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1

2004 LEPTOSPIROSIS OUTBREAK AMONGST CALIFORNIAN SEA LIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Leptospirosis outbreaks among marine mammals, and specifically California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), have resulted in large scale, cyclic epizootics since the early 1970s, with a distinct 3-4 year periodicity. During 2004 over 300 sea lions died along the central California coas...

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Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL, being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL. In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within the genus Zalophus being comprised of the Galápagos sea lion, the Californian sea lion and the already extinct Japanese sea lion (JSL. Results Using a set of different phylogenetic reconstruction approaches, we find support for monophyly of all three taxa without evidence of reticulation events. Molecular clock estimates place time to common ancestry of the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion at about 2.3 ± 0.5 mya. Genetic separation is further suggested by diagnostic SNPs in the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. Microsatellite markers confirm this trend, showing numerous private alleles at most of the 25 investigated loci. Microsatellite-based estimates of genetic differentiation between the Galápagos sea lion and the Californian sea lion indicate significant genetic differentiation. Gene diversity is 14% lower in the Galápagos sea lion than in the Californian sea lion, but there is no evidence for recent bottleneck events in the Galápagos sea lion. Conclusion Based on molecular evidence we build a case for classifying the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki, the Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus as true species. As morphological characters do not necessarily fully reflect the rapid divergence on the molecular level, the study can be considered as a test case for deriving species status from molecular evidence. We further use the results to discuss the role of genetics in conservation policy for an organism that already is under the general protection of the habitat it lives in.

Wolf Jochen BW

2007-09-01

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Cloning and Characterization of Glutamate Receptors in Californian Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus  

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Full Text Available Domoic acid produced by marine algae has been shown to cause acute and chronic neurologic sequelae in Californian sea lions following acute or low-dose exposure. Histological findings in affected animals included a degenerative cardiomyopathy that was hypothesized to be caused by over-excitation of the glutamate receptors (GluRs speculated to be present in the sea lion heart. Thus tissues from five sea lions without lesions associated with domoic acid toxicity and one animal with domoic acid-induced chronic neurologic sequelae and degenerative cardiomyopathy were examined for the presence of GluRs. Immunohistochemistry localized mGluR 2/3, mGluR 5, GluR 2/3 and NMDAR 1 in structures of the conducting system and blood vessels. NMDAR 1 and GluR 2/3 were the most widespread as immunoreactivity was observed within sea lion conducting system structures. PCR analysis, cloning and subsequent sequencing of the seal lion GluRs showed only 80% homology to those from rats, but more than 95% homologous to those from dogs. The cellular distribution and expression of subtypes of GluRs in the sea lion hearts suggests that exposure to domoic acid may induce cardiac damage and functional disturbances.

Santokh Gill

2010-05-01

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Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxonomic relationships within ...

Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Tautz, Diethard; Trillmich, Fritz

2007-01-01

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Galápagos and Californian sea lions are separate species: Genetic analysis of the genus Zalophus and its implications for conservation management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Accurate formal taxonomic designations are thought to be of critical importance for the conservation of endangered taxa. The Galápagos sea lion (GSL), being appreciated as a key element of the Galápagos marine ecosystem, has lately been listed as 'vulnerable' by the IUCN. To date there is, however, hardly any scientific evidence, whether it constitutes a separate entity from its abundant Californian neighbour (CSL). In this paper, we delineate the taxono...

Bw, Wolf Jochen; Tautz Diethard; Trillmich Fritz

2007-01-01

6

Sea Lion Skeleton - Backbone  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-27

7

Sea Lion Skeleton - Ribcage  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-07-15

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Sea Lion Skeleton (Gliding Joint)  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea lions are vertebrates with both backbones and ribs. The backbone is a gliding joint, allowing the animal to be flexible, while the ribs main function is to protect it's inner organs. The short tail helps to balance the animal while walking on land.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, B)

2007-07-14

9

Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

Tanabe Shinsuke

2002-12-01

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Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few ?g/g to several hundreds of ?g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several ?g/g on a lipid weight basis

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Diagnostic testing for Leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is a relatively common bacterial disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus); however, there remain gaps in our understanding of maintenance hosts relative to animals demonstrating clinical disease. To effectively study the epidemiology of leptospirosis in any species, a s...

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Islands in the sea: extreme female natal site fidelity in the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions and walrus) form large breeding aggregations with females often remaining faithful to a natal site or area. In these cases, females are philopatric to regional areas on broad geographical scales of hundreds to thousands of kilometres. An investigation of variation in a control region sequence of mtDNA in the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) has shown a case of extreme female natal site fidelity that has resulted in almost fixed population different...

Campbell, R. A.; Gales, N. J.; Lento, G. M.; Baker, C. S.

2007-01-01

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New polymorphic microsatellite markers for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

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Nine microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). In addition, two of five loci tested from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) produced a single, clear band in Z. californianus, as did one out of five loci from grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and one out of two loci from elephant seal (Mirounga sp.). No locus tested from South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) amplified in Z. californianus. Locus variability was assessed in Califo...

Hernandez-velazquez, F. D.; Galindo-sanchez, C. E.; Taylor, Martin I.; La Rosa-velez, J.; Cote, I. M.; Schramm, Y.; Aurioles-gamboa, D.; Rico, Ciro

2005-01-01

14

Vocal learning in seals, sea lions, and walruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pinnipeds provide a variety of clues to those interested in the vocal learning capabilities of non-human animals. Observational and experimental studies of seals, sea lions, and walruses reveal elements of vocal development, contextual control, plasticity in expression and learning, and even imitation of complex sounds. Consideration of the factors that influence the expression of these capabilities informs understanding of the behavioral and structural mechanisms that support vocal learning in mammals and the evolutionary forces shaping these capabilities. PMID:25042930

Reichmuth, Colleen; Casey, Caroline

2014-10-01

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Hydrodynamic trail following in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

The mystacial vibrissae of pinnipeds constitute a sensory system for active touch and detection of hydrodynamic events. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) can both detect hydrodynamic stimuli caused by a small sphere vibrating in the water (hydrodynamic dipole stimuli). Hydrodynamic trail following has only been shown in harbour seals. Hydrodynamical and biomechanical studies of single vibrissae of the two species showed that the specialized undulated structure of harbour seal vibrissae, as opposed to the smooth structure of sea lion vibrissae, suppresses self-generated noise in the actively moving animal. Here we tested whether also sea lions were able to perform hydrodynamic trail following in spite of their non-specialized hair structure. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Linear trails could be followed with high accuracy, comparable to the performance of harbour seals, but in contrast, increasing delay resulted in a reduced performance as compared to harbour seals. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in the vibrissal hair types of otariid compared to phocid pinnipeds lead to different sensitivity of the vibrissae during forward swimming, but still reveal a good performance even in the species with non-specialized hair type. PMID:20959994

Gläser, Nele; Wieskotten, Sven; Otter, Christian; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

2011-02-01

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Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800  

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Full Text Available Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens. The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario González

2011-03-01

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Regional differences in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of oceanographic habitat used by Steller sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past three decades, the decline and altered spatial distribution of the western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska have been attributed to changes in the distribution or abundance of their prey due to the cumulative effects of fisheries and environmental perturbations. During this period, dietary prey occurrence and diet diversity were related to population decline within metapopulation regions of the western stock of Steller sea lions, suggesting that environmental conditions may be variable among regions. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine regional differences in the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of oceanographic habitat used by Steller sea lions within the context of recent measures of diet diversity and population trajectories. Habitat use was assessed by deploying satellite-depth recorders and satellite relay data loggers on juvenile Steller sea lions (n = 45) over a five-year period (2000-2004) within four regions of the western stock, including the western, central, and eastern Aleutian Islands, and central Gulf of Alaska. Areas used by sea lions during summer months (June, July, and August) were demarcated using satellite telemetry data and characterized by environmental variables (sea surface temperature [SST] and chlorophyll a [chl a]), which possibly serve as proxies for environmental processes or prey. Spatial patterns of SST diversity and Steller sea lion population trends among regions were fairly consistent with trends reported for diet studies, possibly indicating a link between environmental diversity, prey diversity, and distribution or abundance of Steller sea lions. Overall, maximum spatial heterogeneity coupled with minimal temporal variability of SST appeared to be beneficial for Steller sea lions. In contrast, these patterns were not consistent for chl a, and there appeared to be an ecological threshold. Understanding how Steller sea lions respond to measures of environmental heterogeneity will ultimately be useful for implementing ecosystem management approaches and developing additional conservation strategies. PMID:19769109

Lander, Michelle E; Loughlin, Thomas R; Logsdon, Miles G; VanBlaricom, Glenn R; Fadely, Brian S; Fritz, Lowell W

2009-09-01

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Age-related hearing loss in sea lions and their scientists  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in the hearing capabilities of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) was first stimulated by the echolocation hypothesis and more recently by rising concern about coastal noise pollution. During a series of audiometric tests, we measured the absolute hearing sensitivity of two sea lions and two of their human investigators. Aerial hearing curves for each subject were obtained with a go/no-go procedure and standard psychophysics. Additionally, underwater hearing curves were obtained for the sea lions using the same procedures. Underwater, the older sea lion (22-25 years of age) showed hearing losses relative to the younger sea lion (13-16 years) that ranged from 10 dB at lower frequencies to 50 dB near the upper frequency limit. The older sea lions' hearing losses in air were consistent with those measured underwater. The older human (69 years) tested also showed losses relative to the younger human (22 years). These differences ranged from 15 dB at lower frequencies up to 35 dB at the highest frequency tested. The results obtained in this study document age-related hearing losses in sea lions and humans. The findings are consistent with data on presbycusis in other mammalian species, showing that maximum hearing loss occurs at the highest frequencies.

Schusterman, Ronald J.; Southall, Brandon; Kastak, David; Reichmuth Kastak, Colleen

2002-05-01

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No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N?=?91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d?1 and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

Hoopes, Lisa A.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A. J.

2014-01-01

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Foraging Behaviour of Juvenile Female New Zealand Sea Lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in Contrasting Environments  

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Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolon...

Leung, Elaine S.; Auge?, Ame?lie A.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals.

Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Goertz, Caroline E.C. [Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States); Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Dunn, J. Lawrence [Department of Research and Veterinary Care, Mystic Aquarium, 55 Coogan Boulevard, Mystic, CT 06355 (United States); Gulland, Frances M.D. [Marine Mammal Center, 1065 Fort Cronkhite, Sausalito, CA 94965 (United States); Gelatt, Tom [National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Lab, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Beckmen, Kimberlee B. [Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 1300 College Road, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Burek, Kathy [Veterinary Pathology Services, 23834 The Clearing Drive, Eagle River, AK 99577 (United States); Atkinson, Shannon; Bozza, Mary [Alaska SeaLife Center, 301 Railway Avenue, Seward, AK 99664 (United States); Taylor, Robert [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A and M University, Highway 60, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zheng Tongzhang; Zhang Yawei [School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Aboueissa, AbouEl-Makarim [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Southern Maine, 96 Falmouth Street, Portland, ME 04104 (United States)] (and others)

2008-08-15

22

Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The endangered Western population of the Steller sea lion declined for three decades for uncertain reasons. We present baseline data of metal concentrations in pups as a first step towards investigating the potential threat of developmental exposures to contaminants. Seven metals were investigated: arsenic, cadmium, silver, aluminum, mercury, lead and vanadium. Vanadium was detected in only a single blubber sample. Mercury appears to be the most toxicologically significant metal with concentrations in the liver well above the current action level for mercury in fish. The concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, silver, cadmium and lead were present in one-fourth to two-thirds of all samples and were at either comparable or below concentrations previously reported. Neither gender nor region had a significant effect on metal burdens. Future work should consider metal concentrations in juveniles and adults and toxicological studies need to be performed to begin to assess the toxicity of these metals

23

Campylobacter insulaenigrae: first isolation report from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens, (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens). The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and [...] molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.

Mario, González; Maria Paz, Villanueva; Lies, Debruyne; Peter, Vandamme; Heriberto, Fernández.

2011-03-01

24

No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depressi...

Hoopes, Lisa A.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A. J.

2014-01-01

25

Dental pathology of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Skulls from 1,085 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined macroscopically according to defined criteria. The museum specimens, 61.8% male and 37.3% female, were acquired from strandings and varied in age from juvenile to adult. The majority of teeth were available for examination (95.7%); 3.8% of teeth were artefactually absent, 0.4% deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.1% were congenitally absent. Acquired tooth loss was associated significantly with sex (P = 0.004) with males having more tooth loss than females and total ante-mortem tooth loss was associated significantly with age (P teeth were malformed and 81 teeth were observed to have two roots. Supernumerary teeth (usually maxillary molar teeth) were associated with 1.3% of teeth, some specimens demonstrating up to four supernumerary teeth. Thirteen persistent deciduous teeth were identified. A total of 713 specimens showed attrition or abrasion, with 42.4% of teeth affected. A significant association was detected between sex and incidence of abrasion and age and the incidence of abrasion (P teeth were observed, with root fractures being most prevalent. Fractures were associated significantly with sex and with age (P teeth. Males were shown to have more periodontitis than females and adults were shown to have more periodontitis than young adults and juveniles. Sixty-three periapical lesions were noted. PMID:24725510

Sinai, N L; Dadaian, R H; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

2014-07-01

26

Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Review of Human Impacts on Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters: Integrating Archaeology and Ecology of the Northeast Pacific. Todd J. Braje and Torben C. Rick, editors. 2011. University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. 328. $65.00 (hardcover. ISBN 9780520267268.

Ray Pierotti

2013-03-01

27

The Complete Genome Sequence of the San Miguel Sea Lion Virus-8 Reveals that It Is Not a Member of the Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus/San Miguel Sea Lion Virus Species of the Caliciviridae  

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The complete genome sequence of the San Miguel sea lion virus-8 (SMSV-8) was determined in this study. A comparison of this sequence to other calicivirus sequences in GenBank showed that this virus is genetically distinct from the vesicular exanthema of swine virus/San Miguel sea lion virus (VESV/SMSV) strains and belongs to a novel clade within the Vesivirus genus.

Neill, John D.

2014-01-01

28

The Complete Genome Sequence of the San Miguel Sea Lion Virus-8 Reveals that It Is Not a Member of the Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus/San Miguel Sea Lion Virus Species of the Caliciviridae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genome sequence of the San Miguel sea lion virus-8 (SMSV-8) was determined in this study. A comparison of this sequence to other calicivirus sequences in GenBank showed that this virus is genetically distinct from the vesicular exanthema of swine virus/San Miguel sea lion virus (VESV/SMSV) strains and belongs to a novel clade within the Vesivirus genus. PMID:25502676

Neill, John D

2014-01-01

29

Foraging behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in contrasting environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ) sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat). We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) and time-depth recorders (TDRs) on 2-3 year-old females at AI (2007-2010) and Otago (2009-2010). Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can alter food availability such as potential resource competition with fisheries. PMID:23671630

Leung, Elaine S; Augé, Amélie A; Chilvers, B Louise; Moore, Antoni B; Robertson, Bruce C

2013-01-01

30

p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation in female sea lions of the California Channel Islands  

Science.gov (United States)

An area of sediment on the Palos Verdes shelf and in Santa Monica Bay off Los Angeles, CA is contaminated with DDE and other breakdown products of DDT as a result of discharges of DDT through the Whites Point outfall. Elevated concentrations of DDE have been found in the water column of the Palos Verdes Shelf and in various fish species inhabiting the shelf and Santa Monica Bay. High concentrations have also been found in California sea lions from San Miguel Island and sea lion carcasses on Santa Catalina Island. These islands are located some distance from the Palos Verdes shelf and Santa Monica Bay. It was the purpose of this study to determine if it is likely that the Palos Verdes Shelf/Santa Monica Bay sediments were the principal source of the DDE in the Channel Island sea lions via a pathway from sediments to water and fish preyed on by sea lions. A time variable, age dependent, physiologically based toxicokinetic model of female California sea lions was developed. Mass and energy balance equations describe the uptake and loss of contaminants. The contaminants are partitioned among multiple body compartments, including lipid and non-lipid body tissue and milk. Contaminants are distributed into a fetus of females. Physiological and toxicokinetic data were used to establish rates of growth, respiration, reproduction and lactation, internal partitioning of DDE, efficiency of DDE uptake and rates of DDE excretion. The model was used to estimate the likely DDE exposure history of the sea lions in view of their DDE body burdens. Field-measured dietary composition and prey contaminant levels were then used to establish potential exposure to DDE from various regions within the Southern California Bight. Comparison of the estimated exposure history with that attainable from the various regions indicated that the more highly contaminated lactating females were exposed to prey at levels found only on the Palos Verdes Shelf and in Santa Monica Bay. Thus, it is likely that the sediments impacted by the Whites Point outfall were the source of much of the DDE and PCBs in these animals.

Connolly, John P.; Glaser, David

2002-05-01

31

Plasma angiotensin II, arginine vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide in free ranging and captive seals and sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

We used radioimmunoassay methods to quantify arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and angiotensin II (Ang II) in plasma samples from harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsii), Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), ringed seals (Phoca hispida), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Plasma concentrations of AVP, ANP, and Ang II in these pinniped species were within the ranges reported for other vertebrates under resting conditions. However, there were species, geographic and developmental variations in these hormones: Levels of AVP in plasma samples from adult Steller sea lions and harbor seals were higher than in pups of the same species; higher levels of plasma ANP were found in wild captured Alaskan Steller sea lions and in hunted ringed seals; differences in plasma levels of all three hormones were found throughout the geographic distribution of harbor seals and Steller sea lions in Alaska. This is the first report on circulating concentrations of vasoactive hormones in pinnipeds, and demonstrates that further studies are needed to ascertain the natural variability in these levels with the impact of molting, fasting, diving and environmental factors in seals and sea lions. PMID:9568367

Zenteno-Savin, T; Castellini, M A

1998-01-01

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Delayed onset of vocal recognition in Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea)  

Science.gov (United States)

In pinnipeds, maternal care strategies and colony density may influence a species’ individual recognition system. We examined the onset of vocal recognition of mothers by Australian sea lion pups ( Neophoca cinerea). At 2 months of age, pups responded significantly more to the calls of their own mothers than alien female calls demonstrating a finely tuned recognition system. However, newborn pups did not respond differentially to the calls of their mother from alien female calls suggesting that vocal recognition had not yet developed or is not yet expressed. These findings are in stark contrast to other otariid species where pups learn their mother’s voice before their first separation. Variance in colony density, pup movements, and natal site fidelity may have reduced selective pressures on call recognition in young sea lions, or alternatively, another sensory system may be used for recognition in the early stage of life.

Pitcher, Benjamin J.; Ahonen, Heidi; Harcourt, Robert G.; Charrier, Isabelle

2009-08-01

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Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of nine heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Mn, Mo and Zn) were determined in the hepatic and renal tissues of 80 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Significant age-dependant increases were observed in liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium and mercury, and renal zinc concentrations. Hepatic iron concentrations were significantly higher in females than males. Animals with suspected domoic acid associated pathological findings had significantly higher concentrations of liver and kidney cadmium; and significantly higher liver mercury concentrations when compared to animals classified with infectious disease or traumatic mortality. Significantly higher hepatic burdens of molybdenum and zinc were found in animals that died from infectious diseases. This is the largest study of tissue heavy metal concentrations in California sea lions to date. These data demonstrate how passive monitoring of stranded animals can provide insight into environmental impacts on marine mammals. - Tissue heavy metal concentrations are valuable in population and environmental monitoring

34

Population structure and mating system of the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea)  

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The Australian sea lion has a non-annual and asynchronous breeding cycle across geographically closecolonies. In contrast to other pinnipeds, this unique reproductive system provides the opportunity formales to breed in different colonies during one breeding cycle. Male mating success across differentcolonies could counteract the high degree of structure driven by extreme site fidelity in females. I usedtwo, independent but complementary methods, molecular and acoustic to investigate their po...

Ahonen, Heidi

2013-01-01

35

Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A yearling California sea lion (Zalophus californianus was admitted into rehabilitation with signs of cerebellar pathology. Diagnostic imaging that included radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated space-occupying lesions predominantly in the cerebellum that were filled partially by CSF-like fluid and partially by gas, and cerebral lesions that were fluid filled. Over a maximum period of four months, the brain lesions reduced in size and the gas resorbed and was replaced by CSF-like fluid. To test the animal in this study for motor memory deficits, an alternation task in a two-choice maze was utilized. The sea lion performed poorly similar to another case of pneumocerebellum previously reported, and contrary to data acquired from a group of sea lions with specific hippocampal injury. The learning deficits were attributed to the cerebellar injury. These data provide important insight both to the clinical presentation and behavioral observations of cerebellar injury in sea lions, as well as providing an initial model for long-term outcome following cerebellar injury. The specific etiology of the gas could not be determined. The live status of the patient with recovery suggests that the most likely etiologies for the gas are either de novo formation or air emboli secondary to trauma. A small air gun pellet was present within and was removed from soft tissues adjacent to the tympanic bulla. While no evidence to support the pellet striking bone was found, altered dive pattern associated with this human interaction may have provided the opportunity for gas bubble formation to occur. The similarity in distribution of the gas bubble related lesions in this case compared with another previously published case of pneumocerebellum suggests that preferential perfusion of the brain, and more specifically the cerebellum, may occur during diving events.

WilliamGeorgeVan Bonn

2013-01-01

36

Deep-diving sea lions exhibit extreme bradycardia in long-duration dives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart rate and peripheral blood flow distribution are the primary determinants of the rate and pattern of oxygen store utilisation and ultimately breath-hold duration in marine endotherms. Despite this, little is known about how otariids (sea lions and fur seals) regulate heart rate (fH) while diving. We investigated dive fH in five adult female California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) during foraging trips by instrumenting them with digital electrocardiogram (ECG) loggers and time depth recorders. In all dives, dive fH (number of beats/duration; 50±9 beats min(-1)) decreased compared with surface rates (113±5 beats min(-1)), with all dives exhibiting an instantaneous fH below resting (100 m) consisted of: (1) an initial rapid decline in fH resulting in the lowest instantaneous fH of the dive at the end of descent, often below 10 beats min(-1) in dives longer than 6 min in duration; (2) a slight increase in fH to ~10-40 beats min(-1) during the bottom portion of the dive; and (3) a gradual increase in fH during ascent with a rapid increase prior to surfacing. Thus, fH regulation in deep-diving sea lions is not simply a progressive bradycardia. Extreme bradycardia and the presumed associated reductions in pulmonary and peripheral blood flow during late descent of deep dives should (a) contribute to preservation of the lung oxygen store, (b) increase dependence of muscle on the myoglobin-bound oxygen store, (c) conserve the blood oxygen store and (d) help limit the absorption of nitrogen at depth. This fH profile during deep dives of sea lions may be characteristic of deep-diving marine endotherms that dive on inspiration as similar fH profiles have been recently documented in the emperor penguin, another deep diver that dives on inspiration. PMID:24790100

McDonald, Birgitte I; Ponganis, Paul J

2014-05-01

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Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations  

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Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) are top predators in this unique setting and have an ess...

Brunner Sylvia; Harrod Chris; Bw, Wolf Jochen; Salazar Sandie; Trillmich Fritz; Tautz Diethard

2008-01-01

38

Underwater psychophysical audiogram of a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data are commonly obtained in air while sea lions are under gas anesthesia; a procedure that precludes the measurement of underwater hearing sensitivity. This is a substantial limitation considering the importance of underwater hearing data in designing criteria aimed at mitigating the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure. To determine if some aspects of underwater hearing sensitivity can be predicted using rapid aerial AEP methods, this study measured underwater psychophysical thresholds for a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) for which previously published aerial AEP thresholds exist. Underwater thresholds were measured in an aboveground pool at frequencies between 1 and 38 kHz. The underwater audiogram was very similar to those previously published for California sea lions, suggesting that the current and previously obtained psychophysical data are representative for this species. The psychophysical and previously measured AEP audiograms were most similar in terms of high-frequency hearing limit (HFHL), although the underwater HFHL was sharper and occurred at a higher frequency. Aerial AEP methods are useful for predicting reductions in the HFHL that are potentially independent of the testing medium, such as those due to age-related sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:22559389

Mulsow, Jason; Houser, Dorian S; Finneran, James J

2012-05-01

39

Classification across the senses: Auditory-visual cognitive performance in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)  

Science.gov (United States)

The model of stimulus equivalence describes how perceptually dissimilar stimuli can become interrelated to form useful categories both within and between the sensory modalities. A recent experiment expanded upon prior work with a California sea lion by examining stimulus classification across the auditory and visual modalities. Acoustic stimuli were associated with an exemplar from one of two pre-existing visual classes in a matching-to-sample paradigm. After direct training of these associations, the sea lion showed spontaneous transfer of the new auditory stimuli to the remaining members of the visual classes. The sea lion's performance on this cross-modal equivalence task was similar to that shown by human subjects in studies of emergent word learning and reading comprehension. Current research with the same animal further examines how stimulus classes can be expanded across modalities. Fast-mapping techniques are used to rapidly establish new auditory-visual relationships between acoustic cues and multiple arbitrary visual stimuli. Collectively, this research illustrates complex cross-modal performances in a highly experienced subject and provides insight into how animals organize information from multiple sensory modalities into meaningful representations.

Lindemann, Kristy L.; Reichmuth-Kastak, Colleen; Schusterman, Ronald J.

2005-09-01

40

The kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during forward swimming.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the two-dimensional kinematics of the California sea lion foreflipper during thrust generation, a digital, high-definition video is obtained using a non-research female sea lion at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. The observational videos are used to extract maneuvers of interest--forward acceleration from rest using the foreflippers and banked turns. Single camera videos are analyzed to digitize the flipper during the motions using 10 points spanning root to tip in each frame. Digitized shapes were then fitted with an empirical function that quantitatively allows for both comparison between different claps, and for extracting kinematic data. The resulting function shows a high degree of curvature (with a camber of up to 32%). Analysis of sea lion acceleration from rest shows thrust production in the range of 150-680 N and maximum flipper angular velocity (for rotation about the shoulder joint) as high as 20 rad s(-1). Analysis of turning maneuvers indicate extreme agility and precision of movement driven by the foreflipper surfaces. PMID:25381676

Friedman, C; Leftwich, M C

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

PCBs and DDT in the serum of juvenile California sea lions: associations with vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Top-trophic predators like California sea lions bioaccumulate high levels of persistent fat-soluble pollutants that may provoke physiological impairments such as endocrine or vitamins A and E disruption. We measured circulating levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in 12 healthy juvenile California sea lions captured on An-tilde o Nuevo Island, California, in 2002. We investigated the relationship between the contamination by PCBs and DDT and the circulating levels of vitamins A and E and thyroid hormones (thyroxine, T4 and triiodothyronine, T3). Serum concentrations of total PCBs (?PCBs) and total DDT were 14 ± 9 mg/kg and 28 ± 19 mg/kg lipid weight, respectively. PCB toxic equivalents (?PCB TEQs) were 320 ± 170 ng/kg lipid weight. Concentrations of ?PCBs and ?PCB TEQs in serum lipids were negatively correlated (p 0.1). As juvenile California sea lions are useful sentinels of coastal contamination, the high levels encountered in their serum is cause for concern about the ecosystem health of the area. - Results show high levels of organochlorine contaminants in juvenile California sea lions and a link between nia sea lions and a link between vitamin A, thyroid hormones and PCB exposure

42

A 500 kyr record of global sea-level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea-level variability  

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Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea-level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion. Five main sequences, stacked during the sea-level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles, form the upper stratigraphic outbuilding of the continental margin. The high sensitivity of the grain-size record down the borehole to sea-level oscillations can be explained by the great width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf. Sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf cyclically modified the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea-level oscillations at millennial time-scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea-levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence for a one-to-one coupling of millennial time-scale sea-level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

J. Frigola

2012-06-01

43

A 500 kyr record of global sea level oscillations in the Gulf of Lion, Mediterranean Sea: new insights into MIS 3 sea level variability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Borehole PRGL1-4 drilled in the upper slope of the Gulf of Lion provides an exceptional record to investigate the impact of Late Pleistocene orbitally-driven glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations on the sedimentary outbuilding of a river fed continental margin. High-resolution grain-size and geochemical records supported by oxygen isotope chronostratigraphy allow reinterpreting the last 500 ka upper slope seismostratigraphy of the Gulf of Lion which consists of five main sequences stacked during the sea level lowering phases of the last five glacial-interglacial 100-kyr cycles. The high sensitivity to sea level oscillations of the grain-size record along the borehole, favoured by the large width of the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, demonstrates that sea level driven changes in accommodation space over the shelf are able to cyclically modify the depositional mode of the entire margin. PRGL1-4 data also illustrate the imprint of sea level oscillations at millennial scale, as shown for Marine Isotopic Stage 3, and provide unambiguous evidence of relative high sea levels at the onset of each Dansgaard-Oeschger Greenland warm interstadial. The PRGL1-4 grain-size record represents the first evidence ever for a one-to-one coupling of millennial-scale sea level oscillations associated with each Dansgaard-Oeschger cycle.

J. Frigola

2011-12-01

44

Same size--same niche? Foraging niche separation between sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions and adult Galapagos fur seals.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. In vertebrates, patterns of resource utilization change throughout development according to age- and or size-specific abilities and requirements. Thus, interspecific competition affects different age classes differently. 2. Adults of sympatric species often show distinct foraging niche segregation, but juvenile resource use might overlap with adult competitors of similar body size. Resultant negative effects on juveniles can have important consequences for population dynamics, yet such interactions have received little attention in studies of mammalian communities. 3. Using GPS tracking devices, time-depth recorders and stable isotope data, we compared diving depth, activity time, trophic position and foraging habitat characteristics to investigate foraging niche overlap between similar-sized sympatric juvenile Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) and adult Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) and compared each group with much larger-bodied adult Galapagos sea lions. 4. We found little indication for direct competition but a complex pattern of foraging niche segregation: juvenile sea lions and adult fur seals dived to shallow depths at night, but foraged in different habitats with limited spatial overlap. Conversely, juvenile and adult sea lions employed different foraging patterns, but their foraging areas overlapped almost completely. 5. Consistency of foraging habitat characteristics between juvenile and adult sea lions suggests that avoidance of competition may be important in shaping foraging habitat utilization. Resultant specialization on a limited habitat could contribute to low sea lion numbers that contrast with high fur seal abundance. Our data suggest that exploitation by multiple predators within spatially restricted foraging ranges of juveniles might negatively impact juvenile foraging success and ultimately influence population dynamics. PMID:23351022

Jeglinski, Jana W E; Goetz, Kimberley T; Werner, Christiane; Costa, Daniel P; Trillmich, Fritz

2013-05-01

45

Behavioral responses of California sea lions to mid-frequency (3250-3450 Hz) sonar signals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Military sonar has the potential to negatively impact marine mammals. To investigate factors affecting behavioral disruption in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), fifteen sea lions participated in a controlled exposure study using a simulated tactical sonar signal (1 s duration, 3250-3450 Hz) as a stimulus. Subjects were placed into groups of three and each group received a stimulus exposure of 125, 140, 155, 170, or 185 dB re: 1 ?Pa (rms). Each subject was trained to swim across an enclosure, touch a paddle, and return to the start location. Sound exposures occurred at the mid-point of the enclosure. Control and exposure sessions were run consecutively and each consisted of ten, 30-s trials. The occurrence and severity of behavioral responses were used to create acoustic dose-response and dose-severity functions. Age of the subject significantly affected the dose-response relationship, but not the dose-severity relationship. Repetitive exposures did not affect the dose-response relationship. PMID:24183102

Houser, Dorian S; Martin, Stephen W; Finneran, James J

2013-12-01

46

Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey.

Rea, Lorrie D., E-mail: lorrie.rea@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Castellini, J. Margaret, E-mail: maggie.c@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Correa, Lucero, E-mail: lucero.correa@alaska.gov [Division of Wildlife Conservation, Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, AK 99701 (United States); Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Fadely, Brian S., E-mail: brian.fadely@noaa.gov [National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); O' Hara, Todd M., E-mail: tmohara@alaska.edu [Wildlife Toxicology Laboratory, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States)

2013-06-01

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Maternal Steller sea lion diets elevate fetal mercury concentrations in an area of population decline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) measured in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lion pup hair were the highest maximum [THg] documented in this endangered species to date. Some pups exceeded concentrations at which other fish-eating mammals can exhibit adverse neurological and reproductive effects (21% and 15% pups above 20 and 30 ?g/g in hair, respectively). Of particular concern is fetal exposure to mercury during a particularly vulnerable stage of neurological development in late gestation. Hair and blood [THg] were highly correlated and 20% of pups sampled in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska exceeded mammalian risk thresholds established for each of these tissues. Higher nitrogen isotope ratios suggested that pups accumulated the highest [THg] when their dams fed on higher trophic level prey during late gestation. - Highlights: • High total mercury concentrations in western Aleutian Island Steller sea lions • Some pups exceeded thresholds for adverse neurological and reproductive effects. • Fetal exposure to mercury during a vulnerable stage of neurological development • Mercury concentrations in hair were highly correlated with circulating blood levels. • High mercury levels in pups related to dams feeding on high trophic level prey

48

Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe L [...] este da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (? = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

L.O., Artico; A., Bianchini; K.S., Grubel; D.S., Monteiro; S.C., Estima; L.R., de Oliveira; S.L., Bonatto; L.F., Marins.

2010-09-01

49

Postmortem Findings in Four South American Sea Lions (Otaria byronia) from an Urban Colony in Valdivia, Chile.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract We performed postmortem examination on four South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) from an urban colony in Valdivia, Chile. Chronic leptospirosis and suspected morbillivirus-like infection were diagnosed in one individual. Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii and the zoonotic helminthes Contracaecum sp., Pseudoterranova sp., and Diphyllobothrium sp. were also detected. PMID:25380367

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Seguel, Mauricio; Alvarado-Rybak, Mario; Verdugo, Claudio; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Tamayo, Rafael

2015-01-01

50

Use of laser rhinoscopy to treat a nasal obstruction in a captive California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser rhinoscopy was used to treat a nasal obstruction in a captive California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). The rehabilitated, adult, female sea lion developed mucopurulent, intermittent, bilateral nasal discharge and functional nasal obstruction 20 mo after acquisition by the Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, California. A 3-mm-thick soft tissue structure spanning the region between the soft and hard palates, a deviated nasal septum, and several nasopharyngeal polyps were identified. Biopsies and cultures of the obstructive web showed ulcerative granulation tissue with suppurative inflammation, bacterial infection, and a partial section of an arthropod larva (not speciated). Laser rhinoscopy was performed to relieve the caudal nasopharyngeal obstruction and ablate the polyps. The sea lion appeared to breathe through the nares with lessened nasal discharge for a period of 6 wk after laser therapy, but within 8 wk the mucopurulent nasal discharge returned, the obstruction had reformed, and the sea lion was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed antemortem diagnoses of caudal nasopharyngeal obstruction secondary to inflammatory tissue; however, no additional sections of arthropod parasites were located microscopically. PMID:15305521

Sherrill, Johanna; Peavy, George M; Kopit, Mark J; Garner, Michael M; Gardiner, Chris H; Adams, Lance M

2004-06-01

51

Tracing early stages of species differentiation: Ecological, morphological and genetic divergence of Galápagos sea lion populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Oceans are high gene flow environments that are traditionally believed to hamper the build-up of genetic divergence. Despite this, divergence appears to occur occasionally at surprisingly small scales. The Galápagos archipelago provides an ideal opportunity to examine the evolutionary processes of local divergence in an isolated marine environment. Galápagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki are top predators in this unique setting and have an essentially unlimited dispersal capacity across the entire species range. In theory, this should oppose any genetic differentiation. Results We find significant ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between the western colonies and colonies from the central region of the archipelago that are exposed to different ecological conditions. Stable isotope analyses indicate that western animals use different food sources than those from the central area. This is likely due to niche partitioning with the second Galápagos eared seal species, the Galápagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis that exclusively dwells in the west. Stable isotope patterns correlate with significant differences in foraging-related skull morphology. Analyses of mitochondrial sequences as well as microsatellites reveal signs of initial genetic differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest a key role of intra- as well as inter-specific niche segregation in the evolution of genetic structure among populations of a highly mobile species under conditions of free movement. Given the monophyletic arrival of the sea lions on the archipelago, our study challenges the view that geographical barriers are strictly needed for the build-up of genetic divergence. The study further raises the interesting prospect that in social, colonially breeding mammals additional forces, such as social structure or feeding traditions, might bear on the genetic partitioning of populations.

Brunner Sylvia

2008-05-01

52

High Nutrient Transport and Cycling Potential Revealed in the Microbial Metagenome of Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) Faeces  

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Metagenomic analysis was used to examine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic potential of an Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) gut microbiome. Bacteria comprised 98% of classifiable sequences and of these matches to Firmicutes (80%) were dominant, with Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria representing 8% and 2% of matches respectively. The relative proportion of Firmicutes (80%) to Bacteriodetes (2%) is similar to that in previous studies of obese humans and obese mice, suggesting the gut...

Lavery, Trish J.; Roudnew, Ben; Seymour, Justin; Mitchell, James G.; Jeffries, Thomas

2012-01-01

53

Foraging behavior of lactating South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) and spatial-temporal resource overlap with the Uruguayan fisheries  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource competition between fisheries and marine mammal continue to raise concern worldwide. Understanding this complex conflict requires data on spatial and dietary overlap of marine mammal and fisheries. In Uruguay the South American sea lions population has been dramatically declining over the past decade. The reasons for this population decline are unknown but may include the following: (1) direct harvesting; (2) reduced prey availability and distribution as a consequence of environmental change; or (3) biological interaction with fisheries. This study aims to determine resource overlap and competition between South American sea lions (SASL, Otaria flavescens, n=10) and the artisanal fisheries (AF), and the coastal bottom trawl fisheries (CBTF). We integrated data on sea lions diet (scat analysis), spatial and annual consumption estimates; and foraging behavior-satellite-tracking data from lactating SASL with data on fishing effort areas and fisheries landings. We found that lactating SASL are benthic divers and forage in shallow water within the continental shelf. SASL's foraging areas overlapped with CBTF and AF fisheries operational areas. Dietary analysis indicated a high degree of overlap between the diet of SASL and the AF and CBTF fisheries catch. The results of our work show differing degrees of spatial resource overlap with AF and CBTF, highlighting that there are differences in potential impact from each fishery; and that different management/conservation approaches may need to be taken to solve the fisheries-SASL conflict.

Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Costa, Daniel P.; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Marín, Yamandú; Chocca, Julio; González, Bernardo; Beathyate, Gastón; Louise Chilvers, B.; Hückstadt, Luis A.

2013-04-01

54

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus  

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Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

Tanja S. Zabka

2008-06-01

55

Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh fe [...] ces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

Araceli, Fernández; María, Paz Villanueva; Mario, González; Fabiola, Fernández; Fadua, Latif; Sandra Nonier, Flores; Heriberto, Fernández.

1095-10-01

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Distribution of organochlorine compounds in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

Superficial sediments from Cap de Creus to the Rhone Delta, in the Gulf of Lion, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, including the mid-shelf mud belt and the continental slope were collected between 2005 and 2008 to assess the levels, main sources and distribution patterns of organochlorine pollutants. Discharges from the Rhone River are the main source for all these compounds around the area. The spatial distribution of organochlorine pollutants was also related to their physicochemical properties and to sediment grain size and composition. The concentrations of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDD and DDE), and the chlorobenzenes (CBzs) - pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) - decreased westwards along the mid-shelf mud belt. In contrast, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), namely lindane (?-HCH), followed another concentration pattern suggesting a different transport mode. The major concentrations of organochlorine compounds were observed off the Rhone River mouth, in the prodelta, where PCB, DDT and CBz concentrations reached 38, 29 and 8.3 ng g-1, respectively. These average concentrations in the mid continental shelf were two to ten times lower than those found in a study performed about 20 years ago, albeit in almost all the sites the values of PCBs and DDTs still exceed the NOAA’s Sediment Quality Guidelines. In contrast, the concentrations in the continental slope were nearly the same as 20 years ago, which may evidence that even most of these compounds were banned decades ago, their background concentrations associated to diffuse pollution have not decreased in the deep continental margin.

Salvadó, Joan A.; Grimalt, Joan O.; López, Jordi F.; Durrieu de Madron, Xavier; Pasqual, Catalina; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

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The 100-ka and rapid sea level changes recorded by prograding shelf sand bodies in the Gulf of Lions (western Mediterranean Sea)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thick forced regressive units on the wide continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (western Mediterranean) recorded the composite effect of sea level changes during the Quaternary. They are mostly composed of coastal siliciclastic and bioclastic wedges showing clinoform geometry. These deposits have been intensively explored through high-resolution seismic investigations, but only recently it was possible to ground truth seismic interpretations, based on a long (100 m) borehole that crossed the...

Bassetti, Maria-angela; Berne, Serge; Jouet, Gwenael; Taviani, M.; Dennielou, Bernard; Flores, J.; Gaillot, Arnaud; Gelfort, R.; Lafuerza, S.; Sultan, Nabil

2008-01-01

58

Predicting synergistic effects of resources and predators on foraging decisions by juvenile Steller sea lions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that synergistic interactions between resources and predators influence foraging decisions and their fitness consequences. This framework, however, has been ignored almost completely by hypotheses on causes of the population decline of Steller sea lions (SSLs) (Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska. By comparing predictions from a dynamic state variable model to empirical data on the behaviour of individuals instrumented with satellite-linked time-at-depth recorders, we develop and find preliminary support for the hypothesis that, during winter in Prince William Sound, juvenile SSLs (a) underutilise walleye pollock, a predictable resource in deep strata, due to predation risk from Pacific sleeper sharks, and (b) underutilise the potential energy bonanza of inshore aggregations of Pacific herring due to risk from either killer whales, larger conspecifics, or both. Further, under conditions of resource scarcity-induced by overfishing, long-term oceanographic cycles, or their combination-trade-offs between mortality risk and energy gain may influence demographic parameters. Accordingly, computer simulations illustrated the theoretical plausibility that a decline of Pacific herring in shallow strata would greatly increase the number of deep foraging dives, thereby increasing exposure to sleeper sharks and mortality rates. These results suggest that hypotheses on the decline of SSLs should consider synergistic effects of predators and resources on behaviour and mortality rates. Empirical support for our model, however, is limited and we outline tasks for empirical research that emerge from these limitations. More generally, in the context of today's conservation crises, our work illustrates that the greater the dearth of system-specific data, the greater the need to apply principles of behavioural ecology toward the understanding and management of large-scale marine systems. PMID:18953573

Frid, Alejandro; Burns, Jennifer; Baker, Gregory G; Thorne, Richard E

2009-01-01

59

Persistence of forage fish ‘hot spots’ and its association with foraging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in southeast Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Whereas primary and secondary productivity at oceanic 'hotspots' may be a function of upwelling and temperature fronts, the aggregation of higher-order vertebrates is a function of their ability to search for and locate these areas. Thus, understanding how predators aggregate at these productive foraging areas is germane to the study of oceanic hot spots. We examined the spatial distribution of forage fish in southeast Alaska for three years to better understand Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus) aggregations and foraging behavior. Energy densities (millions KJ/km 2) of forage fish were orders of magnitude greater during the winter months (November-February), due to the presence of schools of overwintering Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasi). Within the winter months, herring consistently aggregated at a few areas, and these areas persisted throughout the season and among years. Thus, our study area was characterized by seasonally variable, highly abundant but highly patchily distributed forage fish hot spots. More importantly, the persistence of these forage fish hot spots was an important characteristic in determining whether foraging sea lions utilized them. Over 40% of the variation in the distribution of sea lions on our surveys was explained by the persistence of forage fish hot spots. Using a simple spatial model, we demonstrate that when the density of these hot spots is low, effort necessary to locate these spots is minimized when those spots persist through time. In contrast, under similar prey densities but lower persistence, effort increases dramatically. Thus an important characteristic of pelagic hot spots is their persistence, allowing predators to predict their locations and concentrate search efforts accordingly.

Gende, Scott M.; Sigler, Michael F.

2006-02-01

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JUVENILE SOCIAL ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN SEA LION, OTARIA FLAVESCENS (SHAW, 1800 IN REHABILITATION IN COAST OF LIMA, PERU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group living and social association are activities that can bring benefits and detriments depending on the species. These costs are balanced in highly social species, such as otariids, which choose to live in groups to benefit from social learning and reproductive success. Sea lion rehabilitation can provide an opportunity to watch these animals in a controlled environment and analyze what leads to this association and encourage it. Two South American sea lions [Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800] of one and two years of age were selected from the ORCA (Organization for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Animals rehabilitation base, and were tested to determine the conditions of the association and to eliminate human influence bias in their behavior. Twenty five behaviors were recorded through ethograms in 127 h of interaction. Also, during the human influence tests three cooperation behaviors were observed. Additionally, the interaction between individuals was agonistic, and outside of human interaction they always were at maximum distance. Finally, we note that since individuals only cooperated under influence of the human influence tests, it may be that they understand long term cooperation as in primates.

Davis Cortegana-Arias

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Changes in blubber contaminant concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) associated with weight loss and gain during rehabilitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

California sea lions have high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in their blubber. Animals affected by domoic acid fast and refeed during their rehabilitation. We studied the effect of decreases in total body mass (16 +/- 7% of initial body mass) on blubber POP contaminant concentrations and estimated POP burdens during fasting (12 +/- 5 days) in 19 California sea lions. The effect of refeeding (92 +/- 8% of initial body mass) was also investigated. Significant increases in the concentration of all POPs were found over the mass loss period and decreases during mass gain. A basic mass balance model indicated that the changes did not conform to a simple concentrating and diluting pattern and a proportion of the contaminants were lost from the lipid pool. During mass loss, the lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, chlordanes, and hexachlorocyclohexanes were lost at a higher rate than the other contaminant classes (particularly polybrominated diphenyl ethers). During mass gain the behavior of all contaminant classes was more consistent with the dilution model. These results indicate the importance of considering the energetic contextwhen sampling blubberfor long-term contaminant monitoring and suggest an initial approach to adjust for such differences. PMID:18589985

Hall, A J; Gulland, F M D; Ylitalo, G M; Greig, D J; Lowenstine, L

2008-06-01

62

Complete genome sequence of the San Miguel Sea Lion Virus-8 reveals that it is not a member of the VESV/SMSV species of the Caliciviridae  

Science.gov (United States)

The complete genome sequence of the San Miguel sea lion virus-8 (SMSV-8) was determined. Comparison of this sequence to other calicivirus sequences in GenBank showed that this virus was genetically distinct from the VESV/SMSV viruses and belonged to a novel clade within the Vesivirus genus....

63

Molecular Markers, MAT and Modeling: New Evidence for Leptospirosis Being Endemic in California Sea Lions, with Periodic Epizootics that Defy the Host-adapted Strain Paradigm  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally in humans and domestic dogs. Disease outbreaks have occurred periodically in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) off the central and northern coasts of California, with hundreds of a...

64

Benthic response to particulate fluxes in different trophic environments: a comparison between the Gulf of Lions Catalan Sea (western-Mediterranean) and the Cretan Sea (eastern-Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative information on particle fluxes, sedimentary OM composition, microbial and meiofaunal parameters is summarised from various stations in the Gulf of Lions and Catalan Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) and in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean), investigated between 1993 and 1996. Benthic responses in relation to the different trophic conditions in the two areas were compared in terms of: (1) temporal and spatial variability of the mass fluxes; (2) pelagic-benthic coupling in organic matter composition (such as proteins, lipids, soluble carbohydrates and CPE); (3) microbial response to changes in organic matter composition and POC fluxes; (4) meiofaunal response to changes in organic matter composition and particle fluxes; (5) relative significance of bacteria and meiofauna. The two areas were also compared to identify ratios between productivity, vertical fluxes and benthic standing stocks. Mass fluxes at equal depths were up to two orders of magnitude higher in the Western than in the Eastern Mediterranean. Clear seasonal changes were reported in both areas, although mass fluxes and variability were consistently higher in the North-Western Mediterranean. From primary production estimates in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean (140-160 vs. ?19-60 mgC m -2 d -1, respectively) it has been calculated that a carbon export from the euphotic layer to 1000 m depth is equivalent to about 10% in the Gulf of Lions and 2-3% in the Cretan Sea. Chlorophyll-a concentrations, at similar depths, were 2-3 times higher in the Western basin. Carbohydrates were the dominant biochemical component in the Cretan Sea sediments while total amino-acids represented an important fraction of the biodegradable material in the Gulf of Lions-Catalan Sea. In the Western Mediterranean, bacterial densities (annual mean 7.9×10 8 cells g -1) were about 4 times higher than in the Cretan Sea (annual mean 2.1×10 8 cells g -1), indicating that, in deep-sea sediments, different trophic conditions are influencing bacterial densities. Meiofaunal abundance and biomass were similar on the continental shelves of both areas (940-2558 ind./10 cm 2) but, at bathyal depths, densities in the Cretan Sea (range: 60-120 ind./10 cm 2) were 4-25 times lower than those in the NW-Mediterranean (500-1500 ind./10 cm 2). In contrast to what was observed in the North-Western Mediterranean, deep-sea meiofaunal assemblages of the Cretan Sea did not react (in terms of density or biomass) to the seasonal variations in food inputs. Here, the bacterial to meiofaunal biomass ratio displayed much higher values (up to >20), possibly causing competition for food sources with small metazoans. The efficiency with which the POC fluxes were being exploited was estimated. In the NW-Mediterranean about 0.14 mgC/d are available to each meiofaunal individual compared to the 0.07 mgC ind. -1 of the Eastern Mediterranean. Similarly, 3.3 mgC were provided daily per 1 mgC of bacterial biomass in the Western Mediterranean, compared to 0.07 in the Eastern Mediterranean. These data indicate that the benthic components in the Cretan Sea, are subject to more limiting trophic conditions, and so might have a higher efficiency in exploiting the particulate organic fluxes.

Danovaro, R.; Dinet, A.; Duineveld, G.; Tselepides, A.

1999-08-01

65

Mama's boy: sex differences in juvenile survival in a highly dimorphic large mammal, the Galapagos sea lion.  

Science.gov (United States)

In many mammals, early survival differs between the sexes, with males proving the more fragile sex ["Fragile male (FM) hypothesis"], especially in sexually dimorphic species where males are the larger sex. Male-biased allocation (MBA) by females may offset this difference. Here, we evaluate support for the FM and MBA hypotheses using a dataset on Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki). We statistically model sex-specific survival as it depends on body mass and environmental conditions (sea surface temperature, SST, a correlate of marine productivity) at three developmental stages, the perinatal phase (1st month), the main lactation period (1st year), and the weaning period (2nd year). Supporting the FM hypothesis, we found that, early in life (1st month), at equal birth mass, males survived less well than females. During the remainder of the first year of life, male survival was actually less sensitive to harsh environmental conditions than that of females, contradicting the FM hypothesis and supporting the MBA hypothesis. During the second year of life, only male survival suffered with high SSTs as predicted by the FM hypothesis. At each developmental stage, observed survival rates were almost equal for both sexes, suggesting that mothers buffer against the inherent fragility of male offspring through increased allocation, thereby masking the differences in survival prospects between the sexes. PMID:23053230

Kraus, C; Mueller, B; Meise, K; Piedrahita, P; Pörschmann, U; Trillmich, F

2013-04-01

66

Energy reallocation during and after periods of nutritional stress in Steller sea lions: low-quality diet reduces capacity for physiological adjustments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two groups of female Steller sea lions (groups H and P) were subjected to periods of energy restriction and subsequent refeeding during winter and summer to determine changes in energy partitioning among principal physiological functions and the potential consequences to their fitness. Both sea lion groups consumed high-quality fish (herring) before and after the energy restrictions. During restrictions, group H was fed a lower quantity of herring and group P a caloric equivalent of low-quality fish (pollock). Quantitative estimates of maintenance and production energies and qualitative estimates of thermoregulation, activity, and basal metabolic rate were measured. During summer, all animals compensated for the imposed energy deficit by releasing stored energy (production energy). Group H also optimized the energy allocation to seasonal conditions by increasing activity during summer, when fish are naturally abundant (foraging effort), and by decreasing thermoregulation capacity when waters are warmer. During winter, both groups decreased the energy allocated to overall maintenance functions (basal metabolic rate, thermoregulation, and activity together) in addition to releasing stored energy, but they preserved thermoregulatory capacity. Group H also decreased activity levels in winter, when foraging in the wild is less efficient, unlike group P. Overall, sea lions fed pollock did not change energy allocation to suit environmental conditions as readily as those fed herring. This implies that a low energy-density diet may further reduce fitness of animals in the wild during periods of nutritional stress. PMID:19637969

Jeanniard du Dot, Tiphaine; Rosen, David A S; Trites, Andrew W

2009-01-01

67

Discrimination of carbon and nitrogen isotopes from milk to serum and vibrissae in Alaska Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of diet-tissue stable isotope discrimination is required to properly interpret stable isotope values and to identify possible diet shifts, such as might be expected from nursing through weaning. This study compared ??13C and ??15N of paired serum and vibrissal roots with those of ingested milk (n = 52) from free-ranging Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776)) pups (1-11 months) and juveniles (14-27 months) to estimate diet-tissue discrimination. Mean 15N enrichment from ingested milk to serum was 2.1??? ?? 0.6%??? and ??15N at the root of the vibrissae (representing current growth) were not significantly different from serum values. Milk was enriched for mean 13C by 5.0??? ?? 1.0%??? and 7.3??? ?? 1.2??? relative to serum and vibrissal roots, respectively, which was due to the presence of 13C-depleted lipids in milk. This was confirmed by lipid extraction from a subset of milk and serum samples, resulting in a 5.8??? ?? 1.0??? change only in milk. This study established that vibrissal roots and serum are reflective of a milk diet with approximately 2.0??? 15N enrichment, and vibrissal roots reflect serum and lipid-extracted milk values with approximately 2.0??? 13C enrichment. These discrimination factors are important to establish for stable isotope studies assessing diet shifts. ?? 2008 NRC.

Stegall, V.K.; Farley, S.D.; Rea, L.D.; Pitcher, K.W.; Rye, R.O.; Kester, C.L.; Stricker, C.A.; Bern, C.R.

2008-01-01

68

Applicability of single-camera photogrammetry to determine body dimensions of pinnipeds: Galapagos sea lions as an example.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological features correlate with many life history traits and are therefore of high interest to behavioral and evolutionary biologists. Photogrammetry provides a useful tool to collect morphological data from species for which measurements are otherwise difficult to obtain. This method reduces disturbance and avoids capture stress. Using the Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) as a model system, we tested the applicability of single-camera photogrammetry in combination with laser distance measurement to estimate morphological traits which may vary with an animal's body position. We assessed whether linear morphological traits estimated by photogrammetry can be used to estimate body length and mass. We show that accurate estimates of body length (males: ±2.0%, females: ±2.6%) and reliable estimates of body mass are possible (males: ±6.8%, females: 14.5%). Furthermore, we developed correction factors that allow the use of animal photos that diverge somewhat from a flat-out position. The product of estimated body length and girth produced sufficiently reliable estimates of mass to categorize individuals into 10 kg-classes of body mass. Data of individuals repeatedly photographed within one season suggested relatively low measurement errors (body length: 2.9%, body mass: 8.1%). In order to develop accurate sex- and age-specific correction factors, a sufficient number of individuals from both sexes and from all desired age classes have to be captured for baseline measurements. Given proper validation, this method provides an excellent opportunity to collect morphological data for large numbers of individuals with minimal disturbance. PMID:24987983

Meise, Kristine; Mueller, Birte; Zein, Beate; Trillmich, Fritz

2014-01-01

69

Especies de la familia Enterobacteriaceae en heces de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens establecido en el río Valdivia / Species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in feces of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens settled in the Valdivia River  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english This study aims to establish the isolation frequency of species of the family Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of South American common sea lion (Otaria flavescens). Thirty fecal samples were collected from the resting ground of an urban sea lions colony in Valdivia, southern Chile. The bacteria [...] species and their isolation frequencies were Edwarsiella tarda (73%), Escherichia coli (70%), Hafnia alvei (33%), Morganella morganii (7%), Proteus mirabilis (7%), Klebsiella pnuemoniae subsp. pneumoniae (3%), Serratia rubidea (3%), Providencia rustigianii (3%) and Citrobacter braakii (3%).

Mario, González-Fuentes; Fadua, Latif; Fabiola, Fernández; María P, Villanueva; Jorge, Ulloa; Heriberto, Fernández.

2010-08-01

70

Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American sea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predatorio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica.

M. Florencia Grandi

2012-11-01

71

Trophic structure in the Gulf of Lions marine ecosystem (north-western Mediterranean Sea) and fishing impacts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Gulf of Lions ecosystemwas described using the Ecopath mass-balancemodel to characterise its structure and functioning and to examine the effects of themultispecific fisheries operating in this area. The model is composed of 40 compartments, including 1 group of seabirds, 2 groups of etaceans, 18 groups of fish, 12 groups of invertebrates, 5 groups of primary producers, detritus and discards. Input datawere based on several recurrent scientific surveys, two alternative datasets for fishin...

Banaru, Daniela; Mellon, Capucine; Roos, David; Bigot, Jean-louis; Souplet, Arnauld; Jadaud, Angelique; Beaubrun, P.; Fromentin, Jean-marc

2013-01-01

72

Attendance patterns of California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) females and pups during the non-breeding season at San Miguel Island  

Science.gov (United States)

The attendance patterns of California sea lions were studied during the non-breeding seasons from 1991 to 1994. Lactating females frequented the rookery to nurse their pups until weaning; most non-lactating females left the rookery for the season. Females spent over 70% of their time at sea except in 1993 when they spent 59% of their time at sea. The mean foraging trip length in the winter and spring ranged from 3.3 to 4.6 d; the mean nursing visit ranged from 1.2 to 1.4 d. The duration of foraging trips and nursing visits was variable over the season for individuals but no pattern of change was detected. Interannual and seasonal differences were not significant for time at sea, visits ashore, or foraging-trip duration before, during, or after the 1992-1993 El Nino event. Pups spent an average of 66.6% of their time ashore and up to three days away from the rookery during their mother's absence. Most females and pups stayed associated until April or May. The results suggest that seasonal movement of prey is more important in determining attendance patterns late in the lactation period than increasing energy demands of the pup.

Melin, S.R.; DeLong, R.L.; Thomason, J.R.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

2000-01-01

73

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) along the central coast off Chile / Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la costa de Chile central  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales s [...] e basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375) en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas). Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio. Abstract in english The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on pho [...] tographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375) were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites). After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851) sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.

MARITZA, SEPÚLVEDA; DORIS, OLIVA; ALEJANDRA, URRA; MARÍA J, PÉREZ-ÁLVAREZ; RODRIGO, MORAGA; DANIEL, SCHRADER; PATRICIA, INOSTROZA; ANGELA, MELO; HUMBERTO, DÍAZ; WALTER, SIELFELD.

2011-03-01

74

Distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae along the central coast off Chile Distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae en la costa de Chile central  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The onshore distribution and abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens along the central Chilean coast was estimated during the period January-February 2007. Additionally, changes in population abundance during the period 1970-2007 were examined. Population surveys were based on photographs taken from boats or aircraft. A total of 16301 sea lions (CI = 16209-16375 were counted in 33 colonies (6 breeding and 27 non-breeding sites. After correction to account for the proportion of individuals at sea and for pups not seen at the time of the survey, the mean estimated abundance was 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 sea lions. Population trend analysis showed that from 1970 to 1985, South American sea lions showed a positive increase of approximately 2.1 % yr-1. Nevertheless, between 1985 and 1997 and between 1997 and 2007, the estimated number of sea lions showed a stable or slightly negative trend of 0.4 ± 0.1 % yr-1and 0.5 ± 0.1 % yr-1, respectively. We suggest that the overexploitation and decline of the principal fisheries in Central Chile could adversely impact the abundance and distribution of the South American sea lion in the study area.Se estimó la distribución y la abundancia poblacional del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la costa de Chile central durante los meses de enero y febrero de 2007. Adicionalmente, se analizaron los cambios en la abundancia de esta especie durante el período 1970-2007. Los censos poblacionales se basaron en fotografías tomadas desde embarcaciones menores o desde avionetas. Se contabilizaron un total de 16301 lobos marinos (IC = 16209-16375 en 33 colonias (6 reproductivas y 27 no reproductivas. Después de corregir por la proporción de animales en el agua y por crías no registradas al momento del censo, se estimó una abundancia promedio de 18179 (95 % CI = 17777-18851 lobos marinos en el área de estudio. El análisis de tendencia poblacional presentó que desde 1970 a 1985 la abundancia-lobo marino com-mostró una tendencia positiva de aproximadamente 2.1 % año-1. Sin embargo, entre 1985 a 1997, y entre 1997 a 2007, el número de lobos marinos muestra una tendencia estable o ligeramente negativa de 0.4 ± 0.1 % año-1 y 0.5 ± 0.1 % año-1, respectivamente. Se sugiere que la sobreexplotación y la declinación de las principales pesquerías en la zona central de Chife podría haber impactado negativamente la distribución y abundancia del lobo marino común en el área de estudio.

MARITZA SEPÚLVEDA

2011-03-01

75

Lifting a Lion  

Science.gov (United States)

"Students will work in groups to solve a real-world problem presented by the book: How Do You Lift A Lion? Using a toy lion and a lever, students will discover how much work is needed to raise the toy lion. They will use proportions to determine the force needed to lift a real lion" from TI World Math.

Instruments, Texas

2012-08-03

76

Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella shed by captive and free-range California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from a rehabilitation center and three state reserves along the California coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella is a genus of zoonotic bacteria that can infect a variety of animals, and may cause gastrointestinal disease in marine mammals. Many of the same Salmonella serotypes are shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and humans, which poses transmission questions and public health concerns. In this study, 454 fecal samples from three free-ranging California sea lion populations along the California coast and from animals undergoing rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, were screened for the presence of Salmonella. In addition to fecal samples, 39 presumed vomitus samples were collected and processed. Of the 454 samples processed, 312 were from free-ranging sites and 142 were from rehabilitating California sea lions. A total of nine fecal samples were positive for Salmonella, yielding a 2.0% overall prevalence, as well as two presumed vomitus samples (5.1% prevalence). Salmonella shedding prevalence was 1.6% in samples collected from free-ranging animals, and 2.8% in rehabilitating animals. Four serotypes were found among the 11 positive samples, with Salmonella Enteritidis the most prevalent (64%). Antimicrobial resistance testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were performed to further characterize isolates. Experiments were carried out to determine the minimal number of Salmonella required for detection by the methods used. It was determined that at least 10' colony-forming units per gram of feces was required for detection. The prevalence of Salmonella Enteritidis, and diversity of serotypes discovered is considerably different from those reported in previous studies. Overall, this study provides new insights into the epidemiology of Salmonella in California sea lions present in multi-use coastal ecosystems. PMID:25314819

Berardi, Terra; Shapiro, Karen; Byrne, Barbara A; Miller, Woutrina

2014-09-01

77

Aislamiento de Plesiomonas shigelloides y Aeromonas veronii biotipo sobria en heces de lobo marino común sudamericano, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) / Isolation of Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas veronii biotype sobria from South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) feces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Plesiomonas shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. are Gram negative bacteria vastly distributed in the environment, being isolated from aquatic ecosystems and terrestrial and marine animals. The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is the most frequent marine mammal of the Chilean coasts, living in [...] beaches, rocks or coastline of rivers. In this work we determined the isolation frequency of P. shigelloides and A. veronii biotype sobria in fecal samples of South American sea lions belonging to a colony established at the urban South coastline of Valdivia River, southern Chile. From the 30 samples under study, P. shigelloides was isolated in 27 (90.0%) and A. veronii biotype sobria in 17 (56.6%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of P. shigelloides and Aeromonas spp. from South American sea lions in Chile. However, further studies are needed to clarify if these bacteria play any role in producing disease, or are merely commensals, in these marine mammals.

Mario J, González; María P, Villanueva; Fadua, Latif; Fabiola, Fernández; Heriberto, Fernández.

2009-12-01

78

Occupancy dynamics of South American Sea-Lions in Brazilian Haul-outs / Dinâmica de Ocupação do Leão-Marinho-do-Sul no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Ao longo da costa do Brasil apenas duas colônias não-reprodutivas de leões-marinhos-do-sul (Otaria flavescens) são conhecidas: Ilha dos Lobos e Molhe Leste, ambas localizadas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul. A maioria dos leões-marinhos observados nestas colônias são machos adultos e sub-adultos. Sup [...] õe-se que a presença da espécie nestas áreas está relacionada ao forrageamento e a ausência de cuidado parental pelos machos. Este estudo analisou a dinâmica de ocupação e abundância de O. flavescens nas colônias não-reprodutivas entre 1993 e 2002, baseado em uma série temporal de dados de contagens de indivíduos. Modelos lineares generalizados mistos Bayesianos foram usados para avaliar diferença na abundância entre áreas, tendência de uso em longo prazo e padrões sazonais. Os resultados mostram que a abundância de O. flavescens variou sazonalmente, atingindo pico intra-anual em agosto (Ilha dos Lobos) e outubro (Molhe Leste), acompanhado de um aumento da ocupação média dos refúgios ao longo do período de estudo. A nova aplicação desta poderosa forma de modelagem estatística mostrou-se útil para quantificar a dinâmica de ocupação. Abstract in english Along the Brazilian coast only two haul-outs of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) are known: Ilha dos Lobos and Molhe Leste, both located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul. Most sea lions observed in these haul-outs are adult and sub-adult males. It is supposed that t [...] he species' presence in these areas is due to food supply and absence of parental assistance by males. This study analysed the use of these haul-outs by O. flavescens between 1993 and 2002 based on counting data of observed individuals. Bayesian generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate differences in abundance between areas, long term trends and seasonal patterns. Results showed that for O. flavescens abundance had a long term trend of increased average occupancy over the study period, with seasonal variation reaching the highest within-year value in August (Ilha dos Lobos) and October (Molhe Leste). The novel application of this powerful statistical modelling approach resulted in a useful tool to quantify occupancy dynamic.

H., Pavanato; KG., Silva; SC., Estima; DS., Monteiro; PG., Kinas.

2013-11-01

79

Killer whales attack on South American sea lion associated with a fishing vessel: predator and prey tactics / Ataque de orcas a un lobo marino sudamericano asociado a un barco pesquero: tácticas del predador y la presa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Las interacciones entre orcas y lobos marinos son ampliamente conocidas. Este trabajo describe el comportamiento predador-presa entre orcas y un lobo marino sudamericano asociados a un barco pesquero de arrastre. Particularmente en Argentina el comportamiento predatorio de las orcas y el anti-predat [...] orio de los lobos marinos comunes fueron descriptos mediante observaciones costeras, pero se sabe poco sobre el comportamiento de estas especies en aguas abiertas. En este trabajo, a partir de un video grabado desde un barco de pesca arrastrero, junto con la entrevista del capitán del barco, se describe cómo un grupo de orcas ataca a un lobo marino Sudamericano. Este comportamiento predador-presa representa un ejemplo sobre la complejidad de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y las pesquerías a lo largo de la costa patagónica. Abstract in english Interactions between killer whales and sea lions are widely known. This work describes the predator-prey behaviour of killer whales and South American sea lion associated with a trawling fishery. In Argentina the predatory behaviours of killer whales and anti-predatory behaviours of South American s [...] ea lions have been described from costal based observations, but predator-prey behaviour of these species is poorly known at open waters. Here we describe a killer whale group attack on an individual sea lion, using a video recorded from a trawling vessel and an interview of the ship captain. This predator-prey behaviour represents an example of the complexity of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries along the Patagonian coast.

M. Florencia, Grandi; Rocío, Loizaga de Castro; Enrique A, Crespo.

1072-10-01

80

Composition and provenance of terrigenous organic matter transported along submarine canyons in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous projects in the Gulf of Lion have investigated the path of terrigenous material in the Rhone deltaic system, the continental shelf and the nearby canyon heads. This study focuses on the slope region of the Gulf of Lion to further describe particulate exchanges with ocean’s interior through submarine canyons and atmospheric inputs. Nine sediment traps were deployed from the heads to the mouths of Lacaze-Duthiers and Cap de Creus submarine canyons and on the southern open slope from October 2005 to October 2006. Sediment trap samples were analyzed by CuO oxidation to investigate spatial and temporal variability in the yields and compositional characteristics of terrigenous biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols and cutin acids. Sediment trap data show that the Dense Shelf Water Cascading event that took place in the months of winter 2006 (January, February and March) had a profound impact on particle fluxes in both canyons. This event was responsible for the majority of lignin phenol (55.4%) and cutin acid (42.8%) inputs to submarine canyons, with lignin compositions similar to those measured along the mid- and outer-continental shelf, which is consistent with the resuspension and lateral transfer of unconsolidated shelf sediment to the canyons. The highest lithogenic-normalized lignin derived phenols contents in sediment trap samples were found during late spring and summer at all stations (i.e., 193.46 ?g VP g-1 lithogenic at deep slope station), when river flow, wave energy and total particle fluxes were relatively low. During this period, lignin compositions were characterized by elevated cinnamyl to vanillyl phenol ratios (>3) at almost all stations, high p-coumaric to ferulic acid ratios (>3) and high yields of cutin acids relative to vanillyl phenols (>1), all trends that are consistent with high pollen inputs. Our results suggest marked differences in the sources and transport processes responsible for terrigenous material export along submarine canyons, mainly consisting of fluvial and shelf sediments during winter and atmospheric dust inputs during spring and summer.

Pasqual, Catalina; Goñi, Miguel A.; Tesi, Tommaso; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Canals, Miquel

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Trophic structure in the Gulf of Lions marine ecosystem (north-western Mediterranean Sea) and fishing impacts  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gulf of Lions ecosystem was described using the Ecopath mass-balance model to characterise its structure and functioning and to examine the effects of the multispecific fisheries operating in this area. The model is composed of 40 compartments, including 1 group of seabirds, 2 groups of cetaceans, 18 groups of fish, 12 groups of invertebrates, 5 groups of primary producers, detritus and discards. Input data were based on several recurrent scientific surveys, two alternative datasets for fishing data, stock assessment outputs, stomach content analyses and published information. Results showed that the functional groups were organised into five trophic levels with the highest one represented by dolphins, anglerfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna, European hake and European conger. European pilchard and European anchovy dominated in terms of fish biomass and catch. Other fish with high biomass such as Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting were highly important in the food web. Seabirds, dolphins and cuttlefish-squids represented keystone species. Important coupled pelagic-demersal-benthic interactions were described. The 7 different fisheries analysed were operating at mean trophic levels situated between 2.6 for small artisanal boats, and 4.1 for purse seines (> 24 m) targeting large pelagic fish, indicating an intensively exploited ecosystem. Large trawlers (24-40 m) had the highest impact on most of the groups considered; while purse seines (12-24 m) targeting small pelagic fish had the lowest impact. Preliminary results highlighted the importance of data sources for further ecosystem and fisheries analyses and management scenarios.

B?naru, D.; Mellon-Duval, C.; Roos, D.; Bigot, J.-L.; Souplet, A.; Jadaud, A.; Beaubrun, P.; Fromentin, J.-M.

2013-02-01

82

Transformation of PBDE mixtures during sediment transport and resuspension in marine environments (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in superficial sediments from the Gulf of Lion were studied. They were largely predominated by BDE 209 (98.7% of all PBDEs) indicating that the main source of these pollutants was the commercial mixture deca-BDE. This compound and the less brominated BDE exhibited a southwestward decreasing concentration gradient following the dominant marine currents and bottom relief, e.g. the Mud Belt, the submarine canyons and the Open Continental Slope. All PBDEs exhibited statistically significant correlations confirming the common origin. However, a progressive transformation of the dumped BDE 209 was identified showing a depletion paralleled by increases of the less brominated BDEs (from 8.6% to 22%). These less brominated compounds were accumulated at about 100–140 km away from the Rhone prodelta, e.g. at the end of the submarine canyons, evidencing that these transformation compounds can be accumulated at long distances from the dumping sites in the marine system. Highlights: ? Polybromodiphenyl ethers are associated to organic carbon in marine sediments. ? PBDEs in marine sediments can accumulate further away than 140 km from the spill site. ? BDE-209 in marine sediments generate congeners found in banned commercial mixtures. ? BDE-209 in marine sediments generates new congeners not found in commercial mixtures. ? Submarine canyons channel PBDEs from the continental platform to the deep shelf. - Decomposition of decabromodiphenylmposition of decabromodiphenyl ether in marine sediments generates congeners found in banned mixtures in areas located far away from the discharge sites.

83

Behavioral response of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens to tourist disturbance during the breeding season / Respuesta conductual del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens a la perturbación por turistas durante la época reproductiva  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los pinípedos muestran una alta predictibilidad en su distribución, tanto espacial como temporal, y tienden a congregarse en parches, lo que permite un fácil acceso de turistas. Sin embargo, la presencia de dichos turistas puede generar un impacto negativo sobre los animales. El objetivo de este est [...] udio fue evaluar, por primera vez en Chile, el efecto del ecoturismo sobre el comportamiento del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens durante la época reproductiva. Registramos un total de 44 visitas de embarcaciones a la lobera reproductiva de Isla Chañaral. La mayoría de los turistas mostró una actitud de calma, seguida por moderada y perturbadora. La respuesta de los lobos marinos fue mayoritariamente de escape, seguida de inactiva y alerta. La respuesta de los lobos marinos se relacionó negativamente con la distancia de aproximación de la embarcación a la colonia, pero no se relacionó ni con el tiempo de permanencia de la embarcación en la colonia ni con la conducta de los turistas. Nuestros resultados indican que el lobo marino común es afectado negativamente por la presencia de turistas, especialmente debido al escape de los individuos desde la colonia al mar. Dichos escapes pueden generar efectos fisiológicos negativos sobre el animal, lo que puede incidir sobre su adecuación biológica. Sugerimos que futuros estudios evalúen el comportamiento de respuesta de los lobos marinos durante la época reproductiva y en otros periodos del año, además de analizar posibles diferencias entre clases de edad y sexo, lo que permita contar con herramientas adecuadas para el manejo del turismo sobre el lobo marino común en Chile. Abstract in english Pinnipeds have a high predictability, both spatial and temporal, and tend to be distributed in patches, which permitting tourists easy access to them. However, the presence of tourists may generate a negative impact on the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in C [...] hile, the effect of ecotourism activities on the behavior of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens during the reproductive season. We recorded a total of 44 visiting boats to the reproductive colony of this species on Isla Chañaral. The attitude of the majority of the tourists was a quiet one; however this was followed by moderate and disturbing behavior. The response of sea lions was mainly to escape, followed by a period of inactive and alert. The response of sea lions was negatively related to the distance at which the boats approached the colony, but was not related to the time boats remained in the colony or the behavior of tourists. Our results show that the South American sea lion is negatively affected by human presence, shown by the escape of individuals from the colony to the sea. Escaping from the colony may generate negative physiological effects on an animal physiological effects on an animal, and ultimately affect the fitness of the individual. We suggest that future studies should evaluate changes in behavior during the reproductive season and in other periods, and the behavior of sea lions at different ages and sexes, to provide tools to improve the management of tourist activities on the South American sea lion in Chile.

Guido, Pavez; Lily, Muñoz; Patricia, Inostroza; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

2011-08-01

84

Stratigraphic simulations of the shelf of the Gulf of Lions: testing subsidence rates and sea-level curves during the Pliocene and Quaternary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determining the relative importance of factors interacting to control stratigraphic organization is a key issue in sedimentology. The Pliocene-Quaternary chronostratigraphy on the Gulf of Lions platform is still poorly constrained, giving rise to different interpretations of the evolution of its subsidence through time. This paper examines the Pliocene-Quaternary sedimentary filling of the Gulf of Lion's shelf with Dionisos, a numerical stratigraphic model. Our results show that a constant su...

Leroux, Estelle; Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Granjeon, Didier; Droz, Laurence; Gorini, Christian

2014-01-01

85

Presencia de cepas diarreogénicas de Escherichia coli y estudio de genes de virulencia en aislados desde fecas de dos poblaciones de lobo marino común, Otaria flavescens en el norte de Chile / Presence of diarrheagenic strains of Escherichia coli and virulence genes study in isolates from feces of two populations of South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens in Northern Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english This research analyzed the effect of fecal contamination caused by sewage, and its relationship with the presence of enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli in the feces of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) from Iquique Bay and surrounding waters. The E. coli strains isolated from th [...] e water column of the bay and sewage outlet, showed the presence of the gene eae. In the strains isolated from the feces of both sea lion colonies no presence of virulent diarrheagenic genes was detected. The genotyping of strains resulted in clusters according to their origin and showed separation of the samples of E. coli population of the colonies of sea lions and those of the strains isolated from the column water of Iquique Bay.

Paula, Salinas C; Rubén, Moraga M; Edgardo, Santander P; Walter, Sielfeld K.

2010-04-01

86

Tuberculosis in African lions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection, resulting in bovine tuberculosis (BTB). This chronic, debilitating disease can affect multiple organs, particularly the lungs, and may ultimately lead to death of the infected animal. Cases of lion BTB have been described in zoological collections as well as in free-ranging lion populations, where M. bovis prevalence may be as high as 79%. Practical limitations complicate current BTB testing of free-ra...

Maas, M.

2013-01-01

87

La explotación histórica del lobo marino de California no causó un cuello de botella genético en el Golfo de California / Past exploitation of California sea lions did not lead to a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La explotación humana puede causar cuellos de botella genéticos asociados con una variabilidad genética reducida y menor aptitud. La población del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) en el Golfo de California, México, fue objeto de una explotación prolongada durante los siglos XIX y X [...] X que pudo haber causado un cuello de botella genético. Sin embargo, la explotación que deriva tamaños poblacionales bajos no siempre causa cuellos de botella genéticos. El conocimiento de las consecuencias genéticas de la caza del lobo marino de California es crítico para la conservación de la población del Golfo de California, que está en declive y es genéticamente distinta de otras poblaciones. En este estudio usamos una base de datos de 10 marcadores polimórficos de microsatélite amplificados en 355 individuos pertenecientes a seis colonias mexicanas. Estos datos fueron analizados con diversos métodos (BOTTLENECK y razón M) para determinar si ocurrió un cuello de botella genético. Nuestros resultados indican que la explotación histórica del lobo marino no causó un cuello de botella genético en la población del Golfo de California; sin embargo, las simulaciones sugieren que si la población hubiese sido reducida a menos de 100 individuos sí hubiésemos detectado una reducción de la variabilidad genética. Con base en estos resultados concluimos que la explotación histórica de esta población no fue tan intensa como se pensaba previamente y, por tanto, no causó un cuello de botella genético. No obstante, la explotación se concentró en machos adultos y este sesgo podría haber afectado la dinámica poblacional de estas colonias y su aptitud general. Abstract in english Human exploitation can lead to genetic bottlenecks associated with reduced genetic variability and lower fitness. The population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, was hunted during the 19th and 20th centuries, potentially leading to a genetic bottlen [...] eck; however, even exploitation that leads to low population sizes does not always cause genetic bottlenecks. Understanding the genetic consequences of past sea lion hunts is critical to the conservation of the Gulf of California sea lion population, which is currently declining and is genetically distinct from other populations. We used available data from 10 amplified polymorphic microsatellite loci in 355 individuals from six Mexican colonies. Microsatellite data were analyzed using diverse approaches (BOTTLENECK and M-ratio) to determine if a genetic bottleneck had occurred. Our results indicate that human exploitation did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the sea lion population of the Gulf of California. Simulation analyses revealed that a reduction in genetic variability would have been detected if fewer than 100 individuals had remained after exploitation. We conclude that past exploitation was not as severe as previously thought and did not cause a genetic bottleneck in the Gulf of California sea lion population. Nevertheless, historical hunts specifically targeted adult males and this sex-biased exploitation may have influenced the population dynamics and overall fitness.

M, González-Suárez; D, Aurioles-Gamboa; LR, Gerber.

2010-06-01

88

Eventos reproductivos del león marino común, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), en el norte de Chile (Pacífico suroriental) / Reproductive events of southern sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw 1800), in the north of Chile (eastern south Pacific)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios sobre el desarrollo de la temporada de reproducción del león marino común han sido largamente realizados en poblaciones de Uruguay y Argentina, Atlántico suroriental, disponiéndose de escasa información en Perú y Chile. El objetivo de esta contribución es dar a conocer el desarrollo de la t [...] emporada de reproducción del león marino del sur, durante dos períodos consecutivos en la lobera de Punta Negra, norte de Chile. El desarrollo de los eventos reproductivos en la lobera de Punta Negra presentó una sincronización anual, extendiéndose desde la tercera semana de diciembre hasta mayo, con un clímax de los eventos reproductivos en febrero, siendo la dinámica del período de reproducción similar a la informada para otras colonias estudiadas, aunque con un desfase en el tiempo en contraste con las poblaciones de la costa atlántica. Se concluye que el desarrollo de los eventos durante ambas temporadas de reproducción presentó una alta sincronización anual, con un desfase promedio de 2,0 - 2,5 días, pudiendo ser generalizada como representativa para la zona norte de Chile, en el Pacífico suroriental Abstract in english Studies on the development of the breeding season of southern sea lions have been carried out primarily in populations from Uruguay and Argentina, western south Atlantic; scarce information has been published from populations of Peru and Chile. The objective of this contribution is to describe the d [...] evelopment of the breeding season of the southern sea lion, during two consecutive seasons in the area of Punta Negra, north of Chile. The development of the reproductive events in the Punta Negra colony presented a high annual synchronization, extending from the third week of December till May, with a climax of the reproductive events in February, being the dynamics during the breeding period similar to that informed for other colonies, although with an out of fase in the breeding season with the Atlantic populations of sea lion. We conclude that the development of the reproductive events during the both breeding seasons presented a high annual synchronization, with an average out of fase of 2.0-2.5 days, being representative for most of the northern area of Chile, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean

Jorge, Acevedo R; Anelio, Aguayo-Lobo; Walter, Sielfeld K.

2003-12-01

89

Massive sand beds attributed to deposition by dense water cascades in the Bourcart canyon head, Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the Gulf of Lions continental shelf and slope are under the influence of dense water cascading, wind-induced bottom currents and the geostrophic Northern Current. In order to characterize sedimentary activity at the shelf break, several interface and piston cores were taken in the Bourcart canyon head and a current meter equipped with temperature, conductivity, pressure and turbidity sensors was moored during the 2003-2004 winter season. Even if the canyon is not connected directly ...

Gaudin, M.; Berne?, S.; Jouanneau, J. -m; Palanques, A.; Puig, P.; Mulder, T.; Cirac, P.; Rabineau, M.; Imbert, P.

2006-01-01

90

Diet plasticity of the South American sea lion in Chile: stable isotope evidence / Plasticidad de la dieta del lobo marino común en Chile: evidencia mediante isótopos estables  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Estudios de dieta del lobo marino común (LMC) en Chile sugieren que esta especie es un depredador oportunista y generalista, cuya dieta varía dependiendo de la distribución de las especies presas y de las variaciones espacio-temporales en la abundancia de dichas presas. Sin embargo, estos estudios h [...] an sido esporádicos, limitados espacialmente y basados en análisis de contenidos estomacales, lo que no permite un análisis integral de la composición de la dieta y de sus potenciales diferencias espacio-temporales. En este estudio se analizó la composición de la dieta del LMC en 3 zonas geográficas de la costa chilena utilizando los isótopos estables de ?13C y ?15N en muestras de pelo y piel. En la zona norte las principales especies consumidas fueron los peces Isacia conceptionis (19,5%) de acuerdo al análisis de piel y Cilus gilberti (23,3%) en análisis de pelo; en la zona centro lo fueron Thyrsites atun (40,1%) en piel y Strangomera bentincki (31,1%) en pelo; mientras que en la zona sur especies de peces pelágicos (como T. atun y Trachurus murphyi, 20,8%) en piel y salmones de cultivo (20,7%) en pelo. Estas diferencias demuestran que el LMC muestra cambios espaciales en la composición de su dieta. Variaciones entre tejidos, así como con lo registrado en estudios previos, sugiere que esta especie es capaz de adaptarse a variaciones, tanto intra como inter-anuales, de la presencia/ausencia de sus presas. Abstract in english Diet studies of the South American sea lion (SASL) in Chile suggest that this species is an opportunistic and generalist predator whose diet varies depending on the distribution of prey species and spatial and temporal variations in the abundance of these dams. However, these studies have been spora [...] dic, geographically limited and based on stomach content analysis, which does not allow an integral analysis of the composition of the diet of this species and its potential spatial and temporal variability. In this study we analyzed the diet of the SASL in 3 geographic zones of the coast of Chile using analysis of stable isotopes ?13C and ?15N on hair and skin tissues. In the northern zone, the main prey species consumed by SASL were Isacia conceptionis (19.5%) for skin and Cilus gilberti (23.3%) for hair; in the central zone were Thyrsites atun (40.1%) for skin and Strangomera bentincki (31.1%) for hair, whereas in the southern zone the main species were pelagic fish (such as T. atun and Trachurus murphyi, 20.8%) for skin and farm-raised salmonids (20.7%) for hair analysis. These differences indicate variation in the composition of its diet. Variations between the analyzed tissues and also with previous studies suggest that this species is capable of adapting to intra- and inter-annual variations in the presence/absence of its prey.

Lily, Muñoz; Guido, Pavez; Renato A, Quiñones; Doris, Oliva; Macarena, Santos; Maritza, Sepúlveda.

2013-12-01

91

Magnetospheric lion roars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate normally of 128 Hz. The high sampling rate for the first time allows detection of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dawnside magnetosphere. The characteristics of these waves are virtually identical to the lion roars typically seen at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves. The magnetospheric lion roars are near-monochromatic packets of electron w...

Baumjohann, W.; Georgescu, E.; -h Fornacon, K.; Auster, H. U.; Treumann, R. A.; Haerendel, G.

2000-01-01

92

Productiv Index of Meat Rabbits of White New Zealand Breed Californian and their Crossbreeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The researches had been held at the rabbits farm of STE Maximovca on the rabbits of White New Zealandand Californian meat breeds, crossbreds of the first generation received after the breeding (?White NewZealand x ? Californian and ?Californian x ? White New Zealand. After the rabbits slaughtering fromfour analysed groups, there was established the received meat quantity after the carcass boning ofcrossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian which was 80.1±0.2%, and the same analysed indexat crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand was 77.0±0.1%. The total amount of ratiobone/meat in the carcass there was received at crossbreds of ?White New Zealand x ? Californian whichwas 1:4.05, and at crossbreds of ?Californian x ? White New Zealand this index was 1:3.38.

Macari Angela

2012-10-01

93

First record of a neonate California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) in Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico / Primer registro de un lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) neonato en Manzanillo, Colima, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este es el primer reporte de un lobo marino de California recién nacido cerca de Manzanillo, Colima, México, cerca de 900 km al sur de las colonias reproductivas más sureñas reconocidas para la especie. El avistamiento ocurrió en playa La Boquita el 25 de junio de 2011 y durante los 2 días posterior [...] es. Se registraron valores de temperatura superficial del mar que resultaron ser los más bajos (21-24° C) en la región, similares a los de áreas de alimentación de lobo marino en el sur del golfo de California en invierno (~20.9° C). Las hembras dan a luz en verano, después presentan un ciclo de alimentación alternado con la atención a sus crías por lo que permanecen cerca de sus colonias, donde alimentan a sus crías por 1 año aproximadamente. Por esta razón, las áreas de alimentación de las hembras se encuentran confinadas a un radio de unos 30 km alrededor de las colonias. Esta relación entre alimentación y reproducción provoca que estos nacimientos atípicos sean importantes, ya que proveen conocimiento acerca de patrones individuales de desplazamiento, proporcionando elementos nuevos para el análisis del estado de la especie y su conservación. Abstract in english We present the first report of a neonate California sea lion near Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico, about 900 km from the southernmost breeding colonies recognized for the species. The sighting occurred June 25th, 2011, and during the 2 following days, in La Boquita beach. Near the site of the sighting, s [...] ea surface temperature (SST) was recorded. SST values were some of the lowest recorded in the region (21-24° C), similar to the ones typically recorded in feeding areas in the southern Gulf of California in winter (~20.9° C). California sea lion females give birth in summer and stay close to their colonies where they feed their young during approximately one year. Thus, their feeding areas tend to be confined within a radius of about 30 km from their colonies. This close relationship between breeding and feeding make extralimital births important; the increasing knowledge regarding travel patterns of individuals may provide better ways to analyze the species status and its future conservation.

Christian D., Ortega-Ortiz; Fernando, Elorriaga-Verplancken; Leslie, Rodríguez-Téllez; Aramis, Olivos-Ortiz; Juan Heberto, Gaviño-Rodríguez.

2013-06-01

94

Mac OS X Lion Simplified  

CERN Document Server

Simply the easiest way for visual learners to get up and running with Mac OS X Lion OS X Lion is the latest version of the Mac desktop operating system, offering cool new features for more than 25 million Mac OS X users. For visual learners who are switching to a Mac, upgrading from an earlier OS, or just getting started with computers, Mac OS X Lion Simplified provides all the necessary information in the simplest way possible. Task-based spreads provide step-by-step instructions with full color illustrations that show exactly how to accomplish a wide variety of tasks with Mac OS X Lion.Looks

McFedries, Paul

2011-01-01

95

Magnetospheric lion roars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate normally of 128 Hz. The high sampling rate for the first time allows detection of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dawnside magnetosphere. The characteristics of these waves are virtually identical to the lion roars typically seen at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves. The magnetospheric lion roars are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.2 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is nearly always smaller than 1°.

Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; MHD waves and instabilities; plasma waves and instabilities

W. Baumjohann

96

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae, un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillaeSe describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océano Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales

MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

2000-03-01

97

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens in Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anoplura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur.The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the existent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

A Crovetto

2008-01-01

98

Primer registro en Chile de Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) en lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) / First record of Antarctophthirus microchir (Anoplura) in the southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los ectoparásitos de los mamíferos marinos en Chile son poco conocidos. Se recolectaron individuos en animales adultos y jóvenes de una lobería reproductiva de lobo marino común (Otaria flavescens) en Isla Metalqui, de la Región de Los Lagos, Chile. Se identifican y describen los especímenes de Anop [...] lura apoyado en claves existentes. Dicha descripción y la comparación con la evolución y distribución de la familia Otariidae en el mundo nos permite concluir que Antarctophthirus microchir es una especie descrita por primera vez en Chile y podría representar una posible evidencia de un origen monofilético de los grupos de Otariidae en los hemisferios norte y sur. Abstract in english The ectoparasitic fauna associated to marine mammals is scarcely known in Chile. This report deals with a sample of Anoplura parasites collected from adult and juvenile Otaria flavescens, the southern sea lion, at the Los Lagos Region, Chile. The Anoplura were taxonomically determined using the exis [...] tent keys and they were subsequently described. This is the first record of Antarctophthirus microchir in Chile which, together with what is already known about the geographical distribution and the world evolutionary history of the Otariidae, could represent another evidence of the monophyly of the northern and southern hemisphere Otariidae groups.

A, Crovetto; R, Franjola; R, Silva.

99

Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), a parasite of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville from Chile / Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. (Ascaridoidea: Anisakidae), un parásito del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se describe al nemátodo parásito Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. encontrado en el estómago del lobo marino común Otaria byronia De Blainville, en muestras tomadas entre 1980 y 1997, a lo largo de la costa del centro-sur de Chile. Las larvas y adultos de esta especie han sido registrados en el océan [...] o Pacífico sudoriental como Phocanema decipiens Myers. Las principales diferencias con las especies del Atlántico norte y del Pacífico noroccidental se basan en el tamaño corporal y en el número, tamaño, distancia y proporciones de las papilas caudales Abstract in english The parasitic nematode Pseudoterranova cattani sp. nov. is described from the stomach of the South American sea lion Otaria byronia De Blainville, sampled along the coastline off central-south Chile, between 1980 and 1997. The adult and larvae of this species have been previously reported in the Sou [...] theastern Pacific Ocean as Phocanema decipiens Myers. Major differences with species from the North Atlantic and Northwest Pacific are based on the body size, number, distance and size of caudal pillae

MARIO, GEORGE-NASCIMENTO; XIMENA, URRUTIA.

2000-03-01

100

Seasonal variation in the abundance of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) in Chañaral Island, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile / Variación estacional de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) en Isla Chañaral, Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Desde enero de 2007 y hasta marzo de 2008 se analizó la variación de la abundancia del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en la lobera reproductiva Isla Chañaral, de acuerdo al sexo, clase de edad y estación reproductiva. El mayor número de lobos marinos en la lobera se registró durante el período [...] reproductivo. Esta variación se debió principalmente a la fluctuación del número de hembras, ya que esta clase de edad fue la más importante en la colonia y mostró un aumento en su abundancia durante este período. No se registraron fluctuaciones estacionales en el número de machos adultos, machos subadultos y juveniles. La proporción de sexos durante la estación reproductiva estuvo fuertemente sesgada hacia las hembras, mientras que fue cercana a 1:1 durante el resto del año. Este estudio demuestra que la variación en la abundancia y composición por sexo y clase de edad del lobo marino común en Isla Chañaral se relaciona principalmente con la actividad reproductiva. Abstract in english From January 2007 to March 2008, we examined variation in the abundance of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens in Chañaral Island breeding colony by sex, age-class, and reproductive seasonality. The number of sea lions on land was highest during the breeding season. This variation was main [...] ly influenced by the number of adult females, because this age class was the most important in the colony and showed an increase in abundance during this period. No seasonal variation in the number of adult males, subadult males, and juveniles was detected. The sex ratio during the breeding season was highly biased towards females, while it was close to 1:1 during the rest of the year. This study demonstrates that variation in the abundance and sex/age class composition of sea lions at Chañaral Island colony is largely influenced by reproductive activity.

Maritza, Sepúlveda; Patricia, Inostroza; M. José, Pérez-Alvarez; Doris, Oliva; Rodrigo, Moraga.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Seasonal variability of the organic matter in a sedimentary coastal environment: sources, degradation and accumulation (continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions—northwestern Mediterranean Sea)  

Science.gov (United States)

The temporal variations of the superficial (0-1 cm) sedimentary organic matter were studied at a depth of 26 m on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean). The samples were analyzed for total organic carbon, coarse organic carbon (>40 ?m), hydrolyzable organic carbon, nitrogen, total amino acids, total and individual sugars (HPLC), lignin-derived compounds (HPLC) and kerogens (acid-soluble, humic substances and humin). Seasonal variations of the organic compounds are related to the sedimentological, hydrodynamical and physico-chemical environmental conditions. The mean annual values of the different organic compounds analyzed show the low quantities and their evolved character at the sediment-water interface: 0.5% total org C (TOC) (d.w.), 0.049% N (d.w.), C/N: 11.2, coarse org C (COQ: 62% of TOC, hydrolyzable org C: 45% TOC. The labile compounds represent a low percentage of the total organic matter (TOM), amino-acids: 12% of TOM and sugars: 5% of TOM. The relative proportions of soluble (humic) and insoluble kerogens (humin), respectively 6% and 94% of TOC are typical of a highly evolved organic matter. The large contribution of plant remains confirmed by the high proportion of COC, corresponds to a low proportion of humic substances and a high degree of condensation ( H/C = 1.3 ). The infrared spectroscopy determination of the functional groups of the humic substances permits us to confirm both autochtonous (marine) and allochtonous (terrestrial) sources of organic matter in the Têt prodeltaïc accumulation area. Numerous functional groups identified reveal the fresh quality of the organic inputs at the sediment-water interface. Aliphaticity is well marked and nitrogenous compounds (1 and 2 amines) correspond to autochtonous production (in spring: phyto- and zoo-planktonic blooms in the euphotic zone; in summer: primary production under the thermocline and phytobenthic blooms). Sugars are well represented, but from two origins: phytoplanktonic, and issue from terrestrial high plants (ligno-cellulosic complexes). The aromatic functional groups are well identified (aromatic ether, phenol) as are the markers of a large contribution of terrestrial organic matter. The active hydrodynamical (resuspension) and biological, (consumption, bioturbation) events participate in the frequent reworking of the superficial deposits (muddy-silts) and, consequently, the active degradation (oxidization) of the organic matter. The more labile organic matter is rapidly consumed by the intense biological benthic activity. The organic C content is low (0.5% d.w.) except during the autumnal input (2.5% d.w.). This input (8 cm thick) disappears one month later, because of the resuspension induced by littoral currents. This same phenomenon induces during all the year the reworking of the first centimeter of the deposit. In terms of budget of the carbon cycle in the coastal area, this active hydrodynamical environment shows the supremacy of the carbon degradation over its burial.

Buscail, Roselyne; Pocklington, Roger; Germain, Claire

1995-06-01

102

Depredación del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens sobre el pingüino de penacho amarillo Eudyptes c. chrysocome en isla Gonzalo, Diego Ramírez, sur de Chile / Predation of South American sea lion Otaria flavescens on Southern Rockhopper penguin Eudyptes c. chrysocome in Gonzalo Island, Diego Ramírez, southernmost Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english During the summer season 2010-2011 was studied the predation of Otaria flavescens on Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome in Gonzalo Island (56°31'S; 68°42'W), Diego Ramírez archipelago, southern Chile. In total, 75 attacks of sea lion on penguins were recorded, from which 34 (45.3%) corresponded to succe [...] ssful attacks and kill of penguins. Among recorded behaviors during attacks, we highlight: i) persecutions during penguin's swimming, ii) persecutions at land and iii) surprise attacks under water. We identified a bird assemblage associated to predation events, dominated by Macronectes giganteus.

Jaime A., Cursach; Cristián G., Suazo; Jaime R., Rau.

2014-08-01

103

Comparación de los patrones conductuales del lobo marino común en época reproductiva y no reproductiva / Comparison of behavioral patterns of South American sea lions between breeding and non-breeding seasons  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se han descrito tácticas reproductivas para machos y hembras en sistemas reproductivos poligínicos, dentro de las cuales, una respuesta conductual sexo-específico sería esperable para maximizar el ixito reproductivo. El presente estudio da cuenta de un seguimiento conductual del lobo marino común Ot [...] aria flavescens durante la época reproductiva (ER) y no reproductiva (ENR) en el Santuario de la Naturaleza Lobería Cobquecura, Chile central. Se registraron patrones conductuales de machos, hembras, juveniles y crías entre mayo de 2008 y diciembre de 2009. Los machos presentaron mas registros de conductas asociadas a agresión, desplazamiento y reconocimiento durante ER, mientras que la conducta descanso fue mayor durante ENR. Hembras y juveniles presentaron mayores registros de reconocimiento durante ENR mientras que las otras categorías conductuales no presentaron diferencias entre ER y ENR. Las conductas agresivas por parte de los machos así como las relacionadas al cuidado parental por parte de las hembras podrían ser estrategias conductuales desarrolladas por ambos sexos para asegurar la viabilidad poblacional. Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de los patrones conductuales reproductivos de la especie y forma parte de uno de los seguimientos conductuales reproductivos mas continuos desarrollados en la actualidad en el lobo marino común. Dado que el estudio se realiza en un area protegida dentro del marco legal de Santuario de la Naturaleza, los resultados expuestos serán de utilidad para futuras comparaciones con loberas reproductivas afectadas por actividad antrópica. Abstract in english In a polygynous mating system males and females have different reproductive strategies; so it is expectable that both sexes have evolved different reproductive behavioral responses to maximize their reproductive success. We analyze the behavior of different sex/age classes of Otaria flavescens durin [...] g breeding (BS) and non-breeding seasons (NBS) at a Nature Sanctuary breeding colony, central Chilean coast. From May 2008 to December 2009 data of males, females, juveniles and pups were recorded. Males performed more aggression, locomotion and recognizing behaviors during the BS, while they mostly rested during the NBS. Females and juveniles performed more recognizing behavior in the NBS, while the other behavior categories did not show differences between the NBS and the BS. As reproductive behavioral strategies, male aggression and maternal care may increase the overall population viability. This study contributed to a better understanding of the reproductive behavior patterns of this species based on what is to our knowledge the most continuous monitoring of a South American sea lion breeding colony. Since the study has been undertaken in a Nature Sanctuary, the results may be used as a baseline to compare with behavioral data from colonies perturbed by human activities.

M. José, Pérez-Alvarez; Pablo, Carrasco; Maritza, Sepúlveda; Renato A, Quiñones.

2013-04-01

104

Study of the particulate matter transfer and dumping using 210 Po et le 210 Pb. Application to the Gulf of Biscary (NE Atlantic Ocean) and the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) continental margins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

210 Po and 210 Pb activities and fluxes were measured on seawater, sediment-trapped material collected during one year and sediment. Focalization of 210 Pb is clearly noticed on the Cap-Ferret canyon (Gulf of Biscary) and the Lacaze-Duthiers canyon (western part of the Gulf of Lion). In both sites, 210 Pb fluxes in traps and sediment are always higher than 210 Pb flux available from atmospheric and in situ production. On the contrary, Grand-Rhone canyon and its adjacent open slope exhibit a 210 Pb budget near equilibrium in the near-bottom sediment traps, but focalization is important in the sediment. For the entire Gulf of Lion margin, focalization of 210 Pb in the sediment occurred principally between 500 and 1500 m water depth on the slope, and on the middle shelf mud-patch. 210 Po and 210 Pb have been used in the Cap Ferret and Grand-Rhone canyons to characterize the origin of the particulate trapped material. Two main sources feed the water column. The first source, localized in surface waters, is constituted by biogenic particles from primary production and lithogenic material. The second source, deeper, is due to resuspension at the shelf break and/or on the open slope. In each site, 210 Po and 210 Pb activities of the trapped particles did not show any relations with the major constituents. Quantity of particles appeared to be the main factor regulating adsorption processes of these nuclides. Sedimentation rates based on 210 Po profiles decreased with increasing water depth, from 0.4 ti 0.06 cm y-1 on the Cap Ferret canyon (400 to 3000 m water depth) and from 0.5 to 0.05 cm y-1 for the entire Gulf of Lion margin (50 to 2000 m water depth). (author)

105

Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of amino acid extracts from Californian palaeoindian skeletons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have used accelerator mass spectrometry to determine the radiocarbon ages of the amino acid extracts used in the original racemization studies of skeletal remains found in California. The studies indicate that some of the controversial Californian skeletons, which had been assigned to the Upper Pleistocene, are in fact Holocene. (author)

106

Infectious Diseases Subdue Serengeti Lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Infectious diseases stalk wildlife in the Serengeti, and climate change may be an accessory. Lions face serious threats to their future, some head-on, others lurking in the grasses, unseen until it's almost too late. From growing numbers of people living along the Serengeti perimeter to the effects of infectious diseases and climate change, the king of beasts (Panthera leo) leads an uneasy life. For example, lions are subject to simultaneous outbreaks of canine distemper virus (CDV) and babesiosis. CDV, a disease that results in encephalitis and pneumonia, is transmitted by domestic dogs; babesiosis is carried by a tick-borne blood parasite called Babesia. If extreme weather events become more frequent as a result of global climate change, disease may become a major threat to animal populations that have been historically stable. Diseases once thought to have limited impacts, such as babesiosis, should be watched closely. Environmental conditions may tip the scales and result in significantly greater impacts, even in wide open places like the Serengeti.

Cheryl Dybas (Freelance; )

2009-01-01

107

Daily and annual circarhythms activity in the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) at the central zone of Chile / Circaritmos de actividad diarios y anuales en el lobo marino común Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otariidae) en la zona central de Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish En otáridos se han estudiado la presencia de circaritmos de actividad sobre la base de cambios en las densidades poblacionales en las loberas. En este trabajo, se estudiaron los ritmos circadiano (24 h) y circanual (1 año) del lobo marino común Otaria flavescens en las loberas de Cochoa y Punta Cura [...] umilla en Chile Central. El ritmo circadiano fue estudiado en ambas loberas. En cada una de ellas se realizaron censos cada 45 min durante 3 días de observación continuos (72 h). Los resultados demuestran que se produce un aumento del número de animales en tierra en horarios diurnos y una disminución en los nocturnos. Dichas fluctuaciones están asociadas a un ciclo de 24 h, y demuestran la existencia de un ritmo circadiano en estas loberas. El ritmo circanual fue estudiado en la lobera de Cochoa. Para ello se realizaron 145 observaciones durante 3 años consecutivos (1995-1998). Los resultados muestran un aumento de la población en los meses de otoño a primavera, y una disminución brusca en el verano. Estas fluctuaciones se asocian a un ciclo de un año, y demuestran la existencia de un ritmo circanual en esta especie. Abstract in english In otariids the presence of circarhythms activity has been studied on the basis of population density changes in sea lion colonies. In this work, the circadian rhythm (24 h) and the circannual rhythm (a year) of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens from Cochoa and Punta Curaumilla colonies [...] in Central Chile were studied. The circadian rhythm was studied in both colonies. In each one, census were performed every 45 minute during three days (72 h) of continuous observation. The results show that the number of animals on land increases during day times and decreases in the night. Such fluctuations are associated to a 24 h cycle and show the existence of a circadian rhythm in these colonies. The circannual rhythm was studied at Cochoa colony. With this purpose 145 observations were performed during three consecutive years (1995-1998). The results show a population increase during Autumn and Spring and a sudden decrease in the Summer. These fluctuations are associated to a one year cycle showing the existence of a circannual rhythm in this species.

Maritza, Sepúlveda; Doris P, Oliva; Francisco J, Palma.

2001-12-01

108

Mac OS X Lion Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

Shortcuts, tips, and tools for making the most of the new Mac OS X Lion Mac OS X Lion is the eagerly anticipated updated desktop operating system installed on every new Apple computer. Packed with the latest and greatest tips, tricks, and techniques for getting the most out of all that Lion has to offer, this handy guide is like having an Apple genius at your fingertips. Inside you'll find savvy advice on everything from simple tasks like getting started to intermediate-level information that covers how to use the coolest features of the new Mac operating system. Written in an authoritative an

Spivey, Dwight

2011-01-01

109

Actualización sobre el estado del apostadero de lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria Flavescens) en la Isla Trinidad, estuario de Bahía Blanca, Argentina / Update on the status of South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) colony from Trinidad Island, Bahía Blanca estuary, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) se distribuye en la costa argentina desde Mar del Plata hasta Tierra del Fuego e Islas Malvinas con unas 70 colonias descriptas. En Buenos Aires existe una colonia reproductiva en Banco Culebra y tres no reproductivas en Mar del Plata, Quequ [...] én e Isla Trinidad. Esta última fue comunicada en 1952; desde ese año no se publicaron nuevos registros y en consecuencia la información citada posteriormente es confusa. En la presente nota se dan a conocer observaciones inéditas sobre su tamaño desde 1990. Se contaron entre 0 y 150 machos adultos y subadultos con variaciones según la época del año. Abstract in english The South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) is distributed along the Argentinean coast, from Mar del Plata to Tierra del Fuego and Malvinas Islands, with 70 reporte colonies. In Buenos Aires there is one breeding colony in Banco Culebra and three non reproductive settlements in Mar del Plata, Qu [...] equén and Trinidad Island. The latter was reported for the first time in 1952, since then no further records were published about its current status and the information cited by many authors is confusing. Here we provide new observations about the population size of this colony from 1990. Seal counts ranged between 0-150 males and sub-adults depending on the season.

Pablo F, Petracci; Martín, Sotelo; Victoria, Massola; Martín, Carrizo; Alberto, Scorolli; Sergio, Zalba; Valdemar, Delhey.

2010-06-01

110

Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

111

The Impact of Health Insurance Policy Changes on Californians with Severe Chronic Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two recent changes in health policy will likely negatively impact state budgets and the health of low-income Californians with chronic disease. The new cost-sharing for medical visits, pharmaceuticals, and inpatient stays in California's Medcaid program (Medi-Cal) and the exclusion of the undocumented and individuals who have been legal residents for less than five years from the insurance expansions that The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 provides will reduce medical care...

Leibowitz, Arleen A.; Desmond, Katherine

2011-01-01

112

Canyons et processus sédimentaires récents sur la marge occidentale du golfe du Lion. Premiers résultats de la campagne Calmar  

Science.gov (United States)

A cruise with R.V. L'Atalame in 1997 allowed the swath-bathymetric mapping of the western part of the Gulf of Lions margin, together with sub-bottom and seismic profiling. The new data set reveals the importance of Lacaze-Duthiers and Sète canyons in sediment transfer from the shelf to the basin. There is evidence of recent activity of several canyons, as well as a large debris flow originated both from the western flank of the Rhone deep-sea fan and from the western Gulf of Lions. This event took place between 22 000 and 10 000 y BP.

Berné, Serge; Loubrieu, Benoît; Calmar embarquée, l'équipe

1999-04-01

113

Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB status of their lions, e.g. for translocations. The present study concerns the development of a lion-specific IFN- assay, following the production and characterization of monoclonal ant...

Maas, M.; Kooten, P. J. S.; Schreuder, J.; Morar, D.; Tijhaar, E. J.; Michel, A. L.; Rutten, V. P. M. G.

2012-01-01

114

Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina / Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina) es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las agua [...] s de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías. Abstract in english As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with [...] particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals in the San Matías Gulf ecosystem.

María Alejandra, Romero; Silvana, Dans; Raúl, González; Guillermo, Svendsen; Néstor, García; Enrique, Crespo.

2011-07-01

115

Development of a lion-specific interferon-gamma assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing spread of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in African free-ranging lion populations, for example in the Kruger National Park, raises the need for diagnostic assays for BTB in lions. These, in addition, would be highly relevant for zoological gardens worldwide that want to determine the BTB status of their lions, e.g. for translocations. The present study concerns the development of a lion-specific IFN-? assay, following the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for lion interferon-gamma (IFN-?). Recombinant lion IFN-? (rLIFN-?) was produced in mammalian cells and used to immunize mice to establish hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies. These were used to develop a sensitive, lion IFN-?-specific capture ELISA, able to detect rLIFN-? to the level of 160 pg/ml. Recognition of native lion IFN-? was shown in an initial assessment of supernatants of mitogen stimulated whole blood cultures of 11 known BTB-negative lions. In conclusion, the capture ELISA shows potential as a diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis in lions. Preliminary results also indicate the possible use of the test for other (feline) species. PMID:22921684

Maas, M; van Kooten, P J S; Schreuder, J; Morar, D; Tijhaar, E; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

2012-10-15

116

PCB modeling in the Gulf of Lions using a 3D coupled model  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated organic compounds, which were widely used in many industrial materials. These compounds are persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic for living organisms. The riverine and atmospheric fluxes are the major routes of entry for these chemicals into marine ecosystems, where they are now embedded in natural biogeochemical cycles (Lohmann et al. 2007). Because of bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes in food webs, even nowadays, these compounds may attain dangerous concentration levels especially in the top predators including marine mammals. The contamination of marine biota by PCBs in Mediterranean has also become a matter of concern as the concentrations in some species are at levels putting them at risk for significant biological effects. This may pose potential human health risks in commercial edible species (Carpenter 2006). Planktonic populations play a key role in the trophic food webs in marine ecosystems by the mobilisation and transfer of energy and organic matter towards higher trophic levels. This work aims at a better understanding of the role of plankton in the transfer of PCBs to higher trophic levels in the Gulf of Lions (Mediterranean) by coupling of biogeochemical, ecological and hydrodynamical processes. Modeling is a powerful tool for coupling processes of different disciplines and scales. The recent development of 3D hydrodynamic, hydrosedimentary and biogeochemical models in the Mediterranean (André et al, 2005,2009, Ulses et al, 2008, Dufois et al, 2008, Auger et al, 2011), enables feasibility testing of coupling these models with transfer processes of chemical contaminants. The lack of detailed observations in the sea and the significant uncertainty on contaminants inputs prevent from a proper validation of such modeling tests. However, these tools are very useful to assess the influence of fast processes on the transfer of contaminants to bioaccumulative species. Sensitivity analysis also enables to identify key parameters and assumptions which control contamination pathways in the Gulf of Lions. Thus, this work is based on coupling such complex biogeochemical model (Eco3M), with a PCBs transport model and a model of hydrodynamics (MARS3D) in order to test a scientific exploration tool for the assessment of PCB dispersion in space and time in the Gulf of Lion and of their transfer to zooplankton via biogeochemical processes. In this work we estimate PCB budgets and fluxes into the Gulf of Lions between the different species of PCB, namely: dissolved total, available dissolved, particulate, biosorbed on plankton, assimilated by zooplankton, which are governed by different processes, such as: adsorption/desorption (equilibrium partitioning), bacteria and plankton mortality, zooplankton excretion, grazing, mineralization, volatilization. References Auger P.A., Diaz F., Ulses C., Estornel C., Neveux J., Joux F., Pujo-Pay M. and Naudin J.J., 2011. Functioning of the planktonic ecosystem on the Gulf of Lions shelf (NW Mediterranean) during spring and its impact on the carbon deposition: a field data and 3-D modeling combined approach. Biogeosciences, 8, 3231-3261. André, G., Garreau, P., Garnier, V. and Fraunié, P., 2005. Modeled variability of the sea surface circulation in the North-western Mediterranean Sea and in the Gulf of Lions. Ocean Dynamics, 55, 294-308. Andre, G., Garreau, P., Fraune, P.,2009. Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimentional model. Continental Shelf Research, 2, 407-423. Carpenter, D.O., 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): Routes of exposure and effects on human health. Rev. Environ. Health, 21, 1-23. Dufois F., Garreau P., Le Hir P., Forget P., 2008. Wave- and current-induced bottom shear stress distribution in the Gulf of Lions. Continental Shelf Research, 28(15), 1920-1934. Lohmann, R.;Breivik, K.; Dachs, J.; Muir, D., 2007. Global fate of POPs: Current and future research directions. Environmental Pollution 150: 150-165. Ulses C., Estourne

Alekseenko, Elena; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Garreau, Pierre; Verney, Romaric; Carlotti, Francois; Espinasse, Boris; Queguiner, Bernard; Baklouti, Melika

2013-04-01

117

How Many Lions Are Needed to Clear a Grid?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider a pursuit-evasion problem where some lions have the task to clear a grid graph whose nodes are initially contaminated. The contamination spreads one step per time unit in each direction not blocked by a lion. A vertex is cleared from its contamination whenever a lion moves to it. Brass et al. [5] showed that n/2 lions are not enough to clear the n x n-grid. In this paper, we consider the same problem in dimension d > 2 and prove that ?(nd-1/?d lions are necessary and sufficient to clear the nd-grid. Furthermore, we analyze a problem variant where the lions are also allowed to jump from grid vertices to non-adjacent grid vertices.

Rolf Klein

2009-09-01

118

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters...

Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

2009-01-01

119

The LIONS code (version 1.0)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new LIONS code (Lancement d'IONS or Ion Launching), a dynamical code implemented in the SPIRaL project for the CIME cyclotron studies, is presented. The various software involves a 3D magnetostatic code, 2D or 3D electrostatic codes for generation of realistic field maps, and several dynamical codes for studying the behaviour of the reference particle from the cyclotron center up to the ejection and for launching particles packets complying with given correlations. Its interactions with the other codes are described. The LIONS code, written in Fortran 90 is already used in studying the CIME cyclotron, from the center to the ejection. It is designed to be used, with minor modifications, in other contexts such as for the simulation of mass spectrometer facilities

120

Teach yourself visually OS X Mountain Lion  

CERN Document Server

Get to know the new cat in the pride-Mac OS X Mountain Lion-with this VISUAL guide Apple's new Mac OS X Mountain Lion is impressive, with features and functions that will be familiar to Mac users from their iPhones and iPads. Make sure you get the most out of your new big cat with this practical guide. Using step-by-step instructions and full-color screenshots or illustrations on virtually every page-the hallmark of the practical Teach Yourself VISUALLY series-this book clearly shows you how to accomplish tasks, rather than burying you with paragraphs of text. You'll learn how to customize

McFedries, Paul

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavescens from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7 and numbers (29.6% respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%, whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 was the most abundant (77%. The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800 ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%. Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856 fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829 y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830 en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7 y abundancia numérica (29,6% respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835 fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%, mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834 fue el mas abundante (77%. La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área.

Raimundo L. Bustos

2012-12-01

122

The diet of the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) at Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, during the winter-spring period / Dieta del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano (Otaria flavescens) en Río Negro, Patagonia, Argentina, durante el invierno y primavera  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in spanish La población del lobo marino de un pelo sudamericano Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) ha experimentado un crecimiento continuo en las ultimas décadas en las costas de la Patagonia Argentina. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre la ecología trófica de la especie en el área. El objetivo de este estudio fue [...] analizar los hábitos alimentarios de O. flavescens a partir de 91 fecas colectadas en la provincia de Río Negro, durante el invierno y la primavera del 2005. Los peces estuvieron presentes en el 96% de las fecas que contenían remanentes presas, seguidos por los cefalópodos (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) fue la especie mas frecuente y abundante ocurriendo en el 58.6% de las muestras y constituyendo casi el 50% de los peces predados. Le siguieron en importancia Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) y Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) en términos de frecuencia de ocurrencia (%FO 20,7) y abundancia numérica (29,6%) respectivamente. El calamar Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) fue el cefalópodo presa mas frecuente (42,1%), mientras que Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) fue el mas abundante (77%). La mayor cantidad y diversidad de presas observada en primavera en comparación con el periodo invernal podría estar relacionada a una mayor actividad de forrajeo de los lobos o a un incremento en la disponibilidad de presas en el área. Abstract in english The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) population is steadily expanding along the Patagonian coast of Argentina in the last decades. However, little is known about the feeding ecology of the species in the area. The aim of this study was to analyze the food habits of O. flavesce [...] ns from 91 scats collected at Río Negro province, during the winter and spring of 2005. Fish occurred in 96% of scats containing prey remains, followed by cephalopods (26%). Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup, 1856) was the most frequent and abundant species occurring in 58.6% of samples and constituting almost 50% of fish predated. Second in importance were Porichthys porosissimus (Cuvier, 1829) and Cynoscion guatucupa (Cuvier, 1830) in terms of occurrence (%FO 20.7) and numbers (29.6%) respectively. The squid Loligo gahi (d'Orbigny, 1835) was the most frequent cephalopod prey (42.1%), whereas Octopus tehuelchus (d'Orbigny, 1834) was the most abundant (77%). The higher amount and diversity of prey found in the spring in comparison with the winter season might be related to a higher feeding activity of seals or to a seasonal increase in food availability in the area.

Raimundo L., Bustos; Gustavo A., Daneri; Alejandra V., Volpedo; Ana, Harrington; Esperanza A., Varela.

2012-12-01

123

Possible relationships between the South African captive-bred lion hunting industry and the hunting and conservation of lions elsewhere in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The trophy hunting of lions is contentious due to increasing evidence of impacts on wild populations, and ethical concerns surrounding the hunting of captive-bred lions in South Africa. The captive-bred lion hunting industry in South Africa has grown rapidly while the number of wild lions hunted in other African countries has declined. In 2009 and 2010, 833 and 682 lion trophies were exported from South Africa, respectively, more than double the combined export (2009, 471; 2010...

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Alexander, R.; Balme, Guy Andrew; Midlane, Neil; Craig, J.

2012-01-01

124

Erosional processes and paleo-environmental changes in the Western Gulf of Lions (SW France) during the Messinian Salinity Crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current interpretation of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) involves partial "clesiccation" of the Mediterranean Sea coupled with the deposition of thick evaporites in the deep basins. New sets of seismic reflection profiles in the western part of the Gulf of Lions confirm the basinward extension of the Messinian erosion and enable the mapping of distinctive seismic markers indicating the Messinian Erosional Surface (or Messinian unconformity), the basin-margin detrital deposits, and the de...

Lofi, Johanna; Gorini, Christian; Berne, Serge; Clauzon, Georges; Dos Reis, A. Tadeu; Ryan, William; Steckler, Michael

2005-01-01

125

Genetic variation within and among lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia, one of the rarest and most endangered of New World primates, has been the focus of an intensive research and conservation effort for two decades. During that period, managed breeding from 44 founders has brought the captive population to over 400 individuals, a number that equals or exceeds the estimated number of free-ranging golden lion tamarins. The extent of genetic variation among golden lion tamarins was estimated with an electrophoretic survey of 47 allozyme loci from 67 captive and 73 free-ranging individuals. The amount of variation was low, compared to 15 other primate species, with 4% of the loci being polymorphic (P), and with an average heterozygosity H estimate of 0.01 in these callitrichids. Electrophoretic analyses of captive and free-ranging animals (N = 31) of two allopatric morphotypes, Leontopithecus rosalia chrysopygus and L. r. chrysomelas, were similar to the L. r. rosalia findings insofar as they also revealed limited genetic polymorphism. Computation of the Nei-genetic distance measurements showed that the three morphotypes were genetically very similar, although discernible differentiation had occurred at two loci. These data are consistent with the occurrence of recent reproductive isolations of these subspecies. PMID:3096142

Forman, L; Kleiman, D G; Bush, R M; Dietz, J M; Ballou, J D; Phillips, L G; Coimbra-Filho, A F; O'Brien, S J

1986-09-01

126

When the “Lion” eats your data  

CERN Multimedia

Welcome to “Mountain Lion” - Apple’s most recent operating system for Macs. More than 200 new and useful functions come with this version*. But hold on! New and useful? With this Lion comes the full integration into Apple’s “iCloud”, the same iCloud already used for iPhones and iPads.   While iCloud might be pretty smart if you want to synchronize or back up all your data, it is a black hole for privacy and confidential documents. iCloud not only synchronizes your photos, music and videos, but also your e-mails, calendar entries, passwords (in encrypted form) and fully backs up your device. With “Mountain Lion” even your Microsoft Word documents locally stored on your Mac might be pushed over to the Apple computer centres. It is still unclear what Apple intends to do with these masses of data. Of course they don’t just do it because they are kind people. They have a business to run and money to earn. So ...

Computer Security Team

2012-01-01

127

Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimensional model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ECOLOPHY experiments aimed at investigating physical exchanges between coastal and open sea. They were carried out in June and December 2005 over the shelf-break in the North-eastern part of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). This area is considered to be the generation zone for the eddy and meandering structures of the Northern Current (NC). The objective of the present work is to examine mesoscale variability of this coastal slope current in the light of available data....

Andre, Gael; Garreau, Pierre; Fraunie, Philippe

2009-01-01

128

Heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in California sea loins (Zalophus californianus californianus)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of various tissues and organs from healthy California sea lions (Zalophus californianus californianus) and sick animals (apparently with leptospirosis) collected along the central Oregon coast in 1970, 1971, and 1973 were analyzed for total mercury, methylmercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Maximum mercury concentrations of 74 to 170 ppM occurred in sea lion liver, but only 1.6 to 3.7 percent of this was present as methylmercury. Cadmium was concentrated primarily in the kidney which contained 7.2 to 12.0 ppM of the metal. Chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in sea lion fat ranged between 253 to 475 ppM DDE, and 21.2 and 34.1 ppM PCB. Although mercury, cadmium, and chlorinated hydrocarbon residues in some of the sick sea lions were significantly higher than those present in healthy animals, it is not possible to relate these differences to the onset of leptospirosis.

Buhler, D.R.; Claeys, R.R.; Mate, B.R.

1975-12-01

129

[Mycobacteriosis in sea mammals and birds].  

Science.gov (United States)

Different diagnostic techniques for mycobacteria were studied in sea lions, sea elephants, fur seals, dolphins, killer whales and penguins from a sea aquarium. Three strains were isolated from fur seals. Two were classified as Mycobacterium chelonae and one as Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. There was good correlation between the results given by the intradermal tuberculin test and ELISA, but the former is recommended as a screening test on the basis of its practicality. Results and methodology of the different techniques are described. PMID:2132708

Bernardelli, A; Nader, A J; Loureiro, J; Michelis, H; Debenedetti, R

1990-12-01

130

The LION instrument on SOHO and its scientific objectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technical description is presented of the low-energy ion and electron (LION instrument on the SOHO spacecraft and its scientific goals are discussed. LION forms part of the comprehensive suprathermal and energetic particle analyzer (COSTEP, which is, in turn, a subset of the COSTEP/ERNE particle analyser collaboration (CEPAC.

S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor

131

Quantifying denudation rates in Mediterranean margin catchments: the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica case-study  

Science.gov (United States)

Margins are the place of transfer, deposit and erosion of sediments whose geometries are controlled by sea-level fluctuations, vertical movements and sedimentary fluxes. Surface processes (sedimentation, denudation) and deep-sea dynamic are also intimately linked. Due to the numerous data acquired over the last 10 years, the Gulf of Lion and East-Corsica margins could be considered as privileged studied areas to understand the relationships between denudation, sedimentation and associated vertical displacements. The quantification of denudation rates on these margins catchments, using offshore and onshore data aims to improve the understanding of the temporal and spatial evolution of denudation processes in their sedimentation and geodynamic evolution in a large basin (Gulf of Lion) and in a small confined basin (Golo margin; East-Corsica) during the Quaternary. The Gulf of Lion is the northern passive margin of the Liguro-provençal basin, in western Mediterranean Sea. During the Quaternary, it receives sediments from catchments draining several structural domains, as Alps, Pyrenees and Massif Central, for a drainage area of about 120,000 km^2. The East-Corsica corresponds to the western passive margin of the Tyrrhenian basin. The main catchment (Golo River) size is about 100 times smaller than the Gulf of Lion and is composed by two main structural units: Hercynian granites in the upstream part and Alpine schists in the downstream part. In this study, we quantified Quaternary denudation rates using four independent methods: i) estimation of eroded volumes using DEMs; ii) compilation of present-day sediment load fluxes; iii) determination of catchment-scale cosmogenic denudation rate by measuring 10Be concentrations in sands at the catchment outlets or buried in boreholes; iv) quantification of sediment volumes deposited offshore. Our results show a good consistence between the four methods. The Inner Alps present the highest values of denudation (~ 700 m/Ma), compared to averaged much lower values in other domains (150-250 m/Ma in foreland Alps, 100-150 m/Ma in Corsica, about 100 m/Ma in Pyrenees and 55-75 m/Ma in Massif Central). The alpine domain provides at least 75 % of the eroded volume in the Gulf of Lion catchment. A quantitative geomorphologic approach highlights the main role of denudation processes in relief evolution for both studied areas. At a regional scale (Gulf of Lion catchment), we highlight an exponential correlation between mean catchment elevation and denudation rates suggesting the main role of uplift in areas glaciated during the LGM in the control of denudation rates. At a more local scale (East-Corsica), denudation rates seem to rely on lithologic and structural control.

Molliex, S.; Rabineau, M.; Jouet, G.; Bourles, D. L.; Freslon, N.; Leroux, E.; Moreau, J.; Aslanian, D.; Vella, C.

2013-12-01

132

Mac OS X Lion Server For Dummies  

CERN Document Server

The perfect guide to help administrators set up Apple's Mac OS X Lion Server With the overwhelming popularity of the iPhone and iPad, more Macs are appearing in corporate settings. The newest version of Mac Server is the ideal way to administer a Mac network. This friendly guide explains to both Windows and Mac administrators how to set up and configure the server, including services such as iCal Server, Podcast Producer, Wiki Server, Spotlight Server, iChat Server, File Sharing, Mail Services, and support for iPhone and iPad. It explains how to secure, administer, and troubleshoot the networ

Rizzo, John

2011-01-01

133

Mac OS X Lion Server Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

A practical guide to helping users get along with the latest Mac OS X Server To tame Apple's newest big cat, server OS (Lion), you need a serious, big-game book, and here it is. This guide explains how to administer, deploy, and update the much-anticipated next generation of Mac's OS X Server. Thoroughly covering both hardware and software, this book shows you how to configure services, set up account authentication, use open directory, manage accounts, use Apple Remote Desktop, and much more. You'll also learn how to navigate apps such as iChat Theater, Mail, iCal, Podcast Producer—and

Wentk, Richard

2012-01-01

134

Desarrollo de un indicador no invasivo de la salud de pinípedos: Comportamiento y crecimiento de neonatos del lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus) / Developing a non-invasive indicator of pinniped health: Neonate behavior and growth in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Evaluar la salud de poblaciones silvestres es crítico para alcanzar metas de conservación; sin embargo, resulta complicado realizar evaluaciones apropiadas cuando los sitios de estudio son de acceso difícil o cuando la especie en cuestión es sensible al disturbio humano. La condición y el crecimient [...] o de las crías pueden ser indicadores de la salud de una población, pero obtener tales datos generalmente requiere de técnicas invasivas. En este estudio se evalúa hasta que punto se pueden utilizar las observaciones no invasivas del comportamiento de neonatos en lugar de los métodos tradicionales utilizados para estimar la condición corporal y el crecimiento de un pinípedo en vida libre, el lobo marino de California (Zalophus californianus), en el Golfo de California, México. Se utilizaron modelos lineales generalizados y regresiones lineales múltiples para evaluar el efecto del sexo, la isla de reproducción, el año y el comportamiento de neonatos (e.g., actividad, amamantamiento) en la condición corporal y las tasas de crecimiento. Se encontró una fuerte correlación entre las tasas de crecimiento individual y el comportamiento de los neonatos machos. Los machos que se involucraron más en comportamientos activos tuvieron menores tasas de crecimiento (?= -0.0005), mientras que los machos que participaron más en eventos de amamantamiento tuvieron mayores tasas de crecimiento (? = 0.002). No se observó una relación entre el comportamiento de los neonatos y la condición para ningún sexo, ni entre el comportamiento y las tasas de crecimiento de las crías hembras. Estos resultados proporcionan información sobre la posibilidad de utilizar el comportamiento como un indicador del estatus individual de los machos, la cual podría facilitar la evaluación del estatus de la población e ilustrar la importancia del uso de métodos alternativos para medir la condición de los animales para la conservación de las especies. Abstract in english Assessing the health of wildlife populations is critical to achieving conservation goals; however, proper assessments can be complicated when study sites are difficult to reach or when focal species are sensitive to human disturbance. Condition and growth of offspring may indicate population health, [...] but obtaining such data generally relies on invasive techniques. Here, we examine the extent to which non-invasive observations of neonate behaviors could serve as a proxy for traditional approaches to estimating neonate body condition and growth of a wild pinniped, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Generalized linear models and multiple linear regressions were used to examine the effect of sex, breeding island, year, and neonate behaviors (e.g., nursing, active) on body condition and growth rates. We found a strong correlation between individual growth rates and behaviors of male neonates. Males engaged in proportionally more active behaviors had lower growth rates (? = -0.0005), whereas males engaged in proportionally more nursing events had higher growth rates (? = 0.002). There was no relationship between neonate behavior and condition for either sex, nor between behavior and growth rates of female pups. These results provide insight into the possibility of using behavior as an indicator of individual status of males that could facilitate assessments of population status and illustrate the importance of using alternative approaches to measure animal condition for species conservation

DS, Green; JK, Young; CJ, Hernández-Camacho; LR, Gerber.

2010-09-01

135

Long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations by African lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Animals that use and evaluate long-distance signals have the potential to glean valuable information about others in their environment via eavesdropping. In those areas where they coexist, African lions (Panthera leo) are a significant eavesdropper on spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta), often using hyena vocalizations to locate and scavenge from hyena kills. This relationship was used to test African lions' long-term memory of the vocalizations of spotted hyenas via playback experiments. Hyena whoops and a control sound (Canis lupus howls) were played to three populations of lions in South Africa: (1) lions with past experience of spotted hyenas; (2) lions with current experience; and (3) lions with no experience. The results strongly suggest that lions have the cognitive ability to remember the vocalizations of spotted hyenas even after 10 years with no contact of any kind with them. Such long-term memory of heterospecific vocalizations may be widespread in species that gain fitness benefits from eavesdropping on others, but where such species are sympatric and often interact it may pass unrecognized as short-term memory instead.

Grinnell, Jon; van Dyk, Gus; Slotow, Rob

2005-09-01

136

Miocene of the gulf of Lions (France) : a passive margin ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The continental shelf of the "Golfe du Lion" (Gulf of Lions) has been considered for a long time as a privileged place for the study of passive margins. However, the model usually adopted to explain the formation of this type of margin does not apparently fit the subsidence history of the Gulf of Lions. Indeed, the evolution of this basin is characterized by a high subsidence rate, comparable to those of Atlantic margins, although it is only 30 MY old. Previous studies show anomalies in subsi...

Bache, Franc?ois; Gorini, C.; Olivet, Jean-louis; Rabineau, Marina; Rubino, J. L.; Mauffret, A.; Lofi, J.

2004-01-01

137

Electron velocity distribution and lion roars in the magnetosheath  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Whistler waves which are termed "lion roars" in the magnetosheath are studied using data obtained by the Spectrum Analyser (SA of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment aboard Cluster. Kinetic theory is then employed to obtain the theoretical expression for the whistler wave with electron temperature anisotropy which is believed to trigger lion roars in the magnetosheath. This allows us to compare theory and data. This paper for the first time studies the details of the electron velocity distribution function as measured by the Plasma Electron And Current Experiment (PEACE in order to investigate the underlying causes for the different types of lion roars found in the data. Our results show that while some instances of lion roars could be locally generated, the source of others must be more remote regions of the magnetosheath.

W. Masood

2006-07-01

138

Waveform and packet structure of lion roars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Equator-S magnetometer is very sensitive and has a sampling rate of normally 128 Hz. The high sampling rate allows for the first time fluxgate magnetometer measurements of ELF waves between the ion cyclotron and the lower hybrid frequencies in the equatorial dayside magnetosheath. The so-called lion roars, typically seen by the Equator-S magnetometer at the bottom of the magnetic troughs of magnetosheath mirror waves, are near-monochromatic packets of electron whistler waves lasting for a few wave cycles only, typically 0.25 s. They are right-hand circularly polarized waves with typical amplitudes of 0.5–1 nT at around one tenth of the electron gyrofrequency. The cone angle between wave vector and ambient field is usually smaller than 1.5°.

Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; plasma waves and turbulence

W. Baumjohann

139

OS X Mountain Lion Portable Genius  

CERN Document Server

Essential tips and techniques on the Mac OS X features you use most! If you want the kind of hip, friendly help you'd get from friends on how to get the most of out of Mac OS X Mountain Lion, this is the guide you need. Jump right into the coolest new Mac OS X features like Game Center, Messages, and Notification, or get a better handle on the basic tools and shortcuts that will help keep your mountain cat purring. From customizing to using multimedia to syncing your Mac to other devices, this book saves you time and hassle, avoids fluff, and covers what you want to know most. New addition t

Spivey, Dwight

2012-01-01

140

Fibroblastic osteosarcoma in a lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report describes a case of spontaneous fibroblastic osteosarcoma in the humerus of a lion from a private park in Perugia, Italy. The tumor had an irregular, smooth, brown surface and a generally firm, rubbery consistence with gritty to hard areas interspersed. The mass was poorly vascularized with areas of necrosis at the periphery. The cut surface showed a multilobulated mass that had breached the humeral cortex, with periosteal production of reactive bone. The mass invaded the epiphysis, the synovial membrane, the joint capsule and ligaments. A mild hemorrhagic effusion appeared in the joint space. Clinical signs, gross and histopathologic findings are described in this rare case of a malignant bone tumor.

L. Leonardi

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera l...

Cagnini Didier Q; Salgado Breno S; Linardi Juliana L; Grandi Fabrizio; Rocha Rafael M; Rocha Noeme S; Teixeira Carlos R; Del Piero Fabio; Sequeira Julio L

2012-01-01

142

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4–5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not ...

Lobetti, Remo G.; Peter Caldwell

2012-01-01

143

The significance of African lions for the financial viability of trophy hunting and the maintenance of wild land  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies indicate that trophy hunting is impacting negatively on some lion populations, notably in Tanzania. In 2004 there was a proposal to list lions on CITES Appendix I and in 2011 animal-welfare groups petitioned the United States government to list lions as endangered under their Endangered Species Act. Such listings would likely curtail the trophy hunting of lions by limiting the import of lion trophies. Concurrent efforts are underway to encourage the European Union to ban lion t...

Lindsey, Peter Andrew; Balme, Guy Andrew; Booth, Vernon Richard; Midlane, Neil

2012-01-01

144

Scale and diversity following manipulation of productivity and disturbance in Californian coastal grasslands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Question Relationships between species richness and environmental drivers such as productivity and disturbance are sensitive to the scale over which they are measured, but the extent to which this scale-dependence is important for experimental studies conducted over small scale ranges is not well known. We ask whether the response of species richness to experimental manipulation of productivity and disturbance varies across small spatial scales (0.016–4 m2). We show that species–area relationships are well suited to summarize cross-scale responses of species richness, and ask whether the responses of species–area relationships to experimental manipulations are more consistent than richness at any single scale. Location Northern Californian coastal grasslands. Methods We applied disturbance and productivity reduction treatments over 4 yr at two sites. We assessed changes in species richness over five grain sizes, encompassing a 256-fold range of plot size. This allowed us to construct a species–arearelationship for each experimental plot in each sampling year. We used the slope of the species–area relationship to summarize changes in species richness across multiple spatial scales. Results Richness responses were scale-dependent and complex, causing changes at any one scale to be difficult to interpret. Disturbance either increased or had no effect on richness, while reducing productivity had idiosyncratic effects among sites, scales and years. Both treatments, however, had consistent and interpretable effects on the species–area relationship. Reducing productivity increased the slope of the species–area relationship, while disturbance decreased it. Conclusions Our results suggest that the productivity–richness and disturbance–richness relationships are scale-dependent, and that improved generality could be achieved by focusing attention on the response of the species–area relationship to these factors.

Sandel, Brody Steven; Corbin, Jeff

2012-01-01

145

Spatial and temporal interactions of sympatric mountain lions in Arizona  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial and temporal interactions among individual members of populations can have direct applications to habitat management of mountain lions (Puma concolor). Our objectives were to evaluate home range overlap and spatial/temporal use of overlap zones (OZ) of mountain lions in Arizona. We incorporated spatial data with genetic analyses to assess relatedness between mountain lions with overlapping home ranges. We recorded the space use patterns of 29 radio-collared mountain lions in Arizona from August 2005 to August 2008. We genotyped 28 mountain lions and estimated the degree of relatedness among individuals. For 26 pairs of temporally overlapping mountain lions, 18 overlapped spatially and temporally and eight had corresponding genetic information. Home range overlap ranged from 1. 18% to 46. 38% (x??, SE = 2. 96). Male-male pairs were located within 1 km of each other on average, 0. 04% of the time, whereas male-female pairs on average were 3. 0%. Two male-male pairs exhibited symmetrical spatial avoidance and two symmetrical spatial attractions to the OZ. We observed simultaneous temporal attraction in three male-male pairs and four male-female pairs. Individuals from Tucson were slightly related to one another within the population (n = 13, mean R = 0. 0373 ?? 0. 0151) whereas lions from Payson (n = 6, mean R = -0. 0079 ?? 0. 0356) and Prescott (n = 9, mean R = -0. 0242 ?? 0. 0452) were not as related. Overall, males were less related to other males (n = 20, mean R = -0. 0495 ?? 0. 0161) than females were related to other females (n = 8, mean R = 0. 0015 ?? 0. 0839). Genetic distance was positively correlated with geographic distance (r2 = 0. 22, P = 0. 001). Spatial requirements and interactions influence social behavior and can play a role in determining population density. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Nicholson, K.L.; Krausman, P.R.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Culver, M.

2011-01-01

146

A Horse Frightened by a Lion in a Rocky Wooded Landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This picture is almost certainly inspired by Stubbs' painting of a horse frightened by a lion (see 'Stubbs', Tate Gallery, 1984, no 62, p 94; in a private collection). The horse and lion are possibly painted by Sawrey Gilpin.

Barret, George

1987-01-01

147

77 FR 41473 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Lion Attacking a Horse”  

Science.gov (United States)

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Lion Attacking a Horse'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations...hereby determine that the object entitled ``Lion Attacking a Horse,'' to be imported by The J. Paul Getty Museum from...

2012-07-13

148

The histopathology of lions (Panthera leo) suffering from chronic debility in the Kruger National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the health status of lions (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) have revealed certain lions suffering from chronic debility (“poor doers”). Clinical signs include chronic emaciation, renal failure and chronic bacterial infections. The diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in KNP lions in 1995 raised the question of whether these “poor doer” lions were suffering from tuberculosis. Tests confirmed tuberculosis in some cases, but no aetiology for the poor condition was ...

Ide, Annalize

2002-01-01

149

Effects of temporary intensive feed restriction on performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of growing male Californian rabbits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a temporary quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass criteria of rabbits. A total of 80 weaned male Californian rabbits (30 d of age) were randomly assigned to four treatments of 20 rabbits each. The Control group was fed ad libitum during the whole experimental period (days 30-72 of age). For the three restricted fed groups the feed intake was reduced by 15%, 30% and 45% compared to the Control group, respectively. The feed restriction was applied after weaning and lasted for 21 d. Thereafter, at 51 d of age, in all treatments the feed supply returned to ad libitum intake till 72 d of age (AL period). The feed restriction decreased the body weight gain of rabbits (during the restriction period and the whole experimental period, p feed conversion ratio during all tested periods (p animals fed restrictively. Furthermore, feed restrictions significantly decreased the proportion of perirenal and scapular fat and increased relative weight and length of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it can be concluded that the applied feed restriction improved feed conversion, nutrient digestibility and reduced fat at the slaughter age of Californian rabbits, but the reduced body weight gain could not be compensated by a subsequent ad libitum feeding for 3 weeks. PMID:25588067

Abdel-Wareth, Ahmed A A; Kehraus, Saskia; Ali, Abdalla H H; Ismail, Zeinhom S H; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

2015-02-01

150

The True Lion King of Africa: The Epic History of Sundiata, King of Old Mali.  

Science.gov (United States)

David Wisniewski's 1992 picture book version of the African epic of "Sundiata, Lion King of Mali" and the actual historical account of the 13th century Lion King, Sundiata, are both badly served by Disney's "The Lion King." Disney has been praised for using African animals as story characters; for using the African landscape as a story setting;…

Paterno, Domenica R.

151

LIONs at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term LION is an acronym for Long Ionization Chamber. This is a distributed ion chamber which is used to monitor secondary ionization along the shield walls of a beam line resulting from incorrectly steered charged particle beams in lieu of the use of many discrete ion chambers. A cone of ionizing radiation emanating from a point source as a result of incorrect steering intercepts a portion of 1-5/8 inch Heliax cable (about 100 meters in length) filled with Argon gas at 20 psi and induces a pulsed current which is proportional to the ionizing charge. This signal is transmitted via the cable to an integrator circuit whose output is directed to an electronic comparators, which in turn is used to turn off the accelerated primary beam when preset limits are exceeded. This device is used in the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) Beam Containment System (BCS) to prevent potentially hazardous ionizing radiation resulting from incorrectly steered beams in areas that might be occupied by people. This paper describes the design parameters and experience in use in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) area of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

152

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatal acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in three golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), a breeding pair and their male offspring, by histology and immunohistochemistry. The distribution and severity of lesions differed among the animals, but the small intestine and the pancreaticoduodenal lymph nodes were especially affected. Protozoal organisms consistent with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, often clustered, were seen in all lesions and were specifically immunostained with a T. gondii polyclonal antibody. The infection was probably acquired orally. Several breeding groups of golden lion tamarins have succumbed to toxoplasmosis both in North American and European zoos, so this disease should be considered an important problem in this endangered species. Toxoplasma gondii can cause latent infections in New World primates and therefore could potentially induce abortions or congenital infections in wild golden lion tamarins born from latently infected reintroduced females. PMID:9638627

Juan-Sallés, C; Prats, N; Marco, A J; Ramos-Vara, J A; Borrás, D; Fernández, J

1998-03-01

153

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered af [...] ter 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

Remo G., Lobetti; Peter, Caldwell.

154

Ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in an African lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of neoplasms in Panthera species are increasing, but they are still an uncommon cause of disease and death in captive wild felids. The presence of two or more primary tumor in large felids is rarely reported, and there are no documented cases of ocular melanoma and mammary mucinous carcinoma in African lions. Case presentation An ocular melanoma and a mammary mucinous carcinoma are described in an African lion (Panthera leo. The first tumour was histologically characterized by the presence of epithelioid and fusiform melanocytes, while the latter was composed of mucus-producing cells with an epithelial phenotype that contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS and Alcian blue staining mucins. Metastases of both tumor were identified in various organs and indirect immunohistochemistry was used to characterize them. Peribiliary cysts were observed in the liver. Conclusions This is the first description of these tumor in African lions.

Cagnini Didier Q

2012-09-01

155

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species. PMID:23327144

Lobetti, Remo G; Caldwell, Peter

2012-01-01

156

Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten lions (Panthera leo that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4–5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

Remo G. Lobetti

2012-10-01

157

Chasser lions et panthères en Syrie au Moyen Âge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La grande faune sauvage, aujourd'hui disparue en Syrie, était présente au Moyen Âge dans la région : les fauves prédateurs tels que le lion (al-asad), la panthère (al-namir ou al-nimr) et le guépard (al-fahd) étaient encore relativement nombreux et à l'occasion décimaient les troupeaux et terrorisaient les populations. Lions et panthères étaient chassés selon diverses techniques, dont nous avons plusieurs témoignages dans les mémoires d'Ibn Munqi? (prince syrien mort à Damas...

Buquet, Thierry

2011-01-01

158

Sediment transport modelling in the Gulf of Lion with the perspective of studying the fate of radionuclides originated by the Rhone River  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the various contaminants introduced in the environment, artificial radionuclides appear particularly important to consider because of their chemical toxicity and / or of their radio-toxicity. Some radionuclides present a high affinity with particles so that the study of the sediment dynamics is a useful preliminary to the study of their dispersion on the open sea. This thesis is focused on the fate of sediments in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean sea) and in particular on the impact of the Rhone River, which is the main source of particulate matter in the Gulf of Lion. In order to study the sediment transport mechanisms on various space and time scales, this thesis is based on mathematical modelling. The hydro-sedimentary model set up in the Gulf of Lion, which takes into account the gathered effect of waves and currents, was supported by recent hydro-sedimentary data analyses. CARMA (winter 2006/2007) and SCOPE (winter 2007/2008) experiments were used to better understand the physical processes which control the sediment transport on the Rhone pro-delta and to validate the model. The period of the centennial Rhone River flood of December 2003 was also simulated in order to determine the impact of such extreme events on the fate of sediments. Both observations and simulations of the studied periods highlight the high capacity of erosion and transport induced by south-eastern storms on the pro-delta

159

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all  pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2011-12-01

160

“The sleeping lion needed protection” – lessons from the Mbube (Lion King debacle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1939 a young musician from the Zulu cultural group in South Africa, penned down what came to be the most popular albeit controversial and internationally acclaimed song of the times. Popular because the song somehow found its way into international households via the renowned Disney‘s Lion King. Controversial because the popularity passage of the song was tainted with illicit and grossly unfair dealings tantamount to theft and dishonest misappropriation of traditional intellectual property, giving rise to a lawsuit that ultimately culminated in the out of court settlement of the case. The lessons to be gained by the world and emanating from this dramatics, all pointed out to the dire need for a reconsideration of measures to be urgently put in place for the safeguarding of cultural intellectual relic such as music and dance.

Matome Melford Ratiba

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Phylogeny of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp) based on interphotoreceptor retinol binding protein intron sequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary relationships of the lion tamarins (Leontopithecus) were investigated using nuclear interphotoreceptor retinol binding protein (IRBP) intron sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions strongly support the monophyly of the genus, and a sister relationship between the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, and the black lion tamarin, L. chrysopygus, to the exclusion of the golden-headed lion tamarin, L. chrysomelas. The most parsimonious evolutionary reconstruction suggests that the ancestral lion tamarin and the common ancestor of L. rosalia and L. chrysopygus had predominantly black coats. This reconstruction is not consistent with a theory of orthogenetic evolution of coat color that was based on coat color evolution in marmosets and tamarins. An alternative reconstruction that is consistent with metachromism requires that ancestral lion tamarins had agouti hairs. PMID:11329166

Mundy, N I; Kelly, J

2001-05-01

162

Food ecology of the Kalahari Lion Panthera leo vernayi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aspects of the food ecology of the lion were researched in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A survey based on 195 periods of 24 hours each, indicated that porcupines represented 32,3 and gemsbok 25 of lion kills. Because so many small or young mammals are being caught, a single Kalahari lion probably makes as many as 50 kills per year @ considerably more than anywhere else in Africa. The Kalahari lion covers a distance, on average, of 11,8 km per night in search of food. The hunting success of the Kalahari lion, the ecological division of predators, and the effect of food on mortality is discussed. Predation by lions seems to play an insignificant role in the regulation of prey population numbers.

F. C Eloff

1984-12-01

163

Detection and genetic analysis of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVple) in southern African lions (Panthera leo)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feline immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus of domestic cats that causes immunosuppressive disease and lifelong infection. Lentivirus has also been detected in African lions (Panthera leo). The lentivirus infecting lions in southern Africa has never been isolated; thus, knowledge about its molecular characteristics in these populations is limited. Our investigation used whole blood samples collected opportunistically from free-ranging southern African lions in Kruger National...

Adams, Hayley R.; Vuuren, Moritz; Bosman, Anna-mari; Kania, Stephen; Kennedy, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

164

Effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanzania holds most of the remaining large populations of African lions (Panthera leo) and has extensive areas of leopard habitat (Panthera pardus), and both species are subjected to sizable harvests by sport hunters. As a first step toward establishing sustainable management strategies, we analyzed harvest trends for lions and leopards across Tanzania's 300,000 km(2) of hunting blocks. We summarize lion population trends in protected areas where lion abundance has been directly measured and data on the frequency of lion attacks on humans in high-conflict agricultural areas. We place these findings in context of the rapidly growing human population in rural Tanzania and the concomitant effects of habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and cultural practices. Lion harvests declined by 50% across Tanzania between 1996 and 2008, and hunting areas with the highest initial harvests suffered the steepest declines. Although each part of the country is subject to some form of anthropogenic impact from local people, the intensity of trophy hunting was the only significant factor in a statistical analysis of lion harvest trends. Although leopard harvests were more stable, regions outside the Selous Game Reserve with the highest initial leopard harvests again showed the steepest declines. Our quantitative analyses suggest that annual hunting quotas be limited to 0.5 lions and 1.0 leopard/1000 km(2) of hunting area, except hunting blocks in the Selous Game Reserve, where harvests should be limited to 1.0 lion and 3.0 leopards/1000 km(2) . PMID:20825444

Packer, C; Brink, H; Kissui, B M; Maliti, H; Kushnir, H; Caro, T

2011-02-01

165

Cutaneous fibropapilloma in a mountain lion (Felis concolor).  

Science.gov (United States)

A 12-yr-old mountain lion (Felis concolor) developed a 0.5-cm3 raised nonpigmented and nonulcerated mass between the lip and the nasal planum. The tumor was surgically removed and diagnosed histologically as a fibropapilloma. The tumor recurred 1 yr later, at which time it was again excised, and the diagnosis was reconfirmed by biopsy. Frozen tissue from the second excision was submitted for polymerase chain reaction testing for papillomavirus. The 176-base pair polymerase chain reaction product recovered from the tumor was cloned and sequenced. The papillomavirus had 96% homology with a papillomavirus previously retrieved from a fibropapilloma in a domestic cat and is the next most closely related to bovine papillomavirus type 1. This is the first report of a virus-associated fibropapilloma in a mountain lion. PMID:12885136

Schulman, F Y; Krafft, A E; Janczewski, T; Mikaelian, I; Irwin, J; Hassinger, K

2003-06-01

166

Census and distribution of the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

During 1990-1992, a survey of the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia, was carried out throughout its known distribution area. Forest remnants were identified by visual interpretation of Landsat-TM satellite images. Localities occupied by L. rosalia were first identified by interviews with local people. All forests more than 20 ha in size, and for which two or more interviews suggested the presence of the species, were surveyed using "play-back" recordings of lion tamarin long calls. The total wild population of L. rosalia, including that of the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve, was estimated to be 562 individuals in 109 groups. The lion tamarins were generally found in four major areas of forest (six or more groups per forest, not including Poço das Antas), with a further 12 groups isolated in small forest patches. Currently the species' distribution is restricted to just four municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro: Silva Jardim, Cabo Frio, Saquarema, and Araruama. Although they are typically confined to lowland forest of rosalia was recorded at an altitude of 550 m in one locality. Average group size varied from 3.6 to 5.7 individuals, and densities from 0.39 groups/km(2) to 2.35 groups/km(2) (2.17 individuals/ km(2) to 8.53 individuals/km(2)). Six of the isolated groups found during the survey were successfully translocated to a forest of 2400 ha. There is now also a significant population of reintroduced lion tamarins. Overall, however, the possibilities for further expansion of the wild population are severely limited. PMID:12526037

Kierulff, M Cecília M; Rylands, Anthony B

2003-01-01

167

The Lion's Share. What's behind China's economic slowdown  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the global crisis, the stimulus package of 2009-2010, with its huge expansion of credit, marked the end of " Cheap China ", with the underpricing of labor, capital, land, energy and currency, and disproportionally shifted growth in favor of the public sector and real estate, the lion's share of the State-Party system. The present process of deleveraging must adress the unprecedented inequities which stem from distortions in the allocations of resources and the respective functions o...

Fabre, Guilhem

2013-01-01

168

Hunting by male lions: ecological influences and socioecological implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Kruger National Park, male lions, Panthera leo, acquire most of their food by hunting rather than scavenging. This study, the most intensive to date of male lion ecology, showed that in savanna woodlands, with high buffalo, Syncerus caffer, densities, male lions were frequent and successful hunters. The main prey species of all male group types, but particularly nonterritorial males, was buffalo. By contrast, females preyed more frequently on the most abundant medium-sized ungulates, such as wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and zebra, Equus burchelli. Thus intraspecific prey selection separation was based primarily on intersexual and, to a lesser extent, social differences. Furthermore, both nonterritorial males and pride females located their favoured prey, buffalo and medium-sized ungulates, respectively, more often than other prey. We investigated the influence of several ecological variables on the socioecology of male lions, particularly as we had determined that territorial males spent little time with their pride females and tended to hunt by themselves in their respective male coalitions. Further analysis showed that in a range of ecosystems in southern and eastern Africa the proportion of time territorial males spent with, and thus scavenged from, their pride females was strongly influenced by vegetation structure, and therefore probably by the assemblage of available ungulates. In open systems, territorial males were, therefore, likely to be encountered with pride females, whereas in more wooded areas they were likely to be encountered away from their pride females. We suggest that this is because vegetation structure influences food/prey availability and hunting success and influences territory maintenance and/or cub defence. (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933529

Funston; Mills; Biggs; Richardson

1998-12-01

169

On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry & Lions  

CERN Document Server

We discuss global existence and asymptotic behaviour of a price formation free boundary model introduced by Lasry & Lions in 2007. Our results are based on a construction which transforms the problem into the heat equation with specially prepared initial datum. The key point is that the free boundary present in the original problem becomes the zero level set of this solution. Using the properties of the heat operator we can show global existence, regularity and asymptotic results of the free boundary.

Caffarelli, Luis A; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik

2011-01-01

170

Ein Humboldt-Brief in der Autographensammlung Lion Feuchtwangers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article in German, Abstracts in English and German.The paper deals with a letter from Alexander von Humboldt, which has been part of Lion Feuchtwanger's Autograph Collection since 1958. An investigation of the contents of the letter brought to light new details, chiefly of Humboldt's activities in promoting young talents. Emil Naumann (1827-1888, composer, teacher and author, was clearly identified as the letter's recipient.

Ingo Schwarz

2006-10-01

171

Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; name [...] ly osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50% of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a). The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors' knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions.

Adrian S.W., Tordiffe; Nicky, Cassel; Emily P., Lane; Fred, Reyers.

172

Multiple myeloma in a captive lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is a rare, systemic proliferation of neoplastic plasma cells. A case was reported in an 11-year-old male captive lion (Panthera leo at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa, Pretoria. The classic features of symptomatic multiple myeloma were all evident in this case; namely osteolytic lesions, monoclonal gammopathy in the serum with excretion of monoclonal proteins in the urine, neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow and associated renal failure and anaemia. In addition, similar to the common pattern of this disease in domestic felids, at least three extramedullary tumours were found and several organs were infiltrated by neoplastic plasma cells. The cytoplasm of approximately 50%of the neoplastic round cells, including a few giant myeloma cells, stained weakly to strongly using immunohistochemical stains for B-lymphocytes (CD79a. The normal haematological parameters and lack of any osteolytic lesions in the lion at the time of the first evaluation suggest that the primary neoplastic cells could have originated from one of the extramedullary tumour sites. Only two cases of multiple myeloma have previously been reported in captive wild felids. To the authors’ knowledge, there are no case reports of multiple myeloma in lions.

Adrian S.W. Tordiffe

2013-09-01

173

The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several non-domestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo. Although lion lentivirus (FIVple infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69 %, with a prevalence of 41 % in the north of the park, and 80 %in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94 %. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29 %. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

M. Kennedy

2012-05-01

174

Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve  

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Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63 and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

R. J. Power

2002-12-01

175

The study of Delsarte-Lions type binary transformations, their differential-geometric and operator structure with applications. Part 2  

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Full Text Available The Gelfand-Levitan integral equations for Delsarte-Lions type transformations in multidimension are studied. The corresponding spectral and analytical properties of Delsarte-Lions transformed operators are analyzed by means of the differential-geometric and topological tools. An approach for constructing Delsarte-Lions type transmutation operators for multidimensional differential expressions is devised.

Yarema A. Prykarpatsky

2007-01-01

176

The impact of burning on lion Panthera leo habitat choice in an African savanna  

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Full Text Available Carnivores play a central role in ecosystem processes by exerting top-down control, while fire exerts bottom-up control in ecosystems throughout the world, yet, little is known about how fire affects short-term carnivore distributions across the landscape. Through the use of a long-term data set we investigated the distribution of lions, during the daytime, in relation to burned areas in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We found that lions avoid burned areas despite the fact that herbivores, their prey, are attracted to burned areas. Prey attraction, however, likely results from the reduction in cover caused by burning, that may thereby decrease lion hunting success. Lions also do not preferentially utilize the edges of burned areas over unburned areas despite the possibility that edges would combine the benefit of cover with proximity to abundant prey. Despite the fact that lions avoid burned areas, lion territory size and reproductive success were not affected by the proportion of the territory burned each year. Therefore, burning does not seem to reduce lion fitness perhaps because of the heterogeneity of burned areas across the landscape or because it is possible that when hunting at night lions visit burned areas despite their daytime avoidance of these areas [Current Zoology 59 (3: 335–339, 2013].

Stephanie EBY, Anna MOSSER, Craig PACKER, Mark RITCHIE, Ali SWANSON

2013-06-01

177

Cub mortality in the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi (Roberts, 1948  

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Full Text Available The extent and possible causes of cub mortality in the Kalahari lion are discussed. It is concluded that starvation is a major cause of death among cubs, largely due to the Kalahari lion's dependence on small mammals as a source of food. Other important mortality factors are abandonment of the cubs, dis- eases, the harsh desert environment and possibly predation.

F. C Eloff

1980-01-01

178

Effects of the number of people on efficient capture and sample collection: A lion case study  

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Full Text Available Certain carnivore research projects and approaches depend on successful capture of individuals of interest. The number of people present at a capture site may determine success of a capture. In this study 36 lion capture cases in the Kruger National Park were used to evaluate whether the number of people present at a capture site influenced lion response rates and whether the number of people at a sampling site influenced the time it took to process the collected samples. The analyses suggest that when nine or fewer people were present, lions appeared faster at a call-up locality compared with when there were more than nine people. The number of people, however, did not influence the time it took to process the lions. It is proposed that efficient lion capturing should spatially separate capture and processing sites and minimise the number of people at a capture site.

Sam M. Ferreira

2013-05-01

179

Impact of relative sea level and rapid climate changes on the architecture and lithofacies of the Holocene Rhone subaqueous delta (Western Mediterranean Sea)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The modern Rhone delta in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) is a typical wave-dominated delta that developed after the stabilization of relative sea level following the last deglacial sea-level rise. Similar to most other deltas worldwide, it displays several stacked parasequences and lobes that reflect the complex interaction between accommodation, sediment supply and autogenic processes on the architecture of a wave-dominated delta. The interpretation of a large set of newly acquired ver...

Fanget, Anne-sophie; Berne, Serge; Jouet, Gwenael; Bassetti, Maria-angela; Dennielou, Bernard; Maillet, Gregoire M.; Tondut, Mathieu

2014-01-01

180

Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma (Collagenous Fibroma) in an African Lion  

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Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (DF) is a rare, benign, slowly growing, soft tissue tumor which originated from fibroblast. Although this type tumor has been occasionally reported in human beings, there was case report that was diagnosed as the DF in animal species. This report describes a case of DF that developed on the left flank of an 8-year-old female African lion. The mass was gradually enlarged for 5~6 months and the size was 25 x 16 x 8 cm3. Surgical excision of the mass was carried out. T...

S H Yun, H. S. Jang

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Parâmetros genéticos para coelhos da raça Califórnia criados no Brasil Genetic parameters for Californian rabbits raised in Brazil  

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Full Text Available Registros de pesos de 3.249 coelhos, nascidos de 1980 a 1996 e, dados de pedigree de 4.857 coelhos da raça Califórnia, criados no Campus da USP de Pirassununga, São Paulo, submetidos à seleção por três gerações, com base em valores genéticos de pesos à desmama (PD e à 10ª semana de idade (P10 e ganho de peso da desmama até 10 semanas de idade (GPD10, foram analisados pelo método de modelos mistos sob modelos animais para obter estimativas de parâmetros genéticos para as características consideradas como parte do critério de seleção. As estimativas do coeficiente de herdabilidade encontradas foram de 0,23 para PD, de 0,44 para P10 e 0,39 para GP10, mostrando ser possível haver ganhos genéticos se aplicados processos seletivos. A correlação genética entre PD e P10 foi de 0,66 e entre PD e GPD10 foi baixa, indicando que as variáveis são praticamente independentes. A proporção da variância fenotípica devida aos efeitos permanentes de ninhada foi importante para todas as características. Os resultados sugerem que a seleção para características ponderais pode ser eficiente.Genetic, phenotypic and environmental parameters of a population of Californian rabbits submitted to selection for three generations were studied. Traits analyzed were individual weaning weight (PD, weight at 10 weeks (P10 and average daily gain from weaning to 10 weeks of age (GPD10 using 3,249 records of weights of rabbits and pedigree information of 4,857 animals, born from 1980 to 1996, and selected based on an index of estimated breeding values for PD, P10 and GPD10. Permanent effects of litters were as important as additive genetic effects. Heritabilities for the three traits were .23 (PD, .44 (P10 and .39 (GPD10. Genetic correlations between PD and P10 and between PD and GPD10 were high (.66 and very low, respectively.

M.G. Paula

2000-10-01

182

Lion predation on elephants in the Savuti, Chobe National Park, Botswana  

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Full Text Available Lions rarely prey on elephants. Botswana’s Savuti lions, however, switch to preying on elephants during the late dry season (August–November, and the frequency of this has increased in the last two decades (1985–2005. An opportunity to document this phenomenon was made possible with infrared viewing and filming equipment. A pride of 30 lions killed one elephant every three days. Seven of eight elephants killed were between four and 11 years old, as deduced from molar teeth ageing, and this age group represented over half the kills recorded by Joubert (2006. It is suggested that this weaned, maternally less dependent age class, may be more vulnerable to lion predation. Lions prey on elephants since the density of conventional ungulate prey is reduced as a result of an annual migration, and artificial water provisioning has prompted an increasingly sedentary population of elephants. Notes are presented on the lion’s behaviour in hunting elephants and the evolutionary significance of this.

R.X. Shem Compion

2011-10-01

183

+2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

2012-12-01

184

Deep-sea benthic ecosystem collapse and recovery after an intense Dense Shelf Water Cascading event  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Submarine canyons of several regions of the world are preferential conduits for Dense Shelf Water Cascading (DSWC), which quickly modify physical and chemical conditions while transporting large amounts of material towards the adjacent deep margin. Observations conducted during the last 15 yr in the Cap de Creus Canyon (Gulf of Lion, NW Mediterranean Sea) reported several intense events of DSWC. Their effects on the deep-sea biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are almost unknown. To in...

Pusceddu, A.; Mea, M.; Canals, M.; Heussner, S.; Durrieu Madron, X.; Sanchez-vidal, A.; Bianchelli, S.; Corinaldesi, C.; Anno, A.; Thomsen, L.; Danovaro, R.

2012-01-01

185

Ecosystem effects of dense water formation on deep Mediterranean Sea ecosystems: an overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural episodic events, such as gravity flows, submarine landslides, and benthic storms can determine severe modifications in the structure and functioning of deep-sea ecosystems. Here, we report and compare the ecosystem effects produced by dense water formation events that occurred in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) and the Aegean Sea (NE Mediterranean). In both regions, the rapid sinking of cold dense waters, driven by regional meteorological forcings, results in importan...

Pusceddu, Antonio; Mea, Marianna; Gambi, Cristina; Bianchelli, Silvia; Canals, Miquel; Sanchez Vidal, Anna; Calafat, Antoni; Heussner, Serge; Durrieu Madron, Xavier; Avril, Je?rome; Thomsen, Laurenz; Garci?a, Rosa; Danovaro, Roberto

2010-01-01

186

Dynamics and balance of natural and anthropic radionuclide particulates in the Gulf of Lion: the case of Rhone river transports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate and understand particulate transfers dynamics and balances of radionuclides in the Gulf of Lion, particularly at the Rhone River mouth. Due to its 30.2 year half-life and of its great affinity with silts and clays, 137Cs was used as a Rhone River inputs tracer. Rhone pro-delta sediments recorded values of 137Cs activities originated by nuclear power plants releases, global fallout and Chernobylsk accident (peak at 600 Bq.kg-1). A sharp decrease in liquid radioactive effluents releases and the dismantlement of the Marcoule fuel reprocessing plant in 1997 induced 137Cs fluxes decrease to the Mediterranean Sea. At present time, mean concentrations are around 10 Bq.kg-1 in the pro-delta sediments. Sedimentary records of different oceanographic campaigns achieved between 2001 and 2008 enabled to map a 20 km2137Cs accumulation area close to the Rhone River mouth and to estimate a store of 3.35 TBq, i.e. the eighth of the Gulf of Lions store, which area is about 15000 km2. Other campaigns carried out in the framework of the CARMA and EXTREMA projects (2006-2008) allowed to observe surface and bottom nepheloids behaviours and to link them to the pro-delta sedimentation. Radio-chronological analyses coupling 137Cs and 210Pb depth activity profiles allowed to estimate pluri-deci-metric accumulation rates next to the mouth. Short-live radionuclides like 7Be and 234Th were used to estimate sedimentary deposits thicknesses generated by some Rhone River floods. These results were confirmed by an experiment which induced an instruments deployment at the Rhone River mouth during the winter 2006-2007. Altimeter data showed 8 cm thick sediment total accretion during two mean floods recorded by a current profiler. They also showed an important erosion phase linked to a south-east swell episode with a bottom shear stress reaching 5 Pa. An erodimeter enabled to evaluate the erosion shear stress threshold to 0.35 Pa next to the mouth. Results showed that the sediment remobilization was very important in this area but that the exports of suspended solid matters towards the Gulf of Lions were weak, or even deposited in fine on the pro-delta. (author)

187

New contact. A Californian start-up business offers solar cells with copper contacts instead of expensive silver; Neuer Kontakt. Ein kalifornisches Start-up praesentiert Zelle mit Kupferkontakten - und ersetzt so teures Silber  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new Californian producer is substituting copper contacts for silver contacts. The technology is difficult, but the new cell is characterized by high efficiency and low cost. It may revolutionize the market, provided that production on an industrial scale is possible.

Beneking, Andreas

2012-02-15

188

Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: spirurida) in golden lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pterygodermatites nycticebi (syn Rictularia nycticebi), a spirurid nematode first described in the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), recently has been associated with morbidity and mortality in the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) collection at the National Zoological Park. Adult worms were found in the lumen of the small intestine with their anterior ends embedded in the mucosa. Larvae, when present, were deeper in the submucosa. A few heavily infected animals developed profound weakness, anemia, and hypoproteinemia. Infective larvae of Pterygodermatites nycticebi developed in laboratory-reared German cockroaches (Blatella germanica) that were fed tamarin feces containing eggs of Pterygodermatites nycticebi. Wild-caught German cockroaches also were found to harbor these infective larvae which implicates this ubiquitous pest as an intermediate host. Effective control of Pterygodermatites nycticebi has been achieved by regular fecal screening of all callitrichids for spirurid eggs and biannual prophylaxis with mebendazole at 40 mg/kg, as well as a rigorous cockroach extermination program. PMID:6406763

Montali, R J; Gardiner, C H; Evans, R E; Bush, M

1983-04-01

189

George Bernard Shaw's Androcles and the Lion: A Postmodernist Study  

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Full Text Available This study makes an attempt to analyze the manifold aspects of Shaw's Androcles and the Lion on a postmodernist standpoint, meanwhile, demonstrates the dominion of modernism, which is portrayed through the vehicle of comedy with a bitter ironic language through the play. Regardless of the historical period in which the play occurs, the term postmodernism with its lineaments can aptly scrutinize the clash between modernism and postmodernism, and define the notion of freedom in a world where man is in fetters, either physically or mentally or both at the same time. This study tries to show how two Christian prisoners find their way to freedom by resisting against the suppression and oppression of an empire, whose glory rests on silencing the opposing voices.

Noorbakhsh Hooti

2012-03-01

190

Desmoplastic Fibroblastoma (Collagenous Fibroma in an African Lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desmoplastic fibroblastoma (DF is a rare, benign, slowly growing, soft tissue tumor which originated from fibroblast. Although this type tumor has been occasionally reported in human beings, there was case report that was diagnosed as the DF in animal species. This report describes a case of DF that developed on the left flank of an 8-year-old female African lion. The mass was gradually enlarged for 5~6 months and the size was 25 x 16 x 8 cm3. Surgical excision of the mass was carried out. The mass was relatively hypocellular and showed proliferation of spindle and stellate shaped cells embedded in a fibromyxoid to densely fibrotic collagenous stroma. Six months after performing a surgical excision, no sign of any tumor recurrence or metastasis was observed.

S. H. Yun, H. S. Jang, S. K. Ku1, J. S. Park, T. H. Oh, K. W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

2012-05-01

191

Ectoparasitic acari found on golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) from Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anesthetized golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia), a highly endangered species, were examined for ectoparasites by brushing the fur and swabbing the ears. Ectoparasites recovered from the fur included four species of immature ticks (Amblyomma spp.), three species of chiggers (Euschoengastia sp., Microtrombicula brennani and Speleocola tamarina), and one species of follicular mite (Rhyncoptes anastosi). Ectoparasites do not seem to be of particular significance to the health of the golden lion tamarin; this may in part result from grooming. PMID:2503627

Wilson, N; Dietz, J M; Whitaker, J O

1989-07-01

192

Evolution of Puma Lentivirus in Bobcats (Lynx rufus) and Mountain Lions (Puma concolor) in North America  

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Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountai...

Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E. K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Mcbride, Roy; Roelke-parker, Melody; Pecon-slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

193

Birth Timing for Mountain Lions (Puma concolor); Testing the Prey Availability Hypothesis  

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We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June–August. Body ...

Jansen, Brian D.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

194

The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo)  

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Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from ac...

Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Barnes, Ian; Cooper, Alan

2006-01-01

195

Socio-spatial behaviour of an African lion population following perturbation by sport hunting  

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Hunting of individuals from a population can affect its demography and socio-spatial parameters. This study provided opportunities to assess such effects, and may help to improve the conservation of populations threatened by conflict and over-use. We treated the periods before and after a moratorium on the trophy hunting of lions around Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, as a quasi-experimental opportunity to examine changes in lion socio-spatial behaviour during and after perturbation. Changes ...

Davidson, Z.; Valeix, M.; Loveridge, Aj; Madzikanda, H.; Macdonald, Dw

2011-01-01

196

The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes  

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Tigers and their close relatives (Panthera) are some of the world’s most endangered species. Here we report the de novo assembly of an Amur tiger whole-genome sequence as well as the genomic sequences of a white Bengal tiger, African lion, white African lion and snow leopard. Through comparative genetic analyses of these genomes, we find genetic signatures that may reflect molecular adaptations consistent with the big cats’ hypercarnivorous diet and muscle strength. We repo...

Cho, Yun Sung; Hu, Li; Hou, Haolong; Lee, Hang; Xu, Jiaohui; Kwon, Soowhan; Oh, Sukhun; Kim, Hak-min; Jho, Sungwoong; Kim, Sangsoo; Shin, Young-ah; Kim, Byung Chul; Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Chang-uk; Luo, Shu-jin

2013-01-01

197

Mandibular and dental abnormalities of two Pleistocene American lions (Panthera leo atrox) from Yukon Territory.  

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Fragmented mandibles of two Pleistocene lions (Panthera leo atrox) recovered from Yukon Territory possessed acquired pathological changes and congenital abnormalities, judging from the anatomy of contemporary and modern lions. One specimen showed evidence of chronic periodontitis, an extensive sclerosing osteomyelitis and congenital absence of left lower incisor teeth 1 and 2. The second showed long-standing loss of the left lower canine tooth with subsequent obliteration of the alveolus by l...

Beebe, B. F.; Hulland, T. J.

1988-01-01

198

Characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gamma-herpesviruses of North American and European pinnipeds.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. First, herpesviruses isolated from North American harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), a Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and a European grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) were examined in an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies which had previously been shown to allow typing of herpesviruses from European harbour seals ...

Harder, T. C.; Harder, M.; Vos, H.; Kulonen, K.; Kennedy-stoskopf, S.; Liess, B.; Appel, M. J. G.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

1996-01-01

199

Prey selection by a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Lion prey selection was studied on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km2 , Limpopo Province, South Africa, in order to assist with management strategies. Monitoring was carried out between February 1998 and December 2001. Lion killed 15 species, with warthog, blue wildebeest, Burchell’s zebra, kudu and waterbuck constituting approximately 75% of their diet. Between 2.2% and 3.1% of the available prey biomass was killed yearly, while each female equivalent unit (FEQ killed between 3 kg and 3.2 kg daily. Lion predation was greater for warthog, wildebeest and waterbuck and less for impala than expected. When male lion were present, a greater number of warthog and giraffe were killed, while number of females had a significant effect on medium-sized prey species and total prey species killed. Significantly more warthog, wildebeest and kudu were killed in winter than summer. More prey than expected was killed in open habitats and less than expected in thickets. Managers of small, enclosed reserves need to constantly monitor prey populations, especially medium-sized prey and may be able to reduce predation on large prey species by manipulating male lion numbers. Reserves also need to contain adequate open habitats for lion to make use of these areas for hunting.

Luke Hunter

2011-11-01

200

Reproductive biology of a pride of lions on Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa  

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Full Text Available The reproductive biology of a pride of lions (Panthera leo adult male for the next three years.We recorded shorter than normal interbirth intervals, high birth rates of 1.3 cubs/lioness/year, very high cub survival rates, and subadults leaving the pride at young ages. This translated into substantially faster growth rates than are typical in large lion populations in ecologically similar circumstances such as Kruger National Park, but are similar to those of lions in Serengeti National Park. These demographic characteristics were probably induced initially by a lack of intense intraspecific competition and high prey availability, but population stability was maintained through the removal of young subadults by management. Interestingly, variability in conception rates between lionesses resulted in lower growth rates than have been found in other similar reintroduced lion populations. These demographic traits characterize many of the small reintroduced lion populations, and call for appropriate management to avoid the consequences of high predator densities. was studied on the 8500 ha Karongwe Game Reserve from 1999 to 2005. Over this period, the pride consisted of between four and 11 lions with a paired coalition of adult males during the first three years and a single

Cailey R. Owen

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

The origin, current diversity and future conservation of the modern lion (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the phylogeographic processes affecting endangered species is crucial both to interpreting their evolutionary history and to the establishment of conservation strategies. Lions provide a key opportunity to explore such processes; however, a lack of genetic diversity and shortage of suitable samples has until now hindered such investigation. We used mitochondrial control region DNA (mtDNA) sequences to investigate the phylogeographic history of modern lions, using samples from across their entire range. We find the sub-Saharan African lions are basal among modern lions, supporting a single African origin model of modern lion evolution, equivalent to the 'recent African origin' model of modern human evolution. We also find the greatest variety of mtDNA haplotypes in the centre of Africa, which may be due to the distribution of physical barriers and continental-scale habitat changes caused by Pleistocene glacial oscillations. Our results suggest that the modern lion may currently consist of three geographic populations on the basis of their recent evolutionary history: North African-Asian, southern African and middle African. Future conservation strategies should take these evolutionary subdivisions into consideration. PMID:16901830

Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Barnes, Ian; Cooper, Alan

2006-09-01

202

The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declines in large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systems where carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes in carnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography and space-use of three lion (Panthera leo) prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve and the adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005-2006. The mean times lions were inactive was similar between the three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions spent most of their time on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgets were similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the type but the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to the reserve. We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands.

Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.

2011-01-01

203

Alegoria californiana / Californian allegory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ensaio parte dos murais de Diego Rivera realizados nos anos 1930 nos Estados Unidos para desentranhar neles uma alegoria das relações Norte e Sul, América do Norte e América Latina. A viagem do muralista mexicano aos Estados Unidos alegoriza essa relação em que se formulam estratégias de combinaçã [...] o entre técnica e natureza, máquina e corpo, nestes murais que representam a linha de produção fordista e a racionalização do tempo do trabalho físico. A viagem de Rivera alegoriza ainda a constituição do "latino-americanismo", como campo universitário em que se inserem as representações culturalizadas da América Latina nos Estados Unidos. A partir dessa matriz o ensaio se detém sobre as políticas da língua hispânica que se inscreve como língua diaspórica nos Estados Unidos, segundo o paradigma da tradução, e encarnando-se em maneiras possíveis de convocação do corpo como corpo da língua nos poemas de Rosário Castellanos e no clássico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in spanish El ensayo parte de los murales de Diego Rivera realizados durante los años 30 en Estados Unidos para desentrañar en ellos una alegoría de las relaciones Norte y Sur, América del Norte y América Latina. El viaje del muralista mexicano a Estados Unidos alegoriza esa relación en que se formulan estrate [...] gias de combinación entre técnica y naturaleza, máquina y cuerpo, en estos murales que representan la línea de producción fordista y la racionalización del tiempo del trabajo físico. El viaje de Rivera alegoriza también la constitución del "latinoamericanismo", como campo universitario en que se insertan las representaciones culturalizadas de América Latina en Estados Unidos. Partiendo de esa matriz, el ensayo se detiene sobre las políticas de la lengua hispánica que se inscribe como lengua diaspórica en Estados Unidos, según el paradigma de la traducción, y encarnándose en maneras posibles de convocación del cuerpo como cuerpo de la lengua en los poemas de Rosario Castellanos y en el clásico de Pablo Neruda, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu". Abstract in english The essay takes its cue from Diego Rivera's murals accomplished in the thirties in the United States in order to localize in them an allegory of North-South relations, North America and Latin America. The Mexican muralist's trip to the United States allegorizes this relationship in which are formula [...] ted strategies for combining technology and nature, the machine and the body, in these murals which represent the Fordist production line and the racionalization of time in physical labor. Rivera's trip also allegorizes the constitution of "Latin Americanism", as an Academic field in which are introduced Cultural representations of Latin America in the United States. Drawing from this model the essay studies the politics of the Spanish language as a diasporic language in the United States, following the translation paradigm, and embodying itself in possible ways of enlisting the body as a body of language in the poems of Rosário Castellanos and Pablo Neruda's classic, "Alturas de Macchu Picchu".

Julio, Ramos.

2012-12-01

204

Pedologic influences on hillslope hydrology: The relationships between soil and hydrologic connectivity in a Californian oak-woodland  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding what controls hydrologic connectivity and how it develops has important implications for ecosystem services. It can affect water quality, nutrient and sediment delivery to the stream, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and more. Bedrock topography and soil act in concert as primary physical controls on hydrologic connectivity. However, the important role soil can play is not well understood. A hillslope study was conducted to explore the dynamics between soil and hydrologic connectivity. The hillslope was in a zero-order watershed with a flashy ephemeral stream. It was located in an oak-woodland in the Californian northern Sierra foothills. The research objectives were to 1) identify and characterize hydrologically significant soil properties; 2) explore how soil stratigraphy and morphology influence hydrologic connectivity; and 3) examine potential causes for connection and disconnection of hydrologic flowpaths during and between rain storm events. During the 2012 wet season a 210-m hillslope transect was instrumented to collect soil moisture data every five minutes. The instruments were put at multiple locations and depths to capture the soil spatial variability. Once the soil became too dry for monitoring the transect was trenched, characterized and sampled. Texture, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention curves were measured in the lab. Structure, color, redoximorphic features, soil horizon spatial differentiation, saprolite and bedrock characteristics, and coarse fragment percentage were recorded in the field. Prior to excavation an electromagnetic induction (EMI) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey in conjunction with the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) was performed along the hillslope. The goal of the survey was to explore non-invasive techniques to determine spatial variability of hydrologically significant soil horizons and bedrock. The GPR was found not to be reliable at the site. However, the EMI showed potential in showing the discontinuous distribution of the claypan, a horizon characterized by a large and abrupt increase in clay content and very low permeability. The data obtained from the transect excavation was used to create a two-dimensional hillslope model using HYDRUS-2D. Coupled with the soil moisture and local precipitation data the hillslope hydrology was modeled at individual storm event time scale. The field data showed that the hillslope was very complex and comprised of a discontinuous claypan, undulating bedrock topography and highly variable saprolite. The soil moisture data and modeling efforts showed that the surface horizons, which are highly permeable and contain numerous macropores, are the primary hydrologic flowpaths during storm events. The model showed that the presence of claypan decreased effective soil depth, increased antecedent wetness and created a perched water table. The model also showed that the undulating bedrock acted like a dam along the hillslope. The claypan network and undulating bedrock created isolated zones of wetness that only become connected and flow downhill into the stream when a storm caused the disconnected zones to rise in the highly permeable surface horizons.

Alldritt, K.; O'Geen, A.; Dahlgren, R. A.

2013-12-01

205

Seroepizootiological survey for selected viral infections in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) from western India.  

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Infectious diseases have been responsible for large-scale declines in many endangered animals. Disease outbreaks in small populations have probably led to the eventual extinction of such endangered animals in the wild. The endangered Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) population may also face such threats. This was evident from this study on captive Asiatic lions from western India, which were sampled from December 1998 to March 1999. Fifty-six Asiatic lions, including 17 hybrid lions (Afro-Asian crosses) from six captive centers in western India, were tested for antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia viral (FeLV) antigen. Agar gel immunodiffusion test and dot immunobinding assay were employed for CDV and FPV antibody detection. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used for FIV antibody and FeLV antigen detection. Forty-nine of 56 lions (87.5%) were positive for CDV. All 56 (100%) lions were positive for FPV antibodies. There were no detectable levels of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigens. It was observed that CDV and FPV, two viruses known to cause high mortality in captive carnivores, were widely prevalent in these captive Asiatic lions. It is suggested that these seropositive animals will have the potential to pose a risk of infection to other seronegative animals. Hence, it is imperative to carefully consider any movement, translocation, or reintroduction of these animals to new regions. It is also recommended that these animals be required to undergo standard quarantine and disease screening protocols. The lack of exposure to pathogens, such as FIV and FeLV, would also be a risk, and, hence, identification of reservoirs and screening of in-contact animals is highly recommended. Vaccinations must be considered, using killed or other suitable viral vaccines, which have been proved to be safe, effective, and efficacious in endangered felids. PMID:17939348

Ramanathan, Anand; Malik, Pradeep K; Prasad, Gaya

2007-09-01

206

Sediment and organic carbon transport in Cap de Creus canyon, Gulf of Lions (France)  

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The off-shelf transport of particles in continental margins is responsible for much of the flux of organic matter (OM)and nutrients towards deep-sea ecosystems, playing a key role in the global oceanic biogeochemical cycles. Off-shelf sediment transport mechanism have been well described for many continental margins being triggered by a series of physical forcings such as tides, storms, internal waves, floods, earthquakes, as well as the combination of some of these processes, while topographic structures such as submarine canyons act as preferential sedimentary conduits toward deep ocean. However, the composition of the material supplied to the deep ocean during these events is still poorly understood since most studies have only investigated the magnitude of the down-slope fluxes or limited their analysis to the major bulk components. A special opportunity to characterize the biogeochemical composition of the off-shelf export in the Gulf of Lions (GoL) margin was provided during the winter 2004-2005, when an exceptional dense water cascading event occurred. Dense water overflowing off the shelf in the GoL has been recently recognized as one of the main process affecting particulate shelf-to-slope exchange in northwestern Mediterranean Sea. During the 2004-2005 cascading event, moored instruments were deployed at the Cap de Creus (CdC) canyon head to monitor the physical parameters and to characterize the temporal variability of the exported material. Post-cascading sediment cores were collected along the sediment dispersal system to trace the sediment transport pathway. In this study we developed a source tracing method using elemental compositions, alkaline CuO reaction products (lignin, cutin, lipids, hydroxy benzenes, proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides products), biogenic silica, carbon stable isotope composition, radiocarbon measurements, and grain size as a fingerprint for each sample. The aforementioned analyses were carried out on both sediment trap and sediment samples to obtain a homogeneous data matrix. The dynamic mixture of OM sources and shelf sediments was then analyzed using multivariate statistics. A quantitative mixing model was used to assess the relative contribution of allochthonous and autochthonous OM and to identify the relationship between sediment export from the shelf and down-slope particulate fluxes (sediment provenance).

Tesi, T.; Puig, P.; Palanques, A.; Goni, M. A.; Miserocchi, S.; Langone, L.

2009-04-01

207

Tree and forest characteristics influence sleeping site choice by golden lion tamarins.  

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Lion tamarin monkeys are among a small number of primates that repeatedly use a few tree holes for the majority of their sleeping sites. To better understand why lion tamarins rely on tree holes as sleeping sites, we compared the physical characteristics of frequently used sleeping sites, infrequently used sleeping sites, and randomly selected forest locations at multiple spatial scales. From 1990 to 2004, we recorded 5,235 occurrences of sleeping site use by 10 groups of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) in Poço das Antas Reserve, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Of those, 63.6% were tree holes. Bamboo accounted for an additional 17.5% of observations. Frequently used tree holes were more likely to be found in living trees and their entrances were at lower canopy heights than infrequently used tree holes. We also found that frequently used sleeping sites, in comparison to random sites, were more likely to be found on hillsides, be close to other large trees, have a lower percent of canopy cover, and have larger diameter at breast height. Topography and small-scale variables were more accurate than were habitat-level classifications in predicting frequently used sleeping sites. There are ample tree holes available to these lion tamarins but few preferred sites to which they return repeatedly. The lion tamarins find these preferred sites wherever they occur including in mature forest and in relics of older forest embedded in a matrix of secondary forest. PMID:17358010

Hankerson, Sarah J; Franklin, Samuel P; Dietz, James M

2007-09-01

208

Of lion manes and human beards: some unusual effects of the interaction between aggression and sociality  

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Full Text Available Abstract The function of manes in lions has been a topic of scientific interest since Darwin (1871 suggested that it provides protection in intraspecific fights. Recent experimental studies on wild lions have emphasized the role of female selection, but analyses of specific attack behaviors and targets, and the social consequences of manelessness for lions living in very hot climates suggest that male manes may indeed mitigate the outcomes of intraspecific male attack and thus serve a permissive function for multimale + female groups, facilitating protection of prides against takeovers and infanticide by nomadic males. Humans also have unusual structural protections for the head, face and neck, areas that are especially accessible during intraspecies attack, and highly vulnerable to damage. One of these, the beard, consists of coarse hairs that grow indefinitely, but only for males, and only during and following puberty; suggesting that it, like the lion’s mane, may serve as protection in intraspecies male fights. Such structural protections may reflect a specific combination of lethal weaponry and social lifestyle, particularly when these are developed so rapidly that they are not accompanied by the evolution of complex attack-inhibiting social behaviors.

D. CarolineBlanchard

2010-01-01

209

Progressive parenting behavior in wild golden lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Young primates in the family Callitrichidae (the marmosets and tamarins) receive extensive and relatively prolonged care from adults. Of particular note, callitrichid young are routinely provisioned until well after weaning by parents and helpers, which is in stark contrast to typical juvenile primates, who must acquire most of their food independently once they are weaned. Adults of some callitrichid species produce a specialized vocalization that encourages immature group members to take proffered food from the caller. Here, I report that wild adult golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) not only used this food-offering call to encourage young, mobile offspring to approach and take captured prey from them, but as the young began to spend significant time foraging for themselves and to acquire prey by independent means, the frequency of these vocalizations in the context of food transfer declined. Adults then began to use food-offering calls in a novel context: to direct juveniles to foraging sites that contained hidden prey that the adults had found but not captured. During the period of these most frequent adult-directed prey captures, the independent prey-capture success rates of juveniles improved. Thus, adults modified their provisioning behavior in a progressive developmentally sensitive manner that may have facilitated learning how to find food. I hypothesize that as a result of these demonstrations by adults, juveniles either may be encouraged to continue foraging despite low return rates or to learn the properties of productive prey-foraging substrates in a complex environment. PMID:22479136

Rapaport, Lisa G

2011-07-01

210

The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declinesin large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systemswhere carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes incarnivore behaviour. We investigated this by comparing the behaviour, demography andspace-use of three lion (Panthera leo prides in the protected Masai Mara National Reserve andthe adjoining Koyiaki pastoral ranch in southwestern Kenya during 2005–2006. The meantimes lions were inactive was similar between the three prides except when the ranch lionswere severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate theirkills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushesand abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions spent most of theirtime on open plains while the ranch lions did so in bushes and woodlands. Activity budgetswere similar between the prides regardless of land use. Adult lions altered not so much the typebut the spatial location and timing of their behaviour on the pastoral ranches relative to thereserve.We discuss the implications of these findings for lion conservation on pastoral lands.

Torben Dabelsteen

2011-08-01

211

New records of a threatened population of lion (Panthera leo in a National Park in West Africa  

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Full Text Available In West Africa, the lion is currently characterized by small populations, fragmented and often isolated each another, with a virtual lack of ecological connection. Populations are generally declining. In some recent notes, it was declared that the lion in Ghana is functionally extinct, if not completely eradicated, and some recent surveys concluded about the probable extinction of lions from the Mole National Park (MNP, in Ghana’s Northern Territory. Aim of this note is to emphasize that the lion is still present in MNP, and this area must be still considered for species conservation, and therefore be studied carefully. In April 2011, using camera traps, a short movie of a young male lion was recorded, and  a roar has been clearly heard. The choice of areas where camera traps (n = 20 were placed derived from an habitat suitability model which was developed using lion records collected over 41 years. Our data show that MNP could still be regarded as a considerable area for western lion conservation, even considering the important results that, based on molecular-biology, show how lions in West and Central Africa are clearly differentiated from the other African ones.

Francesco Maria Angelici

2013-03-01

212

Embryo retrieval after hormonal treatment to control ovarian function and non-surgical artificial insemination in African lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Assisted reproduction technologies are essential for propagating endangered wild felids. Artificial insemination (AI) has been reported in several wild feline species, but pregnancy rates are low, partially owing to failures of current hormonal stimulation protocols. Therefore, this study describes the application of reliable methods to monitor ovarian activity and the development of an effective hormonal protocol to induce oestrus and ovulation in African lions. Application of porcine FSH and porcine LH was shown to be effective for inducing follicular growth and ovulation, and this regimen appeared to be superior to protocols described earlier in terms of ovulation and fertilization rates. Furthermore, non-surgical AI was performed successfully in lions, and uterine-stage embryos were collected and cryopreserved. African lions may serve as a valuable model to develop assisted reproduction for propagation of relic zoo populations in the critically endangered Asian lion or Barbary lion. PMID:23279488

Goeritz, F; Painer, J; Jewgenow, K; Hermes, R; Rasmussen, K; Dehnhard, M; Hildebrandt, T B

2012-12-01

213

Impact of open-ocean convection on particle fluxes and sediment dynamics in the deep margin of the Gulf of Lions  

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Full Text Available The deep outer margin of the Gulf of Lions and the adjacent basin, in the western Mediterranean Sea, are regularly impacted by open-ocean convection, a major hydrodynamic event responsible for the ventilation of the deep water in the western Mediterranean Basin. However, the impact of open-ocean convection on the flux and transport of particulate matter remains poorly understood. The variability of water mass properties (i.e., temperature and salinity, currents, and particle fluxes were monitored between September 2007 and April 2009 at five instrumented mooring lines deployed between 2050 and 2350-m depth in the deepest continental margin and adjacent basin. Four of the lines followed a NW–SE transect, while the fifth one was located on a sediment wave field to the west. The results of the main, central line SC2350 ("LION" located at 42°02.5? N, 4°41? E, at 2350-m depth, show that open-ocean convection reached mid-water depth (? 1000-m depth during winter 2007–2008, and reached the seabed (? 2350-m depth during winter 2008–2009. Horizontal currents were unusually strong with speeds up to 39 cm s?1 during winter 2008–2009. The measurements at all 5 different locations indicate that mid-depth and near-bottom currents and particle fluxes gave relatively consistent values of similar magnitude across the study area except during winter 2008–2009, when near-bottom fluxes abruptly increased by one to two orders of magnitude. Particulate organic carbon contents, which generally vary between 3 and 5%, were abnormally low (? 1% during winter 2008–2009 and approached those observed in surface sediments (? 0.6%. Turbidity profiles made in the region demonstrated the existence of a bottom nepheloid layer, several hundred meters thick, and related to the resuspension of bottom sediments. These observations support the view that open-ocean deep convection events in the Gulf of Lions can cause significant remobilization of sediments in the deep outer margin and the basin, with a subsequent alteration of the seabed likely impacting the functioning of the deep-sea ecosystem.

M. Stabholz

2013-02-01

214

Impact of open-ocean convection on particle fluxes and sediment dynamics in the deep margin of the Gulf of Lions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The deep outer margin of the Gulf of Lions and the adjacent basin, in the Western Mediterranean Sea, are regularly impacted by open-ocean convection, a major hydrodynamic event responsible for the ventilation of the deep water in the Western Mediterranean Basin. However, the impact of open-ocean convection on the flux and transport of particulate matter remains poorly understood. The variability of water mass properties (i.e. temperature and salinity, currents, and particle fluxes was monitored between September 2007 and April 2009 at five instrumented mooring lines deployed between 2050 and 2350 m-depth in the deepest continental margin and adjacent basin. Four of the lines followed a NW–SE transect, while the fifth one was located on a sediment wave field to the west. The results of the main, central line SC2350 ("LION", located at 42° 02.5? N and 4° 41? E, at 2350 m-depth, show that open-ocean convection reached mid-water depth (? 1000 m-depth during winter 2007–2008, and reached the seabed (? 2350 m-depth during winter 2008–2009. Horizontal currents were unusually strong with speeds up to 39 cm s?1 during winter 2008–2009. The measurements at all 5 different locations indicate that mid-depth and near-bottom currents and particle fluxes gave relatively consistent values of similar magnitude across the study area except during winter 2008–2009, when near-bottom fluxes abruptly increased by one to two orders of magnitude. Particulate organic carbon contents, which generally vary between 3 and 5%, were abnormally low (? 1% during winter 2008–2009 and approached those observed in surface sediments (? 0.6%. Turbidity profiles made in the region demonstrated the existence of a bottom nepheloid layer, several hundred meters thick, and related to the resuspension of bottom sediments. These observations support the view that open-ocean deep convection events in the Gulf of Lions can cause significant remobilization of sediments in the deep outer margin and the basin, with a subsequent alteration of the seabed likely impacting the functioning of the deep-sea ecosystem.

M. Stabholz

2012-09-01

215

Patterns of urinary oestrogen excretion in female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Daily urine samples were collected from 5 female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) over a period of 3 or more months, and urinary oestrogen concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Four females exhibited regular patterns of oestrogen excretion, with a peak-to-peak periodicity of 19.6 +/- 1.4 days. Levels of oestrogen excretion tended to vary between, but not within, individual females. Post-partum oestrogen patterns included periods of clear oestrogen cyclicity before conception, with dramatic elevations in oestrogen excretion following conception. Oestrone was the predominant urinary oestrogen excreted by female lion tamarins. Enzyme hydrolysis with Helix pomatia beta-glucuronidase/sulphatase was an efficient method of liberating conjugated oestrogens in tamarin urine. Urinary oestrogen determinations can provide useful information about reproductive status in female lion tamarins. PMID:3934366

French, J A; Stribley, J A

1985-11-01

216

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae  

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Full Text Available Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783, A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872 and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800. For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Agenesis was found only among maxillary post-canine teeth, especially the distal ones (PC/6, due to an evolutionary trend towards reduction of the number of post-canine teeth in this family. Maxillary and mandibular supernumerary teeth were found in A. australis and A. tropicalis, but their positioning is unrelated to cases regarding phylogenetic and evolutionary implications. Dental losses were found in all species and different stages of alveolar obliteration suggest that this process is common in Otariids and does not affect their survival. The investigation of congenital and acquired dental anomalies in pinnipeds can provide information on dental formula evolution in Pinnipeds and in the phylogenetic relationships among Carnivora.

Carolina Loch

2010-06-01

217

CRYSTALLIZATION AND PRELIMINARY CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF SAN MIGUEL SEA LION VIRUS: AN ANIMAL CALICIVIRUS  

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The Caliciviridae is a family of non-enveloped, icosahedral, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. This family of viruses consists of both animal and human pathogens. Adapting human caliciviruses to cell culture has not been successful, whereas some animal caliciviruses, including San Miguel ...

218

Numerical anomalies in the dentition of southern fur seals and sea lions (Pinnipedia: Otariidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cases of dental agenesis, supernumerary teeth and dental losses are presented in three species of South American Otariids: Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1783), A. tropicalis (Gray, 1872) and Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800). For the first time, congenital and acquired dental anomalies were comparatively diagnosed in skull samples from southern Brazil and nearby areas. The skulls and mandibles were accessed in the scientific collection of mammals of the Federal University of Santa Catarin...

Carolina Loch; Simo?es-lopes, Paulo C.; Drehmer, Ce?sar J.

2010-01-01

219

Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados  

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The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed...

Hugo Castillo; Adriana Hernández; David Dominguez; Damaris Ojeda

2010-01-01

220

Polarisation and propagation of lion roars in the dusk side magnetosheath  

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Full Text Available We present observations of "lion roars" obtained in the magnetosheath by the Spectrum Analyser (SA of the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Field Fluctuations (STAFF experiment aboard Cluster. STAFF-SA calculates, in near real time, the complete auto- and cross-spectral matrix derived from three magnetic and two electric components of the electromagnetic field at 27 frequencies in the range of 8 Hz to 4 kHz. This allows the study of the properties of whistler mode waves and more particularly, the properties of "lion roars", which are intense, short-duration, narrow-banded packets of whistler waves. Their presence is favoured by the magnetic field troughs associated with mirror mode structures. During two short periods of well-defined mirror modes, we study the depth ?B/B of the magnetic troughs, and the direction of propagation of the lion roars. During the first period, close to the magnetopause, deep magnetic troughs pass the satellites. Lion roars are then observed to propagate simultaneously in two directions, roughly parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field: this probably indicates that during this period, the satellites were within the successive source regions of lion roars. For the second period, far from the magnetopause, the magnetic troughs are less deep. Lion roars are propagating in only one direction, roughly anti-parallel to the magnetic field, suggesting that the source regions are more distant and predominantly on one side of the satellites.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetosheath; plasma waves and instabilities Radio science (radiowave propagation

M. Maksimovic

 
 
 
 
221

New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor) in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E) between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus) cooleyi, a species about which littl...

Krausman, Paul R.; Nicholson, Kerry L.

2011-01-01

222

New Flea and Tick Records for Mountain Lions in Southwestern Arizona  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our understanding of ectoparasite ecology in wild felid populations is limited in free-ranging species and in regions such as Arizona. As part of a larger study, we collected ectoparasites from 4 radio-collared mountain lions (Puma concolor in Tucson, Arizona (32.189N -110.881E between January 2006 and December 2007. Ectoparasites were identified as Pulex, a genus of flea not commonly reported on mountain lions. The tick was a nymph of Argas (Alveonasus cooleyi, a species about which little is known.

Paul R. Krausman

2011-06-01

223

Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan (Primates, Callitrichidae  

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Full Text Available Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823 was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey items, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities. These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

Fernando de Camargo Passos

1999-01-01

224

Impedance characteristics of the Bz diode on the LION accelerator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LION accelerator at Cornell University is being used to study the characteristics of the applied B/sub z/, or 'barrel' diode. This 0.8 TW, 4 ohm, ion accelerator has the ability to take several shots per day, and hence alloys systematic scans to be performed. An important result of a recent series of experiments is that the diode impedance remains relatively constant, decaying only slowly, during the 50 nsec pulse. When the diode is operated with a 4.5 mm gap and a 21 kG insulating magnetic field, the typical diode parameters, are a voltage of 1 MV and a total current of 250 kA, leading to a diode impedance of 4 ohms and power of 0.25 TW. The diode impedance decays with a 100 nsec time constant. The ion beams have peak currents of roughly 125 kA and typical impedances of Bohms, which decays with a time constant of 25 nsec. The Child-Langmuir gap was approximately 2 mm and closed with a velocity of roughly 2X10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Current experimental work is aimed at characterizing the impedance of the B/sub z/ diode as a function of the applied magnetic field, the A-K gap, the anode curvature, and the anode groove parameters. In addition, the effect of changing the voltage rise with a plasma opening switch and of adding an electron limiter is examined. The ion beam quality is examined at the focus of the barrel diode with a swept Thomson parabola and various Rutherford scattering diagnostics

225

STRATEGI KONVERSI ENERGI DI PT. LION METAL WORKS Tbk.  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} PT Lion Metal Works is a company producing office equipment, racking system, building material, security and fireproof safe, and cold forming. The production activity has high dependence on the usage of diesel, which influences the quality of the product and the cost of total business. The price fluctuation is one of the reasons for the company to convert the usage of diesel to some energy alternatives. Gas is the best alternative to replace diesel due to some advantages such as price, installation cost, distribution issue, calorie level, and environmental issue. There are some resistances from internal organization emerge in the implementation of the conversion. The alternatives strategy has been explored to reduce the resistances considering the goal of the organization, the actors (department in the company, and the type of resistance using analytical hierarchy process method. The priority strategy is establishing a new division for handling the conversion program and installing the gas facility gradually.

Daud Sudradjad

2011-08-01

226

Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

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Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion. Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG, within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG and Halobacteria within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age strongly influenced the community structure. In contrast, within the Gulf of Lion core, characterized by a homogeneous lithological structure of upper-slope environment, most detected groups were Bacteroidetes and, to a lesser extent, Betaproteobacteria. At both site, the detection of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lion, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the sedimentological context for microbial habitability, and then indirectly on structure and composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

M.-C. Ciobanu

2012-09-01

227

Hearing in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris): auditory profiles for an amphibious marine carnivore.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we examine the auditory capabilities of the sea otter (Enhydra lutris), an amphibious marine mammal that remains virtually unstudied with respect to its sensory biology. We trained an adult male sea otter to perform a psychophysical task in an acoustic chamber and at an underwater apparatus. Aerial and underwater audiograms were constructed from detection thresholds for narrowband signals measured in quiet conditions at frequencies from 0.125-40 kHz. Aerial hearing thresholds were also measured in the presence of octave-band masking noise centered at eight signal frequencies (0.25-22.6 kHz) so that critical ratios could be determined. The aerial audiogram of the sea otter resembled that of sea lions and showed a reduction in low-frequency sensitivity relative to terrestrial mustelids. Best sensitivity was -1 dB re 20 µPa at 8 kHz. Under water, hearing sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared to sea lions and other pinniped species, demonstrating that sea otter hearing is primarily adapted to receive airborne sounds. Critical ratios were more than 10 dB higher than those measured for pinnipeds, suggesting that sea otters are less efficient than other marine carnivores at extracting acoustic signals from background noise, especially at frequencies below 2 kHz. PMID:25249386

Ghoul, Asila; Reichmuth, Colleen

2014-11-01

228

Physiological features of Halomonas lionensis sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a Mediterranean Sea sediment  

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A novel halophilic bacterium, strain RHS90T, was isolated from marine sediments from the Gulf of Lions, in the Mediterranean Sea. Its metabolic and physiological characteristics were examined under various cultural conditions, including exposure to stressful ones (oligotrophy, high pressure and high concentrations of metals). Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, the strain was found to belong to the genus Halomonas in the class Gammaproteobacteria. Its closest relatives are H....

Gaboyer, Frederic; Vandenabeele-trambouze, Odile; Cao, Junwei; Ciobanu, Maria Cristina; Jebbar, Mohamed; Le Romancer, Marc; Alain, Karine

2014-01-01

229

Monitoring dense shelf water cascades: an assessment tool for understanding deep-sea ecosystems functioning  

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Cascading of dense shelf water from continental shelves is a global phenomenon whose effects have been largely underestimated. The north-western Mediterranean is one of the regions of the world where massive dense water formation occurs because of cooling and evaporation of surface waters during winter-time. Concurrent with the well known open-sea convection process over the MEDOC region, coastal surface waters over the wide shelf of the Gulf of Lions also become denser than the underly...

Puig, Pere; Font, Jordi; Company, Joan B.; Palanques, Albert; Sarda?, Francisco

2008-01-01

230

Craniomandibular morphology and phylogenetic affinities of panthera atrox : Implications for the evolution and paleobiology of the lion lineage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The great North American Pleistocene pantherine felid Panthera atrox has had a turbulent phylogenetic history, and has been claimed to show affinities to both the jaguar and the tiger; currently, it is most often regarded as a subspecies of the extant lion. The cranial, mandibular, and dental morphology of Panthera atrox was compared with those of extant lions, jaguars, and tigers using bivariate, multivariate, and shape analyses. Results indicate that the skull of Panthera atrox shows lion affinities, but also deviates from lions in numerous aspects. Mandibular morphology is more similar to jaguars and tigers and, as with cranial morphology, the mandible shows a number of traits not present among extant pantherines. Multivariate analyses grouped Panthera atrox separately from other pantherines. Panthera atrox was no lion, and cannot be assigned to any of the extant pantherines; it constituted a separate species. A possible scenario for evolution of P. atrox is that it formed part of a pantherine lineage thatentered the Americas in the mid-Pleistocene and gave rise to the extant jaguar and Panthera atrox in the late Pleistocene of North America. These studies suggest that previous models of lion biogeography are incorrect, and although lions may have been present in Beringia, they did not penetrate into the American mainland. © 2009 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

Christiansen, Per; Harris, J.M.

2009-01-01

231

Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).  

Science.gov (United States)

The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

2007-11-01

232

Population demography and spatial ecology of a reintroduced lion population in the Greater Makalali Conservancy, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Many recently established small game reserves in southern Africa have introduced lion, and have had to actively manage their populations as the lion are in relatively small(<1000 km², enclosed areas. This study was undertaken on the Greater Makalali Conservancy (140 km², Limpopo Province, South Africa to describe population demography and lion movement patterns in order to enhance management decisions. A pride of five lion were introduced to Makalali in December 1994 and since then 35 cubs have been born (11.6 % population growth per year over 7.5 years, 31 of which have been translocated to other reserves. To increase genetic diversity, the two male coalition was removed in May 1999 and another two males introduced during July 1999. During the study, the reserve area was increased by approximately 23 %. Although the Makalali lion utilised a smaller home range during winter (75.3 km² than summer (106.8 km², this difference was not significant. The core ranges also shifted between seasons, with 46 % of the summer core being utilised during winter. When the new males were introduced, they centred their core range near their release boma. The females also shifted their core range to this region after their young male cubs were moved into the boma. After the Makalali area was increased, the lion increased their home range area, while their core range became reduced and more dispersed. There was no significant difference in the distances the lion moved in a 24 hour period between the two seasons, or before and after the two management actions. The Makalali lion also spent more time than expected in low open woodland and grassland habitats and less than expected in low thickets. We conclude that lion populations can successfully exist within small reserves (<100km² and that actions to manage the population can be successful if certain criteria are considered.

R. Slotow

2004-12-01

233

Foraging ecology and use of space in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we describe the use of space and feeding ecology of seven groups of golden lion tamarins observed for a total of 2,164 hr in Poço das Antas Reserve, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Relative to habitat availability in the home ranges of these groups, lion tamarins spent more time than expected in relatively undisturbed swamp forests and less time than expected in more degraded hillside and pasture habitats. Home range area was correlated with group biomass but not group size. Golden lion tamarins fed primarily on fruits and small animal prey, but relied heavily on floral nectar during seasonal periods of relatively low fruit availability. Compared to other New World monkeys, lion tamarins used larger home range areas and exhibited longer daily path lengths than would be predicted by group biomass alone. We suggest that this pattern of foraging and use of space may be explained by the relatively greater availability of cryptic prey and their microhabitats in forests that are flooded and/or have closed canopies than in forests that are in earlier stages of succession where prey may be more susceptible to desiccation during the dry season. PMID:9093693

Dietz, J M; Peres, C A; Pinder, L

1997-01-01

234

Description and analysis of the arch display in the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three different arch displays are described in captive lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) at the National Zoological Park. Analysis of social behaviours including huddling, sexual activity, territorial encounters and arch displays suggests that arch displaying is motivated by conflicting tendencies of a nonaggressive nature and may function as a regulator of social contact, thus maintaining homeostasis within and between a social group. PMID:118906

Rathbun, C D

1979-01-01

235

«Sur la piste du lion», les itinéraires de Kessel, 1898-1979  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Le livre d'Yves Courrière (Sur la piste du lion, 1985 permet de suivre l'essentiel des grands voyages de Joseph Kessel (1898-1979 après avoir raconté la diaspora familiale. Ils constituent le support géographique de son œuvre, dans les domaines du reportage et de la littérature: une reconstitution à travers des cartes chronologiques.

Claude IMBERT

1986-06-01

236

The impact of sport-hunting on the population dynamics of an African lion population in a protected area  

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Between 1999 and 2004 we undertook an ecological study of African lions (Panthera leo) in Hwange National Park, western Zimbabwe to measure the impact of sport-hunting beyond the park on the lion population within the park, using radio-telemetry and direct observation. 34 of 62 tagged lions died during the study (of which 24 were shot by sport hunters: 13 adult males, 5 adult females, 6 sub-adult males). Sport hunters in the safari areas surrounding the park killed 72% of tagged adult males f...

Loveridge, Aj; Searle, Aw; Murindagomo, F.; Macdonald, Dw

2007-01-01

237

Diet, foraging, and use of space in wild golden-headed lion tamarins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion tamarins (Callitrichidae: Leontopithecus) are small frugi-faunivores that defend large home ranges. We describe results from the first long-term investigation of wild golden-headed lion tamarins (L. chrysomelas; GHLTs). We present data about activity budgets, daily activity cycles, diet, daily path length, home range size, home range overlap, and territorial encounters for three groups of GHLTs that were studied for 1.5-2.5 years in Una Biological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil, an area characterized by aseasonal rainfall. We compare our results to those from other studies of lion tamarins to identify factors that may influence foraging and ranging patterns in this genus. Ripe fruit, nectar, insects, and small vertebrates were the primary components of the GHLT diet, and gums were rarely eaten. Fruit comprised the majority of plant feeding bouts, and the GHLTs ate at least 79 different species of plants from 32 families. The most common foraging sites for animal prey were epiphytic bromeliads. The GHLTs defended large home ranges averaging 123 ha, but showed strong affinities for core areas, spending 50% of their time in approximately 11% of their home range. Encounters with neighboring groups averaged two encounters every 9 days, and they were always aggressive. Data about time budgets and daily activity cycles reveal that the GHLTs spent most of their time foraging for resources or traveling between foraging sites distributed throughout their home ranges. The GHLTs spent much less time consuming exudates compared to lion tamarins in more seasonal environments. Additionally, the GHLTs had much larger home ranges than golden lion tamarins (L. rosalia), and did not engage in territorial encounters as frequently as L. rosalia. GHLT ranging patterns appear to be strongly influenced by resource acquisition and, to a lesser extent, by resource defense. PMID:15152369

Raboy, Becky E; Dietz, James M

2004-05-01

238

Effects of storm events on the shelf-to-basin sediment transport in the southwestern end of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shelf-to-basin sediment transport during storms was studied at the southwestern end of the Gulf of Lions from November 2003 to March 2004. Waves, near-bottom currents, temperature and sediment fluxes were measured on the inner shelf at 28-m depth, in the Cap de Creus submarine canyon head at 300-m depth and in the northwestern Mediterranean basin at 2350-m depth. This paper is a synthesis of results published separately in different papers; it includes some new data and focusses on the subject of storms. It is the first paper in which simultaneous data about the effect of storms on the shelf, the slope and in the basin are shown together. During the winter studied, there were two severe E-SE storms with significant wave heights ? 7 m: one in December 2003 and one in February 2004. During these storms, coastal water was exported off-shelf producing strong near-bottom currents (up to 82 cm s?1 at the canyon head that resuspended sediment and increased the downcanyon sediment fluxes by several orders of magnitude. The suspended sediment flux increase in the canyon head was much larger during the February storm than during the December storm. At the deep basin site, particle fluxes also increased drastically (1–2 orders of magnitude immediately after the February storm but not after the December storm. The reason was that the February storm was reinforced by dense shelf water cascading and was long enough (43 h to transfer large amounts of resuspended sediment from shallow shelf areas to the canyon head and from there to the northwestern Mediterranean basin. Thus, in the western Gulf of Lions, severe winter E-SE storms occurring during the dense shelf water cascading period can significantly increase the transfer to deep-sea (> 2000 m environments of shelf and slope resuspended material, including anthropogenic contaminants and organic matter.

A. Palanques

2011-03-01

239

Late Pleistocene steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) footprints and bone records from open air sites in northern Germany - Evidence of hyena-lion antagonism and scavenging in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone remains and a trackway of Pantheraichnus bottropensis nov. ichg. ichnsp. of the Late Pleistocene lion Panthera leo spelaea ( Goldfuss, 1810) have been recovered from Bottrop and other open air sites in northern Germany. Some of these bones are from open air hyena den sites. A relative high proportion of lion bones (20%) exhibit bite, chew or nibble marks, or bone crushing and nibbling caused by a large carnivore. Repeated patterns of similar bone damage have been compared to bone remains found at hyena dens in gypsum karst areas and cave sites in northern Germany. Ice Age spotted hyenas have been the main antagonists and the main scavengers on lion carcasses. The remains appear to have been imported often by hyenas into their communal dens, supporting the theory of strong hyena-lion antagonism, similar to the well documented antagonism between modern African lions and spotted hyenas. Most of the lion bones from the open air hyena den at Bottrop are probably a result of such antagonism, as are the rare remains of these carnivores found within large hyena prey bone accumulations along the Pleistocene rivers. The Emscher River terrace also has the largest quantity of hyena remains from open air river terrace sites in northern Germany. Their cub remains, and incomplete chewed prey bones from mammoths and woolly rhinoceroses, typical of hyena activity, underline the character of these sites as cub-raising and communal dens, where their prey was accumulated along the riverbanks in a similar manner to modern African hyenas.

Diedrich, Cajus G.

2011-07-01

240

Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Sensor Networking Made Cheap and Easy  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply 'plugging' devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Furthermore, LION-PNP supports a number wireless networking protocols, allowing arrays of sensor nodes to be deployed rapidly over an area of interest. Finally, LION is compatible with the Android operating system, allowing the user to rapidly visualize, store and distribute data. In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To validate our hardware and software interfaces, we flew a small 4-point LION network on a multiple high altitude balloon launch. For this campaign, each node carried an array of sensors, including a magnetometer, temperature and pressure sensors, as well as GPS. The LION plug-and-play system allowed us to compose the network minutes before launch. Once in flight, the network and data management were handled by a Nexus 7 tablet.

Darling, N.; Mendez, J. S.; Manes, C.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique evolutionary history, which is reflected by their genetic makeup. Location Sub-Saharan Africa and India, with special focus on West and Central Africa. Method In this study 126 samples, throughout th...

Bertola, L. D.; Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Weerd, D. R. U.; York, D. S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Funston, P. J.; Haes, H. A. U.; Leirs, H.; Haeringen, W. A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P. N.; Iongh, H. H.

2011-01-01

242

Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766) and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marmosets (Callithrix spp.) have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM) population in two fragments with reintroduced golden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha) was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha...

Carlos Ramon Ruiz-Miranda; Adriana Gomes Affonso; Marcio Marcelo de Morais; Carlos Eduardo Verona; Andreia Martins; Beck, Benjamin B.

2006-01-01

243

A walk down the Cap de Creus canyon, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Recent processes inferred from morphology and sediment bedforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cap de Creus canyon, northwestern Mediterranean Sea, belongs to a complex network of submarine canyons cutting the western Gulf of Lion continental shelf and opening into the larger Sete canyon. Swath bathymetry data, MAKAM deep-towed side-scan sonar imagery and 5 kHz high resolution seismic reflection profiles show striking morphologies in the Cap de Creus canyon floor and walls. As a consequence of the canyon head and the upper reach severe incision, the continental shelf dramatically n...

Lastras, G.; Canals, M.; Urgeles, R.; Amblas, D.; Ivanov, M.; Droz, L.; Dennielou, B.; Fabres, J.; Schoolmeester, T.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Orange, D.; Garcia-garcia, A.

2007-01-01

244

Sea urchin  

Science.gov (United States)

The sea urchin is a type of echinoderm. It is a consumer because it cannot make its own food and must eat other organisms to get energy. Sea urchins are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and other animals to gain energy. Sea urchins have been known to eat algae, mussels, and sponges.

N/A N/A (NOAA;Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary)

2004-12-23

245

Mating patterns in the golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia): continuous receptivity and concealed estrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sociosexual behavior was monitored on a daily basis for 3 months in 5 pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Urine samples were collected daily from each female and urinary estrogen cycles were determined by radioimmunoassay. Mounts and copulations were observed during all phases of the estrogen cycle. Peaks or regular cycles in sexual behavior were not documented. There were no significant changes in affiliative behavior by females or males that were associated with changes in urinary estrogen values. A negative relationship between pair bond duration and frequency of sexual interactions was observed: newly established pairs exhibited 2-6 times more frequent sexual behavior than a long-established pair. The lack of a conspicuous sexual signal in female golden lion tamarins may be related to a pattern of continuous sexual receptivity. Both reproductive patterns, concealed estrus and continuous receptivity, are explicable in relation to either monogamous or polyandrous mating systems. PMID:3143650

Stribley, J A; French, J A; Inglett, B J

1987-01-01

246

Relation between food preference and food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the results of 2 studies on food-elicited vocalizations in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). First, we investigated the preferences of 10 golden lion tamarins for 6 foods. Tamarins prefer mealworms and raisins significantly more than apple, egg, carrot, or marmoset diet. Food preference rank was significantly and positively correlated with the rank of latency to choose a particular food. Second, we investigated the relation between food preference and 15 vocal parameters measured from the calls emitted by 5 tamarins to a subset of the foods. Only 1 parameter was significantly correlated with food preference across animals. Within-subjects multivariate analysis of variance showed that the vocalizations to foods are significantly different. Our results support an hypothesis that food-elicited vocalizations vary in ways that correspond to the caller's preference but not in a manner that labels food type. PMID:1600721

Benz, J J; Leger, D W; French, J A

1992-06-01

247

Water use by the Kalahari Lion Panthera Leo Vernayi  

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Full Text Available

The extent to which the Kalahari lion can survive without having to drink water was investigated in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. It was found that while they may drink regularly where water is available, they may become completely independent of water under extreme desert conditions. Sufficient moisture for their needs seems to be obtained from the blood and body fluids of their prey and the vegetable components of theirdiet. Loss of water through evaporation is reduced by the lion'sleisurely way of life.

F.C. Eloff

1973-07-01

248

Foraging behavior and microhabitats used by black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan) (Primates, Callitrichidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Foraging in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus Mikan, 1823) was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. These tamarins use manipulative, specific-site foraging behavior. When searching for animal prey item [...] s, they examine a variety of microhabitats (dry palm leaves, twigs, under loose bark, in tree cavities). These microhabitats were spatially dispersed among different forest macrohabitats such as swamp forests and dry forested areas. These data indicated that the prey foraging behavior of L. chrysopygus was quite variable, and they used a wide variety of microhabitats, different of the other lion tamarin species.

Fernando de Camargo, Passos; Alexine, Keuroghlian.

249

Of Lions and Foxes: Power and Rule in Hebrew Medieval Fables  

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Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between the lion and the fox as an expression of the disposition of powers in the political-governmental arena and their relationship to the governed, in ancient and medieval philosophical thought. This article will also examine the mutual relationships between rulers and their advisors and between rulers and subjects in a kingdom or within a court under their rule, with a focus on Hebrew medieval fables. This article is based on two examples: one from Mishle Shualim by Berechiah Hanakdan (England / Provence, at the end of the 12th century or the first half of the 13th century and the other from Meshal Haqadmoni, by Isaac Ibn Sahula (Spain, 1281. The characters of the lion and the fox as metaphors are reflected as well as in modern political thought in theories that discuss the ruling elite, and their relevance seems applicable to our times.

Revital Refael-Vivante

2009-06-01

250

Data-poor management of African lion hunting using a relative index of abundance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable management of terrestrial hunting requires managers to set quotas restricting offtake. This often takes place in the absence of reliable information on the population size, and as a consequence, quotas are set in an arbitrary fashion, leading to population decline and revenue loss. In this investigation, we show how an indirect measure of abundance can be used to set quotas in a sustainable manner, even in the absence of information on population size. Focusing on lion hunting in Africa, we developed a simple algorithm to convert changes in the number of safari days required to kill a lion into a quota for the following year. This was tested against a simulation model of population dynamics, accounting for uncertainties in demography, observation, and implementation. Results showed it to reliably set sustainable quotas despite these uncertainties, providing a robust foundation for the conservation of hunted species. PMID:24344299

Edwards, Charles T T; Bunnefeld, Nils; Balme, Guy A; Milner-Gulland, E J

2014-01-01

251

Of Lions and Foxes: Power and Rule in Hebrew Medieval Fables  

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This article examines the relationship between the lion and the fox as an expression of the disposition of powers in the political-governmental arena and their relationship to the governed, in ancient and medieval philosophical thought. This article will also examine the mutual relationships between rulers and their advisors and between rulers and subjects in a kingdom or within a court under their rule, with a focus on Hebrew medieval fables. This article is based on two examples: one from M...

Revital Refael-Vivante

2009-01-01

252

Genetic structure and conservation of Mountain Lions in the South-Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest, one of the most endangered ecosystems worldwide, is also among the most important hotspots as regards biodiversity. Through intensive logging, the initial area has been reduced to around 12% of its original size. In this study we investigated the genetic variability and structure of the mountain lion, Puma concolor. Using 18 microsatellite loci we analyzed evidence of allele dropout, null alleles and stuttering, calculated the number of allele/locus, PIC, o...

Castilho, Camila S.; Marins-sa?, Luiz G.; Benedet, Rodrigo C.; Freitas, Thales R. O.

2012-01-01

253

Cytauxzoon felis-like in the Moutain Lion (Puma concolor): A Case Report  

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The Laboratory of Clinical Pathology of UNIDERP performs routine examinations, when requested, of animals from the Center for Wild Animal Rehabilitation (CRAS) of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. During one of these routine procedures, erythrocytic parasites identified as Cytauxzoon felis-like were detected in blood smears obtained from a mountain lion (Puma concolor) with parasitemia being 20%. No clinical alterations or infestation with ticks were observed in this animal, and hematological and ser...

Netto, Nilton T. Rcio; Souza Alda Izabel; Juliano Raquel Soares; Scheide Renata; Scofield Alessandra

2004-01-01

254

Disease transmission in territorial populations: the small-world network of Serengeti lions  

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Territoriality in animal populations creates spatial structure that is thought to naturally buffer disease invasion. Often, however, territorial populations also include highly mobile, non-residential individuals that potentially serve as disease superspreaders. Using long-term data from the Serengeti Lion Project, we characterize the contact network structure of a territorial wildlife population and address the epidemiological impact of nomadic individuals. As expected, pride contacts are do...

Craft, Meggan E.; Volz, Erik; Packer, Craig; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2010-01-01

255

LIONS_LINAC : A new particle in cell code for LINACS  

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In the frame of the SPIRAL II project at GANIL, a new particle-in-cell code called LIONS_LINAC has been developed. It is written in pure Fortran 95, and can work either on PCs and workstations or on vectorial/parallel computers. We present the main characteristics of the code, in particular the treatment of the space charge effects, using the multigrid method with conjugate gradient smoothing iterations.

Bertrand, P.

2003-01-01

256

The Kirchhoff equation in $R^N$ with a Berestycki-Lions nonlinearity  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we use the Jeanjean's monotonicity trick to solve a Kirchhoff type equation on RN, perturbed by a nonlinear term satisfying the general Berestycki and Lions assumptions. We consider also the case in which a zero mass hypothesis is assumed on the nonlinearity and we can not use the classical methods of critical points theory. We present an approximating technique which is quite new for such a type of problems.

Azzollini, Antonio

2010-01-01

257

Tuberculosis in lions (Panthera leo) in South Africa : evaluation of the immune response towards Mycobacterium bovis  

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Bovine tuberculosis (BTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), was most likely introduced in South Africa by the first imported European cattle breeds during the 18th and 19th century. The rapid spread of BTB amongst the lion population in the Kruger National Park (KNP) raises concerns about the future of these animals, one of the main tourist attractions of the park. The main goal of the presented study was to develop better insight in the development of the immune respo...

Maas, Miriam

2008-01-01

258

The Gulf of Lions: An overview of recent studies within the French 'Margins' Programme  

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Within the French 'Margins' Programme (Groupement de Recherches 'Marges', or 'GDR Marges'), The Gulf of Lions was selected as a key area where scientists specialized in complementary aspects of geosciences (structural geology, tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, various aspects of modeling) work together in order to better understand the processes that control the formation and evolution of continental margins. A key objective was to link offshore data (that mainly consist of seismic data...

Berne, Serge; Gorini, C.

2005-01-01

259

Etude pour une gestion optimale des pêcheries démersales interactives dans le Golfe du Lion  

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Un accroissement général de l'effort de pêche et en particulier de l'effort chalutier au cours de la dernière décennie a conduit la pêcherie démersale intéractive du Golfe du Lion jusqu'à une limite de productivité que les conditions d'exploitation actuelles semblent impuissantes à surpasser. Cette limite situe les captures récentes aux environs du sommet des modèles de production globaux, lesquels ne peuvent permettre que de prédire, pour les stocks halieutiques de cette régio...

Farrugio, Henri; Le Corre, Gildas

1986-01-01

260

Interactions entre pêcheries de lagunes, pêcheries côtières et pêche au chalut dans le golfe du Lion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION : Le présent document constitue le rapport final pour l'exécution d'une étude sur les interactions entre pêcheries de lagunes, pêcheries côtières et pêche au chalut dans le Golfe du Lion. Si chacune des trois composantes évoquées ci-dessus peut capturer des espèces intéressant peu (ou pas) les autres groupes, d'autres intéressent au moins deux composantes. Par ailleurs, à l'intérieur même de chaque ensemble, il peut exister des interactions entre différentes flot...

Farrugio, Henri; Le Corre, Gildas

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Paleoenvironmental imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleontological parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasted subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lions. Since both depositional environments were well-documented in this area, large data-sets were available and allowed to calibrate the investigated cores with several reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. Molecular-based fingerprints showed that the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by an heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee, were unexpectedly dominated by Betaproteobacteria (more than 70 %, at the base of the core mainly below five meters in the sediment. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidites frequency indicated that the microbial diversity was controlled by the important climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. This result was supported by statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In contrast, the Gulf of Lions core, characterized by a homogeneous lithology of upper-slope environment, was dominated by the Bacteroidetes group and in a lesser extent, by the Betaproteobacteria group. At both sites, the dominance of Betaproteobacteria coincided with increased terrestrial inputs, as confirmed by the geochemical measurements (Si, Sr, Ti and Ca. In the Gulf of Lions, geochemical parameters were also found to drive microbial community composition. Taken together, our data suggest that the palaeoenvironmental history of erosion and deposition recorded in the Western-Mediterranean Sea sediments has left its imprint on the structure/composition of the microbial communities during the late Quaternary.

M.-C. Ciobanu

2012-01-01

262

Dubin-Johnson-like syndrome in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

On routine blood screens, persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia was discovered in two groups of closely related adult female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia, n = 8). Bromosulfophthalein (BSP) retention tests were performed on four hyperbilirubinemic and three control tamarins. BSP excretion was delayed in hyperbilirubinemic tamarins as compared with controls. Grossly, liver of affected tamarins was dark brown to black, with a prominent reticulated pattern. Histologic examination revealed abundant intrahepatic pigment, primarily in a centrilobular and midzonal distribution. Most of the pigment did not react with Perls' Prussian blue method for iron, Hall's method for bilirubin, or the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology acid-fast method for lipofuscin but was positive with Fontana and lipofuscin-ferric ferricyanide reduction techniques. Liver from control golden lion tamarins had intrahepatocellular Perls' iron-positive pigment diffusely throughout the lobule with a small amount of Fontana method-positive pigment. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes from a hyperbilirubinemic tamarin contained pleomorphic electron-dense structures within lysosomes. Transport studies demonstrated secretion of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled glycocholic acid, a fluorescent bile acid analog, into bile canaliculi and no secretion of carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate, a non-bile acid organic anion, by liver from a hyperbilirubinemic tamarin. In contrast, control liver secreted carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate readily into bile canaliculi. The clinicopathologic presentation of this syndrome in golden lion tamarins is similar to that described for Dubin-Johnson syndrome of human beings. PMID:8116141

Schulman, F Y; Montali, R J; Bush, M; Citino, S B; Tell, L A; Ballou, J D; Hutson, T L; St Pierre, M; Dufour, J F; Gatmaitan, Z

1993-11-01

263

Histology of the sternal and suprapubic skin areas in lion tamarins (Leontopithecus sp. Callitrichidae-primates).  

Science.gov (United States)

Though knowledge regarding the biology and morphology of lion tamarins is scarce in the literature, it is very important for their conservation. This paper focuses on the anatomical and histological aspects of the glands involved in the scent-marking behavior of lion tamarins. It examines the histological aspects of sternal and suprapubic skin sections of specimens that were preserved in formaldehyde and were the property of the Rio de Janeiro Primatology Center Museum. Eighteen specimens from three lion tamarin (Leontopithecus sp.) species (L. rosalia, L. chrysomelas, and L. chrysopygus) were analyzed. Both sexes were represented, and macroscopic hypertrophy was quantified by direct observation of the tegument on the sternal area and classified as discrete, moderate, or accentuated for each specimen. The skin of both sexes had a high degree of histological resemblance to that of other primates, including humans. The epidermis presented stratified squamous keratinous epithelia, with a few cellular layers and dermis with cutaneous appendages (i.e., hair follicles and both sebaceous and sweat glands). The dermal papillae were short, and the sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands resembled those of humans. These glands were present in the dermis of the analyzed skin fragments of both sternal and suprapubic regions in great numbers. Furthermore, we were able to establish a relationship between the macroscopic appearance of the sternal tegument and the degree of microscopic gland hyperplasia. PMID:16892413

Moraes, Ismar A; De-Carvalho, Maria Clara A; De Azevedo Valle, Heliomar; Pessoa, Vera P; Ferreira, Ana Maria R; Pissinatti, Alcides

2006-11-01

264

Biodeterioration of the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace, Granada (Spain)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stone works of art exposed to the environment are liable to be deteriorated by the action of biological agents such as bacteria, fungi, mosses, etc. In ornamental fountains, the microorganisms present in water can contribute to these biodeterioration processes. This paper assesses the biodeterioration experienced by the Lions Fountain at the Alhambra Palace in Granada (Spain). Analyses have been made of the biodeterioration of Lions 4, 5 and 9, the biofouling of the fountain basin, and the water supply system. Conventional and molecular biology techniques have identified microorganisms belonging to various microbial groups ({alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-Protebacteria, Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia and Eukaryota). Additionally, on the mortar in the sculptures the presence of algae and bryophytes has been observed. X-ray diffraction allowed both the detection of neoformation mineral products that can be related with the presence of microorganisms and the corrosion products in the Lions Fountain. A number of recommendations are made regarding the prevention and control of biodeterioration in this important work of art. (author)

Sarro, M. Isabel; Garcia, Ana M.; Rivalta, Victor M.; Moreno, Diego A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria y Ciencia de los Materiales; Arroyo, Irene [Instituto del Patrimonio Historico Espanol, Ministerio de Cultura, El Greco, Madrid (Spain)

2006-12-15

265

The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs  

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Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

Boretti Tanya

2014-01-01

266

Cytauxzoon felis-like in the Moutain Lion (Puma concolor: A Case Report  

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Full Text Available The Laboratory of Clinical Pathology of UNIDERP performs routine examinations, when requested, of animals from the Center for Wild Animal Rehabilitation (CRAS of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. During one of these routine procedures, erythrocytic parasites identified as Cytauxzoon felis-like were detected in blood smears obtained from a mountain lion (Puma concolor with parasitemia being 20%. No clinical alterations or infestation with ticks were observed in this animal, and hematological and serum biochemical exams showed only slight alterations. Blood and serum were collected three months later from six mountain lions housed at the CRAS and another animal tested positive for parasites in blood smears with parasitemia of 10%, without showing any clinical, hematological or blood biochemical changes characteristic of cytauxzoonosis. This animal presented parasitemia and laboratory results slightly lower than those observed in the previous animal. Two domestic cats (Felis catus were inoculated, but the animals did not show any clinical signs of cytauxzoonosis. The identification of this blood-borne parasite in wild felines maintained in captivity in the absence of pathogenic manifestations suggests that the mountain lion acts as a natural host for C. felis- like, or that this strain is less pathogenic. Since this is the first report of cytauxzoonosis in Puma concolor in Brazil, further epidemiological studies are necessary to determine the true impact of infection of wild felines with this protozoan.

Netto, Nilton T?rcio

2004-01-01

267

Trophic Scaling and Occupancy Analysis Reveals a Lion Population Limited by Top-Down Anthropogenic Pressure in the Limpopo National Park, Mozambique  

Science.gov (United States)

The African lion (Panthera Leo) has suffered drastic population and range declines over the last few decades and is listed by the IUCN as vulnerable to extinction. Conservation management requires reliable population estimates, however these data are lacking for many of the continent's remaining populations. It is possible to estimate lion abundance using a trophic scaling approach. However, such inferences assume that a predator population is subject only to bottom-up regulation, and are thus likely to produce biased estimates in systems experiencing top-down anthropogenic pressures. Here we provide baseline data on the status of lions in a developing National Park in Mozambique that is impacted by humans and livestock. We compare a direct density estimate with an estimate derived from trophic scaling. We then use replicated detection/non-detection surveys to estimate the proportion of area occupied by lions, and hierarchical ranking of covariates to provide inferences on the relative contribution of prey resources and anthropogenic factors influencing lion occurrence. The direct density estimate was less than 1/3 of the estimate derived from prey resources (0.99 lions/100 km2 vs. 3.05 lions/100 km2). The proportion of area occupied by lions was ??=?0.439 (SE?=?0.121), or approximately 44% of a 2 400 km2 sample of potential habitat. Although lions were strongly predicted by a greater probability of encountering prey resources, the greatest contributing factor to lion occurrence was a strong negative association with settlements. Finally, our empirical abundance estimate is approximately 1/3 of a published abundance estimate derived from opinion surveys. Altogether, our results describe a lion population held below resource-based carrying capacity by anthropogenic factors and highlight the limitations of trophic scaling and opinion surveys for estimating predator populations exposed to anthropogenic pressures. Our study provides the first empirical quantification of a population that future change can be measured against. PMID:24914934

Everatt, Kristoffer T.; Andresen, Leah; Somers, Michael J.

2014-01-01

268

On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambers, containing isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane [Si(CH3)4] as the sensitive media, and a NACP-02 monitor chamber. An initial activity of approximately 250 GBq 18F was employed as the radiation source in the experiments. The initial dose rate in each measurement series was estimated to 1.0 Gy min?1 by Monte Carlo simulations and the measurements were carried out during the decay of the radioactive source. In the investigation of general recombination losses, employing the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, the liquid ionization chambers were operated at polarizing voltages 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 V. Furthermore, measurements were also performed at 500 V polarizing voltage in the investigation of the sensitivity of the microLion chamber to ambient electric fields. Results: The measurement results from the liquid ionization chambers, corrected for general recombination losses according to the twrecombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of 0.2 Gy min?1 were excluded from the present investigation of the general collection efficiency. The perturbations were found to be more pronounced when the chamber polarizing voltage was increased. Conclusions: By using the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, comparable corrected ionization currents from experiments in low and medium energy photon beams can be achieved. However, the valid range of general collection efficiencies has been found to vary in a comparison between experiments performed in continuous beams of 120 kVp x ray, and the present investigation of 511 keV annihilation photons. At very high dose rates in continuous beams, there are presently no methods that can be used to correct for general recombination losses and at low dose rates the microLion chamber may be perturbed by ambient electric fields. Increasing the chamber polarizing voltage, which diminishes the general recombination effect, was found to increase the microLion chamber sensitivity to ambient electric fields. Prudence is thus advised when employing the microLion chamber in radiation dosimetry, as ambient electric fields of the strength observed in the present work may be found in many common situations. Due to uncertainties in the theoretical basis for recombination losses in liquids, further studies on the underlying theories for the initial and general recombination effect are needed if liquid ionization chambers are to become a viable option in high precision radiation dosimetry.

269

On the property of measurements with the PTW microLion chamber in continuous beams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: The performance of liquid ionization chambers, which may prove to be useful tools in the field of radiation dosimetry, is based on several chamber and liquid specific characteristics. The present work investigates the performance of the PTW microLion liquid ionization chamber with respect to recombination losses and perturbations from ambient electric fields at various dose rates in continuous beams. Methods: In the investigation, experiments were performed using two microLion chambers, containing isooctane (C{sub 8}H{sub 18}) and tetramethylsilane [Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}] as the sensitive media, and a NACP-02 monitor chamber. An initial activity of approximately 250 GBq {sup 18}F was employed as the radiation source in the experiments. The initial dose rate in each measurement series was estimated to 1.0 Gy min{sup -1} by Monte Carlo simulations and the measurements were carried out during the decay of the radioactive source. In the investigation of general recombination losses, employing the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, the liquid ionization chambers were operated at polarizing voltages 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 V. Furthermore, measurements were also performed at 500 V polarizing voltage in the investigation of the sensitivity of the microLion chamber to ambient electric fields. Results: The measurement results from the liquid ionization chambers, corrected for general recombination losses according to the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, had a good agreement with the signal to dose linearity from the NACP-02 monitor chamber for general collection efficiencies above 70%. The results also displayed an agreement with the theoretical collection efficiencies according to the Greening theory, except for the liquid ionization chamber containing isooctane operated at 25 V. At lower dose rates, perturbations from ambient electric fields were found in the microLion chamber measurement results. Due to the perturbations, measurement results below an estimated dose rate of 0.2 Gy min{sup -1} were excluded from the present investigation of the general collection efficiency. The perturbations were found to be more pronounced when the chamber polarizing voltage was increased. Conclusions: By using the two-dose-rate method for continuous beams, comparable corrected ionization currents from experiments in low and medium energy photon beams can be achieved. However, the valid range of general collection efficiencies has been found to vary in a comparison between experiments performed in continuous beams of 120 kVp x ray, and the present investigation of 511 keV annihilation photons. At very high dose rates in continuous beams, there are presently no methods that can be used to correct for general recombination losses and at low dose rates the microLion chamber may be perturbed by ambient electric fields. Increasing the chamber polarizing voltage, which diminishes the general recombination effect, was found to increase the microLion chamber sensitivity to ambient electric fields. Prudence is thus advised when employing the microLion chamber in radiation dosimetry, as ambient electric fields of the strength observed in the present work may be found in many common situations. Due to uncertainties in the theoretical basis for recombination losses in liquids, further studies on the underlying theories for the initial and general recombination effect are needed if liquid ionization chambers are to become a viable option in high precision radiation dosimetry.

Andersson, Jonas; Johansson, Erik; Toelli, Heikki [Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea (Sweden); Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI CBRN Defense and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics, Umea University, SE-901 85 Umea (Sweden)

2012-08-15

270

Steppe lion remains imported by Ice Age spotted hyenas into the Late Pleistocene Perick Caves hyena den in northern Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Upper Pleistocene remains of the Ice Age steppe lion Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810) have been found in the Perick Caves, Sauerland Karst, NW Germany. Bones from many hyenas and their imported prey dating from the Lower to Middle Weichselian have also been recovered from the Perick Cave hyena den. These are commonly cracked or exhibit deep chew marks. The absence of lion cub bones, in contrast to hyena and cave bear cub remains in the Perick Caves, and other caves of northern Germany, excludes the possibility that P. leo spelaea used the cave for raising cubs. Only in the Wilhelms Cave was a single skeleton of a cub found in a hyena den. Evidence of the chewing, nibbling and cracking of lion bones and crania must have resulted from the importation and destruction of lion carcasses (4% of the prey fauna). Similar evidence was preserved at other hyena den caves and open air sites in Germany. The bone material from the Perick and other Central European caves points to antagonistic hyena and lion conflicts, similar to clashes of their modern African relatives.

Diedrich, Cajus G.

2009-05-01

271

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

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Full Text Available Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

K. H. Yearby

2005-11-01

272

Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

2010-08-01

273

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

Science.gov (United States)

Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees) is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the three magnetic components at 27 frequencies in the range 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with one second time resolution, and also the waveform up to 180 Hz at a low duty cycle. The characteristics of lion roars observed are reported. The maximum lion roar intensities appear higher than reported by most previous studies. The electron temperature anisotropy is estimated from the lion roar frequency ratios, and is in reasonably good agreement with plasma measurements. This indicates the presence of a trapped electron component in the mirror mode.

Yearby, K. H.; Alleyne, H. S. C. K.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Santolik, O.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Fazakerley, A.; Lahiff, A.

2005-11-01

274

Estimation of the lion (Panthera leo population in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park using a capture–recapture survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A previous estimate of the lion (Panthera leo population in the southwestern Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (KTP was made over 20 years ago. This together with increased fears regarding the viability of the population as a result of recent killings of roaming animals, an observed increase in non-violent mortalities during 1996, and possible reduced genetic viability due to suspected isolation, prompted another investigation. Between October 1996 and December 1996, 68 lions were captured and marked and subjected to two recapture (resightingsamples. The minimum estimate derived from direct enumeration of marked and unmarked individuals is between 100–103 individuals. Assessment of the adult and subadult population using the Lincoln-Petersen estimator and the software program NOREMARK gives a figure between 92 and 125. The current estimate is below the previous estimate of between 113 and 140 lions. Lion densities of 1.2 adult and subadult lions/100 km2 in the semi-arid southern Kalahari are considerably lower than those in more mesic regions. Furthermore,there appears to be some demographic variability with the ratio of females to males being twice as high as that recorded 20 years ago.

M.G.L. Mills

2011-10-01

275

The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986Pages 21 - 25 (ReportJack AmesAbstract:It has proved difficult to devise a population census method that is reliable, and the efforts to do so are reviewed. Whether the population has remained stable or declined slightly, the fact remains that a population that had been growing at a rate of approximately five percent per year has not grown for more than a decade. This lack of population growth remains a significant point of concern. However, new net fishing restrictions and the fact that the geographic range of the sea otter in California has continued to increase, lead us to conclude that future increases in population size in California are likely. In the worst of all scenarios, were the Californian population of sea otters to be exterminated, a new population could be started from Alaskan sea otters. Such transplanted populations currently thrive in British Columbia, Canada and the state of Washington.

Ames J.

1987-03-01

276

Sea Stars  

Science.gov (United States)

At first glance, starfish, more properly called sea stars, arenât doing much of anything. In this video, Jonathanâs investigations reveal a slow-motion predator that hunts and attacks its prey. Traveling the world, Jonathan investigates sea stars from the tropics to the Antarctic and uses time-lapse photography to reveal an amazing complexity to the world of the sea star. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-10-06

277

Caspian Sea.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth with a surface area of 143,244 square miles (371,000 square kilometers), a volume of 18,761 cubic miles (78,200 cubic kilometers), comprising at least 40 percent of the total inland waters of the world. The land-locked body of water, considered a sea by some and a lake by others, has no outflows. Kazakhstan is located on the sea’s north and northeast coasts, Russia is to the northwest, Azerbaijan is on the west, Turkmenistan to ...

Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb

2013-01-01

278

Food resources, distribution and seasonal variations in ranging in lion-tailed macaques, Macaca silenus in the Western Ghats, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution and availability of food was examined to see how it influenced ranging patterns and sleeping site selection in a group of lion-tailed macaques. The home range and core area were 130.48 ha (95 % kernel) and 26.68 ha (50 % kernel) respectively. The lion-tailed macaques had a longer day range, had a greater number of sleeping sites and used more core areas in the summer as compared to the monsoon and the post-monsoon seasons. The ranging patterns and sleeping site use were influenced by the major food resources used in a particular season. The ranging was mainly influenced by Artocarpus heterophyllus in monsoon, Cullenia exarillata and Toona ciliata in post- monsoon, and Artocarpus heterophyllus and Ficus amplissima in summer. The distribution of these four plant species is, therefore, critical to ranging, and thus to conservation of the lion-tailed macaque. PMID:25217980

Erinjery, Joseph J; Kavana, T S; Singh, Mewa

2015-01-01

279

Sea Turtles  

Science.gov (United States)

In Malaysia there is an island known for more sea turtles than virtually anywhere on Earth. In this video, Jonathan visits this amazing ecosystem to learn about the life cycle of sea turtles. He is surprised to discover an amazingly complex and competitive environment. Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2010-03-29

280

Observations of lion roars in the magnetosheath by the STAFF/DWP experiment on the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lion roars are intense, short duration packets of whistler mode waves, observed in the magnetosheath. They are typically seen coincident with the magnetic field minima of mirror mode waves. The orbit of the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft (570 km by 78970 km, inclination at 28.5 degrees) is ideal for observations of lion roars as the spacecraft is in the magnetosheath more than 50% of the time when the apogee is on the dayside. The STAFF/DWP experiment provides the spectral matrix of the...

Yearby, K. H.; Alleyne, H. S. C.; Cornilleau-wehrlin, N.; Santolik, O.; Balikhin, M. A.; Walker, S. N.; Fazakerley, A.; Lahiff, A.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Hematologic values of captive golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia): variations with sex, age, and health status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood samples obtained from 104 captive golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia), collected over a 7-year period, were analyzed for hematologic values. Variations associated with sex, age, and health status were identified. Females had higher total plasma protein values, while males had higher numbers of basophils, hematocrits, and hemoglobin concentrations. Adult tamarins had higher erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, more neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils, and higher hematocrits and hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, erythrocyte indices, and total plasma protein. Decreased numbers of monocytes and eosinophils and increased numbers of leukocytes, neutrophils, bands, and basophils also were observed with abnormal status. PMID:6808243

Bush, M; Custer, R S; Whitla, J C; Smith, E E

1982-06-01

282

On a price formation free boundary model by Lasry & Lions: The Neumann problem  

CERN Document Server

We discuss local and global existence and uniqueness for the price formation free boundary model with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions introduced by Lasry & Lions in 2007. The results are based on a transformation of the problem to the heat equation with nonstandard boundary conditions. The free boundary becomes the zero level set of the solution of the heat equation. The transformation allows us to construct an explicit solution and discuss the behavior of the free boundary. Global existence can be verified under certain conditions on the free boundary and examples of non-existence are given.

Caffarelli, Luis A; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

2011-01-01

283

Exploding metal film active anode source experiments on the LION extractor ion diode  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors report results using an extractor geometry magnetically insulated ion diode on the 0.5 TW LION accelerator. Experiments with an exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS) have shown that intense beams with significantly improved turn-on time compared to epoxy-filled-groove anodes can be produced. A new geometry, in which a plasma switch is used to provide the current path that explodes the thin film anode, has improved the ion efficiency (to typically 70%) compared with the previous scheme in which an electron collector on the anode provided this current. Leakage electron current is reduced when no collector is used

284

THE BELGIAN MULTIPLE FOOD RETAILER DELHAIZE LE LION AND ITS CLIENTELE, 1867-1914  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Before the First World War, British food chain stores catered mainly to the working classes and they did so with a limited range of products, minimum cost and minimal service. In Belgium, the multiple food retailer Delhaize Le Lion started business in 1867, expanded rapidly, and acquired its own factories and brands as well as a nation-wide distribution network. In contrast to the British retailers, however, Delhaize appears to have aimed at a heterogeneous clientele, emphasizing both price and service. This article investigates differences and similarities between Belgium’s and Britain’s food chain stores prior to 1914, dealing with business organization, product range, and clientele.

Patricia van den Eeckhout

2011-01-01

285

Mesoscale slope current variability in the Gulf of Lions. Interpretation of in-situ measurements using a three-dimensional model  

Science.gov (United States)

The ECOLOPHY experiments aimed at investigating physical exchanges between coastal and open sea. They were carried out in June and December 2005 over the shelf-break in the North-eastern part of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). This area is considered to be the generation zone for the eddy and meandering structures of the Northern Current (NC). The objective of the present work is to examine mesoscale variability of this coastal slope current in the light of available data. Numerical modeling is used to support the field data analysis. ADCP current measurements over a one-year period show that mesoscale activity is maximal in late winter, correlating with the seasonal variability of the NC and, also, partly with local winds. Measured currents exhibit mesoscale fluctuations with periods ranging from 3 to 30 days, in agreement with previous analyses. Fluctuations of periods longer than 10 days are found to be mainly oriented in the direction of the mean current, whereas more frequently observed high frequency fluctuations tend to be oriented cross-slope, suggesting a relationship with the NC mesoscale meandering. Moreover, trajectories of surdrift buoys launched in the NC vein exhibit mesoscale phenomena, such as current meanders or eddies and on-shelf intrusions. Numerical modeling provides a synoptic point of view and is used hereafter to support physical interpretation of punctual eulerian or lagrangian measurements. Therefore, modeled hydrodynamic fields are used to analyze surdrift buoy trajectories and computed vertically averaged current and Ertel potential vorticity provide a better understanding of these behaviors.

André, Gaël; Garreau, Pierre; Fraunie, Philippe

2009-02-01

286

Nutrients and plankton spatial distributions induced by a coastal eddy in the Gulf of Lion. Insights from a numerical model  

Science.gov (United States)

A plankton functional types model forced by a hydrodynamic model is used in the present work to study the impacts of a coastal eddy on the distribution of nutrients and plankton in the western part of Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea). This study, based on a realistic simulation of the year 2001, focuses on a long-life anticyclonic eddy detected during summer. The studied anticyclonic eddy has some biogeochemical characteristics of those observed in the open ocean as for example the low productivity at their core and rising-up of nutricline on their edges. However the functioning and consequences of such coastal eddy on nutrients and plankton distributions are complicated by potential interactions with topography, wind-induced upwelling along the Languedoc Coast and nearby Northern Current (NC). Especially the proximity of the southern edge of the eddy with the NC makes possible the exchanges of organic matter (e.g. plankton) at times during the eddy's life. The coastal eddy thus transports organic matter from the coastal zone to the offshore domain. The coupled model also suggests the importance of offshore-to-coastal transport by NC through a seeding process of the eddy in plankton at the beginning of its life. A detailed biogeochemical functioning of the studied eddy all along its lifetime is proposed from the model results. At the beginning the eddy mainly acts as a transporter of the plankton wind-induced bloom occurring along the Languedoc Coast several days before the eddy set up. At the same time the eddy shows upwards vertical velocities on its edges creating upwelling of nutrient-enriched waters. The process of eddy-induced upwelling is notably enhanced on the eddy western side along the Roussillon Coast due to the shelf topography. The around-eddy advection and relative lower temperatures prevent the large development of phytoplankton along the Roussillon Coast and the eddy-induced bloom is predicted to occur near the northwestern side of the eddy. The eddy-induced and wind-induced blooms of phytoplankton then merge on the eastern side by advection and this process of aggregation may explain the persistent occurrence of a filament of high chlorophyll observed on the offshore edge of the eddy throughout the study period. The changes in plankton composition due to a combination of top-down and bottom-up processes during the coast-to-offshore transport may explain the disappearance of the filament south of 43°N at the surface.

Campbell, Rose; Diaz, Frédéric; Hu, ZiYuan; Doglioli, Andrea; Petrenko, Anne; Dekeyser, Ivan

2013-02-01

287

Recent population expansion in the evolutionary history of the Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax / Expansión poblacional reciente en la historia evolutiva de la anchoveta de California Engraulis mordax  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La anchoveta de California Engraulis mordax, es una especie templada que pudo haber pasado por un proceso de disyunción poblacional, debido al proceso postglacial de calentamiento del agua alrededor de la punta de la península de Baja California, hace unos 10,000 años. Se realizó un análisis genétic [...] o para probar la hipótesis nula de homogeneidad genética entre el Golfo de California, México y el sur de California, EUA y si este era el caso, estimar el tiempo de surgimiento de haplotipos en términos de coalescencia. Se analizaron en total 80 secuencias de la región control hipervariable (ADNmt) de E. mordax, capturadas en la región central del Golfo de California (n = 40) y el sur de California (n = 40). A pesar del gran número de haplotipos únicos, no se observó diferenciación genética significativa entre localidades (F ST = -0.0025, p = 0.686). Una distribución unimodal en la frecuencia del número de diferencias entre haplotipos indica un modelo de expansión rápida en el tamaño poblacional, que basado en una tasa mutacional de 3.6% por millón de años para la región control, indicó un tiempo de diferenciación nucleotídica relativamente reciente de aproximadamente 61,000 años. Este periodo de tiempo corresponde al Pleistoceno tardío, después de la formación de la península de Baja California, sugiriendo expansiones poblacionales en cada una de las localidades, seguidas del último episodio de glaciación, el cual quizás contribuyó a la migración de esta especie de afinidad templada entre las dos localidades y a su homogenización genética. Sin embargo este único evento reciente de flujo genético en la historia evolutiva de la especie, no explica por sí solo los patrones de distribución encontrados en las frecuencias de diferencias nucleotídicas. Abstract in english The Californian anchovy Engraulis mordax, a temperate species, may have undergone a process of population disjunction from experiencing post-glacial water heating processes around the tip of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico about 10,000 b.p. A genetic analysis was performed to test the null hyp [...] othesis of genetic homogeneity between the Gulf of California and Southern California, U. S. A., and if this is the case, to estimate the time of haplotype emergence in terms of coalescence. A total of 80 sequences of the mtDNA hypervariable control region of E. mordax captured in the central Gulf of California (n = 40) and Southern California (n = 40) were analyzed. In spite of the large number of private haplotypes, no significant genetic differentiation among sites (F ST = -0.0025, p = 0.686) was observed. An unimodal distribution of mismatch frequency between haplotypes indicated a model of rapid expansion in population size that, based on a mutation rate of 3.6% per million years in the control region, indicates a relatively recent nucleotide differentiation time of approximately 61,000 years. This time period corresponds to the late Pleistocene, suggesting population expansions at each locality, followed by the last episode of glaciation, which may have contributed to migration of this temperate-affinity species between two locations and the genetic homogenization. However this unique recent event of gene flow in the evolutionary history of species does not explain by itself the mismatch distribution patterns found.

Noé, Díaz-Viloria; Laura, Sánchez-Velasco; Ricardo, Pérez-Enríquez.

2012-12-01

288

Leishmania infantum infection in two captive barbary lions (Panthera leo leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

A female barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) from the Montpellier Zoological Park (France) showing colitis, epistaxis, and lameness with pad ulcers was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania infantum. Further indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) tests on the banked sera from all lions of the park detected another infected but asymptomatic female, which was confirmed by PCR on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood sample. Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1 was cultured from EDTA bone marrow samples sampled from this second animal. The first female was successfully treated with marbofloxacine at 2 mg/kg s.i.d. for 28 days (Marbocyl, Vetoquinol 70204 Lure, France) and allopurinol at 30 mg/kg s.i.d. for 3 mo (Allopurinol Mylan, Mylan SAS, 69800 Saint-Priest, France) and then 1 wk/mo. Both positive animals were born at the Rabat Zoological Park, Morocco, and arrived together at Montpellier in 2003. The chronicity and source of this current infection are unknown since Morocco and southern France are well-known to be enzootic for leishmaniasis. PMID:23082544

Libert, Cédric; Ravel, Christophe; Pratlong, Francine; Lami, Patrick; Dereure, Jacques; Keck, Nicolas

2012-09-01

289

Food transfers in wild and reintroduced golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We collected data from wild and reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) to describe the behavior of donor and recipient during food transfers, evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding on food transfer behavior, and examine various hypotheses concerning the function of food transfers in primates. Behavioral observations were conducted on 12 groups of tamarins with young (N = 30) between the ages of 1 week and 1 year old. Results show that food transfers involve various behaviors, from steals by recipients to offers by donors; transfers mostly derive from adults and are directed at immature weaned young (between 3 and 9 months old); and that most items transferred were prey or fruits that require skill to process. Eleven percent of food transfers were preceded by an adult vocalization specific to that context, whereas 86% were preceded by conspicuous infant vocalizations and begging behavior. The most common vocalizations were loud and atonal (rasps) and broad banded frequency modulated (trills). Infants born to reintroduced parents vocalized less, whereas reintroduced adults vocalized more before transferring food than their wild counterparts. Reintroduced adults and young received more food transfers (4.4 per hr) than did wild-born adults and young (2.2 per hr). Our findings suggest that food transfer in golden lion tamarins is best understood as provisioning of young that have not fully developed foraging skills to ensure they get the necessary resources for growth and survival. PMID:10402039

Ruiz-Miranda, C R; Kleiman, D G; Dietz, J M; Moraes, E; Grativol, A D; Baker, A J; Beck, B B

1999-01-01

290

Mucoperiosteal Exostoses in the Tympanic Bulla of African Lions (Panthera leo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucoperiosteal exostoses (MpEs) of the tympanic bulla (TB), also referred as middle-ear otoliths, have been occasionally described in dogs and cats in association with clinical signs of otitis media or as an incidental finding, but they have not been recorded in other species. In this report, we describe the radiographic, gross, and histopathologic features of MpEs in 8 African lions (Panthera leo). All animals (5 males and 3 females) were adults that had been kept in captivity and had their skeletons conserved as part of an anatomic academic collection. A radiographic study revealed mineralized structures in the TB consistent with MpEs in 7 of the 16 examined TB; a computed tomography study identified MpEs in 12 of the 16 TB. Six TB from 4 lions were sectioned, and several MpEs were demineralized for histopathologic analysis. Grossly, MpEs appeared variable in number and shape. Some were globular structures that were loosely attached to the mucosal surface of the TB; others were isolated to coalescent bone spicules extending from the mucoperiosteum. Position was also variable, but MpEs frequently developed in the hypotympanum, especially on the ventromedial aspect of the TB wall. Microscopically, MpEs were composed of osteonal bone growing from the periosteum and not by dystrophic calcification of necrotic tissue debris, as is hypothesized in dogs. PMID:24788401

Novales, M; Ginel, P J; Diz, A; Blanco, B; Zafra, R; Guerra, R; Mozos, E

2014-04-30

291

High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with high rates of reproduction and successful infant rearing. The goal of this study was to re-assess monogyny in wild golden lion tamarin groups based upon pregnancy diagnoses that used non-invasive enzyme immunoassay for progesterone and cortisol, combined with weekly data on individual weight gain, bi-annual physical examinations noting pregnancy and lactation status and daily behavioral observations. We established quantitative and qualitative criteria to detect and determine the timing of pregnancies that did not result in the birth of infants. Pregnancy polygyny occurred in 83% of golden lion tamarin groups studied. The loss of 64% of subordinate pregnancies compared to only 15% by dominant females limited reproductive success mainly to dominant females, thus maintaining high reproductive skew in female golden lion tamarins. Pregnancy loss by subordinate adults did not appear to result from dominant interference in subordinate hormonal mechanisms, but more likely resulted from subordinate abandonment of newborn infants to mitigate dominant aggression. PMID:23454002

Henry, MaLinda D; Hankerson, Sarah J; Siani, Jennifer M; French, Jeffrey A; Dietz, James M

2013-05-01

292

"Sundiata, Lion King of Mali." Adapted by Kim Hines, Featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso, Cue Sheet for Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Sundiata: Lion King of Mali," adapted by Kim Hines and featuring Griot Alhaji Papa Susso. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains seven activity sheets for use in class, addressing: (1) Sundiata: Man & Myth (discusses the real man and the…

Freeman, Aakhu TuahNera

293

78 FR 42036 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX  

Science.gov (United States)

...Broadcasting Services; Port Lions, AK, De Beque, CO, Benjamin, Cisco, Rule, and Shamrock, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...247C3. 0 c. Remove Benjamin, under Texas, Channel 237C3; Cisco, Channel 261C3; Rule, Channel 288C2; and Shamrock,...

2013-07-15

294

78 FR 73109 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK; Rule and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Radio Broadcasting Services; Benjamin and Cisco, TX; De Beque, CO; Port Lions, AK...at Benjamin, Texas; Channel 261C3 at Cisco, Texas; Channel 288C2 at Rule, Texas...Benjamin, Channel 237C3; by removing Cisco, Channel 261C3; by removing Channel...

2013-12-05

295

Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Retrievals of total sea ice concentration from four algorithms using the 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the marginal ice zone in the Barents and Greenland Seas are compared with retrievals of total sea ice concentration from helicopter-borne linescan camera observations made during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern during May-June 1997. The goals are to evaluate (1) SSM/I 85.5 GHz retrievals of total sea ice concentration for climatological purposes, and (2) the ability of 85.5 GHz data to show the sea ice edge through cloud cover, for operational purposes. The SSM/I 85.5 GHz channels offer a spatial resolution of 12.5 km, which is sufficient to resolve ice edge features and small polynyas; however, there is generally more atmospheric contamination of the sea ice signal at 85.5 GHz than at the lower frequencies (19 and 37 GHz) traditionally used for sea ice remote sensing. A self-adjusting algorithm that performs a nonlinear correction for atmospheric moisture, without explicit atmospheric input data, yields the best accuracy over total sea ice concentrations greater than 30%. However, this algorithm can misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice concentrations in the range 20-70%, empirical 85.5 GHz hybrids of lower-frequency algorithms developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center can improve the accuracy of these algorithms.

Garrity, Caren; Lubin, Dan

2002-01-01

296

Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

2014-10-01

297

Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

M. W. Strassburg

2014-10-01

298

Dynamics of a morbillivirus at the domestic–wildlife interface: Canine distemper virus in domestic dogs and lions  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbilliviruses cause many diseases of medical and veterinary importance, and although some (e.g., measles and rinderpest) have been controlled successfully, others, such as canine distemper virus (CDV), are a growing concern. A propensity for host-switching has resulted in CDV emergence in new species, including endangered wildlife, posing challenges for controlling disease in multispecies communities. CDV is typically associated with domestic dogs, but little is known about its maintenance and transmission in species-rich areas or about the potential role of domestic dog vaccination as a means of reducing disease threats to wildlife. We address these questions by analyzing a long-term serological dataset of CDV in lions and domestic dogs from Tanzania’s Serengeti ecosystem. Using a Bayesian state–space model, we show that dynamics of CDV have changed considerably over the past three decades. Initially, peaks of CDV infection in dogs preceded those in lions, suggesting that spill-over from dogs was the main driver of infection in wildlife. However, despite dog-to-lion transmission dominating cross-species transmission models, infection peaks in lions became more frequent and asynchronous from those in dogs, suggesting that other wildlife species may play a role in a potentially complex maintenance community. Widespread mass vaccination of domestic dogs reduced the probability of infection in dogs and the size of outbreaks but did not prevent transmission to or peaks of infection in lions. This study demonstrates the complexity of CDV dynamics in natural ecosystems and the value of long-term, large-scale datasets for investigating transmission patterns and evaluating disease control strategies. PMID:25605919

Viana, Mafalda; Matthiopoulos, Jason; Halliday, Jo; Packer, Craig; Craft, Meggan E.; Hampson, Katie; Czupryna, Anna; Dobson, Andrew P.; Ernest, Eblate; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Horton, Daniel L.; Kaare, Magai T.; Kanellos, Theo; Lankester, Felix; Mentzel, Christine; Mlengeya, Titus; Mzimbiri, Imam; Takahashi, Emi; Willett, Brian; Haydon, Daniel T.; Lembo, Tiziana

2015-01-01

299

The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon  

Science.gov (United States)

The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

2014-03-01

300

Study on the sea surface: its effects on radar backscatter and on the turbulent flux of momentum during the FETCH experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis deals with the study of the surface ocean waves and its relationships with the energy turbulent fluxes and radar backscatter. It was conducted in the frame of the FETCH (« Flux, Etat de la mer et Télédétection en Conditions de fetcH limité ») experiment, which took place in the Gulf of Lion, West Mediterranean Sea, in March and April 1998. The analysis of sea state is performed by using in situ measurements (buoys), and remote sensing from air (RESSAC radar) and space (TOPEX...

Quentin, Ce?line Gwenae?lle

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sea Launch  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea Launch is an international satellite launch service company that has a unique way of delivering payloads into space. With the launch platform situated on the equator in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, a specially designed rocket propels satellites into orbit with very good accuracy. The Sea Launch home page has plenty of information about its operation, including an overview of the technology, statistics about its successes and failures, and Webcasts of many of its launches. A 200+ page user's guide goes into detail about all the various stages of a mission; everything from design considerations for the spacecraft to transportation to the launch site is mentioned in the document.

302

Fatal Toxoplasma gondii infection in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Four of five golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) died after a brief period of illness 13 to 21 days following the consumption of a feral mouse by the group. Three of the four animals died within hours after being observed as clinically healthy. The fourth animal became weak, failed to respond to treatment, and died several hours after treatment. At necropsy, there were bands of serosal and mucosal hemorrhages of the intestines, and the lungs were mottled. Histologically, necrosis and acute inflammation associated with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii were found in intestines, liver, heart, lung, and eyes. The communally consumed mouse was presumed to be the source of T. gondii infection in this exhibit. The surviving tamarin probably did not share food. PMID:9523646

Pertz, C; Dubielzig, R R; Lindsay, D S

1997-12-01

303

Patterns of social preference across different social contexts in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the role of mutual and circumstantial factors in maintaining exclusive social relationships in a New World primate. Four breeding pairs of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia rosalia) were allowed to interact with their mate or an unfamiliar, opposite-sex adult in each of 4 different social contexts: in view of the mate, out of the mate's view, with only the mate present, and with only the unfamiliar animal present. Males and females were in proximity to, approached, and sniffed their mates significantly more often than they did unfamiliar tamarins. These behaviors suggest a preference for the familiar mate. However, when mates were absent, tamarins demonstrated significantly higher levels of approach and sniffs toward unfamiliar animals. These patterns of behavior indicate that circumstantial factors, such as social context, may regulate social interactions between paired tamarins and unfamiliar, opposite-sex conspecifics. PMID:2114250

Inglett, B J; French, J A; Dethlefs, T M

1990-06-01

304

Acoustic differences between spontaneous and induced long calls of golden lion tamarins, Leontopithecus rosalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long calls are emitted by several primate taxa and appear to have multiple functions related to spacing mechanisms and reproduction. Yet, in some species the spontaneous rate of emission of these calls is low, and playbacks are used to elicit long calls to augment the sample size of studies. The objective of this study was to compare the acoustic structure of spontaneously emitted and experimentally induced long calls of golden lion tamarins. Results from 6 adult tamarins show that spontaneously emitted long calls differ acoustically from experimentally induced long calls in several frequency measures. Several explanations for these differences are discussed. We conclude that regardless of the underlying mechanisms, playbacks elicit responses that may be different from naturally occurring calls. PMID:12207059

Ruiz-Miranda, C R; Archer, C A; Kleiman, D G

2002-01-01

305

Play behavior of the golden-headed lion tamarin in brazilian cocoa agroforests.  

Science.gov (United States)

During play, primates may become more vulnerable to predation. Our goal was to examine the potential role of predation risk on the play behavior of 3 groups of golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, in shaded cocoa agroforest (cabruca) of Southern Bahia, Brazil. We identified the preferred (and safer) locations on vertical strata during playtime and investigated if frequency and duration of play differed according to group size. All groups preferred to play on the lower levels of vertical strata, which may be perceived as either a safer environment or as a more suitable location for play due to the vegetation structure. The smallest group played less than the others, while the largest group played more and for longer periods. Our data suggest that predation risk can influence where play takes place as well as its frequency and length. PMID:25116696

Monteiro de Almeida Rocha, Juliana; Pedreira Dos Reis, Paula; de Carvalho Oliveira, Leonardo

2014-01-01

306

Messinian Events: View from the Provence Basin (Gulf of Lion, Western Mediterranean)  

Science.gov (United States)

Though the late Miocene "Messinian Salinity Crisis" has been intensely researched along the circum-Mediterranean basins, few studies have focused on the central part of the Mediterranean Basin and, especially, the pre-salt deposits. Within the Western Mediterranean, the Gulf of Lion is exceptional in that its sedimentary strata have not been significantly deformed. In addition, the Gulf of Lion is characterized by a relatively constant subsidence with continuous accommodation space for sediment accumulation. This configuration, together with the availability of a wealth of offshore information (seismic profiles, boreholes), enables us to precisely describe the sedimentary geometries on the margin and in the central basin. This study gives new elements for the understanding of the Messinian Crisis: •The first element is a thick marine detrital series (up to 1000 m) derived from the Messinian subaerial erosion which is partly prolongated in the distal part by a thick unit of deep marine deposits (up to 800 m) prior to the first evaporites. This unit represents in the central basin a pre-evaporite phase corresponding to a prominent "Messinian Erosional Crisis" responding to the major Messinian drawdown (~1500 m) of the Mediterranean seawater. •The second important element is the identification of a thick stratum of presumed detritals and evaporites (1500 m) sandwiched between the first detritic event and the mobile halite. This thickness implies that the depth of the basin was already significant at the time of its deposition. •We also identified a submarine abrasion surface related to the transgressive movement of the coast at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This surface is located between the mobile halite domain and the preserved subaerial erosional surface that impacted the Miocene shelf. Transition between the subaerial and abrasion surfaces occurs at a constant depth of 1.6s TWTT. This limit represents the position of the shoreline just before the very rapid earliest Zanclean reflooding. We therefore identified about 3500 m of sediments deposited during the Messinian events (from the first erosional event to the re-flooding of the basin). The shelf recorded a loss of up to 1,000 m thick of sediments. This implies huge amount of sediment transfer from the shelf to the slope and the central basin. Several authors have tried to study the subsidence in the Provence Basin and the isostatic readjustments related to the Messinian Crisis (Ryan, 1976; Steckler and Watts, 1980; Burrus and Audebert, 1990). The view that we outline provides new fodder for the study of subsidence of the Provence Basin and better understanding its structural evolution. Burrus, J., and F. Audebert, 1990, Thermal and compaction processes in a young rifted basin containing evaporite: Gulf of Lions, France: Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., v. 74, p. 1420-1440. Ryan, W. F. B., 1976, Quantitative evaluation of the depth of the Western Mediterranean before, during and after the Messinian salinity crisis: Sedimentology, v. 23, p. 791-813. Steckler, M. S., and A. B. Watts, 1980, The Gulf of Lion: subsidence of a young continental margin: Nature, v. 287, p. 425-429.

Bache, F.; Gorini, C.; Olivet, J. L.; Rabineau, M.; Aslanian, D.; Suc, J. P.

2009-04-01

307

k-Capture in Multiagent Pursuit Evasion, or the Lion and the Hyenas  

CERN Document Server

We consider the following generalization of the classical pursuit-evasion problem, which we call k-capture. A group of n pursuers (hyenas) wish to capture an evader (lion) who is free to move in an m-dimensional Euclidean space, the pursuers and the evader can move with the same maximum speed, and at least k pursuers must simultaneously reach the evader's location to capture it. If fewer than k pursuers reach the evader, then those pursuers get destroyed by the evader. Under what conditions can the evader be k-captured? We study this problem in the discrete time, continuous space model and prove that k-capture is possible if and only there exists a time when the evader lies in the interior of the pursuers' k-Hull. When the pursuit occurs inside a compact, convex subset of the Euclidean space, we show through an easy constructive strategy that k-capture is always possible.

Bopardikar, Shaunak D

2011-01-01

308

Egységek és részegységek: Szövegkomplexitás Chrétien de Troyes Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion cím? regényében  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The works of Chrétien de Troyes are constituted by easy to be found and linguistically well-defined, repeated structural units which contribute to the textual coherence and to the linear division of the works and which are composed of clearly separable motifs succeding in a definite order. In my study, my aim is to observe the places compared to one another and the textual junction of the motifs constituting the night lodging and hospitality, structural unit that determines the adventure seeking way of the heroes and constitutes a turning point in the stories, with the consideration of the thematic progression and the linguistic means representing a textual unit boundary through three episodes of similar structure in the romance of Chrétien de Troyes entitled Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion (the episodes selected are the adventure of Yvain at the fountaine, Harpin de la Montagne, Pesme-Aventure.

Máté, Zsuzsanna

2011-01-01

309

Screening of Quorum Quenching Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Ant Lion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacterial intercellular communication or quorum sensing controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Therefore, it is important to isolate bacteria that can disintegrate the communication, in a process called quorum quenching. Bacteria from ant lion (Myrmeleon sp. were grown on Luria agar, and approximately 1.85 x 109 CFU mL-1 was obtained. Eleven morphologically different colonies were screened for quorum quenching activity using wild type Chromobacterium violaceum as an indicator. Two isolates (Myr7 and MyrB were found to possess quorum quenching activity. Isolates with quorum quenching activity were later identified employing 16S rRNA. Both isolates were similar to bacteria in the genus Aeromonas

BILLY CHRISTIANTO

2011-03-01

310

Loin Exposure as a Means of Complementing Thermoregulation in Kalahari Lions (Panthera leo Linnaeus, 1958  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fieldwork on the thermoregulatory behavior of a small pride of lions (Panthera leo, consisting of three adults and two cubs, was conducted at Intu Afrika Kalahari Game Reserve, Namibia. Continuous daytime and nighttime observations of the pride were performed during winter (May-July 2003 and summer (February-March 2004. Temporal incidences of loin exposure showed a positive relationship with increasing temperature from winter to summer. Full belly loin exposures during both seasons occurred across the ambient temperature range, but empty belly loin exposures were only observed above 17°C. The frequency of loin exposure for both seasons on empty or full bellies rapidly increased from 28°C. The two males demonstrated a similar probability of loin exposure, possibly as a result of their similar shape and sex and the average orientation of loins into an oncoming breeze occurred 51 and 58% during winter and summer, respectively.

Y. Smith

2006-01-01

311

Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest  

Science.gov (United States)

Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

2011-08-01

312

Note sur la création par la CGPM d'une Zone de pêche réglementée dans le golfe du Lion en mars 2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cette note d’information reprend et actualise un document Ifremer d’avis sur la proposition CSC/CGPM concernant la proposition d’une zone de pêche réglementée (FRA) située dans les eaux internationales du golfe du Lion. Cette AMP est un dispositif de limitation spatialisée de l’effort de pêche destiné à protéger les reproducteurs de plusieurs espèces qui sont fortement exploitées sur le plateau continental du golfe du Lion, à conserver un habitat du talus continental (c...

Le Corre, Gildas; Farrugio, Henri

2011-01-01

313

Assessing the exposure of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) to future climate change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how biodiversity will respond to climate change is a major challenge in conservation science. Climatic changes are likely to impose serious threats to many organisms, especially those with narrow distribution ranges, small populations and low dispersal capacity. Lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp.) are endangered primates endemic to Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF), and all four living species are typical examples of these aggravating conditions. Here, we integrate ecological niche modeling and GIS-based information about BAF remnants and protected areas to estimate the exposure (i.e., the extent of climate change predicted to be experienced by a species) of current suitable habitats to climate change for 2050 and 2080, and to evaluate the efficacy of existing reserves to protect climatically suitable areas. Niche models were built using Maxent and then projected onto seven global circulation models derived from the A1B climatic scenario. According to our projections, the occurrence area of L. caissara will be little exposed to climate change. Western populations of L. chrysomelas could be potentially exposed, while climatically suitable habitats will be maintained only in part of the eastern region. Protected areas that presently harbor large populations of L. chrysopygus and L. rosalia will not retain climatic suitability by 2080. Monitoring trends of exposed populations and protecting areas predicted to hold suitable conditions should be prioritized. Given the potential exposure of key lion tamarin populations, we stress the importance of conducting additional studies to assess other aspects of their vulnerability (i.e., sensitivity to climate and adaptive capacity) and, therefore, to provide a more solid framework for future management decisions in the context of climate change. PMID:24346860

Meyer, Andreas L S; Pie, Marcio R; Passos, Fernando C

2014-06-01

314

Rickets in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: some new insights.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1889, when Dr John Bland-Sutton, a prominent surgeon in London, England, was consulted concerning fatal rickets in more than 20 successive litters of lion cubs at the London Zoo, he evaluated the role of diet relative to the development of rickets. He prescribed goat meat and bones and cod-liver oil to be added to the lean horse-meat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets reversed, the cubs survived, and litters were reared successfully. In classic controlled studies conducted in puppies and young rats 3 decades later, the crucial role of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D in both prevention and therapy of rickets was elucidated. Later studies led to the identification of the structural features of vitamin D. Although the Bland-Sutton interventional diet obviously provides calcium and phosphate from bones and vitamin D from cod-liver oil, other benefits of this diet were not initially recognized. Chewing bones promotes tooth and gum health and removes bacteria-laden tartar. Cod-liver oil also contains vitamin A, which is essential for the prevention of infection and for epithelial cell health. Taurine-conjugated bile salts are also necessary for the intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including A and D. Moreover, unlike dogs and rats, all feline species are unable to synthesize taurine yet can only conjugate bile acids with taurine. This sulfur-containing beta-amino acid must be provided in the carnivorous diet of a large cat. Taurine-conjugated bile salts were provided in the oil cold-pressed from cod liver. The now famous Bland-Sutton "experiment of nature," namely, fatal rickets in lion cubs, was cured by the addition of minerals and vitamin D. However, gum health and the presence of taurine-conjugated bile salts undoubtedly permitted absorption of vitamin A and D, the latter promoting the cure of rickets. PMID:19349374

Chesney, Russell W; Hedberg, Gail

2009-05-01

315

Lithosphere-to-Ionosphere Plug-and-Play Architecture (LION-PNP): Networking the Physical World Made Cheap and Easy  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of rapidly reconfigurable and easily deployable instrumentation packages often results in information loss during unannounced or time-critical geophysical events such as spaceweather flare-ups, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. While increasingly powerful and sensitive sensor technologies have been created in the last years to study our planet, robust, yet simple and cost-effective, mechanical, electrical, and data interfaces between these devices and the user (scientist) have yet to be developed. Non-standardized interfaces make instrument integration and field operation cumbersome and error-prone. Indeed, the assembly and deployment of some systems can take months and incur high costs. To address this problem, we present the LIthosphere-to-IOnosphere Plug-aNd-Play architecture (LION-PNP), a complete, low cost integration protocol for space, atmospheric, and terrestrial sensor networks. Similar to the USB plug-and-play protocols created for personal computers, LION-PNP offers geophysicists and space scientists the ability to assemble and operate complex sensor packages by simply "plugging" devices (magnetometers, seismometers, GPS, spectrometers, etc) into a centralized Command and Data Handling unit (CDH). LION-PNP accomplishes this by inserting a Generic Sensor Interpreter (GSI) between the back-end of a device and the CDH. The GSI allows the CDH to automatically configure a sensor without requiring the user to manually install drivers. Mechanical integration is also accelerated by repackaging instruments according to the CubeSAT form-factor (multiples of 10 x 10 x 10 cm cubes). In the following work, we report on the development of LION-PNP. To demonstrate our initial success, we first discuss the Boston University Student-satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT), a low-cost, modular, spaceweather satellite running LION-PNP. BUSAT is a completely student-driven project meant for magnetospheric-ionospheric research incorporating 4 scientific payloads. To further stress the broad applicability of LION-PNP we also present VolcanoNET, a ground-based, multi-sensor package that will explore charging of volcanic ash plumes and volcanic lightning.; The Boston University Student satellite for Applications and Training (BUSAT) canisterized scientific satellite concept.

Darling, N. T.; Mendez, J. S.; Fritz, T. A.; Hoffman, C.

2012-12-01

316

Onde bebem os leões: estudo de referências nos filmes vencedores do Cannes Lions Festival entre 2007 e 2010  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is the unusual association of contexts that bring to life the advertising ideas considered creative. Eco (2001 explains that the spectator facing a creative piece of communication feels invited to interpretation and rewarded by the comprehension of such association, that generated duplicity of meanings and is only fully understood by the observer who possesses a certain former knowledge. This article accepts the challenge of identifying possible references that generated creative processes in a sample formed by four commercials that won the Grand Prix or the Gold Lion in the Film area of the Cannes Lions Festival, the most celebrated festival when it comes to advertising or creativity. Therefore, this research intends to identify inferences from movies, literature, music, design, art and history in advertising commercials, by comparing the sample with probable verbal and visual inspirations.

André Zambam Mattos

2013-08-01

317

Assessment of soft-bottom polychaete assemblages in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) based on a mesoscale survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-two stations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 m depth) located on 21 inshore-offshore transects between the French-Spanish border and the mouth of the Rhône River were sampled during the 1998 Fall. Their polychaete fauna was analyzed to: (1) describe the distribution pattern of polychaete assemblages at the scale of the whole Gulf of Lions, (2) identify the relationships between these assemblages and the main environmental parameters, (3) establish a link between these assemblages and the benthic communities already described for Northwestern Mediterranean, and (4) assess recent historical changes in trends in densities and ? diversity between assemblages. Three polychaete assemblages were identified using cluster analysis and associated procedures. These assemblages were tightly associated with depth and sediment granulometry as indicated by the concordance between their spatial distributions and the sedimentary map of the Gulf of Lions. Assemblage I contained most of the 10 and 20 m deep stations and was associated with littoral fine sands. Assemblage I was found all over the Gulf of Lions and was characterized by high abundance and high biomass due to the presence of large numbers of the serpulid Ditrupa arietina. Assemblage II was mostly composed of 30 m deep stations and was associated with littoral sandy mud. Assemblage II was dominated by the lumbrinerid Lumbrineris latreilli. It was composed of two sub-assemblages (IIa and IIb) in relation with sediment granulometry. Sub-assemblage IIb was associated with finer sediment than sub-assemblage IIa. Sub-assemblage IIa was only found in the Southern part of the Gulf of Lions, whereas sub-assemblage IIb was mostly found in the Northern part of the Gulf of Lions. This pattern is probably indicative of the sedimentation of fine particles originating from the Rhône River at intermediate depth as suggested by: (1) the sedimentary map of the Gulf of Lions, and (2) the outputs of recent models of sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions. Assemblage III was composed of 40 and 50 m deep stations; it was associated with terrigeneous coastal mud and found all over Gulf of Lions. Assemblage III was dominated by the sternaspid Sternaspis scutata. These three assemblages were tightly related with the benthic communities already described independently by Picard [Picard, J.,1965. Recherches qualitatives sur les biocénoses marines des substrats meubles dragables de la région marseillaise. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume 52, 1-160] and Guille [Guille, A., 1971b. Bionomie benthique du plateau continental de la côte catalane française. II - Les communautés de la macrofaune. Vie et Milieu 21, 149-280] based on samples collected along the Provençal and the French Catalan rocky coasts, respectively. Unfortunately, no quantitative data were available to compare the ?-diversity of the three newly defined assemblages with historical data collected by these two authors. We therefore compared our diversity measurements with the data collected by Desbruyères et al. [Desbruyères, D., Guille, A., Ramos, J.M., 1972/73. Bionomie du plateau continental de la côte catalane espagnole. Vie et Milieu 23, 335-363] in the Bay of Rosas (Spanish Catalan coast). Due to differences in the sampling effort between the two studies, this comparison was restricted to trends between assemblages. Our results show maximal densities and minimal ?-diversity in the Littoral Fine Sand assemblage, which was not the case in Desbruyères et al. [Desbruyères, D., Guille, A., Ramos, J. M., 1972/73. Bionomie du plateau continental de la côte catalane espagnole. Vie et Milieu 23, 335-363]. Major temporal changes obviously reflect the increases of Ditrupa arietina (in the Littoral Fine Sands assemblage), and to a lesser extent Lumbrineris latreilli (in the Littoral Sandy Mud assemblage).

Labrune, Céline; Grémare, Antoine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Sardá, Rafael; Gil, João; Taboada, Sergi

2007-01-01

318

Prey foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in black lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysopygus (Mikan 1823 (Mammalia, Callitrichidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foraging behavior, seasonality and time-budgets in the Black Lion Tamarin (L. chrysopygus was observed in the Caetetus Ecological Station, South-eastern Brazil, during 83 days between November 1988 to October 1990. For the full dry season we found that animal prey represented 11.2% of the black lion tamarin diet, while during the wet season they represented 1.9%. Foraging behavior made up 19.8% of their total activity in the dry season and only 12.8% in the wet season. These results point out that animal prey are relatively more important during the dry season, due to reduced availability of other resources, e.g. fruits, and that a greater foraging effort is required when a larger proportion of the diet is animal prey.

KEUROGHLIAN A.

2001-01-01

319

High rates of pregnancy loss by subordinates leads to high reproductive skew in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Across taxa, cooperative breeding has been associated with high reproductive skew. Cooperatively breeding golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) were long thought to have a monogynous mating system in which reproduction was limited to a single dominant female. Subordinates with few reproductive opportunities delayed dispersal and remained in the natal group to provide alloparental care to siblings, thus allowing dominant reproductive females to meet the energetic needs associated with ...

Henry, Malinda D.; Hankerson, Sarah J.; Siani, Jennifer M.; French, Jeffrey A.; Dietz, James M.

2013-01-01

320

Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae), select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches) that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766)...

Vera Sabatini; Ruiz-miranda, Carlos R.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Restoration of reproductive potential following expiration or removal of melengestrol acetate contraceptive implants in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Although reversible contraception is important to successful management of small populations, there are concerns about the reversibility of melengestrol acetate (MGA), the most commonly used implant in captive animals. Female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) placed in potential breeding situations after surgical MGA implant removal showed a 75% return to reproduction within 2 yr, unlike golden-headed tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas), which have had a 29% return to reproduction following implant removal. This rate was indistinguishable from the breeding probability for newly formed pairs involving nonimplanted females. Litter size, stillbirth rate, and infant survival rate were not significantly different between nonimplanted and implant-removed female golden lion tamarins. However, females with implants left in (and assumed to have expired) showed higher stillbirth and infant mortality rates than did females with implants removed. For seven female golden lion tamarins for which reproductive histories before and after MGA implantation were available, litter size was unaffected by MGA implantation and subsequent removal. Infant survival rate for these females appeared to be lower after removal but was indistinguishable from rates in the nonimplanted females. Prior reproductive experience, length of time with an implant, and age of the females did not affect the probability of breeding for females after removal of the implants. Overall, breeding probability of nonimplanted females declined with age. Although the results of this study confirm the reversibility of MGA implants in golden lion tamarins, there appear to be some effects on viability of offspring, particularly offspring born to females with implants left in and presumed expired. PMID:12785695

Wood, C; Ballou, J D; Houle, C S

2001-12-01

322

Lipid composition of the pacific lion-paw scallop, Nodipecten subnodosus, in relation to gametogenesis - 2. Lipid classes and sterols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge on the energy distribution during the reproductive cycle of the giant lion-paw scallop, Nodipecten subnodosus is limited, but necessary for aquaculture purposes. In a previous work, we found that natural food availability can sustain the full cost of gametogenesis in optimal environmental conditions. The present study analyses the lipid and sterol classes' composition of several tissues during gametogenesis. In female gonads, the quantity of triacylglycerol (TG) increased parallel t...

Palacios, Elena; Racotta, I. S.; Arjona, O.; Marty, Y.; Le Coz, Jean-rene; Moal, Jeanne; Samain, Jean-francois

2007-01-01

323

Trawling-induced resuspension and dispersal of muddy sediments and dissolved elements in the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dedicated trawling experiment was performed at three sites on the Gulf of Lion continental shelf, with the aim of assessing the resuspension of particulate and dissolved matter triggered by different types of trawls on muddy sediments. The different configurations were: (i) bottom trawl, with bobbin for ground rope (Rockhopper): (ii) bottom trawl, without bobbin (Medits); and (iii) pelagic trawl, towed at 1 and 10m above the seabed. The plumes of resuspended sediment were measured usin...

Madron, X.; Ferre, B.; Le Corre, Gildas; Grenz, C.; Conan, P.; Pujo Pay, M.; Buscail, R.; Bodiot, O.

2005-01-01

324

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates  

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Full Text Available Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

Carlos Henrique de F. Burity

2009-06-01

325

Scanning electron microscopic study of the tongue in golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Callithrichidae: Primates)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Leontopithecus is the largest genus of Callithrichidae, occupying isolated remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil. The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of the dorsum of the tongue of golden-headed lion tamarins. Tongues of ten adult lion tamarins kept in captivity at [...] the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ-FEEMA) were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The three vallate papillae were distributed in a V shape, and each papilla was surrounded by a deep sulcus and an external pad; the medial papilla showed a round shape and the lateral one was elliptical. The filiform papillae were shaped as a crown or as finger-like papillae, and were distributed throughout the tongue, including the margins, except for the posterior region. The fungiform papillae were scattered among the filiform papillae, in a disperse manner, from the apex to the lateral vallate papillae. The foliate papillae had a typical ultrastructure, with folds that ranged in number from 1 to 3. With respect to vallate papillae, we identified the microridge and pore pattern on its surface. Further studies are required to confirm the hypotheses on the ultrastructural aspects described for golden-headed lion tamarins.

Carlos Henrique de F., Burity; Mirlene R. da, Silva; Andreia M. de, Souza; Carla F. F., Lancetta; Mildred F., Medeiros; Alcides, Pissinatti.

2009-06-01

326

Distribution, population structure, and conservation of lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) in the Anaimalai Hills, Western Ghats, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lion-tailed macaque is an endangered species, and hence it is necessary that the remaining populations in the rainforests of the Western Ghats, India, be located and their habitats assessed for effective conservation. The Anaimalai Hills in the state of Tamil Nadu harbor 31 groups of lion-tailed macaques. However, the rainforest in these hills is highly fragmented. Since lion-tailed macaques are typically arboreal, the groups have become isolated. Two large rain-forest complexes in these hills harbor 12 and seven groups, respectively, and the remaining 12 groups inhabit small, isolated forest fragments. Group size ranges from six to 53 individuals, with a mean size of 16.3. In the small forest fragments, the standard deviation (SD) of group size was considerably higher than it was in the larger forest complexes. The disturbed fragments also had a higher variability in group size than the relatively undisturbed habitats. It is believed that fragmentation may impede male migration. We suggest that the fragments be managed in such a way that male migration among groups can be facilitated to overcome the potential effects of isolation. PMID:12111684

Singh, Mewa; Singh, Mridula; Kumar, M Ananda; Kumara, H N; Sharma, A K; Kaumanns, W

2002-06-01

327

Quantifying subsidence and isostatic readjustment using sedimentary paleomarkers, example from the Gulf of Lion  

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Passive margins are characterised by an important tectonic and thermal subsidence, which favours a good preservation of sedimentary sequences. This sedimentation in turn enhances the subsidence because of loading effects. We present here a direct method based on sedimentary markers seen on seismic data, to evaluate total subsidence rates from the coast to the outer shelf and to the deep basin in the Gulf of Lion, from the beginning of massive salt deposition up to present day (the last circa 6 Ma) with minimal theoretical assumptions. On the shelf, the Pliocene-Quaternary subsidence shows a seaward tilt reaching a rate of 240 m/Ma (±15 m/Ma) at the shelf break (70 km from the present day coastline) (i.e. a total angle of rotation of 0.88° (0.16°/Ma)). We were also able to measure and quantify for the first time the isostatic rebound of the outer shelf due to the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC). This value is very high and reaches up to 1.3 km of uplift during the crisis around the Herault-Sète canyon heads (around 1.8 km/Ma). On the slope, we also find a seaward tilting subsidence from Km 90 to Km 180 with a measured angle of 1.41°. From 180 km to the deepest part of the basin, the total subsidence is then almost vertical and reaches 960 m/Ma (±40 m/Ma) during the last 5.7 Ma (±0.25 Ma) in the deepest part of the basin. The subsidence is organised in three compartments that seem related to the very deep structure of the margin during the opening of the Liguro-provencal basin. These very high total subsidence rates enable high sedimentation rates along the margin with sediments provided by the Rhône river flowing from the Alps, which in turn enable the detailed record of climate evolution during Pliocene-Quaternary that make of the Gulf of Lion a unique archive.

Rabineau, M.; Leroux, E.; Aslanian, D.; Bache, F.; Gorini, C.; Moulin, M.; Molliex, S.; Droz, L.; dos Reis, A. T.; Rubino, J. L.; Guillocheau, F.; Olivet, J. L.

2014-02-01

328

Simulation and analysis of the mesoscale circulation in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

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Full Text Available The large-scale and mesoscale circulation of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea are simulated with an eddy-resolving primitive-equation regional model (RM of 1/16° resolution embedded in a general circulation model (GM of the Mediterranean Sea of 1/8° resolution. The RM is forced by a monthly climatology of heat fluxes, precipitation and wind stress. The GM, which uses the same atmospheric forcing, provides initial and boundary conditions for the RM. Analysis of the RM results shows that several realistic features of the large-scale and mesoscale circulation are evident in this region. The mean cyclonic circulation is in good agreement with observations. Mesoscale variability is intense along the coasts of Sardinia and Corsica, in the Gulf of Lions and in the Catalan Sea. The length scales of the Northern Current meanders along the Provence coast and in the Gulf of Lions’ shelf are in good agreement with observations. Winter Intermediate Water is formed along most of the north-coast shelves, between the Gulf of Genoa and Cape Creus. Advection of this water by the mean cyclonic circulation generates a complex eddy field in the Catalan Sea. Intense anticyclonic eddies are generated northeast of the Balearic Islands. These results are in good agreement with mesoscale activity inferred from satellite altimetric data. This work demonstrates the feasibility of a down-scaling system composed of a general-circulation, a regional and a coastal model, which is one of the goals of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project.

Key words. Oceanography: physical (currents; eddies and mesoscale processes; general circulation

V. Echevin

329

Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion (Panthera leo, African wild dog (Lycaon pictus and spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Little is known about gastrointestinal parasite infections in large carnivores in Africa and what is available is largely from East Africa. We collected faecal samples from nine spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta, 15 lions (Panthera leo and 13 African wild dog (Lycaon pictus from Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  The most common gastrointestinal parasites found were Isospora sp., Spirometra sp., Taeniidae, and Sarcosystis sp.  Twenty-eight percent of all samples were co-infected with Spirometra sp. and Taeniidae, with co-infection rates highest among lions (67%. Thirty-three percent (3/9 of spotted hyaenas were infected with Isospora sp. Ninety-two percent (12/13 of wild dog were infected with Sarcocystis, similar to results from studies in South Africa. One lion was infected with a parasite whose morphology suggests Strongyloides sp., not previously been reported in lions.  Samples from one lion and two spotted hyena yielded no gastrointestinal parasites.  Overall, parasite species were consistent with those found from studies in other regions of Africa and are likely a result of ingesting infected prey. To our knowledge this study provides the most comprehensive survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection from this region of Africa to date and provides baseline data for future studies.

Are Berentsen

2013-03-01

330

Social and reproductive factors affecting cortisol levels in wild female golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

The steroid hormone cortisol has been associated with different levels of "stress" as well as different reproductive conditions in many primates. In callitrichids, cortisol has more often been reflective of female reproductive status than of chronic stress. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that wild golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) females, whose social structure is characterized by low aggression and high social support, would not show rank ("stress")-related differences in glucocorticoids but would show reproductive changes. We collected 710 fecal samples from 22 adult females in Poço das Antas Reserve, Brazil, and nearby reintroduction areas, and assayed them for cortisol. Differences in cortisol levels were found between different reproductive conditions. Females in the first trimester of pregnancy had lower cortisol levels than nonpregnant females, although we did not differentiate between basal and ovulating levels in nonpregnant females. Cortisol rose in the third trimester of pregnancy. Primiparous females had a higher rise in the third trimester than multiparous females. No differences in cortisol levels were found among dominant females, ovulatory subordinate females, or anovulatory subordinate females. These results are similar to those obtained in other studies of callitrichid females. The lack of differences in cortisol excretion between dominants and subordinates is likely due to the low levels of overt aggression and the high level of social support available to subordinate females. PMID:16163718

Bales, Karen L; French, Jeffrey A; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dietz, James M

2005-09-01

331

Energy intake, energy expenditure, and reproductive costs of female wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Callitrichid females are often described as energetically constrained. We examined the energy budgets of 10 female wild golden lion tamarins (GLTs, Leontopithecus rosalia) in an effort to understand how energy intake and expenditure might influence physical condition and therefore reproductive performance. We used focal animal sampling to record behavioral data and conducted energy analyses of foods consumed by GLTs to estimate intake and expenditure. We used two-tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare intake in the reproductive vs. nonreproductive period and expenditure in the reproductive vs. nonreproductive period. Energy intake decreased during the reproductive period compared to the nonreproductive period. While total expenditure did not vary significantly across the two periods, females spent more time and therefore expended significantly more energy engaged in energetically inexpensive behaviors (i.e., sleeping or being stationary) during the reproductive period compared to the nonreproductive period. We suggest that reproductive female GLTs may adopt a reproductive strategy that includes high intake prior to pregnancy and lactation, and energy conservation during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:17044004

Miller, Kimran E; Bales, Karen L; Ramos, Jadir H; Dietz, James M

2006-11-01

332

Surgical correction of familial diaphragmatic hernia of Morgagni in the Golden Lion Tamarin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Golden Lion Tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) is an endangered species of primate indigenous to the coastal rain forest of Brazil. Since 1971 a propagation and behavioral research program has been carried out on a colony of these monkeys at the Zoological Park. Several related animals have died and at necropsy have shown absence of the anterior portion of the diaphragm with a variety of abdominal viscera in the thorax. Diagnostic studies undertaken on the living members of the colony include plain chest radiographs and gastrointestinal series. Four of the animals have been found to have major diaphragmatic defects with the liver, stomach, spleen, colon, and portions of the intestine in the chest. In three of the animals so affected clinical signs of failure-to-thrive were clearly manifest, although one female born in 1968 has reproduced successfully for 8 yr with no deleterious clinical effects from the hernia. Surgical repair of the diaphragm with relocation of the abdominal viscera has been carried out in three of the animals under a combination of intravenous and intra-tracheal anesthesia. The monkeys weighed 550, 685, and 710 g, respectively. All three Tamarins have survived the operative procedure, and subsequently have shown improved clinical status. These cases have been instructive from the genetic point of view, the major anatomical defect, the type of repair necessary, and the postoperative care in small vigorous mammals. Additionally this study documents a familial factor in diaphragmatic defects in higher mammals. PMID:6788931

Randolph, J; Bush, M; Abramowitz, M; Kleiman, D; Montali, R J

1981-06-01

333

The Laparoscopic Implantation of Neuroprothesis (LION) Procedure to Control Intractable Abdomino-Pelvic Neuralgia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective.? To present different aspects and advantages of the laparoscopic implantation of a peripheral nerve stimulator adjacent to the pelvic nerves, aimed at treating intractable pelvic neuralgia by means of neuromodulation-the laparoscopic implantation of neuroprothesis (LION) procedure. Materials and Methods.? We report here a series of three patients with different types and etiologies of chronic pelvic neuralgia who underwent laparoscopy for implantation of a peripheral nerve stimulator for neuromodulation, the first for neuromodulation of the ilioinguinal and pudendal nerves, the second for neuromodulation of the sciatic nerve, and the third for neuromodulation of the sacral nerve roots. In all three patients, the neuralgia was refractory to medical management and had profound socioeconomic consequences for the patients. Results.? Laparoscopic implantation of neuroelectrodes was successfully performed in all three patients and resulted significant diminution of pain without need for further medical treatment. Conclusions.? Laparoscopy allows optimal implantation of electrodes on all pelvic nerves through a minimally invasive approach. In addition, it permits new applications of neuromodulation for pelvic polyneuropathies or mononeuropathy, not covered by classical spinal cord or transcutaneous techniques. PMID:22151808

Possover, Marc; Baekelandt, Jan; Chiantera, Vito

2007-01-01

334

Metacognitive-like information seeking in lion-tailed macaques: a generalized search response after all?  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has demonstrated that Old World primates (both apes and monkeys) seek information about the location of a hidden food item, unless they are privy to the hiding process. This has been cited as evidence of metacognition. However, these results could also be interpreted using non-metacognitive accounts, including a generalized search response to uncertainty, in which subjects reach for food when it is seen, or search for food until it is spotted. In the present research, lion-tailed macaques were tested on an object-choice task. Conditions varied with respect to the visibility of the baiting process, and whether the location of the hidden food could be inferred by logical exclusion. Additionally, the hidden food could be located visually before a choice was made, by peering under the objects through a Plexiglas tray. Across conditions, monkeys consistently looked for the food when it had not been seen, even if its location could be inferred, despite the fact that these monkeys are capable of inference by exclusion. This suggests that apparently 'metacognitive' information seeking in monkeys may instead reflect a generalized search strategy. Alternatively, it is possible that monkeys only have metacognitive access to certain types of knowledge, including that obtained visually. Results are discussed with respect to the likelihood of metacognition in this species and the evolutionary emergence of metacognition across species. PMID:24913068

Marsh, Heidi L

2014-11-01

335

Cistos peribiliares em leão-africano (Panthera leo) / Peribiliary cysts in an African lion (Panthera leo)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São descritos os achados macroscópicos e histopatológicos de cistos peribiliares em uma fêmea adulta de leão-africano (Panthera leo). Macroscopicamente, todos os lobos hepáticos continham numerosos cistos preenchidos por líquido translúcido. Histologicamente, os cistos estavam localizados no hilo he [...] pático e nos tratos portais. Os cistos eram revestidos internamente por epitélio simples, constituído por células colunares ou cuboidais e não mucinosas, de acordo com avaliação para ácido periódico de Schiff/azul alciano. Na imuno-histiquímica, todas as células desse epitélio foram positivas para citoceratina. O leão morreu de complicações relacionadas a um carcinoma pulmonar e não foram observadas alterações clínicas associadas à lesão hepática, comprovando que cistos peribiliares em leões também ocorrem não associados a sinais clínicos. Abstract in english The gross and histopathological aspects of peribiliary cysts in an adult African lioness (Panthera leo) are described. Grossly, all hepatic lobes contained numerous cysts filled with translucent fluid. Histologically it was observed that the cysts were located in the hepatic hilum and in the portal [...] triads. Periodic acid-Schiff and Alcian blue stains, revealed the cysts to be lined by simple, non-mucinous, cuboidal or columnar epithelium. In immunohistochemistry staining all cells comprising this epithelium were positive for cytokeratin. The lioness died due to complications stemming from a pulmonary carcinoma and no clinical signs related to the hepatic lesion were observed, demonstrating that also in lions the peribiliary cysts occur as non-clinical disease associated lesions.

Ricardo B., Lucena; Rafael A., Fighera; Claudio S. L., Barros.

2011-02-01

336

Dentition and Life History of a 16-year-old Known-age Free-living Male Lion Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758 from the Kruger National Park  

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Full Text Available Wear in the dentition of a known-age, free-living, 16-year-old male lion is described and compared to existing age-determination techniques. Aspects of his life history are described as they are in some contrast to what is known of male lions' life history strategies.

I.J. Whyte

1988-10-01

337

Atmospheric patterns driving Holocene productivity in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean): a multiproxy approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is aimed to reconstruct productivity during the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean as well as to investigate what processes account for its short-term variability. Fossil coccolithophore assemblages have been studied along with Mg/Ca and Uk'37-estimated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental proxies. The study site is located in a semi-permanent area of upwelling in the Alboran Sea. This productive cell is of special interest since is closely related to local hydrological dynamics driven by the entering Atlantic Jet (AJ). The onset of this productive cell is suggested at 7.7 ka cal. B.P. and linked to the establishment of the anticyclonic gyres. From 7.7 ka cal. BP to present, the N ratio and accumulation rate of Florisphaera profunda show successive upwelling and stratification events. This alternation is simultaneous to changes in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation rate in the Gulf of Lions [Frigola et al., 2007], along with changes in Mg/Ca-estimated SST, relative abundance of reworked nannoliths, pollen grains record [Fletcher et al., 2012] and n-hexacosan-1-ol index. Two scenarios are proposed to explain short-term climatic and oceanographic variability: [1] Wetter climate and weaker north-westerlies blowing over the Gulf of Lions trigger a slackening of the WMDW formation. Consequently, a minor AJ inflows the Alboran Sea leading to less vertical mixing and a deepening of the nutricline and hence, long-term stratification events. [2] Arid climate and stronger north-westerlies enable WMDW reinforcement. In turn, increased AJ triggers vertical mixing and nutricline shoaling, and therefore, productive periods. Finally, changes in atmospheric patterns (e.g. the winter North Atlantic Oscillation; [Olsen et al., 2012]) prove to be useful in explaining the WMDW formation in the Gulf of Lions and associated short-term productivity variations in the Alboran Sea. References Fletcher, W. J., M. Debret, and M. F. Sanchez Goñi (2012), Mid-Holocene emergence of a low-frequency millennial oscillation in western Mediterranean climate: Implications for past dynamics of the North Atlantic atmospheric westerlies, The Holocene, 23, 153-166. Frigola, J., A. Moreno, I. Cacho, M. Canals, F. J. Sierro, J. A. Flores, J. O. Grimalt, D. A. Hodell, and J. H. Curtis (2007), Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean region from a deepwater sediment record, Paleoceanography, 22, PA2209. Olsen, J., N. J. Anderson, and M. F. Knudsen (2012), Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation over the past 5,200 years, Nature Geosci, 5, 808-812.

Ausin, Blanca; Flores, Jose-Abel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Cacho, Isabel; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Martrat, Belén; Grimalt, Joan

2014-05-01

338

Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae, select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?  

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Full Text Available The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches that would facilitate call propagation and perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766 - emit long calls from places (perch within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4 of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

Vera Sabatini

2010-04-01

339

Does the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia (Primates: Callitrichidae), select a location whithin the forest strata for long distance communication?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effectiveness of auditory signals for long distance communication depends on environmental, biological and behavioral factors. Because the environment is not homogenous, it is expected that vocalizing animals would emit signals from locations (perches) that would facilitate call propagation and [...] perception. Perching behavior has been widely documented in birds, but not in primates. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether golden lion tamarins - Leontopithecus rosalia (Linnaeus, 1766) - emit long calls from places (perch) within the forest strata that are higher above the ground with respect to places used for baseline behaviors. We compared the forest stratum (upper, middle and lower strata) and habitat type (hill, swamp and lowland forests) used for long calls with those used for other behaviors. The focal animal technique (n = 4) of 10 minutes with instantaneous sampling at two minutes were used if the subjects were not emitting long calls, and the all-occurrences technique if a focal individual emitted a two-phrase long call. Golden lion tamarins used all strata in all habitat types, including the ground, when they were not emitting long calls, but vocalized long calls most often from the upper strata, just underneath the canopy, in the three habitats studied. From a total of 29 bouts of long calls, 21 were initiated by individuals that were in the lower stratum; however, these individuals subsequently migrated to the upper stratum, while still vocalizing. Calling from the upper strata of the forest, just underneath canopy could improve sound transmission, perception, visual contact or a combination of these types of communication. Based on these considerations, we hypothetize that by placing themselves in the upper strata of the forest when emitting calls, golden lion tamarins enhance their likelhood to locate other callers, not only be improving sound reception, but also by increasing their chances to make visual contact with them.

Vera, Sabatini; Carlos R., Ruiz-Miranda.

2010-04-01

340

Upper Pleistocene Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss, 1810 skeleton remains from Praha-Podbaba and other lion finds from loess and river terrace sites in Central Bohemia (Czech Republic  

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Full Text Available Historical finds of bone remains of Panthera leo spelaea (Goldfuss from the Upper Pleistocene loess open air site at Praha-Podbaba (Czech Republic are reviewed. The largely complete cranium from Central Bohemia and finds from other sites in Czech Republic are also described. The bone proportions of the cranial and postcranial material from Podbaba indicate them to have come from an adult male lion carcass. One foreleg and lower jaw belonged to an adult female as evidenced by their much smaller proportions. A few additional bones were found at other loess pits around Praha along the Vltava River and at open air sites along the Berounka River close to Beroun. By undertaking a preliminary overview of these finds and other bones from cave sites in Central Bohemia, a first palaeobiogeographical distribution of these extinct carnivores can be presented. The lion remains from the open air sites, were found alongside the typical glacial cold-period macrofauna consisting of a few Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, but mainly Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach bones, which were often well-chewed by Ice Age spotted hyenas. Other faunal remains were found in the loess sites, and these appeared, in most cases, to be hyena prey depots or scavenging sites. These remains included Bison priscus (Bojanus, Equus ferus Boddaert [partly Equus przewalskii (Poljakoff], Equus hemionus (Pallas, Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, Capra ibex (Linnaeus and rarely Rupricapra rupricapra (Linnaeus. The latter two animals indicate that an alpine fauna existed in Central Bohemia during the early and middle Upper Pleistocene. Some lion remains and locations described here may be of Saalian Age, during which a similar fauna existed. The bone accumulations, including lion remains, are probably, in many cases, hyena prey deposits. Their presence in caves seems to have been mainly the result of hyena and lion conflicts, and lion kills which were imported, often as complete carcasses, into the hyena cave dens such as the one at Srbsko Chlum-Komín. Their carcasses seemed to have very often been imported by hyenas into their dens in loess along the Weichselian river valleys, the Vltava and Berounka Rivers. In some cases, lions may have been killed at the conflict site, and been scavenged there. The proven minimum number of individuals (MNI lions for the Weichselian in Central Bohemia can be estimated from cave and open air sites to be about 20 compared with a provable hyena MNI of more than twice this number at about 48 individuals.

Diedrich C G

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Beaufort Sea: information update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

Becker, P.R.

1988-04-01

342

L’iconographie ortodoxe du Sommeil de l’Enfant Jésus, endormi comme un lion, et ses variantes roumaines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L’image du Sommeil de Jésus porte des noms différents dans les Balkans et en Russie, sans se distinguer fondamentalement du point de vue iconographique. En Grèce l’image s’appelle Anapeson (gr. ? ????????: fr. Celui qui se couche – Genèse, 49 : 9) et porte parfois en titre le verset entier « Il ploie les genoux, il se couche, comme un lion, comme une lionne : qui le fera lever ?», alors que les icônes et les fresques russes du même type sont intitulées L’OEil qui v...

Ciobanu, Constantin I.

2012-01-01

343

Effects of age, sex, and reproductive status on scent marking frequencies in the golden lion tamarin, Leontopithecus rosalia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the longitudinal changes in scent marking frequencies of male and female lion tamarins in relation to age, reproductive status, and group composition. Juvenile males and females in family groups and subordinate males in trios (2 males, 1 female) scent marked infrequently. Juvenile females scent marked less than juvenile males and began scent marking later. Adult pair-bonded males and females scent marked with similar frequencies. Females showed scent marking increases during mid-pregnancy, but their scent marking decreased both before and again after parturition. Both males and females exhibited decreases in scent marking while transporting dependent infants. PMID:6774938

Kleiman, D G; Mack, D S

1980-01-01

344

Millennial variability recorded by the benthic fauna in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean) between Heinrich 3 and 4  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variations in the benthic foraminifer assemblage have been studied from a 300m-depth core in the Gulf ofLions (PRGL1-4) during the last 41-28 kyr (between Heinrich events 4 and 3). The number of benthicforaminifers per gram, the infaunal/epifaunal ratio, and most of the benthic species relative abundanceshow a very clear Dansgaard-Oeschger variability. The stadial species suggest a well oxygenated oligotrophicenvironment with low organic matter content in the sediment. By contrast, the inters...

Gonza?lez-mora, Beatriz; Sierro Sa?nchez, Francisco Javier; Flores Villarejo, Jose? Abel; Berne?, Serge

2007-01-01

345

Metabolic bone disease in lion cubs at the London Zoo in 1889: the original animal model of rickets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract In 1889 Dr. John Bland-Sutton, a prominent London surgeon, was consulted about fatal rickets in over 20 successive litters of lion cubs born at the London Zoo. He evaluated the diet and found the cause of rickets to be nutritional in origin. He recommended that goat meat with crushed bones and cod-liver oil be added to the lean horsemeat diet of the cubs and their mothers. Rickets were reversed, the cubs survived, and subsequent litters thrived. Thirty years later, in class...

Chesney Russell W; Hedberg Gail

2010-01-01

346

Sources of variability in numbers of live births in wild golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of several variables on the number of live births in multiparous females in a wild population of golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Independent variables included the number of infants born to a female the previous breeding season, the number of infants weaned the previous breeding season, the female's age and body mass, the number of adult males and helpers in the group, and the inbreeding coefficient of the offspring. We also tested the hypothesis that trapping and chemical immobilization during pregnancy affected the number of live births. Female body mass was the only statistically significant predictor of the number of live-born infants in the current season when both first and second peaks were included. Characteristics that predicted higher numbers of infants in the first peak of a season were the number of infants born the previous season and the body mass of the female. The greater the number of infants born the previous season, the greater the number of infants born in the first peak of the current season. Factors positively correlated with the number of live births in the second peak within a season included the number of infants born the previous season, as well as the number of available helpers. Due to sample size constraints, the analysis of litters in the second peak did not include body mass of the female as a variable. Inbreeding and handling did not affect the number of live births. We found no evidence that current reproduction negatively impacts future reproduction in this species. We also found no evidence for an age-related reduction in fertility. PMID:11468751

Bales, K; O'Herron, M; Baker, A J; Dietz, J M

2001-08-01

347

Natural and induced ovarian synchrony in golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Ovarian cycle synchrony was assessed in spontaneously cycling female golden lion tamarins by monitoring longitudinal (16 mo) urinary steroid metabolite (estrone conjugates; pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide, PdG) excretion in four pairs (n = 8) of females isolated from males. The overall mean ovarian cycle duration was 18.5 +/- 0.3 days (n = 136 cycles; mean range, 15.7-21.0 days), and there was no evidence of reproductive seasonality. Laparoscopic ovarian examinations confirmed that cyclic fluctuations in urinary steroid metabolite excretion were temporally associated with the formation and demise of corpora lutea. Evaluation of ovarian synchronization tested the null hypothesis that urinary hormone cycles were expressed randomly relative to those of cagemates or other females housed in separate cages but within close proximity. Natural ovarian synchrony (expressed as the mean difference in ovarian cycle onset) between cagemates (4.1 +/- 0.4 days) and among noncagemates (4.2 +/- 0.2 days) did not differ (p > 0.05) from a random ovarian cycle distribution. Two trials also were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha analogue, cloprostenol, for artificially synchronizing ovarian cycles. Induced ovarian synchrony was not achieved with a single 0.8-microgram i.m. injection of cloprostenol. However, doubling the cloprostenol dose (1.6 micrograms) caused a rapid decrease in mean urinary PdG (p < 0.05) within 2 days, and synchronous ovulation was demonstrated by an increase (p < 0.01) in mean urinary PdG 10 days after cloprostenol administration. In summary, females housed in pairs, in the absence of males, exhibit spontaneous, year-round ovarian cycles with no evidence of among-female ovarian synchrony. Results also suggest that this New World primate has a reduced sensitivity to cloprostenol (compared to common marmosets) but that a single, midcycle cloprostenol injection of 1.6 micrograms effectively induces luteolysis and synchronous ovulation. PMID:8879503

Monfort, S L; Bush, M; Wildt, D E

1996-10-01

348

Active layer thermal regime at different vegetation covers at Lions Rump, King George Island, Maritime Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change impacts the biotic and abiotic components of polar ecosystems, affecting the stability of permafrost, active layer thickness, vegetation, and soil. This paper describes the active layer thermal regimes of two adjacent shallow boreholes, under the same soil but with two different vegetations. The study is location in Lions Rump, at King George Island, Maritime Antarctic, one of the most sensitive regions to climate change, located near the climatic limit of Antarctic permafrost. Both sites are a Turbic Cambic Cryosol formed on andesitic basalt, one under moss vegetation (Andreaea gainii, at 85 m a.s.l.) and another under lichen (Usnea sp., at 86 m a.s.l.), located 10 m apart. Ground temperature at same depths (10, 30 and 80 cm), water content at 80 cm depth and air temperature were recorded hourly between March 2009 and February 2011. The two sites showed significant differences in mean annual ground temperature for all depths. The lichen site showed a higher soil temperature amplitude compared to the moss site, with ground surface (10 cm) showing the highest daily temperature in January 2011 (7.3 °C) and the lowest daily temperature in August (- 16.5 °C). The soil temperature at the lichen site closely followed the air temperature trend. The moss site showed a higher water content at the bottommost layer, consistent with the water-saturated, low landscape position. The observed thermal buffering effect under mosses is primarily associated with higher moisture onsite, but a longer duration of the snowpack (not monitored) may also have influenced the results. Active layer thickness was approximately 150 cm at low-lying moss site, and 120 cm at well-drained lichen site. This allows to classify these soils as Cryosols (WRB) or Gelisols (Soil Taxonomy), with evident turbic features.

Almeida, Ivan C. C.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Fernandes, Raphael B. A.; Pereira, Thiago T. C.; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Pereira, Antônio Batista

2014-11-01

349

Campylobacter corcagiensis sp. nov., isolated from faeces of captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus).  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation of the prevalence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in a variety of animals led to the identification of the strain CIT 045(T), in the faeces of captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Originally, believed to be Campylobacter ureolyticus based on the colony morphology and positive urease test, analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequences of this isolate revealed that the strain differs significantly from other species of the genus Campylobacter described to date. Species-specific primers for 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes were designed and used to identify two additional strains isolated from faeces samples from other macaques. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes revealed ?95% and ?82 ?% sequence similarity to recognized species of the genus Campylobacter respectively. All three isolates formed a distinct group within the genus Campylobacter based on their 16S rRNA and hsp60 sequences and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) profiles. The unique species status was further supported by phenotypic characteristics of the isolates. All isolates were found to be oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive, they grew well at 37 °C and 42 °C and produced H2S on TSI (triple-sugar iron) and SIM (sulfide indole motility) media. The name Campylobacter corcagiensis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the strain CIT 045(T) as the type strain CIT 045(T) (?=?LMG 27932(T), CCUG 64942(T)). PMID:24876239

Koziel, Monika; O'Doherty, Pat; Vandamme, Peter; Corcoran, Gerard D; Sleator, Roy D; Lucey, Brigid

2014-08-01

350

Subversion of power: Exploring the Lion metaphor in Nahum 2:12-14  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The short book of Nahum has posed many questions to the scholarly community. For many the book represents an unacceptable display of nationalism and for others the violence in Nahum is too much to bear. The book also stirs emotions with its humiliating references to women to depict weakness and reje [...] ction. The book of Nahum also raises the question of YHWH as the aggressor committing acts of violence. These issues are all valid concerns that need to be entertained by scholars. However, the poetic nature of the Nahum text cannot go unnoticed. The view taken is that Nahum should be read as "resistance poetry " similar to struggle poems and songs that function in oppressive contexts. The argument promoted in this article is that the rhetoric of the book serves the purpose of enticing the Judean people to imagine victory in spite of their oppression and victimisation by the Assyrian forces. The text of Nahum is an excellent display of power battles with the sovereign power YHWH overpowering the Assyrian powers with Nineveh and the Assyrian king as symbols of power. YHWH acts on behalf of the Judean people, who feel powerless in their confrontation with the Assyrians. With this in mind, it will be illustrated that some metaphors in Nahum are used as a means to undermine the power of the enemy. A case will be put forward that the metaphor of the lion, which represents power par excellence, is used in Nah 2:12-14 in a taunt song to subvert the idea of power inherent in this very image. The idea is to illustrate how a metaphor depicting power is used creatively to achieve the exact opposite by subverting that power.

Wilhelm J., Wessels.

351

Can Satellite-derived Chlorophyll Imagery Be Used to Trace Surface Dynamics in Coastal Zone? A Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparison of chlorophyll data from SeaWiFS imagery and modeling results from a 3D hydrodynamical model was performed over the northwestern Mediterranean for the entire year of 2001. The study aims at investigating the information content brought by satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) maps concerning surface dynamics in coastal zone. The study is mainly focused on the Gulf of Lions (GoL) and its outer region, which are mainly influenced by the Rhône River, local winds...

Gael André; Philippe Forget

2007-01-01

352

Effects of social status, age, and season on androgen and cortisol levels in wild male golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines factors affecting androgen and cortisol levels in wild, male golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia). Golden lion tamarins are a cooperatively breeding species in which groups often contain two potentially breeding males. Brothers frequently emigrate together and develop a clear dominance hierarchy, but interactions between them are primarily affiliative. Duos in which the males are not related are less stable. In addition, reproductive skew theory predicts that dominant males will be less likely to share reproduction with related subordinates. As such, we predicted that both androgens and cortisol would be higher in subordinate males unrelated to the dominant male. We also predicted that androgens in breeding males would be higher during the mating season than the birth/infant care season, as per Wingfield's "challenge hypothesis" (1990). Fecal samples were collected from 24 males in 14 social groups and assayed by enzyme immunoassay. Androgen levels were higher in breeding males during the mating season, thus supporting the challenge hypothesis. However, while subordinate males unrelated to the dominant male had significantly lower androgens than any other group, cortisol levels were not correspondingly higher. These results suggest that unrelated subordinate males show measurable reproductive suppression and may use strategies such as infantilization to avert aggression from dominant males. PMID:15978593

Bales, Karen L; French, Jeffrey A; McWilliams, Jennifer; Lake, Reagan A; Dietz, James M

2006-01-01

353

Synthesis of information on the effects of noise and disturbance on major haulout concentrations of Bering Sea pinnipeds. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study investigated the use of terrestrial haulout sites in the eastern Bering Sea by four species of pennipeds, northern fur seal, northern sea lion, harbor seal and pacific walrus. Historical information on the use of each site was summarized. Available information on the effects of airborne and waterborne noise, and human disturbance (from stationary and moving sources) was reviewed. The authors also conducted a detailed analysis of the acoustic environment of eight haulout sites that were representative of others used by each of the four species studied. The analyses included investigations of (1) characteristics airborne and underwater ambient noise, (2) characteristics of industrial noise sources, including aircraft, small boats, fishing trawlers and commercial cargo traffic, and (3) sound transmission loss in air, water, and through the air-water surface. As a means to evaluate the potential vulnerability of each haulout site to noise and disturbance, a quantitative rating system (IPSI) whereby an index of sensitivity was assigned to each site.

Johnson, S.R.; Burns, J.J.; Malme, C.I.; Davis, R.A.

1989-02-17

354

A Social Network Analysis of Social Cohesion in a Constructed Pride: Implications for Ex Situ Reintroduction of the African Lion (Panthera leo)  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal conservation practices include the grouping of captive related and unrelated individuals to form a social structure which is characteristic of that species in the wild. In response to the rapid decline of wild African lion (Panthera leo) populations, an array of conservational strategies have been adopted. Ex situ reintroduction of the African lion requires the construction of socially cohesive pride structures prior to wild release. This pilot study adopted a social network theory approach to quantitatively assess a captive pride’s social structure and the relationships between individuals within them. Group composition (who is present in a group) and social interaction data (social licking, greeting, play) was observed and recorded to assess social cohesion within a released semi-wild pride. UCINET and SOCPROG software was utilised to represent and analyse these social networks. Results indicate that the pride is socially cohesive, does not exhibit random associations, and the role of socially influential keystone individuals is important for maintaining social bondedness within a lion pride. These results are potentially informative for the structure of lion prides, in captivity and in the wild, and could have implications for captive and wild-founder reintroductions. PMID:24376544

Abell, Jackie; Kirzinger, Morgan W. B.; Gordon, Yvonne; Kirk, Jacqui; Koke?, Rae; Lynas, Kirsty; Mandinyenya, Bob; Youldon, David

2013-01-01

355

Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PMID:17460117

Ramsauer, Sandra; Bay, Gert; Meli, Marina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

2007-06-01

356

Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral. PMID:17626470

Glantz, Michael H

2007-06-01

357

7 CFR 1437.310 - Sea grass and sea oats.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sea grass and sea oats. 1437.310 Section 1437.310...Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.310 Sea grass and sea oats. (a) Sea grass and sea oats are value loss crops and...

2010-01-01

358

Does SEA change outcomes?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the advocacy role that SEA can strategically play towards more sustainable and environmental decision-making and how this can be achieved. It discusses the required conditions for this performance and also the frustrations of SEA when such conditions are absent or insufficient. The paper shares the experience with the case of an SEA on the strategic decision on the location of the new international airport in Lisbon, particularly with respect to how SEA made a difference ...

Partida?rio, Mario R.

2009-01-01

359

Baltic Sea: Radionuclides  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The second most important source is global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Radioactivity inputs into the Baltic Sea from nuclear reprocessing plants in Western Europe have become of minor importance due to significant reduction of discharges in recent years. In terms of input of 137Cs into the Baltic Sea, Chernobyl fallout has contributed about 82% and nuclear weapons test fallout about 14%. For 90Sr in the Baltic Sea, input from atmospheric fallout from nuclear weapons tests has contributed about 81%, while the contribution from Chernobyl fallout was about 13%. Cesium-137 is the main indicator of Baltic seawater with respect to anthropogenic radioactivity. The highest concentrations in seawater during 1999–2006 were found in the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea. The general trend is steadily decreasing. Concentrations of anthropogenic radioactivity in fish generally show decreasing trends in agreement with concentrations in seawater. Among freshwater fish, pike showed large 137Cs values due to their higher concentration factors (CFs). The larger 137Cs values of pike were observed at the coast of the Bothnian Sea. The Baltic Sea is the regional sea in the world with the highest concentrations of 137Cs. The Baltic Sea ranks third in the world with respect to 90Sr in seawater; only the Irish Sea and the Black Sea show higher levels. In 1990, average concentrations of 137Cs in fish from the Baltic Sea were similar to those in the Irish Sea, about 4 times higher than in the Black Sea and about 30 times higher than in the Mediterranean Sea.

Nielsen, Sven Poul; Lüning, Maria

2010-01-01

360

Sea level report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 105 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

 
 
 
 
361

Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in a white lion cub (Panthera leo, with concomitant radiographic double cortical line : clinical communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A captive-bred white lion cub was presented with hindquarter pain, lameness and reluctance to move. Radiographs revealed generalised osteoapenia, multiple fractures, a severely collapsed pelvic girdle, bilateral lateral bowing of the scapulae and mild kyphosis of the caudal vertebrae.Adouble cortical line, a distinct sign of osteopaenia, was repeatedly seen on the pelvic limbs, most strikingly along both femurs. Based on radiographic findings and a history of an exclusive meat diet since weaning, a diagnosis of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism was made. The diet was changed to a commercial kitten food and the cub was given cage rest for 6 weeks. Signs of pain abated and the cub became more active.A guarded prognosis was given for full recovery, as changes to the pelvis were considered potentially irreversible.

V. Herz

2012-06-01

362

Babesia leo n. sp. from lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and its relation to other small piroplasms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Babesia leo, a small piroplasm isolated from lions in South Africa is described as a distinct species based on a phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Intraerythrocytic trophozoite and merozoite stages of B. leo are morphologically indistinguishable from other small piroplasms of felids. Previous studies showed that B. leo was biologically and antigenically distinct from B. felis, which is known to infect wild and domestic felids in South Africa. Molecular characterization showed strong support for the phylogenetic seperation of B. leo as a distinct species from B. felis and other felid piroplasms. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that Babesia microti and all of the felid piroplasms from Africa with known 18S rRNA gene sequences available, including B. leo, formed a single, separate clade, sister to the other babesial and theilerial piroplasm parasites. PMID:11426735

Penzhorn, B L; Kjemtrup, A M; López-Rebollar, L M; Conrad, P A

2001-06-01

363

Sea piracy and law of the sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the sea become world’s largest source to trade between the nations during the last few decades. Of course there are lots of problems in this regards when we are using the sea on such a large scale. The problem of piracy is most dangerous problems, among the all problems of the sea at the same time. Nations are trying to control this crime individually and collectively but the problem is still on its peak. Lots of international and national laws and conventions are held in this regard to ...

Hanif, Muhammad Tahir

2010-01-01

364

Prevalence of antibodies to feline parvovirus, calicivirus, herpesvirus, coronavirus, and immunodeficiency virus and of feline leukemia virus antigen and the interrelationship of these viral infections in free-ranging lions in east Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While viral infections and their impact are well studied in domestic cats, only limited information is available on their occurrence in free-ranging lions. The goals of the present study were (i) to investigate the prevalence of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV), herpesvirus (FHV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvovirus (FPV), and immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen in 311 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1991 from lions inhabiting Tanzania's national...

Hofmann-lehmann, R.; Fehr, D.; Grob, M.; Elgizoli, M.; Packer, C.; Martenson, J. S.; O Brien, S. J.; Lutz, H.

1996-01-01

365

The Role of Copper and Vitamin A Deficiencies Leading to Neurological Signs in Captive Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and Lions (Panthera leo) in the United Arab Emirates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neurological signs like ataxia and hind limb paresis have often been reported in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), lions (Panthera leo) and snow leopards (Panthera unica). As a cause, copper and Vitamin A deficiencies have been discussed. Many cases were seen in cheetahs and lions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) within the last years. The aim of this study was to find correlations between nutrition, serum, and tissue levels, focusing on copper and Vitamin A. Blood and ...

Claudia Kaiser; Ulrich Wernery; Jörg Kinne; Laurie Marker; Annette Liesegang

2014-01-01

366

Hormonal characteristics of free-ranging female lions (Panthera leo) of the Serengeti Plains and Ngorongoro Crater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pituitary responses to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and prolactin and steroid secretory profiles were examined in two populations of adult, female lions in the Serengeti (one outbred in the Serengeti Plains and one inbred in the Ngorongoro Crater) to determine whether reductions in genetic variability adversely affected endocrine function. GnRH-induced gonadotrophin secretion was also examined after adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) treatment to determine whether acute increases in serum cortisol altered pituitary function. Anaesthetized lions were administered (i) saline i.v. after 10 and 100 min of blood sampling, (ii) saline at 10 min and GnRH (1 micrograms kg-1 body weight) after 100 min; or (iii) ACTH (3 micrograms kg-1) at 10 min and GnRH after 100 min of sampling. Basal serum cortisol and basal and GnRH-induced gonadotrophin secretion were similar (P > 0.05) between females of the Ngorongoro Crater and Serengeti Plains. After ACTH, serum cortisol increased two- to threefold over baseline values and the response was unaffected (P > 0.05) by location. ACTH-induced increases in serum cortisol had no effect on subsequent basal or GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Overall mean serum progesterone concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 5.4 ng ml-1 with the exception of four females (two in the Serengeti and two in the Crater; progesterone range, 18.4-46.5 ng ml-1) that were presumed pregnant (three of these females were observed nursing cubs several weeks later).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8385220

Brown, J L; Bush, M; Packer, C; Pusey, A E; Monfort, S L; O'Brien, S J; Janssen, D L; Wildt, D E

1993-01-01

367

Sea ice variability in the Nordic Seas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The variability of ice distribution in the Nordic Seas is considered for the period 1966-1988. The average maximum extension is found to be nearly constant for the whole area, except for the Iceland Sea where there is a reduction of about 33%. The average minimum extension shows a reduction between 13% and 40%, except for the Greenland Sea where the changes are insignificant. The largest reductions in the minimum extension are observed in the Barents and the Iceland Seas. Although these calculations are based on regression analysis, rendering the best estimate of the observed changes, the variability is so large that the series becomes too short for statistically significant conclusions. A comparison with older data shows that the average minimum extension of the ice in the Barents Sea has decreased drastically since the turn of the century. Estimations made for the Barents Sea suggest that the average increase over the last two decades of the area being melted from the end of April to the end of August may be caused by either a decrease in the ice thickness of about 17% or an increase of the heat input of about 20%, or a combination of these effects

368

Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."  

Science.gov (United States)

"Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy activities for…

WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

369

Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."  

Science.gov (United States)

"Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for parents and…

WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

370

Are Aftershocks of Large Californian Earthquakes Diffusing?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze 21 aftershock sequences of California to test for evidence of space-time diffusion. Aftershock diffusion may result from stress diffusion and is also predicted by any mechanism of stress weakening. Here, we test an alternative mechanism to explain aftershock diffusion, based on multiple cascades of triggering. In order to characterize aftershock diffusion, we develop two methods, one based on a suitable time and space windowing, the other using a wavelet transform...

Helmstetter, A.; Ouillon, Guy; Sornette, D.

2003-01-01

371

Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida) on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials / Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida) en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida) usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, r [...] elación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente). En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de medias mediante contrastes ortogonales. A las 25 semanas ambos sistemas redujeron la relación C/N a valores de 15,5 en vermicompost y de 17,1 en semi-compost, además se incrementó el contenido de N-total, N-NO3, Ca y de algunos micronutrimentos. La concentración de K, y Na fueron más altos en compost que en vermicompost. La media de pH presentó diferencia para los sistemas de descomposición. El índice de germinación usando semillas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) var. Grandes Lagos in vitro de los productos de descomposición se incrementó en la semana 25 indicando el grado de madurez alcanzado. El efecto del almacenamiento permitió alcanzar una mayor estabilidad de los productos al reducir la relación C/N a 8,13 para vermicompost y de 7,05 para compost, así como un incremento en el contenido de N disponible en forma de N-NO3 en el caso del compost y en el contenido de Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn y Cu en ambos sistemas. Abstract in english The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida) was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, ph [...] ytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively). A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.) var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.

Hugo, Castillo; Adriana, Hernández; David, Dominguez; Damaris, Ojeda.

2010-09-01

372

Comportamiento de lombriz roja californiana y lombriz silvestre en bosta bovina y rumia bovina como sustrato / Behavior of californian red earthworm and wild earthworm in bovine dung and bovine rumination as substrate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los Yungas del departamento de La Paz, Bolivia se ubica la comunidad Carmen Pampa, fuente de recursos naturales y biodiversidad exquisita, últimamente está siendo afectada por los chaqueos y actividades agrícolas convencionales, dado que no existen datos suficientes en la región para poder desarr [...] ollar alternativas agrícolas sostenibles que cuiden el medio ambiente, de ahí que este trabajo tiene como propósito estudiar el comportamiento de la lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia spp.) y la lombriz silvestre (Lumbricus spp.) en dos sustratos a fin mejorar la calidad del vermicompost producido por estos anélidos. El trabajo se ha realizado en el módulo de Microbiología Ambiental, en instalaciones de la Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP), Campus Leahy, ubicado en Coroico Nor Yungas del Departamento de La Paz-Bolivia. Se ha estudiado su comportamiento en dos sustratos bosta bobina (estiércol) y rumia bovina (rumia) en 40 unidades experimentales de 0.2 m de ancho*0.25 m de largo*0.4 m de profundidad, cada unidad presentaba una densidad de 5, 10, 15, 20 y 25 individuos con dos repeticiones de cada una en 1 000 g de sustrato. Se determinó el número de cocones, número de individuos a las 8 semanas, porcentaje de degradación del sustrato. Los resultados indican que los sustratos estiércol son mejores en la dinámica poblacional de Eisenia spp., en comparación con Lumbricus spp. Posiblemente las características físicas y químicas del estiércol y la rumia influyeron en este tipo de comportamiento de Eisenia spp. Abstract in english In Yungas of department of La Paz, Bolivia is located the community Carmen Pampas, source of natural resources and exquisite biodiversity, lately is being affected by the chaqueos and conventional agricultural activities, due there is not enough data in the region to develop sustainable agricultural [...] alternatives that take care of environment. Taking this into account this work has as purpose to study the behavior of the californian red earthworm (Eisenia spp.) and the wild earthworm (Lumbricus spp.) in two substrates with the aim to improve the quality of vermicompost produced by these annelids. The work has been carried out in the module of Environmental Microbiology, in facilities of Unidad Académica Campesina Carmen Pampa (UACCP), Campus Leahy, located in Coroico Nor Yungas of Departamento of La Paz-Bolivia. Their behavior has been studied in two substrates bovine dung (manure) and bovine rumination (rumination) in 40 experimental units of 0.2 m width*0.25 m length*0.4 m depth, each unit showed a density of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 individuals with two repetitions of each one in 1 000 g of substrate. The cocoons number, number of individuals at 8 weeks, and percentage of degradation of the substrate was determined. The results indicate that substrates manure is better in the population dynamics of Eisenia spp., in comparison with Lumbricus spp. The physical and chemical characteristics of manure and rumination possibly influenced in this type of behavior for Eisenia spp.

Manuel, Loza Murguía; Beatriz, Choque Mamani; Hilda, Pillco Tancara; David, Huayta Tintaya; Iván, Chambi Osorio; Berta, Cutili Palero.

2010-12-30

373

Effect of Californian Red Worm (Eisenia foetida on the Nutrient Dynamics of a Mixture of Semicomposted Materials Efecto de la Lombriz Roja Californiana (Eisenia foetida en la Dinámica de Nutrientes de una Mezcla de Materiales Semicompostados  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficiency of composting processes with and without the addition of Californian red worms (Eisenia foetida was evaluated, using manure of dairy cows to generate organic fertilizer. Several parameters were assessed as physio-chemical indicators of maturity, such as temperature, pH, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity and macro and micronutrients at 25 and 54 ws (mature and stored products, respectively. A linear model was used in the statistical analysis, with four replicates that included as fixed effects, the composting systems and time. At 25 wk, both systems reduced the C/N ratio to values of 15.5 in vermicompost and 17.1 in semi-compost. The content of total N, N-NO3, Ca and some micronutrients also increased. K and Na concentrations were higher in the compost than in the vermicompost. The mean of pH presented differences in the two systems of decomposition. The germination index, using lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro, of the decomposition products increased in week 25, indicating the degree of maturity reached. The effect of storage was greater stability of the products by reducing the C/N ratio to 8.13 for vermicompost and 7.05 for compost, as well as an increase in available N content in the form of N-NO3 in the case of compost and in the content of Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn and Cu in both systems.Se evaluó la eficiencia de los procesos de compostaje con y sin la adición de lombriz roja californiana (Eisenia foetida usando estiércol de vacas lecheras para la generación de abonos orgánicos. Como indicadores de madurez se evaluaron varios parámetros fisicoquímicos tales como temperatura, pH, relación C/N, fitotoxicidad y macro y micronutrientes durante 25 y 54 semanas (productos maduros y almacenados, respectivamente. En el análisis estadístico se usó un modelo lineal con cuatro repeticiones que incluyó como efectos fijos los sistemas de compostaje y el tiempo. Se realizó análisis de varianza y comparación de medias mediante contrastes ortogonales. A las 25 semanas ambos sistemas redujeron la relación C/N a valores de 15,5 en vermicompost y de 17,1 en semi-compost, además se incrementó el contenido de N-total, N-NO3, Ca y de algunos micronutrimentos. La concentración de K, y Na fueron más altos en compost que en vermicompost. La media de pH presentó diferencia para los sistemas de descomposición. El índice de germinación usando semillas de lechuga (Lactuca sativa L. var. Grandes Lagos in vitro de los productos de descomposición se incrementó en la semana 25 indicando el grado de madurez alcanzado. El efecto del almacenamiento permitió alcanzar una mayor estabilidad de los productos al reducir la relación C/N a 8,13 para vermicompost y de 7,05 para compost, así como un incremento en el contenido de N disponible en forma de N-NO3 en el caso del compost y en el contenido de Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Mn y Cu en ambos sistemas.

Hugo Castillo

2010-09-01

374

Planning the Bothnian Sea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In all parts of the world the sea is a source of life, of energy, of food, of commerce, of fun. Its water, wind, and waves are all in demand – as a playground for pleasure-seekers and nature-lovers, as a highway for international commerce, as a home for unique communities of wildlife and people. All this is also true for the Bothnian Sea, a part of the northern European Baltic Sea between Finland and Sweden. The Bothnian Sea is used by two neighbouring highly developed societies. There ...

Backer, Hermanni; Frias, Manuel; Bergstro?m, Ulf; Fredricsson, Christian; Fredriksson, Ronny; Ha?ma?la?inen, Jyrki; Jerdenius, Sten; Karlsson, Pa?l; Kaskela, Anu; Laihonen, Pasi; Lehto, Sirkka; Mostert, Mark; Nurmi, Marco; Pekkarinen, Annukka; Rasi, Mirja

2012-01-01

375

Did Neanderthals and other early humans sing? Seeking the biological roots of music in the territorial advertisements of primates, lions, hyenas, and wolves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

      Group defence of territories is found in many gregarious mammalian carnivores, including lions, canids, and hyenas. In these taxa, group members often mark territory boundaries and direct aggressive behaviour towards alien conspecifics found within the territory (Boydston et al., 2001). Middle Pleistocene hominids such as Neanderthals occupied an ecological niche similar to such large carnivores (Stiner, 2002), and so could be expected to share with them a suite of behavioural tra...

Hagen, Edward H.; Hammerstein, Peter

2009-01-01

376

Background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): An approach based on 133Cs normalization and lead isotope measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an attempt to reach natural background levels of heavy metals in surficial sediments of the Gulf of Lions(NW Mediterranean). To correct for the grain-size effect, normalization procedures based on a clay mineral indicator element are commonly used, after a first grain size separation by sieving. In our study, we tested the applicability of this method with respect to commonly used normalizer elements, and found that stable Cs shows the best ability to reflect the fine sedi...

Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Probst, Jean-luc; Monaco, Andre?

2005-01-01

377

Relaxation et diffusion des poteus de charge a courte et a longue distance dans quelques conucteurs ioniques de l'ion fluorure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Les propriétés de transport et de diffusion e l'ion F ont été étudiées au sein de plusieurs séries de matériaux fluorés. La première partie de ce mémoire est consacrée à l'application du modèle des processus de clutérisation établi par J. M. Reau aux solutions solides de structure dérivée du type fluorine et comportant des cations substitutionels tétravalents. Cette étude a montré que ce modèle est un modèle général qui permet 'évaluer la nature et le nombre de porte...

Xu, Yong-jun

1996-01-01

378

To kill, stay or flee: the effects of lions and landscape factors on habitat and kill site selection of cheetahs in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how animals utilize available space is important for their conservation, as it provides insight into the ecological needs of the species, including those related to habitat, prey and inter and intraspecific interactions. We used 28 months of radio telemetry data and information from 200 kill locations to assess habitat selection at the 3rd order (selection of habitats within home ranges) and 4th order (selection of kill sites within the habitats used) of a reintroduced population of cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus in Phinda Private Game Reserve, South Africa. Along with landscape characteristics, we investigated if lion Panthera leo presence affected habitat selection of cheetahs. Our results indicated that cheetah habitat selection was driven by a trade-off between resource acquisition and lion avoidance, and the balance of this trade-off varied with scale: more open habitats with high prey densities were positively selected within home ranges, whereas more closed habitats with low prey densities were positively selected for kill sites. We also showed that habitat selection, feeding ecology, and avoidance of lions differed depending on the sex and reproductive status of cheetahs. The results highlight the importance of scale when investigating a species' habitat selection. We conclude that the adaptability of cheetahs, together with the habitat heterogeneity found within Phinda, explained their success in this small fenced reserve. The results provide information for the conservation and management of this threatened species, especially with regards to reintroduction efforts in South Africa. PMID:25693067

Rostro-García, Susana; Kamler, Jan F; Hunter, Luke T B

2015-01-01

379

Trypanosoma cruzi infection of free-ranging lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Free-ranging Old World primates released on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia (USA), were tested for infection with Trypanosoma cruzi as part of a study of the epizootiology of sylvatic T. cruzi in the southeastern USA. The parasite was observed in liver infusion tryptose medium cultures of blood from seven of 11 lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and one of 19 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Cultures of blood from 10 black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata) were all negative. Analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene polymorphisms detected using polymerase chain reaction techniques indicates that the parasites isolated from both the lion-tailed macaques and the ring-tailed lemur are probably the same as T. cruzi parasites isolated from raccoons (Procyon lotor) trapped on St. Catherine's Island and other locations in the southeastern USA. Foraging lion-tailed macaques were observed to handle and partially consume specimens of Triatoma sanguisuga, the triatomine bug thought to be a vector of T. cruzi in the southeastern USA. Oral transmission of the parasite may have occurred as a result of this behavior. PMID:9638621

Pung, O J; Spratt, J; Clark, C G; Norton, T M; Carter, J

1998-03-01

380

Pelagic sea snakes dehydrate at sea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secondarily marine vertebrates are thought to live independently of fresh water. Here, we demonstrate a paradigm shift for the widely distributed pelagic sea snake, Hydrophis (Pelamis) platurus, which dehydrates at sea and spends a significant part of its life in a dehydrated state corresponding to seasonal drought. Snakes that are captured following prolonged periods without rainfall have lower body water content, lower body condition and increased tendencies to drink fresh water than do snakes that are captured following seasonal periods of high rainfall. These animals do not drink seawater and must rehydrate by drinking from a freshwater lens that forms on the ocean surface during heavy precipitation. The new data based on field studies indicate unequivocally that this marine vertebrate dehydrates at sea where individuals may live in a dehydrated state for possibly six to seven months at a time. This information provides new insights for understanding water requirements of sea snakes, reasons for recent declines and extinctions of sea snakes and more accurate prediction for how changing patterns of precipitation might affect these and other secondarily marine vertebrates living in tropical oceans. PMID:24648228

Lillywhite, Harvey B; Sheehy, Coleman M; Brischoux, François; Grech, Alana

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
381

Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

2014-08-01

382

Phaeobacter leonis sp. nov., an alphaproteobacterium from Mediterranean Sea sediments.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated 306(T), was isolated from near-surface (109 cm below the sea floor) sediments of the Gulf of Lions, in the Mediterranean Sea. Strain 306(T) grew at temperatures between 4 and 32 °C (optimum 17-22 °C), from pH 6.5 to 9.0 (optimum 8.0-9.0) and between 0.5 and 6.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.0%). Its DNA G+C content was 58.8 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the novel isolate belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria and is related to the genus Phaeobacter. It shares 98.7% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Phaeobacter arcticus, its closest phylogenetic relative. It contained Q-10 as the only respiratory quinone, C(18:1)?7c and C(16:0) as major fatty acids (>5%) and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids and an aminolipid as polar lipids. The chemotaxonomic data are consistent with the affiliation of strain 306(T) to the genus Phaeobacter. Results of physiological experiments, biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridizations (with P. arcticus) indicate that strain 306(T) is genetically and phenotypically distinct from the five species of the genus Phaeobacter with validly published names. Strain 306(T) therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Phaeobacter leonis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 306(T) (?=DSM 25627(T)?=CIP 110369(T)?=UBOCC 3187(T)). PMID:23475346

Gaboyer, Frédéric; Tindall, Brian J; Ciobanu, Maria-Cristina; Duthoit, Frédérique; Le Romancer, Marc; Alain, Karine

2013-09-01

383

Tracking Sea Turtles  

Science.gov (United States)

Classroom activity introduces the biology of sea turtles, population status, human impacts. Focuses on Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), smallest and more endangered of sea turtle species. This teacher's guide provides NOAA tracking data and instructions for students to follow the migration routes of six turtles in the Gulf of Mexico. Links to related activities using satellite data.

384

Sea Level Viewer  

Science.gov (United States)

Video and animations of sea level from NASA's Climate website. Since 1992, NASA and CNES have studied sea surface topography as a proxy for ocean temperatures. NASA Missions TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason 1 and Jason 2 have been useful in predicting major climate, weather, and geologic events including El Nino, La Nina, Hurricane Katrina, and the Indian Ocean Tsunami.

Jackson, Randall; Nasa, For

385

Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766 and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758 in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marmosets (Callithrix spp. have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia. The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM population in two fragments with reintroduced golden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha. The mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%. During the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. Evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. Golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. Marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.Callithrix jacchus e spp (micos estrela tem sido introduzido no estado do Rio de Janeiro em áreas designadas para a reintrodução do Leontopithecus rosalia (mico leão dourado. Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a população de sagüis em dois fragmentos particulares, e caracterizar a interação entre as espécies. A densidade de sagüis (0.09 a/ha foi maior que a de mico-leão (0.06 a/ha. O grau de associação entre mico-leão e o sagüi variou entre grupos e estações do ano (inverno= 61%, verão =35%. Foram observados sinais de competição durante o inverno quando a presença do mico estrela está associada a mudanças no forrageio do mico-leão e aumento de comportamentos territoriais. No verão, sinais de benefícios foram uma diminuição da vigilância por parte dos adultos de micos leões. Além disso, os micos leões foram observados se alimentando de goma proveniente dos buracos feitos pelos micos estrela. Estes resultados sugerem que o mico estrela é uma ameaça para a conservação do mico-leão, no entanto.

Carlos Ramon Ruiz-Miranda

2006-01-01

386

Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766) and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Callithrix jacchus e spp (micos estrela) tem sido introduzido no estado do Rio de Janeiro em áreas designadas para a reintrodução do Leontopithecus rosalia (mico leão dourado). Os objetivos deste estudo foram estimar a população de sagüis em dois fragmentos particulares, e caracterizar a interação e [...] ntre as espécies. A densidade de sagüis (0.09 a/ha) foi maior que a de mico-leão (0.06 a/ha). O grau de associação entre mico-leão e o sagüi variou entre grupos e estações do ano (inverno= 61%, verão =35%). Foram observados sinais de competição durante o inverno quando a presença do mico estrela está associada a mudanças no forrageio do mico-leão e aumento de comportamentos territoriais. No verão, sinais de benefícios foram uma diminuição da vigilância por parte dos adultos de micos leões. Além disso, os micos leões foram observados se alimentando de goma proveniente dos buracos feitos pelos micos estrela. Estes resultados sugerem que o mico estrela é uma ameaça para a conservação do mico-leão, no entanto. Abstract in english Marmosets (Callithrix spp.) have been introduced widely in areas within Rio de Janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia). The objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (CM) population in two fragments with reintroduced go [...] lden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. The CM population density (0,09 ind/ha) was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha). The mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%). During the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. Evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. Golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. Marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.

Carlos Ramon, Ruiz-Miranda; Adriana Gomes, Affonso; Marcio Marcelo de, Morais; Carlos Eduardo, Verona; Andreia, Martins; Benjamin B., Beck.

2006-01-01

387

Carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar em leão-africano (Panthera leo Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in an African Lion (Panthera leo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um caso de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi diagnosticado em um leão-africano (Panthera leo, hospitalizado com sinais de dispnéia e emagrecimento progressivo. Em todos os lobos pulmonares havia múltiplos nódulos esbranquiçados, macios e homogêneos, de 0,2-0,5cm em diâmetro. Histologicamente, os nódulos eram constituídos por células neoplásicas arranjadas em alvéolos e papilas sustentados por moderado estroma fibrovascular, um padrão que lembrava a estrutura pulmonar pré-existente. Na reação pelo ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS foi observada marcação positiva no citoplasma de numerosas células neoplásicas. Todas as células neoplásicas demonstraram forte e uniforme imunorreatividade citoplasmática para pancitoceratina. A marcação para o fator 1 de transcrição da tireóide (TTF-1 foi observada em focos nos núcleos das células neoplásicas das margens dos nódulos. Nas secções avaliadas para surfactante A, a marcação foi observada em múltiplas áreas focais, tanto no citoplasma como na membrana citoplasmática das células neoplásicas. O diagnóstico de carcinoma bronquíolo-alveolar difuso do tipo misto foi feito com base nos achados histológicos, histoquímicos e imuno