitive to harsh environmental conditions than that of females, contradicting the FM hypothesis and supporting the MBA hypothesis. During the second year of life, only male survival suffered with high SSTs as predicted by the FM hypothesis. At each developmental stage, observed survival rates were almost equal for both sexes, suggesting that mothers buffer against the inherent fragility of male offspring through increased allocation, thereby masking the differences in survival prospects between the sexes. PMID:23053230

Kraus, C; Mueller, B; Meise, K; Piedrahita, P; Pörschmann, U; Trillmich, F

2013-04-01

120

Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in Mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.  

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Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. PMID:25281384

Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

2014-12-15

 
 
 
 
121

Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

Stegall, V. K.; Farley, S. D.; Rea, L. D.; Pitcher, K. W.; Rye, R. O.; Kester, C. L.; Stricker, C. A.; Bern, C. R.

2008-01-01

122

Pleuritis and suppurative pneumonia associated with a hypermucoviscosity phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

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The aim of this study is to document the isolation of a hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae from 25 cases of suppurative pneumonia and pleuritis and two cases of abscesses in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from the central California coast, representing the first report of this zoonotic pathogen from the marine environment and only the second report in non-humans. Animals died 2h to 4 days after first being observed sick on beaches. Clinical signs varied from dyspnoea to coma. Gross post-mortem examination of 25 cases revealed fibrinous pleuritis, copious pus in the pleural cavity and suppurative bronchopneumonia. K. pneumoniae isolates obtained from lung and pleural swabs and the hepatic and subcuticular abscesses were highly mucoid on blood agar culture media and were positive to the "string test". Twenty-one of the 27 isolates were examined by PCR and all were positive for rmpA and K2wyz and negative for K1magA genes. Although pneumonia and pleuritis have previously commonly been observed in marine mammals, their association with pure cultures of a zoonotic bacteria, K. pneumoniae HMV phenotype, has not. This report provides further evidence of the role marine mammals play as sentinels of health risks to humans from coastal waters. PMID:19709820

Jang, Spencer; Wheeler, Liz; Carey, Roberta B; Jensen, Bette; Crandall, Claudia M; Schrader, Kimmi N; Jessup, David; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances M D

2010-02-24

123

Auditory and behavioral responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) to single underwater impulses from an arc-gap transducer  

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A behavioral response paradigm was used to measure underwater hearing thresholds in two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) before and after exposure to underwater impulses from an arc-gap transducer. Preexposure and postexposure hearing thresholds were compared to determine if the subjects experienced temporary shifts in their masked hearing thresholds (MTTS). Hearing thresholds were measured at 1 and 10 kHz. Exposures consisted of single underwater impulses produced by an arc-gap transducer referred to as a ``pulsed power device'' (PPD). The electrical charge of the PPD was varied from 1.32 to 2.77 kJ; the distance between the subject and the PPD was varied over the range 3.4 to 25 m. No MTTS was observed in either subject at the highest received levels: peak pressures of approximately 6.8 and 14 kPa, rms pressures of approximately 178 and 183 dB re: 1 ?Pa, and total energy fluxes of 161 and 163 dB re: 1 ?Pa2s for the two subjects. Behavioral reactions to the tests were observed in both subjects. These reactions primarily consisted of temporary avoidance of the site where exposure to the PPD impulse had previously occurred.

Finneran, James J.; Dear, Randall; Carder, Donald A.; Ridgway, Sam H.

2003-09-01

124

Above-water measurements of reflectance and chlorophyll-a algorithms in the Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea.  

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Above-water reflectance and surface chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl a) were measured in the Gulf of Lions, northwestern Mediterranean Sea in 2000 and 2001 in order to test Chl a inversion algorithms. Surface waters were separated in Case 2 waters in the Rhône River plume and proximal Region of Freshwater Influence (ROFI) stations, and Case 1 waters at all the other stations. Case 2 waters were characterized by R443/R555 Ocean Optics radiometer. The comparison of the remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) values at SIMBAD wavelengths shows excellent agreement for Rrs values higher than 0.01 sr-1. Between the two instruments, reflectance ratios, commonly used in Chl a algorithms, show differences smaller than 2% in the Case 2 waters, and smaller than 20% in the Case 1 waters. In the second part, concurrent measurements of Chl a and of hyperspectral reflectance from 6 cruises were used to analyze the statistical performance of global (OC2, OC4) and regional regression algorithms using mainly SeaWiFS bands. The algorithms were tested first over the entire domain, then separately over the Case 1 and Case 2 waters. Chl a algorithms using band ratios such as the one presented in Bricaud et al. (2002) are suitable for the Case 1 waters. However, taking into account the large dispersion of Chl a for very close reflectance ratios in the Case 2 waters, single band ratios are not suitable for deriving Chl a. The use of a 4-wavelength parameter such as Xc, defined by Tassan (1994), leads to better results in the plume and proximal Rhône ROFI. PMID:19495144

Ouillon, Sylvain; Petrenko, Anne

2005-04-01

125

Tumor morphology and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, and Ki67 in urogenital carcinomas of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

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Metastatic carcinoma of urogenital origin is a common cause of mortality in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). The etiology of this cancer is likely multifactorial, with viral infection, genetic factors, and exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants possible contributing factors. In this study, expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, and Ki67 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 12 sea lions with metastatic carcinoma, genital epithelial dysplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia; 4 with genital epithelial dysplasia and intraepithelial neoplasia without metastases; and 6 control animals. Dysplastic and neoplastic lesions were identified in multiple areas of the cervix, vagina, penis, prepuce, and urethra in affected animals, suggesting multicentric development. Lesions were graded according to degree of epithelial dysplasia and infiltration and lesions of different grades were evaluated separately. Estrogen receptor expression was lower in intraepithelial lesions compared with normal genital epithelium, and expression in metastatic lesions was completely absent. There was progesterone receptor expression in neoplastic cells in intraepithelial lesions of all grades and in metastases, with no significant difference between lesion grades or between control and affected epithelium. Ki67 index and p53 expression increased with lesion grade and were higher in lesions than normal epithelium. Metastatic tumors exhibited highly variable morphology; however, proliferation index, ER alpha, PR, and p53 expression were similar in tumors with different patterns of growth. These results suggest that endogenous hormones, environmental contaminants that interact with steroid hormone receptors, and alterations in p53 may play a role in urogenital carcinogenesis in California sea lions. PMID:19276047

Colegrove, K M; Gulland, F M D; Naydan, D K; Lowenstine, L J

2009-07-01

126

Extensive variation at MHC DRB in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) provides evidence for balancing selection.  

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Marine mammals are often reported to possess reduced variation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes compared with their terrestrial counterparts. We evaluated diversity at two MHC class II B genes, DQB and DRB, in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, NZSL) a species that has suffered high mortality owing to bacterial epizootics, using Sanger sequencing and haplotype reconstruction, together with next-generation sequencing. Despite this species' prolonged history of small population size and highly restricted distribution, we demonstrate extensive diversity at MHC DRB with 26 alleles, whereas MHC DQB is dimorphic. We identify four DRB codons, predicted to be involved in antigen binding, that are evolving under adaptive evolution. Our data suggest diversity at DRB may be maintained by balancing selection, consistent with the role of this locus as an antigen-binding region and the species' recent history of mass mortality during a series of bacterial epizootics. Phylogenetic analyses of DQB and DRB sequences from pinnipeds and other carnivores revealed significant allelic diversity, but little phylogenetic depth or structure among pinniped alleles; thus, we could neither confirm nor refute the possibility of trans-species polymorphism in this group. The phylogenetic pattern observed however, suggests some significant evolutionary constraint on these loci in the recent past, with the pattern consistent with that expected following an epizootic event. These data may help further elucidate some of the genetic factors underlying the unusually high susceptibility to bacterial infection of the threatened NZSL, and help us to better understand the extent and pattern of MHC diversity in pinnipeds. PMID:23572124

Osborne, A J; Zavodna, M; Chilvers, B L; Robertson, B C; Negro, S S; Kennedy, M A; Gemmell, N J

2013-07-01

127

Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.  

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Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6%) and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%). Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%). In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance. PMID:24987983

Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

2014-01-01

128

Oxidative stress and redistribution of glutamine synthetase in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis.  

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The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and glutamine synthetase (GS) redistribution occur in domoic acid (DA) toxicosis in California sea lions (CSLs, Zalophus californianus). Sections of archived hippocampi from seven control and 13 CSLs diagnosed with DA toxicosis were labelled immunohistochemically for GS and for two markers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT). The distribution and intensity of labelling were compared with the pathological changes seen in haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Increased expression of MDA and NT occurred in neurons of the hippocampal formation of CSLs with lesions consistent with DA toxicosis. The degree of oxidative stress was not affected significantly by the chronicity or severity of hippocampal damage. In six out of seven CSLs with chronic effects of DA toxicosis, in addition to the normal glial distribution of GS, GS expression was very strong in some neurons of the subiculum. However, neuronal GS labelling was also seen in one control CSL, an effect that may have been due to previous exposure to DA. GS expression in neurons was associated with decreases in GS labelling in neighbouring glial cell processes. DA toxicosis therefore induces increased expression of markers of oxidative stress in neurons consistent with oxidative stress contributing to the initial DA insult and also the epilepsy that often develops in chronic DA toxicosis. GS redistribution occurred primarily in chronic DA toxicosis, perhaps leading to alterations of the glutamine-glutamate-GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) cycle and contributing to the excitotoxicity and seizures often seen in DA toxicosis. PMID:24060152

Madl, J E; Duncan, C G; Stanhill, J E; Tai, P-Y; Spraker, T R; Gulland, F M

2014-01-01

129

Movement and diving behavior of male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) during anomalous oceanographic conditions of 2005 compared to those of 2004  

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During the highly anomalous conditions in early 2005, characterized by increased water temperatures and decreased productivity, male California sea lions adopted previously undocumented foraging behaviors. We investigated the movement and spatially explicit foraging behavior of males using satellite-linked data loggers and compared foraging behavior and effort between 2003-2004 and 2004-2005. Males foraged almost exclusively over the continental shelf during short trips in 2003-2004, while during anomalous conditions in 2004-2005 they altered their foraging effort by spending more time at sea and venturing up to 450 km offshore. Foraging trips in 2004-2005 were more than twice the distance and three times the duration of trips during 2003-2004. Our data indicated that the effects of climatic shifts during 2005 extended beyond the physical oceanography and lower trophic levels, to an apex predator; providing insight into the plasticity of foraging behavior and movement patterns of sea lions as they respond to environmental perturbations.

Weise, Michael J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Kudela, Raphael M.

2006-11-01

130

Especies de la familia Enterobacteriaceae en heces de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens establecido en el río Valdivia / Species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in feces of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens settled in the Valdivia River  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english This study aims to establish the isolation frequency of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of South American common sea lion (Otaria flavescens). Thirty fecal samples were collected from the resting ground of an urban sea lions colony in Valdivia, southern Chile. The bacteria [...] species and their isolation frequencies were Edwarsiella tarda (73%), Escherichia coli (70%), Hafnia alvei (33%), Morganella morganii (7%), Proteus mirabilis (7%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. pneumoniae (3%), Serratia rubidea (3%), Providencia rustigianii (3%) and Citrobacter braakii (3%).

Mario, González-Fuentes; Fadua, Latif; Fabiola, Fernández; María P, Villanueva; Jorge, Ulloa; Heriberto, Fernández.

131

Especies de la familia Enterobacteriaceae en heces de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens establecido en el río Valdivia / Species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in feces of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens settled in the Valdivia River  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english This study aims to establish the isolation frequency of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of South American common sea lion (Otaria flavescens). Thirty fecal samples were collected from the resting ground of an urban sea lions colony in Valdivia, southern Chile. The bacteria [...] species and their isolation frequencies were Edwarsiella tarda (73%), Escherichia coli (70%), Hafnia alvei (33%), Morganella morganii (7%), Proteus mirabilis (7%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. pneumoniae (3%), Serratia rubidea (3%), Providencia rustigianii (3%) and Citrobacter braakii (3%).

Mario, González-Fuentes; Fadua, Latif; Fabiola, Fernández; María P, Villanueva; Jorge, Ulloa; Heriberto, Fernández.

2010-08-01

132

Effects of the 1997-1998 El Niño and 1998-1999 La Niña events on breeding waterbirds and sea lions in the Upper Gulf of California, México  

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Full Text Available During 1998 and 1999 I monitored waterbirds nesting on Isla San Jorge, at La Purinera and on Isla Montague, in the northern Gulf of California, as well as sea lions on Isla San Jorge. During El Niño the brown boobies on San Jorge ceased breeding and left the island, coinciding with an influx of several thousand blue-footed boobies. El Niño conditions coincided with an increase in the numbers of nesting least, elegant, and royal terns and black skimmers on Montague. Double-crested cormorants on San Jorge, least terns on La Purinera, and snowy egrets, black-crowned night-herons, laughing gulls, and gull-billed terns on Montague did not seem affected by this event. Sea lions at San Jorge about doubled their number, but the number of pups did not increase. La Niña conditions coincided with a return to population levels before El Niño in all these species. During 1999 Heermann’s gulls and Brandt’s cormorants nested on San Jorge. Heermann’s gulls had stopped breeding there long ago, and Brandt’s cormorants had never been know to nest there.

Eric Mellink

2003-04-01

133

Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after Government and industry attempts to reduce the problem.  

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In recent years, Australian governments and fishing industry associations have developed guiding principles aimed at reducing the impact of fishing on non-target species and the benthos and increasing community awareness of their efforts. To determine whether they reduced seal entanglement in lost fishing gear and other marine debris, we analysed Australian sea lion and New Zealand fur seal entanglement data collected from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Contrary to our expectations, we found that entanglement rates did not decrease in recent years. The Australian sea lion entanglement rate (1.3% in 2002) and the New Zealand fur seal entanglement rate (0.9% in 2002) are the third and fourth highest reported for any seal species. Australian sea lions were most frequently entangled in monofilament gillnet that most likely originated from the shark fishery, which operates in the region where sea lions forage--south and east of Kangaroo Island. In contrast, New Zealand fur seals were most commonly entangled in loops of packing tape and trawl net fragments suspected to be from regional rock lobster and trawl fisheries. Based on recent entanglement studies, we estimate that 1478 seals die from entanglement each year in Australia. We discuss remedies such as education programs and government incentives that may reduce entanglements. PMID:15234872

Page, Brad; McKenzie, Jane; McIntosh, Rebecca; Baylis, Alastair; Morrissey, Adam; Calvert, Norna; Haase, Tami; Berris, Mel; Dowie, Dave; Shaughnessy, Peter D; Goldsworthy, Simon D

2004-07-01

134

Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).  

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The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median?=?3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median?=?2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median?=?931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median?=?643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts. These molecular data revealed that U. lucasi (hookworm of C. ursinus) and Uncinaria species A (of Z. californianus) infrequently mature in the intestine of the opposite host species in California rookeries. However, there is no support from molecular data for the hypothesis that cross-infection with "the wrong" Uncinaria species is a contributing factor in these cases of host peritonitis. The major significance of this research is the unusual finding of adult hookworms in the PNC of so many dead pups. No obvious explanation for this occurrence could be determined. Further research, like in the present study, should help understand and monitor the apparent ever changing role of hookworm disease in the health of northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on SMI. PMID:21347520

Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

2011-09-01

135

Attendance patterns of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) females and pups during the non-breeding season at San Miguel Island  

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The attendance patterns of California sea lions were studied during the non-breeding seasons from 1991 to 1994. Lactating females frequented the rookery to nurse their pups until weaning; most non-lactating females left the rookery for the season. Females spent over 70% of their time at sea except in 1993 when they spent 59% of their time at sea. The mean foraging trip length in the winter and spring ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 d; the mean nursing visit ranged from 1.2 to 1.4 d. The duration of foraging trips and nursing visits was variable over the season for individuals but no pattern of change was detected. Interannual and seasonal differences were not significant for time at sea, visits ashore, or foraging-trip duration before, during, or after the 1992-1993 El Nino event. Pups spent an average of 66.6% of their time ashore and up to three days away from the rookery during their mother's absence. Most females and pups stayed associated until April or May. The results suggest that seasonal movement of prey is more important in determining attendance patterns late in the lactation period than increasing energy demands of the pup.

Melin, S.R.; DeLong, R.L.; Thomason, J.R.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

2000-01-01

136

Seasonal variation in blood and muscle oxygen stores attributed to diving behavior, environmental temperature and pregnancy in a marine predator, the California sea lion.  

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Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores. PMID:22561663

Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Atkinson, Shannon; Paras-Garcia, Alberto; Costa, Daniel P

2012-08-01

137

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae en la costa de Chile central  

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Full Text Available The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375 were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites. After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375 en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas. Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio.

MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA

2011-03-01

138

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile / Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales s [...] e basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375) en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas). Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on pho [...] tographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.

MARITZA, SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS, OLIVA; ALEJANDRA, URRA; MARÍA J, PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ; RODRIGO, MORAGA; DANIEL, SCHRADER; PATRICIA, INOSTROZA; ANGELA, MELO; HUMBERTO, DÍAZ; WALTER, SIELFELD.

139

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile / Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales s [...] e basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375) en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas). Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on pho [...] tographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.

MARITZA, SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS, OLIVA; ALEJANDRA, URRA; MARÍA J, PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ; RODRIGO, MORAGA; DANIEL, SCHRADER; PATRICIA, INOSTROZA; ANGELA, MELO; HUMBERTO, DÍAZ; WALTER, SIELFELD.

2011-03-01

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Thoracic auscultation in captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) with an electronic stethoscope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thoracic auscultation is an important diagnostic method used in cases of suspected pulmonary disease in many species, as respiratory sounds contain significant information on the physiology and pathology of the lungs and upper airways. Respiratory diseases are frequent in marine mammals and are often listed as one of their main causes of death. The aim of this study was to investigate and report baseline parameters for the electronic-mediated thoracic auscultation of one cetacean species and two pinniped species in captivity. Respiratory sounds from 20 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and 5 South African fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) were recorded with an electronic stethoscope. The sounds were analyzed for duration of the respiratory cycle, adventitious sounds, and peak frequencies of recorded sounds during expiration and inspiration as well as for sound intensity as reflected by waveform amplitude during the respiratory cycle. In respiratory cycles of the bottlenose dolphins' expiring "on command," the duration of the expiration was significantly shorter than the duration of the inspiration. In the examined pinnipeds of this study, there was no clear pattern concerning the duration of one breathing phase: Adventitious sounds were detected most often in bottlenose dolphins that were expiring on command and could be compared with "forced expiratory wheezes" in humans. This is the first report of forced expiratory wheezes in bottlenose dolphins; they can easily be misinterpreted as pathologic respiratory sounds. The peak frequencies of the respiratory sounds reached over 2,000 Hz in bottlenose dolphins and over 1,000 Hz in California sea lions and South African fur seals, but the variation of the frequency spectra was very high in all animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of respiratory sounds of bottlenose dolphins and two species of pinnipeds. PMID:22779229

Scharpegge, Julia; Hartmann, Manuel García; Eulenberger, Klaus

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella shed by captive and free-range California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from a rehabilitation center and three state reserves along the California coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella is a genus of zoonotic bacteria that can infect a variety of animals, and may cause gastrointestinal disease in marine mammals. Many of the same Salmonella serotypes are shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and humans, which poses transmission questions and public health concerns. In this study, 454 fecal samples from three free-ranging California sea lion populations along the California coast and from animals undergoing rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, were screened for the presence of Salmonella. In addition to fecal samples, 39 presumed vomitus samples were collected and processed. Of the 454 samples processed, 312 were from free-ranging sites and 142 were from rehabilitating California sea lions. A total of nine fecal samples were positive for Salmonella, yielding a 2.0% overall prevalence, as well as two presumed vomitus samples (5.1% prevalence). Salmonella shedding prevalence was 1.6% in samples collected from free-ranging animals, and 2.8% in rehabilitating animals. Four serotypes were found among the 11 positive samples, with Salmonella Enteritidis the most prevalent (64%). Antimicrobial resistance testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were performed to further characterize isolates. Experiments were carried out to determine the minimal number of Salmonella required for detection by the methods used. It was determined that at least 10' colony-forming units per gram of feces was required for detection. The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis, and diversity of serotypes discovered is considerably different from those reported in previous studies. Overall, this study provides new insights into the epidemiology of Salmonella in California sea lions present in multi-use coastal ecosystems. PMID:25314819

Berardi, Terra; Shapiro, Karen; Byrne, Barbara A; Miller, Woutrina

2014-09-01

142

Aislamiento de Plesiomonas shigelloides y Aeromonas veronii biotipo sobria en heces de lobo marino común sudamericano, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) / Isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) feces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. are Gram negative bacteria vastly distributed in the environment, being isolated from aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial and marine animals. The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is the most frequent marine mammal of the Chilean coasts, living in [...] beaches, rocks or coastline of rivers. In this work we determined the isolation frequency of P. shigelloides and A. veronii biotype sobria in fecal samples of South American sea lions belonging to a colony established at the urban South coastline of Valdivia River, southern Chile. From the 30 samples under study, P. shigelloides was isolated in 27 (90.0%) and A. veronii biotype sobria in 17 (56.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of P. shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. from South American sea lions in Chile. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these bacteria play any role in producing disease, or are merely commensals, in these marine mammals.

Mario J, González; María P, Villanueva; Fadua, Latif; Fabiola, Fernández; Heriberto, Fernández.

2009-12-01

143

Occupancy dynamics of South American Sea-Lions in Brazilian Haul-outs / Dinâmica de Ocupação do Leão-Marinho-do-Sul no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ao longo da costa do Brasil apenas duas colônias não-reprodutivas de leões-marinhos-do-sul (Otaria flavescens) são conhecidas: Ilha dos Lobos e Molhe Leste, ambas localizadas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A maioria dos leões-marinhos observados nestas colônias são machos adultos e sub-adultos. Sup [...] õe-se que a presença da espécie nestas áreas está relacionada ao forrageamento e a ausência de cuidado parental pelos machos. Este estudo analisou a dinâmica de ocupação e abundância de O. flavescens nas colônias não-reprodutivas entre 1993 e 2002, baseado em uma série temporal de dados de contagens de indivíduos. Modelos lineares generalizados mistos Bayesianos foram usados para avaliar diferença na abundância entre áreas, tendência de uso em longo prazo e padrões sazonais. Os resultados mostram que a abundância de O. flavescens variou sazonalmente, atingindo pico intra-anual em agosto (Ilha dos Lobos) e outubro (Molhe Leste), acompanhado de um aumento da ocupação média dos refúgios ao longo do período de estudo. A nova aplicação desta poderosa forma de modelagem estatística mostrou-se útil para quantificar a dinâmica de ocupação. Abstract in english Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that t [...] he species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

H., Pavanato; KG., Silva; SC., Estima; DS., Monteiro; PG., Kinas.

2013-11-01

144

Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics / Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predat [...] orio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica. Abstract in english Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American s [...] ea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.

M. Florencia, Grandi; Rocío, Loizaga de Castro; Enrique A, Crespo.

1072-10-01

145

Transformation of PBDE mixtures during sediment transport and resuspension in marine environments (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion were studied. They were largely predominated by BDE 209 (98.7% of all PBDEs) indicating that the main source of these pollutants was the commercial mixture deca-BDE. This compound and the less brominated BDE exhibited a southwestward decreasing concentration gradient following the dominant marine currents and bottom relief, e.g. the Mud Belt, the submarine canyons and the Open Continental Slope. All PBDEs exhibited statistically significant correlations confirming the common origin. However, a progressive transformation of the dumped BDE 209 was identified showing a depletion paralleled by increases of the less brominated BDEs (from 8.6% to 22%). These less brominated compounds were accumulated at about 100–140 km away from the Rhone prodelta, e.g. at the end of the submarine canyons, evidencing that these transformation compounds can be accumulated at long distances from the dumping sites in the marine system. Highlights: ? Polybromodiphenyl ethers are associated to organic carbon in marine sediments. ? PBDEs in marine sediments can accumulate further away than 140 km from the spill site. ? BDE-209 in marine sediments generate congeners found in banned commercial mixtures. ? BDE-209 in marine sediments generates new congeners not found in commercial mixtures. ? Submarine canyons channel PBDEs from the continental platform to the deep shelf. - Decomposition of decabromodiphenylmposition of decabromodiphenyl ether in marine sediments generates congeners found in banned mixtures in areas located far away from the discharge sites.

146

A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized. PMID:23544769

Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

2013-11-01

147

Californian Science Students' Perceptions of Their Classroom Learning Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilised the "What Is Happening In this Class" (WIHIC) questionnaire to examine factors that influence Californian students' perceptions of their learning environment. Data were collected from 665 USA middle school science students in 11 Californian schools. Several background variables, such as gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity,…

den Brok, Perry; Fisher, Darrell; Rickards, Tony; Bull, Eric

2006-01-01

148

Behavioral response of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens to tourist disturbance during the breeding season / Respuesta conductual del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens a la perturbación por turistas durante la época reproductiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los pinípedos muestran una alta predictibilidad en su distribución, tanto espacial como temporal, y tienden a congregarse en parches, lo que permite un fácil acceso de turistas. Sin embargo, la presencia de dichos turistas puede generar un impacto negativo sobre los animales. El objetivo de este est [...] udio fue evaluar, por primera vez en Chile, el efecto del ecoturismo sobre el comportamiento del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens durante la época reproductiva. Registramos un total de 44 visitas de embarcaciones a la lobera reproductiva de Isla Chañaral. La mayoría de los turistas mostró una actitud de calma, seguida por moderada y perturbadora. La respuesta de los lobos marinos fue mayoritariamente de escape, seguida de inactiva y alerta. La respuesta de los lobos marinos se relacionó negativamente con la distancia de aproximación de la embarcación a la colonia, pero no se relacionó ni con el tiempo de permanencia de la embarcación en la colonia ni con la conducta de los turistas. Nuestros resultados indican que el lobo marino común es afectado negativamente por la presencia de turistas, especialmente debido al escape de los individuos desde la colonia al mar. Dichos escapes pueden generar efectos fisiológicos negativos sobre el animal, lo que puede incidir sobre su adecuación biológica. Sugerimos que futuros estudios evalúen el comportamiento de respuesta de los lobos marinos durante la época reproductiva y en otros periodos del año, además de analizar posibles diferencias entre clases de edad y sexo, lo que permita contar con herramientas adecuadas para el manejo del turismo sobre el lobo marino común en Chile. Abstract in english Pinnipeds have a high predictability, both spatial and temporal, and tend to be distributed in patches, which permitting tourists easy access to them. However, the presence of tourists may generate a negative impact on the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in C [...] hile, the effect of ecotourism activities on the behavior of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens during the reproductive season. We recorded a total of 44 visiting boats to the reproductive colony of this species on Isla Chañaral. The attitude of the majority of the tourists was a quiet one; however this was followed by moderate and disturbing behavior. The response of sea lions was mainly to escape, followed by a period of inactive and alert. The response of sea lions was negatively related to the distance at which the boats approached the colony, but was not related to the time boats remained in the colony or the behavior of tourists. Our results show that the South American sea lion is negatively affected by human presence, shown by the escape of individuals from the colony to the sea. Escaping from the colony may generate negative physiological effects on an animal physiological effects on an animal, and ultimately affect the fitness of the individual. We suggest that future studies should evaluate changes in behavior during the reproductive season and in other periods, and the behavior of sea lions at different ages and sexes, to provide tools to improve the management of tourist activities on the South American sea lion in Chile.

Guido, Pavez; Lily, Muñoz; Patricia, Inostroza; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

2011-08-01

149

Behavioral response of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens to tourist disturbance during the breeding season / Respuesta conductual del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens a la perturbación por turistas durante la época reproductiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los pinípedos muestran una alta predictibilidad en su distribución, tanto espacial como temporal, y tienden a congregarse en parches, lo que permite un fácil acceso de turistas. Sin embargo, la presencia de dichos turistas puede generar un impacto negativo sobre los animales. El objetivo de este est [...] udio fue evaluar, por primera vez en Chile, el efecto del ecoturismo sobre el comportamiento del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens durante la época reproductiva. Registramos un total de 44 visitas de embarcaciones a la lobera reproductiva de Isla Chañaral. La mayoría de los turistas mostró una actitud de calma, seguida por moderada y perturbadora. La respuesta de los lobos marinos fue mayoritariamente de escape, seguida de inactiva y alerta. La respuesta de los lobos marinos se relacionó negativamente con la distancia de aproximación de la embarcación a la colonia, pero no se relacionó ni con el tiempo de permanencia de la embarcación en la colonia ni con la conducta de los turistas. Nuestros resultados indican que el lobo marino común es afectado negativamente por la presencia de turistas, especialmente debido al escape de los individuos desde la colonia al mar. Dichos escapes pueden generar efectos fisiológicos negativos sobre el animal, lo que puede incidir sobre su adecuación biológica. Sugerimos que futuros estudios evalúen el comportamiento de respuesta de los lobos marinos durante la época reproductiva y en otros periodos del año, además de analizar posibles diferencias entre clases de edad y sexo, lo que permita contar con herramientas adecuadas para el manejo del turismo sobre el lobo marino común en Chile. Abstract in english Pinnipeds have a high predictability, both spatial and temporal, and tend to be distributed in patches, which permitting tourists easy access to them. However, the presence of tourists may generate a negative impact on the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in C [...] hile, the effect of ecotourism activities on the behavior of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens during the reproductive season. We recorded a total of 44 visiting boats to the reproductive colony of this species on Isla Chañaral. The attitude of the majority of the tourists was a quiet one; however this was followed by moderate and disturbing behavior. The response of sea lions was mainly to escape, followed by a period of inactive and alert. The response of sea lions was negatively related to the distance at which the boats approached the colony, but was not related to the time boats remained in the colony or the behavior of tourists. Our results show that the South American sea lion is negatively affected by human presence, shown by the escape of individuals from the colony to the sea. Escaping from the colony may generate negative physiological effects on an animal physiological effects on an animal, and ultimately affect the fitness of the individual. We suggest that future studies should evaluate changes in behavior during the reproductive season and in other periods, and the behavior of sea lions at different ages and sexes, to provide tools to improve the management of tourist activities on the South American sea lion in Chile.

Guido, Pavez; Lily, Muñoz; Patricia, Inostroza; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

150

ETHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON CALIFORNIAN RABBIT FEMALES  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to underline different ethological aspects on Californianrabbit females, aspects which have important technological involves and definespecific approach of this breed, his temperament being net different from other breeds.Studies shows, that the Californian rabbit females demonstrate almost withoutexceptions that, they gets extremely lively and nervous temperament with its kind andhumans alike. This behavior determinates difficult approaches in breeding andreproduction technologies, being difficult to determinate the early pregnancy withmales, facts that constrain us to use non-conventional and risky practices inreproduction process. Concrete, was necessary to mating females 5 by 5 days, toeliminate lost time and have a continuous reproduction rhythm.

M. BOTHA

2013-12-01

151

Presencia de cepas diarreogénicas de Escherichia coli y estudio de genes de virulencia en aislados desde fecas de dos poblaciones de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens en el norte de Chile / Presence of diarrheagenic strains of Escherichia coli and virulence genes study in isolates from feces of two populations of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens in Northern Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english This research analyzed the effect of fecal contamination caused by sewage, and its relationship with the presence of enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli in the feces of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) from Iquique Bay and surrounding waters. The E. coli strains isolated from th [...] e water column of the bay and sewage outlet, showed the presence of the gene eae. In the strains isolated from the feces of both sea lion colonies no presence of virulent diarrheagenic genes was detected. The genotyping of strains resulted in clusters according to their origin and showed separation of the samples of E. coli population of the colonies of sea lions and those of the strains isolated from the column water of Iquique Bay.

Paula, Salinas C; Rubén, Moraga M; Edgardo, Santander P; Walter, Sielfeld K.

2010-04-01

152

Fatty-acyl esters of retinol (vitamin A) in the liver of the harp seal (Phoca groenlandica), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The fatty-acid composition of retinyl esters in the livers of two species of phocid seal, the harp seal (Phoca groenlandica, n = 20) and the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, n = 15), and one species of otariid seal, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus, n = 6), was determined. Vitamin A ranged in concentration from 4 to 1024 nmol retinol/g liver for the phocids and from 381 to 979 nmol/g liver for the otariids. In most of the livers, retinyl palmitate was not the principal ester, and the palmitate + stearate + oleate trio of retinyl esters represented less than 50% of the total. In all samples, the retinyl esters contained 20:1, 20:4, 20:5, and 22:6 in unusually large amounts. Retinyl esters tended to be richer than whole-liver lipids in 20:5 + 22:6, whereas whole-liver lipids were richer in 18:0 and 18:2. Therefore, the pool of acyl donors used for the esterification of retinol may be distinct from that used for other lipids. Birth-to-weaning changes were seen only in the harp seals. In the pups, the hepatic vitamin-A concentration increased 454%, while the proportion of 18:0 and 20:1 in the retinyl esters rose and that of 14:0 + 16:1 and 20:4 fell. Concomitantly, in their mothers, the proportion of 20:4 increased but that of 16:0 and 18:0 decreased. PMID:1482558

Ball, M D; Nizzi, C P; Furr, H C; Olson, J A; Oftedal, O T

1992-09-01

153

La explotación histórica del lobo marino de California no causó un cuello de botella genético en el Golfo de California / Past exploitation of California sea lions did not lead to a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La explotación humana puede causar cuellos de botella genéticos asociados con una variabilidad genética reducida y menor aptitud. La población del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) en el Golfo de California, México, fue objeto de una explotación prolongada durante los siglos XIX y X [...] X que pudo haber causado un cuello de botella genético. Sin embargo, la explotación que deriva tamaños poblacionales bajos no siempre causa cuellos de botella genéticos. El conocimiento de las consecuencias genéticas de la caza del lobo marino de California es crítico para la conservación de la población del Golfo de California, que está en declive y es genéticamente distinta de otras poblaciones. En este estudio usamos una base de datos de 10 marcadores polimórficos de microsatélite amplificados en 355 individuos pertenecientes a seis colonias mexicanas. Estos datos fueron analizados con diversos métodos (BOTTLENECK y razón M) para determinar si ocurrió un cuello de botella genético. Nuestros resultados indican que la explotación histórica del lobo marino no causó un cuello de botella genético en la población del Golfo de California; sin embargo, las simulaciones sugieren que si la población hubiese sido reducida a menos de 100 individuos sí hubiésemos detectado una reducción de la variabilidad genética. Con base en estos resultados concluimos que la explotación histórica de esta población no fue tan intensa como se pensaba previamente y, por tanto, no causó un cuello de botella genético. No obstante, la explotación se concentró en machos adultos y este sesgo podría haber afectado la dinámica poblacional de estas colonias y su aptitud general. Abstract in english Human exploitation can lead to genetic bottlenecks associated with reduced genetic variability and lower fitness. The population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, was hunted during the 19th and 20th centuries, potentially leading to a genetic bottlen [...] eck; however, even exploitation that leads to low population sizes does not always cause genetic bottlenecks. Understanding the genetic consequences of past sea lion hunts is critical to the conservation of the Gulf of California sea lion population, which is currently declining and is genetically distinct from other populations. We used available data from 10 amplified polymorphic microsatellite loci in 355 individuals from six Mexican colonies. Microsatellite data were analyzed using diverse approaches (BOTTLENECK and M-ratio) to determine if a genetic bottleneck had occurred. Our results indicate that human exploitation did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the sea lion population of the Gulf of California. Simulation analyses revealed that a reduction in genetic variability would have been detected if fewer than 100 individuals had remained after exploitation. We conclude that past exploitation was not as severe as previously thought and did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California sea lion population. Nevertheless, historical hunts specifically targeted adult males and this sex-biased exploitation may have influenced the population dynamics and overall fitness.

M, González-Suárez; D, Aurioles-Gamboa; LR, Gerber.

154

Eventos reproductivos del león marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), en el norte de Chile (Pacífico suroriental) / Reproductive events of southern sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), in the north of Chile (eastern south Pacific)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios sobre el desarrollo de la temporada de reproducción del león marino común han sido largamente realizados en poblaciones de Uruguay y Argentina, Atlántico suroriental, disponiéndose de escasa información en Perú y Chile. El objetivo de esta contribución es dar a conocer el desarrollo de la t [...] emporada de reproducción del león marino del sur, durante dos períodos consecutivos en la lobera de Punta Negra, norte de Chile. El desarrollo de los eventos reproductivos en la lobera de Punta Negra presentó una sincronización anual, extendiéndose desde la tercera semana de diciembre hasta mayo, con un clímax de los eventos reproductivos en febrero, siendo la dinámica del período de reproducción similar a la informada para otras colonias estudiadas, aunque con un desfase en el tiempo en contraste con las poblaciones de la costa atlántica. Se concluye que el desarrollo de los eventos durante ambas temporadas de reproducción presentó una alta sincronización anual, con un desfase promedio de 2,0 - 2,5 días, pudiendo ser generalizada como representativa para la zona norte de Chile, en el Pacífico suroriental Abstract in english Studies on the development of the breeding season of southern sea lions have been carried out primarily in populations from Uruguay and Argentina, western south Atlantic; scarce information has been published from populations of Peru and Chile. The objective of this contribution is to describe the d [...] evelopment of the breeding season of the southern sea lion, during two consecutive seasons in the area of Punta Negra, north of Chile. The development of the reproductive events in the Punta Negra colony presented a high annual synchronization, extending from the third week of December till May, with a climax of the reproductive events in February, being the dynamics during the breeding period similar to that informed for other colonies, although with an out of fase in the breeding season with the Atlantic populations of sea lion. We conclude that the development of the reproductive events during the both breeding seasons presented a high annual synchronization, with an average out of fase of 2.0-2.5 days, being representative for most of the northern area of Chile, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean

Jorge, Acevedo R; Anelio, Aguayo-Lobo; Walter, Sielfeld K.

2003-12-01

155

Diet plasticity of the South American sea lion in Chile: stable isotope evidence / Plasticidad de la dieta del lobo marino común en Chile: evidencia mediante isótopos estables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Estudios de dieta del lobo marino común (LMC) en Chile sugieren que esta especie es un depredador oportunista y generalista, cuya dieta varía dependiendo de la distribución de las especies presas y de las variaciones espacio-temporales en la abundancia de dichas presas. Sin embargo, estos estudios h [...] an sido esporádicos, limitados espacialmente y basados en análisis de contenidos estomacales, lo que no permite un análisis integral de la composición de la dieta y de sus potenciales diferencias espacio-temporales. En este estudio se analizó la composición de la dieta del LMC en 3 zonas geográficas de la costa chilena utilizando los isótopos estables de ?13C y ?15N en muestras de pelo y piel. En la zona norte las principales especies consumidas fueron los peces Isacia conceptionis (19,5%) de acuerdo al análisis de piel y Cilus gilberti (23,3%) en análisis de pelo; en la zona centro lo fueron Thyrsites atun (40,1%) en piel y Strangomera bentincki (31,1%) en pelo; mientras que en la zona sur especies de peces pelágicos (como T. atun y Trachurus murphyi, 20,8%) en piel y salmones de cultivo (20,7%) en pelo. Estas diferencias demuestran que el LMC muestra cambios espaciales en la composición de su dieta. Variaciones entre tejidos, así como con lo registrado en estudios previos, sugiere que esta especie es capaz de adaptarse a variaciones, tanto intra como inter-anuales, de la presencia/ausencia de sus presas. Abstract in english Diet studies of the South American sea lion (SASL) in Chile suggest that this species is an opportunistic and generalist predator whose diet varies depending on the distribution of prey species and spatial and temporal variations in the abundance of these dams. However, these studies have been spora [...] dic, geographically limited and based on stomach content analysis, which does not allow an integral analysis of the composition of the diet of this species and its potential spatial and temporal variability. In this study we analyzed the diet of the SASL in 3 geographic zones of the coast of Chile using analysis of stable isotopes ?13C and ?15N on hair and skin tissues. In the northern zone, the main prey species consumed by SASL were Isacia conceptionis (19.5%) for skin and Cilus gilberti (23.3%) for hair; in the central zone were Thyrsites atun (40.1%) for skin and Strangomera bentincki (31.1%) for hair, whereas in the southern zone the main species were pelagic fish (such as T. atun and Trachurus murphyi, 20.8%) for skin and farm-raised salmonids (20.7%) for hair analysis. These differences indicate variation in the composition of its diet. Variations between the analyzed tissues and also with previous studies suggest that this species is capable of adapting to intra- and inter-annual variations in the presence/absence of its prey.

Lily, Muñoz; Guido, Pavez; Renato A, Quiñones; Doris, Oliva; Macarena, Santos; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

2013-12-01

156

Islands of Time Before: The Miraculous Translation of Californian.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highlights the history of Californian (Luiseno), the native language of Baja California, including how the language was recorded by a young Mexican student at the Vatican's missionary school, the Collegium Urbanum in Rome. Discusses the political impact of the grammatical recording and subsequent translation of the language during the mid-19th…

Kottman, Karl

1999-01-01

157

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

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The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (K...

Bustos, Raimundo L.; Daneri, Gustavo A.; Volpedo, Alejandra V.; Ana Harrington; Varela, Esperanza A.

2012-01-01

158

Impact of winter storms on sediment erosion in the Rhone River prodelta and fate of sediment in the Gulf of Lions (North Western Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study a three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed. The model accounts for both current and wave forcing on the sediment and was implemented over the Gulf of Lions. A two-way nesting technique was used to focus on the Rhone River prodelta which is considered as a sink for riverine sediment. In addition, to understand the resuspension of trapped sediment over the Rhone prodelta, an in situ experiment, called SCOPE, was conducted during the winter 2007-2008. The experiment consisted of measuring hydro-sedimentary parameters using a mooring station comprising a current profiler (ADCP) and an altimeter (acoustic transducer) located in the eastern part of the Rhone prodelta. The three-dimensional transport model was validated using these data, and used to investigate the effect of sediment dynamics at the prodelta and Gulf of Lions scale. Both modelling and data analysis highlighted the impact of the two strong storms from the south-east which characterised the experimental period. Erosion of bed material (about 2 cm) and an increase in suspended material (up to about 50-100 mg/l) in the water were the result of each storm as recorded at the mooring station. The erosion capacity due to waves, combined with a strong current, due to both wind and wave forcing, resulted in strong south-westward export over the whole prodelta. Each storm was responsible for an off-prodelta export estimated at around 2.1 Mt. This study demonstrates that the Rhone River sediments trapped over the Rhone prodelta are subject to strong resuspension during episodic events.

Dufois, François; Verney, Romaric; Le Hir, Pierre; Dumas, Franck; Charmasson, Sabine

2014-01-01

159

First record of a neonate California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico / Primer registro de un lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) neonato en Manzanillo, Colima, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el primer reporte de un lobo marino de California recién nacido cerca de Manzanillo, Colima, México, cerca de 900 km al sur de las colonias reproductivas más sureñas reconocidas para la especie. El avistamiento ocurrió en playa La Boquita el 25 de junio de 2011 y durante los 2 días posterior [...] es. Se registraron valores de temperatura superficial del mar que resultaron ser los más bajos (21-24° C) en la región, similares a los de áreas de alimentación de lobo marino en el sur del golfo de California en invierno (~20.9° C). Las hembras dan a luz en verano, después presentan un ciclo de alimentación alternado con la atención a sus crías por lo que permanecen cerca de sus colonias, donde alimentan a sus crías por 1 año aproximadamente. Por esta razón, las áreas de alimentación de las hembras se encuentran confinadas a un radio de unos 30 km alrededor de las colonias. Esta relación entre alimentación y reproducción provoca que estos nacimientos atípicos sean importantes, ya que proveen conocimiento acerca de patrones individuales de desplazamiento, proporcionando elementos nuevos para el análisis del estado de la especie y su conservación. Abstract in english We present the first report of a neonate California sea lion near Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, about 900 km from the southernmost breeding colonies recognized for the species. The sighting occurred June 25th, 2011, and during the 2 following days, in La Boquita beach. Near the site of the sighting, s [...] ea surface temperature (SST) was recorded. SST values were some of the lowest recorded in the region (21-24° C), similar to the ones typically recorded in feeding areas in the southern Gulf of California in winter (~20.9° C). California sea lion females give birth in summer and stay close to their colonies where they feed their young during approximately one year. Thus, their feeding areas tend to be confined within a radius of about 30 km from their colonies. This close relationship between breeding and feeding make extralimital births important; the increasing knowledge regarding travel patterns of individuals may provide better ways to analyze the species status and its future conservation.

Christian D., Ortega-Ortiz; Fernando, Elorriaga-Verplancken; Leslie, Rodríguez-Téllez; Aramis, Olivos-Ortiz; Juan Heberto, Gaviño-Rodríguez.

2013-06-01

160

Lion Attacks on Humans Increase in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

... br/>Press Release 05-145Lion Attacks on Humans Increase in Tanzania Researchers analyze ... lions close to the humans. The consequences are often deadly--for the human, the lion or both," said ...

 
 
 
 
161

Mac OS X Lion Simplified  

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Simply the easiest way for visual learners to get up and running with Mac OS X Lion OS X Lion is the latest version of the Mac desktop operating system, offering cool new features for more than 25 million Mac OS X users. For visual learners who are switching to a Mac, upgrading from an earlier OS, or just getting started with computers, Mac OS X Lion Simplified provides all the necessary information in the simplest way possible. Task-based spreads provide step-by-step instructions with full color illustrations that show exactly how to accomplish a wide variety of tasks with Mac OS X Lion.Looks

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

162

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) / First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anop [...] lura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur. Abstract in english The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the exis [...] tent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

A, Crovetto; R, Franjola; R, Silva.

163

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens in Chile  

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Full Text Available Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anoplura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur.The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the existent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

A Crovetto

2008-01-01

164

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

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Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

2000-03-01

165

78 FR 2393 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...QF03-80-003] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert...1978 (PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd;...

2013-01-11

166

78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RP13-436-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert...Practice and Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd,...

2013-01-11

167

The Late-Quaternary climatic signal recorded in a deep-sea turbiditic levee (Rhône Neofan, Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean): palynological constraints  

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Siliciclastic turbidites represent huge volumes of sediments, which are of particular significance for (1) petroleum researchers, interested in their potential as oil reservoirs and (2) sedimentologists, who aim at understanding sediment transport processes from continent to deep-basins. An important challenge when studying marine turbidites has been to establish a reliable chronology for the deposits. Indeed, conventional marine proxies applied to hemipelagic sediments are often unreliable in detrital clays. In siliciclastic turbidites, those proxies can be used only in hemipelagic intervals, providing a poor constraint on their chronology. In this study, we have used sediments from the Rhône Neofan (NW Mediterranean Sea) to demonstrate that pollen grains can provide a high-resolution chronostratigraphical framework for detrital clays in turbidites. Vegetation changes occurring from the end of Marine Isotopic Stage 3 to the end of Marine Isotopic Stage 2 (from ˜30 to ˜18 ka cal. BP) are clearly recorded where other proxies have failed previously, mainly because the scarcity of foraminifers in these sediments prevented any continuous Sea Surface Temperature (SST) record and radiocarbon dating to be obtained. We show also that the use of palynology in turbidite deposits is able to contribute to oceanographical and sedimentological purposes: (1) Pinus pollen grains can document the timing of sea-level rise, (2) the ratio between pollen grains transported from the continent via rivers and dinoflagellate cysts (elutriating) allows us to distinguish clearly detrital sediments from pelagic clays. Finally, taken together, all these tools show evidence that the Rhône River disconnected from the canyon during the sea-level rise and thus evidence the subsequent rapid starvation of the neofan at 18.5 ka cal. BP. Younger sediments are hemipelagic: the frequency of foraminifers allowed to date sediments with radiocarbon. First results of Sea Surface Temperature obtained on foraminifers are in good agreement with the dinoflagellate cysts climatic signal. Both provide information on the end of the deglaciation and the Holocene.

Beaudouin, Célia; Dennielou, Bernard; Melki, Tarek; Guichard, François; Kallel, Nejib; Berné, Serge; Huchon, Agnès

2004-11-01

168

Seasonal variation in the abundance of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) in Chañaral Island, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile / Variación estacional de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) en Isla Chañaral, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Desde enero de 2007 y hasta marzo de 2008 se analizó la variación de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la lobera reproductiva Isla Chañaral, de acuerdo al sexo, clase de edad y estación reproductiva. El mayor número de lobos marinos en la lobera se registró durante el período [...] reproductivo. Esta variación se debió principalmente a la fluctuación del número de hembras, ya que esta clase de edad fue la más importante en la colonia y mostró un aumento en su abundancia durante este período. No se registraron fluctuaciones estacionales en el número de machos adultos, machos subadultos y juveniles. La proporción de sexos durante la estación reproductiva estuvo fuertemente sesgada hacia las hembras, mientras que fue cercana a 1:1 durante el resto del año. Este estudio demuestra que la variación en la abundancia y composición por sexo y clase de edad del lobo marino común en Isla Chañaral se relaciona principalmente con la actividad reproductiva. Abstract in english From January 2007 to March 2008, we examined variation in the abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens in Chañaral Island breeding colony by sex, age-class, and reproductive seasonality. The number of sea lions on land was highest during the breeding season. This variation was main [...] ly influenced by the number of adult females, because this age class was the most important in the colony and showed an increase in abundance during this period. No seasonal variation in the number of adult males, subadult males, and juveniles was detected. The sex ratio during the breeding season was highly biased towards females, while it was close to 1:1 during the rest of the year. This study demonstrates that variation in the abundance and sex/age class composition of sea lions at Chañaral Island colony is largely influenced by reproductive activity.

Maritza, Sepúlveda; Patricia, Inostroza; M. José, Pérez-Alvarez; Doris, Oliva; Rodrigo, Moraga.

2009-12-01

169

Seasonal variability of the organic matter in a sedimentary coastal environment: sources, degradation and accumulation (continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions—northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal variations of the superficial (0-1 cm) sedimentary organic matter were studied at a depth of 26 m on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean). The samples were analyzed for total organic carbon, coarse organic carbon (>40 ?m), hydrolyzable organic carbon, nitrogen, total amino acids, total and individual sugars (HPLC), lignin-derived compounds (HPLC) and kerogens (acid-soluble, humic substances and humin). Seasonal variations of the organic compounds are related to the sedimentological, hydrodynamical and physico-chemical environmental conditions. The mean annual values of the different organic compounds analyzed show the low quantities and their evolved character at the sediment-water interface: 0.5% total org C (TOC) (d.w.), 0.049% N (d.w.), C/N: 11.2, coarse org C (COQ: 62% of TOC, hydrolyzable org C: 45% TOC. The labile compounds represent a low percentage of the total organic matter (TOM), amino-acids: 12% of TOM and sugars: 5% of TOM. The relative proportions of soluble (humic) and insoluble kerogens (humin), respectively 6% and 94% of TOC are typical of a highly evolved organic matter. The large contribution of plant remains confirmed by the high proportion of COC, corresponds to a low proportion of humic substances and a high degree of condensation ( H/C = 1.3 ). The infrared spectroscopy determination of the functional groups of the humic substances permits us to confirm both autochtonous (marine) and allochtonous (terrestrial) sources of organic matter in the Têt prodeltaïc accumulation area. Numerous functional groups identified reveal the fresh quality of the organic inputs at the sediment-water interface. Aliphaticity is well marked and nitrogenous compounds (1 and 2 amines) correspond to autochtonous production (in spring: phyto- and zoo-planktonic blooms in the euphotic zone; in summer: primary production under the thermocline and phytobenthic blooms). Sugars are well represented, but from two origins: phytoplanktonic, and issue from terrestrial high plants (ligno-cellulosic complexes). The aromatic functional groups are well identified (aromatic ether, phenol) as are the markers of a large contribution of terrestrial organic matter. The active hydrodynamical (resuspension) and biological, (consumption, bioturbation) events participate in the frequent reworking of the superficial deposits (muddy-silts) and, consequently, the active degradation (oxidization) of the organic matter. The more labile organic matter is rapidly consumed by the intense biological benthic activity. The organic C content is low (0.5% d.w.) except during the autumnal input (2.5% d.w.). This input (8 cm thick) disappears one month later, because of the resuspension induced by littoral currents. This same phenomenon induces during all the year the reworking of the first centimeter of the deposit. In terms of budget of the carbon cycle in the coastal area, this active hydrodynamical environment shows the supremacy of the carbon degradation over its burial.

Buscail, Roselyne; Pocklington, Roger; Germain, Claire

1995-06-01

170

Comparación de los patrones conductuales del lobo marino común en época reproductiva y no reproductiva / Comparison of behavioral patterns of South American sea lions between breeding and non-breeding seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se han descrito tácticas reproductivas para machos y hembras en sistemas reproductivos poligínicos, dentro de las cuales, una respuesta conductual sexo-específico sería esperable para maximizar el ixito reproductivo. El presente estudio da cuenta de un seguimiento conductual del lobo marino común Ot [...] aria flavescens durante la época reproductiva (ER) y no reproductiva (ENR) en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Lobería Cobquecura, Chile central. Se registraron patrones conductuales de machos, hembras, juveniles y crías entre mayo de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. Los machos presentaron mas registros de conductas asociadas a agresión, desplazamiento y reconocimiento durante ER, mientras que la conducta descanso fue mayor durante ENR. Hembras y juveniles presentaron mayores registros de reconocimiento durante ENR mientras que las otras categorías conductuales no presentaron diferencias entre ER y ENR. Las conductas agresivas por parte de los machos así como las relacionadas al cuidado parental por parte de las hembras podrían ser estrategias conductuales desarrolladas por ambos sexos para asegurar la viabilidad poblacional. Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de los patrones conductuales reproductivos de la especie y forma parte de uno de los seguimientos conductuales reproductivos mas continuos desarrollados en la actualidad en el lobo marino común. Dado que el estudio se realiza en un area protegida dentro del marco legal de Santuario de la Naturaleza, los resultados expuestos serán de utilidad para futuras comparaciones con loberas reproductivas afectadas por actividad antrópica. Abstract in english In a polygynous mating system males and females have different reproductive strategies; so it is expectable that both sexes have evolved different reproductive behavioral responses to maximize their reproductive success. We analyze the behavior of different sex/age classes of Otaria flavescens durin [...] g breeding (BS) and non-breeding seasons (NBS) at a Nature Sanctuary breeding colony, central Chilean coast. From May 2008 to December 2009 data of males, females, juveniles and pups were recorded. Males performed more aggression, locomotion and recognizing behaviors during the BS, while they mostly rested during the NBS. Females and juveniles performed more recognizing behavior in the NBS, while the other behavior categories did not show differences between the NBS and the BS. As reproductive behavioral strategies, male aggression and maternal care may increase the overall population viability. This study contributed to a better understanding of the reproductive behavior patterns of this species based on what is to our knowledge the most continuous monitoring of a South American sea lion breeding colony. Since the study has been undertaken in a Nature Sanctuary, the results may be used as a baseline to compare with behavioral data from colonies perturbed by human activities.

M. José, Pérez-Alvarez; Pablo, Carrasco; Maritza, Sepúlveda; Renato A, Quiñones.

2013-04-01

171

Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using 210 Po et le 210 Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

210 Po and 210 Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of 210 Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, 210 Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than 210 Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a 210 Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of 210 Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. 210 Po and 210 Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, 210 Po and 210 Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author)

172

Events at the Paleocene-Eocene Boundary as Recorded in Shelf Sediments From the Californian Margin  

Science.gov (United States)

The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by rapid global warming, as much as 8 degrees C, and a transient 3 per mil negative excursion in carbon isotopes (CIE) that has been observed in marine and terrestrial records worldwide. The magnitude of the CIE is best explained by the rapid transfer of a large mass of methane from gas hydrate reservoirs to the atmosphere. The rise in temperature associated with the addition of this greenhouse gas appears to have also altered global humidity and precipitation patterns, a feature which is best expressed in near shore depositional facies. While extensively studied in deep-sea sediments, the PETM has been comparatively less investigated in near-shore, shallow-marine records. This is particularly true for the Californian margin, where complications linked to syn-sedimentary and post depositional tectonic have so far limited paleoceanographic works on Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary records. Continental shelves are, however, a potentially important archive of the PETM event as they are proximal to rivers and are the principal sink for terrigenous sediments. The coastal marine ecosystems are also particularly sensitive to changes in local salinity and nutrient fluxes brought about by changing runoff. Here, we present data from several marine sections (claystones and siltstones) now exposed in the mountains of central and southern California and comprised of sediments deposited across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. Sedimentation at these locations resulted from the interplay between tectonic, paleoceanographic, and climatic processes. The main objective of our study is to explore the relative timing between the CIE, possible changes in continental weathering, productivity and paleoceanography, and changes in regional climate (such as increased or decreased precipitation). The results obtained thus far indicate that 1) the CIE is recorded on the Western North American shelf, though its onset is truncated due to complex regional eustatic tectono-sedimentary patterns, 2) the magnitude of the isotopic excursion is similar to that in the deep-sea, 3) the excursion interval is expanded due to higher sedimentation rates, and 4) kaolinite to smectite ratios indicate a more complex relationship between continental weathering and climate than has been recorded on the U.S. East coast or on the southern margin of the Tethys.

John, C. M.; Bohati, S.; Zachos, J. C.; Brinkhuis, H.; Sluijs, A.; Gibbs, S.; Bralower, T.; McDougall-Reid, K.

2004-12-01

173

The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a carbon sequestration program based in payments for management adoption is going to favor the probability of adoption of mitigating alternatives. Finally, in Chapter 4, we interpret the yield productivity potential, as a state variable, summarizing the complex system of environmental and land-use history of each field, and propose fully dynamic econometric models to structurally assess carbon sequestration policies.

Catala-Luque, Rosa

174

Finding Common Ground in Education Values: Influential Californians Speak on the Purpose of Public Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This white paper explores how influential Californians conceive of the purpose of public education. The authors' intention was to learn how the purposes converge and to uncover potential building blocks for a consensus that puts students at the center and rises above disparate beliefs and alliances. The paper draws on 50 interviews they conducted…

Rogers, John; Bertrand, Melanie; Perez, Wendy

2012-01-01

175

OS X Mountain Lion bible  

CERN Document Server

The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

Gruman, Galen

2012-01-01

176

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance;)

2009-01-01

177

Daily and annual circarhythms activity in the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) at the central zone of Chile / Circaritmos de actividad diarios y anuales en el lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la zona central de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En otáridos se han estudiado la presencia de circaritmos de actividad sobre la base de cambios en las densidades poblacionales en las loberas. En este trabajo, se estudiaron los ritmos circadiano (24 h) y circanual (1 año) del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en las loberas de Cochoa y Punta Cura [...] umilla en Chile Central. El ritmo circadiano fue estudiado en ambas loberas. En cada una de ellas se realizaron censos cada 45 min durante 3 días de observación continuos (72 h). Los resultados demuestran que se produce un aumento del número de animales en tierra en horarios diurnos y una disminución en los nocturnos. Dichas fluctuaciones están asociadas a un ciclo de 24 h, y demuestran la existencia de un ritmo circadiano en estas loberas. El ritmo circanual fue estudiado en la lobera de Cochoa. Para ello se realizaron 145 observaciones durante 3 años consecutivos (1995-1998). Los resultados muestran un aumento de la población en los meses de otoño a primavera, y una disminución brusca en el verano. Estas fluctuaciones se asocian a un ciclo de un año, y demuestran la existencia de un ritmo circanual en esta especie. Abstract in english In otariids the presence of circarhythms activity has been studied on the basis of population density changes in sea lion colonies. In this work, the circadian rhythm (24 h) and the circannual rhythm (a year) of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Cochoa and Punta Curaumilla colonies [...] in Central Chile were studied. The circadian rhythm was studied in both colonies. In each one, census were performed every 45 minute during three days (72 h) of continuous observation. The results show that the number of animals on land increases during day times and decreases in the night. Such fluctuations are associated to a 24 h cycle and show the existence of a circadian rhythm in these colonies. The circannual rhythm was studied at Cochoa colony. With this purpose 145 observations were performed during three consecutive years (1995-1998). The results show a population increase during Autumn and Spring and a sudden decrease in the Summer. These fluctuations are associated to a one year cycle showing the existence of a circannual rhythm in this species.

Maritza, Sepúlveda; Doris P, Oliva; Francisco J, Palma.

2001-12-01

178

Teach Yourself VISUALLY Mac OS X Lion  

CERN Document Server

Visual learners will quickly see how to take full advantage of Mac OS X Lion The latest Mac desktop operating system adds iPad functionality, a desktop App Store, and many more cool features. This guide combines step-by-step instructions with full-color illustrations to show visual learners how to take advantage of everything Lion has to offer. Plenty of screen shots show you just what to expect at every step, so you can get going quickly whether you're new to the Mac or upgrading from an earlier OS.Reviews how Lion incorporates all-new features including a multi-touch trackpad, Mission Contro

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

179

Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

Shortcuts, tips, and tools for making the most of the new Mac OS X Lion Mac OS X Lion is the eagerly anticipated updated desktop operating system installed on every new Apple computer. Packed with the latest and greatest tips, tricks, and techniques for getting the most out of all that Lion has to offer, this handy guide is like having an Apple genius at your fingertips. Inside you'll find savvy advice on everything from simple tasks like getting started to intermediate-level information that covers how to use the coolest features of the new Mac operating system. Written in an authoritative an

Spivey, Dwight

2011-01-01

180

Lion and Man -- Can Both Win?  

CERN Document Server

This paper is concerned with continuous-time pursuit and evasion games. Typically, we have a lion and a man in a metric space: they have the same speed, and the lion wishes to catch the man while the man tries to evade capture. We are interested in questions of the following form: is it the case that exactly one of the man and the lion has a winning strategy? As we shall see, in a compact metric space at least one of the players has a winning strategy. We show that, perhaps surprisingly, there are examples in which both players have winning strategies. We also construct a metric space in which, for the game with two lions versus one man, neither player has a winning strategy. We prove various other (positive and negative) related results, and pose some open problems.

Bollobás, B; Walters, M

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

182

Actualización sobre el estado del apostadero de lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria Flavescens) en la Isla Trinidad, estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina / Update on the status of South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) colony from Trinidad Island, Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) se distribuye en la costa argentina desde Mar del Plata hasta Tierra del Fuego e Islas Malvinas con unas 70 colonias descriptas. En Buenos Aires existe una colonia reproductiva en Banco Culebra y tres no reproductivas en Mar del Plata, Quequ [...] én e Isla Trinidad. Esta última fue comunicada en 1952; desde ese año no se publicaron nuevos registros y en consecuencia la información citada posteriormente es confusa. En la presente nota se dan a conocer observaciones inéditas sobre su tamaño desde 1990. Se contaron entre 0 y 150 machos adultos y subadultos con variaciones según la época del año. Abstract in english The South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) is distributed along the Argentinean coast, from Mar del Plata to Tierra del Fuego and Malvinas Islands, with 70 reporte colonies. In Buenos Aires there is one breeding colony in Banco Culebra and three non reproductive settlements in Mar del Plata, Qu [...] equén and Trinidad Island. The latter was reported for the first time in 1952, since then no further records were published about its current status and the information cited by many authors is confusing. Here we provide new observations about the population size of this colony from 1990. Seal counts ranged between 0-150 males and sub-adults depending on the season.

Pablo F, Petracci; Martín, Sotelo; Victoria, Massola; Martín, Carrizo; Alberto, Scorolli; Sergio, Zalba; Valdemar, Delhey.

2010-06-01

183

Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins; Etude du transfert et du depot du materiel particulaire par le {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application aux marges continentales du Golfe de Gascogne (NE Atlantique) et du Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranee)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of {sup 210} Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, {sup 210} Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than {sup 210} Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a {sup 210} Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of {sup 210} Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on {sup 210} Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author). 243 refs.

Radakovitch, O.

1995-07-07

184

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina / Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina) es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las agua [...] s de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías. Abstract in english As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with [...] particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

María Alejandra, Romero; Silvana, Dans; Raúl, González; Guillermo, Svendsen; Néstor, García; Enrique, Crespo.

2011-07-01

185

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

María Alejandra Romero

2011-07-01

186

Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes  

Science.gov (United States)

Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

2011-01-01

187

Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in Maasailand, Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing. PMID:24527992

Hazzah, Leela; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Naughton, Lisa; Edwards, Charles T T; Mwebi, Ogeto; Kearney, Fiachra; Frank, Laurence

2014-06-01

188

Dual phylogenetic origins of Nigerian lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion fecal DNA extracts from four individuals each from Yankari Game Reserve and Kainji-Lake National Park (central northeast and west Nigeria, respectively) were Sanger-sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The sequences were aligned against 61 lion reference sequences from other parts of Africa and India. The sequence data were analyzed further for the construction of phylogenetic trees using the maximum-likelihood approach to depict phylogenetic patterns of distribution among sequences. Our results show that Nigerian lions grouped together with lions from West and Central Africa. At the smaller geographical scale, lions from Kainji-Lake National Park in western Nigeria grouped with lions from Benin (located west of Nigeria), whereas lions from Yankari Game Reserve in central northeastern Nigeria grouped with the lion populations in Cameroon (located east of Nigeria). The finding that the two remaining lion populations in Nigeria have different phylogenetic origins is an important aspect to consider in future decisions regarding management and conservation of rapidly shrinking lion populations in West Africa. PMID:25077018

Tende, Talatu; Bensch, Staffan; Ottosson, Ulf; Hansson, Bengt

2014-07-01

189

PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis also enables to identify key parameters and assumptions which control contamination pathways in the Gulf of Lions. Thus, this work is based on coupling such complex biogeochemical model (Eco3M), with a PCBs transport model and a model of hydrodynamics (MARS3D) in order to test a scientific exploration tool for the assessment of PCB dispersion in space and time in the Gulf of Lion and of their transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. In this work we estimate PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between the different species of PCB, namely: dissolved total, available dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption (equilibrium partitioning), bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization. References Auger P.A., Diaz F., Ulses C., Estornel C., Neveux J., Joux F., Pujo-Pay M. and Naudin J.J., 2011. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean) during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modeling combined approach. Biogeosciences, 8, 3231-3261. André, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V. and Fraunié, P., 2005. Modeled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 294-308. Andre, G., Garreau, P., Fraune, P.,2009. Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimentional model. Continental Shelf Research, 2, 407-423. Carpenter, D.O., 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Rev. Environ. Health, 21, 1-23. Dufois F., Garreau P., Le Hir P., Forget P., 2008. Wave- and current-induced bottom shear stress distribution in the Gulf of Lions. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 1920-1934. Lohmann, R.;Breivik, K.; Dachs, J.; Muir, D., 2007. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150: 150-165. Ulses C., Estourne

Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

2013-04-01

190

Californians Concerned about Youth Smoking, Majority Believes Media Has Negative Effect. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report, second in a series of eight, highlights some of the findings from two recent surveys of the opinions of adult Californians on products and policies affecting youth tobacco use. The specific focus is on public perceptions of the role of the media in affecting youth tobacco consumption. The surveys were conducted in October and November…

Kelch, Deborah Reidy

191

Lion roars in the magnetosheath: The Geotail observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars in the magnetosheath are studied based on the waveform data recorded by the Geotail plasma wave instrument (PWI). It is found that about 30% (type A) of the lion roars are associated with the mirror waves or the decrease of the ambient magnetic field (B0). About 70% (type B) of the lion roars are not associated with the decrease of the B0. Both types of the lion roars cover a frequency range from 0.02?e to 0.75?e. However, the dominant frequencies are around 0.12?e, where ?e is the electron cyclotron frequency. The amplitudes of the lion roars range from a few picoteslas to a few hundreds of picoteslas. Their average amplitude is about 110 pT. Most of these lion roars propagate in a slightly oblique direction (?kB~+/-10°) with respect to the B0. One important feature of these lion roars is that they propagate mostly in a single direction, either in the direction of or in the opposite direction to the B0. This suggests that the sources of the lion roars are very likely away from the location where they are observed. Five percent of the lion roars (only the type B lion roars) propagate in two opposite directions simultaneously. This indicates a possibility that the lion roars are generated locally in the vicinity of the spacecraft for these cases. Those highly oblique lion roars (the type B, ?kB up to 87°) are usually observed near the bow shock and they are very likely the downstream propagating whistlers excited in the bow shock region. The nearly monotonic decrease of the wave normal distributions of the lion roars suggests that the Landau damping may play an important role. The relatively narrow wave normal distribution of the types A lion roars than that of the type B lion roars suggests that the type A lion roars may be closer to their sources than the type B lion roars.

Zhang, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.

1998-03-01

192

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

F. C Eloff

1984-12-01

193

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters...

Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

2010-01-01

194

A metapopulation approach to African lion (Panthera leo) conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to anthropogenic pressures, African lion (Panthera leo) populations in Kenya and Tanzania are increasingly limited to fragmented populations. Lions living on isolated habitat patches exist in a matrix of less-preferred habitat. A framework of habitat patches within a less-suitable matrix describes a metapopulation. Metapopulation analysis can provide insight into the dynamics of each population patch in reference to the system as a whole, and these analyses often guide conservation planning. We present the first metapopulation analysis of African lions. We use a spatially-realistic model to investigate how sex-biased dispersal abilities of lions affect patch occupancy and also examine whether human densities surrounding the remaining lion populations affect the metapopulation as a whole. Our results indicate that male lion dispersal ability strongly contributes to population connectivity while the lesser dispersal ability of females could be a limiting factor. When populations go extinct, recolonization will not occur if distances between patches exceed female dispersal ability or if females are not able to survive moving across the matrix. This has profound implications for the overall metapopulation; the female models showed an intrinsic extinction rate from five-fold to a hundred-fold higher than the male models. Patch isolation is a consideration for even the largest lion populations. As lion populations continue to decline and with local extinctions occurring, female dispersal ability and the proximity to the nearest lion population are serious considerations for the recolonization of individual populations and for broader conservation efforts. PMID:24505385

Dolrenry, Stephanie; Stenglein, Jennifer; Hazzah, Leela; Lutz, R Scott; Frank, Laurence

2014-01-01

195

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period / Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue [...] analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7) y abundancia numérica (29,6%) respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%), mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) fue el mas abundante (77%). La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área. Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavesce [...] ns from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7) and numbers (29.6%) respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%), whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) was the most abundant (77%). The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

Raimundo L., Bustos; Gustavo A., Daneri; Alejandra V., Volpedo; Ana, Harrington; Esperanza A., Varela.

2012-12-01

196

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period / Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue [...] analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7) y abundancia numérica (29,6%) respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%), mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) fue el mas abundante (77%). La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área. Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavesce [...] ns from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7) and numbers (29.6%) respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%), whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) was the most abundant (77%). The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

Raimundo L., Bustos; Gustavo A., Daneri; Alejandra V., Volpedo; Ana, Harrington; Esperanza A., Varela.

197

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7 y abundancia numérica (29,6% respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%, mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 fue el mas abundante (77%. La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

Raimundo L. Bustos

2012-12-01

198

Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion  

CERN Document Server

Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

McFedries, Paul

2012-01-01

199

Input of particulate heavy metals from rivers and associated sedimentary deposits on the Gulf of Lion continental shelf  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluxes of the heavy metals chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) delivered by rivers to the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) were estimated over a three year study of the River Rhone and its smaller tributaries. Most of the particulate metal fluxes (80e90%) delivered by these rivers occurred within a very short period of time (less than 12%), a typical trend for the Mediterranean environment, where highly contrasting hydrological reg...

Radakovitch, Olivier; Roussiez, Vincent; Ollivier, Patrick; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Grenz, Christian; Probst, Jean-luc

2008-01-01

200

When the “Lion” eats your data  

CERN Multimedia

Welcome to “Mountain Lion” - Apple’s most recent operating system for Macs. More than 200 new and useful functions come with this version*. But hold on! New and useful? With this Lion comes the full integration into Apple’s “iCloud”, the same iCloud already used for iPhones and iPads.   While iCloud might be pretty smart if you want to synchronize or back up all your data, it is a black hole for privacy and confidential documents. iCloud not only synchronizes your photos, music and videos, but also your e-mails, calendar entries, passwords (in encrypted form) and fully backs up your device. With “Mountain Lion” even your Microsoft Word documents locally stored on your Mac might be pushed over to the Apple computer centres. It is still unclear what Apple intends to do with these masses of data. Of course they don’t just do it because they are kind people. They have a business to run and money to earn. So ...

Computer Security Team

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

1975-12-01

202

The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

203

Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies  

CERN Document Server

The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

Rizzo, John

2011-01-01

204

Mac OS X Lion Server Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

A practical guide to helping users get along with the latest Mac OS X Server To tame Apple's newest big cat, server OS (Lion), you need a serious, big-game book, and here it is. This guide explains how to administer, deploy, and update the much-anticipated next generation of Mac's OS X Server. Thoroughly covering both hardware and software, this book shows you how to configure services, set up account authentication, use open directory, manage accounts, use Apple Remote Desktop, and much more. You'll also learn how to navigate apps such as iChat Theater, Mail, iCal, Podcast Producer—and

Wentk, Richard

2012-01-01

205

50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and serious injury of endangered and threatened...protection of the public health and welfare, or the...presents a threat to the health, safety, or life...this section or the Endangered Species Act is subject...

2010-10-01

206

Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

2005-09-01

207

A canine distemper virus epidemic in Serengeti lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is thought to have caused several fatal epidemics in canids within the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem of East Africa, affecting silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) in 1978 (ref. 1), and African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in 1991 (refs 2, 3). The large, closely monitored Serengeti lion population was not affected in these epidemics. However, an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus closely related to CDV emerged abruptly in the lion population of the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, in early 1994, resulting in fatal neurological disease characterized by grand mal seizures and myoclonus; the lions that died had encephalitis and pneumonia. Here we report the identification of CDV from these lions, and the close phylogenetic relationship between CDV isolates from lions and domestic dogs. By August 1994, 85% of the Serengeti lion population had anti-CDV antibodies, and the epidemic spread north to lions in the Maasai Mara National reserve, Kenya, and uncounted hyaenas, bat-eared foxes, and leopards were also affected. PMID:8559247

Roelke-Parker, M E; Munson, L; Packer, C; Kock, R; Cleaveland, S; Carpenter, M; O'Brien, S J; Pospischil, A; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Lutz, H; Mwamengele, G L; Mgasa, M N; Machange, G A; Summers, B A; Appel, M J

1996-02-01

208

Desarrollo de un indicador no invasivo de la salud de pinípedos: Comportamiento y crecimiento de neonatos del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) / Developing a non-invasive indicator of pinniped health: Neonate behavior and growth in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Evaluar la salud de poblaciones silvestres es crítico para alcanzar metas de conservación; sin embargo, resulta complicado realizar evaluaciones apropiadas cuando los sitios de estudio son de acceso difícil o cuando la especie en cuestión es sensible al disturbio humano. La condición y el crecimient [...] o de las crías pueden ser indicadores de la salud de una población, pero obtener tales datos generalmente requiere de técnicas invasivas. En este estudio se evalúa hasta que punto se pueden utilizar las observaciones no invasivas del comportamiento de neonatos en lugar de los métodos tradicionales utilizados para estimar la condición corporal y el crecimiento de un pinípedo en vida libre, el lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus), en el Golfo de California, México. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados y regresiones lineales múltiples para evaluar el efecto del sexo, la isla de reproducción, el año y el comportamiento de neonatos (e.g., actividad, amamantamiento) en la condición corporal y las tasas de crecimiento. Se encontró una fuerte correlación entre las tasas de crecimiento individual y el comportamiento de los neonatos machos. Los machos que se involucraron más en comportamientos activos tuvieron menores tasas de crecimiento (?= -0.0005), mientras que los machos que participaron más en eventos de amamantamiento tuvieron mayores tasas de crecimiento (? = 0.002). No se observó una relación entre el comportamiento de los neonatos y la condición para ningún sexo, ni entre el comportamiento y las tasas de crecimiento de las crías hembras. Estos resultados proporcionan información sobre la posibilidad de utilizar el comportamiento como un indicador del estatus individual de los machos, la cual podría facilitar la evaluación del estatus de la población e ilustrar la importancia del uso de métodos alternativos para medir la condición de los animales para la conservación de las especies. Abstract in english Assessing the health of wildlife populations is critical to achieving conservation goals; however, proper assessments can be complicated when study sites are difficult to reach or when focal species are sensitive to human disturbance. Condition and growth of offspring may indicate population health, [...] but obtaining such data generally relies on invasive techniques. Here, we examine the extent to which non-invasive observations of neonate behaviors could serve as a proxy for traditional approaches to estimating neonate body condition and growth of a wild pinniped, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Generalized linear models and multiple linear regressions were used to examine the effect of sex, breeding island, year, and neonate behaviors (e.g., nursing, active) on body condition and growth rates. We found a strong correlation between individual growth rates and behaviors of male neonates. Males engaged in proportionally more active behaviors had lower growth rates (? = -0.0005), whereas males engaged in proportionally more nursing events had higher growth rates (? = 0.002). There was no relationship between neonate behavior and condition for either sex, nor between behavior and growth rates of female pups. These results provide insight into the possibility of using behavior as an indicator of individual status of males that could facilitate assessments of population status and illustrate the importance of using alternative approaches to measure animal condition for species conservation

DS, Green; JK, Young; CJ, Hernández-Camacho; LR, Gerber.

2010-09-01

209

Invasion in a diversity hotspot: Exotic cover and native richness in the Californian serpentine flora  

Science.gov (United States)

Exotic species have been observed to be more prevalent in sites where the richness of native species is highest, possibly reflecting variation among sites in resources, propagule supply, heterogeneity, or disturbance. However, such a pattern leaves unclear whether natives at species-rich sites are subject to especially severe impacts from exotics as a result. We considered this question using path models in which relationships between exotic cover and native richness were evaluated in the presence of correlated environmental factors. At 109 sites on serpentine soils across California, USA, exotic cover was positively correlated with total native herbaceous richness and was negatively correlated with the richness of both serpentine-endemic and rare native herbs. However, in path models that accounted for the influences of soil chemistry, disturbance, overstory cover, and regional rainfall and elevation, we found no indication that exotic cover reduced any component of native herb richness. Rather, our results indicated similarities and differences in the conditions favoring exotic, native, endemic, and rare species. Our results suggest that, in spite of some localized impacts, exotic species are not exerting a detectable overall effect on the community richness of the unique native flora of Californian serpentine. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Harrison, S.; Grace, J.B.; Davies, K.F.; Safford, H.D.; Viers, J.H.

2006-01-01

210

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies the details of the electron velocity distribution function as measured by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE in order to investigate the underlying causes for the different types of lion roars found in the data. Our results show that while some instances of lion roars could be locally generated, the source of others must be more remote regions of the magnetosheath.

W. Masood

2006-07-01

211

Phylogenetic evidence of canine distemper virus in Serengeti's lions.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently an epizootic, reported to be due to a morbillivirus infection, affected the lion population of the Tanzanian Serengeti National Park. A morbillivirus phosphoprotein (P) gene fragment was amplified by PCR from tissue samples of several affected lions. Sequencing of the amplificates and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that a wild-type strain of canine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) was involved. Vaccination of the local domestic dog population with proven safe CDV vaccines is ...

Harder, T. C.; Kenter, M. J. H.; Appel, M. J. G.; Roelke-parker, M. E.; Barrett, T.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

1995-01-01

212

Fibroblastic osteosarcoma in a lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report describes a case of spontaneous fibroblastic osteosarcoma in the humerus of a lion from a private park in Perugia, Italy. The tumor had an irregular, smooth, brown surface and a generally firm, rubbery consistence with gritty to hard areas interspersed. The mass was poorly vascularized with areas of necrosis at the periphery. The cut surface showed a multilobulated mass that had breached the humeral cortex, with periosteal production of reactive bone. The mass invaded the epiphysis, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule and ligaments. A mild hemorrhagic effusion appeared in the joint space. Clinical signs, gross and histopathologic findings are described in this rare case of a malignant bone tumor.

L. Leonardi

2014-01-01

213

OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

Spivey, Dwight

2012-01-01

214

Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Favoring Deep- and Intermediate-Water Formation in the Mediterranean Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to extreme ocean heat loss are investigated at four sites of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea. The Gulf of Lions, the South Adriatic Sea, the Cretan Sea, and the Levantine Sea are areas where anomalously high winter heat loss may lead to deep- or intermediate-water formation. At each of the above sites, the atmospheric circulation during such events is derived by averaging the sea level pressure (SLP) fields during the l...

Papadopoulos, V. P.; Josey, Simon A.; Bartzokas, Aristides; Somot, Samuel; Ruiz, Simo?n; Drakopoulos, P.

2012-01-01

215

Scale and diversity following manipulation of productivity and disturbance in Californian coastal grasslands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Question Relationships between species richness and environmental drivers such as productivity and disturbance are sensitive to the scale over which they are measured, but the extent to which this scale-dependence is important for experimental studies conducted over small scale ranges is not well known. We ask whether the response of species richness to experimental manipulation of productivity and disturbance varies across small spatial scales (0.016–4 m2). We show that species–area relationships are well suited to summarize cross-scale responses of species richness, and ask whether the responses of species–area relationships to experimental manipulations are more consistent than richness at any single scale. Location Northern Californian coastal grasslands. Methods We applied disturbance and productivity reduction treatments over 4 yr at two sites. We assessed changes in species richness over five grain sizes, encompassing a 256-fold range of plot size. This allowed us to construct a species–arearelationship for each experimental plot in each sampling year. We used the slope of the species–area relationship to summarize changes in species richness across multiple spatial scales. Results Richness responses were scale-dependent and complex, causing changes at any one scale to be difficult to interpret. Disturbance either increased or had no effect on richness, while reducing productivity had idiosyncratic effects among sites, scales and years. Both treatments, however, had consistent and interpretable effects on the species–area relationship. Reducing productivity increased the slope of the species–area relationship, while disturbance decreased it. Conclusions Our results suggest that the productivity–richness and disturbance–richness relationships are scale-dependent, and that improved generality could be achieved by focusing attention on the response of the species–area relationship to these factors.

Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeff

2012-01-01

216

77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse”  

Science.gov (United States)

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul Getty Museum from...

2012-07-13

217

LIONs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term LION is an acronym for Long Ionization Chamber. This is a distributed ion chamber which is used to monitor secondary ionization along the shield walls of a beam line resulting from incorrectly steered charged particle beams in lieu of the use of many discrete ion chambers. A cone of ionizing radiation emanating from a point source as a result of incorrect steering intercepts a portion of 1-5/8 inch Heliax cable (about 100 meters in length) filled with Argon gas at 20 psi and induces a pulsed current which is proportional to the ionizing charge. This signal is transmitted via the cable to an integrator circuit whose output is directed to an electronic comparators, which in turn is used to turn off the accelerated primary beam when preset limits are exceeded. This device is used in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Beam Containment System (BCS) to prevent potentially hazardous ionizing radiation resulting from incorrectly steered beams in areas that might be occupied by people. This paper describes the design parameters and experience in use in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) area of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

218

A Roof for the Lions' House  

Science.gov (United States)

Fans of the National Football League s Detroit Lions don't worry about game day weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat Silverdome is the world s largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome--and many other types of buildings--is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency.The team of DuPont, Chemical Fabrics and Birdair have collaborated on a number of fabric structures. Some are supported by air pressure, others by cables alone. Most of the structures are in the recreational category. With conventional construction costs still on the upswing, you're likely to see a great many more permanent facilities enclosed by the aerospace spinoff fabric.

1978-01-01

219

A Roof for the Lion's House  

Science.gov (United States)

Fans of the National Football League's Detroit Lions don't worry about gameday weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat "Silverdome" is the world's largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome-and many other types of buildings-is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency. Fabric structures-tents, for example have been around since the earliest years of human civilization. But their coverings-hides, canvas and more recently plastics-were considered temporary; though tough, these fabrics were subject to weather deterioration. Teflon TFE-coated Beta Fiberglas is virtually impervious to the effects of weather and sunlight and it won't stretch, shrink, mildew or rot, thus has exceptional longevity; it is also very strong, lightweight, flame resistant and requires no periodic cleaning, because dirt will not stick to the surface of Teflon TFE. And to top all that, it costs only 30 to 40 percent as much as conventional roofing.

1978-01-01

220

Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

Cagnini Didier Q

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered af [...] ter 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

Remo G., Lobetti; Peter, Caldwell.

222

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten lions (Panthera leo that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4–5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

Remo G. Lobetti

2012-10-01

223

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species. PMID:23327144

Lobetti, Remo G; Caldwell, Peter

2012-01-01

224

Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

225

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all  pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2011-12-01

226

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2012-01-01

227

Placental retention in a golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 4-yr-old female golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) had placental retention after delivery of a stillborn fetus. Conservative therapy with oxytocin and dinoprost tromethamine did not result in placental expulsion and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Placental retention is a rare condition in humans and has not been well documented in non-human primates. PMID:17312734

Bronson, Ellen; Deem, Sharon L; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan

2005-12-01

228

Extinction chronology of the cave lion Panthera spelaea  

Science.gov (United States)

The cave lion, Panthera spelaea, was widespread across northern Eurasia and Alaska/Yukon during the Late Pleistocene. Both morphology and DNA indicate an animal distinct from modern lions (probably at the species level) so that its disappearance in the Late Pleistocene should be treated as a true extinction. New AMS radiocarbon dates directly on cave lion from across its range, together with published dates from other studies - totalling 111 dates - indicate extinction across Eurasia in the interval ca. 14-14.5 cal ka BP, and in Alaska/Yukon about a thousand years later. It is likely that its extinction occurred directly or indirectly in response to the climatic warming that occurred ca. 14.7 cal ka BP at the onset of Greenland Interstadial 1, accompanied by a spread of shrubs and trees and reduction in open habitats. Possibly there was also a concomitant reduction in abundance of available prey, although most of its probable prey species survived substantially later. At present it is unclear whether human expansion in the Lateglacial might have played a role in cave lion extinction. Gaps in the temporal pattern of dates suggest earlier temporary contractions of range, ca. 40-35 cal ka BP in Siberia (during MIS 3) and ca. 25-20 cal ka BP in Europe (during the 'Last Glacial Maximum'), but further dates are required to corroborate these. The Holocene expansion of modern lion ( Panthera leo) into south-west Asia and south-east Europe re-occupied part of the former range of P. spelaea, but the Late Pleistocene temporal and geographical relationships of the two species are unknown.

Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

2011-08-01

229

Genetic variation in Asiatic lions and Indian tigers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous reports have suggested that Asiatic lions and tigers are highly inbred and exhibit very low levels of genetic variation. Our analyses on these species have shown much higher degrees of polymorphism than reported. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 38 Asiatic lions, which exist as a single population in the Gir Forest Sanctuary in India, shows an average heterozygosity of 25.82% with four primers. Sperm motility studies by our colleagues corroborate this data. In Indian tigers, microsatellite analysis of five CA repeat loci and multilocus fingerprinting using Bkm 2(8) probe on a population of 22 individuals revealed a heterozygosity of 22.65%. Microsatellite analysis of loci Fca 77 and Fca 126 revealed polymorphism amongst the Asiatic x African lion hybrids, which has enabled us to use these as markers to discriminate the pure Asiatic lions from the hybrids. A similar analysis was used to identify hybrids of Indian and Siberian tigers through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of hair samples. To ascertain the variation which existed before the population bottleneck at the turn of the present century, microsatellite analysis was performed on 50- to 125-year-old skin samples from museum specimens. Our results show similar levels of genetic variability as in the present population (21.01%). This suggests that low genetic variability may be the characteristic feature of these species and not the result of intensive inbreeding. DNA fingerprinting studies of Asiatic lions and tigers have helped in identifying individuals with high genetic variability which can be used for conservation breeding programs. PMID:9378147

Shankaranarayanan, P; Banerjee, M; Kacker, R K; Aggarwal, R K; Singh, L

1997-08-01

230

Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N?=?512) and captive (N?=?63) origin. Tiger skulls (N?=?276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions. PMID:24718586

Saragusty, Joseph; Shavit-Meyrav, Anat; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Nadler, Rona; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Gibeon, Laura; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Shamir, Merav H

2014-01-01

231

The GOLD project - Drilling in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The "GOLD" IODP Project aims to recover the complete history of the Gulf of Lion (25-30 Ma) with a specific focus on Global Climate and Sea-level Changes, Extreme Events, Margin formation, Natural Resources and the Deep Biosphere using dedicated drilling Platform (MSP, Joides and Chikyu). It should be emphasized that no academic drillings dealing with pre-5million years exist in the Mediterranean Sea.

Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Alain, Karine; Gorini, Christian

2011-01-01

232

Detection and genetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVple) in southern African lions (Panthera leo)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feline immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus of domestic cats that causes immunosuppressive disease and lifelong infection. Lentivirus has also been detected in African lions (Panthera leo). The lentivirus infecting lions in southern Africa has never been isolated; thus, knowledge about its molecular characteristics in these populations is limited. Our investigation used whole blood samples collected opportunistically from free-ranging southern African lions in Kruger National...

Adams, Hayley R.; Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Anna-mari; Kania, Stephen; Kennedy, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

233

Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a female lion (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

An 18-year-old female lion (Panthera leo) was referred to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At necropsy, multiple nodular, 4-20-mm, confluent white firm nodules were scattered throughout the pleural surfaces of the thoracic wall and of the lungs. Histological lesions were represented by proliferations of papillary structures lined by cuboidal basophilic mesothelial cells with large, oval nuclei and abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry revealed immunoreactivity for pancytokeratin and vimentin. None of the cells expressed calretinin antigen. Asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies were not detected respectively by light microscopy and by Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer investigations. On the contrary, chrysotile asbestos were identified in samples from shelter material. Histological and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with the diagnosis of an epithelial malignant mesothelioma. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a pleural mesothelioma in a lion. PMID:20846704

Bollo, E; Scaglione, F E; Tursi, M; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Belluso, E; Capella, S; Bellis, D

2011-08-01

234

Ein Humboldt-Brief in der Autographensammlung Lion Feuchtwangers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.The paper deals with a letter from Alexander von Humboldt, which has been part of Lion Feuchtwanger's Autograph Collection since 1958. An investigation of the contents of the letter brought to light new details, chiefly of Humboldt's activities in promoting young talents. Emil Naumann (1827-1888, composer, teacher and author, was clearly identified as the letter's recipient.

Ingo Schwarz

2006-10-01

235

Malignant pleural mesothelioma in a female Lion (Panthera leo)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An 18-year-old female lion (Panthera leo) was referred to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). At necropsy, multiple nodular, 4-20-mm, confluent white firm nodules were scattered throughout the pleural surfaces of the thoracic wall and of the lungs. Histological lesions were represented by proliferations of papillary structures lined by cuboidal basophilic mesothelial cells with large, oval nuclei and abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemi...

Bollo, Enrico; Belluso, Elena; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Tursi, Massimiliano; Capella, Silvana

2011-01-01

236

On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry & Lions  

CERN Document Server

We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry & Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary.

Caffarelli, Luis A; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik

2011-01-01

237

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T-/sub perpendicular//T-/sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B2/8?N, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ?/sub max/ = A-?-/(A-+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated

238

Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; namely osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50%of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a. The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors’ knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions.

Adrian S.W. Tordiffe

2013-09-01

239

Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63 and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

R.J. Power

2002-12-01

240

Of the Helmholtz Club, South-Californian seedbed for visual and cognitive neuroscience, and its patron Francis Crick.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking up the view that semi-institutional gatherings such as clubs, societies, research schools, have been instrumental in creating sheltered spaces from which many a 20th-century project-driven interdisciplinary research programme could develop and become established within the institutions of science, the paper explores the history of one such gathering from its inception in the early 1980s into the 2000s, the Helmholtz Club, which brought together scientists from such various research fields as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, psychophysics, computer science and engineering, who all had an interest in the study of the visual system and of higher cognitive functions relying on visual perception such as visual consciousness. It argues that British molecular biologist turned South Californian neuroscientist Francis Crick had an early and lasting influence over the Helmholtz Club of which he was a founding pillar, and that from its inception, the club served as a constitutive element in his long-term plans for a neuroscience of vision and of cognition. Further, it argues that in this role, the Helmholtz Club served many purposes, the primary of which was to be a social forum for interdisciplinary discussion, where 'discussion' was not mere talk but was imbued with an epistemic value and as such, carefully cultivated. Finally, it questions what counts as 'doing science' and in turn, definitions of success and failure-and provides some material evidence towards re-appraising the successfulness of Crick's contribution to the neurosciences. PMID:24384229

Aicardi, Christine

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

The impact of burning on lion Panthera leo habitat choice in an African savanna  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carnivores play a central role in ecosystem processes by exerting top-down control, while fire exerts bottom-up control in ecosystems throughout the world, yet, little is known about how fire affects short-term carnivore distributions across the landscape. Through the use of a long-term data set we investigated the distribution of lions, during the daytime, in relation to burned areas in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We found that lions avoid burned areas despite the fact that herbivores, their prey, are attracted to burned areas. Prey attraction, however, likely results from the reduction in cover caused by burning, that may thereby decrease lion hunting success. Lions also do not preferentially utilize the edges of burned areas over unburned areas despite the possibility that edges would combine the benefit of cover with proximity to abundant prey. Despite the fact that lions avoid burned areas, lion territory size and reproductive success were not affected by the proportion of the territory burned each year. Therefore, burning does not seem to reduce lion fitness perhaps because of the heterogeneity of burned areas across the landscape or because it is possible that when hunting at night lions visit burned areas despite their daytime avoidance of these areas [Current Zoology 59 (3: 335–339, 2013].

Stephanie EBY, Anna MOSSER, Craig PACKER, Mark RITCHIE, Ali SWANSON

2013-06-01

242

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

F. C Eloff

1980-01-01

243

Pienen yleishyödyllisen yhdistyksen taloushallinnon kehittämishanke : Case: Lions Club Alajärvi/Järviseutu ry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kehittää Lions Club Alajärvi/Järviseutu ry:n vuosittain vaihtuvalle rahastonhoitajalle työkaluja taloudenhoidon ja suunnittelun avuksi. Kehittämistyön lähtökohtana oli toimeksianto Lions Club Alajärvi/Järviseutu ry:ltä. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä opinnäytetyössä käytettiin yhdistyslakia ja hyvää kirjanpitotapaa sekä kirjanpitolakia ja -asetusta pienen kirjanpitovelvollisen näkökulmasta katsottuna. Teoriaosassa perehdyttiin yleishy...

Isotalo, Maria; Hanhisalo, Marja-liisa

2011-01-01

244

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Sam M. Ferreira

2013-05-01

245

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of p [...] eople present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Sam M., Ferreira; Nkabeng T., Maruping; Darius, Schoultz; Travis R., Smit.

246

Parâmetros genéticos para coelhos da raça Califórnia criados no Brasil Genetic parameters for Californian rabbits raised in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Registros de pesos de 3.249 coelhos, nascidos de 1980 a 1996 e, dados de pedigree de 4.857 coelhos da raça Califórnia, criados no Campus da USP de Pirassununga, São Paulo, submetidos à seleção por três gerações, com base em valores genéticos de pesos à desmama (PD e à 10ª semana de idade (P10 e ganho de peso da desmama até 10 semanas de idade (GPD10, foram analisados pelo método de modelos mistos sob modelos animais para obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para as características consideradas como parte do critério de seleção. As estimativas do coeficiente de herdabilidade encontradas foram de 0,23 para PD, de 0,44 para P10 e 0,39 para GP10, mostrando ser possível haver ganhos genéticos se aplicados processos seletivos. A correlação genética entre PD e P10 foi de 0,66 e entre PD e GPD10 foi baixa, indicando que as variáveis são praticamente independentes. A proporção da variância fenotípica devida aos efeitos permanentes de ninhada foi importante para todas as características. Os resultados sugerem que a seleção para características ponderais pode ser eficiente.Genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters of a population of Californian rabbits submitted to selection for three generations were studied. Traits analyzed were individual weaning weight (PD, weight at 10 weeks (P10 and average daily gain from weaning to 10 weeks of age (GPD10 using 3,249 records of weights of rabbits and pedigree information of 4,857 animals, born from 1980 to 1996, and selected based on an index of estimated breeding values for PD, P10 and GPD10. Permanent effects of litters were as important as additive genetic effects. Heritabilities for the three traits were .23 (PD, .44 (P10 and .39 (GPD10. Genetic correlations between PD and P10 and between PD and GPD10 were high (.66 and very low, respectively.

M.G. Paula

2000-10-01

247

Climate variability, human wildlife conflict and population dynamics of lions Panthera leo  

Science.gov (United States)

Large carnivores are threatened by habitat loss, declining prey populations and direct persecution. Pride dynamics of eight lion prides in the centre of the Etosha National Park, Namibia are described during a 16-year study. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the number of adult and subadult lions declined continuously to two third of its initial population size, and reached a new equilibrium in the 1990s. Pride sizes decreased from 6.3 adult females in 1989 to 2.8 lionesses in 1997. While the number of adult females declined continuously, the number of adult males, subadult females and subadult males remained constant over the years. A severe drought period, lasting for more than 20 years, led to declining prey populations inside the lions' territory. Besides declining prey populations, conflict with humans at the border of Etosha puts substantial pressure onto the lion population: 82 % of all known lion mortalities were caused by humans, and most of these consisted of adult females (28 %) and subadult males (29 %). I postulate that the considerable decline in the lion population is a response to declining prey populations, and although the human predator conflict is severe, it does not seem to limit the size of Etosha's lion population.

Trinkel, Martina

2013-04-01

248

Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lions rarely prey on elephants. Botswana’s Savuti lions, however, switch to preying on elephants during the late dry season (August–November, and the frequency of this has increased in the last two decades (1985–2005. An opportunity to document this phenomenon was made possible with infrared viewing and filming equipment. A pride of 30 lions killed one elephant every three days. Seven of eight elephants killed were between four and 11 years old, as deduced from molar teeth ageing, and this age group represented over half the kills recorded by Joubert (2006. It is suggested that this weaned, maternally less dependent age class, may be more vulnerable to lion predation. Lions prey on elephants since the density of conventional ungulate prey is reduced as a result of an annual migration, and artificial water provisioning has prompted an increasingly sedentary population of elephants. Notes are presented on the lion’s behaviour in hunting elephants and the evolutionary significance of this.

R.X. Shem Compion

2011-10-01

249

Risk factors for exposure to feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor).  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary challenge to mountain lion population viability in California is habitat loss and fragmentation. These habitat impacts could enhance disease risk by increasing contact with domestic animals and by altering patterns of exposure to other wild felids. We performed a serologic survey for feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) using 490 samples from 45 counties collected from 1990 to 2008. Most mountain lions sampled were killed because of depredation or public safety concerns and 75% were adults. Pathogens detected by serosurvey in sampled mountain lions included feline panleukopenia virus (39.0%), feline calicivirus (33.0%), feline coronavirus (FCoV, 15.1%), feline herpesvirus (13.0%), heartworm (12.4%), feline leukemia virus (5.4%), and canine distemper virus (3%). An outbreak of heartworm exposure occurred from 1995 to 2003 and higher than expected levels of FCoV-antibody-positive mountain lions were observed from 2005 to 2008, with foci in southern Mendocino and eastern Lake counties. We show that the majority of mountain lions were exposed to feline pathogens and may be at risk of illness or fatality, particularly kittens. Combined with other stressors, such as ongoing habitat loss, infectious disease deserves recognition for potential negative impact on mountain lion health and population viability. PMID:23568903

Foley, Janet E; Swift, Pamela; Fleer, Katryna A; Torres, Steve; Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K

2013-04-01

250

Study of the PTW microLion chamber temperature dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of liquid ionization chambers in radiotherapy has grown during the past few years. While for air ionization chambers the kTP correction for air mass density due to pressure and temperature variations is well known, less work has been done on the case of liquid ionization chambers, where there is still the need to take into account the influence of temperature in the free ion yield. We have measured the PTW microLion isooctane-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence in a ˜ ±10 °C interval around the standard 20 °C room temperature for three operation voltages, including the manufacturer recommended voltage, and two beam qualities, 60Co and 50 kV x-rays. Within the measured temperature range, the microLion signal exhibits a positive linear dependence, which is around 0.24% K-1 at 800 V with 60Co irradiation. This effect is of the same order of magnitude as the T dependence found in air ionization chambers, but its nature is completely different and its sign opposite to that of an air chamber. Onsager theory has been used to model the results and is consistent with this linear behaviour. However, some inconsistencies in the modelling of the 50 kV x-ray results have been found that are attributed to the failure of Onsager's isolated pair assumption for such radiation quality.

Gómez, F.; González-Castaño, D.; Díaz-Botana, P.; Pardo-Montero, J.

2014-06-01

251

Virulence and pathogenesis of the MSW and MSD strains of Californian myxoma virus in European rabbits with genetic resistance to myxomatosis compared to rabbits with no genetic resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenesis of two Californian strains of myxoma virus (MSW and MSD) was examined in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) that were either susceptible to myxomatosis (laboratory rabbits) or had undergone natural selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis (Australian wild rabbits). MSW was highly lethal for both types of rabbits with average survival times of 7.3 and 9.4 days, respectively, and 100% mortality. Classical clinical signs of myxomatosis were not present except in one rabbit that survived for 13 days following infection. Previously described clinical signs of trembling and shaking were observed in laboratory but not wild rabbits. Despite the high resistance of wild rabbits to myxomatosis caused by South American strains of myxoma virus, the MSW strain was of such high virulence that it was able to overcome resistance. The acute nature of the infection, relatively low viral titers in the tissues and destruction of lymphoid tissues, suggested that death was probably due to an acute and overwhelming immunopathological response to the virus. No virus was found in the brain. The MSD strain was attenuated compared to previously published descriptions and therefore was only characterized in laboratory rabbits. It is concluded that Californian MSW strain of myxoma virus is at the extreme end of a continuum of myxoma virus virulence but that the basic pathophysiology of the disease induced is not broadly different to other strains of myxoma virus. PMID:16442580

Silvers, L; Inglis, B; Labudovic, A; Janssens, P A; van Leeuwen, B H; Kerr, P J

2006-04-25

252

Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km2137Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km2. Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137Cs and 210Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7Be and 234Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth. Results showed that the sediment remobilization was very important in this area but that the exports of suspended solid matters towards the Gulf of Lions were weak, or even deposited in fine on the pro-delta. (author)

253

The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka  

CERN Document Server

This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

254

Complex Cooperative Strategies in Group-Territorial African Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Female lions (Panthera leo) showed persistent individual differences in the extent to which they participated in group-territorial conflict. When intergroup encounters were simulated by playback of aggressive vocalizations, some individuals consistently led the approach to the recorded intruder, whereas others lagged behind and avoided the risks of fighting. The lead females recognized that certain companions were laggards but failed to punish them, which suggests that cooperation is not maintained by reciprocity. Modification of the "odds" in these encounters revealed that some females joined the group response when they were most needed, whereas other lagged even farther behind. The complexity of these responses emphasizes the great diversity of individual behavior in this species and the inadequacy of current theory to explain cooperation in large groups.

Heinsohn, Robert; Packer, Craig

1995-09-01

255

On the provable security of BEAR and LION schemes  

CERN Document Server

BEAR, LION and LIONESS are block ciphers presented by Biham and Anderson (1996), inspired by the famous Luby-Rackoff constructions of block ciphers from other cryptographic primitives (1988). The ciphers proposed by Biham and Anderson are based on one stream cipher and one hash function. Good properties of the primitives ensure good properties of the block cipher. In particular, they are able to prove that their ciphers are immune to any efficient known-plaintext key-recovery attack that can use as input only one plaintext-ciphertext pair. Our contribution is showing that these ciphers are actually immune to any efficient known-plaintext key-recovery attack that can use as input any number of plaintext-ciphertext pairs. We are able to get this improvement by using slightly weaker hypotheses on the primitives. We also discuss the attack by Morin (1996).

Maines, Lara; Rimoldi, Anna; Sala, Massimiliano

2011-01-01

256

Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: spirurida) in golden lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pterygodermatites nycticebi (syn Rictularia nycticebi), a spirurid nematode first described in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), recently has been associated with morbidity and mortality in the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) collection at the National Zoological Park. Adult worms were found in the lumen of the small intestine with their anterior ends embedded in the mucosa. Larvae, when present, were deeper in the submucosa. A few heavily infected animals developed profound weakness, anemia, and hypoproteinemia. Infective larvae of Pterygodermatites nycticebi developed in laboratory-reared German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) that were fed tamarin feces containing eggs of Pterygodermatites nycticebi. Wild-caught German cockroaches also were found to harbor these infective larvae which implicates this ubiquitous pest as an intermediate host. Effective control of Pterygodermatites nycticebi has been achieved by regular fecal screening of all callitrichids for spirurid eggs and biannual prophylaxis with mebendazole at 40 mg/kg, as well as a rigorous cockroach extermination program. PMID:6406763

Montali, R J; Gardiner, C H; Evans, R E; Bush, M

1983-04-01

257

Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lion prey selection was studied on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km2 , Limpopo Province, South Africa, in order to assist with management strategies. Monitoring was carried out between February 1998 and December 2001. Lion killed 15 species, with warthog, blue wildebeest, Burchell’s zebra, kudu and waterbuck constituting approximately 75% of their diet. Between 2.2% and 3.1% of the available prey biomass was killed yearly, while each female equivalent unit (FEQ killed between 3 kg and 3.2 kg daily. Lion predation was greater for warthog, wildebeest and waterbuck and less for impala than expected. When male lion were present, a greater number of warthog and giraffe were killed, while number of females had a significant effect on medium-sized prey species and total prey species killed. Significantly more warthog, wildebeest and kudu were killed in winter than summer. More prey than expected was killed in open habitats and less than expected in thickets. Managers of small, enclosed reserves need to constantly monitor prey populations, especially medium-sized prey and may be able to reduce predation on large prey species by manipulating male lion numbers. Reserves also need to contain adequate open habitats for lion to make use of these areas for hunting.

Luke Hunter

2011-11-01

258

Reproductive biology of a pride of lions on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reproductive biology of a pride of lions (Panthera leo adult male for the next three years.We recorded shorter than normal interbirth intervals, high birth rates of 1.3 cubs/lioness/year, very high cub survival rates, and subadults leaving the pride at young ages. This translated into substantially faster growth rates than are typical in large lion populations in ecologically similar circumstances such as Kruger National Park, but are similar to those of lions in Serengeti National Park. These demographic characteristics were probably induced initially by a lack of intense intraspecific competition and high prey availability, but population stability was maintained through the removal of young subadults by management. Interestingly, variability in conception rates between lionesses resulted in lower growth rates than have been found in other similar reintroduced lion populations. These demographic traits characterize many of the small reintroduced lion populations, and call for appropriate management to avoid the consequences of high predator densities. was studied on the 8500 ha Karongwe Game Reserve from 1999 to 2005. Over this period, the pride consisted of between four and 11 lions with a paired coalition of adult males during the first three years and a single

Cailey R. Owen

2011-10-01

259

Individual identification and genetic variation of lions (Panthera leo) from two protected areas in Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This survey was conducted in two protected areas in Nigeria to genetically identify individual lions and to determine the genetic variation within and between the populations. We used faecal sample DNA, a non-invasive alternative to the risky and laborious task of taking samples directly from the animals, often preceded by catching and immobilization. Data collection in Yankari Game Reserve (YGR) spanned through a period of five years (2008 -2012), whereas data in Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP) was gathered for a period of three years (2009, 2010 and 2012). We identified a minimum of eight individuals (2 males, 3 females, 3 unknown) from YGR and a minimum of ten individuals (7 males, 3 females) from KLNP. The two populations were found to be genetically distinct as shown by the relatively high fixation index (FST ?= 0.17) with each population exhibiting signs of inbreeding (YGR FIS ?= 0.49, KLNP FIS ?= 0.38). The genetic differentiation between the Yankari and Kainji lions is assumed to result from large spatial geographic distance and physical barriers reducing gene flow between these two remaining wild lion populations in Nigeria. To mitigate the probable inbreeding depression in the lion populations within Nigeria it might be important to transfer lions between parks or reserves or to reintroduce lions from the zoos back to the wild. PMID:24427283

Tende, Talatu; Hansson, Bengt; Ottosson, Ulf; Akesson, Mikael; Bensch, Staffan

2014-01-01

260

New records of a threatened population of lion (Panthera leo) in a National Park in West Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In West Africa, the lion is currently characterized by small populations, fragmented and often isolated each another, with a virtual lack of ecological connection. Populations are generally declining. In some recent notes, it was declared that the lion in Ghana is functionally extinct, if not completely eradicated, and some recent surveys concluded about the probable extinction of lions from the Mole National Park (MNP), in Ghana’s Northern Territory. Aim...

Francesco Maria Angelici

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declines in large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systems where carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes in carnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography and space-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005-2006. The mean times lions were inactive was similar between the three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions spent most of their time on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgets were similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the reserve. We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands.

Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.

2011-01-01

262

Alegoria californiana / Californian allegory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinaçã [...] o entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in spanish El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrate [...] gias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in english The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formula [...] ted strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

Julio, Ramos.

2012-12-01

263

Alegoria californiana / Californian allegory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinaçã [...] o entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in spanish El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrate [...] gias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in english The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formula [...] ted strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

Julio, Ramos.

264

Alegoria californiana Californian allegory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrategias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formulated strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

Julio Ramos

2012-12-01

265

Pedologic influences on hillslope hydrology: The relationships between soil and hydrologic connectivity in a Californian oak-woodland  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding what controls hydrologic connectivity and how it develops has important implications for ecosystem services. It can affect water quality, nutrient and sediment delivery to the stream, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and more. Bedrock topography and soil act in concert as primary physical controls on hydrologic connectivity. However, the important role soil can play is not well understood. A hillslope study was conducted to explore the dynamics between soil and hydrologic connectivity. The hillslope was in a zero-order watershed with a flashy ephemeral stream. It was located in an oak-woodland in the Californian northern Sierra foothills. The research objectives were to 1) identify and characterize hydrologically significant soil properties; 2) explore how soil stratigraphy and morphology influence hydrologic connectivity; and 3) examine potential causes for connection and disconnection of hydrologic flowpaths during and between rain storm events. During the 2012 wet season a 210-m hillslope transect was instrumented to collect soil moisture data every five minutes. The instruments were put at multiple locations and depths to capture the soil spatial variability. Once the soil became too dry for monitoring the transect was trenched, characterized and sampled. Texture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves were measured in the lab. Structure, color, redoximorphic features, soil horizon spatial differentiation, saprolite and bedrock characteristics, and coarse fragment percentage were recorded in the field. Prior to excavation an electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in conjunction with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) was performed along the hillslope. The goal of the survey was to explore non-invasive techniques to determine spatial variability of hydrologically significant soil horizons and bedrock. The GPR was found not to be reliable at the site. However, the EMI showed potential in showing the discontinuous distribution of the claypan, a horizon characterized by a large and abrupt increase in clay content and very low permeability. The data obtained from the transect excavation was used to create a two-dimensional hillslope model using HYDRUS-2D. Coupled with the soil moisture and local precipitation data the hillslope hydrology was modeled at individual storm event time scale. The field data showed that the hillslope was very complex and comprised of a discontinuous claypan, undulating bedrock topography and highly variable saprolite. The soil moisture data and modeling efforts showed that the surface horizons, which are highly permeable and contain numerous macropores, are the primary hydrologic flowpaths during storm events. The model showed that the presence of claypan decreased effective soil depth, increased antecedent wetness and created a perched water table. The model also showed that the undulating bedrock acted like a dam along the hillslope. The claypan network and undulating bedrock created isolated zones of wetness that only become connected and flow downhill into the stream when a storm caused the disconnected zones to rise in the highly permeable surface horizons.

Alldritt, K.; O'Geen, A.; Dahlgren, R. A.

2013-12-01

266

Reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The combination of medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with subsequent antagonism by atipamezole was evaluated for reversible anaesthesia of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo. Twenty-one anaesthetic events of 17 free-ranging lions (5 males and 12 females, body weight 105-211 kg were studied in Zimbabwe. Medetomidine at 0.027-0.055 mg / kg (total dose 4-11 mg and zolazepam-tiletamine at 0.38-1.32 mg / kg (total dose 50-275 mg were administered i.m. by dart injection. The doses were gradually decreased to improve recovery. Respiratory and heart rates, rectal temperature and relative haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2 were recorded every 15 min. Arterial blood samples were collected from 5 lions for analysis of blood gases and acid-base status. For anaesthetic reversal, atipamezole was administered i.m. at 2.5 or 5 times the medetomidine dose. Induction was smooth and all lions were anaesthetised with good muscle relaxation within 3.4-9.5 min after darting. The predictable working time was a minimum of 1 h and no additional drug doses were needed. Respiratory and heart rates and SpO2 were stable throughout anaesthesia, whereas rectal temperature changed significantly over time. Atipamezole at 2.5 times the medetomidine dose was sufficient for reversal and recoveries were smooth and calm in all lions independent of the atipamezole dose. First sign of recovery was observed 3-27 min after reversal. The animals were up walking 8-26 min after reversal when zolazepamtiletamine doses <1 mg / kg were used. In practice, a total dose of 6 mg medetomidine and 80 mg zolazepam-tiletamine and reversal with 15 mg atipamezole can be used for either sex of an adult or subadult lion. The drugs and doses used in this study provided a reliable, safe and reversible anaesthesia protocol for free-ranging lions.

G. Nyman

2012-06-01

267

Tree and forest characteristics influence sleeping site choice by golden lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion tamarin monkeys are among a small number of primates that repeatedly use a few tree holes for the majority of their sleeping sites. To better understand why lion tamarins rely on tree holes as sleeping sites, we compared the physical characteristics of frequently used sleeping sites, infrequently used sleeping sites, and randomly selected forest locations at multiple spatial scales. From 1990 to 2004, we recorded 5,235 occurrences of sleeping site use by 10 groups of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in Poço das Antas Reserve, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of those, 63.6% were tree holes. Bamboo accounted for an additional 17.5% of observations. Frequently used tree holes were more likely to be found in living trees and their entrances were at lower canopy heights than infrequently used tree holes. We also found that frequently used sleeping sites, in comparison to random sites, were more likely to be found on hillsides, be close to other large trees, have a lower percent of canopy cover, and have larger diameter at breast height. Topography and small-scale variables were more accurate than were habitat-level classifications in predicting frequently used sleeping sites. There are ample tree holes available to these lion tamarins but few preferred sites to which they return repeatedly. The lion tamarins find these preferred sites wherever they occur including in mature forest and in relics of older forest embedded in a matrix of secondary forest. PMID:17358010

Hankerson, Sarah J; Franklin, Samuel P; Dietz, James M

2007-09-01

268

Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos.  

Science.gov (United States)

The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions (Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment. PMID:22707238

Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D

2013-05-01

269

Effects of summer microclimates on behavior of lions and tigers in zoos  

Science.gov (United States)

The surrounding thermal environment has a direct influence on the well-being of an animal. However, few studies have investigated the microclimatic conditions that result from outdoor zoo enclosure designs and whether this affects where animals choose to spend time. Two African lions ( Panthera leo) and two Siberian/Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) were observed for a total of 18 full days during the summer and fall of 2009. Their activities and locations were recorded to the nearest minute of each test day. Simultaneous on-site microclimate measurements were taken of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind. Observations indicated that the locations where the animals chose to spend time were influenced by the microclimatic conditions. All subjects spent more time in the shade on their sunny warm days than on other days and differed from one another in their choice of shade source on all days. Temperature-comparable sunny and cloudy days showed a greater use of sun on the cloudy days. Species-specific differences between the lions (whose native habitat is hot) and the tigers (whose native habitat is temperate with cold winters) were observed with the tigers displaying more cooling behaviors than the lions in terms of solar radiation input and evaporative heat loss. The tigers were also more active than the lions. The results of this study provide new insight into how lions and tigers respond to microclimatic conditions in a captive environment.

Young, Tory; Finegan, Esther; Brown, Robert D.

2013-05-01

270

New records of a threatened population of lion (Panthera leo in a National Park in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In West Africa, the lion is currently characterized by small populations, fragmented and often isolated each another, with a virtual lack of ecological connection. Populations are generally declining. In some recent notes, it was declared that the lion in Ghana is functionally extinct, if not completely eradicated, and some recent surveys concluded about the probable extinction of lions from the Mole National Park (MNP, in Ghana’s Northern Territory. Aim of this note is to emphasize that the lion is still present in MNP, and this area must be still considered for species conservation, and therefore be studied carefully. In April 2011, using camera traps, a short movie of a young male lion was recorded, and  a roar has been clearly heard. The choice of areas where camera traps (n = 20 were placed derived from an habitat suitability model which was developed using lion records collected over 41 years. Our data show that MNP could still be regarded as a considerable area for western lion conservation, even considering the important results that, based on molecular-biology, show how lions in West and Central Africa are clearly differentiated from the other African ones.

Francesco Maria Angelici

2013-03-01

271

The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declinesin large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systemswhere carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes incarnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography andspace-use of three lion (Panthera leo prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve andthe adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005–2006. The meantimes lions were inactive was similar between the three prides except when the ranch lionswere severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate theirkills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushesand abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions spent most of theirtime on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgetswere similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the typebut the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to thereserve.We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands.

Torben Dabelsteen

2011-08-01

272

Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment. PMID:22479136

Rapaport, Lisa G

2011-07-01

273

Ampfion-hybrid diode on the Cornell LION accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ampfion hybrid diode, previously run on the HYDRAMITE accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has recently been installed on the Cornell LION accelerator (1 TW, 1.8 MV, 40 ns pulse). The ampfion hybrid diode is magnetically insulated by means of a field coil in series with the cathode structure of the diode. An epoxy dielectric flashboard on the anode provides an anode plasma to supply the extracted ions. The diode has a geometric focal length of 20 cm. The experiment is equipped with plasma erosion opening switches on the anode stock to eliminate prepulse and improve the generator voltage risetime. Diagnostics include magnetic pickup loops to measure currents in the diode structure and non-neutral beam currents, biased charge collectors, and damage targets. An alpha particle pin hole camera utilizing the p,? reaction of fast (>500 kV) protons on boron or lithium is being developed to measure focus quality and proton current. Plastic track detector will be used to image the alpha particles coming from a boron or lithium target. A second pin hole camera uses a plastic scintillator and light detector to give time resolved focused ion intensity

274

Diagnosis of suspected hypovitaminosis A using magnetic resonance imaging in African lions (Panthera leo  

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Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is described in captive lions. Ante mortem diagnosis can either be made by serum analysis or liver biopsy, both of which may be problematic. This study utilised magnetic resonance imaging to identify vitamin A deficiency in lions with relatively mild clinical signs, which could otherwise be attributed to numerous other neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive, reliable diagnostic tool to demonstrate pathology typically associated with this condition. To accommodate varying lion ages and sizes, a number of cranium and brain measurements were compared with that of the maximum diameter of the occular vitreous humor. Occular ratios of the tentorium cerebelli osseum and occipital bone were most reliable in diagnosing the thickened osseous structures characteristic of hypovitaminosis A. The ratio of maximum : minimum dorsoventral diameter of the C1 spinal cord was also of value.

L. Sweers

2012-06-01

275

Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n?=?296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n?=?168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n?=?128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

2014-01-01

276

Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed...

Hugo Castillo; Adriana Hernández; David Dominguez; Damaris Ojeda

2010-01-01

277

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comp [...] aratively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6), due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

Carolina, Loch; Paulo C., Simões-Lopes; César J., Drehmer.

2010-06-01

278

50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions  

Science.gov (United States)

...74 W 10 Cape Douglas (Shaw I.) 12 Gulf of Alaska ...State of Alaska waters of Prince William Sound. 11 ...closure around Cape Douglas/Shaw I. are effective January...closure around Cape Douglas/Shaw I. are effective August...

2010-10-01

279

Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Primates, Callitrichidae  

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Full Text Available Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823 was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey items, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities. These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

Fernando de Camargo Passos

1999-01-01

280

Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age) strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca). In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

Daud Sudradjad

2011-08-01

282

Conserving connectivity: some lessons from mountain lions in southern California.  

Science.gov (United States)

Habitat corridors can be essential for persistence of wildlife populations in fragmented landscapes. Although much research has focused on identifying species and places critical for conservation action, the conservation literature contains surprisingly few examples of corridors that actually have been protected and so provides little guidance for moving from planning through implementation. We examined a case study from southern California that combines monitoring of radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor) with an assessment of land-protection efforts to illustrate lessons learned while attempting to maintain ecological connectivity in a rapidly urbanizing landscape. As in many places, conservation scientists have provided science-based maps of where conservation efforts should focus. But implementing corridors is a business decision based not solely on ecological information but also on cost, opportunity cost, investment risk, and other feasibility considerations. Here, the type and pattern of development is such that key connections will be lost unless they are explicitly protected. Keeping pace with conversion, however, has been difficult, especially because conservation efforts have been limited to traditional parcel-by-parcel land-protection techniques. The challenges of and trade-offs in implementation make it clear that in southern California, connectivity cannot be bought one parcel at a time. Effective land-use plans and policies that incorporate conservation principles, such as California's Natural Communities Conservation Planning program, are needed to support the retention of landscape permeability. Lessons from this study have broad application, especially as a precautionary tale for places where such extensive and intensive development has not yet occurred. Given how limiting resources are for biodiversity conservation, conservationists must be disciplined about where and how they attempt corridor protection: in rapidly fragmenting landscapes, the opportunity for success can be surprisingly fleeting. PMID:18983604

Morrison, Scott A; Boyce, Walter M

2009-04-01

283

Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz. PMID:25249386

Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

2014-11-01

284

Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of panthera atrox : Implications for the evolution and paleobiology of the lion lineage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox shows lion affinities, but also deviates from lions in numerous aspects. Mandibular morphology is more similar to jaguars and tigers and, as with cranial morphology, the mandible shows a number of traits not present among extant pantherines. Multivariate analyses grouped Panthera atrox separately from other pantherines. Panthera atrox was no lion, and cannot be assigned to any of the extant pantherines; it constituted a separate species. A possible scenario for evolution of P. atrox is that it formed part of a pantherine lineage thatentered the Americas in the mid-Pleistocene and gave rise to the extant jaguar and Panthera atrox in the late Pleistocene of North America. These studies suggest that previous models of lion biogeography are incorrect, and although lions may have been present in Beringia, they did not penetrate into the American mainland. © 2009 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Christiansen, Per; Harris, J.M.

2009-01-01

285

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

2007-11-01

286

Aspects of Carcass Digestibility by African Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758 under Captive Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feed intake and digestibility trials were conducted on captive African lions (Panthera leo. An adult female and sub-adult male were used in a zoo environment and a sub-adult male and large cub female under reserve conditions. The lions were fed large chunks of fresh animal carcasses under controlled conditions. Afterwards, refusals and feces were collected over several days, analysed and weighed. Apparent digestibilities were fairly high ranging from 77.4 to 94.3% in the zoo and from 83.8 to 95.6% at the nature reserve. Fecal excretion was highly variable and irregular, the lions excreting up to four times following food ingestion and in some cases only twice. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The consistency, moisture content and colour of the scat also varied between the two trial sites. Plant material was regularly ingested in both environments, apparently to assist in purging the digestive tract. Being obligatory carnivores, the gastrointestinal tract of four African lions of different ages and sexes was found to be relatively simple, short and uncomplicated.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

287

Eestis on üle tuhande lõvi : [Lions-liikumisest] / Vello Talviste, Olev Saluveer, Jaan Palumets...[jt.  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Lions-liikumisega on ühinenud ka koolidirektorid. Küsimustele - mis ajendas neid seda tegema, mida lõvid ette võtavad ning kui aktuaalne on heategevuse temaatika koolis, vastavad Paide Gümnaasiumi direktor Vello Talviste, Ülenurme Gümnaasiumi direktor Olev Saluveer, Saue Gümnaasiumi direktor Jaan Palumets, Tõrva Gümnaasiumi direktor Ivar Hanvere ja Tabivere Gümnaasiumi direktor Toivo Punga

2009-01-01

288

Fear of Darkness, the Full Moon and the Nocturnal Ecology of African Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Nocturnal carnivores are widely believed to have played an important role in human evolution, driving the need for night-time shelter, the control of fire and our innate fear of darkness. However, no empirical data are available on the effects of darkness on the risks of predation in humans. We performed an extensive analysis of predatory behavior across the lunar cycle on the largest dataset of lion attacks ever assembled and found that African lions are as sensitive to moonlight when hunting humans as when hunting herbivores and that lions are most dangerous to humans when the moon is faint or below the horizon. At night, people are most active between dusk and 10:00 pm, thus most lion attacks occur in the first weeks following the full moon (when the moon rises at least an hour after sunset). Consequently, the full moon is a reliable indicator of impending danger, perhaps helping to explain why the full moon has been the subject of so many myths and misconceptions. PMID:21799812

Packer, Craig; Swanson, Alexandra; Ikanda, Dennis; Kushnir, Hadas

2011-01-01

289

"The Lion King" and "Hamlet": A Homecoming for the Exiled Child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explains how the movie "The Lion King" may be used to elucidate Shakespeare's "Hamlet," a play about a prince who does not always seem heroic to modern audiences. Gives specific points of comparison between the two works concerning heroes, characters, conflicts, themes, ending scenes, and archetypal patterns. (TB)

Gavin, Rosemarie

1996-01-01

290

Movement analysis for monitoring predation by large carnivores : lions in Kruger National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods used to estimate the prey consumption by large carnivores include direct continuous observation, stomach content analysis, carcass observations and scat analysis. Continual observations are widely considered the best approach to estimate large carnivore diets, with lions (Panthera leo) being no exception. Continual observation allows the recording of all prey encounters and biases inherent in the other approaches are minimised. However, continuous observations ar...

Tambling, Craig John

2010-01-01

291

COMPARATIVE RESEARCHE REGARDING METABOLIC PROFILE OF THE CALIFORNIAN, NEW ZEALAND WHITE, GRAND CHINCHILLA MEAT RABIT BREEDS AND THE F1 NZCH HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Precious biological characteristics of rabbits make their breeding a very profitable occupation. The rabbit meat, organoleptically same to the white meat, is rich in proteins, but low in fats. Biological researched done in direction to elucidate the biochemical systems that are the basis for organism physiological processes, have revealed that the level in which this process are develop directly influence the rabbits productivity capacity. 60 rabbit’s heads was used as biological material, distributed in: 15 Californian, 15 New Zeeland White, 15 Grand Chinchilla and 15 F1NZCH hybrids obtained from cross-breeding the New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form. Blood was sampled from the rabbit and was biochemical analyzed. The studied indices were: total protein, albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, total bilirubine, cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose. The experimental lot formed from F1 NZCH hybrids registered a concentration of 2.1 mg/dl uric acid, and in the other three lots the concentration was under 2 mg/dl. In all four lots, uric acid value was in normal limits. The determined creatinine registered very low values, under 1 mg/dl, at the low limit of reference values. At hybrids from New Zeeland White as maternal form and Grand Chinchilla as paternal form, in equal environmental conditions, the serum biochemical analysis haven’t registered significant differences compared to pure breeds individuals.

DANIELA-MARCELA TOB? (GOINA

2013-12-01

292

Diet, foraging, and use of space in wild golden-headed lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion tamarins (Callitrichidae: Leontopithecus) are small frugi-faunivores that defend large home ranges. We describe results from the first long-term investigation of wild golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas; GHLTs). We present data about activity budgets, daily activity cycles, diet, daily path length, home range size, home range overlap, and territorial encounters for three groups of GHLTs that were studied for 1.5-2.5 years in Una Biological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil, an area characterized by aseasonal rainfall. We compare our results to those from other studies of lion tamarins to identify factors that may influence foraging and ranging patterns in this genus. Ripe fruit, nectar, insects, and small vertebrates were the primary components of the GHLT diet, and gums were rarely eaten. Fruit comprised the majority of plant feeding bouts, and the GHLTs ate at least 79 different species of plants from 32 families. The most common foraging sites for animal prey were epiphytic bromeliads. The GHLTs defended large home ranges averaging 123 ha, but showed strong affinities for core areas, spending 50% of their time in approximately 11% of their home range. Encounters with neighboring groups averaged two encounters every 9 days, and they were always aggressive. Data about time budgets and daily activity cycles reveal that the GHLTs spent most of their time foraging for resources or traveling between foraging sites distributed throughout their home ranges. The GHLTs spent much less time consuming exudates compared to lion tamarins in more seasonal environments. Additionally, the GHLTs had much larger home ranges than golden lion tamarins (L. rosalia), and did not engage in territorial encounters as frequently as L. rosalia. GHLT ranging patterns appear to be strongly influenced by resource acquisition and, to a lesser extent, by resource defense. PMID:15152369

Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

2004-05-01

293

Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

Diedrich, Cajus G.

2011-07-01

294

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a wound with discharging sinus tracts in a wild African lion (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

A female wild African lion (Panthera leo) was presented with an 8-month history of a wound with multiple discharging sinus tracts on the left paw. Microscopical examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of cutaneous SCC in an African lion. Cutaneous SCC presenting as discharging sinus tracts lined by neoplastic squamous cells has not been reported previously in animals. PMID:24016784

Mwase, M; Mumba, C; Square, D; Kawarai, S; Madarame, H

2013-11-01

295

Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in flight, the network and data management were handled by a Nexus 7 tablet.

Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

2013-12-01

296

Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to the advancement of comparative genomics of human pathogens, as well as emerging disease in wild populations of endangered species.

Sondgeroth Kerry

2008-02-01

297

Stacking pattern and stratigraphic model of reservoirs from a modern analogue to ancient deltaic and siliciclastic deposits: Golfe du Lion, SE France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {open_quotes}Golfe du Lion{close_quotes} Pleistocene shelf deposits are used as modern analogues of ancient deltaic and shallow water siliciclastic deposits. At least 6 cyclic superimposed sedimentary packages constituting a seaward thickening wedge are documented, including major progradational clinoforms units bounded by regional unconformities, with their updip terminations. Seismic correlations and geometry models, together with age dating and facies analysis of the uppermost units have been used at regional scale. They allowed to differentiate allocyclic from autocyclic events, to improve our knowledge of the nature of tectonic control on architecture, and to rely the different seismic units, inside the packages, to the environmental changes from interglacial highstand to glacial lowstand in 4 to 5th order cycles. An alternative model of {open_quotes}forced regression{close_quotes} during sea level lowstand was documented and validated. The different illustrated sedimentary units, related to specific parts of the relative sea level curve along a short duration/high amplitude cycle, are: (i) the {open_quotes}forced regression{close_quotes} deposits (ii) the late lowstand massive sands onto the outer shelf (iii) the early transgressive backstepping (?) beach sands, (iii) the late transgressive backslapping parasequences. The sand content inferred from the seismic facies, comforted with the uppermost units facies from data cores, is in agreement with this model.

Tesson, M.; Bernard, G.; Georges, A.; Christian, R.

1995-08-01

298

Water use by the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The extent to which the Kalahari lion can survive without having to drink water was investigated in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. It was found that while they may drink regularly where water is available, they may become completely independent of water under extreme desert conditions. Sufficient moisture for their needs seems to be obtained from the blood and body fluids of their prey and the vegetable components of theirdiet. Loss of water through evaporation is reduced by the lion'sleisurely way of life.

F.C. Eloff

1973-07-01

299

Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Primates, Callitrichidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey item [...] s, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities). These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

Fernando de Camargo, Passos; Alexine, Keuroghlian.

300

Of Lions and Foxes: Power and Rule in Hebrew Medieval Fables  

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Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the lion and the fox as an expression of the disposition of powers in the political-governmental arena and their relationship to the governed, in ancient and medieval philosophical thought. This article will also examine the mutual relationships between rulers and their advisors and between rulers and subjects in a kingdom or within a court under their rule, with a focus on Hebrew medieval fables. This article is based on two examples: one from Mishle Shualim by Berechiah Hanakdan (England / Provence, at the end of the 12th century or the first half of the 13th century and the other from Meshal Haqadmoni, by Isaac Ibn Sahula (Spain, 1281. The characters of the lion and the fox as metaphors are reflected as well as in modern political thought in theories that discuss the ruling elite, and their relevance seems applicable to our times.

Revital Refael-Vivante

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Paleoenvironmental imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleontological parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasted subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lions). Since both depositional environments were well-documented in this area, large data-sets were available and allowed to calibrate the investigated cores with several reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. Molecular-based fingerprints showed that the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by an heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee, were unexpectedly dominated by Betaproteobacteria (more than 70 %), at the base of the core mainly below five meters in the sediment. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidites frequency indicated that the microbial diversity was controlled by the important climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. This result was supported by statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA). In contrast, the Gulf of Lions core, characterized by a homogeneous lithology of upper-slope environment, was dominated by the Bacteroidetes group and in a lesser extent, by the Betaproteobacteria group. At both sites, the dominance of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca). In the Gulf of Lions, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western-Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the structure/composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

2012-01-01

302

On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

recombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of 0.2 Gy min?1 were excluded from the present investigation of the general collection efficiency. The perturbations were found to be more pronounced when the chamber polarizing voltage was increased. Conclusions: By using the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, comparable corrected ionization currents from experiments in low and medium energy photon beams can be achieved. However, the valid range of general collection efficiencies has been found to vary in a comparison between experiments performed in continuous beams of 120 kVp x ray, and the present investigation of 511 keV annihilation photons. At very high dose rates in continuous beams, there are presently no methods that can be used to correct for general recombination losses and at low dose rates the microLion chamber may be perturbed by ambient electric fields. Increasing the chamber polarizing voltage, which diminishes the general recombination effect, was found to increase the microLion chamber sensitivity to ambient electric fields. Prudence is thus advised when employing the microLion chamber in radiation dosimetry, as ambient electric fields of the strength observed in the present work may be found in many common situations. Due to uncertainties in the theoretical basis for recombination losses in liquids, further studies on the underlying theories for the initial and general recombination effect are needed if liquid ionization chambers are to become a viable option in high precision radiation dosimetry.

303

THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914  

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Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price a...

Patricia van den Eeckhout; Peter Scholliers

2011-01-01

304

Histology of the sternal and suprapubic skin areas in lion tamarins (Leontopithecus sp. Callitrichidae-primates).  

Science.gov (United States)

Though knowledge regarding the biology and morphology of lion tamarins is scarce in the literature, it is very important for their conservation. This paper focuses on the anatomical and histological aspects of the glands involved in the scent-marking behavior of lion tamarins. It examines the histological aspects of sternal and suprapubic skin sections of specimens that were preserved in formaldehyde and were the property of the Rio de Janeiro Primatology Center Museum. Eighteen specimens from three lion tamarin (Leontopithecus sp.) species (L. rosalia, L. chrysomelas, and L. chrysopygus) were analyzed. Both sexes were represented, and macroscopic hypertrophy was quantified by direct observation of the tegument on the sternal area and classified as discrete, moderate, or accentuated for each specimen. The skin of both sexes had a high degree of histological resemblance to that of other primates, including humans. The epidermis presented stratified squamous keratinous epithelia, with a few cellular layers and dermis with cutaneous appendages (i.e., hair follicles and both sebaceous and sweat glands). The dermal papillae were short, and the sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands resembled those of humans. These glands were present in the dermis of the analyzed skin fragments of both sternal and suprapubic regions in great numbers. Furthermore, we were able to establish a relationship between the macroscopic appearance of the sternal tegument and the degree of microscopic gland hyperplasia. PMID:16892413

Moraes, Ismar A; De-Carvalho, Maria Clara A; De Azevedo Valle, Heliomar; Pessoa, Vera P; Ferreira, Ana Maria R; Pissinatti, Alcides

2006-11-01

305

Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

2006-12-15

306

Trophic scaling and occupancy analysis reveals a lion population limited by top-down anthropogenic pressure in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African lion (Panthera Leo) has suffered drastic population and range declines over the last few decades and is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable to extinction. Conservation management requires reliable population estimates, however these data are lacking for many of the continent's remaining populations. It is possible to estimate lion abundance using a trophic scaling approach. However, such inferences assume that a predator population is subject only to bottom-up regulation, and are thus likely to produce biased estimates in systems experiencing top-down anthropogenic pressures. Here we provide baseline data on the status of lions in a developing National Park in Mozambique that is impacted by humans and livestock. We compare a direct density estimate with an estimate derived from trophic scaling. We then use replicated detection/non-detection surveys to estimate the proportion of area occupied by lions, and hierarchical ranking of covariates to provide inferences on the relative contribution of prey resources and anthropogenic factors influencing lion occurrence. The direct density estimate was less than 1/3 of the estimate derived from prey resources (0.99 lions/100 km² vs. 3.05 lions/100 km²). The proportion of area occupied by lions was ? = 0.439 (SE = 0.121), or approximately 44% of a 2,400 km2 sample of potential habitat. Although lions were strongly predicted by a greater probability of encountering prey resources, the greatest contributing factor to lion occurrence was a strong negative association with settlements. Finally, our empirical abundance estimate is approximately 1/3 of a published abundance estimate derived from opinion surveys. Altogether, our results describe a lion population held below resource-based carrying capacity by anthropogenic factors and highlight the limitations of trophic scaling and opinion surveys for estimating predator populations exposed to anthropogenic pressures. Our study provides the first empirical quantification of a population that future change can be measured against. PMID:24914934

Everatt, Kristoffer T; Andresen, Leah; Somers, Michael J

2014-01-01

307

On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambers, containing isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) and tetramethylsilane [Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}] as the sensitive media, and a NACP-02 monitor chamber. An initial activity of approximately 250 GBq {sup 18}F was employed as the radiation source in the experiments. The initial dose rate in each measurement series was estimated to 1.0 Gy min{sup -1} by Monte Carlo simulations and the measurements were carried out during the decay of the radioactive source. In the investigation of general recombination losses, employing the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, the liquid ionization chambers were operated at polarizing voltages 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 V. Furthermore, measurements were also performed at 500 V polarizing voltage in the investigation of the sensitivity of the microLion chamber to ambient electric fields. Results: The measurement results from the liquid ionization chambers, corrected for general recombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of 0.2 Gy min{sup -1} were excluded from the present investigation of the general collection efficiency. The perturbations were found to be more pronounced when the chamber polarizing voltage was increased. Conclusions: By using the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, comparable corrected ionization currents from experiments in low and medium energy photon beams can be achieved. However, the valid range of general collection efficiencies has been found to vary in a comparison between experiments performed in continuous beams of 120 kVp x ray, and the present investigation of 511 keV annihilation photons. At very high dose rates in continuous beams, there are presently no methods that can be used to correct for general recombination losses and at low dose rates the microLion chamber may be perturbed by ambient electric fields. Increasing the chamber polarizing voltage, which diminishes the general recombination effect, was found to increase the microLion chamber sensitivity to ambient electric fields. Prudence is thus advised when employing the microLion chamber in radiation dosimetry, as ambient electric fields of the strength observed in the present work may be found in many common situations. Due to uncertainties in the theoretical basis for recombination losses in liquids, further studies on the underlying theories for the initial and general recombination effect are needed if liquid ionization chambers are to become a viable option in high precision radiation dosimetry.

Andersson, Jonas; Johansson, Erik; Toelli, Heikki [Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI CBRN Defense and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

2012-08-15

308

Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

2010-08-01

309

Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

Diedrich, Cajus G.

2009-05-01

310

Sea Chest  

Science.gov (United States)

By exploring life at sea for sailors and passengers, the Maritime Museum of San Diego offers insight into the history of maritime exploration, emigration, and commerce. Background and classroom activities are applicable to history, geography, social studies, science, art and other subjects. Emphasis on 19th Century sea travel and sailing ships, with topics including navigation techniques and technology, sailor's crafts, health and medicine at sea, shipboard life and social interactions.

311

Sea Stars  

Science.gov (United States)

At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, arenât doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathanâs investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-10-06

312

LIONS: a new set of Fortran 90 codes for the SPIRAL project at GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of new computer programs developed at GANIL is presented; these codes are used to study different parts of the SPIRAL project (a new radioactive ion beam facility), and particularly the dynamics in the CIME cyclotron, its injection inflector, and the new extraction system of the ECR ion sources. Three important modules are described: CHA3D for the evaluation of 3D electric fields with or without space charge effects, LIONS for the motion of ions and EXTRACT for the ECRIS extraction. These modules are written in Fortran 90 in a ''data parallel scheme''. They work either on UNIX workstations or parallel and vectorial computers. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs

313

THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price and service. This article investigates differences and similarities between Belgium’s and Britain’s food chain stores prior to 1914, dealing with business organization, product range, and clientele.

Patricia van den Eeckhout

2011-01-01

314

Growth of European hake (Merluccius merluccius) in the Gulf of Lions based on conventional tagging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth of European hake was estimated from the results of a conventional tagging study in the Gulf of Lions, the first tagging experiment to have been undertaken on the species in Mediterranean waters. In all, 4277 hake 15–40 cm long were tagged and released on the inshore fishing grounds during spring 2006. The overall recapture rate was 6.5% and times-at-liberty ranged from 1 to 717 d. Growth rate in hake varied with size and sex. The estimated growth parameter (von Bertalanffy k) was est...

Mellon-duval, Capucine; Pontual, Helene; Metral, Luisa; Quemener, Loic

2010-01-01

315

Progress on Californian Otter Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The river otter Lutra lutra has been protected in Hungary since 1974 and became strictly protected in 1978. However, the first and so far only survey of its distribution was carried out by me in 1987-88. I now report the results of this survey and discuss the present status and conservation problems of otter in Hungary. Otters are most plentiful in the south west. Because of contamination of many water courses, otters are dependent on fish farms of various sizes. Until now, these were subsidi...

Shannon J.S.

1991-01-01

316

Recent population expansion in the evolutionary history of the Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax / Expansión poblacional reciente en la historia evolutiva de la anchoveta de California Engraulis mordax  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La anchoveta de California Engraulis mordax, es una especie templada que pudo haber pasado por un proceso de disyunción poblacional, debido al proceso postglacial de calentamiento del agua alrededor de la punta de la península de Baja California, hace unos 10,000 años. Se realizó un análisis genétic [...] o para probar la hipótesis nula de homogeneidad genética entre el Golfo de California, México y el sur de California, EUA y si este era el caso, estimar el tiempo de surgimiento de haplotipos en términos de coalescencia. Se analizaron en total 80 secuencias de la región control hipervariable (ADNmt) de E. mordax, capturadas en la región central del Golfo de California (n = 40) y el sur de California (n = 40). A pesar del gran número de haplotipos únicos, no se observó diferenciación genética significativa entre localidades (F ST = -0.0025, p = 0.686). Una distribución unimodal en la frecuencia del número de diferencias entre haplotipos indica un modelo de expansión rápida en el tamaño poblacional, que basado en una tasa mutacional de 3.6% por millón de años para la región control, indicó un tiempo de diferenciación nucleotídica relativamente reciente de aproximadamente 61,000 años. Este periodo de tiempo corresponde al Pleistoceno tardío, después de la formación de la península de Baja California, sugiriendo expansiones poblacionales en cada una de las localidades, seguidas del último episodio de glaciación, el cual quizás contribuyó a la migración de esta especie de afinidad templada entre las dos localidades y a su homogenización genética. Sin embargo este único evento reciente de flujo genético en la historia evolutiva de la especie, no explica por sí solo los patrones de distribución encontrados en las frecuencias de diferencias nucleotídicas. Abstract in english The Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax, a temperate species, may have undergone a process of population disjunction from experiencing post-glacial water heating processes around the tip of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico about 10,000 b.p. A genetic analysis was performed to test the null hyp [...] othesis of genetic homogeneity between the Gulf of California and Southern California, U. S. A., and if this is the case, to estimate the time of haplotype emergence in terms of coalescence. A total of 80 sequences of the mtDNA hypervariable control region of E. mordax captured in the central Gulf of California (n = 40) and Southern California (n = 40) were analyzed. In spite of the large number of private haplotypes, no significant genetic differentiation among sites (F ST = -0.0025, p = 0.686) was observed. An unimodal distribution of mismatch frequency between haplotypes indicated a model of rapid expansion in population size that, based on a mutation rate of 3.6% per million years in the control region, indicates a relatively recent nucleotide differentiation time of approximately 61,000 years. This time period corresponds to the late Pleistocene, suggesting population expansions at each locality, followed by the last episode of glaciation, which may have contributed to migration of this temperate-affinity species between two locations and the genetic homogenization. However this unique recent event of gene flow in the evolutionary history of species does not explain by itself the mismatch distribution patterns found.

Noé, Díaz-Viloria; Laura, Sánchez-Velasco; Ricardo, Pérez-Enríquez.

2012-12-01

317

Selected clinical, biochemical, and electrolyte alterations in anesthetized captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study to assess changes in selected plasma biochemistry and electrolyte values, plasma insulin and aldosterone concentrations, and electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on eight female captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and three lions (Panthera leo) undergoing general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic ovariectomy. Each animal was sedated with medetomidine (18-25 microg/kg) and midazolam (0.06-0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and anesthesia was induced with ketamine (1.9-3.5 mg/kg) intramuscularly and maintained with isoflurane. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma biochemistry parameters and insulin and aldosterone concentrations. An ECG was recorded at the time of each blood sample collection. Mean plasma potassium, glucose, phosphorus, and aldosterone concentrations increased during anesthesia (P < or = 0.05). One tiger developed hyperkalemia (6.5 mmol/L) 2.5 hr after anesthetic induction. Plasma insulin concentrations were initially below the low end of the domestic cat reference interval (72-583 pmol/L), but mean insulin concentration increased (P < or = 0.05) over time compared with the baseline values. Three tigers and two lions had ECG changes that were representative of myocardial hypoxemia. Based on these results, continuous monitoring of clinical and biochemical alterations during general anesthesia in large nondomestic felids is warranted, and consideration should be given to reversal of medetomidine in these animals should significant changes in electrolytes or ECG occur. PMID:25000694

Reilly, Sabrina; Seddighi, M Reza; Steeil, James C; Sura, Patricia; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Gompf, Rebecca E; Elliott, Sarah B; Ramsay, Edward C

2014-06-01

318

Leishmania infantum infection in two captive barbary lions (Panthera leo leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

A female barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) from the Montpellier Zoological Park (France) showing colitis, epistaxis, and lameness with pad ulcers was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania infantum. Further indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) tests on the banked sera from all lions of the park detected another infected but asymptomatic female, which was confirmed by PCR on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood sample. Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1 was cultured from EDTA bone marrow samples sampled from this second animal. The first female was successfully treated with marbofloxacine at 2 mg/kg s.i.d. for 28 days (Marbocyl, Vetoquinol 70204 Lure, France) and allopurinol at 30 mg/kg s.i.d. for 3 mo (Allopurinol Mylan, Mylan SAS, 69800 Saint-Priest, France) and then 1 wk/mo. Both positive animals were born at the Rabat Zoological Park, Morocco, and arrived together at Montpellier in 2003. The chronicity and source of this current infection are unknown since Morocco and southern France are well-known to be enzootic for leishmaniasis. PMID:23082544

Libert, Cédric; Ravel, Christophe; Pratlong, Francine; Lami, Patrick; Dereure, Jacques; Keck, Nicolas

2012-09-01

319

A strain of calicivirus isolated from lions with vesicular lesions on tongue and snout.  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 1992, 17 African lions and 7 Siberian tigers in a Safari park in Japan became sick with characteristic clinical symptoms of acute vesicular formations on tongue and snout. The disease was highly contagious since all of these animals showed similar symptoms within two days after the onset of the first case. Swabs were taken from affected animals in rubbing tongues, snouts and some from rectums. Cytopathic viruses were isolated on CRFK cell culture by virological tests. The physicochemical property of a representative virus strain, named Arthur/L, isolated from a male lion was identified as a member of Caliciviridae. However, seroneutralization test indicated that this virus strain was antigenically distinct from Japanese isolates of feline caliciviruses used for comparison. Viral capsid proteins of the present isolate, Arthur/L, and of a feline calicivirus, strain FC7, were compared in an electrophoresis in SDS-PAGE gel. The major viral capsid polypeptide of them were proved to be significantly different in molecular weight. The polypeptide of FC7 was estimated to be ca. 63 KDa whereas that of Arthur/L consisted of 2 components of ca. 65 and 62 KDa. The viral proteins of these two strains were also proved to be distinct by an immunoblotting test. PMID:9208424

Kadoi, K; Kiryu, M; Iwabuchi, M; Kamata, H; Yukawa, M; Inaba, Y

1997-04-01

320

78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX  

Science.gov (United States)

...Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...247C3. 0 c. Remove Benjamin, under Texas, Channel 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock,...

2013-07-15

 
 
 
 
321

78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK...at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2 at Rule, Texas...Benjamin, Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel...

2013-12-05

322

High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with high rates of reproduction and successful infant rearing. The goal of this study was to re-assess monogyny in wild golden lion tamarin groups based upon pregnancy diagnoses that used non-invasive enzyme immunoassay for progesterone and cortisol, combined with weekly data on individual weight gain, bi-annual physical examinations noting pregnancy and lactation status and daily behavioral observations. We established quantitative and qualitative criteria to detect and determine the timing of pregnancies that did not result in the birth of infants. Pregnancy polygyny occurred in 83% of golden lion tamarin groups studied. The loss of 64% of subordinate pregnancies compared to only 15% by dominant females limited reproductive success mainly to dominant females, thus maintaining high reproductive skew in female golden lion tamarins. Pregnancy loss by subordinate adults did not appear to result from dominant interference in subordinate hormonal mechanisms, but more likely resulted from subordinate abandonment of newborn infants to mitigate dominant aggression. PMID:23454002

Henry, MaLinda D; Hankerson, Sarah J; Siani, Jennifer M; French, Jeffrey A; Dietz, James M

2013-05-01

323

Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is considered an important tool in the conservation of endangered species, but often the most limiting factor of ART is the availability of mature oocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of preserving female germ cells from ovaries of female lions (Panthera leo). Good quality cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated and subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM). In addition, ovarian cortex was obtained and cut into pieces for culture and cryopreservation by slow freezing. The survival of ovarian follicles was assessed by histology. Frozen-thawed samples of ovarian cortex samples were xenotransplanted under the skin of ovariectomized immunodeficient mouse for 28 days. Overall, 178 intact COCs were obtained from 13 lions, but only 28.1% were matured in vitro indicating insufficient IVM conditions. In contrast, almost all follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed in favour of follicular growth. Female gamete rescue from valuable felids may be performed by slow freeze cryopreservation of ovarian cortex. Although the IVM protocol for lions is not yet optimized, mature oocytes may be obtained after long-term xenotransplantation and IVM and could potentially represent one way of salvage of endangered felid species in the future.

Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R

2012-01-01

324

Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Retrievals of total sea ice concentration from four algorithms using the 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the marginal ice zone in the Barents and Greenland Seas are compared with retrievals of total sea ice concentration from helicopter-borne linescan camera observations made during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern during May-June 1997. The goals are to evaluate (1) SSM/I 85.5 GHz retrievals of total sea ice concentration for climatological purposes, and (2) the ability of 85.5 GHz data to show the sea ice edge through cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19 and 37 GHz) traditionally used for sea ice remote sensing. A self-adjusting algorithm that performs a nonlinear correction for atmospheric moisture, without explicit atmospheric input data, yields the best accuracy over total sea ice concentrations greater than 30%. However, this algorithm can misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice concentrations in the range 20-70%, empirical 85.5 GHz hybrids of lower-frequency algorithms developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center can improve the accuracy of these algorithms.

Pedersen, Leif Toudal

2002-01-01

325

Gopherus Agassizii (Desert Tortoise). Predation/Mountain Lions (Pre-Print)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a long-term study on tortoise growth within 3 fenced 9-ha enclosures in Rock Valley, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, USA, tortoises have been captured annually since 1964 (Medica et al. 1975. Copeia 1975:630-643; Turner et al. 1987. Copeia 1987:974-979). Between early August and mid October 2003 we observed a significant mortality event. The Rock Valley enclosures were constructed of 6 x 6 mm mesh 1.2 m wide hardware cloth, buried 0.3 m in the soil with deflective flashing on both sides on the top to restrict the movement of small mammals and lizards from entering or leaving the enclosures (Rundel and Gibson 1996, Ecological communities and process in a Mojave Desert ecosystem: Rock Valley, Nevada, Cambridge University Press, Great Britain. 369 pp.). On August 6, 2003, the carcass of an adult female Desert Tortoise No.1411 (carapace length 234 mm when alive) was collected while adult male tortoise No.4414 (carapace length 269 mm) was observed alive and in good health on the same day. Subsequently the carcass of No.4414 was found on October 16, 2003. Between October 16-17, 2003, the remains of 6 (5 adult and 1 juvenile) Desert Tortoises were found, some within each of the 3 enclosures in Rock Valley. A seventh adult tortoise was found on September 26, 2006, its death also attributed to the 2003 mortality event based upon the forensic evidence. Each of the 7 adult Desert Tortoises had the central portion of their carapace broken open approximately to the dorsal portion of the marginal scutes while the plastron was still intact (Figure 1A). Adjacent to 7 of the 8 remains we located numerous bone fragments including parts of the carapace and limbs as well as dried intestines in a nearby Range Rhatany (Krameria parvifolia) shrub. The significance of the frequent use of this shrub is puzzling. Three of the Desert Tortoise shell remains possessed distinctive intercanine punctures measuring 55-60 mm center to center indicating that this was an adult sized Mountain Lion. By comparison, a 2 year old male Mountain Lion salvaged on NTS had an upper intercanine bite width of 45 mm, and a 6 month old kitten measured 35mm respectively. The Mountain Lion (Puma concolor) is the only predator that exists in southern Nevada that could possibly have a bite with a gap between its upper canine teeth that large (Murmann et al. 2006. J. Forensic Sci. 51:846-860). The appearance of the shell remains in Figure 1A is similar to that depicting Jaguar (Panthera onca) predation, on the Amazonian Tortoise (Geochelone denticulata) as illustrated by Emmons (1989. J. Herpetol. 23:311-314) with the majority of the carapace broken open and the plastron still intact. Predation of Desert Tortoises by Mountain Lions was also documented in 1993 in southern Arizona (Little Shipp Wash Plot), where 7 of 8 carcasses found were attributed to Mountain Lion predation (Averill-Murray et al. 2002. In. T.R.Van Devender [ed.], The Sonoran Desert Tortoise: Natural History, Biology, and Conservation, pp.109-134. University of Arizona Press and Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, Arizona). Similarly, predation by a Mountain Lion has been reported on the Argentine Tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis) in Argentina (Acosta et al. 2004. Herpetol. Review 35:53-54), and a Mountain Lion kitten was observed to kill and consume a portion of the carapace of a Texas Tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri) in west Texas (Adams et al. 2006. Southwestern Nat. 51:581-581). Over the past 45 years this Desert Tortoise population has been monitored yearly, with no prior evidence of predation to tortoises within the fenced enclosures. On several occasions other predators such as Bobcats (Lynx rufus) have been observed within the study enclosures for as long as a week. Evidence of Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotus) sign has been observed on numerous occasions, and a Spotted Skunk (Spilogale putorius) and Longtail Weasels (Mustela frenata) have been captured and released (B.G. Maza, pers. comm.; Medica 1990. Great Basin Nat. 50:83-84), while Coyotes (Canis latrans) were never observed within th

Paul D. Greger and Philip A. Medica

2009-01-01

326

Savage Seas  

Science.gov (United States)

This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

327

The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon  

Science.gov (United States)

The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

2014-03-01

328

75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...survival and natality rates. The RPA also reduces...Atka mackerel and Pacific cod in Areas 542 and 541...lead to higher natality rates and survival. In addition...participate in the State Pacific cod fishery authorized by...necessary to reduce fishery removals of these prey...

2010-12-13

329

Loin Exposure as a Means of Complementing Thermoregulation in Kalahari Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1958  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fieldwork on the thermoregulatory behavior of a small pride of lions (Panthera leo, consisting of three adults and two cubs, was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, Namibia. Continuous daytime and nighttime observations of the pride were performed during winter (May-July 2003 and summer (February-March 2004. Temporal incidences of loin exposure showed a positive relationship with increasing temperature from winter to summer. Full belly loin exposures during both seasons occurred across the ambient temperature range, but empty belly loin exposures were only observed above 17°C. The frequency of loin exposure for both seasons on empty or full bellies rapidly increased from 28°C. The two males demonstrated a similar probability of loin exposure, possibly as a result of their similar shape and sex and the average orientation of loins into an oncoming breeze occurred 51 and 58% during winter and summer, respectively.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

330

A Suggested Thermoneutral Zone for African Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southwestern Kalahari, Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of the thermoregulatory behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo consisting of two adult males, an adult female and two cubs, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southeastern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Early morning sunbathing on dune crests was considerably longer during winter when compared to summer, but the cutoff ambient temperature for this behaviour was the same (25°C for both seasons. Loin exposure, on both empty and full bellies, always occurred between 28 and 34°C. Panting during winter only occurred after bursts of activity on empty bellies. During summer, however, panting was observed while the pride was active and static, being initiated at ambient temperatures of 34°C. It can, therefore, be inferred that the thermoneutral zone for this pride lies between 25 and 33°C.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

331

Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp. were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Two isolates (Myr7 and MyrB were found to possess quorum quenching activity. Isolates with quorum quenching activity were later identified employing 16S rRNA. Both isolates were similar to bacteria in the genus Aeromonas

BILLY CHRISTIANTO

2011-03-01

332

Implications of salt tectonics for the architecture of deep-water sedimentary systems offshore Gulf of Lions: the example of the Marseille and Grand-Rhône ridges  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marseille and Grand-Rhône sedimentary ridges, located offshore the Gulf of Lions Western Mediterranean Sea, are examples of deep-water sedimentary systems deposited into the deep basin during Quaternary glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The ridges are genereated by sediment spillover funnelled by, respectively, the Marseille and Grand-Rhône canyons. According to Coutellier (1985) deep structural lineaments would be accounted for the canyons E-W trending. We observed, however, that the Marseille and Grand-Rhône canyon directions, and so their ridges disposal, are tectonically conditioned by Plio-Quaternary salt-induced sea-floor reliefs. Overburden extension in the are created an assemblage of listric faults running parallel to the strike of the continental margin. These faults, of highly curvilinear fault planes, form anastomosing relays and remained active all along the Plio-Quaternary deposition. The salt-induced topography resulted in accentuated fault scarps, impacting the sea-floor morphology and forcing submarine valleys to take an abrupt deflection to the east. Because growth faults are spatially configured in successive relays, thalwegs jumped from a structural compartment to the next, forming a broad zig-zag pattern, with a resultant east-west trend. Gravity-induced extension equally influenced the morphological pattern of overbanking deposits. Both ridges seem asymmetric, leading authors to assume that overflow deposition was biased to the canyons right bank due to the Coriolis force. However, we observed that sediment spillover occurred on the canyons both flanks, but since active faulting generated space accommodation for overflow deposits, it inhibited the development of typical levee morphology along the canyons left flank. So salt-tectonic control defined the configuration of the local deep-water sediment transport system and, in consequence, both the Grand-Rhône and Marseille submarine valleys are orientated E-W, i.e. paralleling listric faults trendings. Salt-tectonic control also defined the associated depocenter configuration, clearly expressed in the present-day seafloor morphology as sedimentary ridges disposed parallel to tectonic lineaments.

Dos Reis, A. T.; Gorini, C.; Mauffret, A.; Weibull, W.

2003-04-01

333

Innervation patterns of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) mystacial follicle-sinus complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are the most recent group of mammals to return to the sea, and may exemplify divergent somatosensory tactile systems among mammals. Therefore, we quantified the mystacial vibrissal array of sea otters and histologically processed follicle-sinus complexes (F - SCs) to test the hypotheses that the number of myelinated axons per F - SC is greater than that found for terrestrial mammalian vibrissae and that their organization and microstructure converge with those of pinniped vibrissae. A mean of 120.5 vibrissae were arranged rostrally on a broad, blunt muzzle in 7–8 rows and 9–13 columns. The F-SCs of sea otters are tripartite in their organization and similar in microstructure to pinnipeds rather than terrestrial species. Each F-SC was innervated by a mean 1339 ± 408.3 axons. Innervation to the entire mystacial vibrissal array was estimated at 161,313 axons. Our data support the hypothesis that the disproportionate expansion of the coronal gyrus in somatosensory cortex of sea otters is related to the high innervation investment of the mystacial vibrissal array, and that quantifying innervation investment is a good proxy for tactile sensitivity. We predict that the tactile performance of sea otter mystacial vibrissae is comparable to that of harbor seals, sea lions and walruses.

Marshall, Christopher D.; Rozas, Kelly; Kot, Brian; Gill, Verena A.

2014-01-01

334

Assessing the exposure of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) to future climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how biodiversity will respond to climate change is a major challenge in conservation science. Climatic changes are likely to impose serious threats to many organisms, especially those with narrow distribution ranges, small populations and low dispersal capacity. Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) are endangered primates endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF), and all four living species are typical examples of these aggravating conditions. Here, we integrate ecological niche modeling and GIS-based information about BAF remnants and protected areas to estimate the exposure (i.e., the extent of climate change predicted to be experienced by a species) of current suitable habitats to climate change for 2050 and 2080, and to evaluate the efficacy of existing reserves to protect climatically suitable areas. Niche models were built using Maxent and then projected onto seven global circulation models derived from the A1B climatic scenario. According to our projections, the occurrence area of L. caissara will be little exposed to climate change. Western populations of L. chrysomelas could be potentially exposed, while climatically suitable habitats will be maintained only in part of the eastern region. Protected areas that presently harbor large populations of L. chrysopygus and L. rosalia will not retain climatic suitability by 2080. Monitoring trends of exposed populations and protecting areas predicted to hold suitable conditions should be prioritized. Given the potential exposure of key lion tamarin populations, we stress the importance of conducting additional studies to assess other aspects of their vulnerability (i.e., sensitivity to climate and adaptive capacity) and, therefore, to provide a more solid framework for future management decisions in the context of climate change. PMID:24346860

Meyer, Andreas L S; Pie, Marcio R; Passos, Fernando C

2014-06-01

335

Rickets in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: some new insights.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized. Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar. Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat. Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets. PMID:19349374

Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

2009-05-01

336

Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Networking the Physical World Made Cheap and Easy  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. Non-standardized interfaces make instrument integration and field operation cumbersome and error-prone. Indeed, the assembly and deployment of some systems can take months and incur high costs. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply "plugging" devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Mechanical integration is also accelerated by repackaging instruments according to the CubeSAT form-factor (multiples of 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes). In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To demonstrate our initial success, we first discuss the Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), a low-cost, modular, spaceweather satellite running LION-PNP. BUSAT is a completely student-driven project meant for magnetospheric-ionospheric research incorporating 4 scientific payloads. To further stress the broad applicability of LION-PNP we also present VolcanoNET, a ground-based, multi-sensor package that will explore charging of volcanic ash plumes and volcanic lightning.; The Boston University Student satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT) canisterized scientific satellite concept.

Darling, N. T.; Mendez, J. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Hoffman, C.

2012-12-01

337

Red muscle proportions and enzyme activities in deep-sea demersal fishes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Owing to the paucity of data on the red muscle of deep-sea fishes, the goal of this study was to determine the proportions of red muscle in demersal fishes and its enzymatic activities to characterize how routine swimming abilities change with depths of occurrence. Cross sectional analysis of the trunk musculature was used to evaluate the proportion of red muscle in 38 species of Californian demersal fishes living at depths between 100 and 3000?m. The activity of metabolic enzymes was also assayed in a sub-set of 18 species. Benthic fishes had lower proportions of red muscle and lower metabolic enzyme activities than benthopelagic species. Mean proportion of red muscle declined significantly with depth with the greatest range of values in shallow waters and species with low proportions found at all depths. This suggested that while sedentary species occur at all depths, the most active species occur in shallow waters. Citrate synthase activity declined significantly with depth across all species, indicating that the mass-specific metabolic capacity of red muscle is lower in deep-sea species. These patterns may be explained by coupling of red and white muscle physiologies, a decrease in physical energy of the environment with depth or by the prevalence of anguilliform body forms and swimming modes in deep-living species. PMID:24298953

Drazen, J C; Dugan, B; Friedman, J R

2013-12-01

338

Simulating the Impact of Sediment Flux of the 2003 Flood Event of the Rhone River on the Golf of Lions, France  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment fluxes from flood events (return period > 100yrs) tend to have an important impact on the development of strata, although their occurrence is rare. Unfortunately there are almost no field measurements that give better insight into the sediment flux distributed to, and deposited in, the ocean during such events. To get a better understanding of flood event's impact on the strata we applied two numerical models on a Rhone River flood event. A 350yrs recurrence time flood event of the Rhone River occurred in the first week of December 2003. With local accumulation of 500 mm of precipitation, the Rhone River, with an average discharge of 1,700 m3s-1, reached a peak discharge of 13,000 m3s-1 at the Beaucaire measurement station. First we applied the hydrological model {\\HydroTrend} to simulate the discharge and sediment flux during the December 2003 storm. {\\HydroTrend} simulates a similar hydrograph as field observations. The model predicts that 4.4 Mt of sediment flowed from the Rhone River into the Golf of Lions over the 5 day storm event. Secondly we simulated the sediment deposition in the coastal zone with a two-dimensional momentum-based jet model Plume. The model simulates the mixing and advection of river water (simulated by {\\HydroTrend}) in the sea. An advection-diffusion routine uses the currents to determine the aerial extent of deposition from the surficial plume, using flocculation and settling values. The model results for the single storm event show a plume that reaches a maximum width of 5 km, flowing southwards out of the Rhone River outlet, than bending sharply west by currents. 90% of the sediment is deposited within 10 km from the river mouth, and it forms a sediment layer up to 35cm.

Kettner, A. J.; Hutton, E. W.; Syvitski, J. P.

2004-12-01

339

Some population characteristics of the Lion Panthera Leo in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park  

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Full Text Available

Two methods of estimating the number of lions in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, Republic of South Africa, are described; the first gives a minimum figure (113 and the second a more realistic one (140. Data are presented on sex and age ratios and pride composition. The factors contributing to the low density are briefly discussed and some management practices in connection with lions trespassing out of the Park are suggested.

E.A.N. le Riche

1978-09-01

340

Onde bebem os leões: estudo de referências nos filmes vencedores do Cannes Lions Festival entre 2007 e 2010  

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Full Text Available It is the unusual association of contexts that bring to life the advertising ideas considered creative. Eco (2001 explains that the spectator facing a creative piece of communication feels invited to interpretation and rewarded by the comprehension of such association, that generated duplicity of meanings and is only fully understood by the observer who possesses a certain former knowledge. This article accepts the challenge of identifying possible references that generated creative processes in a sample formed by four commercials that won the Grand Prix or the Gold Lion in the Film area of the Cannes Lions Festival, the most celebrated festival when it comes to advertising or creativity. Therefore, this research intends to identify inferences from movies, literature, music, design, art and history in advertising commercials, by comparing the sample with probable verbal and visual inspirations.

André Zambam Mattos

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Toxoplasma gondii, source to sea: higher contribution of domestic felids to terrestrial parasite loading despite lower infection prevalence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental transmission of Toxoplasma gondii, a global zoonotic parasite, adversely impacts human and animal health. Toxoplasma is a significant cause of mortality in threatened Southern sea otters, which serve as sentinels for disease threats to people and animals in coastal environments. As wild and domestic felids are the only recognized hosts capable of shedding Toxoplasma oocysts into the environment, otter infection suggests land-to-sea pathogen transmission. To assess relative contributions to terrestrial parasite loading, we evaluated infection and shedding among managed and unmanaged feral domestic cats, mountain lions, and bobcats in coastal California, USA. Infection prevalence differed among sympatric felids, with a significantly lower prevalence for managed feral cats (17%) than mountain lions, bobcats, or unmanaged feral cats subsisting on wild prey (73-81%). A geographic hotspot of infection in felids was identified near Monterey Bay, bordering a high-risk site for otter infection. Increased odds of oocyst shedding were detected in bobcats and unmanaged feral cats. Due to their large populations, pet and feral domestic cats likely contribute more oocysts to lands bordering the sea otter range than native wild felids. Continued coastal development may influence felid numbers and distribution, increase terrestrial pathogens in freshwater runoff, and alter disease dynamics at the human-animal-environment interface. PMID:24048652

Vanwormer, Elizabeth; Conrad, Patricia A; Miller, Melissa A; Melli, Ann C; Carpenter, Tim E; Mazet, Jonna A K

2013-09-01

342

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates  

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Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

2009-06-01

343

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at [...] the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA) were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

Carlos Henrique de F., Burity; Mirlene R. da, Silva; Andreia M. de, Souza; Carla F. F., Lancetta; Mildred F., Medeiros; Alcides, Pissinatti.

2009-06-01

344

Detection and molecular characterization of ascarid nematode infection (Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati) in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the ascarid infection in Asiatic lions using scat samples, based on microscopic analysis, PCR amplification of the ITS-2 region of ribosomal DNA and sequence analysis of the amplicons. Microscopic analysis indicated the presence of eggs of Toxascaris leonina in eleven of the sixteen scat samples analysed and in one of these eleven scats eggs of Toxocara cati were also detected. In five of the scats eggs were not detectable. The presence of T. leonina in all the infected samples was also confirmed by PCR amplification of the ITS-2 of ribosomal RNA gene and five of these also showed amplicons corresponding to T. cati, respectively. Toxocara canis infection was not observed in any of the scat samples. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS-2 region indicated 97% to 99% similarity with T. leonina and T. cati, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of ascarid infection in captive Asiatic lions from a zoological garden of India. This study also indicates that Asiatic lions are more prone to infection either with T. leonina or T. cati and the parasite is not host specific. PMID:22807016

Pawar, Rahul Mohanchandra; Lakshmikantan, Uthandaraman; Hasan, Shakir; Poornachandar, Anantula; Shivaji, Sisinthy

2012-03-01

345

Southern Sea Otter, the Process to Translocate and the Results of the Initial Year, August 1987 - August 1988  

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Full Text Available A successful translocation programme requires success in research, law enforcement and containment efforts inclusively. If successful, the translocation will establish a second breeding colony of southern sea otters (contained within a designated zone and accomplish certain goals and requirements of the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The second colony will : 1 reduce the probability that more than a small proportion of the population could be decimated by any single natural or man-caused catastrophe; and 2 allow additional data to be obtained for assessing translocation and containment techniques, population status, and the influence of sea otters on the nearshore marine community, which will facilitate a better understanding of the characteristics and impacts of a sea otter population at an optimum sustainable level. In 1987, 45 sea otters were captured from the southern third of the Californian sea otter range, and translocated to San Nicolas Island. One year later, only 14 were known to still be at the new location. The success of the initial year's effort at reestablishing a founder population at San Nicolas Island is less than expected. However, based on the Washington State translocation example, it may take many years before the success of the translocation at San Nicolas Island can be determined. Although the habitat round San Nicolas Island appears to be able to support a large population, many sea otters have returned to their parent range, or passed through Management and No Otter Zones. From this first year, a number of lessons about how to go about the capture and relocation process have been learned.

Benz C.T.

1989-02-01

346

Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclemoro was exposed to a more predominant intake of biogenic rather than petrogenic hydrocarbons. The entrance and storage organs exhibited characteristic PAH and PCB distributions, reflecting different bioaccumulation and metabolic pathways. Compared with the profiles currently found in surface fish species, a relatively higher contribution of heavier components, namely hepta- and octochlorinated PCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

2001-02-01

347

Evaluación de la calidad química del humus de lombriz roja californiana (Eiseniafoetida) elaborado a partir de cuatro sustratos orgánicos en Arica / Chemical characterization of humus produced by Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) from four organic substrates in Arica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la calidad química del humus producido por la lombriz roja californiana elaborado a partir de cuatro compost preparados con diferentes desechos orgánicos. Se trabajó con cuatro tratamientos: T0 (suelo 100%); T1 (compost tomate: pimentón)(1:1 p/p); T2 (restos frescos de tomate-pimentón: sue [...] lo)(1:1 p/p); T3 (compost plantas ornamentales Ficus: Hibiscus: Cynodon)(1:1:3 p/p) y T4 (compost olivo: tomate)(1:1 p/p). Cada tratamiento se caracterizó químicamente al iniciar el proceso y después de tres meses. Los resultados se analizaron estadísticamente y se compararon las medias con la prueba de rango múltiple de Tukey (p Abstract in english The chemical quality of humus produced by the Californian red worm drawn from four different preparations compost organic waste was evaluated. We worked with four treatments: T0 (100% soil); Tl (compost tomato: capsicum) (1:1 w / w); T2 (fresh tomato, capsicum residues: soil) (1:1 w / w); T3 (compos [...] t ornamental plants Ficus : Hibiscus: Cynodon) (1:1:3 w / w) and T4 (olive compost: tomato) (1:1 w / w). Each treatment was chemically characterized to start the process and after three months. The results were statistically analyzed and the means were compared with the multiple range test of Tukey (p

Felipe, Salinas-Vásquez; Leslie, Sepúlveda-Morales; Germán, Sepúlveda-Chavera.

2014-05-01

348

Sea Cucumbers  

Science.gov (United States)

What reef animal comes in a rainbow of crazy colors, can throw out its innards to immobilize predators, then creep away and regrow a brand-new stomach? Itâs the sea cucumber, prized as a gastronomic delight by some cultures and beginning to yield some of its secrets to scientists. Follow host Ari Daniel Shapiro from a Chinatown market to the reefs of Fiji to learn more about this amazing creature. Also included is a Learn More section that provides background information on the scientists recorded in the podcast, lessons, images, and cool facts.

2009-01-01

349

Quantifying subsidence and isostatic readjustment using sedimentary paleomarkers, example from the Gulf of Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive margins are characterised by an important tectonic and thermal subsidence, which favours a good preservation of sedimentary sequences. This sedimentation in turn enhances the subsidence because of loading effects. We present here a direct method based on sedimentary markers seen on seismic data, to evaluate total subsidence rates from the coast to the outer shelf and to the deep basin in the Gulf of Lion, from the beginning of massive salt deposition up to present day (the last circa 6 Ma) with minimal theoretical assumptions. On the shelf, the Pliocene-Quaternary subsidence shows a seaward tilt reaching a rate of 240 m/Ma (±15 m/Ma) at the shelf break (70 km from the present day coastline) (i.e. a total angle of rotation of 0.88° (0.16°/Ma)). We were also able to measure and quantify for the first time the isostatic rebound of the outer shelf due to the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). This value is very high and reaches up to 1.3 km of uplift during the crisis around the Herault-Sète canyon heads (around 1.8 km/Ma). On the slope, we also find a seaward tilting subsidence from Km 90 to Km 180 with a measured angle of 1.41°. From 180 km to the deepest part of the basin, the total subsidence is then almost vertical and reaches 960 m/Ma (±40 m/Ma) during the last 5.7 Ma (±0.25 Ma) in the deepest part of the basin. The subsidence is organised in three compartments that seem related to the very deep structure of the margin during the opening of the Liguro-provencal basin. These very high total subsidence rates enable high sedimentation rates along the margin with sediments provided by the Rhône river flowing from the Alps, which in turn enable the detailed record of climate evolution during Pliocene-Quaternary that make of the Gulf of Lion a unique archive.

Rabineau, M.; Leroux, E.; Aslanian, D.; Bache, F.; Gorini, C.; Moulin, M.; Molliex, S.; Droz, L.; dos Reis, A. T.; Rubino, J. L.; Guillocheau, F.; Olivet, J. L.

2014-02-01

350

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo, African wild dog (Lycaon pictus and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Little is known about gastrointestinal parasite infections in large carnivores in Africa and what is available is largely from East Africa. We collected faecal samples from nine spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, 15 lions (Panthera leo and 13 African wild dog (Lycaon pictus from Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  The most common gastrointestinal parasites found were Isospora sp., Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Sarcosystis sp.  Twenty-eight percent of all samples were co-infected with Spirometra sp. and Taeniidae, with co-infection rates highest among lions (67%. Thirty-three percent (3/9 of spotted hyaenas were infected with Isospora sp. Ninety-two percent (12/13 of wild dog were infected with Sarcocystis, similar to results from studies in South Africa. One lion was infected with a parasite whose morphology suggests Strongyloides sp., not previously been reported in lions.  Samples from one lion and two spotted hyena yielded no gastrointestinal parasites.  Overall, parasite species were consistent with those found from studies in other regions of Africa and are likely a result of ingesting infected prey. To our knowledge this study provides the most comprehensive survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection from this region of Africa to date and provides baseline data for future studies.

Are Berentsen

2013-03-01

351

Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park  

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Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

I.J. Whyte

1988-10-01

352

Atmospheric patterns driving Holocene productivity in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean): a multiproxy approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is aimed to reconstruct productivity during the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean as well as to investigate what processes account for its short-term variability. Fossil coccolithophore assemblages have been studied along with Mg/Ca and Uk'37-estimated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental proxies. The study site is located in a semi-permanent area of upwelling in the Alboran Sea. This productive cell is of special interest since is closely related to local hydrological dynamics driven by the entering Atlantic Jet (AJ). The onset of this productive cell is suggested at 7.7 ka cal. B.P. and linked to the establishment of the anticyclonic gyres. From 7.7 ka cal. BP to present, the N ratio and accumulation rate of Florisphaera profunda show successive upwelling and stratification events. This alternation is simultaneous to changes in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation rate in the Gulf of Lions [Frigola et al., 2007], along with changes in Mg/Ca-estimated SST, relative abundance of reworked nannoliths, pollen grains record [Fletcher et al., 2012] and n-hexacosan-1-ol index. Two scenarios are proposed to explain short-term climatic and oceanographic variability: [1] Wetter climate and weaker north-westerlies blowing over the Gulf of Lions trigger a slackening of the WMDW formation. Consequently, a minor AJ inflows the Alboran Sea leading to less vertical mixing and a deepening of the nutricline and hence, long-term stratification events. [2] Arid climate and stronger north-westerlies enable WMDW reinforcement. In turn, increased AJ triggers vertical mixing and nutricline shoaling, and therefore, productive periods. Finally, changes in atmospheric patterns (e.g. the winter North Atlantic Oscillation; [Olsen et al., 2012]) prove to be useful in explaining the WMDW formation in the Gulf of Lions and associated short-term productivity variations in the Alboran Sea. References Fletcher, W. J., M. Debret, and M. F. Sanchez Goñi (2012), Mid-Holocene emergence of a low-frequency millennial oscillation in western Mediterranean climate: Implications for past dynamics of the North Atlantic atmospheric westerlies, The Holocene, 23, 153-166. Frigola, J., A. Moreno, I. Cacho, M. Canals, F. J. Sierro, J. A. Flores, J. O. Grimalt, D. A. Hodell, and J. H. Curtis (2007), Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean region from a deepwater sediment record, Paleoceanography, 22, PA2209. Olsen, J., N. J. Anderson, and M. F. Knudsen (2012), Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the past 5,200 years, Nature Geosci, 5, 808-812.

Ausin, Blanca; Flores, Jose-Abel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Cacho, Isabel; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Martrat, Belén; Grimalt, Joan

2014-05-01

353

Alloparental Care and Auntie Behaviour in a Male Kalahari Lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758  

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Full Text Available Aspects of behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo consisting of a five year old male, a four year old male and female sibling pair and a male and female cub, held in a 500 ha enclosure, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Due to their continued contact since birth, the male and female sibling pair developed a strong bond and spent 57% of their time together, co-operating and sharing resources. At the arrival of the cubs, this association did not change and as a result, the male was included in all the activities between the female and cubs. He demonstrated great patience with them and took custody of them when darting procedures took place. On two separate occasions, he secured meat for them and defended the carcass while they fed. This type of egalitarianism, alloparenting and auntie roles has been described for females of the same pride, but males have never exhibited such behaviour. The behaviour may lie in kin selection or may be for agonistic buffering, reducing aggression from the older male.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

354

Location and removal of deslorelin acetate implants in female African lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Contraception is necessary to manage zoo animal populations and to be able to house animals in groups without producing additional unwanted offspring. In felids and canids, an association between exposure to progestins and the occurrence of endometrial and mammary gland pathology has been documented. Therefore, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Wildlife Contraceptive Center recommends the use of deslorelin acetate for long-term contraception in carnivores. Return to cyclicity after deslorelin treatment has been variable; some individuals show ovarian suppression for long periods after the expected end of the deslorelin efficacy. In an attempt to reduce the time to reversal, techniques to locate and remove previous implants are being developed. This report documents the successful implementation of high-frequency ultrasonography in lions (Panthera leo) to locate and direct surgical removal of multiple deslorelin implants placed at least 2 yr previously as well as the return of follicular activity in both females at 7 months post-removal of implants. PMID:25000706

Moresco, Anneke; Dadone, Liza; Arble, Jason; Klaphake, Eric; Agnew, Dalen W

2014-06-01

355

Cistos peribiliares em leão-africano (Panthera leo) / Peribiliary cysts in an African lion (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritos os achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos de cistos peribiliares em uma fêmea adulta de leão-africano (Panthera leo). Macroscopicamente, todos os lobos hepáticos continham numerosos cistos preenchidos por líquido translúcido. Histologicamente, os cistos estavam localizados no hilo he [...] pático e nos tratos portais. Os cistos eram revestidos internamente por epitélio simples, constituído por células colunares ou cuboidais e não mucinosas, de acordo com avaliação para ácido periódico de Schiff/azul alciano. Na imuno-histiquímica, todas as células desse epitélio foram positivas para citoceratina. O leão morreu de complicações relacionadas a um carcinoma pulmonar e não foram observadas alterações clínicas associadas à lesão hepática, comprovando que cistos peribiliares em leões também ocorrem não associados a sinais clínicos. Abstract in english The gross and histopathological aspects of peribiliary cysts in an adult African lioness (Panthera leo) are described. Grossly, all hepatic lobes contained numerous cysts filled with translucent fluid. Histologically it was observed that the cysts were located in the hepatic hilum and in the portal [...] triads. Periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue stains, revealed the cysts to be lined by simple, non-mucinous, cuboidal or columnar epithelium. In immunohistochemistry staining all cells comprising this epithelium were positive for cytokeratin. The lioness died due to complications stemming from a pulmonary carcinoma and no clinical signs related to the hepatic lesion were observed, demonstrating that also in lions the peribiliary cysts occur as non-clinical disease associated lesions.

Ricardo B., Lucena; Rafael A., Fighera; Claudio S. L., Barros.

356

Pollutant lead deposition in the Gulf of Lions over the last century reconstructed from sedimentary records  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigation of the transient evolution of pollutant lead deposition to the Mediterranean are limited by the lack of continuous records. Indeed, most studies are restricted to limited periods (a few days to a few months) that do not allow a precise monitoring of the marine response to anthropogenic input. We have collected 6 cores sediment cores as part of the MATER ECC program in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) to reconstruct high resolution pollutant lead deposition over the past century. We coupled pollutant Pb inventories along with isotopic tracers (excess 210Pb and stable lead isotopes). The mean anthropogenic lead inventory is equal to 101±17 ?g/cm2, in good agreement first with lead inventories already calculated in this area, and with the atmospheric fallout over the nearby continental area (as estimated from saltmarsh cores in Camargue. Transient pollutant Pb deposition evidences significant patterns with an increase from 1900 to mid-70's that is consistent with anthropogenic regional emissions. The recent anthropogenic decrease in Pb input is also in agreement with trends in anthropogenic emissions. This decrease in sedimentary inventories is of the same order of magnitude than the atmospheric decrease evidenced by direct measurements , i.e. 31?12% in sediments and 30% in the atmosphere at the Cap Ferrat for the period 1986-1992. Marine margin sediments appear here as relevant proxies to reconstruct past environmental contaminreconstruct past environmental contaminations over the past century owing to the use of several efficient tracers

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Energy intake, energy expenditure, and reproductive costs of female wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Callitrichid females are often described as energetically constrained. We examined the energy budgets of 10 female wild golden lion tamarins (GLTs, Leontopithecus rosalia) in an effort to understand how energy intake and expenditure might influence physical condition and therefore reproductive performance. We used focal animal sampling to record behavioral data and conducted energy analyses of foods consumed by GLTs to estimate intake and expenditure. We used two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare intake in the reproductive vs. nonreproductive period and expenditure in the reproductive vs. nonreproductive period. Energy intake decreased during the reproductive period compared to the nonreproductive period. While total expenditure did not vary significantly across the two periods, females spent more time and therefore expended significantly more energy engaged in energetically inexpensive behaviors (i.e., sleeping or being stationary) during the reproductive period compared to the nonreproductive period. We suggest that reproductive female GLTs may adopt a reproductive strategy that includes high intake prior to pregnancy and lactation, and energy conservation during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:17044004

Miller, Kimran E; Bales, Karen L; Ramos, Jadir H; Dietz, James M

2006-11-01

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Social and reproductive factors affecting cortisol levels in wild female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid hormone cortisol has been associated with different levels of "stress" as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproductive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) females, whose social structure is characterized by low aggression and high social support, would not show rank ("stress")-related differences in glucocorticoids but would show reproductive changes. We collected 710 fecal samples from 22 adult females in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil, and nearby reintroduction areas, and assayed them for cortisol. Differences in cortisol levels were found between different reproductive conditions. Females in the first trimester of pregnancy had lower cortisol levels than nonpregnant females, although we did not differentiate between basal and ovulating levels in nonpregnant females. Cortisol rose in the third trimester of pregnancy. Primiparous females had a higher rise in the third trimester than multiparous females. No differences in cortisol levels were found among dominant females, ovulatory subordinate females, or anovulatory subordinate females. These results are similar to those obtained in other studies of callitrichid females. The lack of differences in cortisol excretion between dominants and subordinates is likely due to the low levels of overt aggression and the high level of social support available to subordinate females. PMID:16163718

Bales, Karen L; French, Jeffrey A; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dietz, James M

2005-09-01

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Metacognitive-like information seeking in lion-tailed macaques: a generalized search response after all?  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has demonstrated that Old World primates (both apes and monkeys) seek information about the location of a hidden food item, unless they are privy to the hiding process. This has been cited as evidence of metacognition. However, these results could also be interpreted using non-metacognitive accounts, including a generalized search response to uncertainty, in which subjects reach for food when it is seen, or search for food until it is spotted. In the present research, lion-tailed macaques were tested on an object-choice task. Conditions varied with respect to the visibility of the baiting process, and whether the location of the hidden food could be inferred by logical exclusion. Additionally, the hidden food could be located visually before a choice was made, by peering under the objects through a Plexiglas tray. Across conditions, monkeys consistently looked for the food when it had not been seen, even if its location could be inferred, despite the fact that these monkeys are capable of inference by exclusion. This suggests that apparently 'metacognitive' information seeking in monkeys may instead reflect a generalized search strategy. Alternatively, it is possible that monkeys only have metacognitive access to certain types of knowledge, including that obtained visually. Results are discussed with respect to the likelihood of metacognition in this species and the evolutionary emergence of metacognition across species. PMID:24913068

Marsh, Heidi L

2014-11-01

360

Isolation and identification of aromatic compounds in Lion's Mane Mushroom and their anticancer activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceum) is a traditional edible mushroom widely used in culinary applications and as an herbal medicine in East Asian countries. In the present study, two new aromatic compounds, hericerin A (1) and isohericenone J (5), along with five known compounds, isoericerin (2), hericerin (3),