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1

Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL, being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL. In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL. Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki, the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is under the general protection of the habitat it lives in.

Wolf Jochen BW

2007-09-01

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Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus  

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Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

Santokh Gill

2010-05-01

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Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within ...

Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Tautz, Diethard; Trillmich, Fritz

2007-01-01

4

Stellar Sea Lion Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The phenomenon is the decline in population of western Stellar Sea Lions from 1969 to 1986, shown in a series of three images. The accompanying text describes the possible factors that may be contributing to the change in population.

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Steller Sea Lion: Analyze and Graph This Population Decline  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners will analyze Steller sea lion population trends using real data from the National Marine Mammal Laboratory's Alaska Fisheries Science Center. The objectives in this activity are to identify the differences between seals and sea lions, name factors contributing to the population decline of Steller sea lions and compare and graph Steller sea lion population numbers.

Lawrence, Lisa A.

2012-07-11

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Leptospirosis Epizootic Among California Sea Lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Leptospira species is suspected of being the etiological agent in a recent epizootic among California sea lions. The disease was condined to subadult males of the species Zalophus c. californianus. (Author)

A. W. Smith G. Migaki J. Schonewald N. A. Vedros R. C. Hubbard

1971-01-01

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50 CFR 223.202 - Steller sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-10-01 false Steller sea lion. 223.202 Section 223.202 Wildlife...Anadromous Species § 223.202 Steller sea lion. (a) General prohibitions. ...to the eastern population of Steller sea lions: (1) No discharge of...

2009-10-01

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Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

Tanabe Shinsuke

2002-12-01

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75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that...

2010-12-29

10

50 CFR Table 2 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska 2 Table 2 to Part...2 Table 2 to Part 226âMajor Stellar Sea Lion Haulout Sites in Alaska Major Steller sea lion haulout sites in Alaska are...

2010-10-01

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50 CFR Table 1 to Part 226 - Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Major Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites 1 Table 1 to Part 226 Wildlife...Table 1 Table 1 to Part 226âMajor Stellar Sea Lion Rookery Sites Major Steller sea lion rookery sites are identified in the...

2009-10-01

12

50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions...Table 4 Table 4 to Part 679âSteller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions Table 4 to Part 679âSteller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries...

2009-10-01

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Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State ?  

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A pregnant sea lion stranded in the State of Washington was found to have placentitis caused by a unique strain of Coxiella burnetii. This is the first description of coxiellosis in a sea lion and suggests that exposure to sea lions may be a risk factor for contracting Q fever.

Kersh, Gilbert J.; Lambourn, Dyanna M.; Self, Joshua S.; Akmajian, Adrianne M.; Stanton, James B.; Baszler, Timothy V.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Massung, Robert F.

2010-01-01

14

Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type. PMID:20959994

Gläser, Nele; Wieskotten, Sven; Otter, Christian; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

2011-02-01

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76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...December 13, 2010, to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the...distinct population segment of Steller sea lions or adversely modify its designated...

2011-01-12

16

75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the Bering Sea...interim final rule to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to insure that the...population segment (DPS) of Steller sea lions or adversely modify its designated...

2010-12-13

17

Sarcocystis canis associated hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) from Alaska.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcocystis canis infection was associated with hepatitis in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Intrahepatocellular protozoal schizonts were among areas of necrosis and inflammation. The parasite was genetically identical to S. canis and is the first report in a Steller sea lion, indicating another intermediate host species for S. canis. PMID:24484486

Welsh, Trista; Burek-Huntington, Kathy; Savage, Kate; Rosenthal, Benjamin; Dubey, J P

2014-04-01

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario González; Maria Paz Villanueva; Lies Debruyne; Peter Vandamme; Heriberto Fernández

2011-01-01

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario González

2011-03-01

20

Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited  

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Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p'

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
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No evidence of metabolic depression in Western Alaskan juvenile steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N?=?91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d(-1) and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

Hoopes, Lisa A; Rea, Lorrie D; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A J

2014-01-01

22

The hemocyanin of the Californian black sea hare, Aplysia vaccaria Winkler.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemocyanin of the Californian black sea hare. Aplysia vaccaria exists in solution largely as a di-decameric protein with a molecular weight of close to 8.0 x 10(6) and a sedimentation coefficient of about 92 S. Light-scattering measurements at pH 8.0, 0.1 M Tris, 0.05 M Mg2+, 0.01 M Ca2+ gave a molecular weight of 8.0 +/- 0.6 x 10(6), and scanning transmission electron microscopic determinations (STEM) gave a slightly higher particle mass of 8.49 +/- 0.41 x 10(6) daltons. Measurements using the STEM method gave a particle mass of 4.27 +/- 0.26 x 10(6) daltons for the dissociated half-molecules or decamers. Light-scattering measurements on the dissociated monomers at pH 11.1 and in 8.0 M urea gave molecular weights of 4.74 x 10(5). Sedimentation measurements in the presence of 0.01 M Mg2+ indicate that the hemocyanin of A. vaccaria is largely in the di-decameric form in the pH region from about 5.0 to 8.0. Above pH 8.0 the hemocyanin di-decamers are found to dissociate to half-molecules or decamers, followed by dissociation to dimers and monomers as the pH is increased above pH 9.0. PMID:7584828

Herskovits, T T; Edwards, M D; Hamilton, M G

1995-03-01

23

Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

2008-08-01

24

Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The transplacental transfer of organochlorines (OCs) in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was investigated by analyzing blubber samples from 20 female sea lions and their fetuses during the last trimester of pregnancy. A rapid, high-performance liquid chromatographic, photodiode-array method was used to measure blubber concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including dioxin-like congeners, as well as DDTs and hexachlorobenzene. Summed values of PCBs (sigmaPCBs), of DDTs (sigmaDDTs), and of PCB toxic equivalents (sigmaPCB TEQs) were calculated from these data. The ratios of mean blubber concentrations of fetal sigmaPCBs to maternal blubber concentrations of sigmaPCBs were 0.45 by wet weight and 0.97 by lipid weight, but these ratios varied widely among mother-fetus pairs. Mean ratios of fetal sigmaDDTs to maternal sigmaDDTs were 0.53 by wet weight and 1.12 by lipid weight. Fetuses were classified into two age groups, based on date of recovery, to examine differences in OC transfer because of gestational age. Fetal to maternal ratios for individual PCB congeners, DDT compounds, and sigmaPCBs, sigmaDDTs, and sigmaPCB TEQs were lower among premature compared with late-term fetuses. These ratios increased for both groups as the logarithmic n-octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) for each compound decreased. Linear predictions for sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in fetal blubber could be obtained using the sigmaPCB and sigmaDDT concentrations in maternal blubber, maternal and fetal blubber lipid content, maternal mass, and maternal age. Fetal TEQ was explained by maternal TEQ and maternal age. The ability to predict contaminant concentrations in fetal blubber from maternal parameters is important for developing risk assessment models for marine mammals. PMID:17269457

Greig, Denise J; Ylitalo, Gina M; Hall, Ailsa J; Fauquier, Deborah A; Gulland, Frances

2007-01-01

25

Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and [...] molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario, González; Maria Paz, Villanueva; Lies, Debruyne; Peter, Vandamme; Heriberto, Fernández.

26

The Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Hexavalent Chromium in Steller Sea Lion Lung Fibroblasts Compared to Human Lung Fibroblasts  

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In this study we directly compared soluble and particulate chromate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human (Homo sapiens) and sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) lung fibroblasts. Our results show that hexavalent chromium induces increased cell death and chromosome damage in both human and sea lion cells with increasing intracellular chromium ion levels. The data further indicate that both sodium chromate and lead chromate are less cytotoxic and genotoxic to sea lion cells than human cells, based o...

Wise, John Pierce; Wise, Sandra S.; Holmes, Amie L.; Lacerte, Carolyne; Shaffiey, Fariba; Aboueissa, Abouel-makarim

2010-01-01

27

Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Book review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

Ray Pierotti

2013-01-01

28

Digenetic trematodes in South American sea lions from southern Brazilian waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lions from the southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), were found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011. Two trematode species were found in the intestines of O. flavescens, i.e., Stephanoprora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). Ascocotyle (P.) longa reached a prevalence of 33.3% and mean intensity of 248,500, whereas S. uruguayense showed a prevalence of 4.2% and mean intensity of 202. The 2 trematode species infecting sea lions were likely transmitted by feeding on mullets, Mugil platanus, that commonly harbor heterophyid metacercariae. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. The high prevalence and mean intensity values of the 2 trematode species infecting sea lions in the present study suggest caution in human consumption of mullets and other fish, which can be infected with the metacercariae of these trematodes known to have zoonotic potential. PMID:23421418

Pereira, E M; Müller, G; Secchi, E; Pereira, J; Valente, A L S

2013-10-01

29

Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions  

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Abstract Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT) for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73). Artificial neural networks (ANN) were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20). <...

Neely Benjamin A; Soper Jennifer L; Greig Denise J; Carlin Kevin P; Favre Elizabeth G; Md, Gulland Frances; Almeida Jonas S; Janech Michael G

2012-01-01

30

Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?  

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Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California...

Lloyd-Smith James O; Greig Denise J; Hietala Sharon; Ghneim George S; Palmer Lauren; St Leger Judy; Grenfell Bryan T; Md, Gulland Frances

2007-01-01

31

Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring

2007-06-01

32

Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

WilliamGeorgeVan Bonn

2013-01-01

33

Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations  

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Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) are top predators in this unique setting and have an ess...

Bw, Wolf Jochen; Harrod Chris; Brunner Sylvia; Salazar Sandie; Trillmich Fritz; Tautz Diethard

2008-01-01

34

Traumatic brain injury, axonal injury and shaking in New Zealand sea lion pups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trauma is a common cause of death in neonatal New Zealand sea lion pups, and subadult male sea lions have been observed picking up and violently shaking some pups. In humans, axonal injury is a common result of traumatic brain injury, and can be due to direct trauma to axons or to ischaemic damage secondary to trauma. 'Shaken baby syndrome', which has been described in human infants, is characterised by retinal and intracranial subdural haemorrhages, and has been associated with axonal injury to the brain, spinal cord and optic nerve. This study identifies mechanisms of traumatic brain injury in New Zealand sea lion pups, including impact injuries and shaking-type injuries, and identifies gross lesions of head trauma in 22/36 sea lion pups found dead at a breeding site in the Auckland Islands. Despite the high frequency of such gross lesions, only three of the pups had died of traumatic brain injury. Observational studies confirmed that shaking of pups occurred, but none were shown to die as a direct result of these shaking events. Axonal injury was evaluated in all 36 pup brains using ?-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive axons were present in the brains of all pups examined including seven with vascular axonal injury and two with diffuse axonal injury, but the severity and pattern of injury was not reliably associated with death due to traumatic brain injury. No dead pups had the typical combination of gross lesions and immunohistochemical findings that would conform to descriptions of 'shaken baby syndrome'. Axonal injury was present in the optic nerves of most pups, irrespective of cause of death, but was associated with ischaemia rather than trauma. PMID:24565687

Roe, W D; Mayhew, I G; Jolly, R D; Marshall, J; Chilvers, B L

2014-04-01

35

Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion  

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Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in ...

2009-01-01

36

Methods for estimating spatial trends in Steller sea lion pup production using the Kalman filter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many species exhibit spatially varying trends in population size and status, often driven by differences among factors affecting individual subpopulations. Estimation and differentiation of such trends may be important for management, and a driving force for monitoring programs. The ability to estimate spatial differences in population trend may depend on assumptions regarding connectivity among subpopulations (stock structure or spatial overlap in stressors), information that is often poorly known. Linear state-space models using the Kalman filter were developed, tested, and applied for trend estimation of pup production for the western Alaska stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), given only count data. Models were able to estimate trends and abundance even when data were missing. Models that assumed spatial correlation in trend among rookeries were more robust to stock structure assumptions when the stock structure was potentially mis-specified. High levels of spatial correlation among rookeries estimated from Steller sea lion pup count data are consistent with large-scale covariance of population trend within the Steller sea lion metapopulation. PMID:24147416

Fay, Gavin; Punt, André E

2013-09-01

37

Drag, but not buoyancy, affects swim speed in captive Steller sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swimming at an optimal speed is critical for breath-hold divers seeking to maximize the time they can spend foraging underwater. Theoretical studies have predicted that the optimal swim speed for an animal while transiting to and from depth is independent of buoyancy, but is dependent on drag and metabolic rate. However, this prediction has never been experimentally tested. Our study assessed the effects of buoyancy and drag on the swim speed of three captive Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) that made 186 dives. Our study animals were trained to dive to feed at fixed depths (10-50?m) under artificially controlled buoyancy and drag conditions. Buoyancy and drag were manipulated using a pair of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes attached to harnesses worn by the sea lions, and buoyancy conditions were designed to fall within the natural range of wild animals (?12-26% subcutaneous fat). Drag conditions were changed with and without the PVC tubes, and swim speeds were recorded and compared during descent and ascent phases using an accelerometer attached to the harnesses. Generalized linear mixed-effect models with the animal as the random variable and five explanatory variables (body mass, buoyancy, dive depth, dive phase, and drag) showed that swim speed was best predicted by two variables, drag and dive phase (AIC?=?-139). Consistent with a previous theoretical prediction, the results of our study suggest that the optimal swim speed of Steller sea lions is a function of drag, and is independent of dive depth and buoyancy. PMID:24771620

Suzuki, Ippei; Sato, Katsufumi; Fahlman, Andreas; Naito, Yasuhiko; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Trites, Andrew W

2014-01-01

38

Cross-modal transitivity in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of an experimentally experienced female California sea lion to form transitive relations across sensory modalities was tested using a matching-to-sample procedure. The subject was trained by trial-and-error, using differential reinforcement, to relate an acoustic sample stimulus to one member from each of two previously established visual classes. Once the two auditory-visual relations were formed, she was tested to determine whether untrained transitive relations would emerge between each of the acoustic stimuli and the remaining stimuli of each 10-member visual class. During testing, the sea lion demonstrated immediate transfer by responding correctly on 89 % of the 18 novel transfer trials compared to 88 % on familiar baseline trials. We then repeated this training and transfer procedure twice more with new auditory-visual pairings with similar positive results. Finally, the six explicitly trained auditory-visual relations and the 56 derived auditory-visual relations were intermixed in a single session, and the subject's performance remained stable at high levels. This sea lion's transfer performance indicates that a nonhuman animal is capable of forming new associations through cross-modal transitivity. PMID:24337783

Lindemann-Biolsi, Kristy L; Reichmuth, Colleen

2014-07-01

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A 500 kyr record of global sea level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea level variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of Late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion which consists of five main sequences stacked during the sea level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles. The high sensitivity to sea level oscillations of the grain-size record along the borehole, favoured by the large width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, demonstrates that sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf are able to cyclically modify the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea level oscillations at millennial scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence ever for a one-to-one coupling of millennial-scale sea level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

J. Frigola

2011-12-01

40

A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

J. Frigola

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

Occupancy dynamics of South American sea-lions in Brazilian haul-outs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that the species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic. PMID:24789403

Pavanato, H; Silva, K G; Estima, S C; Monteiro, D S; Kinas, P G

2013-11-01

42

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe L [...] este da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

Artico, L.O.; Bianchini, A.; Grubel, K.S.; Monteiro, D.S.; Estima, S.C.; de Oliveira, L.R.; Bonatto, S.L.; Marins, L.F..

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Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

L.O. Artico

2010-09-01

44

Isolation of Mycobacterium bovis from baboons, leopards and a sea-lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on two series of cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection in zoo animals. The first was in a captive population of baboons (Papio hamadryas) and the second in a mixed group of wild mammals, including four leopards (Panthera uncia and Panthera pardus) and a sea-lion (Otaria byrona). The isolation and identification of strains of M. bovis confirmed the presence of M. bovis infections in both zoos. The epidemiological study using genetic markers such as the IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting system made it possible to differentiate between M. bovis strains. The M. bovis strains isolated from baboons were shown to contain a single IS6110 copy, as usually do cattle isolates, whereas the M. bovis strains isolated from the other exotic animals presented multiple copies. This finding suggests that the origin of the contamination for the baboons in zoo A could be related to cattle. The origin of the contamination for the leopards and sea-lion in zoo B is more difficult to determine. In conclusion, the authors suggest some recommendations for avoiding outbreaks of tuberculosis infections in zoos. PMID:9601152

Thorel, M F; Karoui, C; Varnerot, A; Fleury, C; Vincent, V

1998-01-01

45

PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (?PCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ?PCBs and ?PCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

2005-03-01

46

Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California sea lions that stranded alive on the California coast, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We evaluated seroprevalence among yearlings as a measure of incidence in the population, and characterized antibody persistence times based on temporal changes in the distribution of titer scores. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to determine individual risk factors for seropositivity with high and low titers. Results The serosurvey revealed cyclical patterns in seroprevalence to L. interrogans serovar Pomona, with 4–5 year periodicity and peak seroprevalence above 50%. Seroprevalence in yearling sea lions was an accurate index of exposure among all age classses, and indicated on-going exposure to leptospires in non-outbreak years. Analysis of titer decay rates showed that some individuals probably maintain high titers for more than a year following exposure. Conclusion This study presents results of an unprecedented long-term serosurveillance program in marine mammals. Our results suggest that leptospirosis is endemic in California sea lions, but also causes periodic epidemics of acute disease. The findings call into question the classical dichotomy between maintenance hosts of leptospirosis, which experience chronic but largely asymptomatic infections, and accidental hosts, which suffer acute illness or death as a result of disease spillover from reservoir species.

St Leger Judy

2007-11-01

47

Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 ?g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 ?g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

2011-01-01

48

Accumulation and maternal transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls in Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus) from Prince William Sound and the Bering Sea, Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Pacific Ocean has declined by approximately 80% over the past 30 years. This led to the listing of this sea lion population as an endangered species in 1997. Chemical pollution is a one of several contributing causes. In the present study, 145 individual PCBs were determined in tissues of male sea lions from Tatitlek (Prince William Sound) and St. Paul Island (Bering Sea), and placentae from the Aleutian Islands. PCBs 90/101, 118, and 153 were abundant in all the samples. The mean toxic equivalents (TEQ) were 2.6, 4.7 and 7.4 pg/g lw in the kidney, liver, and blubber samples, respectively. The mean TEQ in placentae was 8 pg/g lw. Total PCBs concentrations (2.6-7.9 {mu}g/g lw) in livers of some males were within a range known to cause physiological effects. Further suggesting the possibility of adverse effects on this stock. - PCBs at median concentrations of 1.2-3.7 {mu}g/g lipid weight in different tissues of the western stock of Steller sea lions have physiological effects.

Wang Jun; Huelck, Kathrin [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hong, Su-Myeong [National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Atkinson, Shannon [University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences Juneau Center, 17101 Pt. Lena Loop Road, Juneau, AK 99801 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.ed [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2011-01-15

49

Lesions associated with a novel Mycoplasma sp. in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

From July 1999 to November 2001, Mycoplasma sp. was cultured from lesions in 16 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. The Mycoplasma sp. was the likely cause of death of four animals in which it was associated with either pneumonia or polyarthritis. The most common lesion associated with this bacterium was subdermal abscessation, found in 12 animals. Other lesions included intramuscular abscesses, septic arthritis, and lymphadenopathy. Infection was associated with a leukocytosis and left shift in 12 animals. Animals with abscesses improved clinically after surgical lancing, irrigation, and systemic antibiotic therapy. The mycoplasma isolates had a consistent 16S rRNA sequence dissimilar from other Mycoplasma spp. and represent a novel species, Mycoplasma zalophi proposed sp. nov. PMID:16699147

Haulena, Martin; Gulland, Frances M D; Lawrence, Judith A; Fauquier, Deborah A; Jang, Spencer; Aldridge, Brian; Spraker, Terry; Thomas, Linda C; Brown, Daniel R; Wendland, Lori; Davidson, Maureen K

2006-01-01

50

Budget and residence time of {sup 210}Pb along the Gulf of Lion`s continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Concentration of {sup 210}Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion`s continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk {sup 210}Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of {sup 210}Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of {sup 210}Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for {sup 210}Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of {sup 210}Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the {sup 210}Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author) 12 refs.

Abassi, A.; Radakovitch, O.; Heussner, S.; Monaco, A. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Sedimentologie et Geochimie Marines

1997-12-31

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High Nutrient Transport and Cycling Potential Revealed in the Microbial Metagenome of Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) Faeces  

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Metagenomic analysis was used to examine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) gut microbiome. Bacteria comprised 98% of classifiable sequences and of these matches to Firmicutes (80%) were dominant, with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria representing 8% and 2% of matches respectively. The relative proportion of Firmicutes (80%) to Bacteriodetes (2%) is similar to that in previous studies of obese humans and obese mice, suggesting the gut...

Lavery, Trish J.; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin; Mitchell, James G.; Jeffries, Thomas

2012-01-01

52

The Marine Mammal Brain Game: Students Compare the Brains and Behaviors of Dolphins, Sea Lions, and Manatees in This Unique Standards-Based Activity  

Science.gov (United States)

Dolphins, manatees, and sea lions are all aquatic mammals but are not closely related taxonomically. All three species are marine mammals, meaning they spend part or all of their lives in the sea and contiguous bodies of water. Dolphins belong to the taxonomic order Cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Manatees (sea cows),…

Demetrikopoulos, Melissa K.; Morris, Lee G.; Fobbs, Archibald J., Jr.; Johnson, John I.

2005-01-01

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In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus  

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Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

Tanja S. Zabka

2008-06-01

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Risk factors associated with perianesthetic mortality of stranded free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with perianesthetic mortality of stranded free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) undergoing rehabilitation. Hospital records of California sea lions that underwent heavy sedation or general anesthesia from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed, including records from 419 anesthetic events. Procedures that resulted in death during or in the subsequent 72 hr of anesthesia were classified as cases (n = 15). Procedures in which the animal survived were classified as controls (n = 334). Procedures that resulted in euthanasia (n = 70) were removed from subsequent analysis. The following risk factors were reviewed: gender, age class, health status, duration of anesthetic period, atropine premedication, induction protocols, maintenance protocols, and history of prior anesthesia. The prevalence of fatalities during anesthesia was 3.4% (n = 12) over the 5-yr period. With the inclusion of animals that died within 72 hr after anesthesia, the total mortality prevalence rose to 4.3% (n = 15). The most common time of death was during anesthetic maintenance. Health status was the single best predictor of anesthetic outcome, and sea lions premedicated with atropine had increased odds of anesthetic-related death. PMID:22779225

Stringer, Elizabeth M; Van Bonn, William; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Gulland, Frances M D

2012-06-01

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Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Steller sea lion pups (Eumetopias jubatus) from western Alaska and the Russian Far East.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigations into the cause of the Steller sea lion population decline have focused on numerous factors, including exposure to toxic contaminants such as organochlorines (OCs). OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, or dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), have been associated with various biological effects in marine mammals. We measured these compounds in whole blood of free-ranging Steller sea lion pups in order to determine the extent and magnitude of contamination across their geographical range. Of 212 pups analyzed for OCs, 76 pups (36 females and 40 males) were from western Alaska and the other 136 (63 females and 73 males) were from the Russian Far East. Concentrations of summation SigmaPCBs in the whole blood of pups from western Alaska ranged from 0.21 to 13 ng/g wet weight with a mean of 2.1+/-0.27 ng/g wet weight. In the Russian animals, summation SigmaPCB concentrations in the whole blood of pups ranged from 0.33 to 36 ng/g wet weight with a mean of 4.3+/-0.44 ng/g wet weight. summation SigmaDDT concentrations in the whole blood of pups from western Alaska ranged from 0.18 to 11 ng/g wet weight with a mean of 1.6+/-0.23 ng/g wet weight. In Russia, summation SigmaDDT in the whole blood of pups ranged from undetectable to 26 ng/g wet weight with a mean of 3.3+/-0.36 ng/g wet weight. Average OC concentrations were significantly higher in the blood of Russian animals compared to western Alaska (for PCBs and DDTs, pPCBs and DDTs pPCBs p=0.009) as were female pups for summation SigmaDDT levels between areas (for DDTs p=0.026). OC contaminants data indicate that Steller sea lion pups have measurable concentrations of these synthetic chemicals. While any physiological effect and the specific role these chemicals may have in either the decline or the failure of the endangered Steller sea lion population to recover needs to be further investigated, this study indicates specific areas and animals that may be most at risk. PMID:18384839

Myers, Matthew J; Ylitalo, Gina M; Krahn, Margaret M; Boyd, Daryle; Calkins, Don; Burkanov, Vladimir; Atkinson, Shannon

2008-06-15

56

Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently no reliable markers of acute domoic acid toxicosis (DAT for California sea lions. We investigated whether patterns of serum peptides could diagnose acute DAT. Serum peptides were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry from 107 sea lions (acute DAT n = 34; non-DAT n = 73. Artificial neural networks (ANN were trained using MALDI-TOF data. Individual peaks and neural networks were qualified using an independent test set (n = 20. Results No single peak was a good classifier of acute DAT, and ANN models were the best predictors of acute DAT. Performance measures for a single median ANN were: sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60%; positive predictive value, 71%; negative predictive value, 100%. When 101 ANNs were combined and allowed to vote for the outcome, the performance measures were: sensitivity, 30%; specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 59%. Conclusions These results suggest that MALDI-TOF peptide profiling and neural networks can perform either as a highly sensitive (100% negative predictive value or a highly specific (100% positive predictive value diagnostic tool for acute DAT. This also suggests that machine learning directed by populations of predictive models offer the ability to modulate the predictive effort into a specific type of error.

Neely Benjamin A

2012-03-01

57

Development, comparison, and validation using ELISAs for the determination of domoic acid in California sea lion body fluids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortalities of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) attributed to the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia have occurred repeatedly along the U.S. west coast since the late 1990s. Quantifying the amount of DA in these animals and correlating this information with the presence of DA in phytoplankton and the local food web has become a research focus for many scientists. However, differences in materials, equipment, technical capability, budgets, and objectives of the various groups and/or agencies involved in this work have influenced the DA quantification platforms used. The goal of the present study was to compare the performance of two commercially available ELISAs for the determination of DA in a spectrum of California sea lion body fluids and to compare the results with LC/MS of the same samples. The results indicated differences among these approaches, presumably owing to matrix effects (particularly urine) and antibody reactivities. This information implies that care should be taken in attempting to compare datasets generated using different analytical platforms and interpreting the results of published studies. PMID:24830146

Seubert, Erica L; Howard, Meredith D A; Kudela, Raphael M; Stewart, Thomas N; Litaker, R Wayne; Evans, Richard; Caron, David A

2014-01-01

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JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800 IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU  

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Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

Davis Cortegana-Arias

2012-12-01

59

Variable Nucleotide Tandem-Repeat Analysis Revealing a Unique Group of Leptospira interrogans Serovar Pomona Isolates Associated with California Sea Lions?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona isolates were compared by variable nucleotide tandem-repeat typing. Most cattle isolates grouped together, while isolates from pigs and wildlife were distributed across several groups. Significantly, California sea lion isolates formed a unique group, providing evidence that these animals are maintenance hosts of serovar Pomona.

Zuerner, Richard L.; Alt, David P.

2009-01-01

60

Foraging strategies of Southern sea lion females in the La Plata River Estuary (Argentina-Uruguay)  

Science.gov (United States)

The stocks of Southern sea lions (Otaria flavescens, SSL) and South American fur seals (SAFS) that breed on coastal islands of Uruguay constitute the most important focal concentration of pinnipeds in South America, with a significant increase in SAFS and a steady decrease of SSL over the past decades. Because females are a key element of population dynamics and no information exists on the post-breeding pup rearing period, we studied the foraging patterns of SSL females in the La Plata River Estuary (LPRE) during mid and late lactation (late austral autumn and winter), analyzing the foraging performance, geographic coverage and ontogenetic differences in foraging strategies for a period of 1-5 months. At-sea movements of 22 SSL females (6 subadults and 16 adults) from Isla de Lobos (IL, 35°01'28"S-54°52'59"W, Uruguay) were monitored using satellite transmitters (SPOT4, SPOT5 and STDR-S16, Wildlife Computers) in 2007 and 2010. An algorithm [McConnell, B.J., Chambers, C., Fedak, M.A., 1992. Foraging ecology of southern elephant seals in relation to the bathymetry and productivity of the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci. 4, 393-398.] with a maximum transit speed of 3 m s-1 was applied to the Argos information, resulting in a total of 2522 filtered locations. A daily mean of 3.5±1.74 filtered locations per animal was received. One hundred and eighty three foraging trips (FT) were recorded with no significant differences (p<0.05) between subadults and adults in the duration of FT (6.1±3.15 day), distance traveled per FT (237.2±105.25 km), mean distance from IL (57.2±25.90 km), maximum straight line (Spider) distance (100.2±41.40 km) and transit speed (1.1±1.04 m s-1). SSL showed directional fidelity to foraging sites, indicated by high mean vector (r) values (0.74±0.14) calculated from FT mean bearings. Kernel ranges for 50% and 95% of all FT locations were 5420 km2 and 36,222 km2, respectively, and the extension of the foraging areas appeared to be influenced by a combination of bathymetry and ecological boundaries within LPRE. Regardless of their reproductive condition, females showed a strong fidelity to IL, and their foraging activity was restricted to relatively shallow areas (10-100 m) on the continental shelf. During autumn and winter, SSL females made significantly longer FTs than during the breeding season, when lactating females decrease FT duration by increasing transit speed but maintain a similar spatial coverage compared with FT later in lactation. Although several aquatic areas of high priority for conservation in LPRE have been identified and proposed, only 15% of the foraging habitat of SSL females is currently included in these areas. This emphasizes the importance of the inclusion of the at-sea foraging distributions of central point foragers in marine protected areas. If conservation efforts focus only on coastal breeding concentrations, key elements of the life cycle are excluded with potential unpredictable effects.

Rodríguez, Diego H.; Dassis, Mariela; Ponce de León, Alberto; Barreiro, César; Farenga, Marcelo; Bastida, Ricardo O.; Davis, Randall W.

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

North-Atlantic Oscillation and regional-scale sea-surge variability in Gulf of Lions during the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sea-surge variations recorded at three tide-gauge stations (Grau-de-la-Dent, Sète, and Port-Vendres) around the Gulf of Lions (Northwest Mediterranean Sea) are mostly locally forced by onshore winds blowing from 90° to 180° related to an atmospheric depression usually centered between the Bay of Biscay and the British Island, which is more prevalent during the negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the second half of the 20th century, the long-term increase of sea-s...

Ullmann, Albin; Moron, Vincent

2010-01-01

62

Coupled atmosphere-ocean-wave simulations of a storm event over the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The coastal areas of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea are one of the most challenging places for ocean forecasting. This region is exposed to severe storms events that are of short duration. During these events, significant air-sea interactions, strong winds and large sea-state can have catastrophic consequences in the coastal areas. To investigate these air-sea interactions and the oceanic response to such events, we implemented the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport Modeling System simulating a severe storm in the Mediterranean Sea that occurred in May 2010. During this event, wind speed reached up to 25 m.s-1 inducing significant sea surface cooling (up to 2°C) over the Gulf of Lion (GoL) and along the storm track, and generating surface waves with a significant height of 6 m. It is shown that the event, associated with a cyclogenesis between the Balearic Islands and the GoL, is relatively well reproduced by the coupled system. A surface heat budget analysis showed that ocean vertical mixing was a major contributor to the cooling tendency along the storm track and in the GoL where turbulent heat fluxes also played an important role. Sensitivity experiments on the ocean-atmosphere coupling suggested that the coupled system is sensitive to the momentum flux parameterization as well as air-sea and air-wave coupling. Comparisons with available atmospheric and oceanic observations showed that the use of the fully coupled system provides the most skillful simulation, illustrating the benefit of using a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave model for the assessment of these storm events.

Renault, Lionel; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Warner, John C.; Gomez, Marta; Vizoso, Guillermo; Tintore, Joaquin

2012-01-01

63

Age-related change and distribution of cadmium and zinc concentrations in the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubata) from the coast of Hokkaido, Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tissue cadmium and zinc levels in Steller sea lions have been analysed to elucidate the body distribution of these metals and their age-related accumulation. A significant correlation between age (0.7-8.8 year old) and renal and hepatic cadmium concentration was noted. Of the tissues examined, the kidney manifested the highest cadmium content (mean: 20.9 ..mu..g g/sup -1/ dry wt). A similar zinc distribution pattern was observed; its concentration was more uniform among tissues than that of cadmium. The tissue cadmium concentration in the Steller sea lion was lower than in other pinnipeds from various areas, possibly due to their feeding habits which may represent a major pathway of metal accumulation.

Hamanaka, T. (Hokkaido Univ., Japan); Itoo, T.; Mishima, S.

1982-02-01

64

Predation on an Upper Trophic Marine Predator, the Steller Sea Lion: Evaluating High Juvenile Mortality in a Density Dependent Conceptual Framework  

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The endangered western stock of the Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) – the largest of the eared seals – has declined by 80% from population levels encountered four decades ago. Current overall trends from the Gulf of Alaska to the Aleutian Islands appear neutral with strong regional heterogeneities. A published inferential model has been used to hypothesize a continuous decline in natality and depressed juvenile survival during the height of the decline in the mid-late 1980's, follow...

Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-ann E.

2012-01-01

65

Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA hypotheses using a dataset on Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). We statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea surface temperature, SST, a correlate of marine productivity) at three developmental stages, the perinatal phase (1st month), the main lactation period (1st year), and the weaning period (2nd year). Supporting the FM hypothesis, we found that, early in life (1st month), at equal birth mass, males survived less well than females. During the remainder of the first year of life, male survival was actually less sensitive to harsh environmental conditions than that of females, contradicting the FM hypothesis and supporting the MBA hypothesis. During the second year of life, only male survival suffered with high SSTs as predicted by the FM hypothesis. At each developmental stage, observed survival rates were almost equal for both sexes, suggesting that mothers buffer against the inherent fragility of male offspring through increased allocation, thereby masking the differences in survival prospects between the sexes. PMID:23053230

Kraus, C; Mueller, B; Meise, K; Piedrahita, P; Pörschmann, U; Trillmich, F

2013-04-01

66

Serum chemistry reference ranges for Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups from Alaska: stock differentiation and comparisons within a North Pacific sentinel species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood chemistry and hematologic reference ranges are useful for population health assessment and establishing a baseline for future comparisons in the event of ecosystem changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. The objectives of this study were to determine if there was any population spatial structure for blood variables of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus), an established sentinel species, and to report reference ranges for appropriate populations using standardized analyses. In addition to comparing reference ranges between populations with contrasting abundance trends, data were examined for evidence of disease or nutritional stress. From 1998 to 2011, blood samples were collected from 1,231 pups captured on 37 rookeries across their Alaskan range. Reference ranges are reported separately for the western and eastern distinct population segments (DPS) of Steller sea lion after cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis (DFA) supported underlying stock structure. Variables with greater loading scores for the DFA (creatinine, total protein, calcium, albumin, cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase) also were greater for sea lions from the endangered western DPS, supporting previous studies that indicated pup condition in the west was not compromised during the first month postpartum. Differences between population segments were likely a result of ecological, physiological, or age related differences. PMID:24419664

Lander, Michelle E; Fadely, Brian S; Gelatt, Thomas S; Rea, Lorrie D; Loughlin, Thomas R

2013-12-01

67

Oxidative stress and redistribution of glutamine synthetase in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress and glutamine synthetase (GS) redistribution occur in domoic acid (DA) toxicosis in California sea lions (CSLs, Zalophus californianus). Sections of archived hippocampi from seven control and 13 CSLs diagnosed with DA toxicosis were labelled immunohistochemically for GS and for two markers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT). The distribution and intensity of labelling were compared with the pathological changes seen in haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Increased expression of MDA and NT occurred in neurons of the hippocampal formation of CSLs with lesions consistent with DA toxicosis. The degree of oxidative stress was not affected significantly by the chronicity or severity of hippocampal damage. In six out of seven CSLs with chronic effects of DA toxicosis, in addition to the normal glial distribution of GS, GS expression was very strong in some neurons of the subiculum. However, neuronal GS labelling was also seen in one control CSL, an effect that may have been due to previous exposure to DA. GS expression in neurons was associated with decreases in GS labelling in neighbouring glial cell processes. DA toxicosis therefore induces increased expression of markers of oxidative stress in neurons consistent with oxidative stress contributing to the initial DA insult and also the epilepsy that often develops in chronic DA toxicosis. GS redistribution occurred primarily in chronic DA toxicosis, perhaps leading to alterations of the glutamine-glutamate-GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) cycle and contributing to the excitotoxicity and seizures often seen in DA toxicosis. PMID:24060152

Madl, J E; Duncan, C G; Stanhill, J E; Tai, P-Y; Spraker, T R; Gulland, F M

2014-01-01

68

The effect of organohalogen contaminants on western Steller sea lion survival and movement in the Russian Far East.  

Science.gov (United States)

The western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) have experienced dramatic declines since the 1960s, particularly in the western Alaskan and Asian portions, which have continued to decline or stabilized at low levels. Multiple causes for this decline have been proposed and may include anthropogenic contamination from organohalogen contaminants (OCs). These include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), which have not been ruled out as a potential cause for the lack of recovery. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of OCs on survival and movement probabilities estimated in program MARK using resighting data collected from 2003 to 2009. PCBs and DDTs were measured in whole blood from 136 (74 males and 62 females) individually marked, free-ranging pups from four Russian Far East rookeries. The mean concentration of ?PCB and ?DDT was 4.25±5.12 and 3.22±4.28ngg(-1) ww (n=136), respectively, and the average ?PCB and ?DDT concentration for those above the aggregate mean (n=44) was 9.25±6.55 and 7.65±5.21ngg(-1) ww, and those below the aggregate mean (n=92) the concentration was 1.86±0.89 and 1.11±0.65ngg(-1) ww, respectively. The lowest estimated probabilities of survival occurred in the first year, ranging from 38% to 74%, but increased for ages 1-9, ranging from 82% to 94%. The greatest movement occurred from Medny Island west toward the Kamchatka Peninsula (33%) and to Bering Island (18%), and low movement estimates for other natal rookeries was largely due to minimal resighting effort. The estimated probabilities of resighting varied by location (48%-87%), but had greater precision than survival or movement parameters. Survival and movement were most affected by age and location rather than OCs. PMID:24887189

Zaleski, Adam; Atkinson, Shannon; Burkanov, Vladimir; Quinn, Terrance

2014-08-15

69

Applicability of Single-Camera Photogrammetry to Determine Body Dimensions of Pinnipeds: Galapagos Sea Lions as an Example  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal’s body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6%) and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%). Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%). In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance.

Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

2014-01-01

70

Especies de la familia Enterobacteriaceae en heces de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens establecido en el río Valdivia / Species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in feces of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens settled in the Valdivia River  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english This study aims to establish the isolation frequency of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of South American common sea lion (Otaria flavescens). Thirty fecal samples were collected from the resting ground of an urban sea lions colony in Valdivia, southern Chile. The bacteria [...] species and their isolation frequencies were Edwarsiella tarda (73%), Escherichia coli (70%), Hafnia alvei (33%), Morganella morganii (7%), Proteus mirabilis (7%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. pneumoniae (3%), Serratia rubidea (3%), Providencia rustigianii (3%) and Citrobacter braakii (3%).

González-Fuentes, Mario; Latif, Fadua; Fernández, Fabiola; Villanueva, María P; Ulloa, Jorge; Fernández, Heriberto.

71

Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (EXCEDE sterile suspension) administered via intramuscular injection in wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (EXCEDE Sterile Suspension, 200 mg ceftiofur equivalents/ml) were determined for the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). A single dose of EXCEDE was administered intramuscularly at 6.6 mg/kg to 12 wild California sea lions during rehabilitation. The first 10 animals were each assigned to two blood collection time points, with a total of 10 time points at: 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after administration of the drug. An additional two animals were sampled 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 hr postinjection. Plasma was separated within 10 min of blood collection and stored at -20 degrees C until analysis. Plasma concentrations of ceftiofur, desfuroylceftiofur, and related metabolites, were determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Maximum plasma concentrations of ceftiofur and related metabolites were observed 24 hr postdosing with a mean concentration of 3.6 microg/ml. The half life (60 hr) and area under the curve (270 microg x hr/ml) were also determined. These data indicate that a single dose of EXCEDE at 6.6 mg/kg i.m. would likely maintain a mean plasma drug level >0.6 microg/ml for 5 days and >0.5 microg/ml for 8 days. PMID:24063100

Meegan, Jenny; Collard, Wendy T; Grover, G Scott; Pussini, Nicola; Van Bonn, William G; Gulland, Frances M D

2013-09-01

72

Effects of the 1997-1998 El Niño and 1998-1999 La Niña events on breeding waterbirds and sea lions in the Upper Gulf of California, México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 1998 and 1999 I monitored waterbirds nesting on Isla San Jorge, at La Purinera and on Isla Montague, in the northern Gulf of California, as well as sea lions on Isla San Jorge. During El Niño the brown boobies on San Jorge ceased breeding and left the island, coinciding with an influx of several thousand blue-footed boobies. El Niño conditions coincided with an increase in the numbers of nesting least, elegant, and royal terns and black skimmers on Montague. Double-crested cormorants on San Jorge, least terns on La Purinera, and snowy egrets, black-crowned night-herons, laughing gulls, and gull-billed terns on Montague did not seem affected by this event. Sea lions at San Jorge about doubled their number, but the number of pups did not increase. La Niña conditions coincided with a return to population levels before El Niño in all these species. During 1999 Heermann’s gulls and Brandt’s cormorants nested on San Jorge. Heermann’s gulls had stopped breeding there long ago, and Brandt’s cormorants had never been know to nest there.

Eric Mellink

2003-04-01

73

Post-glacial persistence of turbiditic activity within the Rhone deep-sea turbidite system (Gulf of Lions, Western Mediterranean): Linking the outer shelf and the basin sedimentary records  

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Emplacement of post-glacial turbidites is commonly controlled by rapid changes in sea level or by seismicity. On the continental rise of the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean), an aseismic area, we identified turbiditic beds deposited during the rising stage and highstand of sea level. Swath bathymetry, sediment cores, in situ Cone Penetrating Tests (CPTU), heavy mineral associations and radiocarbon dating determined the source, composition, distribution and age of the turbiditic beds. Tur...

2009-01-01

74

Lifting a Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

"Students will work in groups to solve a real-world problem presented by the book: How Do You Lift A Lion? Using a toy lion and a lever, students will discover how much work is needed to raise the toy lion. They will use proportions to determine the force needed to lift a real lion" from TI World Math.

Instruments, Texas

2012-08-03

75

Lion lifestyle logic  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most puzzling things about lion lifestyles is that lion populations in the Serengeti stay pretty much the same size for years and then suddenly get larger or smaller. Understanding what causes lion populations to grow and shrink should be important for protecting the lions, since these animals are also threatened by human activities.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2005-01-21

76

Assessment of mercury and selenium tissular concentrations and total mercury body burden in 6 Steller sea lion pups from the Aleutian Islands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of total mercury ([THg]) and selenium ([TSe]) were measured in several tissue compartments in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups; in addition we determined specific compartment and body burdens of THg. Compartmental and body burdens were calculated by multiplying specific compartment fresh weight by the [THg] (summing compartment burdens equals body burden). In all 6 pup tissue sets (1) highest [THg] was in hair, (2) lowest [THg] was in bone, and (3) pelt, muscle and liver burdens contributed the top three highest percentages of THg body burden. In 5 of 6 pups the Se:Hg molar ratios among compartments ranged from 0.9 to 43.0. The pup with the highest hair [THg] had Se:Hg molar ratios in 9 of 14 compartments that were ?0.7 potentially indicating an inadequate [TSe] relative to [THg]. PMID:24661459

Correa, Lucero; Rea, Lorrie D; Bentzen, Rebecca; O'Hara, Todd M

2014-05-15

77

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae en la costa de Chile central  

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Full Text Available The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375 were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites. After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375 en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas. Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio.

MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA

2011-03-01

78

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile / Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales s [...] e basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375) en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas). Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on pho [...] tographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.

MARITZA, SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS, OLIVA; ALEJANDRA, URRA; MARÍA J, PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ; RODRIGO, MORAGA; DANIEL, SCHRADER; PATRICIA, INOSTROZA; ANGELA, MELO; HUMBERTO, DÍAZ; WALTER, SIELFELD.

79

Isotopic tracing of anthropogenic Pb inventories and sedimentary fluxes in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead stable isotopes have been analyzed in 24 box-cores (0-50 cm) from various transects across the Gulf of Lions. Lead concentrations (23-85 ppm) and isotopic signatures ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.174-1.188) in surficial sediments clearly show the impact of pollutant lead that constitutes 22-80% of the lead accumulated in the first centimeter of these cores. This anthropogenic input is clearly distinct from the natural detrital lead, which comes with more radiogenic signatures ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.195-1.233). This makes stable lead measurements a useful complement to 210Pb or other radioactive tracers in studies of sedimentology and hydrodynamics in coastal environments. Comparison of riverine and atmospheric deposition with lead accumulated in the sediment cores indicates that the Rhône particulate input dominates the lead inventories in the continental shelf sediments. The total pollutant lead accumulated in the Gulf of Lions for the past century amounts to 84,000±18,200 tons. The accumulation of pollutant lead in the surficial sediments is in excess of the riverine and tropospheric input estimated from the literature. This may result from overestimation of pollutant lead accumulation on the continental self, due to insufficient sampling in this region and/or from an additional input from boundary scavenging of lead advected by the Liguro-Provençal current over the shelf.

Ferrand, Jean-Luc; Hamelin, Bruno; Monaco, André

1999-01-01

80

Aislamiento de Plesiomonas shigelloides y Aeromonas veronii biotipo sobria en heces de lobo marino común sudamericano, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) / Isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) feces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. are Gram negative bacteria vastly distributed in the environment, being isolated from aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial and marine animals. The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is the most frequent marine mammal of the Chilean coasts, living in [...] beaches, rocks or coastline of rivers. In this work we determined the isolation frequency of P. shigelloides and A. veronii biotype sobria in fecal samples of South American sea lions belonging to a colony established at the urban South coastline of Valdivia River, southern Chile. From the 30 samples under study, P. shigelloides was isolated in 27 (90.0%) and A. veronii biotype sobria in 17 (56.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of P. shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. from South American sea lions in Chile. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these bacteria play any role in producing disease, or are merely commensals, in these marine mammals.

González, Mario J; Villanueva, María P; Latif, Fadua; Fernández, Fabiola; Fernández, Heriberto.

 
 
 
 
81

Occupancy dynamics of South American Sea-Lions in Brazilian Haul-outs / Dinâmica de Ocupação do Leão-Marinho-do-Sul no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ao longo da costa do Brasil apenas duas colônias não-reprodutivas de leões-marinhos-do-sul (Otaria flavescens) são conhecidas: Ilha dos Lobos e Molhe Leste, ambas localizadas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A maioria dos leões-marinhos observados nestas colônias sã [...] o machos adultos e sub-adultos. Supõe-se que a presença da espécie nestas áreas está relacionada ao forrageamento e a ausência de cuidado parental pelos machos. Este estudo analisou a dinâmica de ocupação e abundância de O. flavescens nas colônias não-reprodutivas entre 1993 e 2002, baseado em uma série temporal de dados de contagens de indivíduos. Modelos lineares generalizados mistos Bayesianos foram usados para avaliar diferença na abundância entre áreas, tendência de uso em longo prazo e padrões sazonais. Os resultados mostram que a abundância de O. flavescens variou sazonalmente, atingindo pico intra-anual em agosto (Ilha dos Lobos) e outubro (Molhe Leste), acompanhado de um aumento da ocupação média dos refúgios ao longo do período de estudo. A nova aplicação desta poderosa forma de modelagem estatística mostrou-se útil para quantificar a dinâmica de ocupação. Abstract in english Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that t [...] he species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

Pavanato, H.; Silva, KG.; Estima, SC.; Monteiro, DS.; Kinas, PG..

2013-11-01

82

Composition and provenance of terrigenous organic matter transported along submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous projects in the Gulf of Lion have investigated the path of terrigenous material in the Rhone deltaic system, the continental shelf and the nearby canyon heads. This study focuses on the slope region of the Gulf of Lion to further describe particulate exchanges with ocean’s interior through submarine canyons and atmospheric inputs. Nine sediment traps were deployed from the heads to the mouths of Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus submarine canyons and on the southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. Sediment trap samples were analyzed by CuO oxidation to investigate spatial and temporal variability in the yields and compositional characteristics of terrigenous biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols and cutin acids. Sediment trap data show that the Dense Shelf Water Cascading event that took place in the months of winter 2006 (January, February and March) had a profound impact on particle fluxes in both canyons. This event was responsible for the majority of lignin phenol (55.4%) and cutin acid (42.8%) inputs to submarine canyons, with lignin compositions similar to those measured along the mid- and outer-continental shelf, which is consistent with the resuspension and lateral transfer of unconsolidated shelf sediment to the canyons. The highest lithogenic-normalized lignin derived phenols contents in sediment trap samples were found during late spring and summer at all stations (i.e., 193.46 ?g VP g-1 lithogenic at deep slope station), when river flow, wave energy and total particle fluxes were relatively low. During this period, lignin compositions were characterized by elevated cinnamyl to vanillyl phenol ratios (>3) at almost all stations, high p-coumaric to ferulic acid ratios (>3) and high yields of cutin acids relative to vanillyl phenols (>1), all trends that are consistent with high pollen inputs. Our results suggest marked differences in the sources and transport processes responsible for terrigenous material export along submarine canyons, mainly consisting of fluvial and shelf sediments during winter and atmospheric dust inputs during spring and summer.

Pasqual, Catalina; Goñi, Miguel A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

83

Budget and residence time of 210Pb along the Gulf of Lion's continental slope (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentration of 210Pb has been measured in water and sediment trap samples collected on 7 experimental sites representative of the Gulf of Lion's continental margin. This marine system is characterised by a major continental input through the Rhone river and a powerful along-slope cyclonic current (Northern Current). From the distribution of bulk 210Pb activities, it was intended to gain some information on the processes controlling the transport of trace metals at the ocean/continent boundary. Residence times of 210Pb relative to scavenging in surface waters (0-100 m) showed a constant along-slope (i.e., downstream) decrease that can be related to increasing concentrations in suspended particles. Annual time-series of 210Pb activities in settling particles were determined on samples collected by traps at 500 and 1000 m depth. From this data set, a budget for 210Pb on this margin was established which permitted to determine the flux of 210Pb theoretically adsorbed onto particles. This theoretical flux was compared, at each site, with fluxes effectively measured by traps and revealed that exchange processes - mainly in the form of large inputs of this nuclide (import of 47 to 93% of measured flux) - largely affect the 210Pb distribution on this continental margin. (author)

1996-10-07

84

Transformation of PBDE mixtures during sediment transport and resuspension in marine environments (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion were studied. They were largely predominated by BDE 209 (98.7% of all PBDEs) indicating that the main source of these pollutants was the commercial mixture deca-BDE. This compound and the less brominated BDE exhibited a southwestward decreasing concentration gradient following the dominant marine currents and bottom relief, e.g. the Mud Belt, the submarine canyons and the Open Continental Slope. All PBDEs exhibited statistically significant correlations confirming the common origin. However, a progressive transformation of the dumped BDE 209 was identified showing a depletion paralleled by increases of the less brominated BDEs (from 8.6% to 22%). These less brominated compounds were accumulated at about 100–140 km away from the Rhone prodelta, e.g. at the end of the submarine canyons, evidencing that these transformation compounds can be accumulated at long distances from the dumping sites in the marine system. Highlights: ? Polybromodiphenyl ethers are associated to organic carbon in marine sediments. ? PBDEs in marine sediments can accumulate further away than 140 km from the spill site. ? BDE-209 in marine sediments generate congeners found in banned commercial mixtures. ? BDE-209 in marine sediments generates new congeners not found in commercial mixtures. ? Submarine canyons channel PBDEs from the continental platform to the deep shelf. - Decomposition of decabromodiphenyl ether in marine sediments generates congeners found in banned mixtures in areas located far away from the discharge sites.

2012-09-01

85

A California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) can keep the beat: motor entrainment to rhythmic auditory stimuli in a non vocal mimic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is the ability to entrain motor activity to a rhythmic auditory stimulus, that is "keep a beat," dependent on neural adaptations supporting vocal mimicry? That is the premise of the vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis, recently advanced to explain the basis of this behavior (A. Patel, 2006, Musical Rhythm, Linguistic Rhythm, and Human Evolution, Music Perception, 24, 99-104). Prior to the current study, only vocal mimics, including humans, cockatoos, and budgerigars, have been shown to be capable of motoric entrainment. Here we demonstrate that a less vocally flexible animal, a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), can learn to entrain head bobbing to an auditory rhythm meeting three criteria: a behavioral response that does not reproduce the stimulus; performance transfer to a range of novel tempos; and entrainment to complex, musical stimuli. These findings show that the capacity for entrainment of movement to rhythmic sounds does not depend on a capacity for vocal mimicry, and may be more widespread in the animal kingdom than previously hypothesized. PMID:23544769

Cook, Peter; Rouse, Andrew; Wilson, Margaret; Reichmuth, Colleen

2013-11-01

86

Tuberculosis in African lions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, resulting in bovine tuberculosis (BTB). This chronic, debilitating disease can affect multiple organs, particularly the lungs, and may ultimately lead to death of the infected animal. Cases of lion BTB have been described in zoological collections as well as in free-ranging lion populations, where M. bovis prevalence may be as high as 79%. Practical limitations complicate current BTB testing of free-ra...

Maas, M.

2013-01-01

87

Mortality among health-conscious elderly Californians.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to obtain epidemiologic evidence regarding the mortality rate among vitamin supplement users, a prospective study was made of 479 elderly Californian respondents to a 1974 questionnaire carried in Prevention, a health magazine that advocates vitamin supplement usage. Based on self-reported questionnaire data obtained in 1974 and 1977, this cohort does indeed consume large quantities of vitamin and mineral supplements. In addition, the cohort is quite health conscious and appears...

Enstrom, J. E.; Pauling, L.

1982-01-01

88

Presencia de cepas diarreogénicas de Escherichia coli y estudio de genes de virulencia en aislados desde fecas de dos poblaciones de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens en el norte de Chile / Presence of diarrheagenic strains of Escherichia coli and virulence genes study in isolates from feces of two populations of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens in Northern Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english This research analyzed the effect of fecal contamination caused by sewage, and its relationship with the presence of enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli in the feces of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) from Iquique Bay and surrounding waters. The E. coli strains isolated from th [...] e water column of the bay and sewage outlet, showed the presence of the gene eae. In the strains isolated from the feces of both sea lion colonies no presence of virulent diarrheagenic genes was detected. The genotyping of strains resulted in clusters according to their origin and showed separation of the samples of E. coli population of the colonies of sea lions and those of the strains isolated from the column water of Iquique Bay.

Salinas C, Paula; Moraga M, Rubén; Santander P, Edgardo; Sielfeld K, Walter.

89

The Californian power crisis; Die kalifornische Stromkrise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article analyses systematically the causes behind the power crisis, structural conditions at the time, as well as some developments which were wilfully induced by some market participants. Although it is not conceivable that a similarly disastrous situation will happen in West European countries, Europe may well learn from the Californian experience. (orig./CB) [German] In dem Artikel werden die ausloesenden Ursachen fuer die Krise, die strukturellen Randbedingungen und von einigen Marktteilnehmern z.T. bewusst herbeigefuehrte Entwicklungen systematisch analysiert. Wenn gleich in Westeuropa eine aehnliche Katastrophe nicht denkbar ist, so kann Europa doch aus den kalifornischen Erfahrungen lernen. (orig./CB)

Haas, R.; Auer, H. [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Arbeitsgruppe Energiewirtschaft; Shioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

2001-05-01

90

Lion Attacks on Humans Increase in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

... its estimated 25,000 lions. To compound the problem, populations of the lion's preferred prey ... the lions close to the humans. The consequences are often deadly--for the human, the lion or both ...

91

La explotación histórica del lobo marino de California no causó un cuello de botella genético en el Golfo de California / Past exploitation of California sea lions did not lead to a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La explotación humana puede causar cuellos de botella genéticos asociados con una variabilidad genética reducida y menor aptitud. La población del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) en el Golfo de California, México, fue objeto de una explotación prolongada durante los siglos XIX y X [...] X que pudo haber causado un cuello de botella genético. Sin embargo, la explotación que deriva tamaños poblacionales bajos no siempre causa cuellos de botella genéticos. El conocimiento de las consecuencias genéticas de la caza del lobo marino de California es crítico para la conservación de la población del Golfo de California, que está en declive y es genéticamente distinta de otras poblaciones. En este estudio usamos una base de datos de 10 marcadores polimórficos de microsatélite amplificados en 355 individuos pertenecientes a seis colonias mexicanas. Estos datos fueron analizados con diversos métodos (BOTTLENECK y razón M) para determinar si ocurrió un cuello de botella genético. Nuestros resultados indican que la explotación histórica del lobo marino no causó un cuello de botella genético en la población del Golfo de California; sin embargo, las simulaciones sugieren que si la población hubiese sido reducida a menos de 100 individuos sí hubiésemos detectado una reducción de la variabilidad genética. Con base en estos resultados concluimos que la explotación histórica de esta población no fue tan intensa como se pensaba previamente y, por tanto, no causó un cuello de botella genético. No obstante, la explotación se concentró en machos adultos y este sesgo podría haber afectado la dinámica poblacional de estas colonias y su aptitud general. Abstract in english Human exploitation can lead to genetic bottlenecks associated with reduced genetic variability and lower fitness. The population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, was hunted during the 19th and 20th centuries, potentially leading to a genetic bottlen [...] eck; however, even exploitation that leads to low population sizes does not always cause genetic bottlenecks. Understanding the genetic consequences of past sea lion hunts is critical to the conservation of the Gulf of California sea lion population, which is currently declining and is genetically distinct from other populations. We used available data from 10 amplified polymorphic microsatellite loci in 355 individuals from six Mexican colonies. Microsatellite data were analyzed using diverse approaches (BOTTLENECK and M-ratio) to determine if a genetic bottleneck had occurred. Our results indicate that human exploitation did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the sea lion population of the Gulf of California. Simulation analyses revealed that a reduction in genetic variability would have been detected if fewer than 100 individuals had remained after exploitation. We conclude that past exploitation was not as severe as previously thought and did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California sea lion population. Nevertheless, historical hunts specifically targeted adult males and this sex-biased exploitation may have influenced the population dynamics and overall fitness.

González-Suárez, M; Aurioles-Gamboa, D; Gerber, LR.

92

Eventos reproductivos del león marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), en el norte de Chile (Pacífico suroriental) / Reproductive events of southern sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), in the north of Chile (eastern south Pacific)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios sobre el desarrollo de la temporada de reproducción del león marino común han sido largamente realizados en poblaciones de Uruguay y Argentina, Atlántico suroriental, disponiéndose de escasa información en Perú y Chile. El objetivo de esta contribución es dar a conocer el desarrollo de la t [...] emporada de reproducción del león marino del sur, durante dos períodos consecutivos en la lobera de Punta Negra, norte de Chile. El desarrollo de los eventos reproductivos en la lobera de Punta Negra presentó una sincronización anual, extendiéndose desde la tercera semana de diciembre hasta mayo, con un clímax de los eventos reproductivos en febrero, siendo la dinámica del período de reproducción similar a la informada para otras colonias estudiadas, aunque con un desfase en el tiempo en contraste con las poblaciones de la costa atlántica. Se concluye que el desarrollo de los eventos durante ambas temporadas de reproducción presentó una alta sincronización anual, con un desfase promedio de 2,0 - 2,5 días, pudiendo ser generalizada como representativa para la zona norte de Chile, en el Pacífico suroriental Abstract in english Studies on the development of the breeding season of southern sea lions have been carried out primarily in populations from Uruguay and Argentina, western south Atlantic; scarce information has been published from populations of Peru and Chile. The objective of this contribution is to describe the d [...] evelopment of the breeding season of the southern sea lion, during two consecutive seasons in the area of Punta Negra, north of Chile. The development of the reproductive events in the Punta Negra colony presented a high annual synchronization, extending from the third week of December till May, with a climax of the reproductive events in February, being the dynamics during the breeding period similar to that informed for other colonies, although with an out of fase in the breeding season with the Atlantic populations of sea lion. We conclude that the development of the reproductive events during the both breeding seasons presented a high annual synchronization, with an average out of fase of 2.0-2.5 days, being representative for most of the northern area of Chile, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean

Acevedo R, Jorge; Aguayo-Lobo, Anelio; Sielfeld K, Walter.

93

Upwelling in the Gulf of Lions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hydrological and meteorological characteristics of the Gulf of Lions are such that upwelling occurs with no bias due to tides or strong longshore circulation. The sky is generally cloud-free, an uncommon feature in an upwelling area that allows extensive use of satellite infrared data. The observations are adequate to compute mean maps of the sea-surface temperature during upwelling events. Undoubtedly upwelling is much more intense along straitght coastal segments 10 to 20 km long that n...

Millot, Claude; Wald, Lucien

1981-01-01

94

Lion roars: Cluster observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars are intense narrow-band electromagnetic emissions with typical frequencies about 100 Hz. They propagate in the whistler mode in the Earth's magnetosheath. It has been suggested that local electron temperature instabilities are responsible for generation of lion roars. The four CLUSTER spacecraft provide us with complex measurements of the plasma parameters in a vicinity of the Earth. We have found about 5000 time-frequency intervals containing the lion roar emissions during years 2001 and 2005 from the STAFF-SA instrument (a spectral analyser of the three magnetic and two electric components). In this paper we will present a statistical study of their spatial, frequency and wave power distributions. We have frequently observed more intense emissions on the day side. We have found that the lion roars are more frequent on the dawn side than on the dusk side of the magnetosheath. We have also investigated the orientation of the wave-vectors of Lion roars calculated from measured spectral matrices using the singular value decomposition method.

Krupar, Vratislav; Santolik, Ondrej; Maksimovic, Milan; Soucek, Jan

2010-05-01

95

Seals, Sea Lions, and Walruses  

Science.gov (United States)

A classroom resource for grades 4-8 lessons on these pinnipeds. Guide is complete with background materials (for students and teacher), goals and objectives, a glossary, 9 classroom activities, and a bibliography for obtaining additional resources. Can also serve as a basic introduction to pinnipeds for higher grade levels.

96

Diet plasticity of the South American sea lion in Chile: stable isotope evidence / Plasticidad de la dieta del lobo marino común en Chile: evidencia mediante isótopos estables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Estudios de dieta del lobo marino común (LMC) en Chile sugieren que esta especie es un depredador oportunista y generalista, cuya dieta varía dependiendo de la distribución de las especies presas y de las variaciones espacio-temporales en la abundancia de dichas presas. Sin embargo, estos estudios h [...] an sido esporádicos, limitados espacialmente y basados en análisis de contenidos estomacales, lo que no permite un análisis integral de la composición de la dieta y de sus potenciales diferencias espacio-temporales. En este estudio se analizó la composición de la dieta del LMC en 3 zonas geográficas de la costa chilena utilizando los isótopos estables de ?13C y ?15N en muestras de pelo y piel. En la zona norte las principales especies consumidas fueron los peces Isacia conceptionis (19,5%) de acuerdo al análisis de piel y Cilus gilberti (23,3%) en análisis de pelo; en la zona centro lo fueron Thyrsites atun (40,1%) en piel y Strangomera bentincki (31,1%) en pelo; mientras que en la zona sur especies de peces pelágicos (como T. atun y Trachurus murphyi, 20,8%) en piel y salmones de cultivo (20,7%) en pelo. Estas diferencias demuestran que el LMC muestra cambios espaciales en la composición de su dieta. Variaciones entre tejidos, así como con lo registrado en estudios previos, sugiere que esta especie es capaz de adaptarse a variaciones, tanto intra como inter-anuales, de la presencia/ausencia de sus presas. Abstract in english Diet studies of the South American sea lion (SASL) in Chile suggest that this species is an opportunistic and generalist predator whose diet varies depending on the distribution of prey species and spatial and temporal variations in the abundance of these dams. However, these studies have been spora [...] dic, geographically limited and based on stomach content analysis, which does not allow an integral analysis of the composition of the diet of this species and its potential spatial and temporal variability. In this study we analyzed the diet of the SASL in 3 geographic zones of the coast of Chile using analysis of stable isotopes ?13C and ?15N on hair and skin tissues. In the northern zone, the main prey species consumed by SASL were Isacia conceptionis (19.5%) for skin and Cilus gilberti (23.3%) for hair; in the central zone were Thyrsites atun (40.1%) for skin and Strangomera bentincki (31.1%) for hair, whereas in the southern zone the main species were pelagic fish (such as T. atun and Trachurus murphyi, 20.8%) for skin and farm-raised salmonids (20.7%) for hair analysis. These differences indicate variation in the composition of its diet. Variations between the analyzed tissues and also with previous studies suggest that this species is capable of adapting to intra- and inter-annual variations in the presence/absence of its prey.

Lily, Muñoz; Guido, Pavez; Renato A, Quiñones; Doris, Oliva; Macarena, Santos; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

97

77 FR 41181 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Massachusetts...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...EL12-83-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert...1978 (PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd,...

2012-07-12

98

75 FR 66744 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...EL10-84-001] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas...CFR 385.215, CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (Complainant)...

2010-10-29

99

75 FR 54618 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Southern...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...EL10-84-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE) v. Pacific Gas...2010), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (Complainant)...

2010-09-08

100

Mac OS X Lion Simplified  

CERN Document Server

Simply the easiest way for visual learners to get up and running with Mac OS X Lion OS X Lion is the latest version of the Mac desktop operating system, offering cool new features for more than 25 million Mac OS X users. For visual learners who are switching to a Mac, upgrading from an earlier OS, or just getting started with computers, Mac OS X Lion Simplified provides all the necessary information in the simplest way possible. Task-based spreads provide step-by-step instructions with full color illustrations that show exactly how to accomplish a wide variety of tasks with Mac OS X Lion.Looks

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Magnetospheric lion roars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate normally of 128 Hz. The high sampling rate for the first time allows detection of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dawnside magnetosphere. The characteristics of these waves are virtually identical to the lion roars typically seen at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves. The magnetospheric lion roars are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.2 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is nearly always smaller than 1°.

Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and instabilities; plasma waves and instabilities

W. Baumjohann

102

Magnetospheric lion roars  

Science.gov (United States)

The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate normally of 128 Hz. The high sampling rate for the first time allows detection of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dawnside magnetosphere. The characteristics of these waves are virtually identical to the lion roars typically seen at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves. The magnetospheric lion roars are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.2 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is nearly always smaller than 1°.

Baumjohann, W.; Georgescu, E.; Fornacon, K.-H.; Auster, H. U.; Treumann, R. A.; Haerendel, G.

2000-04-01

103

Impact of winter storms on sediment erosion in the Rhone River prodelta and fate of sediment in the Gulf of Lions (North Western Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study a three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed. The model accounts for both current and wave forcing on the sediment and was implemented over the Gulf of Lions. A two-way nesting technique was used to focus on the Rhone River prodelta which is considered as a sink for riverine sediment. In addition, to understand the resuspension of trapped sediment over the Rhone prodelta, an in situ experiment, called SCOPE, was conducted during the winter 2007-2008. The experiment consisted of measuring hydro-sedimentary parameters using a mooring station comprising a current profiler (ADCP) and an altimeter (acoustic transducer) located in the eastern part of the Rhone prodelta. The three-dimensional transport model was validated using these data, and used to investigate the effect of sediment dynamics at the prodelta and Gulf of Lions scale. Both modelling and data analysis highlighted the impact of the two strong storms from the south-east which characterised the experimental period. Erosion of bed material (about 2 cm) and an increase in suspended material (up to about 50-100 mg/l) in the water were the result of each storm as recorded at the mooring station. The erosion capacity due to waves, combined with a strong current, due to both wind and wave forcing, resulted in strong south-westward export over the whole prodelta. Each storm was responsible for an off-prodelta export estimated at around 2.1 Mt. This study demonstrates that the Rhone River sediments trapped over the Rhone prodelta are subject to strong resuspension during episodic events.

Dufois, François; Verney, Romaric; Le Hir, Pierre; Dumas, Franck; Charmasson, Sabine

2014-01-01

104

First record of a neonate California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico / Primer registro de un lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) neonato en Manzanillo, Colima, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el primer reporte de un lobo marino de California recién nacido cerca de Manzanillo, Colima, México, cerca de 900 km al sur de las colonias reproductivas más sureñas reconocidas para la especie. El avistamiento ocurrió en playa La Boquita el 25 de junio de 2011 y durante los 2 días posterior [...] es. Se registraron valores de temperatura superficial del mar que resultaron ser los más bajos (21-24° C) en la región, similares a los de áreas de alimentación de lobo marino en el sur del golfo de California en invierno (~20.9° C). Las hembras dan a luz en verano, después presentan un ciclo de alimentación alternado con la atención a sus crías por lo que permanecen cerca de sus colonias, donde alimentan a sus crías por 1 año aproximadamente. Por esta razón, las áreas de alimentación de las hembras se encuentran confinadas a un radio de unos 30 km alrededor de las colonias. Esta relación entre alimentación y reproducción provoca que estos nacimientos atípicos sean importantes, ya que proveen conocimiento acerca de patrones individuales de desplazamiento, proporcionando elementos nuevos para el análisis del estado de la especie y su conservación. Abstract in english We present the first report of a neonate California sea lion near Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, about 900 km from the southernmost breeding colonies recognized for the species. The sighting occurred June 25th, 2011, and during the 2 following days, in La Boquita beach. Near the site of the sighting, s [...] ea surface temperature (SST) was recorded. SST values were some of the lowest recorded in the region (21-24° C), similar to the ones typically recorded in feeding areas in the southern Gulf of California in winter (~20.9° C). California sea lion females give birth in summer and stay close to their colonies where they feed their young during approximately one year. Thus, their feeding areas tend to be confined within a radius of about 30 km from their colonies. This close relationship between breeding and feeding make extralimital births important; the increasing knowledge regarding travel patterns of individuals may provide better ways to analyze the species status and its future conservation.

Christian D., Ortega-Ortiz; Fernando, Elorriaga-Verplancken; Leslie, Rodríguez-Téllez; Aramis, Olivos-Ortiz; Juan Heberto, Gaviño-Rodríguez.

105

Productiv Index of Meat Rabbits of White New Zealand Breed Californian and their Crossbreeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researches had been held at the rabbits farm of STE Maximovca on the rabbits of White New Zealandand Californian meat breeds, crossbreds of the first generation received after the breeding (?White NewZealand x ? Californian and ?Californian x ? White New Zealand. After the rabbits slaughtering fromfour analysed groups, there was established the received meat quantity after the carcass boning ofcrossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian which was 80.1±0.2%, and the same analysed indexat crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand was 77.0±0.1%. The total amount of ratiobone/meat in the carcass there was received at crossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian whichwas 1:4.05, and at crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand this index was 1:3.38.

Macari Angela

2012-10-01

106

Bacterial isolates from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) admitted to a rehabilitation center along the central California coast, 1994-1995.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2 yr of bacteriologic culturing of 297 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 154 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and 89 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) stranded alive along the California coast, the most frequent isolates from inflammatory lesions in live animals were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus viridans, Listeria ivanovii, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp., and Enterococcus spp. This is the first report of L. ivanovii isolation from a marine mammal. The common isolates from lung and liver in animals dying during rehabilitation were E. coli, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Proteus spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. The most common isolates from brain were Enterococcus spp., E. coli, Klebsiella spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Ocular lesions were seen most often in harbor seals and elephant seals, from which the isolates cultured included Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus viridans, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Moraxella spp., beta-hemolytic Streptococcus spp., and L. ivanovii. Nine different Salmonella serotypes were isolated from 49 animals; S. newport was the most common. These results should enable those working clinically with these species to make logical decisions in choosing initial antimicrobial therapy. PMID:9732032

Thornton, S M; Nolan, S; Gulland, F M

1998-06-01

107

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anoplura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur.The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the existent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

A Crovetto

2008-01-01

108

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

2000-03-01

109

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) / First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anop [...] lura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur. Abstract in english The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the exis [...] tent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

Crovetto, A; Franjola, R; Silva, R.

110

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile / Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océan [...] o Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales Abstract in english The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Sou [...] theastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillae

GEORGE-NASCIMENTO, MARIO; URRUTIA, XIMENA.

111

Magnetosheath lion roars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lion roars, which are intense packets of electromagnetic waves characteristically found in the magneosheath, have been studied. On the basis of these observations, several possible wave generation mechanisms are examined. Landau resonance is considered to be an unlikely source because this mechanism requires a substantial component of the wave electric field paralle to B, and the observation that the waves propagate along the ambient field is contrary to this requirement. It is not obvious that electron cyclotron resonance is responsible, because the field magnitude decreases should cause T/sub parallel//T/sub perpendicular/ to increase, and this rise could lead to wave damping rather than wave growth. A model which is consistent with all the observations of this study is a proton cyclotron overstability involving 10-keV protons streaming through the magnetosheath. It appears possible that the streaming protons could produce both the waves and the field decreases and that all three would be coincident

1976-05-01

112

Magnetosheath lion roars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lion roars, which are intense packets of electromagnetic waves characteristically found in the magneosheath, have been studied. On the basis of these observations, several possible wave generation mechanisms are examined. Landau resonance is considered to be an unlikely source because this mechanism requires a substantial component of the wave electric field paralle to B, and the observation that the waves propagate along the ambient field is contrary to this requirement. It is not obvious that electron cyclotron resonance is responsible, because the field magnitude decreases should cause T/sub parallel//T/sub perpendicular/ to increase, and this rise could lead to wave damping rather than wave growth. A model which is consistent with all the observations of this study is a proton cyclotron overstability involving 10-keV protons streaming through the magnetosheath. It appears possible that the streaming protons could produce both the waves and the field decreases and that all three would be coincident. (AIP)

Smith, E.J.; Tsurutani, B.T.

1976-05-01

113

Seasonal variation in the abundance of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) in Chañaral Island, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile / Variación estacional de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) en Isla Chañaral, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Desde enero de 2007 y hasta marzo de 2008 se analizó la variación de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la lobera reproductiva Isla Chañaral, de acuerdo al sexo, clase de edad y estación reproductiva. El mayor número de lobos marinos en la lobera se registró durante el período [...] reproductivo. Esta variación se debió principalmente a la fluctuación del número de hembras, ya que esta clase de edad fue la más importante en la colonia y mostró un aumento en su abundancia durante este período. No se registraron fluctuaciones estacionales en el número de machos adultos, machos subadultos y juveniles. La proporción de sexos durante la estación reproductiva estuvo fuertemente sesgada hacia las hembras, mientras que fue cercana a 1:1 durante el resto del año. Este estudio demuestra que la variación en la abundancia y composición por sexo y clase de edad del lobo marino común en Isla Chañaral se relaciona principalmente con la actividad reproductiva. Abstract in english From January 2007 to March 2008, we examined variation in the abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens in Chañaral Island breeding colony by sex, age-class, and reproductive seasonality. The number of sea lions on land was highest during the breeding season. This variation was main [...] ly influenced by the number of adult females, because this age class was the most important in the colony and showed an increase in abundance during this period. No seasonal variation in the number of adult males, subadult males, and juveniles was detected. The sex ratio during the breeding season was highly biased towards females, while it was close to 1:1 during the rest of the year. This study demonstrates that variation in the abundance and sex/age class composition of sea lions at Chañaral Island colony is largely influenced by reproductive activity.

Sepúlveda, Maritza; Inostroza, Patricia; Pérez-Alvarez, M. José; Oliva, Doris; Moraga, Rodrigo.

114

Seasonal variability of the organic matter in a sedimentary coastal environment: sources, degradation and accumulation (continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions—northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal variations of the superficial (0-1 cm) sedimentary organic matter were studied at a depth of 26 m on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean). The samples were analyzed for total organic carbon, coarse organic carbon (>40 ?m), hydrolyzable organic carbon, nitrogen, total amino acids, total and individual sugars (HPLC), lignin-derived compounds (HPLC) and kerogens (acid-soluble, humic substances and humin). Seasonal variations of the organic compounds are related to the sedimentological, hydrodynamical and physico-chemical environmental conditions. The mean annual values of the different organic compounds analyzed show the low quantities and their evolved character at the sediment-water interface: 0.5% total org C (TOC) (d.w.), 0.049% N (d.w.), C/N: 11.2, coarse org C (COQ: 62% of TOC, hydrolyzable org C: 45% TOC. The labile compounds represent a low percentage of the total organic matter (TOM), amino-acids: 12% of TOM and sugars: 5% of TOM. The relative proportions of soluble (humic) and insoluble kerogens (humin), respectively 6% and 94% of TOC are typical of a highly evolved organic matter. The large contribution of plant remains confirmed by the high proportion of COC, corresponds to a low proportion of humic substances and a high degree of condensation ( H/C = 1.3 ). The infrared spectroscopy determination of the functional groups of the humic substances permits us to confirm both autochtonous (marine) and allochtonous (terrestrial) sources of organic matter in the Têt prodeltaïc accumulation area. Numerous functional groups identified reveal the fresh quality of the organic inputs at the sediment-water interface. Aliphaticity is well marked and nitrogenous compounds (1 and 2 amines) correspond to autochtonous production (in spring: phyto- and zoo-planktonic blooms in the euphotic zone; in summer: primary production under the thermocline and phytobenthic blooms). Sugars are well represented, but from two origins: phytoplanktonic, and issue from terrestrial high plants (ligno-cellulosic complexes). The aromatic functional groups are well identified (aromatic ether, phenol) as are the markers of a large contribution of terrestrial organic matter. The active hydrodynamical (resuspension) and biological, (consumption, bioturbation) events participate in the frequent reworking of the superficial deposits (muddy-silts) and, consequently, the active degradation (oxidization) of the organic matter. The more labile organic matter is rapidly consumed by the intense biological benthic activity. The organic C content is low (0.5% d.w.) except during the autumnal input (2.5% d.w.). This input (8 cm thick) disappears one month later, because of the resuspension induced by littoral currents. This same phenomenon induces during all the year the reworking of the first centimeter of the deposit. In terms of budget of the carbon cycle in the coastal area, this active hydrodynamical environment shows the supremacy of the carbon degradation over its burial.

Buscail, Roselyne; Pocklington, Roger; Germain, Claire

1995-06-01

115

78 FR 2390 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Pacific Gas and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...EL13-32-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company...FERC), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M. Sarvey (Complainants) filed a complaint...

2013-01-11

116

78 FR 2393 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...QF03-80-003] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public Utilities Commission...PURPA), CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc.; Michael E. Boyd; and Robert M. Sarvey filed a petition requesting the...

2013-01-11

117

78 FR 2391 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...RP13-436-000] CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice...FERC); CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, and Robert M. Sarvey (Complainants), filed a...

2013-01-11

118

77 FR 40878 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey, v. California Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...EL12-82-000] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert...1978 (PURPA), Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd,...

2012-07-11

119

76 FR 44901 - Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert M. Sarvey v. California Public...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket...EL11-52-000] Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc., Michael E. Boyd, Robert...July 12, 2011, Californians for Renewable Energy, Inc. (CARE), acting on...

2011-07-27

120

'Lion and man' : upper and lower bounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given a lion and a man, their initial position, and restrictions on their ranges and speeds, how quickly can the lion get within a given distance from the man? We consider the case in which the lion and man are restricted to the interior of a circle and each is limited to the same speed

Alonso, Laurent; Goldstein, Arthur S.; Reingold, Edward M.

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Lion King Surveys Homeland  

Science.gov (United States)

This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows one octant of a larger panoramic image which has not yet been fully processed. The full panorama, dubbed 'Lion King' was obtained on sols 58 and 60 of the mission as the rover was perched at the lip of Eagle Crater, majestically looking down into its former home. It is the largest panorama yet obtained by either rover. The octant, which faces directly into the crater, shows features as small as a few millimeters across in the field near the rover arm, to features a few meters across or larger on the horizon. The full panoramic image was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. This enhanced color composite was assembled from the infrared (750 nanometer), green (530 nanometer), and violet (430 nanometer) filters. Additional lower elevation tiers were added relative to other panoramas to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic.

2004-01-01

122

Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhône river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea).  

Science.gov (United States)

The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhône freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhône river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on (137)Cs, (106)Ru, (60)Co, (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (<450 nm) OC and 25% of dissolved Fe and Al exported towards the sea. Within the dissolved (< 450 nm) phase, these colloidal compounds are shown to account for the transport of 40% for both Co and Ru, 60% for (238)Pu and (239+240)Pu and have no significance on (137)Cs flux. PMID:14972410

Eyrolle, Frédérique; Charmasson, Sabine

2004-01-01

123

Importance of colloids in the transport within the dissolved phase (<450 nm) of artificial radionuclides from the Rhone river towards the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean Sea)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The significance of colloidal fractions regarding the transport of artificial radionuclides in natural water systems is underlined by using sequential ultrafiltration both in the Rhone freshwater and the marine area under and outside the influence of the river outflow. Indeed, the Rhodanian aquatic system represents an interesting test site as various artificial radionuclides are released into the Rhone river by several nuclear installations. We focused our study on {sup 137}Cs, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 60}Co, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu. Our results show that Fe, Al and Organic carbon (OC) are the main components of colloidal matter. Colloids represent about 15% of dissolved (<450 nm) OC and 25% of dissolved Fe and Al exported towards the sea. Within the dissolved (< 450 nm) phase, these colloidal compounds are shown to account for the transport of 40% for both Co and Ru, 60% for {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239+240}Pu and have no significance on {sup 137}Cs flux.

Eyrolle, Frederique E-mail: frederique.eyrolle@irsn.fr; Charmasson, Sabine

2004-07-01

124

Comparación de los patrones conductuales del lobo marino común en época reproductiva y no reproductiva / Comparison of behavioral patterns of South American sea lions between breeding and non-breeding seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se han descrito tácticas reproductivas para machos y hembras en sistemas reproductivos poligínicos, dentro de las cuales, una respuesta conductual sexo-específico sería esperable para maximizar el ixito reproductivo. El presente estudio da cuenta de un seguimiento conductual del lobo marino común Ot [...] aria flavescens durante la época reproductiva (ER) y no reproductiva (ENR) en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Lobería Cobquecura, Chile central. Se registraron patrones conductuales de machos, hembras, juveniles y crías entre mayo de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. Los machos presentaron mas registros de conductas asociadas a agresión, desplazamiento y reconocimiento durante ER, mientras que la conducta descanso fue mayor durante ENR. Hembras y juveniles presentaron mayores registros de reconocimiento durante ENR mientras que las otras categorías conductuales no presentaron diferencias entre ER y ENR. Las conductas agresivas por parte de los machos así como las relacionadas al cuidado parental por parte de las hembras podrían ser estrategias conductuales desarrolladas por ambos sexos para asegurar la viabilidad poblacional. Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de los patrones conductuales reproductivos de la especie y forma parte de uno de los seguimientos conductuales reproductivos mas continuos desarrollados en la actualidad en el lobo marino común. Dado que el estudio se realiza en un area protegida dentro del marco legal de Santuario de la Naturaleza, los resultados expuestos serán de utilidad para futuras comparaciones con loberas reproductivas afectadas por actividad antrópica. Abstract in english In a polygynous mating system males and females have different reproductive strategies; so it is expectable that both sexes have evolved different reproductive behavioral responses to maximize their reproductive success. We analyze the behavior of different sex/age classes of Otaria flavescens durin [...] g breeding (BS) and non-breeding seasons (NBS) at a Nature Sanctuary breeding colony, central Chilean coast. From May 2008 to December 2009 data of males, females, juveniles and pups were recorded. Males performed more aggression, locomotion and recognizing behaviors during the BS, while they mostly rested during the NBS. Females and juveniles performed more recognizing behavior in the NBS, while the other behavior categories did not show differences between the NBS and the BS. As reproductive behavioral strategies, male aggression and maternal care may increase the overall population viability. This study contributed to a better understanding of the reproductive behavior patterns of this species based on what is to our knowledge the most continuous monitoring of a South American sea lion breeding colony. Since the study has been undertaken in a Nature Sanctuary, the results may be used as a baseline to compare with behavioral data from colonies perturbed by human activities.

M. José, Pérez-Alvarez; Pablo, Carrasco; Maritza, Sepúlveda; Renato A, Quiñones.

125

Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

2004-01-01

126

Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama  

Science.gov (United States)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity Captures 'Lion King' Panorama (QTVR) This approximate true-color panorama, dubbed 'Lion King,' shows 'Eagle Crater' and the surrounding plains of Meridiani Planum. It was obtained by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sols 58 and 60 using infrared (750-nanometer), green (530-nanometer) and blue (430-nanometer) filters. This is the largest panorama obtained yet by either rover. It was taken in eight segments using six filters per segment, for a total of 558 images and more than 75 megabytes of data. Additional lower elevation tiers were added to ensure that the entire crater was covered in the mosaic. This panorama depicts a story of exploration including the rover's lander, a thorough examination of the outcrop, a study of the soils at the near-side of the lander, a successful exit from Eagle Crater and finally the rover's next desination, the large crater dubbed 'Endurance'.

2004-01-01

127

Lion roar trapping in mirror modes  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that whistler mode noise generated inside mirror modes (Lion Roars) by a remaining electron temperature anisotropy may become trapped in the mirror bottle. The trapping selects a narrow range of wave numbers and restricts the width of the lion roar frequency band in agreement with recent observations.

Treumann, R. A.; Georgescu, E.; Baumjohann, W.

128

The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.  

Science.gov (United States)

The African lion has declined to lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km²) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions. PMID:24421889

Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

2014-01-01

129

OS X Mountain Lion bible  

CERN Document Server

The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

Gruman, Galen

2012-01-01

130

A Lion of a Stone  

Science.gov (United States)

This approximate true-color image of the rock called 'Lion Stone' was acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 104 (May 9, 2004). The rock stands about 10 centimeters tall (about 4 inches) and is about 30 centimeters long (12 inches). Plans for the coming sols include investigating the rock with the spectrometers on the rover's instrument arm. This image was generated using the camera's L2 (750-nanometer), L5 (530-nanometer) and L6 (480-nanometer) filters.

2004-01-01

131

Teach Yourself VISUALLY Mac OS X Lion  

CERN Document Server

Visual learners will quickly see how to take full advantage of Mac OS X Lion The latest Mac desktop operating system adds iPad functionality, a desktop App Store, and many more cool features. This guide combines step-by-step instructions with full-color illustrations to show visual learners how to take advantage of everything Lion has to offer. Plenty of screen shots show you just what to expect at every step, so you can get going quickly whether you're new to the Mac or upgrading from an earlier OS.Reviews how Lion incorporates all-new features including a multi-touch trackpad, Mission Contro

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

132

Lion and Man -- Can Both Win?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is concerned with continuous-time pursuit and evasion games. Typically, we have a lion and a man in a metric space: they have the same speed, and the lion wishes to catch the man while the man tries to evade capture. We are interested in questions of the following form: is it the case that exactly one of the man and the lion has a winning strategy? As we shall see, in a compact metric space at least one of the players has a winning strategy. We show that, perhap...

Bolloba?s, B.; Leader, I.; Walters, M.

2009-01-01

133

Magnetosheath lion roars. [strongest whistler mode signals  

Science.gov (United States)

The characteristics of lion roars, which are intense packets of electromagnetic waves characteristically found in the magnetosheath, are studied. The average frequency of the emissions is 120 Hz, with over 90% occurring between 90 and 160 Hz (which is near one-half the local electron gyrofrequency); over 70% of all emissions last a mere 2 sec or less; the maximum amplitude of lion roars has an average value of 85 milligamma, over 80% being between 40 and 160 milligamma. Occurrence of lion roars is related to the level of geomagnetic activity, measured by Kp. The probability of occurrence ranges from 10% during magnetically quiet intervals to 75% during disturbed periods. Polarization and wave normal direction of lion roars, determined by variance analysis of triaxial wave forms, are righ-handed circularly polarized, with propagation essentially along the ambient magnetic field.

Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1976-01-01

134

Extension of some Lions-Magenes theorems  

CERN Document Server

A general form of the Lions-Magenes theorems on solvability of an elliptic boundary-value problem in the spaces of nonregular distributions is proved. We find a general condition on the space of right-hand sides of the elliptic equation under which the operator of the problem is bounded and has a finite index on the corresponding couple of Hilbert spaces. Extensive classes of the spaces satisfying this condition are constructed. They contain the spaces used by Lions and Magenes.

Murach, Aleksandr A

2009-01-01

135

The Heart of a Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, the students delve into the world of main characters. Students hear familiar and funny dialogue from the lion in The Wizard of Oz in a video clip to gain their initial attention. Additionally, the students begin to develop a deeper understanding of main characters as the class delineates minor characters from major characters and further investigates protagonist and antagonistic characters. In the final assessment, students will develop characters from picture form to written form to build understanding and deeper meaning of characters. Students will draw a storyboard that allows for five to six pictures of a main character with an accompanying storyline that is organized with a clear beginning, middle, and end.

2012-12-14

136

Independent Lens: A Lion's Trail  

Science.gov (United States)

The road to creating a popular song can take decades and often includes a number of incarnations before the listening public finally becomes interested. Such is the complex and at times painful story of the song "Mbube" (which is perhaps best known in the United States by the version titled "The Lion Sleeps Tonight"), which was first recorded by Solomon Linda and the Evening Birds in 1939 in South Africa. This compelling website, designed to complement an Independent Lens/PBS documentary, provides substantive background into the stories of the people associated with this song, and its rather nuanced history during the past seven decades. On the site, visitors can learn about the filmmakers, the song itself, and also provide their own feedback on the controversy surrounding the song and the documentary itself.

137

The economic potential of carbon sequestration in Californian agricultural land  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation studies the potential success of a carbon sequestration policy based on payments to farmers for adoption of alternative, less intensive, management practices in California. Since this is a first approach from a Californian perspective, we focus on Yolo County, an important agricultural county of the State. We focus on the six more important crops of the region: wheat, tomato, corn, rice, safflower, and sunflower. In Chapter 1, we characterize the role of carbon sequestration in Climate Change policy. We also give evidence on which alternative management practices have greenhouse gas mitigation potential (reduced tillage, cover-cropping, and organic systems) based on a study of experimental sites. Chapter 2 advances recognizing the need for information at the field level, and describes the survey designed used to obtain data at the field level, something required to perform a complete integrated assessment of the issue. The survey design is complex in the sense that we use auxiliary information to obtain a control (subpopulation of conventional farmers)-case (subpopulation of innovative farmers) design with stratification for land use. We present estimates for population quantities of interest such as total variable costs, profits, managerial experience in different alternatives, etc. This information efficiently gives field level information for innovative farmers, a missing piece of information so far, since our sampling strategy required the inclusion with probability one of farmers identified as innovative. Using an agronomic process model (DayCent) for the sample and population units, we construct carbon mitigation cost curves for each crop and management observed. Chapter 3 builds different econometric models for cross-sectional data taking into account the survey design, and expanding the sample size constructing productivity potential under each alternative. Based on the yield productivity potential modeled for each unit, we conclude that a carbon sequestration program based in payments for management adoption is going to favor the probability of adoption of mitigating alternatives. Finally, in Chapter 4, we interpret the yield productivity potential, as a state variable, summarizing the complex system of environmental and land-use history of each field, and propose fully dynamic econometric models to structurally assess carbon sequestration policies.

Catala-Luque, Rosa

138

Strata formation in the Gulf of Lions during the last glacial cycles : an overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Promess 1 was the first scientific drilling operation in the Gulf of Lions. Together with Eurostrataform, these 2 European projects provided a huge amount of new data that allows us to analyse, from « sink to source », the main processes that control strata architecture on a deltaic margin. In the deep-sea, The Rhone deep sea fan functioning is strongly controlled by sea-level changes: it functions as a classical channel/levee system as long as a direct connection exists between the Rhone r...

Berne, Serge; Bassetti, Maria-angela; Baztan, J.; Dennielou, Bernard; Gaudin, M.; Rabineau, Marina; Jouet, Gwenael; Sultan, Nabil

2006-01-01

139

Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB status of their lions, e.g. for translocations. The present study concerns the development of a lion-specific IFN-? assay, following the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specif...

Maas, M.; Kooten, P. J. S.; Schreuder, J.; Morar, D.; Tijhaar, E. J.; Michel, A. L.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.

2012-01-01

140

Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB status of their lions, e.g. for translocations. The present study concerns the development of a lion-specific IFN- assay, following the production and characterization of monoclonal ant...

Maas, M.; Kooten, P. J. S.; Schreuder, J.; Morar, D.; Tijhaar, E. J.; Michel, A. L.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Canyons et processus sédimentaires récents sur la marge occidentale du golfe du Lion. Premiers résultats de la campagne Calmar  

Science.gov (United States)

A cruise with R.V. L'Atalame in 1997 allowed the swath-bathymetric mapping of the western part of the Gulf of Lions margin, together with sub-bottom and seismic profiling. The new data set reveals the importance of Lacaze-Duthiers and Sète canyons in sediment transfer from the shelf to the basin. There is evidence of recent activity of several canyons, as well as a large debris flow originated both from the western flank of the Rhone deep-sea fan and from the western Gulf of Lions. This event took place between 22 000 and 10 000 y BP.

Berné, Serge; Loubrieu, Benoît; Calmar embarquée, l'équipe

1999-04-01

142

Lion, ungulate, and visitor reactions to playbacks of lion roars at Zoo Atlanta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Felids in captivity are often inactive and elusive in zoos, leading to a frustrating visitor experience. Eight roars were recorded from an adult male lion and played back over speakers as auditory enrichment to benefit the lions while simultaneously enhancing the zoo visitor experience. In addition, ungulates in an adjacent exhibit were observed to ensure that the novel location and increased frequency of roars did not lead to a stress or fear response. The male lion in this study roared more in the playback phase than in the baseline phases while not increasing any behaviors that would indicate compromised welfare. In addition, zoo visitors remained at the lion exhibit longer during playback. The nearby ungulates never exhibited any reactions stronger than orienting to playbacks, identical to their reactions to live roars. Therefore, naturalistic playbacks of lion roars are a potential form of auditory enrichment that leads to more instances of live lion roars and enhances the visitor experience without increasing the stress levels of nearby ungulates or the lion themselves, who might interpret the roar as that of an intruder. PMID:23009622

Kelling, Angela S; Allard, Stephanie M; Kelling, Nicholas J; Sandhaus, Estelle A; Maple, Terry L

2012-01-01

143

Actualización sobre el estado del apostadero de lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria Flavescens) en la Isla Trinidad, estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina / Update on the status of South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) colony from Trinidad Island, Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) se distribuye en la costa argentina desde Mar del Plata hasta Tierra del Fuego e Islas Malvinas con unas 70 colonias descriptas. En Buenos Aires existe una colonia reproductiva en Banco Culebra y tres no reproductivas en Mar del Plata, Quequ [...] én e Isla Trinidad. Esta última fue comunicada en 1952; desde ese año no se publicaron nuevos registros y en consecuencia la información citada posteriormente es confusa. En la presente nota se dan a conocer observaciones inéditas sobre su tamaño desde 1990. Se contaron entre 0 y 150 machos adultos y subadultos con variaciones según la época del año. Abstract in english The South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) is distributed along the Argentinean coast, from Mar del Plata to Tierra del Fuego and Malvinas Islands, with 70 reporte colonies. In Buenos Aires there is one breeding colony in Banco Culebra and three non reproductive settlements in Mar del Plata, Qu [...] equén and Trinidad Island. The latter was reported for the first time in 1952, since then no further records were published about its current status and the information cited by many authors is confusing. Here we provide new observations about the population size of this colony from 1990. Seal counts ranged between 0-150 males and sub-adults depending on the season.

Petracci, Pablo F; Sotelo, Martín; Massola, Victoria; Carrizo, Martín; Scorolli, Alberto; Zalba, Sergio; Delhey, Valdemar.

144

Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

1992-10-28

145

The generation mechanism for magnetosheath lion roars  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin of lion roars, intense electromagnetic whistler-mode waves which occur throughout the magnetosheath, is investigated based on particle and field data obtained on the ISEE satellites. Analysis of the measured magnetic fields, plasma densities and plasma wave intensities during periods of lion roar emission reveals the lion roar bursts to be correlated with decreases in magnetic field intensity, while the plasma density exhibits a strong anticorrelation with the magnetic field variability during the bursts and the total plasma pressure remains essentially constant. Results indicate that the waves can originate by the cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic magnetosheath electrons whenever the magnetic energy per particle falls to values comparable with the electron thermal energy. Variations in the magnetic energy appear to be associated with the hydromagnetic mirror instability which in turn is excited by a pressure anisotropy in the magnetosheath ion population.

Thorne, R. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1981-10-01

146

How Many Lions Are Needed to Clear a Grid?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a pursuit-evasion problem where some lions have the task to clear a grid graph whose nodes are initially contaminated. The contamination spreads one step per time unit in each direction not blocked by a lion. A vertex is cleared from its contamination whenever a lion moves to it. Brass et al. [5] showed that n/2 lions are not enough to clear the n x n-grid. In this paper, we consider the same problem in dimension d > 2 and prove that ?(nd-1/?d) lions are necessary and suffic...

Florian Berger; Alexander Gilbers; Ansgar Grüne; Rolf Klein

2009-01-01

147

Relationship between Marine Aerosol Optical Depth and Satellite-Sensed Sea Surface Temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multichannel sea surface temperatures (MCSST) computed from NOAA 7 AVHRR channels 4 and 5 are compared to sea surface temperatures measured by an aircraft radiometer (PRT-5). This data set was collected in Fall, 1982 off the southern Californian coast. Th...

S. K. Runco

1986-01-01

148

RMI Visits Marlin Wire & Lion Brothers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Regional Manufacturing Institute (RMI) of Maryland visited two of Maryland's manufacturing companies. This video presents interviews with employees from Marlin Steel Wire Products and The Lion Brothers Company. In this informative seven minute recording they discuss the present and future for Next Generation Manufacturing.

2011-10-07

149

Tribute to Julie Taymor's Lion King Costumes  

Science.gov (United States)

Julie Taymor's costumes and masks for the stage version of "The Lion King" were stunning in the way they combined the dual images of human and animal forms. Taymor visually incorporated the human form of a dancer into the simplified form of the animal character so both are equally visible. This visible duality of human form and animal…

Carter, Mary C.; Beaty, Ben

2011-01-01

150

Efficacy of two lion conservation programs in maasailand, kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion (Panthera leo) populations are in decline throughout most of Africa. The problem is particularly acute in southern Kenya, where Maasai pastoralists have been spearing and poisoning lions at a rate that will ensure near term local extinction. We investigated 2 approaches for improving local tolerance of lions: compensation payments for livestock lost to predators and Lion Guardians, which draws on local cultural values and knowledge to mitigate livestock-carnivore conflict and monitor carnivores. To gauge the overall influence of conservation intervention, we combined both programs into a single conservation treatment variable. Using 8 years of lion killing data, we applied Manski's partial identification approach with bounded assumptions to investigate the effect of conservation treatment on lion killing in 4 contiguous areas. In 3 of the areas, conservation treatment was positively associated with a reduction in lion killing. We then applied a generalized linear model to assess the relative efficacy of the 2 interventions. The model estimated that compensation resulted in an 87-91% drop in the number of lions killed, whereas Lion Guardians (operating in combination with compensation and alone) resulted in a 99% drop in lion killing. Eficacia de Dos Programas de Conservación de Leones en Maasailand, Kenia. PMID:24527992

Hazzah, Leela; Dolrenry, Stephanie; Naughton, Lisa; Edwards, Charles T T; Mwebi, Ogeto; Kearney, Fiachra; Frank, Laurence

2014-06-01

151

Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins; Etude du transfert et du depot du materiel particulaire par le {sup 210} Po et le {sup 210} Pb. Application aux marges continentales du Golfe de Gascogne (NE Atlantique) et du Golfe du Lion (NW Mediterranee)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

{sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of {sup 210} Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, {sup 210} Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than {sup 210} Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a {sup 210} Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of {sup 210} Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, {sup 210} Po and {sup 210} Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on {sup 210} Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author). 243 refs.

Radakovitch, O.

1995-07-07

152

77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Docket No. OR12-13-000] Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc...Procedure, 18 CFR 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc...Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies, requested that the...

2012-06-01

153

Lion roars in the magnetosheath: The Geotail observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars in the magnetosheath are studied based on the waveform data recorded by the Geotail plasma wave instrument (PWI). It is found that about 30% (type A) of the lion roars are associated with the mirror waves or the decrease of the ambient magnetic field (B0). About 70% (type B) of the lion roars are not associated with the decrease of the B0. Both types of the lion roars cover a frequency range from 0.02?e to 0.75?e. However, the dominant frequencies are around 0.12?e, where ?e is the electron cyclotron frequency. The amplitudes of the lion roars range from a few picoteslas to a few hundreds of picoteslas. Their average amplitude is about 110 pT. Most of these lion roars propagate in a slightly oblique direction (?kB~+/-10°) with respect to the B0. One important feature of these lion roars is that they propagate mostly in a single direction, either in the direction of or in the opposite direction to the B0. This suggests that the sources of the lion roars are very likely away from the location where they are observed. Five percent of the lion roars (only the type B lion roars) propagate in two opposite directions simultaneously. This indicates a possibility that the lion roars are generated locally in the vicinity of the spacecraft for these cases. Those highly oblique lion roars (the type B, ?kB up to 87°) are usually observed near the bow shock and they are very likely the downstream propagating whistlers excited in the bow shock region. The nearly monotonic decrease of the wave normal distributions of the lion roars suggests that the Landau damping may play an important role. The relatively narrow wave normal distribution of the types A lion roars than that of the type B lion roars suggests that the type A lion roars may be closer to their sources than the type B lion roars.

Zhang, Y.; Matsumoto, H.; Kojima, H.

1998-03-01

154

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina / Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina) es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las agua [...] s de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías. Abstract in english As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with [...] particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

María Alejandra, Romero; Silvana, Dans; Raúl, González; Guillermo, Svendsen; Néstor, García; Enrique, Crespo.

155

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

María Alejandra Romero

2011-07-01

156

PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis also enables to identify key parameters and assumptions which control contamination pathways in the Gulf of Lions. Thus, this work is based on coupling such complex biogeochemical model (Eco3M), with a PCBs transport model and a model of hydrodynamics (MARS3D) in order to test a scientific exploration tool for the assessment of PCB dispersion in space and time in the Gulf of Lion and of their transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. In this work we estimate PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between the different species of PCB, namely: dissolved total, available dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption (equilibrium partitioning), bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization. References Auger P.A., Diaz F., Ulses C., Estornel C., Neveux J., Joux F., Pujo-Pay M. and Naudin J.J., 2011. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean) during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modeling combined approach. Biogeosciences, 8, 3231-3261. André, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V. and Fraunié, P., 2005. Modeled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 294-308. Andre, G., Garreau, P., Fraune, P.,2009. Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimentional model. Continental Shelf Research, 2, 407-423. Carpenter, D.O., 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Rev. Environ. Health, 21, 1-23. Dufois F., Garreau P., Le Hir P., Forget P., 2008. Wave- and current-induced bottom shear stress distribution in the Gulf of Lions. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 1920-1934. Lohmann, R.;Breivik, K.; Dachs, J.; Muir, D., 2007. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150: 150-165. Ulses C., Estourne

Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

2013-04-01

157

How Many Lions Are Needed to Clear a Grid?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider a pursuit-evasion problem where some lions have the task to clear a grid graph whose nodes are initially contaminated. The contamination spreads one step per time unit in each direction not blocked by a lion. A vertex is cleared from its contamination whenever a lion moves to it. Brass et al. [5] showed that n/2 lions are not enough to clear the n x n-grid. In this paper, we consider the same problem in dimension d > 2 and prove that ?(nd-1/?d lions are necessary and sufficient to clear the nd-grid. Furthermore, we analyze a problem variant where the lions are also allowed to jump from grid vertices to non-adjacent grid vertices.

Rolf Klein

2009-09-01

158

Possible relationships between the South African captive-bred lion hunting industry and the hunting and conservation of lions elsewhere in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trophy hunting of lions is contentious due to increasing evidence of impacts on wild populations, and ethical concerns surrounding the hunting of captive-bred lions in South Africa. The captive-bred lion hunting industry in South Africa has grown rapidly while the number of wild lions hunted in other African countries has declined. In 2009 and 2010, 833 and 682 lion trophies were exported from South Africa, respectively, more than double the combined export (2009, 471; 2010...

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Alexander, R.; Balme, Guy Andrew; Midlane, Neil; Craig, J.

2012-01-01

159

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting succes...

Eloff, F. C.

1984-01-01

160

On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant (because of the high electron speed along the magnetic field). Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, the authors can show that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. The present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature.

Lee, L.C.; Wu, C.S.; Price, C.P. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (United States))

1987-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant (because of the high electron speed along the magnetic field). Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, the authors can show that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. The present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature

1987-03-01

162

On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant. Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, it can be shown that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. Then present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature.

Lee, L. C.; Wu, C. S.; Price, C. P.

1987-01-01

163

Stability analysis of magnetosheath lion roars  

Science.gov (United States)

Whistler mode wave emissions in the magnetosheath, known as lion roars, are thought to be generated by an electron cyclotron instability. Reported satellite data are used to model a magnetosheath medium where lion roars emissions occurred, and the character, absolute or convective, of the associated electron cyclotron instability is studied. A linear hot plasma dispersion equation for parallel and oblique propagation to the static magnetic field is used, and Derfler's frequency cusp criterion is applied to discriminate between absolute and convective instability. The results show that an absolute instability is compatible with experimental data. From the linear temporal growth rate the saturated wave magnetic field is extrapolated, and a good agreement with the measurements is found.

Moreira, A.

1983-10-01

164

On the generation of magnetosheath lion roars  

Science.gov (United States)

A theoretical model is proposed to discuss the electron dynamics associated with the mirror waves and their effects on the generation of the observed lion roars in the magnetosheath. It is pointed out that the usual double-adiabatic theory of hydromagnetics is not applicable to the electrons in mirror waves. Although the electron magnetic moment is conserved, the energy of each electron in the mirror waves is expected to be constant. Assuming an initial electron temperature anisotropy, it can be shown that in the low field region the electron temperature and thermal anisotropy are higher than the initial values, whereas in the high field region the electron temperature and anisotropy are lower. This point can lead to a theoretical explanation of the important features of the observed lion roars. Then present discussion complements the existing theories in the literature.

Lee, L. C.; Wu, C. S.; Price, C. P.

1987-03-01

165

The LIONS code (version 1.0)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new LIONS code (Lancement d'IONS or Ion Launching), a dynamical code implemented in the SPIRaL project for the CIME cyclotron studies, is presented. The various software involves a 3D magnetostatic code, 2D or 3D electrostatic codes for generation of realistic field maps, and several dynamical codes for studying the behaviour of the reference particle from the cyclotron center up to the ejection and for launching particles packets complying with given correlations. Its interactions with the other codes are described. The LIONS code, written in Fortran 90 is already used in studying the CIME cyclotron, from the center to the ejection. It is designed to be used, with minor modifications, in other contexts such as for the simulation of mass spectrometer facilities

1993-01-01

166

Heracles' lion skin : actor and costume  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this essay is to explore the relation between actor and costume in the context of theatrical discourse and using as an axis Heracles’ lion skin. The word actor is used to denote the agent of theatrical/mimetic action while the word costume stresses the function and power of a theatrical costume. In the Introduction section the context of the research is being described. The methodological field is that of the recently explored theatrical discourse which derives from metatheatrica...

??????????????, ????????? ??????

2013-01-01

167

When the “Lion” eats your data  

CERN Multimedia

Welcome to “Mountain Lion” - Apple’s most recent operating system for Macs. More than 200 new and useful functions come with this version*. But hold on! New and useful? With this Lion comes the full integration into Apple’s “iCloud”, the same iCloud already used for iPhones and iPads.   While iCloud might be pretty smart if you want to synchronize or back up all your data, it is a black hole for privacy and confidential documents. iCloud not only synchronizes your photos, music and videos, but also your e-mails, calendar entries, passwords (in encrypted form) and fully backs up your device. With “Mountain Lion” even your Microsoft Word documents locally stored on your Mac might be pushed over to the Apple computer centres. It is still unclear what Apple intends to do with these masses of data. Of course they don’t just do it because they are kind people. They have a business to run and money to earn. So ...

Computer Security Team

2012-01-01

168

Analysis of slope failures in submarine canyon heads: An example from the Gulf of Lions - art. no. F01009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To improve understanding of evolution of submarine canyons, a three-dimensional slope-stability model is applied to Bourcart Canyon in the western Gulf of Lions in the Mediterranean Sea. The model builds on previous work by Chen and others, and it uses the upper bound theorem of plasticity to calculate the factor of safety of a kinematically admissible failing mass. Examples of three-dimensional failure surfaces documented in the literature were used to test the model formulation. Model appli...

2007-01-01

169

Erosional processes and paleo-environmental changes in the Western Gulf of Lions (SW France) during the Messinian Salinity Crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current interpretation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) involves partial "clesiccation" of the Mediterranean Sea coupled with the deposition of thick evaporites in the deep basins. New sets of seismic reflection profiles in the western part of the Gulf of Lions confirm the basinward extension of the Messinian erosion and enable the mapping of distinctive seismic markers indicating the Messinian Erosional Surface (or Messinian unconformity), the basin-margin detrital deposits, and the de...

Lofi, Johanna; Gorini, Christian; Berne, Serge; Clauzon, Georges; Dos Reis, A. Tadeu; Ryan, William; Steckler, Michael

2005-01-01

170

The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

171

The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION) instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP), which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC).

Mckenna-lawlor, S. M. P.; Elendt, I.; Rusznyak, P.; Kunow, H.; Mu?ller-mellin, R.; Witte, M.

1997-01-01

172

Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimensional model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ECOLOPHY experiments aimed at investigating physical exchanges between coastal and open sea. They were carried out in June and December 2005 over the shelf-break in the North-eastern part of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). This area is considered to be the generation zone for the eddy and meandering structures of the Northern Current (NC). The objective of the present work is to examine mesoscale variability of this coastal slope current in the light of available data....

Andre, Gael; Garreau, Pierre; Fraunie, Philippe

2009-01-01

173

Quantifying denudation rates in Mediterranean margin catchments: the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica case-study  

Science.gov (United States)

Margins are the place of transfer, deposit and erosion of sediments whose geometries are controlled by sea-level fluctuations, vertical movements and sedimentary fluxes. Surface processes (sedimentation, denudation) and deep-sea dynamic are also intimately linked. Due to the numerous data acquired over the last 10 years, the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica margins could be considered as privileged studied areas to understand the relationships between denudation, sedimentation and associated vertical displacements. The quantification of denudation rates on these margins catchments, using offshore and onshore data aims to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial evolution of denudation processes in their sedimentation and geodynamic evolution in a large basin (Gulf of Lion) and in a small confined basin (Golo margin; East-Corsica) during the Quaternary. The Gulf of Lion is the northern passive margin of the Liguro-provençal basin, in western Mediterranean Sea. During the Quaternary, it receives sediments from catchments draining several structural domains, as Alps, Pyrenees and Massif Central, for a drainage area of about 120,000 km^2. The East-Corsica corresponds to the western passive margin of the Tyrrhenian basin. The main catchment (Golo River) size is about 100 times smaller than the Gulf of Lion and is composed by two main structural units: Hercynian granites in the upstream part and Alpine schists in the downstream part. In this study, we quantified Quaternary denudation rates using four independent methods: i) estimation of eroded volumes using DEMs; ii) compilation of present-day sediment load fluxes; iii) determination of catchment-scale cosmogenic denudation rate by measuring 10Be concentrations in sands at the catchment outlets or buried in boreholes; iv) quantification of sediment volumes deposited offshore. Our results show a good consistence between the four methods. The Inner Alps present the highest values of denudation (~ 700 m/Ma), compared to averaged much lower values in other domains (150-250 m/Ma in foreland Alps, 100-150 m/Ma in Corsica, about 100 m/Ma in Pyrenees and 55-75 m/Ma in Massif Central). The alpine domain provides at least 75 % of the eroded volume in the Gulf of Lion catchment. A quantitative geomorphologic approach highlights the main role of denudation processes in relief evolution for both studied areas. At a regional scale (Gulf of Lion catchment), we highlight an exponential correlation between mean catchment elevation and denudation rates suggesting the main role of uplift in areas glaciated during the LGM in the control of denudation rates. At a more local scale (East-Corsica), denudation rates seem to rely on lithologic and structural control.

Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Jouet, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Freslon, N.; Leroux, E.; Moreau, J.; Aslanian, D.; Vella, C.

2013-12-01

174

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7 y abundancia numérica (29,6% respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%, mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 fue el mas abundante (77%. La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

Raimundo L. Bustos

2012-12-01

175

Mac OS X Lion Server Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

A practical guide to helping users get along with the latest Mac OS X Server To tame Apple's newest big cat, server OS (Lion), you need a serious, big-game book, and here it is. This guide explains how to administer, deploy, and update the much-anticipated next generation of Mac's OS X Server. Thoroughly covering both hardware and software, this book shows you how to configure services, set up account authentication, use open directory, manage accounts, use Apple Remote Desktop, and much more. You'll also learn how to navigate apps such as iChat Theater, Mail, iCal, Podcast Producer—and

Wentk, Richard

2012-01-01

176

Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies  

CERN Multimedia

The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

Rizzo, John

2011-01-01

177

Invest in Kids--Californians Support New Approach To Prevent Youth Violence. Living Well, Spending for Health. Policy Notes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This "Policy Note" highlights new information about youth crime and prevention that suggest that California has a unique opportunity over the next several years to invest in new preventive approaches for reducing youth violence. Several surveys by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) have documented that Californians share a vision…

California Center for Health Improvement, Sacramento.

178

Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology; Etude des radioelements draines par le Rhone vers la Mediterranee: strategie d`echantillonnage et methodologie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Calmet, D.; Fernandez, J.M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Monaco, A. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France)

1992-12-31

179

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies the details of the electron velocity distribution function as measured by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE in order to investigate the underlying causes for the different types of lion roars found in the data. Our results show that while some instances of lion roars could be locally generated, the source of others must be more remote regions of the magnetosheath.

W. Masood

2006-07-01

180

Computed tomographic analysis of calvarial hyperostosis in captive lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osseous malformations in the skull and cervical vertebrae of lions in captivity are believed to be caused by hypovitaminosis A. These often lead to severe neurologic abnormalities and may result in death. We describe the characterization of these abnormalities based on computed tomography (CT). CT images of two affected and three healthy lions were compared with define the normal anatomy of the skull and cervical vertebrae and provide information regarding the aforementioned osseous malformations. Because bone structure is influenced by various factors other than the aforementioned disease, all values were divided by the skull width that was not affected. The calculated ratios were compared and the most pronounced abnormalities in the affected lions were, narrowing of the foramen magnum, thickening of the tentorium osseus cerebelli and thickening of the dorsal arch of the atlas. CT is useful for detection of the calvarial abnormalities in lions and may be useful in further defining this syndrome. PMID:20166390

Gross-Tsubery, Ruth; Chai, Orit; Shilo, Yael; Miara, Limor; Horowitz, Igal H; Shmueli, Ayelet; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Hoffman, Chen; Reifen, Ram; Shamir, Merav H

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Science.gov (United States)

Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies the details of the electron velocity distribution function as measured by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE) in order to investigate the underlying causes for the different types of lion roars found in the data. Our results show that while some instances of lion roars could be locally generated, the source of others must be more remote regions of the magnetosheath.

Masood, W.; Schwartz, S. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.

2006-07-01

182

The Significance of African Lions for the Financial Viability of Trophy Hunting and the Maintenance of Wild Land  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion t...

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

2012-01-01

183

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies the detai...

Masood, W.; Schwartz, S. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.

2006-01-01

184

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies...

Masood, W.; Schwartz, S. J.; Maksimovic, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.

2006-01-01

185

Waveform and packet structure of lion roars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.

Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence

W. Baumjohann

186

Waveform and packet structure of lion roars  

Science.gov (United States)

The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5-1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.

Baumjohann, W.; Treumann, R. A.; Georgescu, E.; Haerendel, G.; Fornacon, K.-H.; Auster, U.

1999-12-01

187

Fibroblastic osteosarcoma in a lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report describes a case of spontaneous fibroblastic osteosarcoma in the humerus of a lion from a private park in Perugia, Italy. The tumor had an irregular, smooth, brown surface and a generally firm, rubbery consistence with gritty to hard areas interspersed. The mass was poorly vascularized with areas of necrosis at the periphery. The cut surface showed a multilobulated mass that had breached the humeral cortex, with periosteal production of reactive bone. The mass invaded the epiphysis, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule and ligaments. A mild hemorrhagic effusion appeared in the joint space. Clinical signs, gross and histopathologic findings are described in this rare case of a malignant bone tumor.

L. Leonardi

2014-01-01

188

Threatened, Endangered, and Depleted Seals and Sea Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Information about the characteristics of various pinnipeds with highlights on five species determined to be threatened, endangered or depleted. Covers historical and current management and species status information and includes photos. Also describes species distribution, population estimates, and threats to survival.

189

Desarrollo de un indicador no invasivo de la salud de pinípedos: Comportamiento y crecimiento de neonatos del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) / Developing a non-invasive indicator of pinniped health: Neonate behavior and growth in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Evaluar la salud de poblaciones silvestres es crítico para alcanzar metas de conservación; sin embargo, resulta complicado realizar evaluaciones apropiadas cuando los sitios de estudio son de acceso difícil o cuando la especie en cuestión es sensible al disturbio humano. La condición y el crecimient [...] o de las crías pueden ser indicadores de la salud de una población, pero obtener tales datos generalmente requiere de técnicas invasivas. En este estudio se evalúa hasta que punto se pueden utilizar las observaciones no invasivas del comportamiento de neonatos en lugar de los métodos tradicionales utilizados para estimar la condición corporal y el crecimiento de un pinípedo en vida libre, el lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus), en el Golfo de California, México. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados y regresiones lineales múltiples para evaluar el efecto del sexo, la isla de reproducción, el año y el comportamiento de neonatos (e.g., actividad, amamantamiento) en la condición corporal y las tasas de crecimiento. Se encontró una fuerte correlación entre las tasas de crecimiento individual y el comportamiento de los neonatos machos. Los machos que se involucraron más en comportamientos activos tuvieron menores tasas de crecimiento (?= -0.0005), mientras que los machos que participaron más en eventos de amamantamiento tuvieron mayores tasas de crecimiento (? = 0.002). No se observó una relación entre el comportamiento de los neonatos y la condición para ningún sexo, ni entre el comportamiento y las tasas de crecimiento de las crías hembras. Estos resultados proporcionan información sobre la posibilidad de utilizar el comportamiento como un indicador del estatus individual de los machos, la cual podría facilitar la evaluación del estatus de la población e ilustrar la importancia del uso de métodos alternativos para medir la condición de los animales para la conservación de las especies. Abstract in english Assessing the health of wildlife populations is critical to achieving conservation goals; however, proper assessments can be complicated when study sites are difficult to reach or when focal species are sensitive to human disturbance. Condition and growth of offspring may indicate population health, [...] but obtaining such data generally relies on invasive techniques. Here, we examine the extent to which non-invasive observations of neonate behaviors could serve as a proxy for traditional approaches to estimating neonate body condition and growth of a wild pinniped, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Generalized linear models and multiple linear regressions were used to examine the effect of sex, breeding island, year, and neonate behaviors (e.g., nursing, active) on body condition and growth rates. We found a strong correlation between individual growth rates and behaviors of male neonates. Males engaged in proportionally more active behaviors had lower growth rates (? = -0.0005), whereas males engaged in proportionally more nursing events had higher growth rates (? = 0.002). There was no relationship between neonate behavior and condition for either sex, nor between behavior and growth rates of female pups. These results provide insight into the possibility of using behavior as an indicator of individual status of males that could facilitate assessments of population status and illustrate the importance of using alternative approaches to measure animal condition for species conservation

Green, DS; Young, JK; Hernández-Camacho, CJ; Gerber, LR.

190

A Horse Frightened by a Lion in a Rocky Wooded Landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This picture is almost certainly inspired by Stubbs' painting of a horse frightened by a lion (see 'Stubbs', Tate Gallery, 1984, no 62, p 94; in a private collection). The horse and lion are possibly painted by Sawrey Gilpin.

Barret, George

1987-01-01

191

77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse”  

Science.gov (United States)

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the...15, 2003), I hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul...

2012-07-13

192

Spatial distribution of lion kills determined by the water dependency of prey species  

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Predation risk from lions (Panthera leo) has been linked to habitat characteristics and availability and traits of prey. We separated the effects of vegetation density and the presence of drinking water by analyzing locations of lion kills in relation to rivers with dense vegetation, which offer good lion stalking opportunities, and artificial water points with low vegetation density. The spatial distribution of lion kills was studied at the Klaserie Private Nature Reserve, South Africa. The ...

Boer, W. F.; Vis, M. J. P.; Knegt, H. J.; Rowles, C.; Kohi, E.; Langevelde, F.; Peel, M. J. S.; Pretorius, Y.; Skidmore, A. K.; Slotow, R.; Wieren, S. E.; Prins, H. H. T.

2010-01-01

193

Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities  

Science.gov (United States)

Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

2012-01-01

194

A Roof for the Lion's House  

Science.gov (United States)

Fans of the National Football League's Detroit Lions don't worry about gameday weather. Their magnificent new Pontiac Stadium has a domed, air-supported, fabric roof that admits light but protects the playing field and patrons from the elements. The 80,000-seat "Silverdome" is the world's largest fabric-covered structure-and aerospace technology played an important part in its construction. The key to economical construction of the Silverdome-and many other types of buildings-is a spinoff of fiber glass Beta yarn coated with Teflon TFE fluorocarbon resin. The big advance it offers is permanency. Fabric structures-tents, for example have been around since the earliest years of human civilization. But their coverings-hides, canvas and more recently plastics-were considered temporary; though tough, these fabrics were subject to weather deterioration. Teflon TFE-coated Beta Fiberglas is virtually impervious to the effects of weather and sunlight and it won't stretch, shrink, mildew or rot, thus has exceptional longevity; it is also very strong, lightweight, flame resistant and requires no periodic cleaning, because dirt will not stick to the surface of Teflon TFE. And to top all that, it costs only 30 to 40 percent as much as conventional roofing.

1978-01-01

195

LIONs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term LION is an acronym for Long Ionization Chamber. This is a distributed ion chamber which is used to monitor secondary ionization along the shield walls of a beam line resulting from incorrectly steered charged particle beams in lieu of the use of many discrete ion chambers. A cone of ionizing radiation emanating from a point source as a result of incorrect steering intercepts a portion of 1-5/8 inch Heliax cable (about 100 meters in length) filled with Argon gas at 20 psi and induces a pulsed current which is proportional to the ionizing charge. This signal is transmitted via the cable to an integrator circuit whose output is directed to an electronic comparators, which in turn is used to turn off the accelerated primary beam when preset limits are exceeded. This device is used in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Beam Containment System (BCS) to prevent potentially hazardous ionizing radiation resulting from incorrectly steered beams in areas that might be occupied by people. This paper describes the design parameters and experience in use in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) area of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

1997-11-03

196

Invasion in a diversity hotspot: Exotic cover and native richness in the Californian serpentine flora  

Science.gov (United States)

Exotic species have been observed to be more prevalent in sites where the richness of native species is highest, possibly reflecting variation among sites in resources, propagule supply, heterogeneity, or disturbance. However, such a pattern leaves unclear whether natives at species-rich sites are subject to especially severe impacts from exotics as a result. We considered this question using path models in which relationships between exotic cover and native richness were evaluated in the presence of correlated environmental factors. At 109 sites on serpentine soils across California, USA, exotic cover was positively correlated with total native herbaceous richness and was negatively correlated with the richness of both serpentine-endemic and rare native herbs. However, in path models that accounted for the influences of soil chemistry, disturbance, overstory cover, and regional rainfall and elevation, we found no indication that exotic cover reduced any component of native herb richness. Rather, our results indicated similarities and differences in the conditions favoring exotic, native, endemic, and rare species. Our results suggest that, in spite of some localized impacts, exotic species are not exerting a detectable overall effect on the community richness of the unique native flora of Californian serpentine. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Harrison, S.; Grace, J. B.; Davies, K. F.; Safford, H. D.; Viers, J. H.

2006-01-01

197

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten lions (Panthera leo that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4–5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

Remo G. Lobetti

2012-10-01

198

Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

Cagnini Didier Q

2012-09-01

199

Archaeology: a lion found in the Egyptian tomb of Maïa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lions are mentioned by classical scholars and in pharaonic inscriptions as being among the sacred animals that were bred and buried in the Nile valley. And yet no specimens have been found in Egypt - until the excavation of the Bubasteion necropolis at Saqqara. Here we describe a complete skeleton, once a mummy, of a male lion (Panthera leo) that was discovered there, buried among the cats' catacombs created during the last centuries bc and occupying the much older tomb of Maïa, wet-nurse to the king Tutankhamun (from the New Kingdom, fourteenth century bc). This important find at a site that was dedicated to the feline goddess Bastet (also known as Bubastis) confirms the status of the lion as a sacred animal during the Late and Greek periods. PMID:14724625

Callou, Cécile; Samzun, Anaïck; Zivie, Alain

2004-01-15

200

Parasites and parasite stages of free-ranging wild lions (Panthera leo) of northern Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal samples from 33 lions (Panthera leo) in Serengeti National Park and Ngorongoro Crater Conservation Area in northern Tanzania contained 19 different parasites, 12 of which, including Aelurostrongylus sp., a species of Acanthocephala, a species of Anoplocephalidae, Capillaria sp., Demodex sp., Eimeria sp., Habronema sp., Isospora felis, Isospora rivolta, one species of Isospora that was previously undescribed from lions, one species of Trematoda that was previously undescribed from lions, and Trichuris sp., were new reports for lions. Seven other species had been previously reported from lions. PMID:10884125

Bjork, K E; Averbeck, G A; Stromberg, B E

2000-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulation Favoring Deep- and Intermediate-Water Formation in the Mediterranean Sea  

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Atmospheric circulation patterns that are conducive to extreme ocean heat loss are investigated at four sites of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea. The Gulf of Lions, the South Adriatic Sea, the Cretan Sea, and the Levantine Sea are areas where anomalously high winter heat loss may lead to deep- or intermediate-water formation. At each of the above sites, the atmospheric circulation during such events is derived by averaging the sea level pressure (SLP) fields during the lower decile ...

Papadopoulos, Vassilis P.; Josey, Simon A.; Bartzokas, Aristides; Somot, Samuel; Ruiz, Simon; Drakopoulou, Paraskevi

2012-01-01

202

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all  pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2011-12-01

203

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2012-01-01

204

Genetic and Ecotypic Differentiation in a Californian Plant Polyploid Complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae)  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

Moore, Abigail J.; Moore, William L.; Baldwin, Bruce G.

2014-01-01

205

Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. PMID:24755840

Moore, Abigail J; Moore, William L; Baldwin, Bruce G

2014-01-01

206

Lion roar emissions observed by the CLUSTER and THEMIS spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars are intense, narrow-band whistler-mode emissions sporadically occurring in the Earth's magnetosheath. We present a statistical study based on the CLUSTER data recorded during years 2001 and 2005. We have used the spectral analyzer STAFF-SA which is processing signals from three magnetic and two electric sensors. Frequency and power properties of lion roars have been investigated and generally correspond to previous results. We have also studied their spatial distribution. We have compared the field-aligned component of the Poynting flux and the local magnetic field in order to predict the source region. Our result shows that lion roars are mainly propagating toward the Earth. We thus expect that the source region is more often close to the bow shock. The SCM and EFI instruments on-board THEMIS provide measurements of all six components of the magnetic and electric field. It allows us to investigate properties of lion roar emissions. We present case studies of selected events.

Krupar, V.; Santolik, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Angelopoulos, V.; Le Contel, O.; Bonnell, J.; Auster, U.

2008-12-01

207

Lions of West Africa : ecology of lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus 1975) populations and human-lion conflicts in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, North Benin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Earth’s biodiversity is disappearing at an alarming rate in the last decades. Many species, including carnivores, are becoming endangered. The lion was one of the most widely distributed terrestrial mammals and is today restricted to Gir ecosystem in India and to more or less fragmented populations in sub-saharan Africa. The species is considered as Vulnerable on IUCN Red List. In West Africa, due to its small and fragmented populations, the species is listed as Regionall...

Sogbohossou, Etote?pe? Ai?kpe?mi

2011-01-01

208

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo vernayi  

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Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

F. C Eloff

1984-12-01

209

Using spor and prey counts to determine temporal and spatial variation in lion (Panthera leo) density  

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In many African countries, large carnivores such as lions (Panthera leo (L., 1758)) are under serious threat through conflict with people, declining prey abundance, and exposure to disease. Spoor and prey count surveys were used to determine temporal and spatial variation in lion density in Khutse Game Reserve (KGR), Botswana, and the adjacent communal grazing area. Estimated lion density in KGR for the period September 2008 – June 2010 was 41% lower than for the period June 2007 – August...

Bauer, Dominique; Schiess-meier, Monika; Mills, David R.; Gusset, Markus

2014-01-01

210

Lion (Panthera leo) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) IFN-y sequences.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloning and sequencing of the full length lion and cheetah interferon-gamma (IFN-g) transcript will enable the expression of the recombinant cytokine, to be used for production ofmonoclonal antibodies and to set up lion and cheetah-specific IFN-g ELISAs. These are relevant in blood-based diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis, an important threat to lions in the Kruger National Park. Alignment of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of lion and cheetah and that of domestic cats showed homologies of ...

Maas, M.; Rhijn, I.; Allsopp, M. T.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.

2010-01-01

211

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo vernayi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting succes...

Eloff, F. C.

1984-01-01

212

Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . PMID:20825444

Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

2011-02-01

213

Ein Humboldt-Brief in der Autographensammlung Lion Feuchtwangers  

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Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.The paper deals with a letter from Alexander von Humboldt, which has been part of Lion Feuchtwanger's Autograph Collection since 1958. An investigation of the contents of the letter brought to light new details, chiefly of Humboldt's activities in promoting young talents. Emil Naumann (1827-1888, composer, teacher and author, was clearly identified as the letter's recipient.

Ingo Schwarz

2006-10-01

214

A Major Fan of Oz, but Not a Cowardly Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

The nooks and crannies in the office of Bill McNeal, superintendent in Wake County, NC, suggest the occupant is one wildly enthusiastic follower of The Wizard of Oz. It is chock full of memorabilia of Dorothy Gale, the Tin Man, the Scarecrow and the Cowardly Lion, a carousel of the Emerald City and various books on the subject--most of the items…

Goldman, Jay P.

2004-01-01

215

On the provable security of BEAR and LION schemes  

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BEAR, LION and LIONESS are block ciphers presented by Biham and Anderson (1996), inspired by the famous Luby-Rackoff constructions of block ciphers from other cryptographic primitives (1988). The ciphers proposed by Biham and Anderson are based on one stream cipher and one hash function. Good properties of the primitives ensure good properties of the block cipher. In particular, they are able to prove that their ciphers are immune to any efficient known-plaintext key-recover...

Maines, Lara; Piva, Matteo; Rimoldi, Anna; Sala, Massimiliano

2011-01-01

216

Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo)  

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Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; namely osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure ...

Tordiffe, Adrian S. W.; Cassel, Nicolette; Lane, Emily P.; Reyers, Fred

2013-01-01

217

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T"-/sub perpendicular//T"-/sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B"2/8?N, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ?/sub max/ = A"-?"-/(A"-+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated

1982-08-01

218

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A complete set of ISEE plasma wave, plasma, and field data are used to identify the plasma instability responsible for the generation of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic lion roars. Lion roars detected close to the magnetopause are generated by the cyclotron instability of anisotropic (T/sup -//sub perpendicular//T/sup -//sub parallel/approx. =1.2) thermal electrons when the local plasma critical energy, E/sub M/ = B/sup 2//8..pi..N, falls to values (E/sub M/ approx.10--30 eV) close to or below the electron thermal energy, 25 eV, as a result of decreases in B. The lion roars are terminated by increases in the ambient magnetic field magnitude and consequential increases in E/sub M/ to values greater than 100 eV. Because there are few resonant particles at these high energies, the growth rate decreases by 3 orders of magnitude and measurable growth ceases. The value of the absolute upper limit of the frequency of unstable waves predicted by theory, ..omega../sub max/ = A/sup -/..cap omega../sup -//(A/sup -/+1), is compared with observations. The predictions and observations are found to be in general, but not exact, agreement. Several possible explanations are explored. The quasi-periodic, approx.20-s magnetic and plasma oscillations which cause the variations in E/sub M/ and hence alternately drive the cyclotron waves unstable and then stable are also investigated.

Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.; Anderson, R.R.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Scudder, J.D.; Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.

1982-08-01

219

The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo. Although lion lentivirus (FIVple infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

M. Kennedy

2012-05-01

220

Population demography and spatial ecology of a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

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Many recently established small game reserves in southern Africa have introduced lion, and have had to actively manage their populations as the lion are in relatively small(<1000 km²), enclosed areas. This study was undertaken on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km²), Limpopo Province, South Africa to describe population demography and lion movement patterns in order to enhance management decisions. A pride of five lion were introduced to Makalali in December 1994 and since then 35 ...

Druce, D.; Heleen Genis; Braak, J.; Sophie Greatwood; Audrey Delsink; Kettles, R.; Hunter, L.; Slotow, R.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63 and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

R.J. Power

2002-12-01

222

75 FR 28642 - Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...  

Science.gov (United States)

...22570-1261-0000-K2] Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa...assessment (EA) for limiting mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation on desert bighorn...we describe how we will manage mountain lion predation to help achieve bighorn...

2010-05-21

223

The study of Delsarte-Lions type binary transformations, their differential-geometric and operator structure with applications. Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Gelfand-Levitan integral equations for Delsarte-Lions type transformations in multidimension are studied. The corresponding spectral and analytical properties of Delsarte-Lions transformed operators are analyzed by means of the differential-geometric and topological tools. An approach for constructing Delsarte-Lions type transmutation operators for multidimensional differential expressions is devised.

Yarema A. Prykarpatsky

2007-01-01

224

An Analysis of Allegory found in C. S. Lewis’ The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Allegory found in C. S. Lewis’ The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. Di dalam skripsi ini secara keseluruhan, penulis ingin membuktikan apakah benar novel yang berjudul The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe yang merupakan karya C. S. Lewis merupakan alegori ditinjau dari kepercayaan Kristen.

2010-01-01

225

Traditional Culture into Interactive Arts: The Cases of Lion Dance in Temple Lecture  

Science.gov (United States)

The lion dance in Chinese culture is one of profound arts. This work aims to bridge traditional culture and modern multimedia technology and application of network cameras for the interactive tool to design a set of activities to promote the lion as the main body. There consists of the imaging systems and interactive multimedia applications.

Lee, Wen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Tung; He, Ming-Yu; Hsu, Tao-I.

226

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

F. C Eloff

1980-01-01

227

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

Eloff, F. C.

1980-01-01

228

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

Eloff, F. C.

1980-01-01

229

Roar into Reading: A Guide for First Grade Teachers from "Between the Lions[TM]."  

Science.gov (United States)

"Between the Lions" is an award-winning PBS television series based on a comprehensive literacy curriculum that combines phonics and whole language. This guide has been created to help first grade teachers use "Between the Lions" in their classrooms to enhance their reading lessons. The guide is filled with engaging activities, classroom literacy…

WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

230

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of p [...] eople present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Ferreira, Sam M.; Maruping, Nkabeng T.; Schoultz, Darius; Smit, Travis R..

231

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Sam M. Ferreira

2013-05-01

232

Long duration lion roars associated with quasi-perpendicular bow shocks  

Science.gov (United States)

It is pointed out that lion roars are sporadic electromagnetic emissions occurring in the earth's magnetosheath. The emissions are generally narrow band in frequency, in the range from 10 to 300 Hz, and resemble a lion's roar when the waveform is heard with an acoustic amplifier. The first observations of magnetosheath lion roars were reported by Smith et al. (1969). They concluded that the emissions were most likely to be whistler mode signals which were amplified by wave-particle interactions, such as Landau or cyclotron resonance. The present investigation provides specific examples and a statistical analysis of lion roars detected with the IMP 6 satellite over a period of one year. Attention is given to long duration lion roar (LDLR) plasma wave spectra, the characteristic frequency of LDLR, LDLR wave polarization, and the mean LDLR spectrum.

Rodriguez, P.

1985-01-01

233

Living with Lions: The Economics of Coexistence in the Gir Forests, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Rarely human communities coexist in harmony with large predators. Most often communities suffer due to predation on their stock while large carnivores suffer losses and at times extirpation due to retaliation. We examine the mechanisms permitting the coexistence of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) and pastoral communities (Maldharis) in the Gir forests, India. We monitored six Maldhari settlements between 2005 and 2007 to quantify seasonal livestock holding, density and losses due to predation and other causes. Lion density, estimated by mark recapture, was 15±0.1 SE/100 km2. Livestock density, estimated by total counts, ranged between 25/km2–31/km2 with buffaloes being most abundant. Average livestock holding of Maldhari families was 33±3 SE. Lions predated mostly on unproductive cattle (30%). Scat analysis (n?=?165), predation events (n?=?180) and seven continuous monitoring sessions of 1,798 hours on four radio-collared lions estimated livestock to contribute between 25 to 42% of lions’ biomass consumptions, of which only 16% was predated; rest scavenged. With free grazing rights within Gir forests, Maldharis offset 58±0.2 SE% of annual livestock rearing cost in comparison to non-forest dwelling pastoralists. With government compensation scheme for livestock predation, this profit margin augmented to 76±0.05 SE%. Lion density was higher in areas with Maldhari livestock in comparison to areas without livestock. Thus, the current lifestyles and livestock holdings of Maldharis seem to be beneficial to both lions and local pastoralists. We conclude that a combination of strict protection regime for lions, Maldharis’ traditional reverence towards lions and the livelihood economics permit the delicate balance of lion-Maldhari coexistence. Indefinite increase in human and livestock population within Gir might upset this equilibrium undermining the conservation objectives. We see no end to compensation programs worldwide as they constitute a crucial element needed for human-carnivore coexistence.

Banerjee, Kausik; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Chauhan, Kartikeya S.; Dave, Chittranjan V.

2013-01-01

234

Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana  

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Full Text Available Lions rarely prey on elephants. Botswana’s Savuti lions, however, switch to preying on elephants during the late dry season (August–November, and the frequency of this has increased in the last two decades (1985–2005. An opportunity to document this phenomenon was made possible with infrared viewing and filming equipment. A pride of 30 lions killed one elephant every three days. Seven of eight elephants killed were between four and 11 years old, as deduced from molar teeth ageing, and this age group represented over half the kills recorded by Joubert (2006. It is suggested that this weaned, maternally less dependent age class, may be more vulnerable to lion predation. Lions prey on elephants since the density of conventional ungulate prey is reduced as a result of an annual migration, and artificial water provisioning has prompted an increasingly sedentary population of elephants. Notes are presented on the lion’s behaviour in hunting elephants and the evolutionary significance of this.

R.X. Shem Compion

2011-10-01

235

+2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

2012-12-01

236

Study of the PTW microLion chamber temperature dependence  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of liquid ionization chambers in radiotherapy has grown during the past few years. While for air ionization chambers the kTP correction for air mass density due to pressure and temperature variations is well known, less work has been done on the case of liquid ionization chambers, where there is still the need to take into account the influence of temperature in the free ion yield. We have measured the PTW microLion isooctane-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence in a ? ±10 °C interval around the standard 20 °C room temperature for three operation voltages, including the manufacturer recommended voltage, and two beam qualities, 60Co and 50 kV x-rays. Within the measured temperature range, the microLion signal exhibits a positive linear dependence, which is around 0.24% K?1 at 800 V with 60Co irradiation. This effect is of the same order of magnitude as the T dependence found in air ionization chambers, but its nature is completely different and its sign opposite to that of an air chamber. Onsager theory has been used to model the results and is consistent with this linear behaviour. However, some inconsistencies in the modelling of the 50 kV x-ray results have been found that are attributed to the failure of Onsager's isolated pair assumption for such radiation quality.

Gómez, F.; González-Castaño, D.; Díaz-Botana, P.; Pardo-Montero, J.

2014-06-01

237

Kinetics of a diffusive capture process lamb besieged by a pride of lions  

CERN Document Server

The survival probability, S_N(t), of a diffusing prey (``lamb'') in the proximity of N diffusing predators (a ``pride of lions'') in one dimension is investigated. When the lions are all to one side of the lamb, the survival probability decays as a non-universal power law, S_N(t) is proportional to t^{-beta_N}, with the decay exponent beta_N proportional to ln N. The crossover behavior as a function of the relative diffusivities of the lions and the lamb is also discussed. When N--->oo, the lamb survival probability exhibits a log-normal decay, exp(-ln^2 t).

Krapivsky, P L

1996-01-01

238

Inbreeding depression increases susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis in lions: an experimental test using an inbred-outbred contrast through translocation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disease can dramatically influence the dynamics of endangered wildlife populations, especially when they are small and isolated, with increased risk of inbreeding. In Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), a small, enclosed reserve in South Africa, a large lion (Panthera leo) population arose from a small founder group in the 1960s and started showing conspicuous signs of inbreeding. To restore the health status of the HiP lion population, outbred lions were translocated into the existing population. In this study, we determined the susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis (bTB), and the prevalence of antibody to feline viruses of native lions, and compared the findings with those from translocated outbred lions and their offspring. Antibodies to feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, feline parvovirus, and feline coronavirus were present in the lion population, but there was no significant difference in antibody prevalence between native and translocated lions and their offspring, and these feline viruses did not appear to have an effect on the clinical health of HiP lions. However, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), which was previously absent from HiP, appears to have been introduced into the lion population through translocation. Within 7 yr, the prevalence of antibody to FIV increased up to 42%. Bovine tuberculosis posed a major threat to the inbred native lion population, but not to translocated lions and their offspring. More than 30% of the native lion population died from bTB or malnutrition compared with <2% of the translocated lions and their offspring. We have demonstrated that management of population genetics through supplementation can successfully combat a disease that threatens population persistence. However, great care must be taken not to introduce new diseases into populations through translocation. PMID:21719814

Trinkel, Martina; Cooper, Dave; Packer, Craig; Slotow, Rob

2011-07-01

239

Of the Helmholtz Club, South-Californian seedbed for visual and cognitive neuroscience, and its patron Francis Crick.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taking up the view that semi-institutional gatherings such as clubs, societies, research schools, have been instrumental in creating sheltered spaces from which many a 20th-century project-driven interdisciplinary research programme could develop and become established within the institutions of science, the paper explores the history of one such gathering from its inception in the early 1980s into the 2000s, the Helmholtz Club, which brought together scientists from such various research fields as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, psychophysics, computer science and engineering, who all had an interest in the study of the visual system and of higher cognitive functions relying on visual perception such as visual consciousness. It argues that British molecular biologist turned South Californian neuroscientist Francis Crick had an early and lasting influence over the Helmholtz Club of which he was a founding pillar, and that from its inception, the club served as a constitutive element in his long-term plans for a neuroscience of vision and of cognition. Further, it argues that in this role, the Helmholtz Club served many purposes, the primary of which was to be a social forum for interdisciplinary discussion, where 'discussion' was not mere talk but was imbued with an epistemic value and as such, carefully cultivated. Finally, it questions what counts as 'doing science' and in turn, definitions of success and failure-and provides some material evidence towards re-appraising the successfulness of Crick's contribution to the neurosciences. PMID:24384229

Aicardi, Christine

2014-03-01

240

An acoustic analysis of lion roars. I: Data collection and spectrogramand waveform analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the collection of lion roar data at two different locations, anoutdoor setting at Antelope Park in Zimbabwe and an indoor setting at Parken Zooin Sweden. Preliminary analyses of spectrographic and waveform data are provided.

Eklund, Robert; Peters, Gustav; Ananthakrishnan, Gopal; Mabiza, Evans

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

242

Multi-point Observations of the Waveform and Propagation of Lion Roars  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. In this study, lion roar activity was observed simultaneously on the four Cluster spacecraft and on the Double Star equatorial (TC1) spacecraft. The Cluster spacecraft were in a tetrahedron formation with approximately 1500km separation, whilst TC1 was 30000km from Cluster, all in the magnetosheath, allowing multi-scale observations of the waves within mirror mode structures. The propagation direction determined from the lion roar waveform measured by the STAFF tri-axial search coil magnetometer is compared to the background magnetic field, and the electron temperature anisotropy estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios is compared to PEACE electron measurements.

Yearby, K. H.; Walker, S.; Alleyne, H.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Maksimovic, M.; Lahiff, A.; Fazakerley, A.

2005-12-01

243

The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka  

CERN Document Server

This paper discusses the solar orientation of the archaeological complex of Sigiriya, the Lion Rock, in Sri Lanka. We can see that the axis of this complex is oriented with the sunset of the zenithal sun.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

2013-01-01

244

Diagnosis of suspected hypovitaminosis A using magnetic resonance imaging in African lions (Panthera leo)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vitamin A deficiency is described in captive lions. Ante mortem diagnosis can either be made by serum analysis or liver biopsy, both of which may be problematic. This study utilised magnetic resonance imaging to identify vitamin A deficiency in lions with relatively mild clinical signs, which could otherwise be attributed to numerous other neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive, reliable diagnostic tool to demonstrate pathology typically associated with this con...

2012-01-01

245

On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambe...

Andersson, Jonas; Johansson, Erik; To?lli, Heikki

2012-01-01

246

The Evolutionary Dynamics of the Lion Panthera leo Revealed by Host and Viral Population Genomics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lion Panthera leo is one of the world's most charismatic carnivores and is one of Africa's key predators. Here, we used a large dataset from 357 lions comprehending 1.13 megabases of sequence data and genotypes from 22 microsatellite loci to characterize its recent evolutionary history. Patterns of molecular genetic variation in multiple maternal (mtDNA), paternal (Y-chromosome), and biparental nuclear (nDNA) genetic markers were compared with patterns of sequence and subtype variation of...

Antunes, Agostinho; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Roelke, Melody E.; Pecon-slattery, Jill; Packer, Craig; Winterbach, Christiaan; Winterbach, Hanlie; Hemson, Graham; Frank, Laurence; Stander, Philip; Siefert, Ludwig; Driciru, Margaret; Funston, Paul J.; Alexander, Kathy A.; Prager, Katherine C.

2008-01-01

247

Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lion prey selection was studied on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km2 , Limpopo Province, South Africa, in order to assist with management strategies. Monitoring was carried out between February 1998 and December 2001. Lion killed 15 species, with warthog, blue wildebeest, Burchell’s zebra, kudu and waterbuck constituting approximately 75% of their diet. Between 2.2% and 3.1% of the available prey biomass was killed yearly, while each female equivalent unit (FEQ killed between 3 kg and 3.2 kg daily. Lion predation was greater for warthog, wildebeest and waterbuck and less for impala than expected. When male lion were present, a greater number of warthog and giraffe were killed, while number of females had a significant effect on medium-sized prey species and total prey species killed. Significantly more warthog, wildebeest and kudu were killed in winter than summer. More prey than expected was killed in open habitats and less than expected in thickets. Managers of small, enclosed reserves need to constantly monitor prey populations, especially medium-sized prey and may be able to reduce predation on large prey species by manipulating male lion numbers. Reserves also need to contain adequate open habitats for lion to make use of these areas for hunting.

Luke Hunter

2011-11-01

248

Reproductive biology of a pride of lions on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reproductive biology of a pride of lions (Panthera leo adult male for the next three years.We recorded shorter than normal interbirth intervals, high birth rates of 1.3 cubs/lioness/year, very high cub survival rates, and subadults leaving the pride at young ages. This translated into substantially faster growth rates than are typical in large lion populations in ecologically similar circumstances such as Kruger National Park, but are similar to those of lions in Serengeti National Park. These demographic characteristics were probably induced initially by a lack of intense intraspecific competition and high prey availability, but population stability was maintained through the removal of young subadults by management. Interestingly, variability in conception rates between lionesses resulted in lower growth rates than have been found in other similar reintroduced lion populations. These demographic traits characterize many of the small reintroduced lion populations, and call for appropriate management to avoid the consequences of high predator densities. was studied on the 8500 ha Karongwe Game Reserve from 1999 to 2005. Over this period, the pride consisted of between four and 11 lions with a paired coalition of adult males during the first three years and a single

Cailey R. Owen

2011-10-01

249

Polarisation and propagation of lion roars in the dusk side magnetosheath  

Science.gov (United States)

We present observations of lion roars obtained in the magnetosheath by the Spectrum Analyser (SA) of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF) experiment aboard Cluster. STAFF-SA calculates, in near real time, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrix derived from three magnetic and two electric components of the electromagnetic field at 27 frequencies in the range of 8 Hz to 4 kHz. This allows the study of the properties of whistler mode waves and more particularly, the properties of lion roars , which are intense, short-duration, narrow-banded packets of whistler waves. Their presence is favoured by the magnetic field troughs associated with mirror mode structures. During two short periods of well-defined mirror modes, we study the depth B/B of the magnetic troughs, and the direction of propagation of the lion roars. During the first period, close to the magnetopause, deep magnetic troughs pass the satellites. Lion roars are then observed to propagate simultaneously in two directions, roughly parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field: this probably indicates that during this period, the satellites were within the successive source regions of lion roars. For the second period, far from the magnetopause, the magnetic troughs are less deep. Lion roars are propagating in only one direction, roughly anti-parallel to the magnetic field, suggesting that the source regions are more distant and predominantly on one side of the satellites.

Maksimovic, M.; Harvey, C. C.; Santolík, O.; Lacombe, C.; de Conchy, Y.; Hubert, D.; Pantellini, F.; Cornilleau-Werhlin, N.; Dandouras, I.; Lucek, E. A.; Balogh, A.

2001-10-01

250

George Bernard Shaw's Androcles and the Lion: A Postmodernist Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study makes an attempt to analyze the manifold aspects of Shaw's Androcles and the Lion on a postmodernist standpoint, meanwhile, demonstrates the dominion of modernism, which is portrayed through the vehicle of comedy with a bitter ironic language through the play. Regardless of the historical period in which the play occurs, the term postmodernism with its lineaments can aptly scrutinize the clash between modernism and postmodernism, and define the notion of freedom in a world where man is in fetters, either physically or mentally or both at the same time. This study tries to show how two Christian prisoners find their way to freedom by resisting against the suppression and oppression of an empire, whose glory rests on silencing the opposing voices.

Noorbakhsh Hooti

2012-03-01

251

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that Extremely Low Frequency, or 'lion' roars are closely coupled to quasi-periodic, large scale magnetosheath structures. Because the latter are waves generated by the drift mirror instability, an attempt is made to identify and describe the magnetic and plasma features associated with this instability. Observations and analyses of the large scale structures using ISEE 1 and 2 data for the earth's magnetosheath and Pioneer 11 data for Jupiter and Saturn are presented, along with the background of the drift mirror waves. The cyclotron and drift mirror instabilities occurring in the magnetosheath are natural relaxation processes which reduce the plasma pressure anisotropies created by preferential heating of the solar wind plasma as it passes through the bow shock, as well as the compression occurring when the plasma and fields approach the near-subsolar magnetopause.

Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Anderson, R. R.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.

1982-01-01

252

Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma (Collagenous Fibroma in an African Lion  

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Full Text Available Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (DF is a rare, benign, slowly growing, soft tissue tumor which originated from fibroblast. Although this type tumor has been occasionally reported in human beings, there was case report that was diagnosed as the DF in animal species. This report describes a case of DF that developed on the left flank of an 8-year-old female African lion. The mass was gradually enlarged for 5~6 months and the size was 25 x 16 x 8 cm3. Surgical excision of the mass was carried out. The mass was relatively hypocellular and showed proliferation of spindle and stellate shaped cells embedded in a fibromyxoid to densely fibrotic collagenous stroma. Six months after performing a surgical excision, no sign of any tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed.

S. H. Yun, H. S. Jang, S. K. Ku1, J. S. Park, T. H. Oh, K. W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

2012-05-01

253

Lion roars and nonoscillatory drift mirror waves in the magnetosheath  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that Extremely Low Frequency, or 'lion' roars are closely coupled to quasi-periodic, large scale magnetosheath structures. Because the latter are waves generated by the drift mirror instability, an attempt is made to identify and describe the magnetic and plasma features associated with this instability. Observations and analyses of the large scale structures using ISEE 1 and 2 data for the earth's magnetosheath and Pioneer 11 data for Jupiter and Saturn are presented, along with the background of the drift mirror waves. The cyclotron and drift mirror instabilities occurring in the magnetosheath are natural relaxation processes which reduce the plasma pressure anisotropies created by preferential heating of the solar wind plasma as it passes through the bow shock, as well as the compression occurring when the plasma and fields approach the near-subsolar magnetopause.

Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Anderson, R. R.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.

1982-08-01

254

Wave emission by whistler oscillitons: Application to ``coherent lion roars''  

Science.gov (United States)

Oscillitons are stationary, nonlinear structures exhibiting spatial oscillations superimposed on the spatial growth and decay which is characteristic of usual solitons. Although they were first identified in plasmas with two ion populations, it is shown they may generally occur in any media with a particular wave dispersion, in which there is at least one point in the diagnostic diagram where the phase- and group velocities coincide at finite values of k. In this paper, we study the properties of oscillitons in the electron whistler branch (`whistler oscillitons'). These arise from the momentum exchange between protons and electrons, mediated by the Maxwell stresses, and may generate coherent wave packets in the frequency range of 0.1 ?e lion roars' are discussed.

Sauer, K.; Dubinin, E.; McKenzie, J. F.

2002-12-01

255

New records of a threatened population of lion (Panthera leo) in a National Park in West Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In West Africa, the lion is currently characterized by small populations, fragmented and often isolated each another, with a virtual lack of ecological connection. Populations are generally declining. In some recent notes, it was declared that the lion in Ghana is functionally extinct, if not completely eradicated, and some recent surveys concluded about the probable extinction of lions from the Mole National Park (MNP), in Ghana’s Northern Territory. Aim...

Francesco Maria Angelici

2013-01-01

256

Etude des radioelements draines par le Rhone vers la Mediterranee: strategie d'echantillonnage et methodologie. (Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab. (Atomindex citation 25:00...

M. Arnaud S. Charmasson D. Calmet J. M. Fernandez A. Monaco

1992-01-01

257

Of lion manes and human beards: some unusual effects of the interaction between aggression and sociality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin (1871 suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights. Recent experimental studies on wild lions have emphasized the role of female selection, but analyses of specific attack behaviors and targets, and the social consequences of manelessness for lions living in very hot climates suggest that male manes may indeed mitigate the outcomes of intraspecific male attack and thus serve a permissive function for multimale + female groups, facilitating protection of prides against takeovers and infanticide by nomadic males. Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion’s mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social lifestyle, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors.

D. CarolineBlanchard

2010-01-01

258

New records of a threatened population of lion (Panthera leo in a National Park in West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In West Africa, the lion is currently characterized by small populations, fragmented and often isolated each another, with a virtual lack of ecological connection. Populations are generally declining. In some recent notes, it was declared that the lion in Ghana is functionally extinct, if not completely eradicated, and some recent surveys concluded about the probable extinction of lions from the Mole National Park (MNP, in Ghana’s Northern Territory. Aim of this note is to emphasize that the lion is still present in MNP, and this area must be still considered for species conservation, and therefore be studied carefully. In April 2011, using camera traps, a short movie of a young male lion was recorded, and  a roar has been clearly heard. The choice of areas where camera traps (n = 20 were placed derived from an habitat suitability model which was developed using lion records collected over 41 years. Our data show that MNP could still be regarded as a considerable area for western lion conservation, even considering the important results that, based on molecular-biology, show how lions in West and Central Africa are clearly differentiated from the other African ones.

Francesco Maria Angelici

2013-03-01

259

Ampfion-hybrid diode on the Cornell LION accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ampfion hybrid diode, previously run on the HYDRAMITE accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has recently been installed on the Cornell LION accelerator (1 TW, 1.8 MV, 40 ns pulse). The ampfion hybrid diode is magnetically insulated by means of a field coil in series with the cathode structure of the diode. An epoxy dielectric flashboard on the anode provides an anode plasma to supply the extracted ions. The diode has a geometric focal length of 20 cm. The experiment is equipped with plasma erosion opening switches on the anode stock to eliminate prepulse and improve the generator voltage risetime. Diagnostics include magnetic pickup loops to measure currents in the diode structure and non-neutral beam currents, biased charge collectors, and damage targets. An alpha particle pin hole camera utilizing the p,? reaction of fast (>500 kV) protons on boron or lithium is being developed to measure focus quality and proton current. Plastic track detector will be used to image the alpha particles coming from a boron or lithium target. A second pin hole camera uses a plastic scintillator and light detector to give time resolved focused ion intensity

1984-01-01

260

Female lions can identify potentially infanticidal males from their roars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite evidence from several bird, fish and mammal species that listeners can discriminate between the vocalizations of familiar and unfamiliar adult conspecifics, direct links between discriminatory abilities and fitness benefits have been difficult to identify. In free-ranging populations of African lions (Panthera leo), females with cubs face a substantial threat from one particular category of unfamiliar individuals: infanticidal males. Here we use playback experiments to demonstrate that females with cubs can distinguish immediately between roars from their own resident males (the fathers of the cubs) and those from unfamiliar, potentially infanticidal males. Although they remain relaxed when played roars from resident males, they immediately become agitated on hearing unfamiliar males and retreat rapidly with their cubs if the latter have reached about 4.5 months of age. These responses are not simply a function of the roarers being unfamiliar, for when played the roars of unfamiliar females, females with cubs consistently approach the loudspeaker. Furthermore, females often move toward the cubs in response to playbacks of unfamiliar males but not in response to playbacks of unfamiliar females or resident males. Our results suggest how females with cubs might, by quickly detecting and categorizing unfamiliar intruders within their territory, protect their cubs from infanticidal males and expel intruding females. Distinguishing between individuals on the basis of their vocal characteristics could therefore confer direct fitness benefits on discriminating lionesses. PMID:8389047

McComb, K; Pusey, A; Packer, C; Grinnell, J

1993-04-22

 
 
 
 
261

Seasonality and composition of particulate fluxes during ECOMARGE—I, western Gulf of Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of the ECOMARGE program (ECOsystèmes de MARGE continentale), sequential sediment traps were deployed on the continental margin of the Gulf of Lions, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Two sites located in the southwestern part of this region were selected for the first phase of the experiment: inner shelf (bottom depth: 27 m) and continental slope (Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon, bottom depth: 650 m). The canyon was selected as representative of the continental slope, because canyons comprise more than 50% of the slope area. Total mass, organic matter, opal, carbonate and siliciclastic residue fluxes were measured biweekly at 50, 100, 300 and 600 m in the upper part of the Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon (from July 1985 to April 1986) and for longer periods (2 weeks to 2 months) at 10 and 25 m on the shelf (from May 1985 to June 1986). Mass fluxes increased generally with depth, reaching values as high as 20,000 mg m -2 d -1 in the 600 m slope (canyon) trap; this indicated lateral transport of biogenic and abiogenic particulate matter, from local (adjacent shelf and upper slope waters) and distant origin (Rhoˆne River). Shelf-slope particulate transfer attested by the paracontemporaneity of high flux events on the shelf and the slope and by the continuity of the shelf benthic nepheloid layer and intermediate nepheloid layers over the canyon: this rapid and took generally less than 16 days (trap sample resolution time). Particle fluxes and compositions defined a layered system, in which the surface layersLiguro-Provençal Current and to the winter increase of the Rhoˆne River and other coastal river discharges; variations at higher frequencies, which were related to various impulse events such as summer internal waves, autumn and winter storms and spring nutrient enrichment. The role of the Lacaze-Duthiers Canyon in the particulate transfer across the continental margin is discussed within the particular context of this advective system. Although the importance of local, intra-canyon resuspension of bottom sediments could not be estimated, it seems that the high suspended particulate matter concentrations and particle fluxes observed are essentially related to the fact that this canyon acts as a natural trap which collects particles from the entire Gulf of Lions. Comparison of the flux necessary to sustain the unsupported 210Pb inventory in the canyon sediments, with the mean 210Pb flux measured by traps and of 210Pb-determined mass accumulation rates with total mass fluxes indicate that the canyon partly acts as a modern sediment depocenter of the particles swept into it from the shelf and the slope; also partly as a modern conduit of particles to the deep basin. Several biological mechanisms are probably responsible for the rapid settling of particles onto the slope (within the canyon); these may, thereby, reduce lateral transfer from the shelf to the open ocean and constitute a kind of "biological barrier".

Monaco, A.; Courp, T.; Heussner, S.; Carbonne, J.; Fowler, S. W.; Deniaux, B.

1990-09-01

262

Social Structure of Lions (Panthera leo) Is Affected by Management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n?=?296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n?=?168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n?=?128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting.

Sogbohossou, Etotepe A.; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J.; De Snoo, Geert R.; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H.

2014-01-01

263

Social structure of lions (Panthera leo) is affected by management in Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion populations have undergone a severe decline in West Africa. As baseline for conservation management, we assessed the group structure of lions in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. This reserve, composed of one National Park and two Hunting Zones, is part of the WAP transboundary complex of protected areas. Overall mean group size was 2.6±1.7 individuals (n?=?296), it was significantly higher in the National Park (2.7±1.7, n?=?168) than in the Hunting Zones (2.2±1.5, n?=?128). Overall adult sex ratio was even, but significantly biased towards females (0.67) in the National Park and towards males (1.67) in the Hunting Zones. Our results suggest that the Pendjari lion population is affected by perturbations, such as trophy hunting. PMID:24416263

Sogbohossou, Etotépé A; Bauer, Hans; Loveridge, Andrew; Funston, Paul J; De Snoo, Geert R; Sinsin, Brice; De Iongh, Hans H

2014-01-01

264

Diagnosis of suspected hypovitaminosis A using magnetic resonance imaging in African lions (Panthera leo  

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Full Text Available Vitamin A deficiency is described in captive lions. Ante mortem diagnosis can either be made by serum analysis or liver biopsy, both of which may be problematic. This study utilised magnetic resonance imaging to identify vitamin A deficiency in lions with relatively mild clinical signs, which could otherwise be attributed to numerous other neurological conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging is a non-invasive, reliable diagnostic tool to demonstrate pathology typically associated with this condition. To accommodate varying lion ages and sizes, a number of cranium and brain measurements were compared with that of the maximum diameter of the occular vitreous humor. Occular ratios of the tentorium cerebelli osseum and occipital bone were most reliable in diagnosing the thickened osseous structures characteristic of hypovitaminosis A. The ratio of maximum : minimum dorsoventral diameter of the C1 spinal cord was also of value.

L. Sweers

2012-06-01

265

Can a Lamb Reach a Haven Before Being Eaten by Diffusing Lions?  

CERN Document Server

We study the survival of a single diffusing lamb on the positive half line in the presence of N diffusing lions that all start at the same position L to the right of the lamb and a haven at x=0. If the lamb reaches this haven before meeting any lion, the lamb survives. We investigate the survival probability of the lamb, S_N(x,L), as a function of N and the respective initial positions of the lamb and the lions, x and L. We determine S_N(x,L) analytically for the special cases of N=1 and N--->oo. For large but finite N, we determine the unusual asymptotic form whose leading behavior is S_N(z)\\simN^{-z^2}, with z=x/L. Simulations of the capture process very slowly converge to this asymptotic prediction as N reaches 10^{500}.

Gabel, Alan; Panduranga, Nagendra K; Redner, S

2012-01-01

266

Sub-occipital craniectomy in a lion (Panthera leo) with occipital bone malformation and hypovitaminosis A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurologic dysfunction accompanied by malformation of both the skull and the cervical vertebrae has been previously described in lions kept in captivity worldwide, and this dysfunction and malformation were most often related to vitamin A deficiency. Diagnosis of the bone malformation and its effects on the neural tissue was until recently limited to postmortem examination, with characteristic thickening of the bones of the cranial vault, cerebellar herniation, compression of the foramen magnum, and enlargement of the lateral ventricles. For some mildly affected lion cubs with neurologic signs, improvement was reported with excessive vitamin A supplementation. However, definitive diagnosis was only available for those that eventually died or were euthanized. This case documents the antemortem diagnosis of the disease using computed tomographic imaging and liver biopsy. While conservative treatment failed, suboccipital craniectomy removed the thickened occipital bone and was demonstrated to be a successful surgical intervention that can be used to treat more severely affected lions. PMID:18817011

Shamir, Merav H; Shilo, Yael; Fridman, Alon; Chai, Orit; Reifen, Ram; Miara, Limor

2008-09-01

267

The generation mechanism for magnetosheath lion roars. [whistler-mode waves  

Science.gov (United States)

The origin of lion roars, intense electromagnetic whistler-mode waves which occur throughout the magnetosheath, is investigated based on particle and field data obtained on the ISEE satellites. Analysis of the measured magnetic fields, plasma densities and plasma wave intensities during periods of lion roar emission reveals the lion roar bursts to be correlated with decreases in magnetic field intensity, while the plasma density exhibits a strong anticorrelation with the magnetic field variability during the bursts and the total plasma pressure remains essentially constant. Results indicate that the waves can originate by the cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic magnetosheath electrons whenever the magnetic energy per particle falls to values comparable with the electron thermal energy. Variations in the magnetic energy appear to be associated with the hydromagnetic mirror instability which in turn is excited by a pressure anisotropy in the magnetosheath ion population.

Thorne, R. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

1981-01-01

268

Polarisation and propagation of lion roars in the dusk side magnetosheath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present observations of "lion roars" obtained in the magnetosheath by the Spectrum Analyser (SA of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment aboard Cluster. STAFF-SA calculates, in near real time, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrix derived from three magnetic and two electric components of the electromagnetic field at 27 frequencies in the range of 8 Hz to 4 kHz. This allows the study of the properties of whistler mode waves and more particularly, the properties of "lion roars", which are intense, short-duration, narrow-banded packets of whistler waves. Their presence is favoured by the magnetic field troughs associated with mirror mode structures. During two short periods of well-defined mirror modes, we study the depth ?B/B of the magnetic troughs, and the direction of propagation of the lion roars. During the first period, close to the magnetopause, deep magnetic troughs pass the satellites. Lion roars are then observed to propagate simultaneously in two directions, roughly parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field: this probably indicates that during this period, the satellites were within the successive source regions of lion roars. For the second period, far from the magnetopause, the magnetic troughs are less deep. Lion roars are propagating in only one direction, roughly anti-parallel to the magnetic field, suggesting that the source regions are more distant and predominantly on one side of the satellites.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities Radio science (radiowave propagation

M. Maksimovic

269

Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana  

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Lions rarely prey on elephants. Botswana’s Savuti lions, however, switch to preying on elephants during the late dry season (August–November), and the frequency of this has increased in the last two decades (1985–2005). An opportunity to document this phenomenon was made possible with infrared vie...

John Power, R.; Shem Compion, R. X.

2011-01-01

270

Thermal niches of lions and their prey: how heat and cooling affects their interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By implanting thermal loggers deep in the body cavities of lions, eland antelopes, wildebeest and impala in a hot (up to 48°C) and arid (~ 300 mm p.a.) savanna system with cold winters (minimally 4°C at night) in the northern border area of South Africa, we have measured core body temperatures over the day for a number of months. Temperature measurements were sent every 20 minutes to a receiver in a neck collar, from which they were transferred by cell-phone (in case of the lions) or satell...

Prins, H. H. T.; Boer, W. F.; Vliet, C.; Boer, R.; Bie, S.

2014-01-01

271

Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Primates, Callitrichidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823 was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey items, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities. These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

Fernando de Camargo Passos

1999-01-01

272

New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona  

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Full Text Available Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus cooleyi, a species about which little is known.

Paul R. Krausman

2011-06-01

273

STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

Agus Maulana

2009-03-01

274

Alegoria californiana Californian allegory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinação entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrategias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formulated strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

Julio Ramos

2012-12-01

275

Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of panthera atrox : Implications for the evolution and paleobiology of the lion lineage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox shows lion affinities, but also deviates from lions in numerous aspects. Mandibular morphology is more similar to jaguars and tigers and, as with cranial morphology, the mandible shows a number of traits not present among extant pantherines. Multivariate analyses grouped Panthera atrox separately from other pantherines. Panthera atrox was no lion, and cannot be assigned to any of the extant pantherines; it constituted a separate species. A possible scenario for evolution of P. atrox is that it formed part of a pantherine lineage thatentered the Americas in the mid-Pleistocene and gave rise to the extant jaguar and Panthera atrox in the late Pleistocene of North America. These studies suggest that previous models of lion biogeography are incorrect, and although lions may have been present in Beringia, they did not penetrate into the American mainland. © 2009 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Christiansen, Per; Harris, J.M.

2009-01-01

276

Pedologic influences on hillslope hydrology: The relationships between soil and hydrologic connectivity in a Californian oak-woodland  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding what controls hydrologic connectivity and how it develops has important implications for ecosystem services. It can affect water quality, nutrient and sediment delivery to the stream, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and more. Bedrock topography and soil act in concert as primary physical controls on hydrologic connectivity. However, the important role soil can play is not well understood. A hillslope study was conducted to explore the dynamics between soil and hydrologic connectivity. The hillslope was in a zero-order watershed with a flashy ephemeral stream. It was located in an oak-woodland in the Californian northern Sierra foothills. The research objectives were to 1) identify and characterize hydrologically significant soil properties; 2) explore how soil stratigraphy and morphology influence hydrologic connectivity; and 3) examine potential causes for connection and disconnection of hydrologic flowpaths during and between rain storm events. During the 2012 wet season a 210-m hillslope transect was instrumented to collect soil moisture data every five minutes. The instruments were put at multiple locations and depths to capture the soil spatial variability. Once the soil became too dry for monitoring the transect was trenched, characterized and sampled. Texture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves were measured in the lab. Structure, color, redoximorphic features, soil horizon spatial differentiation, saprolite and bedrock characteristics, and coarse fragment percentage were recorded in the field. Prior to excavation an electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in conjunction with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) was performed along the hillslope. The goal of the survey was to explore non-invasive techniques to determine spatial variability of hydrologically significant soil horizons and bedrock. The GPR was found not to be reliable at the site. However, the EMI showed potential in showing the discontinuous distribution of the claypan, a horizon characterized by a large and abrupt increase in clay content and very low permeability. The data obtained from the transect excavation was used to create a two-dimensional hillslope model using HYDRUS-2D. Coupled with the soil moisture and local precipitation data the hillslope hydrology was modeled at individual storm event time scale. The field data showed that the hillslope was very complex and comprised of a discontinuous claypan, undulating bedrock topography and highly variable saprolite. The soil moisture data and modeling efforts showed that the surface horizons, which are highly permeable and contain numerous macropores, are the primary hydrologic flowpaths during storm events. The model showed that the presence of claypan decreased effective soil depth, increased antecedent wetness and created a perched water table. The model also showed that the undulating bedrock acted like a dam along the hillslope. The claypan network and undulating bedrock created isolated zones of wetness that only become connected and flow downhill into the stream when a storm caused the disconnected zones to rise in the highly permeable surface horizons.

Alldritt, K.; O'Geen, A.; Dahlgren, R. A.

2013-12-01

277

Population demography and spatial ecology of a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many recently established small game reserves in southern Africa have introduced lion, and have had to actively manage their populations as the lion are in relatively small(<1000 km², enclosed areas. This study was undertaken on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km², Limpopo Province, South Africa to describe population demography and lion movement patterns in order to enhance management decisions. A pride of five lion were introduced to Makalali in December 1994 and since then 35 cubs have been born (11.6 % population growth per year over 7.5 years, 31 of which have been translocated to other reserves. To increase genetic diversity, the two male coalition was removed in May 1999 and another two males introduced during July 1999. During the study, the reserve area was increased by approximately 23 %. Although the Makalali lion utilised a smaller home range during winter (75.3 km² than summer (106.8 km², this difference was not significant. The core ranges also shifted between seasons, with 46 % of the summer core being utilised during winter. When the new males were introduced, they centred their core range near their release boma. The females also shifted their core range to this region after their young male cubs were moved into the boma. After the Makalali area was increased, the lion increased their home range area, while their core range became reduced and more dispersed. There was no significant difference in the distances the lion moved in a 24 hour period between the two seasons, or before and after the two management actions. The Makalali lion also spent more time than expected in low open woodland and grassland habitats and less than expected in low thickets. We conclude that lion populations can successfully exist within small reserves (<100km² and that actions to manage the population can be successful if certain criteria are considered.

R. Slotow

2004-12-01

278

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

2007-11-01

279

Multi-valued boundary value problems involving Leray-Lions operators and discontinuous nonlinearities  

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We prove an existence result for a class of Dirichlet boundary value problems with discontinuous nonlinearity and involving a Leray-Lions operator. The proof combines monotonicity methods for elliptic problems, variational inequality techniques and basic tools related to monotone operators.

Dabuleanu, Simona; Radulescu, Vicentiu

2003-01-01

280

Evaluating Long-Term Effects of the Golden Lion Tamarin Environmental Education Program in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors evaluated the environmental education program of the Golden Lion Tamarin Association in Brazil by comparing results of a 2001 survey with baseline data from 1986. Responses of 666 residents and results from 4 focus groups revealed an increase in public support for the tamarin and its habitat and an increase in general environmental…

Engels, Christine Archer; Jacobson, Susan K.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

«Sur la piste du lion», les itinéraires de Kessel, 1898-1979  

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Full Text Available Le livre d'Yves Courrière (Sur la piste du lion, 1985 permet de suivre l'essentiel des grands voyages de Joseph Kessel (1898-1979 après avoir raconté la diaspora familiale. Ils constituent le support géographique de son œuvre, dans les domaines du reportage et de la littérature: une reconstitution à travers des cartes chronologiques.

Claude IMBERT

1986-06-01

282

Bioaccumulation of pollutants in Galapagos sea lions and marine mammals from British Columbia, Canada  

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Bioaccumulation is a key criterion to assess and manage commercial chemicals and pollutants recognized internationally in the United Nations Stockholm Convention for Persistent Organic Pollutants, the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals Program in the European Union, the Toxic Substances Control Act in the USA and nationally the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Bioaccumulation is the process by which chemical concentrations achieve high levels in wildlif...

2011-01-01

283

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)  

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Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarin...

Carolina Loch; Simo?es-lopes, Paulo C.; Drehmer, Ce?sar J.

2010-01-01

284

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

Carolina Loch

2010-06-01

285

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comp [...] aratively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6), due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

Loch, Carolina; Simões-Lopes, Paulo C.; Drehmer, César J..

286

77 FR 23209 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Proposed Delisting of Eastern DPS of Steller Sea Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

...fishery observer programs; (2) aggressive enforcement of the emergency...Alaska Department of Fish and Game discussed the Recovery Plan...Alaska Department of Fish and Game have outreach programs devoted...classroom presentations, videos, bumper sticker...

2012-04-18

287

Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique evolutionary history, which is reflected by their genetic makeup. Location Sub-Saharan Africa and India, with special focus on West and Central Africa. Method In this study 126 samples, throughout th...

Bertola, L. D.; Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Weerd, D. R. U.; York, D. S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Funston, P. J.; Haes, H. A. U.; Leirs, H.; Haeringen, W. A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P. N.; Iongh, H. H.

2011-01-01

288

Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in flight, the network and data management were handled by a Nexus 7 tablet.

Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

2013-12-01

289

Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

M.-C. Ciobanu

2012-09-01

290

Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

Science.gov (United States)

An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age) strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca). In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

2012-09-01

291

Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV naturally infects multiple species of cat and is related to human immunodeficiency virus in humans. FIV infection causes AIDS-like disease and mortality in the domestic cat (Felis catus and serves as a natural model for HIV infection in humans. In African lions (Panthera leo and other exotic felid species, disease etiology introduced by FIV infection are less clear, but recent studies indicate that FIV causes moderate to severe CD4 depletion. Results In this study, comparative genomic methods are used to evaluate the full proviral genome of two geographically distinct FIV subtypes isolated from free-ranging lions. Genome organization of FIVPle subtype B (9891 bp from lions in the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and FIVPle subtype E (9899 bp isolated from lions in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, both resemble FIV genome sequence from puma, Pallas cat and domestic cat across 5' LTR, gag, pol, vif, orfA, env, rev and 3'LTR regions. Comparative analyses of available full-length FIV consisting of subtypes A, B and C from FIVFca, Pallas cat FIVOma and two puma FIVPco subtypes A and B recapitulate the species-specific monophyly of FIV marked by high levels of genetic diversity both within and between species. Across all FIVPle gene regions except env, lion subtypes B and E are monophyletic, and marginally more similar to Pallas cat FIVOma than to other FIV. Sequence analyses indicate the SU and TM regions of env vary substantially between subtypes, with FIVPle subtype E more related to domestic cat FIVFca than to FIVPle subtype B and FIVOma likely reflecting recombination between strains in the wild. Conclusion This study demonstrates the necessity of whole-genome analysis to complement population/gene-based studies, which are of limited utility in uncovering complex events such as recombination that may lead to functional differences in virulence and pathogenicity. These full-length lion lentiviruses are integral to the advancement of comparative genomics of human pathogens, as well as emerging disease in wild populations of endangered species.

Sondgeroth Kerry

2008-02-01

292

Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766) and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marmosets (Callithrix spp.) have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM) population in two fragments with reintroduced golden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha) was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha...

Carlos Ramon Ruiz-Miranda; Adriana Gomes Affonso; Marcio Marcelo de Morais; Carlos Eduardo Verona; Andreia Martins; Beck, Benjamin B.

2006-01-01

293

Water use by the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The extent to which the Kalahari lion can survive without having to drink water was investigated in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. It was found that while they may drink regularly where water is available, they may become completely independent of water under extreme desert conditions. Sufficient moisture for their needs seems to be obtained from the blood and body fluids of their prey and the vegetable components of theirdiet. Loss of water through evaporation is reduced by the lion'sleisurely way of life.

F.C. Eloff

1973-07-01

294

Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Primates, Callitrichidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey item [...] s, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities). These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

Passos, Fernando de Camargo; Keuroghlian, Alexine.

295

Of Lions and Foxes: Power and Rule in Hebrew Medieval Fables  

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Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the lion and the fox as an expression of the disposition of powers in the political-governmental arena and their relationship to the governed, in ancient and medieval philosophical thought. This article will also examine the mutual relationships between rulers and their advisors and between rulers and subjects in a kingdom or within a court under their rule, with a focus on Hebrew medieval fables. This article is based on two examples: one from Mishle Shualim by Berechiah Hanakdan (England / Provence, at the end of the 12th century or the first half of the 13th century and the other from Meshal Haqadmoni, by Isaac Ibn Sahula (Spain, 1281. The characters of the lion and the fox as metaphors are reflected as well as in modern political thought in theories that discuss the ruling elite, and their relevance seems applicable to our times.

Revital Refael-Vivante

2009-06-01

296

Effects of simulated mountain lion caching on decomposition of ungulate carcasses  

Science.gov (United States)

Caching of animal remains is common among carnivorous species of all sizes, yet the effects of caching on larger prey are unstudied. We conducted a summer field experiment designed to test the effects of simulated mountain lion (Puma concolor) caching on mass loss, relative temperature, and odor dissemination of 9 prey-like carcasses. We deployed all but one of the carcasses in pairs, with one of each pair exposed and the other shaded and shallowly buried (cached). Caching substantially reduced wastage during dry and hot (drought) but not wet and cool (monsoon) periods, and it also reduced temperature and discernable odor to some degree during both seasons. These results are consistent with the hypotheses that caching serves to both reduce competition from arthropods and microbes and reduce odds of detection by larger vertebrates such as bears (Ursus spp.), wolves (Canis lupus), or other lions.

Bischoff-Mattson, Z.; Mattson, D.

2009-01-01

297

Stacking pattern and stratigraphic model of reservoirs from a modern analogue to ancient deltaic and siliciclastic deposits: Golfe du Lion, SE France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The {open_quotes}Golfe du Lion{close_quotes} Pleistocene shelf deposits are used as modern analogues of ancient deltaic and shallow water siliciclastic deposits. At least 6 cyclic superimposed sedimentary packages constituting a seaward thickening wedge are documented, including major progradational clinoforms units bounded by regional unconformities, with their updip terminations. Seismic correlations and geometry models, together with age dating and facies analysis of the uppermost units have been used at regional scale. They allowed to differentiate allocyclic from autocyclic events, to improve our knowledge of the nature of tectonic control on architecture, and to rely the different seismic units, inside the packages, to the environmental changes from interglacial highstand to glacial lowstand in 4 to 5th order cycles. An alternative model of {open_quotes}forced regression{close_quotes} during sea level lowstand was documented and validated. The different illustrated sedimentary units, related to specific parts of the relative sea level curve along a short duration/high amplitude cycle, are: (i) the {open_quotes}forced regression{close_quotes} deposits (ii) the late lowstand massive sands onto the outer shelf (iii) the early transgressive backstepping (?) beach sands, (iii) the late transgressive backslapping parasequences. The sand content inferred from the seismic facies, comforted with the uppermost units facies from data cores, is in agreement with this model.

Tesson, M.; Bernard, G.; Georges, A.; Christian, R.

1995-08-01

298

Eleanor Anne Porden's Coeur de Lion (1822): History, Epic and Romance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines the medievalist epic Coeur de Lion (1822), by Eleanor Anne Porden (1795-1825). The author reads this poem not simply for the way it draws on exhaustive research, but for the way it treats this research, invoking yet sidestepping the demands of historical accuracy. Specifically, Porden grapples with the challenges of representing Britain's chivalric past, exploring whether to adopt the feminized trappings of romance or to align herself with the objectivity of historical e...

Johns-putra, A.

2012-01-01

299

A lion lentivirus related to feline immunodeficiency virus: epidemiologic and phylogenetic aspects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a novel lentivirus that is genetically homologous and functionally analogous to the human AIDS viruses, human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2. FIV causes immunosuppression in domestic cats by destroying the CD4 T-lymphocyte subsets in infected hosts. A serological survey of over 400 free-ranging African and Asian lions (Panthera leo) for antibodies to FIV revealed endemic lentivirus prevalence with an incidence of seropositivity as high as 90%. A li...

Brown, E. W.; Yuhki, N.; Packer, C.; O Brien, S. J.

1994-01-01

300

Cytauxzoon felis-like in the Moutain Lion (Puma concolor): A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Laboratory of Clinical Pathology of UNIDERP performs routine examinations, when requested, of animals from the Center for Wild Animal Rehabilitation (CRAS) of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. During one of these routine procedures, erythrocytic parasites identified as Cytauxzoon felis-like were detected in blood smears obtained from a mountain lion (Puma concolor) with parasitemia being 20%. No clinical alterations or infestation with ticks were observed in this animal, and hematological and ser...

Juliano Raquel Soares; Souza Alda Izabel; Netto, Nilton T. Rcio; Scheide Renata; Scofield Alessandra

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Home Range Utilisation and Territorial Behaviour of Lions (Panthera leo) on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interventionist conservation management of territorial large carnivores has increased in recent years, especially in South Africa. Understanding of spatial ecology is an important component of predator conservation and management. Spatial patterns are influenced by many, often interacting, factors making elucidation of key drivers difficult. We had the opportunity to study a simplified system, a single pride of lions (Panthera leo) after reintroduction onto the 85 km2 Karongwe Game Reserve, f...

Lehmann, Monika B.; Funston, Paul J.; Owen, Cailey R.; Slotow, Rob

2008-01-01

302

Sedimentary sequences in the Gulf of Lion: A record of 100,000 years climatic cycles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wide continental shelf of the Gulf of Lion (up to 70 km) has been the object of numerous investigations since the early days of oceanography. Yet, the question of sequences duration, the mechanisms of deposition and factors implied remained unanswered. A study of a very dense grid of Very High Resolution (VHR) seismic reflection (Sparker) data associated with surficial cores both, collected by IFREMER between 1992 and 2001 on the outer shelf and upper slope offshore of Sète in the Langue...

Rabineau, Marina; Berne, Serge; Aslanian, Daniel; Olivet, Jean-louis; Joseph, Philippe; Guillocheau, Franc?ois; Bourillet, Jean-francois; Le Drezen, Eliane; Granjeon, Didier

2005-01-01

303

Axial incision: The key to understand submarine canyon evolution (in the western Gulf of Lion)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A detailed morphological analysis of the outer shelf and continental slope of the Western Gulf of Lion is presented, based on swath bathymetry data together with sub-bottom profiles and high resolution seismic reflection profiles. These data reveal two main erosive features, of very different dimensions: the axial incision and the canyon's major valley. The height of axial incisions' flanks with respect to the canyon deepest point (the thalweg) ranges from 40 to 150 m. It creates a small axia...

2005-01-01

304

THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price a...

Patricia van den Eeckhout; Peter Scholliers

2011-01-01

305

Circumvention of prey defense by a predator: ant lion vs. ant.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pit-dwelling ant lion Myrmeleon carolinus, although topically sensitive to formic acid, is able to prey on formic acid-spraying ants (Camponotus floridanus). It kills the ants without inducing them to spray, and it sucks out the ant's body contents without puncturing the acid sac. Ordinarily, when Camponotus is attacked it retaliates by simultaneously biting and spraying, but it usually refrains from spraying until it has secured a grip with the mandibles. When Myrmeleon pulls Camponotus ...

Eisner, T.; Baldwin, I. T.; Conner, J.

1993-01-01

306

Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two...

2010-01-01

307

DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles in an electromagnetic field  

CERN Multimedia

We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solves the linear Maxwell system in the void but for singular initial conditions. As the corresponding force field is only in $L^2$, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.

Jabin, Pierre-Emmanuel

2012-01-01

308

Interpretation of Lion Roars Observed in Magnetosheath Modeled by Generalized (r,q) Distribution Function  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars, the low frequency mode of the Whistler waves having frequencies nearly centered around 100 Hz, are frequently observed in the magnetosheath. Using bi-Maxwellian distribution function, Masood et al. [2006] employed kinetic theory to study the lion roars observed by Cluster in the magnetosheath. The results they obtained on the basis of Maxwellian distribution function could not justify the observations both quantitatively as well as qualitatively. We studied the same waves by using the non-Maxwellian distribution function namely the generalized (r,q) distribution function which is the generalized form of kappa, Davidov-Druyvesteyn and Maxwellian distribution functions. We employed kinetic theory to obtain the expressions for real frequency and established the necessary and sufficient condition to achieve growth/damping rates. We compare our results with the Cluster observations and found good quantitative and qualitative agreement between them. At times when lion roars are observed (not observed) in the data and bi-Maxwellian could not provide the sufficient growth (damping) rates, we showed that when generalized (r,q) distribution function is employed, the obtained growth (damping) rates are in good agreement with observations.

Qureshi, M. N.; Masood, W.; Shah, H. A.; Yoon, P. H.; Schwartz, S. J.

2013-12-01

309

Cytauxzoon felis-like in the Moutain Lion (Puma concolor: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Laboratory of Clinical Pathology of UNIDERP performs routine examinations, when requested, of animals from the Center for Wild Animal Rehabilitation (CRAS of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. During one of these routine procedures, erythrocytic parasites identified as Cytauxzoon felis-like were detected in blood smears obtained from a mountain lion (Puma concolor with parasitemia being 20%. No clinical alterations or infestation with ticks were observed in this animal, and hematological and serum biochemical exams showed only slight alterations. Blood and serum were collected three months later from six mountain lions housed at the CRAS and another animal tested positive for parasites in blood smears with parasitemia of 10%, without showing any clinical, hematological or blood biochemical changes characteristic of cytauxzoonosis. This animal presented parasitemia and laboratory results slightly lower than those observed in the previous animal. Two domestic cats (Felis catus were inoculated, but the animals did not show any clinical signs of cytauxzoonosis. The identification of this blood-borne parasite in wild felines maintained in captivity in the absence of pathogenic manifestations suggests that the mountain lion acts as a natural host for C. felis- like, or that this strain is less pathogenic. Since this is the first report of cytauxzoonosis in Puma concolor in Brazil, further epidemiological studies are necessary to determine the true impact of infection of wild felines with this protozoan.

Netto, Nilton T?rcio

2004-01-01

310

Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

2006-12-15

311

Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 109/?. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometricanalysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001 in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

L. Du Plessis

2010-09-01

312

On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambers, containing isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane [Si(CH3)4] as the sensitive media, and a NACP-02 monitor chamber. An initial activity of approximately 250 GBq 18F was employed as the radiation source in the experiments. The initial dose rate in each measurement series was estimated to 1.0 Gy min?1 by Monte Carlo simulations and the measurements were carried out during the decay of the radioactive source. In the investigation of general recombination losses, employing the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, the liquid ionization chambers were operated at polarizing voltages 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 V. Furthermore, measurements were also performed at 500 V polarizing voltage in the investigation of the sensitivity of the microLion chamber to ambient electric fields. Results: The measurement results from the liquid ionization chambers, corrected for general recombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of 0.2 Gy min?1 were excluded from the present investigation of the general collection efficiency. The perturbations were found to be more pronounced when the chamber polarizing voltage was increased. Conclusions: By using the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, comparable corrected ionization currents from experiments in low and medium energy photon beams can be achieved. However, the valid range of general collection efficiencies has been found to vary in a comparison between experiments performed in continuous beams of 120 kVp x ray, and the present investigation of 511 keV annihilation photons. At very high dose rates in continuous beams, there are presently no methods that can be used to correct for general recombination losses and at low dose rates the microLion chamber may be perturbed by ambient electric fields. Increasing the chamber polarizing voltage, which diminishes the general recombination effect, was found to increase the microLion chamber sensitivity to ambient electric fields. Prudence is thus advised when employing the microLion chamber in radiation dosimetry, as ambient electric fields of the strength observed in the present work may be found in many common situations. Due to uncertainties in the theoretical basis for recombination losses in liquids, further studies on the underlying theories for the initial and general recombination effect are needed if liquid ionization chambers are to become a viable option in high precision radiation dosimetry.

2012-08-01

313

Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

2010-08-01

314

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

K. H. Yearby

2005-11-01

315

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees) is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

Yearby, K. H.; Alleyne, H. S. C. K.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Santolik, O.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Fazakerley, A.; Lahiff, A.

2005-11-01

316

Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park  

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Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

I.J Whyte

1988-10-01

317

Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Kruger National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

Whyte, I. J.; Smuts, G. L.

1988-01-01

318

A walk down the Cap de Creus canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Recent processes inferred from morphology and sediment bedforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cap de Creus canyon, northwestern Mediterranean Sea, belongs to a complex network of submarine canyons cutting the western Gulf of Lion continental shelf and opening into the larger Sete canyon. Swath bathymetry data, MAKAM deep-towed side-scan sonar imagery and 5 kHz high resolution seismic reflection profiles show striking morphologies in the Cap de Creus canyon floor and walls. As a consequence of the canyon head and the upper reach severe incision, the continental shelf dramatically n...

2007-01-01

319

Assymmetric eddy populations in adjacent basins – a high resolution numerical study of the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A high-resolution ocean circulation modelling system forced with a high-resolution numerical wind product was used to study the mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddy population of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, contrasting eddy-activity between the Tyrrhenian and Ligurian sub-basins. Numerical solutions reproduced some of the known regional dynamics, namely the occurrence and oceanic implications of Mistral events, the convective cell leeward of the Gulf of Lion, as well as the Balear...

Caldeira, R. M. A.; Couvelard, X.; Casella, E.; Vetrano, A.

2012-01-01

320

Application of the Lion's integral to calculate heat transfer with the N2O4 turbulent flow in a tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When carrying out engineering calculation of heat transfer in the case of turbulent flow of non-equilibrium reacting gas in a tube, it is necessary to dispose of criterion dependence to calculate Nusselt number. As a rule, dependences obtained by empirical methods are not widely adopted. It is proposed that the integral of Lion type be used for the heat transfer calculation in the form of which an expression for Nusselt number has been written under the conditions of turbulent flow with a non-equilibrium chemical reaction. On calculating turbulent fluctuations Millionshchikov two-layer model is used. A simple approximation of source-discharge of the mass of mixture components is suggested for the sake of simplification of Lion integral. The proposed theoretical dependences for the heat transfer calculation when chemical reactions are available substantially extend the field of application of Lion integral and may be used designing equipment with a chemically reacting coolant

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the population, seem to be related to changes in prey populations, particularly to a decline in numbers and condition of buffalo Syncerus cafer.

M.G.L Mills

1995-09-01

322

Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the p...

Mills, M. G. L.

1995-01-01

323

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees) is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three ma...

Yearby, K. H.; Alleyne, H. S. C.; Cornilleau-wehrlin, N.; Santolik, O.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Fazakerley, A.; Lahiff, A.

2005-01-01

324

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees) is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the thr...

Yearby, K. H.; Alleyne, H. S. C.; Cornilleau-wehrlin, N.; Santolik, O.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Fazakerley, A.; Lahiff, A.

2005-01-01

325

Paleoenvironmental imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

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Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleontological parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasted subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lions. Since both depositional environments were well-documented in this area, large data-sets were available and allowed to calibrate the investigated cores with several reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. Molecular-based fingerprints showed that the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by an heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee, were unexpectedly dominated by Betaproteobacteria (more than 70 %, at the base of the core mainly below five meters in the sediment. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidites frequency indicated that the microbial diversity was controlled by the important climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. This result was supported by statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In contrast, the Gulf of Lions core, characterized by a homogeneous lithology of upper-slope environment, was dominated by the Bacteroidetes group and in a lesser extent, by the Betaproteobacteria group. At both sites, the dominance of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lions, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western-Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the structure/composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

M.-C. Ciobanu

2012-01-01

326

Hydrographic structure and nepheloid spatial distribution in the Gulf of Lions continental margin  

Science.gov (United States)

A general hydrographic and nephelometric survey of the Gulf of Lions margin was undertaken, under autumn conditions. The distribution of suspended material along the margin during this experiment is controlled, at least in part, by the following factors: (a) the hydrography of the shelf-slope waters, i.e. the nepheloid layers follow the isopyenals; and (b) the cyclonic circulation of the water masses (the Liguro-Provençal Current and, in particular the proximity and depth of the Levantine Intermediate Water circulation). On the northeastern part of the margin along the slope, the seaward extension of the nepheloid layers is sharply bounded and is concentrated in canyon heads by the general water circulation. In the southwestern part, the decreasing depth of the major flow of the general circulation and its increased distance seaward from the upper slope allow the seaward and downward expansion of the nepheloid structures. The suspended material extending offshore is swept away and diluted by the general circulation. The stepwise increase toward the southwest, in suspended particulate contents in the slope waters between the northeastern and southwestern ends of the Gulf of Lions, is assumed to be due mainly to inputs from the shelf through the canyons. The Marseille canyon, at the northeastern part of the Gulf of Lions margin, is influenced less by the Rhoˆne and other rivers of the shelf. The influence of the Rhoˆne is seen first at the longitude of the Rhoˆne's canyons. In the southwestern part of the Gulf, the Bourcart and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons are areas through which the suspended material, originating from the whole shelf, passes.

Durrieu de Madron, X.; Nyffeler, F.; Godet, C. H.

1990-09-01

327

Comparison of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of medetomidine-ketamine (20 ?g/kg bodyweight [BW] and 10 mg/kg BW) (MK group) or dexmedetomidine-ketamine (10 ?g/kg BW and 10 mg/kg BW) (DK group) were studied in golden-headed lion tamarins. Heart rate decreased after administration of both combinations; this reduction was statistically greater in the DK group than in the MK group after 15 and 45 minutes. Systolic arterial pressure decreased in a similar way in both groups, except at...

Selmi, Andre? L.; Mendes, Guilherme M.; Figueiredo, Juliana P.; Barbudo-selmi, Glenda R.; Lins, Bruno T.

2004-01-01

328

LIONS: a new set of Fortran 90 codes for the SPIRAL project at GANIL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A set of new computer programs developed at GANIL is presented; these codes are used to study different parts of the SPIRAL project (a new radioactive ion beam facility), and particularly the dynamics in the CIME cyclotron, its injection inflector, and the new extraction system of the ECR ion sources. Three important modules are described: CHA3D for the evaluation of 3D electric fields with or without space charge effects, LIONS for the motion of ions and EXTRACT for the ECRIS extraction. These modules are written in Fortran 90 in a ''data parallel scheme''. They work either on UNIX workstations or parallel and vectorial computers. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs

1994-10-03

329

Exploding metal film active anode source experiments on the LION extractor ion diode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors report results using an extractor geometry magnetically insulated ion diode on the 0.5 TW LION accelerator. Experiments with an exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS) have shown that intense beams with significantly improved turn-on time compared to epoxy-filled-groove anodes can be produced. A new geometry, in which a plasma switch is used to provide the current path that explodes the thin film anode, has improved the ion efficiency (to typically 70%) compared with the previous scheme in which an electron collector on the anode provided this current. Leakage electron current is reduced when no collector is used

1989-05-22

330

Fiber type and metabolic characteristics of lion (Panthera leo), caracal (Caracal caracal) and human skeletal muscle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lion (Panthera leo) and caracal (Caracal caracal) skeletal muscle samples from Vastus lateralis, Longissimus dorsi and Bluteus medius were analysed for fiber type and citrate synthase (CS; EC 2.3.3.1), 3-hydroxyacyl Co A dehydrogenase (3HAD; EC 1.1.1.35(, phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK; EC 2.7.1.11), creatine kinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2), phosphorylase (PHOS; EC 2.4.1.1) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 1.1.1.27) activities and compared to human runners, the latter also serving as validation of meth...

Kohn, Tertius Abraham; Burroughs, Richard; Hartman, Marthinus Jacobus; Noakes, Timothy David

2011-01-01

331

Quantifying subsidence and isostatic readjustment using sedimentary paleomarkers, example from the Gulf of Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

Passive margins are characterised by an important tectonic and thermal subsidence, which favours a good preservation of sedimentary sequences. This sedimentation in turn enhances the subsidence because of loading effects. We present here a direct method based on sedimentary markers seen on seismic data, to evaluate total subsidence rates from the coast to the outer shelf and to the deep basin in the Gulf of Lion, from the beginning of massive salt deposition up to present day (the last circa 6 Ma) with minimal theoretical assumptions.

Rabineau, M.; Leroux, E.; Aslanian, D.; Bache, F.; Gorini, C.; Moulin, M.; Molliex, S.; Droz, L.; dos Reis, A. T.; Rubino, J. L.; Guillocheau, F.; Olivet, J. L.

2014-02-01

332

THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price and service. This article investigates differences and similarities between Belgium’s and Britain’s food chain stores prior to 1914, dealing with business organization, product range, and clientele.

Patricia van den Eeckhout

2011-01-01

333

Petroleum geology of the Gulf of Lion (Mediterranean offshore-France)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The onshore sedimentary basins of Camargue and the northern edge of the Gulf of Lion have been explored since the middle of the last century. The results of this petroleum exploration were poor despite two small oil discoveries: the Oligocene onshore Gallician field and the Triassic onshore Gabian field (respectively 7000 tons and 23000 tons of oil production). Eleven wells were drilled offshore (from 1968 to 1985), all located on highs of the pre-Tertiary substratum. Few oil and gas shows were proven by only three of these wells. The seismic data base has been fully reinterpreted. The mapping of the pre-Tertiary substratum shows wide unexplored grabens in the Gulf of Lion. Some Oligocene prospects have been evidenced which are either stratigraphic traps or faulted blocks associated to salt seals. A new set of geochemical analysis of the Oligocene source rock has been performed as well as systematic generation and migration models (1D and 2D models) leading to the definition of an effective oil kitchen of an Oligocene lacustrine source rock (type 1).

Vially, R.; Jean-Jacques, B.; Alain, I.E.M. [Ifp, Rueil Malmaison (France)

1995-08-01

334

Selected clinical, biochemical, and electrolyte alterations in anesthetized captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study to assess changes in selected plasma biochemistry and electrolyte values, plasma insulin and aldosterone concentrations, and electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on eight female captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and three lions (Panthera leo) undergoing general anesthesia for elective laparoscopic ovariectomy. Each animal was sedated with medetomidine (18-25 microg/kg) and midazolam (0.06-0.1 mg/kg) intramuscularly, and anesthesia was induced with ketamine (1.9-3.5 mg/kg) intramuscularly and maintained with isoflurane. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma biochemistry parameters and insulin and aldosterone concentrations. An ECG was recorded at the time of each blood sample collection. Mean plasma potassium, glucose, phosphorus, and aldosterone concentrations increased during anesthesia (P reference interval (72-583 pmol/L), but mean insulin concentration increased (P < or = 0.05) over time compared with the baseline values. Three tigers and two lions had ECG changes that were representative of myocardial hypoxemia. Based on these results, continuous monitoring of clinical and biochemical alterations during general anesthesia in large nondomestic felids is warranted, and consideration should be given to reversal of medetomidine in these animals should significant changes in electrolytes or ECG occur. PMID:25000694

Reilly, Sabrina; Seddighi, M Reza; Steeil, James C; Sura, Patricia; Whittemore, Jacqueline C; Gompf, Rebecca E; Elliott, Sarah B; Ramsay, Edward C

2014-06-01

335

Canine distemper epizootic in lions, tigers, and leopards in North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection occurred in captive leopards (Panthera pardus), tigers (Panthera tigris), lions (Panthera leo), and a jaguar (Panthera onca) in 1991 and 1992. An epizootic affected all 4 types of cats at the Wildlife Waystation, San Fernando, California, with 17 mortalities. CDV-infected raccoons were thought to be the source of infection in these cats. Two black leopards died at the Naibi Zoo, Coal Valley, Illinois, and 2 tigers died at the Shambala Preserve, Acton, California. Initial clinical signs were anorexia with gastrointestinal and/or respiratory disease followed by seizures. Canine distemper virus was isolated from 3 leopards, 3 tigers, and 3 lions that died or were euthanized when moribund. Monoclonal antibody testing identified the virus isolates as CDV. Gross and histopathologic findings were similar to those found in canids with distemper with a few exceptions. There were fewer lesions in the brain, and there was a pronounced type 2 cell proliferation in the lung, with inclusion bodies and CDV antigen demonstrated by immunohistology. Neutralizing antibody to CDV was found in high titers in serum from most animals but was absent or was found only in low titers in some cats that succumbed after CDV infection. There was a marked difference in neutralizing antibody titers when tests were done with different strains of CDV. PMID:7948195

Appel, M J; Yates, R A; Foley, G L; Bernstein, J J; Santinelli, S; Spelman, L H; Miller, L D; Arp, L H; Anderson, M; Barr, M

1994-07-01

336

Nutrients and plankton spatial distributions induced by a coastal eddy in the Gulf of Lion. Insights from a numerical model  

Science.gov (United States)

A plankton functional types model forced by a hydrodynamic model is used in the present work to study the impacts of a coastal eddy on the distribution of nutrients and plankton in the western part of Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea). This study, based on a realistic simulation of the year 2001, focuses on a long-life anticyclonic eddy detected during summer. The studied anticyclonic eddy has some biogeochemical characteristics of those observed in the open ocean as for example the low productivity at their core and rising-up of nutricline on their edges. However the functioning and consequences of such coastal eddy on nutrients and plankton distributions are complicated by potential interactions with topography, wind-induced upwelling along the Languedoc Coast and nearby Northern Current (NC). Especially the proximity of the southern edge of the eddy with the NC makes possible the exchanges of organic matter (e.g. plankton) at times during the eddy’s life. The coastal eddy thus transports organic matter from the coastal zone to the offshore domain. The coupled model also suggests the importance of offshore-to-coastal transport by NC through a seeding process of the eddy in plankton at the beginning of its life. A detailed biogeochemical functioning of the studied eddy all along its lifetime is proposed from the model results. At the beginning the eddy mainly acts as a transporter of the plankton wind-induced bloom occurring along the Languedoc Coast several days before the eddy set up. At the same time the eddy shows upwards vertical velocities on its edges creating upwelling of nutrient-enriched waters. The process of eddy-induced upwelling is notably enhanced on the eddy western side along the Roussillon Coast due to the shelf topography. The around-eddy advection and relative lower temperatures prevent the large development of phytoplankton along the Roussillon Coast and the eddy-induced bloom is predicted to occur near the northwestern side of the eddy. The eddy-induced and wind-induced blooms of phytoplankton then merge on the eastern side by advection and this process of aggregation may explain the persistent occurrence of a filament of high chlorophyll observed on the offshore edge of the eddy throughout the study period. The changes in plankton composition due to a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes during the coast-to-offshore transport may explain the disappearance of the filament south of 43°N at the surface.

Campbell, Rose; Diaz, Frédéric; Hu, ZiYuan; Doglioli, Andrea; Petrenko, Anne; Dekeyser, Ivan

2013-02-01

337

Lipids of the anal sac secretions of the red fox, Vulpes vulpes and of the lion, Panthera leo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion anal sac secretion were found to be richer in lipids and to contain more complex less uniform mixtures of lower moleculas weight lipids then the anal sac of the red fox. In the lion, homologous series of 1-alkylglycerols and 2-hydroxy-fatty acids were identified. Phenylacetic, 3-phenylpropionic, and related hydroxylated acids were also observed. Gas-liquid chromatography profiles of fox anal sac secretion lower molecular weight lipids were found to be less variable in their major constituents and to be dominated by relatively few large peaks, mainly (derivatized) fatty acids. Indole was also identified. Free cholesterol, and occasionally, stanols were observed in fox and lion secretions. In the red fox, total cholesterol levels averaged 0.93 mg/g (% free, 56.4), n = 5. Findings are discussed in relation to histological and anatomical similarities and differences between the anal sacs of the lion and the fox and in the context of the role of these secretions in chemical communication. PMID:894139

Albone, E S; Grönnerberg, T O

1977-07-01

338

Preservation of primordial follicles from lions by slow freezing and xenotransplantation of ovarian cortex into an immunodeficient mouse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is considered an important tool in the conservation of endangered species, but often the most limiting factor of ART is the availability of mature oocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of preserving female germ cells from ovaries of female lions (Panthera leo). Good quality cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were isolated and subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM). In addition, ovarian cortex was obtained and cut into pieces for culture and cryopreservation by slow freezing. The survival of ovarian follicles was assessed by histology. Frozen-thawed samples of ovarian cortex samples were xenotransplanted under the skin of ovariectomized immunodeficient mouse for 28 days. Overall, 178 intact COCs were obtained from 13 lions, but only 28.1% were matured in vitro indicating insufficient IVM conditions. In contrast, almost all follicles within the ovarian cortex survived culture when the original sample was from a young healthy lion collected immediately after euthanasia. Within the xenotransplants, the number of primordial follicles decreased after 28 days by 20%, but the relation between primordial and growing follicles changed in favour of follicular growth. Female gamete rescue from valuable felids may be performed by slow freeze cryopreservation of ovarian cortex. Although the IVM protocol for lions is not yet optimized, mature oocytes may be obtained after long-term xenotransplantation and IVM and could potentially represent one way of salvage of endangered felid species in the future.

Wiedemann, C; Hribal, R

2012-01-01

339

The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon  

Science.gov (United States)

The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

2014-03-01

340

Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest  

Science.gov (United States)

Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Focusing studies of an applied Br extraction diode on the LION accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LION Accelerator, 1.5 MV, 4 ?, is being used to study the characteristics of an applied Br extraction diode. The diode utilizes both an inner and outer cathode and has been observed to operate at high ion current efficiencies compared to previous extraction diodes. Typical efficiencies were measured to be ?80% which compares very favorably with the efficiencies seen in applied Bz diodes. In this paper, the authors report the results of a series of experiments examining the role of the inner cathode in electron loss and ion emission. In addition, operation with an argon gas cell is reported. The ion beam appears to be space-charge neutralized by the gas cell foil alone, and current neutralized when the gas cell pressure is above 100 mT

1990-01-01

342

Characterization of aluminum x-pinch plasmas driven by the 0.5 TW Lion accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The x-pinch, obtained by crossing two fine wires at one or more points as the load for the 0.5 TW Lion accelerator, has been used as a bright x-ray source. High density and temperature hot spots are observed at the crossing point(s). From these hot spots, an intense, spatially confined burst of x-rays is emitted which can serve as a pump for resonant photo-pumping lasers. The authors present experimental results concerning the radiation emission using Al x-pinches. The optimum mass loading for different ionization stages of Al ions and the total x-ray energy yields are examined. The density and temperature of the plasma and the size of the hot spots are measures. Based upon the results of these experiments, the authors evaluate resonant photopumping schemes such as those involving Be-like ions, using the Al x-pinch emission as the pump source

1989-05-22

343

Loin Exposure as a Means of Complementing Thermoregulation in Kalahari Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1958  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fieldwork on the thermoregulatory behavior of a small pride of lions (Panthera leo, consisting of three adults and two cubs, was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, Namibia. Continuous daytime and nighttime observations of the pride were performed during winter (May-July 2003 and summer (February-March 2004. Temporal incidences of loin exposure showed a positive relationship with increasing temperature from winter to summer. Full belly loin exposures during both seasons occurred across the ambient temperature range, but empty belly loin exposures were only observed above 17°C. The frequency of loin exposure for both seasons on empty or full bellies rapidly increased from 28°C. The two males demonstrated a similar probability of loin exposure, possibly as a result of their similar shape and sex and the average orientation of loins into an oncoming breeze occurred 51 and 58% during winter and summer, respectively.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

344

A Suggested Thermoneutral Zone for African Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758 in the Southwestern Kalahari, Namibia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of the thermoregulatory behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo consisting of two adult males, an adult female and two cubs, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southeastern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Early morning sunbathing on dune crests was considerably longer during winter when compared to summer, but the cutoff ambient temperature for this behaviour was the same (25°C for both seasons. Loin exposure, on both empty and full bellies, always occurred between 28 and 34°C. Panting during winter only occurred after bursts of activity on empty bellies. During summer, however, panting was observed while the pride was active and static, being initiated at ambient temperatures of 34°C. It can, therefore, be inferred that the thermoneutral zone for this pride lies between 25 and 33°C.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

345

Egységek és részegységek: Szövegkomplexitás Chrétien de Troyes Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion cím? regényében  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The works of Chrétien de Troyes are constituted by easy to be found and linguistically well-defined, repeated structural units which contribute to the textual coherence and to the linear division of the works and which are composed of clearly separable motifs succeding in a definite order. In my study, my aim is to observe the places compared to one another and the textual junction of the motifs constituting the night lodging and hospitality, structural unit that determines the adventure seeking way of the heroes and constitutes a turning point in the stories, with the consideration of the thematic progression and the linguistic means representing a textual unit boundary through three episodes of similar structure in the romance of Chrétien de Troyes entitled Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion (the episodes selected are the adventure of Yvain at the fountaine, Harpin de la Montagne, Pesme-Aventure.

Máté, Zsuzsanna

2011-01-01

346

Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp. were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Two isolates (Myr7 and MyrB were found to possess quorum quenching activity. Isolates with quorum quenching activity were later identified employing 16S rRNA. Both isolates were similar to bacteria in the genus Aeromonas

BILLY CHRISTIANTO

2011-03-01

347

Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Networking the Physical World Made Cheap and Easy  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. Non-standardized interfaces make instrument integration and field operation cumbersome and error-prone. Indeed, the assembly and deployment of some systems can take months and incur high costs. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply "plugging" devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Mechanical integration is also accelerated by repackaging instruments according to the CubeSAT form-factor (multiples of 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes). In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To demonstrate our initial success, we first discuss the Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), a low-cost, modular, spaceweather satellite running LION-PNP. BUSAT is a completely student-driven project meant for magnetospheric-ionospheric research incorporating 4 scientific payloads. To further stress the broad applicability of LION-PNP we also present VolcanoNET, a ground-based, multi-sensor package that will explore charging of volcanic ash plumes and volcanic lightning.; The Boston University Student satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT) canisterized scientific satellite concept.

Darling, N. T.; Mendez, J. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Hoffman, C.

2012-12-01

348

Stratigraphy and depositional environment of upper Cambrian Red Lion Formation, southwestern Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Red Lion Formation was examined along a northwest-southeast transect from Missoula to Bozeman, Montana. Lateral equivalents are the Snowy Range Formation east of Bozeman and the upper Fishtrap Dolomite in northwest Montana. The basal Dry Creek Member (0-5 m) consists of shale interbedded with quartz siltstones and sandstones. The overlying Sage Member, up to 115 meters in thickness, is characterized by ribbon carbonate beds containing lime mudstone and quartzose calcisiltite couplets arranged in fining-upward sequences 1-5 cm thick. Couplets are interlayered in places with thin (1-5 cm) to medium bedded (6-70 cm) units of laminated and non-laminated calcareous siltstones, flat-pebble conglomerates, trilobite packstones, cryptalgal boundstones, bioturbated lime mudstones and shales. In places, the upper Sage contains columnar and domal algal features. The Red Lion Formation is considered to be one Grand Cycle with the Dry Creek representing a lower inner detrital half-cycle and the Sage an upper carbonate half-cycle. The Dry Creek formed as the result of a westward clastic pulse from the inner detrital belt across an intrashelf basin onto outer middle carbonate peritidal complexes of the underlying Pilgrim Formation. Lower Sage ribbon rocks were deposited in storm-crossed, below wave-base areas. During deposition of the upper Sage, shallowing formed discontinuous algal-peritidal complexes over much of western and central Montana. These complexes were less extensive than earlier Cambrian buildups owing to slower rates of basin subsidence and clastic input suppressing carbonate production.

Hayden, L.L.; Bush, J.H.

1987-08-01

349

Assessing the exposure of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) to future climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how biodiversity will respond to climate change is a major challenge in conservation science. Climatic changes are likely to impose serious threats to many organisms, especially those with narrow distribution ranges, small populations and low dispersal capacity. Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) are endangered primates endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF), and all four living species are typical examples of these aggravating conditions. Here, we integrate ecological niche modeling and GIS-based information about BAF remnants and protected areas to estimate the exposure (i.e., the extent of climate change predicted to be experienced by a species) of current suitable habitats to climate change for 2050 and 2080, and to evaluate the efficacy of existing reserves to protect climatically suitable areas. Niche models were built using Maxent and then projected onto seven global circulation models derived from the A1B climatic scenario. According to our projections, the occurrence area of L. caissara will be little exposed to climate change. Western populations of L. chrysomelas could be potentially exposed, while climatically suitable habitats will be maintained only in part of the eastern region. Protected areas that presently harbor large populations of L. chrysopygus and L. rosalia will not retain climatic suitability by 2080. Monitoring trends of exposed populations and protecting areas predicted to hold suitable conditions should be prioritized. Given the potential exposure of key lion tamarin populations, we stress the importance of conducting additional studies to assess other aspects of their vulnerability (i.e., sensitivity to climate and adaptive capacity) and, therefore, to provide a more solid framework for future management decisions in the context of climate change. Am. J. Primatol. 76:551-562, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24346860

Meyer, Andreas L S; Pie, Marcio R; Passos, Fernando C

2014-06-01

350

Gammasphere results - a Californian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The latest experimental data from GAMMASPHERE is presented for, (i) M1 bands - a characteristic decrease in the B(M1) values is observed and given as evidence for the TAC model, (ii) ?I=2 stagger in 194Hg - these new data are compared with the previous results, (iii) observation of discrete gamma-ray links in 194Pb yielding an unambiguous determination of spins and excitation energies, (iv) comparative lifetime measurements in the superdeformed bands in 193Hg and 192Hg - differences in the fractional shift curves are observed between 193Hg and 192Hg. (orig.). With 4 figs

1997-07-01

351

Gammasphere results - a Californian perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest experimental data from GAMMASPHERE is presented for, (i) M1 bands - a characteristic decrease in the B(M1) values is observed and given as evidence for the TAC model, (ii) {Delta}I=2 stagger in {sup 194}Hg - these new data are compared with the previous results, (iii) observation of discrete gamma-ray links in {sup 194}Pb yielding an unambiguous determination of spins and excitation energies, (iv) comparative lifetime measurements in the superdeformed bands in {sup 193}Hg and {sup 192}Hg - differences in the fractional shift curves are observed between {sup 193}Hg and {sup 192}Hg. (orig.). With 4 figs.

Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Div. of Nuclear Science

1997-07-01

352

Onde bebem os leões: estudo de referências nos filmes vencedores do Cannes Lions Festival entre 2007 e 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is the unusual association of contexts that bring to life the advertising ideas considered creative. Eco (2001 explains that the spectator facing a creative piece of communication feels invited to interpretation and rewarded by the comprehension of such association, that generated duplicity of meanings and is only fully understood by the observer who possesses a certain former knowledge. This article accepts the challenge of identifying possible references that generated creative processes in a sample formed by four commercials that won the Grand Prix or the Gold Lion in the Film area of the Cannes Lions Festival, the most celebrated festival when it comes to advertising or creativity. Therefore, this research intends to identify inferences from movies, literature, music, design, art and history in advertising commercials, by comparing the sample with probable verbal and visual inspirations.

André Zambam Mattos

2013-08-01

353

Prey foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan 1823 (Mammalia, Callitrichidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, South-eastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. For the full dry season we found that animal prey represented 11.2% of the black lion tamarin diet, while during the wet season they represented 1.9%. Foraging behavior made up 19.8% of their total activity in the dry season and only 12.8% in the wet season. These results point out that animal prey are relatively more important during the dry season, due to reduced availability of other resources, e.g. fruits, and that a greater foraging effort is required when a larger proportion of the diet is animal prey.

KEUROGHLIAN A.

2001-01-01

354

Trawling-induced resuspension and dispersal of muddy sediments and dissolved elements in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dedicated trawling experiment was performed at three sites on the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, with the aim of assessing the resuspension of particulate and dissolved matter triggered by different types of trawls on muddy sediments. The different configurations were: (i) bottom trawl, with bobbin for ground rope (Rockhopper): (ii) bottom trawl, without bobbin (Medits); and (iii) pelagic trawl, towed at 1 and 10m above the seabed.

2005-01-01

355

Structure and diversity of shallow soft-bottom benthic macrofauna in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Samples of soft-sediment macrobenthos from 92 sites between 10 and 50 m depth were used to assess (1) the main soft-bottom macrofauna communities in the Gulf of Lions, (2) the different components of the diversity of benthic macrofauna in this area, and (3) the relevance of the use of major taxonomic groups as surrogates for the analysis of the structure and diversity of total macrofauna. Three main communities were identi?ed by cluster analysis and associated proced...

Labrune, C.; Gre?mare, Antoine; Amouroux, J. M.; Sarda?, Rafael; Gil, Joa?o; Taboada, S.

2008-01-01

356

Dynamique océanique et transport de la matière particulaire dans le Golfe du Lion : Crue, tempête et période hivernale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Des observations in situ et la modélisation ont été conjointement utilisées pour mieux comprendre les processus physiques qui contrôlent les échanges côte-large et étudier les transferts de matière particulaire gouvernés par l'effet des courants et des vagues dans le Golfe du Lion. Cette étude montre que les tempêtes de vent marin induisent une circulation cyclonique sur le plateau et un processus de downwelling dans les canyons sous-marins. En période automnale, lorsque la colon...

2005-01-01

357

A Suggested Thermoneutral Zone for African Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758) in the Southwestern Kalahari, Namibia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aspects of the thermoregulatory behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo) consisting of two adult males, an adult female and two cubs, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southeastern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Early morning sunbathing on dune crests was considerably longer during winter when compared to summer, but the cutoff ambient temperature for this behaviour was the same (25°C) for both seasons. Loin exposure, on both empty...

Smith, Y.; Kok, O. B.

2006-01-01

358

Loin Exposure as a Means of Complementing Thermoregulation in Kalahari Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1958)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fieldwork on the thermoregulatory behavior of a small pride of lions (Panthera leo), consisting of three adults and two cubs, was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, Namibia. Continuous daytime and nighttime observations of the pride were performed during winter (May-July 2003) and summer (February-March 2004). Temporal incidences of loin exposure showed a positive relationship with increasing temperature from winter to summer. Full belly loin exposures during both seasons ...

Smith, Y.; Kok, O. B.

2006-01-01

359

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at [...] the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA) were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

Burity, Carlos Henrique de F.; Silva, Mirlene R. da; Souza, Andreia M. de; Lancetta, Carla F. F.; Medeiros, Mildred F.; Pissinatti, Alcides.

360

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
361

Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Retrievals of total sea ice concentration from four algorithms using the 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the marginal ice zone in the Barents and Greenland Seas are compared with retrievals of total sea ice concentration from helicopter-borne linescan camera observations made during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern during May-June 1997. The goals are to evaluate (1) SSM/I 85.5 GHz retrievals of total sea ice concentration for climatological purposes, and (2) the ability of 85.5 GHz data to show the sea ice edge through cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19 and 37 GHz) traditionally used for sea ice remote sensing. A self-adjusting algorithm that performs a nonlinear correction for atmospheric moisture, without explicit atmospheric input data, yields the best accuracy over total sea ice concentrations greater than 30%. However, this algorithm can misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice concentrations in the range 20-70%, empirical 85.5 GHz hybrids of lower-frequency algorithms developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center can improve the accuracy of these algorithms.

Pedersen, Leif Toudal

2002-01-01

362

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo, African wild dog (Lycaon pictus and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Little is known about gastrointestinal parasite infections in large carnivores in Africa and what is available is largely from East Africa. We collected faecal samples from nine spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, 15 lions (Panthera leo and 13 African wild dog (Lycaon pictus from Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  The most common gastrointestinal parasites found were Isospora sp., Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Sarcosystis sp.  Twenty-eight percent of all samples were co-infected with Spirometra sp. and Taeniidae, with co-infection rates highest among lions (67%. Thirty-three percent (3/9 of spotted hyaenas were infected with Isospora sp. Ninety-two percent (12/13 of wild dog were infected with Sarcocystis, similar to results from studies in South Africa. One lion was infected with a parasite whose morphology suggests Strongyloides sp., not previously been reported in lions.  Samples from one lion and two spotted hyena yielded no gastrointestinal parasites.  Overall, parasite species were consistent with those found from studies in other regions of Africa and are likely a result of ingesting infected prey. To our knowledge this study provides the most comprehensive survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection from this region of Africa to date and provides baseline data for future studies.

Are Berentsen

2013-03-01

363

Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Kruger National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

Whyte, I. J.; Smuts, G. L.

1988-01-01

364

Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software,we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

Camila S. Castilho

2012-01-01

365

Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variabili [...] ty and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, observed and expected heterozygosity, linkage disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, F IS, effective population size and genetic structure (MICROCHECKER, CERVUS, GENEPOP, FSTAT, ARLEQUIN, ONESAMP, LDNe, PCAGEN, GENECLASS software),we also determine whether there was evidence of a bottleneck (HYBRIDLAB, BOTTLENECK software) that might influence the future viability of the population in south Brazil. 106 alleles were identified, with the number of alleles/locus ranging from 2 to 11. Mean observed heterozygosity, mean number of alleles and polymorphism information content were 0.609, 5.89, and 0.6255, respectively. This population presented evidence of a recent bottleneck and loss of genetic variation. Persistent regional poaching constitutes an increasing in the extinction risk.

Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-Sá, Luiz G.; Benedet, Rodrigo C.; Freitas, Thales R.O..

366

Electron collector and ion species experiments on the LION extractor ion diode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies of the effects of an electron collector on the electron flow in an ion diode and on diode impedance history are being done with an extractor geometry ion diode (B/sub r/ magnetic insulation field) on the LION accelerator (1.5 MV, 4?, 40 ns). The collector is a flux-penetrable metal protrusion on the inner radius of the anode that collects electrons. This device increases the diode operating impedance particularly during the later part of the pulse when the diode impedance collapses without the collector. In the present set of experiments, several thin wires are inserted into the anode and allowed to protrude a few millimeters into the A-K gap. These wires are damaged by the electron flow during the pulse and by measuring the length of the remaining wire, the distance of the electron layer from the anode can be inferred. The ion current density is also measured in three radial locations across the diode, giving a measure, through the Child-Langmuir law, of the effective gap spacing between the anode and the electron sheath. A simple model is proposed to account for the scaling of ion current density with the diode voltage observed in the experiment

1987-01-01

367

Plasma opening switch studies of the applied Bz diode on the LION accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LION accelerator, 1.5 MV, 4?, at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of an applied Bz, or, barrel diode. A plasma opening switch (POS) has been used to shape the voltage pulse seen by the diode. The results of a series of experiments utilizing a POS are presented. The plasma switch geometry is unique, with the plasma source located inside the center conductor of a coaxial transmission line. The switch region is located between the 17 cm radius anode and the 23 cm radius cathode. The switch is constructed of a flashboard plasma source bent into an azimuthally symmetric ring. The axial length of the plasma is only about 2 cm; which is much smaller than the switch radius. The plasma diffuses into the anode-cathode space through axially oriented slots in the anode. The plasma in the switch region has been characterized during static testing (no generator pulse) using Faraday cups. By using time of flight calculations, the Faraday cups give rough estimates of both the plasma density and velocity. Since the generator pulse is so short (100 ns) these static characterizations are indicative of the plasma when the voltage pulse is present. This low density, fast plasma produced the best results for the diode voltage pulse. Results from recently constructed Langmuir probes are also presented

1988-06-06

368

Cistos peribiliares em leão-africano (Panthera leo) / Peribiliary cysts in an African lion (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritos os achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos de cistos peribiliares em uma fêmea adulta de leão-africano (Panthera leo). Macroscopicamente, todos os lobos hepáticos continham numerosos cistos preenchidos por líquido translúcido. Histologicamente, os cistos estavam localizados no hilo he [...] pático e nos tratos portais. Os cistos eram revestidos internamente por epitélio simples, constituído por células colunares ou cuboidais e não mucinosas, de acordo com avaliação para ácido periódico de Schiff/azul alciano. Na imuno-histiquímica, todas as células desse epitélio foram positivas para citoceratina. O leão morreu de complicações relacionadas a um carcinoma pulmonar e não foram observadas alterações clínicas associadas à lesão hepática, comprovando que cistos peribiliares em leões também ocorrem não associados a sinais clínicos. Abstract in english The gross and histopathological aspects of peribiliary cysts in an adult African lioness (Panthera leo) are described. Grossly, all hepatic lobes contained numerous cysts filled with translucent fluid. Histologically it was observed that the cysts were located in the hepatic hilum and in the portal [...] triads. Periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue stains, revealed the cysts to be lined by simple, non-mucinous, cuboidal or columnar epithelium. In immunohistochemistry staining all cells comprising this epithelium were positive for cytokeratin. The lioness died due to complications stemming from a pulmonary carcinoma and no clinical signs related to the hepatic lesion were observed, demonstrating that also in lions the peribiliary cysts occur as non-clinical disease associated lesions.

Lucena, Ricardo B.; Fighera, Rafael A.; Barros, Claudio S. L..

369

Alloparental Care and Auntie Behaviour in a Male Kalahari Lion (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1758  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of behaviour of a small pride of African lions (Panthera leo consisting of a five year old male, a four year old male and female sibling pair and a male and female cub, held in a 500 ha enclosure, were investigated at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, southwestern Namibia, during winter 2003 and summer 2004. Due to their continued contact since birth, the male and female sibling pair developed a strong bond and spent 57% of their time together, co-operating and sharing resources. At the arrival of the cubs, this association did not change and as a result, the male was included in all the activities between the female and cubs. He demonstrated great patience with them and took custody of them when darting procedures took place. On two separate occasions, he secured meat for them and defended the carcass while they fed. This type of egalitarianism, alloparenting and auntie roles has been described for females of the same pride, but males have never exhibited such behaviour. The behaviour may lie in kin selection or may be for agonistic buffering, reducing aggression from the older male.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

370

A walk down the Cap de Creus canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Recent processes inferred from morphology and sediment bedforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cap de Creus canyon, northwestern Mediterranean Sea, belongs to a complex network of submarine canyons cutting the western Gulf of Lion continental shelf and opening into the larger Sète canyon. Swath bathymetry data, MAK-1M deep-towed side-scan sonar imagery and 5 kHz high resolution seismic reflection profiles show striking morphologies in the Cap de Creus canyon floor and walls. As a consequence of the canyon head and the upper reach severe incision, the continental shelf dramatically...

2007-01-01

371

Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810 skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historical finds of bone remains of Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss from the Upper Pleistocene loess open air site at Praha-Podbaba (Czech Republic are reviewed. The largely complete cranium from Central Bohemia and finds from other sites in Czech Republic are also described. The bone proportions of the cranial and postcranial material from Podbaba indicate them to have come from an adult male lion carcass. One foreleg and lower jaw belonged to an adult female as evidenced by their much smaller proportions. A few additional bones were found at other loess pits around Praha along the Vltava River and at open air sites along the Berounka River close to Beroun. By undertaking a preliminary overview of these finds and other bones from cave sites in Central Bohemia, a first palaeobiogeographical distribution of these extinct carnivores can be presented. The lion remains from the open air sites, were found alongside the typical glacial cold-period macrofauna consisting of a few Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, but mainly Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach bones, which were often well-chewed by Ice Age spotted hyenas. Other faunal remains were found in the loess sites, and these appeared, in most cases, to be hyena prey depots or scavenging sites. These remains included Bison priscus (Bojanus, Equus ferus Boddaert [partly Equus przewalskii (Poljakoff], Equus hemionus (Pallas, Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, Capra ibex (Linnaeus and rarely Rupricapra rupricapra (Linnaeus. The latter two animals indicate that an alpine fauna existed in Central Bohemia during the early and middle Upper Pleistocene. Some lion remains and locations described here may be of Saalian Age, during which a similar fauna existed. The bone accumulations, including lion remains, are probably, in many cases, hyena prey deposits. Their presence in caves seems to have been mainly the result of hyena and lion conflicts, and lion kills which were imported, often as complete carcasses, into the hyena cave dens such as the one at Srbsko Chlum-Komín. Their carcasses seemed to have very often been imported by hyenas into their dens in loess along the Weichselian river valleys, the Vltava and Berounka Rivers. In some cases, lions may have been killed at the conflict site, and been scavenged there. The proven minimum number of individuals (MNI lions for the Weichselian in Central Bohemia can be estimated from cave and open air sites to be about 20 compared with a provable hyena MNI of more than twice this number at about 48 individuals.

Diedrich C G

2007-06-01

372

Notes on wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo population trends during a drought in the Kruger National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wild dog Lycaon pictus and lion Panthera leo populations in the Kruger National Park appeared to undergo an increase during a drought period in the early 1990s. Newly established packs, high adult survival and pup productivity contributed to an increase in the wild dog population and evidence for high predation success during the height of the drought is presented. An increase in the lion density between 1989 and 1993 on the northern basalt plains, as well as changes in the structure of the p...

Mills, M. G. L.

1995-01-01

373

Using Landscape and Bioclimatic Features to Predict the Distribution of Lions, Leopards and Spotted Hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha Landscape  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i) identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii) identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii) use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs) to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2) emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2) was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other important wildlife areas that only have limited, haphazard presence-only data, but which urgently require strategic conservation planning.

Abade, Leandro; Macdonald, David W.; Dickman, Amy J.

2014-01-01

374

Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

Vera Sabatini

2010-04-01

375

Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae), select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches) that would facilitate call propagation and [...] perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766) - emit long calls from places (perch) within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata) and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests) used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4) of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

Vera, Sabatini; Carlos R., Ruiz-Miranda.

376

Analysis of gear interactions in a hake fishery: The case of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[EN] The hake of the Gulf of Lions is the most important target species of the demersal fishery. It is exploited by four types of gear (two trawls. gillnet and longline) used by two countries (France and Spain). Some analyses of its dynamics, based on 1988 length frequency data by gear, have been performed. These analyses consisted in a VPA (Virtual Population Analysis), plus a Y/R (Yield per Recruit analysis) carried out on two parameter scenarios by sex, under a steady state hypothesis (wit...

Aldebert, Yvonne; Recasens, Laura; Lleonart, Jordi

1993-01-01

377

Metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: the original animal model of rickets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 1889 Dr. John Bland-Sutton, a prominent London surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the London Zoo. He evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. He recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. Thirty years later, in class...

2010-01-01

378

The LION Procedure to the Pelvic Nerves for Treatment of Urinary and Faecal Disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bladder dysfunctions have been treated for decades through medical treatments or surgical procedures, especially in the context of prolapse conditions and stress incontinence. Over the last decade, sacral nerve modulation (SNM) has been introduced as a further option in the treatment of some urinary and fecal symptoms. Current techniques of percutaneous implantation are limited to superficial extrapelvic nerves that expose patients to lead migration and dislocation or infections, complications that cannot be ignored. Access to endopelvic nerves and plexuses will be mandatory in the future, especially to the sacral plexus area that is the crossroads of all vesical-sphincteric, anorectal, and sexual functions. The endopelvic location of electrodes protects against the above mentioned complications. Some open-surgical approaches have been described in the past, but all of them were extremely laborious and dangerous. All these limitations were overcome with the introduction of laparoscopy into the field of pelvic oncology. Laparoscopic retroperitoneal surgery and the development of video-endoscopy and appropriate instruments allows for access and visibility to all pelvic nerves and plexuses as well as laparoscopic pelvic neurosurgical procedures. One of these methods is the implantation of neuroprothesis-a technique called the "LION procedure"-which permits selective electrical stimulation of pelvic nerves and plexuses. One very interesting site of implantation for treatment of urinary and faecal symptoms is the pudendal nerve (PN). Stimulation of this nerve induces two different actions: a strong contraction of the sphincters-treatment of urinary and faecal incontinence and an inhibitory effect on the bladder-and treatment for bladder overactivity. PMID:24700226

Possover, Marc

2014-03-01

379

Morphofunctional study of hemocytes from lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemocytes play an important role in internal defense in mollusk bivalves; they are generally divided into granular and hyaline types, where the granules possess molecules to combat foreign particles. We investigated the morphology, staining reactions, and immune-related activities of hemocytes from the pectinid lions-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus. We showed that, in contrast to the conditions in most bivalves and similar to other pectinids, no granular cells were observed; only very few semi-granular cells were present and the large majority of cells were hyalinocytes and blast-like cells. The cytoplasm in many hyalinocytes showed vesicles of various sizes, but none with the staining characteristics of typical granules. When hemolymph was removed from these scallops, the plasma did not clot and the hemocytes rapidly adhered to one another in suspension. When living hemocytes were placed on a glass surface, they clustered into groups of various sizes; within minutes, pseudopods extended from the cells and outward migration began. Many cells spread to form extensive networks of flat cells, and other undifferentiated cells did not spread and kept a rounded morphology. Some hemocytes were immunologically active because they phagocytize Escherichia coli bacteria. Hemocytes expressed the carbohydrates residues N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, ?-D-glucose, ?-D-mannose, and ?-L-fucose moieties, and cytochemical assays showed activity of acid phosphatase, specific esterase, and non-specific esterase, enzymes commonly associated with lysosomes and immunologic activity. These observations serve as a useful tool for further investigation of morphofunctional studies and physiological status of scallops. PMID:23587572

Estrada, Norma; Velázquez, Edwin; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; Ascencio, Felipe

2013-08-01

380

Adapted to Roar: Functional Morphology of Tiger and Lion Vocal Folds  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

Klemuk, Sarah A.; Riede, Tobias; Walsh, Edward J.; Titze, Ingo R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Review of gross community production, primary production, net community production and dark community respiration in the Gulf of Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty years of data were used to examine the influence of the Rhône River discharge on the spatio-temporal distribution of primary production in the Gulf of Lions. These patterns are characterised for four hydrological provinces: (i) the Gulf of Marseilles, a coastal oligotrophic system exhibiting a typical diatom-based bloom succession; (ii) the mouth and plume of the Rhône River, containing high levels of nutrients, constant levels of chlorophyll a, and a plankton assemblage dominated by nanoflagellates; (iii) the highly productive dilution area to the west of the Rhône, with a diatom spring bloom and smaller winter diatom blooms; (iv) the southern area encompassing the oligotrophic Liguro-Provençal Current, a frontal zone of constantly high primary production and a divergence area exhibiting a typical spring bloom situation. No evidence of eutrophication due to river input was seen. In situ and in vitro net community production data suggest the Gulf of Lions as a whole is a balanced ecosystem on an annual time scale, with the mean primary production lying between 78 and 142 g C m -2 a -1.

Lefevre, D.; Minas, H. J.; Minas, M.; Robinson, C.; Le B. Williams, P. J.; Woodward, E. M. S.

382

Rising seas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predicting exactly how - or whether - sea level will shift in response to global warming remains a significant challenge. Scientists trained in many separate disciplines are attempting to glean answers using a variety of experimental approaches, ranging from drilling into the Antarctic ice cap to bouncing radar off the ocean from space. With such efforts, investigators have learned a great deal about how sea level has varied in the past and how it is currently changing. For example, most of these scientists agree that the ocean has been creeping upward by two millimeters a year for at least the past several decades. But determining whether a warmer climate will lead to a sudden acceleration in the rate of sea level rise remains an outstanding question. This article discusses the uncertainties, historical data, and possibilities regarding this issue.

Schneider, D.

1997-03-01

383

Savage Seas  

Science.gov (United States)

This companion site to the new PBS series offers a collection of informative pieces and activities centered around the world's oceans. The site is divided into four principal sections, each of which features an article, brief sidebars, video clips, and in some cases, animations. The first, The Captain's Bridge, explores shipwrecks, stormy seas, and ocean rescues. The second, The Crow's Nest, dives into the power of waves. The Deep Sea section takes users to the nether regions of the ocean, while The Weather Factory touches on cyclones, ice and icebergs, and El Nino. Additional features at the site include Ask the Expert, Facts from the Sea, an annotated collection of related sites, and information about the series.

384

Incidence of Feline lmmunodeficiency virus reactive antibodies in free-ranging lions of the Kruger National Park and the Etosha National Park in southern Africa detected by recombinant FIV p24 antigen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lion sera from the Kruger National Park (KNP) dating back to 1977 and from the Etosha National Park (ENP), obtained from 1989 to 1991 , have been analysed by ELISA and Western blot analyses using a genetically engineered antigen representing the p24 structural protein of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). It was concluded that some 83% of 98 KNP lion sera reacted with the p24 antigen, while none of 28 ENP lion sera reacted. A few other KNP felids (cheetahs and genets) gave samples

Spencer, J. A.; Dijk, A. A.; Horzinek, Marian C.; Egberink, H. F.; Bengis, Roy G.; Keet, D. F.; Morikawa, S.; Bishop, D. H. L.

1992-01-01

385

Fantasy: A Study of C.S. Lewis's "The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe." ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This fantasy unit focuses on C. S. Lewis's "The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe." Through the unit's 17 lessons (which correspond to the book's 17 chapters), students will read and analyze the text, using the literary elements of characterization, setting, plot, theme, character, climax, and resolution. The unit offers an overview; suggests…

Smith, Pamela

386

Draft Genome Sequence of Campylobacter corcagiensis Strain CIT045T, a Representative of a Novel Campylobacter Species Isolated from Lion-Tailed Macaques (Macaca silenus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Campylobacter corcagiensis CIT045(T) (=CCUG 64942(T), LMG 27932(T)), a new member of the Campylobacter genus, has recently been isolated from lion-tailed macaques in Cork, Ireland. To further characterize this new species and its potential pathogenicity, the genome sequence of C. corcagiensis was determined and is presented here. PMID:24744327

Koziel, Monika; Lucid, Alan; Bullman, Susan; Corcoran, Gerard D; Lucey, Brigid; Sleator, Roy D

2014-01-01

387

Southern Sea Otter, the Process to Translocate and the Results of the Initial Year, August 1987 - August 1988  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A successful translocation programme requires success in research, law enforcement and containment efforts inclusively. If successful, the translocation will establish a second breeding colony of southern sea otters (contained within a designated zone and accomplish certain goals and requirements of the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The second colony will : 1 reduce the probability that more than a small proportion of the population could be decimated by any single natural or man-caused catastrophe; and 2 allow additional data to be obtained for assessing translocation and containment techniques, population status, and the influence of sea otters on the nearshore marine community, which will facilitate a better understanding of the characteristics and impacts of a sea otter population at an optimum sustainable level. In 1987, 45 sea otters were captured from the southern third of the Californian sea otter range, and translocated to San Nicolas Island. One year later, only 14 were known to still be at the new location. The success of the initial year's effort at reestablishing a founder population at San Nicolas Island is less than expected. However, based on the Washington State translocation example, it may take many years before the success of the translocation at San Nicolas Island can be determined. Although the habitat round San Nicolas Island appears to be able to support a large population, many sea otters have returned to their parent range, or passed through Management and No Otter Zones. From this first year, a number of lessons about how to go about the capture and relocation process have been learned.

Benz C.T.

1989-02-01

388

Dieta de um grupo de mico-leão-preto, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), na Estação Ecológica dos Caetetus, São Paulo Diet of a black lion tamarin group, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Mammalia, Callitrichidae), in Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study carried out in the Caetetus Ecological Station, Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, a wild group of black lion tamarins was accompanied during 1989 to 1991, to analyse the dietary habits of the species. The scan sampling method was used to gather data. A total of 961 behaviors were recorded, of which feeding occupied 23.3% of the time involved in the behaviors. The major dietary components observed in the black lion tamarins were fruits, tree exudate...

1999-01-01

389

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a white lion cub (Panthera leo, with concomitant radiographic double cortical line : clinical communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A captive-bred white lion cub was presented with hindquarter pain, lameness and reluctance to move. Radiographs revealed generalised osteoapenia, multiple fractures, a severely collapsed pelvic girdle, bilateral lateral bowing of the scapulae and mild kyphosis of the caudal vertebrae.Adouble cortical line, a distinct sign of osteopaenia, was repeatedly seen on the pelvic limbs, most strikingly along both femurs. Based on radiographic findings and a history of an exclusive meat diet since weaning, a diagnosis of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism was made. The diet was changed to a commercial kitten food and the cub was given cage rest for 6 weeks. Signs of pain abated and the cub became more active.A guarded prognosis was given for full recovery, as changes to the pelvis were considered potentially irreversible.

V. Herz

2012-06-01

390

??????: Synechococcus sp. Salton Sea  

Full Text Available Algae Chroococcales Synechococcus sp. Salton Sea Synechococcus sp. Salton Sea (scientific name) NCBI 379399 Synechococcus sp. Salton Sea (equivalent name) NCBI 379399

391

Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Historical finds of bone remains of Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss) from the Upper Pleistocene loess open air site at Praha-Podbaba (Czech Republic) are reviewed. The largely complete cranium from Central Bohemia and finds from other sites in Czech Republic are also described. The bone proportions of the cranial and postcranial material from Podbaba indicate them to have come from an adult male lion carcass. One foreleg and lower jaw belonged to an adult female as evidenced by their much smal...

2007-01-01

392

Improving classification accuracy using multi-date IRS/LISS data and development of thermal stress index for Asiatic lion habitat  

Science.gov (United States)

The increase in lion and leopard population in the GIR wild life sanctuary and National Park (Gir Protected Area) demands periodic and precision monitoring of habitat at close intervals using space based remote sensing data. Besides characterizing the different forest classes, remote sensing needs to support for the assessment of thermal stress zones and identification of possible corridors for lion dispersion to new home ranges. The study focuses on assessing the thematic forest classification accuracies in percentage terms(CA) attainable using single date post-monsoon (CA=60, kappa = 0.514) as well as leaf shedding (CA=48.4, kappa = 0.372) season data in visible and Near-IR spectral bands of IRS/LISS-III at 23.5 m spatial resolution; and improvement of CA by using joint two date (multi-temporal) data sets (CA=87.2, kappa = 0.843) in the classification. The 188 m spatial resolution IRS/WiFS and 23.5 m spatial resolution LISS-III data were used to study the possible corridors for dispersion of Lions from GIR protected areas (PA). A relative thermal stress index (RTSI) for Gir PA has been developed using NOAA/ AVHRR data sets of post-monsoon, leaf shedded and summer seasons. The paper discusses the role of RTSI as a tool to work out forest management plans using leaf shedded season data to combat the thermal stress in the habitat, by identifying locations for artificial water holes during the ensuing summer season.

Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

393

Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766 and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marmosets (Callithrix spp. have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia. The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM population in two fragments with reintroduced golden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha. The mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%. During the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. Evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. Golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. Marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.Callithrix jacchus e spp (micos estrela tem sido introduzido no estado do Rio de Janeiro em áreas designadas para a reintrodução do Leontopithecus rosalia (mico leão dourado. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a população de sagüis em dois fragmentos particulares, e caracterizar a interação entre as espécies. A densidade de sagüis (0.09 a/ha foi maior que a de mico-leão (0.06 a/ha. O grau de associação entre mico-leão e o sagüi variou entre grupos e estações do ano (inverno= 61%, verão =35%. Foram observados sinais de competição durante o inverno quando a presença do mico estrela está associada a mudanças no forrageio do mico-leão e aumento de comportamentos territoriais. No verão, sinais de benefícios foram uma diminuição da vigilância por parte dos adultos de micos leões. Além disso, os micos leões foram observados se alimentando de goma proveniente dos buracos feitos pelos micos estrela. Estes resultados sugerem que o mico estrela é uma ameaça para a conservação do mico-leão, no entanto.

Carlos Ramon Ruiz-Miranda

2006-01-01

394

Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766) and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Callithrix jacchus e spp (micos estrela) tem sido introduzido no estado do Rio de Janeiro em áreas designadas para a reintrodução do Leontopithecus rosalia (mico leão dourado). Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a população de sagüis em dois fragmentos particulares, e caracterizar a interação e [...] ntre as espécies. A densidade de sagüis (0.09 a/ha) foi maior que a de mico-leão (0.06 a/ha). O grau de associação entre mico-leão e o sagüi variou entre grupos e estações do ano (inverno= 61%, verão =35%). Foram observados sinais de competição durante o inverno quando a presença do mico estrela está associada a mudanças no forrageio do mico-leão e aumento de comportamentos territoriais. No verão, sinais de benefícios foram uma diminuição da vigilância por parte dos adultos de micos leões. Além disso, os micos leões foram observados se alimentando de goma proveniente dos buracos feitos pelos micos estrela. Estes resultados sugerem que o mico estrela é uma ameaça para a conservação do mico-leão, no entanto. Abstract in english Marmosets (Callithrix spp.) have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM) population in two fragments with reintroduced go [...] lden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha) was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha). The mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%). During the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. Evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. Golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. Marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.

Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos Ramon; Affonso, Adriana Gomes; Morais, Marcio Marcelo de; Verona, Carlos Eduardo; Martins, Andreia; Beck, Benjamin B..

395

Assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea  

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The Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, www.socib.es) is developing high resolution numerical simulations (hindcasts and forecasts) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) with a high spatial resolution of 1/50º (1.5-2km). Thus, theses simulations are able to reproduce mesoscale and in some cases sub-mesoscale features that are key in the Mediterranean Sea since they interact and modify the basin and sub-basin circulation. These simulations are initialized from and nested in either the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS, 1/16º) or Mercator-Océan simulations (MERCATOR, 1/12º). A repeated glider section in the Ibiza Channel, operated by SOCIB, has revealed significant differences between two WMOP simulations using either MFS or MERCATOR (hereafter WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC). In this study, MFS, MERCATOR, WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC are compared and evaluated using available multi-platform observations such as satellite products (Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature) and in situ measurements (temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats, CTD, XBT, fixed moorings and gliders; velocity fields from HF radar and currentmeters). A quantitative comparison is necessary to evaluate the capacity of the simulations to reproduce observed ocean features, and to quantify the possible simulations biases. This will in turn allow to improve the simulations, so as to produce better ocean forecast systems, to study and better understand ocean processes and to address climate studies. Therefore, various statistical diagnostics have been developed to assess and intercompare the simulations at various spatial and temporal scales, in different sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Western and Eastern Algerian sub-basins, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion), in different dynamical zones (coastal areas, shelves and "open" sea), along key sections (Ibiza and Mallorca Channels, Corsica Channel, ...) and during specific events.

Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

2014-05-01

396

Deep-Sea Bioluminescence Blooms after Dense Water Formation at the Ocean Surface  

Science.gov (United States)

The deep ocean is the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth. It hosts numerous pelagic organisms, most of which are able to emit light. Here we present a unique data set consisting of a 2.5-year long record of light emission by deep-sea pelagic organisms, measured from December 2007 to June 2010 at the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope in the deep NW Mediterranean Sea, jointly with synchronous hydrological records. This is the longest continuous time-series of deep-sea bioluminescence ever recorded. Our record reveals several weeks long, seasonal bioluminescence blooms with light intensity up to two orders of magnitude higher than background values, which correlate to changes in the properties of deep waters. Such changes are triggered by the winter cooling and evaporation experienced by the upper ocean layer in the Gulf of Lion that leads to the formation and subsequent sinking of dense water through a process known as “open-sea convection”. It episodically renews the deep water of the study area and conveys fresh organic matter that fuels the deep ecosystems. Luminous bacteria most likely are the main contributors to the observed deep-sea bioluminescence blooms. Our observations demonstrate a consistent and rapid connection between deep open-sea convection and bathypelagic biological activity, as expressed by bioluminescence. In a setting where dense water formation events are likely to decline under global warming scenarios enhancing ocean stratification, in situ observatories become essential as environmental sentinels for the monitoring and understanding of deep-sea ecosystem shifts.

Tamburini, Christian; Canals, Miquel; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Houpert, Loic; Lefevre, Dominique; Martini, Severine; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Robert, Anne; Testor, Pierre; Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Samarai, Imen Al; Albert, Arnaud; Andre, Michel; Anghinolfi, Marco; Anton, Gisela; Anvar, Shebli; Ardid, Miguel; Jesus, Ana Carolina Assis; Astraatmadja, Tri L.; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Baret, Bruny; Basa, Stephane; Bertin, Vincent; Biagi, Simone; Bigi, Armando; Bigongiari, Ciro; Bogazzi, Claudio; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Bouwhuis, Mieke C.; Brunner, Jurgen; Busto, Jose; Camarena, Francisco; Capone, Antonio; Carloganu, Christina; Carminati, Giada; Carr, John; Cecchini, Stefano; Charif, Ziad; Charvis, Philippe; Chiarusi, Tommaso; Circella, Marco; Coniglione, Rosa; Costantini, Heide; Coyle, Paschal; Curtil, Christian; Decowski, Patrick; Dekeyser, Ivan; Deschamps, Anne; Donzaud, Corinne; Dornic, Damien; Dorosti, Hasankiadeh Q.; Drouhin, Doriane; Eberl, Thomas; Emanuele, Umberto; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Escoffier, Stephanie; Fermani, Paolo; Ferri, Marcelino; Flaminio, Vincenzo; Folger, Florian; Fritsch, Ulf; Fuda, Jean-Luc; Galata, Salvatore; Gay, Pascal; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Giordano, Valentina; Gomez-Gonzalez, Juan-Pablo; Graf, Kay; Guillard, Goulven; Halladjian, Garadeb; Hallewell, Gregory; van Haren, Hans; Hartman, Joris; Heijboer, Aart J.; Hello, Yann; Hernandez-Rey, Juan Jose; Herold, Bjoern; Hossl, Jurgen; Hsu, Ching-Cheng; de Jong, Marteen; Kadler, Matthias; Kalekin, Oleg; Kappes, Alexander; Katz, Uli; Kavatsyuk, Oksana; Kooijman, Paul; Kopper, Claudio; Kouchner, Antoine; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kulikovskiy, Vladimir; Lahmann, Robert; Lamare, Patrick; Larosa, Giuseppina; Lattuada, Dario; Lim, Gordon; Presti, Domenico Lo; Loehner, Herbert; Loucatos, Sotiris; Mangano, Salvatore; Marcelin, Michel; Margiotta, Annarita; Martinez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Meli, Athina; Montaruli, Teresa; Motz, Holger; Neff, Max; Nezri, Emma nuel; Palioselitis, Dimitris; Pavalas, Gabriela E.; Payet, Kevin; Payre, Patrice; Petrovic, Jelena; Piattelli, Paolo; Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Popa, Vlad; Pradier, Thierry; Presani, Eleonora; Racca, Chantal; Reed, Corey; Riccobene, Giorgio; Richardt, Carsten; Richter, Roland; Riviere, Colas; Roensch, Kathrin; Rostovtsev, Andrei; Ruiz-Rivas, Joaquin; Rujoiu, Marius; Russo, Valerio G.; Salesa, Francisco; Sanchez-Losa, Augustin; Sapienza, Piera; Schock, Friederike; Schuller, Jean-Pierre; Schussler, Fabian; Shanidze, Rezo; Simeone, Francesco; Spies, Andreas; Spurio, Maurizio; Steijger, Jos J. M.; Stolarczyk, Thierry; Taiuti, Mauro G. F.; Toscano, Simona; Vallage, Bertrand; Van Elewyck, Veronique; Vannoni, Giulia; Vecchi, Manuela; Vernin, Pascal; Wijnker, Guus; Wilms, Jorn; de Wolf, Els; Yepes, Harold; Zaborov, Dmitry; De Dios Zornoza, Juan; Zuniga, Juan

2013-01-01

397

Carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar em leão-africano (Panthera leo Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in an African Lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um caso de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi diagnosticado em um leão-africano (Panthera leo, hospitalizado com sinais de dispnéia e emagrecimento progressivo. Em todos os lobos pulmonares havia múltiplos nódulos esbranquiçados, macios e homogêneos, de 0,2-0,5cm em diâmetro. Histologicamente, os nódulos eram constituídos por células neoplásicas arranjadas em alvéolos e papilas sustentados por moderado estroma fibrovascular, um padrão que lembrava a estrutura pulmonar pré-existente. Na reação pelo ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS foi observada marcação positiva no citoplasma de numerosas células neoplásicas. Todas as células neoplásicas demonstraram forte e uniforme imunorreatividade citoplasmática para pancitoceratina. A marcação para o fator 1 de transcrição da tireóide (TTF-1 foi observada em focos nos núcleos das células neoplásicas das margens dos nódulos. Nas secções avaliadas para surfactante A, a marcação foi observada em múltiplas áreas focais, tanto no citoplasma como na membrana citoplasmática das células neoplásicas. O diagnóstico de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi feito com base nos achados histológicos, histoquímicos e imuno-histoquímicos. Essa parece ser a primeira descrição de um neoplasma pulmonar primário maligno em leão-africano.A case of diffuse bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the mixed type was diagnosed in the lung of an adult female African lion (Panthera leo with presenting signs of progressive dyspnea and weight loss. In all pulmonary lobes there were multiple 0.2-0.5cm in diameter soft and homogenous white nodules. Histologically, these nodules consisted of neoplastic cells with an alveolar and papillary disposition, a pattern reminiscent of the preexistent pulmonary structure. The cytoplasms of numerous neoplastic cells were positive in the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS stain. At immunohistochemistry examination, all neoplastic cells reacted strongly and uniformly to pancytokeratin; focal reactivity for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1 was observed in the nucleus of neoplastic cells mainly in those at the margins of the nodules. Positive reaction for surfactant A was observed in multifocal areas, both in the cytoplasm and plasma membranes of neoplastic cells. The diagnosis of diffuse bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the mixed type was made based on histological, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry findings. This seems to be the first report of a primary malignant neoplasm in the lung of the African lion.

Ricardo B. Lucena

2010-06-01

398

Reinforced Concrete Condition Assessment in Architectural Heritage. The Lion Chambers (Glasgow, UK) and the Theatre E. Duni (Matera, Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

The research objective is to provide new qualitative information on the strength of reinforced concrete structures of two prominent examples of modern architecture by using innovative, non-invasive testing techniques. The first one is Lion Chambers in Glasgow (Scotland, United Kingdom) designed by the architects Salmon, Son and Gillespie and completed in 1907. It was the second example of the use of François Hennebique's reinforced concrete system in a building in Glasgow and one of the earliest in Britain. The second example is Duni Theatre in Matera (Southern Italy), designed by