Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood
Drummond, Murray
2012-01-01
This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…
Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2004-09-15
The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.
Relativistic few body calculations
A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ5γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs
Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics
Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per
2010-01-01
Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...
Detectable Blood Lead Level and Body Size in Early Childhood.
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Havstad, Suzanne; Basu, Niladri; Ownby, David R; Park, Sung Kyun; Ownby, Dennis R; Johnson, Christine Cole; Wegienka, Ganesa
2016-05-01
Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead. PMID:26358768
Associations between childhood sexual abuse, substance use and body image
Erna Björnsdóttir 1985
2015-01-01
Abstract Childhood sexual abuse is a very serious but fairly common offense. It is defined as touching and/or non-touching activity, performed by adult or older child. Research has found that childhood sexual abuse can affect adolescent’s substance use. Also has been found that sexual abuse is associated with lower body image. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the associations between childhood sexual abuse, body image and substance use among adolescents. The possible m...
Body composition in remission of childhood cancer
Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu
2012-12-01
Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.
Body composition in remission of childhood cancer
Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.
Calculating body frame size (image)
Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man ... would fall into the small-boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure ...
Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder
Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.
2006-01-01
Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…
Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.
Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.
1994-01-01
This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…
Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk
Munger, Kassandra L; Bentzen, Joan; Laursen, Bjarne; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Baker, Jennifer Lyn
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND: Obesity in late adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it is not known if body size in childhood is associated with MS risk. METHODS: Using a prospective design we examined whether body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years was...
The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors
Jae Hoon Chung
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results : A total of 19 (19.4% patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively. Sixty-one (62.2% patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=- 0.26, P=0.03. Conclusion : Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.
Multiple giant pilar cyst distributed over the body since childhood
Ali Asilian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Trichilemmal cyst or pilar cyst is defined as a cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products. It is usually situated on the scalp with a wall resembling external hair root sheath. In this case report we present a 55-year-old man with multiple giant pilar cysts that were distributed over the whole body since childhood. One of the cyst on the chest was transformed to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.
Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations
Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
2016-06-20
The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In
Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire;
2016-01-01
A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...
Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Body Dissatisfaction in Gay and Heterosexual Men.
Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.
2000-01-01
Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…
Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children
Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.;
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist...... 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...... correlation and best agreement with DXA %BF in identifying children with excess fat (+1 s.d.)....
Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men
Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, indepen......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...
The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors
Jae Hoon Chung; Ki Woong Sung; Keon hee Yoo; Soo Hyun Lee; Sung-Yoon Cho; Se-Hwa Kim; Sung Won Park; Su Jin Kim; Young Bae Sohn; Hong Hoe Koo; Dong-Kyu Jin
2011-01-01
Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and c...
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine;
2014-01-01
High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight......, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer....
Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence
Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.
2015-01-01
The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…
Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program
Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.
2014-01-01
Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…
Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of three-body systems
L(U) Meng-Jiao; REN Zhong-Zhou; LIN Qi-Hu
2012-01-01
The application of the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm in three-body systems is studied.We develop a program and use it to calculate the property of various three-body systems.Regular Coulomb systems such as atoms,molecules,and ions are investigated.The calculation is then extended to exotic systems where electrons are replaced by muons.Some nuclei with neutron halos are also calculated as three-body systems consisting of a core and two external nucleons.Our results agree well with experiments and others' work.
Improved Numerical Method for Calculation of 4-Body Transition Amplitudes
Harris, A. L.
2013-01-01
In order to study 4-body atomic collisions such as excitation-ionization, transfer with target excitation, and double electron capture, the calculation of a nine-dimensional numerical integral is often required. This calculation can become computationally expensive, especially when calculating fully differential cross sections (FDCS), where the positions and momenta of all the particles are known. We have developed a new technique for calculating FDCS using fewer computing hours, but more mem...
Efficiency of whole-body counter for various body size calculated by MCNP5 software
The efficiency of a whole-body counter for 137Cs and 40K was calculated using the MCNP5 code. The ORNL phantoms of a human body of different body sizes were applied in a sitting position in front of a detector. The aim was to investigate the dependence of efficiency on the body size (age) and the detector position with respect to the body and to estimate the accuracy of real measurements. The calculation work presented here is related to the NaI detector, which is available in the Serbian Whole-body Counter facility in Vinca Inst.. (authors)
Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma
Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult...... oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression....... RESULTS: During 5.4 million person-years of follow-up, 254 (216 males) incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas occurred. At each examined age, cancer risk increased linearly per unit BMI z-score, although associations were only statistically significant for ages 9-13. The HR for the age of 13 years was 1...
Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis
Koch, Alexander
2016-04-01
The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.
Calculating few-body resonances using an oscillator trap
Fedorov, D V; Thogersen, M
2009-01-01
We investigate the possibility of calculating the parameters of few-body resonances using the oscillator trap boundary conditions. We place the few-body system in an oscillator trap and calculate the energy spectrum and the strength function of a suitably chosen transition. Broader resonances are identified as Lorentzian peaks in the strength function. Narrower resonances are identified through the pattern of avoided crossings in the spectrum of the system as function of the trap size. As an example we calculate 0+ resonances in 12C within the 3-alpha model.
A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood
Nicole M Warrington; Howe, Laura D; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kaakinen, Marika; Herrala, Sauli; Huikari, Ville; Wu, Yan Yan; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Pourcain, Beate St; Davey Smith, George; Tilling, Kate; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.
2015-01-01
Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...
A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood
Warrington, N.; Howe, L; Paternoster, L.; Kaakinen, M.; Herrala, S. (Sauli); Huikari, V.; Wu, Y.; Kemp, J.; Timpson, N.; St Pourcain, B.; Smith, G.; Tilling, K; Jarvelin, M; Pennell, C; Evans, D
2015-01-01
Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...
Francis, Melville M.; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz
2015-01-01
Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adulthood. This paper examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and non-maltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed-up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995,...
The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises.
Cormie, Prue; McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O
2007-11-01
The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of body mass in the calculation of power and the subsequent effect on the load-power relationship in the jump squat, squat, and power clean. Twelve Division I male athletes were evaluated on their performance across various intensities in all the 3 lifts. Power output was calculated using 3 separate techniques: (a) including the contribution of body mass in force output (IBM), (b) including the contribution of the mass of body less the mass of the shanks and feet in force output (IBMS), and (c) excluding the contribution of body mass in force output (EBM). Peak power, peak power relative to body mass, and peak force calculated using EBM were significantly (p power curve was affected when derived via the EBM method as a result of the underrepresentation of power output at light loads. This was due to the majority of the load being neglected when the mass of the body was removed from the system mass used in the calculation of force. This study indicates that not only is the actual power output significantly lower when body mass is excluded from the force output of a lower body movement, but the load-power relationship is altered as well. Therefore, it is imperative that the mass of the individual being tested is incorporated into the calculation of force used to determine power output during lower-body movements. PMID:18076268
Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood
Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J
2015-01-01
Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...
Dose distribution throughout the body from radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in childhood
Background and purposes: The individual dosimetry performed for a multicentre European cohort study of second malignant neoplasm following radiotherapy for a solid cancer in childhood demonstrated a large variation in the radiation doses estimated to any site. Materials and methods: From this study we have extracted the present work, i.e. estimation of doses for patients who underwent radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease in their childhood. These patients were treated using high energy X-rays from linear accelerators (MV group), γ-radiation from Cobalt machines (Cobalt group), soft X-rays from orthovoltage machines (kV group) and electron beams from accelerators (MeV group) at six French and UK centres. All patients started their radiotherapy between 1955 and 1985 and about 12% of them received more than one beam quality. Most of the patients were irradiated with large mantle AP/PA or partial mantle fields. Patients with transdiaphragmatic extension were also irradiated using inverted-Y paraaortic fields. The absorbed doses at the 91 skeleton points are used to calculate the mean dose to the active bone marrow. Results: Estimates of the median and mean doses, standard deviations and ranges to 13 specific sites of the body and to the active bone marrow are reported. Depending upon the size and sex of patients, target volume and position and radiotherapy techniques, the estimated doses are highly spread, attaining 0.19-106.07% of the target dose. This study underscores the need for individual dosimetry in epidemiological studies. Comparison with the available measured and calculated doses to the ovary and testis shows good agreement. Conclusion: This study underscores the need for individual dosimetry in epidemiological studies. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Planetary3br: Three massive body resonance calculator
Gallardo, Tabaré
2016-07-01
Given two planets P1 and P2 with arbitrary orbits, planetary3br calculates all possible semimajor axes that a third planet P0 can have in order for the system to be in a three body resonance; these are identified by the combination k0*P0 + k1*P1 + k2*P2. P1 and P2 are assumed to be not in an exact two-body resonance. The program also calculates three "strengths" of the resonance, one for each planet, which are only indicators of the dynamical relevance of the resonance on each planet. Sample input data are available along with the Fortran77 source code.
Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation
Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.
Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer
Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Ulrich, L G;
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...... childhood ages. Height at all ages was statistically significant and positively associated with all endometrial cancers, except non-oestrogen-dependent cancers. At 7 years, per ~5.2 cm (1 z-score), the risk of endometrioid adenocarcinoma was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.28). Among non-users of...... unopposed oestrogens, associations between BMI and endometrioid adenocarcinoma strengthened, but no effects on height associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial carcinogenesis is linked to early-life body size, suggesting that childhood BMI and height may be useful indicators for the risk of later...
Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems
An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3He and 3H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3He. In the discussion of the 3H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3H(γ,n)d and 3He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs
Hyperspherical Three-Body Calculation for Exotic Atoms
Ground state energies of atomic three-body systems like negatively charged hydrogen, normal helium, positively charged-lithium, beryllium, carbon, oxygen, neon and negatively charged exotic-muonium and positronium atoms have been calculated adopting hyperspherical harmonics expansion method. Calculation of matrix elements of two body interactions needed in the hyperspherical harmonics expansion method for a three body system is greatly simplified by expanding the bra-and ket-vector states in the hyperspherical harmonics (HH) basis states appropriate for the partition corresponding to the interacting pair. This involves the Raynal-Revai coefficients (RRC), which are the transformation coefficients between the HH bases corresponding to the two partitions. Use of RRC become particularly essential for the numerical solution of three-body Schroedinger equation where the two-body potentials are other than Coulomb or harmonic. However in the present work the technique is used for two electron atoms 1H-(p+e-e-), D-(d+e-e-), Mu-(μ+e-e-), 4He(4He2+e-e-), 6Li(6Li3+e-e-), 10Be( 10Be4+e-e-), 12C(12C6+e-e-), 16O(16O8+e-e-) etc. and the exotic positronium negative ion Ps-(e+e-e-) where the interactions are purely Coulomb. The relative convergence in ground state binding energy with increasing Kmax for 20Ne has been demonstrated as a representative case. The calculated energies at Kmax = 28 using RRC's have been compared with those obtained by a straight forward manner in some representative cases to demonstrate the appropriateness of the use of RRC. The extrapolated energies have also been compared with those found in the literature. The calculated binding energies agree within the computational error. (author)
Glitz childhood: a study on the charges of beauty contests to children’s bodies
Rafaela da Silva Melo; Rosangela de Fátima Rodrigues Soares
2014-01-01
From the excerpts of episodes of the reality show Toddlers and Tiaras and the contributions of childhood studies and post-structuralist theoretical perspective, I try to analyze the discourses of "truth" that support the need for radical transformation of children's bodies to meet the requirements of beauty contests. Discourses that have served as justification for contemporary forms of exploitation, abuse, discipline and government of infant bodies
Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life
Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit;
2011-01-01
To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....
Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood
Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas;
2013-01-01
The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...
Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei
Hossein Sadeghi; Hassan Khalili; Shahla Nahidinejad
2014-09-01
Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper, we also compare the obtained binding energy result with experimental and other cluster and shell models. The results of all schemes agree very well showing the high accuracy of our method to calculate the other many-body hyperonic nuclei using three-cluster interactions. The experimental values of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$ Be) = (11.90 ± 0.13) MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = (20.49 ± 1.15) MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = (22.23 ± 1.15) MeV seem to be more compatible with our calculated value of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$Be) = 14.04 MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = 19.31 MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = 21.45 MeV in comparison with the other calculated results by Hiyama et al, Gal et al and Guleria et al.
Aarestrup, Julie
2015-01-01
Dansk: Prostata og livmoder carcinogenese er relateret til tidlig kropsstørrelse, hvilket indikerer, at disse sygdomme kunne opstå tidligt i livet. Selvom disse sammenhænge kunne forklares via tracking, er det ikke sandsynligt, at kropsstørrelse i voksenlivet fuldstændigt forklarer disse resultat...... of later prostate and endometrial cancer, childhood may be the period of time that mechanistic investigations should focus on in their search for links between body size and the risk of these cancer forms....... barndommen en periode hvor mekanistiske undersøgelser af disse sammenhænge skal fokusere. Engelsk: Prostate and endometrial cardinogenesis is linked to early life body size, suggesting that these diseases have early origins. Even though these associations may operate through adult body size, it is not likely...... that adult size entirely explains these findings. Overweight children have a high risk of being overweightas adults, however, these associations are weak at late adulthood, when most cancer forms emerge. Taken together, these findings highlight that, in addition to childhood body size indicating a risk...
Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality
El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.
2014-01-01
This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…
Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Agneta Sjöberg; Nazih Eldin; Agneta Yngve; Marie Kunešová; Gregor Starc; Rito, Ana I.; Vesselka Duleva; Maria Hassapidou; Éva Martos; Iveta Pudule; Ausra Petrauskiene; Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo; Ragnhild Hovengen
2014-01-01
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School perso...
Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering
We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1D2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference ΔσL(pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P11 interaction. (author)
Nicole M Warrington
Full Text Available While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific.Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328. Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived.The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females = 0.0163 kg/m(2 per allele, males = 0.0123 kg/m(2 per allele and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m(2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m(2 per allele in males at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth.This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course.
Ana Paula Muraro
2015-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405. Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2% also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59, 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.
Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384
Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer
Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus;
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...
Few-body calculations of $\\eta$-nuclear quasibound states
Barnea, N; Gal, A
2015-01-01
We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of $\\eta NN$ and $\\eta NNN$ quasibound states, using energy dependent $\\eta N$ interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the $S_{11}$ $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. The $\\eta N$ attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No $\\eta NN$ bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\lesssim 1$ fm, with $a_{\\eta N}$ the $\\eta N$ scattering length, covering thereby the majority of $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ resonance models. A near-threshold $\\eta NNN$ bound-state solution, with $\\eta$ separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\approx 1$ fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold $\\eta N$ interaction is carefully studied.
Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the
Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz
2015-08-01
Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. PMID:25648448
DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.
Caroline L Relton
Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.
Method of integral transforms for calculating few-body reactions
Efros, V. D.; Leidemann, W.; Orlandini, G.
1998-01-01
A non-conventional approach to calculating reactions in quantum mechanics is presented. Reaction observables are obtained with bound state calculation techniques. The accuracy of the method to calculate few-nucleon response functions is discussed.
Ermuratschii V.V.; Gritsay M.A.
2013-01-01
The paper considers the problem of calculating values of the internal thermal resistance of a packed bed sensible and latent heat storages working bodies. The methodic calculation of this resistance for bodies with solid, liquid substance and phase-change materials is offered. Being based on the theory of a regular thermal mode, formulas for calculation of internal thermal resistance of the bodies having the form of a sphere, the cylinder and a paralle-lepiped are obtained. For bodies with li...
Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen
... Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: Day: Year: ...
Schoppe-Sullivan Sarah
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Some evidence suggests that obesity and behavior problems are related in children, but studies have been conflicting and have rarely included children under age 4. An association between behavior problems in early childhood and risk for obesity could suggest that a common set of factors contribute to both. Our research objectives were to determine the extent to which externalizing behavior in early childhood is related to body mass index (BMI in early childhood and through age 12, and to evaluate whether these associations differ by sex and race. Methods Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Externalizing behaviors at 24 months were assessed by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight assessed 7 times between age 2 and 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess associations between 24 month externalizing behavior and BMI from 2 to 12 years, calculate predicted differences in BMI, and evaluate effect modification. Results Externalizing behavior at 24 months was associated with a higher BMI at 24 months and through age 12. Results from a linear mixed effects model, controlling for confounding variables and internalizing behavior, predicted a difference in BMI of approximately 3/4 of a unit at 24 months of age comparing children with high levels of externalizing behavior to children with low levels of externalizing behavior. There was some evidence of effect modification by race; among white children, the average BMI difference remained stable through age 12, but it doubled to 1.5 BMI units among children who were black or another race. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that externalizing behaviors in early childhood are associated with children's weight status early in childhood and throughout the elementary school years, though the magnitude of the effect is modest.
Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.
2002-01-01
The Faddeev equations for the three-body bound state are solved directly as thre e-dimensional integral equations without employing partial wave decomposition. Two-body forces of the Malfliet-Tjon type and simple spin independent genuine three-body forces are considered for the calculation of the three-body binding energy.
A Mathematica program for the calculation of five-body Moshinsky brackets
Xiao, Shuyuan; Mu, Xueli; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Hong
2016-06-01
Five-body Moshinsky brackets that relate harmonic oscillator wavefunctions in two different sets of Jacobi coordinates make it straightforward to calculate some matrix elements in the variational calculations of five-body systems. The analytical expression of these transformation coefficients and the computer code written in the Mathematica language are presented here for accurate calculations.
Bjerregaard, L G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, K F;
2014-01-01
Background: Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult b...... first month of life.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.108....
Banks, Gabrielle G; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Rybak, Tiffany M; Kamody, Rebecca C; Cohen, Robert
2016-05-01
OBJECTIVE : Race, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with childhood obesity. The present research longitudinally examines these factors with 12,674 White and Black children from kindergarten through 8th grade. METHODS : Body mass index (BMI) data were collected and standardized at six time points (zBMI). Using Latent Growth Curve Modeling, race and sex were evaluated as moderators for the relation between SES and initial zBMI and rate of zBMI change. RESULTS : Higher SES significantly predicted higher initial zBMI for Black males and lower initial zBMI and rate of change for White males. A nonlinear relation between SES and zBMI was found for White females. CONCLUSIONS : SES has a differential impact on adiposity for different demographic groups. The longitudinal nature of the study and the focus on younger school-aged children provide important information regarding the complex interplay of race, sex, and SES for the prediction of childhood adiposity. PMID:26117140
Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.
Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A
2015-12-01
To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827
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Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations
The development of a continuum-bin scheme of discretization for three-body projectiles is necessary for studies of reactions of Borromean nuclei such as 6He within the continuum-discretized coupled-channels approach. Such a procedure, for constructing bin states on selected continuum energy intervals, is formulated and applied for the first time to reactions of a three-body projectile. The continuum representation uses the eigenchannel expansion of the three-body S matrix. The method is applied to the challenging case of the 6He+208Pb reaction at 22 MeV, where an accurate treatment of both the Coulomb and the nuclear interactions with the target is necessary.
Yeung, Ellen W; Place, Rebecca; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Visich, Paul; Hoffman, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Granger, Douglas A
2016-09-01
Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat. Saliva samples were measured 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days (later assayed for cortisol). A latent trait cortisol (LTC) factor explained 43% of the variance in cortisol levels within and across days. Confirmatory factor analysis identified three cardiovascular risk factors: lipids (i.e., TG and HDL-C), blood pressure (i.e., systolic and diastolic), and body composition (i.e., BMI, Waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat). Lower salivary LTC was associated with higher lipids, higher blood pressure, and higher body composition. The findings further support the internal and external validity of the LTC construct, and may also advance our understanding of the link between interindividual differences in HPA axis activity and cardiovascular risk in middle childhood. PMID:27262343
Edalat A.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Statement of problem: Early childhood caries can cause pain, discomfort and also inability to have a healthy nutrition .Malnutrition can be characterized when there is a weight, height, and body mass index (BMI deficiency. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severe early childhood caries (based on the dmft index and BMI in pre-school children in Shiraz. Materials and Method: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was enrolled on 202 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-6 years recruited from the kin-dergartens of different socio- economical parts of Shiraz, Iran. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated. The Z-scores were calculated em-ploying WHO Anthro software (www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ index.html to elucidate the subject’s status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (< -2 was considered as ab-normal. The relationship between dmft index and BMI was then investigated. Results: The mean of dmft was 4.13. From children with severe early childhood caries, 12.5%were under weight, 5% had height deficiency and 19.5% had BMI deficiency, however, there was no significant relationship between increasing dmft and the height, weight and BMI deficiency. Conclusion: There was not a linear correlation between severe early childhood caries and BMI, height, and weight deficiency. An incidence of 55% was yielded for severe early childhood caries which was an additional finding of this study.
Dynamic response of some atoms: Many-body calculations
Tančić Aleksandar R.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available The frequency-dependent polarizability in the Hartree-Fock (HF approximation has been corrected for true correlation effects by means of many-body theory. The polarizability has been computed in the Random Phase Approximation with Exchange (RPAE for He, Ar Xe, Kr, Li, Ca through the second (and some higher order in the correlation potential. With this polarizability as input we obtained the values of some atomic interaction constants.
Factorization in large-scale many-body calculations
Johnson, Calvin W.; Ormand, W. Erich; Krastev, Plamen G.
2013-01-01
One approach for solving interacting many-fermion systems is the configuration-interaction method, also sometimes called the interacting shell model, where one finds eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in a many-body basis of Slater determinants (antisymmeterized products of single-particle wavefunctions). The resulting Hamiltonian matrix is typically very sparse, but for large systems the nonzero matrix elements can nonetheless require terabytes or more of storage. An alternate algorithm, applica...
Lattice location of dopant atoms: An -body model calculation
N K Deepak
2010-03-01
The channelling and scattering yields of 1 MeV -particles in the $\\langle 1 0 0 \\rangle$, $\\langle 1 1 0 \\rangle and $\\langle 1 1 1 \\rangle$ directions of silicon implanted with bismuth and ytterbium have been simulated using -body model. The close encounter yield from dopant atoms in silicon is determined from the flux density, using the Bontemps and Fontenille method. All previous works reported in literature so far have been done with computer programmes using a statistical analytical expression or by a binary collision model or a continuum model. These results at the best gave only the transverse displacement of the lattice site from the concerned channelling direction. Here we applied the superior -body model to study the yield from bismuth in silicon. The finding that bismuth atom occupies a position close to the silicon substitutional site is new. The transverse displacement of the suggested lattice site from the channelling direction is consistent with the experimental results. The above model is also applied to determine the location of ytterbium in silicon. The present values show good agreement with the experimental results.
Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei
2016-09-01
Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with Pchildhood insulin on the childhood BMI-adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (Pchildhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. PMID:27432860
Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood
Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
2007-01-01
BACKGROUND: The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity is progressing at an alarming rate. Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are already identifiable in overweight children. The severity of the long-term effects of excess childhood weight on CHD, however, remains unknown. METHODS: We...
Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)
The concepts of internal transformation brackets of 4-body systems and quasi-Eular angle have been introduced in this paper. With their aid, the calculation of the 4-body hyperspherical transformation brackets can be greatly simplified by using those of the subsystems as building blocks
Nuclear matter with three-body forces from self-consistent spectral calculations
Soma, Vittorio; Bozek, Piotr
2007-01-01
We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter in the self-consistent T-matrix scheme including three-body nuclear interactions. We study the effect of the three-body force on the self-energies and spectral functions of nucleons in medium.
Monte Carlo calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counter, by microcomputer
A computer programming using the Monte Carlo method for calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counting of body radiation distribution is presented. An analytical simulator (for man e for child) incorporated with99mTc, 131I and 42K is used. (M.A.C.)
Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families
Maria Goretti Queiroz
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.
Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya;
2011-01-01
occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...
Revisiting Weyl's calculation of the gravitational pull in Bach's two-body solution
Antoci, S; Mihich, L
2001-01-01
When the mass of one of the two bodies tends to zero, Weyl's definition of the gravitational force in an axially symmetric, static two-body solution can be given an invariant formulation in terms of a force four-vector. The norm of this force is calculated for Bach's two-body solution, that is known to be in one-to-one correspondence with Schwarzschild's original solution when one of the two masses l, l' is made to vanish. In the limit when, say, l' goes to zero, the norm of the force divided by l' and calculated at the position of the vanishing mass is found to coincide with the norm of the acceleration of a test body kept at rest in Schwarzschild's field. Both norms happen thus to grow without limit when the test body (respectively the vanishing mass l') is kept at rest in a position closer and closer to Schwarzschild's two-surface.
Comparison of classical and quantal calculations of helium three-body recombination
Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Wang, Jia; Greene, Chris H
2013-01-01
A general method to study classical scattering in $n$-dimension is developed. Through classical trajectory calculations, the three-body recombination is computed as a function of the collision energy for helium atoms, as an example. Quantum calculations are also performed for the $J^{\\Pi}$ = $0^{+}$ symmetry of the three-body recombination rate in order to compare with the classical results, yielding good agreement for $E\\gtrsim$ 1 K. The classical threshold law is derived and numerically confirmed for the Newtonian three-body recombination rate. Finally, a relationship is found between the quantum and classical three-body hard hypersphere elastic cross sections which is analogous to the well-known shadow scattering in two-body collisions.
Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus
Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre
2010-04-01
Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.
Karin Blijdorp
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.
Many-body theory calculations of positron binding to negative ions
Ludlow, J. A.; Gribakin, G. F.
2010-01-01
A many-body theory approach developed by the authors [Phys. Rev. A 70, 032720 (2004)] is applied to positron bound states and annihilation rates in atomic systems. Within the formalism, full account of virtual positronium (Ps) formation is made by summing the electron-positron ladder diagram series, thus enabling the theory to include all important many-body correlation effects in the positron problem. Numerical calculations have been performed for positron bound states with the hydrogen and ...
Pregnancy Weight Gain and Childhood Body Weight: A Within-Family Comparison
Ludwig, David S.; Rouse, Heather L.; Currie, Janet
2013-01-01
Editors' Summary Background Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. For example, in the United States, the number of obese children has more than doubled in the past 30 years. 7% of American children aged 6–11 years were obese in 1980, compared to nearly 18% in 2010. Because of the rising levels of obesity, the current generation of children may have a shorter life span than their parents for the first time in 200 years. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on...
Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions
Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E
2006-03-31
Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.
The Model for Calculating Pore Evaluation of Fractal Rock Body Under Hydraulic Fracturing
Wang, Tingting; Wang, Chen; ZHAO Wanchun; Li, Xia; Liu, Yu
2014-01-01
In general, the pore medium of rock has fractal characters. In order to calculate the change regulations of porosity and evaluation character of the rock under hydraulic fracturing accurately, in this paper, a new damage variable was defined to describe the change of porosity. The model for calculating pore evaluation of the fractal fracturing rock body was established according to the principle of conservation of energy, considering the strain energy, the cracks propagation energy and the gr...
Murray, Craig; MacDonald, Sophie; Fox, Jezz
2008-01-01
Background: This study examined differences between self-harmers who had and who had not been sexually abused in childhood with regards to other risk factors and associated behaviours commonly identified in the research literature as being related to self-harm. Methods: Participants (N=113, Mean age=19.92 years) were recruited via self-harm internet discussion groups and message boards, and completed a web questionnaire assessing measures of body satisfaction, eating disorders, childhood trau...
Depictions of Human Bodies in the Illustrations of Early Childhood Textbooks
Martínez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Martínez-Bello, Daniel A.
2016-01-01
In many Ibero-American countries children in the early childhood education (ECE) system have the opportunity to interact with textbooks on a regular basis. The powerful social function of textbooks in socializing children in primary and secondary school, and in legitimizing what counts as cultural norms and officially sanctioned values and…
Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L
2014-01-01
Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with...... = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg...
Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;
2014-01-01
.001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI......BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25,923 and...
Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...
Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.
1987-10-01
The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.
The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out
Neutron-deuteron scattering calculations with W-matrix representation of the two-body input
Employing the W-matrix representation of the partial-wave T matrix introduced by Bartnik, Haberzettl, and Sandhas, we show for the example of the Malfliet-Tjon potentials I and III that the single-term separable part of the W-matrix representation, when used as input in three-nucleon neutron-deuteron scattering calculations, is fully capable of reproducing the exact results obtained by Kloet and Tjon. This approximate two-body input not only satisfies the two-body off-shell unitarity relation but, moreover, it also contains a parameter which may be used in optimizing the three-body data. We present numerical evidence that there exists a variational (minimum) principle for the determination of the three-body binding energy which allows one to choose this parameter also in the absence of an exact reference calculation. Our results for neutron-deuteron scattering show that it is precisely this choice of the parameter which provides optimal scattering data. We conclude that the W-matrix approach, despite its simplicity, is a remarkably efficient tool for high-quality three-nucleon calculations. (orig.)
Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)
2011-01-15
Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)
Electron Affinity Calculations for Atoms: Sensitive Probe of Many-Body Effects
Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.
2016-05-01
Electron-electron correlations and core-polarization interactions are crucial for the existence and stability of most negative ions. Therefore, they can be used as a sensitive probe of many-body effects in the calculation of the electron affinities (EAs) of atoms. The importance of relativistic effects in the calculation of the EAs of atoms has recently been assessed to be insignificant up to Z of 85. Here we use the complex angular momentum (CAM) methodology wherein is embedded fully the electron-electron correlations, to investigate core-polarization interactions in low-energy electron elastic scattering from the atoms In, Sn, Eu, Au and At through the calculation of their EAs. For the core-polarization interaction we use the rational function approximation of the Thomas-Fermi potential, which can be analytically continued into the complex plane. The EAs are extracted from the large resonance peaks in the CAM calculated low-energy electron-atom scattering total cross sections and compared with those from measurements and sophisticated theoretical methods. It is concluded that when the electron-electron correlations and core polarization interactions (both major many-body effects) are accounted for adequately the importance of relativity on the calculation of the EAs of atoms can be assessed. Even for the high Z (85) At atom relativistic effects are estimated to contribute a maximum of 3.6% to its EA calculation.
Fine resolution calculations of SAR in the human body for frequencies up to 3 GHz
Dimbylow, P. J.
2002-08-01
Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 100 MHz to 3 GHz at the basic 2 mm resolution of the voxel (volume pixel) model NORMAN without any rescaling to larger cell sizes. The reduction in the voxel size from previous work allows SAR to be calculated at higher frequencies. Additionally, the calculations have been extended down to 10 MHz, covering the whole-body resonance regions at a resolution of 4 mm. As well as for the adult phantom, SAR values are calculated for scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children for both grounded and isolated conditions. External electric field levels are derived from limits of whole-body averaged SAR and localized SAR in the ankle, and compared with NRPB investigation levels and ICNIRP reference levels. The ICNIRP field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of the localized SAR exposure in the leg for grounded conditions. It would be necessary to invoke the secondary reference level on limb current to provide compliance with basic restrictions on localized SAR averaged over 10 g.
Real-time calculations of many-body dynamics in quantum systems
Nakatsukasa, Takashi
2012-01-01
Real-time computation of time-dependent quantum mechanical problems are presented for nuclear many-body problems. Quantum tunneling in nuclear fusion at low energy is described using a time-dependent wave packet. A real-time method of calculating strength functions using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation is utilized to properly treat the continuum boundary condition. To go beyond the few-body models,we resort to the density-functional theory. The nuclear mean-field models are briefly r...
Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hansen, Maj; Jensen, Cecilie Rutkjaer;
2010-01-01
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and adulthood BMI, and adult semen quality and level of reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: From a pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987. PATIENT(S): 347 out of 5,109 sons were...... BMI were significantly associated with semen quality. Men with the 33% highest childhood BMI had 15% lower sex hormone binding globulin, 8% lower testosterone, and 16% lower FSH than men with the 33% lowest childhood BMI. Men with high adulthood BMI had 14% lower testosterone, 9% lower inhibin B, 31......% lower sex hormone binding globulin, and 20% higher estradiol than men with low adulthood BMI. CONCLUSION(S): The results do not indicate an effect of childhood BMI, birth weight, or adult BMI on semen quality, but the exposure contrast in our study was limited. The hormonal status was affected by adult...
We surveyed methods of total body irradiation (TB I) in conditioning regimens of stem cell transplantation (SCT) for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at participating institutions of the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS) ALL-97 protocol. We obtained information about TBI from 25 institutions. Total dose of 12 Gy fractionated by four to six in two to three days for TBI was conducted in 22 of 25 institutions. High-risk patients, such as patients with Philadelphia positive ALL, received over 12 Gy in five institutions. Beam direction and patient's positioning were horizontal and lateral respectively in 15 institutions. Shielding of lung and/or eyes and boost irradiation to central nervous system and/or testis were done in 24 and 11 institutions respectively, but in various ways. We have to keep in mind that a great variety of TBI have been undergone in each institution when we intend to interpret multi-institutional trials of treatment including SCT for patients with ALL. (author)
Three-Dimensional Low-Momentum Interaction in Two-Body Bound State Calculations
The deuteron binding energy and wave function are calculated by using the recently developed three-dimensional form of low-momentum nucleon–nucleon (NN) interaction. The homogeneous Lippmann–Schwinger equation is solved in momentum space by using the low-momentum two-body interaction, which is constructed from Malfliet–Tjon potential. The results for both, deuteron binding energy and wave function, obtained with low-momentum interaction, are compared with the corresponding results obtained with bare potential. (author)
Lise Geisler Andersen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.
Anwar, Ghada M; Yamamah, Gamal; Ibrahim, Amani; El-Lebedy, Dalia; Farid, Tarek M; Mahmoud, Rasha
2014-01-10
Nesfatin-1 is an anorexigenic peptide that controls feeding behavior and glucose homeostasis. However, there is little data that exists regarding nesfatin-1 secretion in obese children and young adolescents. The aim of this study is to investigate serum nesfatin-1 in childhood and adolescent obesity and to study potential correlations with food intake, anthropometric indices, body composition and insulin resistance. Forty obese children and adolescents and 40 healthy control subjects were studied. Anthropometric measurements were assessed, dietary food intake was evaluated based on 3-days food record and body composition indices were evaluated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were measured. Fasting serum nesfatin-1 was quantitatively assayed by ELISA. Serum nesfatin-1 was significantly higher in obese group (2.49±1.96 ng/ml) than in control group (0.70±0.81 ng/ml), P=0.001. Positive correlations with serum insulin (P=0.001), HOMA-IR (P=0.000), BMI-SDS (P=0.04), body fat % (P=0.000), fat mass (P=0.000), fat free mass (P=0.03), CHO % (P=0.000), and saturated fat % (P=0.01) were found. While significant negative correlation with protein % (P=0.000) was observed. In conclusion, our results denote that nesfatin-1 might have an important role in regulation of food intake and pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese children and young adolescents. PMID:24333832
Sørensen, H J; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A;
2016-01-01
UNLABELLED: Childhood leanness is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the effects of gender, age at anthropometric measurements and age at first diagnosis on this relationship are unclear. The present study aimed at elucidating these associations. METHODS: Population...... with Cox regression models. RESULTS: Childhood BMI was significantly inversely associated with risk of schizophrenia, however with different patterns among boys and girls. In boys, childhood BMI had an inverse non-linear association with schizophrenia risk dependent on age at diagnosis; in particular......-based cohort study with childhood anthropometric measures obtained annually from the age of 7 to 13 years in 253,353 Danes born 1930-1976 and followed to 31 December 2010. During this period, 4936 were registered with schizophrenia. The associations of childhood BMI with risk of schizophrenia were estimated...
Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation
Scaff, L A M
2001-01-01
Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...
Lena Hohwü
Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal
Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.
2007-01-01
Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…
Body-Related Emotions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Childhood Sexual Abuse.
Dyer, Anne S; Feldmann, Robert E; Borgmann, Elisabeth
2015-01-01
Traumatic experiences are associated with emotions such as anxiety, shame, guilt, disgust, and anger. For patients who have experienced child sexual abuse, these emotions might be triggered by perceptions of their own body. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the association of the body to traumatic experiences and to discern the emotions linked to trauma-associated body areas. Ninety-seven female participants were assigned to four groups: post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse with co-occurring borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse without co-occurring borderline personality disorder, borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy controls. Participants rated 26 body areas regarding their association with trauma and 7 emotions. Emotions were assessed by questionnaires. Results suggest that specific areas of the body are associated with trauma and linked to highly aversive emotions. In post-traumatic stress disorder patients, the areas associated with highly negative emotions were the pubic region and inner thighs. Thus, the patient's body may act as a trigger for traumatic memories. PMID:26340071
Calculation of the electric field resulting from human body rotation in a magnetic field
A number of recent studies have shown that the electric field and current density induced in the human body by movement in and around magnetic resonance imaging installations can exceed regulatory levels. Although it is possible to measure the induced electric fields at the surface of the body, it is usually more convenient to use numerical models to predict likely exposure under well-defined movement conditions. Whilst the accuracy of these models is not in doubt, this paper shows that modelling of particular rotational movements should be treated with care. In particular, we show that v × B rather than −(v · ∇)A should be used as the driving term in potential-based modelling of induced fields. Although for translational motion the two driving terms are equivalent, specific examples of rotational rigid-body motion are given where incorrect results are obtained when −(v · ∇)A is employed. In addition, we show that it is important to take into account the space charge which can be generated by rotations and we also consider particular cases where neglecting the space charge generates erroneous results. Along with analytic calculations based on simple models, boundary-element-based numerical calculations are used to illustrate these findings. (paper)
Many-body theory calculations of positron binding to negative ions
Ludlow, J A
2010-01-01
A many-body theory approach developed by the authors [Phys. Rev. A 70, 032720 (2004)] is applied to positron bound states and annihilation rates in atomic systems. Within the formalism, full account of virtual positronium (Ps) formation is made by summing the electron-positron ladder diagram series, thus enabling the theory to include all important many-body correlation effects in the positron problem. Numerical calculations have been performed for positron bound states with the hydrogen and halogen negative ions, also known as Ps hydride and Ps halides. The Ps binding energies of 1.118, 2.718, 2.245, 1.873 and 1.393 eV and annihilation rates of 2.544, 2.482, 1.984, 1.913 and 1.809 ns$^{-1}$, have been obtained for PsH, PsF, PsCl, PsBr and PsI, respectively.
Bound state calculations using separable expansion of the two-body t-matrix
It is shown that a separable expansion of local potentials (i.e., square well and Maltfliet-Tjon) using a method introduced by Adhikari and Sloan gives an efficient, exact numerically, method of solving three-body bound state. Contrary to the momentum-space basis functions in the work of Adhikari and Sloan, Y. Koike develops basis functions in configuration space since many two-nucleon potentials are given in that space. Legendre and Laguerre polynomials have been used respectively as base functions in this work. Following Koike's approach, the authors' three-body calculations, with the above potentials, are stable to four significant figures. Such convergence is obtained with only five terms in the expansion
Relativistic many-body calculations of energies for n=3 states in aluminiumlike ions
Energies of the 148 (3l3l'3l'') states for aluminiumlike ions with Z =14-100 are evaluated to second order in relativistic many-body perturbation theory. Second-order Coulomb and Breit-Coulomb interactions are included. Corrections are made to lowest order for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction and for the Lamb shift. A detailed discussion of the various contributions to the energy levels is given for aluminiumlike germanium (Z=32). Comparisons of the calculated energy levels with available experimental data are made for the entire sequence. (author)
Three-body model calculations of Nucleon-Delta and Delta-Delta dibaryon resonances
Gal, Avraham; Garcilazo, Humberto
2014-01-01
Three-body hadronic models with separable pairwise interactions are formulated and solved to calculate resonance masses and widths of L=0 N-Delta and Delta-Delta dibaryons using relativistic kinematics. For N-Delta, I(JP)=1(2+) and 2(1+) resonances slightly below threshold are found by solving pi-N-N Faddeev equations. For Delta-Delta, several resonances below threshold are found by solving pi-N-Delta Faddeev equations in which the N-Delta interaction is dominated by the 1(2+) and 2(1+) reson...
Relativistic many-body calculations of energies for n=3 states in aluminiumlike ions
Safronova, U.I.; Namba, C. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Johnson, W.R.; Safronova, M.S. [Department of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)
2001-01-01
Energies of the 148 (3l3l'3l'') states for aluminiumlike ions with Z =14-100 are evaluated to second order in relativistic many-body perturbation theory. Second-order Coulomb and Breit-Coulomb interactions are included. Corrections are made to lowest order for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction and for the Lamb shift. A detailed discussion of the various contributions to the energy levels is given for aluminiumlike germanium (Z=32). Comparisons of the calculated energy levels with available experimental data are made for the entire sequence. (author)
Claudia Pileggi
Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.
Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.
2014-01-01
Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Meth
Faddeev-type calculation of (d,n) transfer reactions in three-body nuclear systems
Deltuva, A
2015-01-01
Exact Faddeev-type three-body equations are applied to the study of the proton transfer reactions $(d,n)$ in the system consisting of a nuclear core and two nucleons. The integral equations for the three-body transition operators are solved in the momentum-space framework including the Coulomb interaction via the screening and renormalization method. For a weakly bound final nucleus the calculation of the $(d,n)$ reaction is more demanding in terms of the screening radius as compared to the $(d,p)$ reaction. Well converged differential cross section results are obtained for $^{7}{Be}(d,n)^{8}{B}$, $^{12}{C}(d,n)^{13}{N}$, and $^{16}{O}(d,n)^{17}{F}$ reactions. A comparison with the corresponding $(d,p)$ reactions is made. The calculations fail to reproduce the shape of the angular distribution for reactions on $^{12}{C}$ but provide quite successful description for reactions on $^{16}{O}$, especially for the transfer to the $^{17}{F}$ excited state $1/2^+$ when using a nonlocal optical potential.
Midplane dose determination and verification of calculated doses in total body irradiation
Özlem ÖZDEMİR
2014-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To compare calculated and measured doses for different regions of anthropomorphic phantom and patients using ion chamber and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD for total body irradiation. METHODS Measurements were done for lateral fields with 6 MV, gantry 82º, 40x40 cm2 field and 400 cm source-axis distance (SAD. Entrance-exit and midline doses were measured on anthropomorphic phantom by TLD and entrance-exit doses were measured by TLD and ion chamber on patients. RESULTS For anthropomorphic phantom measurements differences between calculated and measured entrance-exit doses of head, neck, shoulder, lung and thick pelvis were 0.8%, 2.7%, 26.4%, 4.4% and 4.9% and for midline doses were 1.6%, 1.6%, 6.3%, -1.4% and 7.4% respectively. For patients; TLD differences were within -4.13% ile 6.7%, -3.3% ile 3.9%, 5.1% ile 16.6%, -7.8% ile 2.4%, and 3.6% ile 7.1% respectively. For thick pelvis measurements with ion chamber differences were within %0.1-1.9. CONCLUSION Total body irradiation is being applied in limit values in our clinic.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition
Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;
2012-01-01
The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....
Sidsel H. Karsberg
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.
Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model
Paris, Mark W.; Hale, Gerald M.
2016-06-01
We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n) and (n; n-α) to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1) nucleon-nucleon (NN) anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = {{{3^ - }} over 2}) and first excited state (Jπ = {{{1^ - }} over 2}) of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.
Warner, Erica T; Hu, Rong; Collins, Laura C; Beck, Andrew H; Schnitt, Stuart; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A Heather; Michels, Karin B; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M
2016-09-01
Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2,983 luminal A, 1,281 luminal B, 318 HER2-enriched, 408 basal-like, and 128 unclassified tumors. Height was positively associated with all subtypes (Pheterogeneity = 0.78). BMI at the age of 18 (Pheterogeneity = 0.001), childhood (Pheterogeneity = 0.51), and adolescent somatotype (Pheterogeneity = 0.046) were inversely associated, but with differences in magnitude of association. BMI at the age of 18 of ≥25 kg/m(2) (compared with 20-21.9 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 52% decreased risk of HER2-enriched (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.91; Ptrend molecular subtypes. BMI at 18 years and childhood and adolescent were inversely associated with risk of most breast cancer molecular subtypes with somewhat stronger associations with HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 732-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27590596
Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L
2014-01-01
Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and...... (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These...
Calculation of the Two-body T-matrix in Configuration Space
Rawitscher, George
2007-01-01
A spectral integral method (IEM) for solving the two-body Schroedinger equation in configuration space is generalized to the calculation of the corresponding T-matrix. It is found that the desirable features of the IEM, such as the economy of mesh-points for a given required accuracy, are carried over also to the solution of the T-matrix. However the algorithm is considerably more complex, because the T-matrix is a function of two variables r and r', rather than only one variable r, and has a slope discontinuity at r=r'. For a simple exponential potential an accuracy of 7 significant figures is achieved, with the number N of Chebyshev support points in each partition equal to 17. For a potential with a large repulsive core, such as the potential between two He atoms, the accuracy decreases to 4 significant figures, but is restored to 7 if N is increased to 65.
Wade, K H; Skugarevsky, O; Kramer, M S; Patel, R.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); Bogdanovich, N; Vilchuck, K; Sergeichick, N; Richmond, R; Palmer, T; Davey Smith, G.; Gillman, M.; Oken, E.; Martin, R. M.
2014-01-01
Background: Few studies have prospectively investigated whether early-life exposures are associated with pre-adolescent eating attitudes. Objective: The objective of this study is to prospectively investigate associations of parental smoking, alcohol use, marital status, measures of maternal satisfaction, self-reported parental body mass index (BMI) and clinically measured childhood BMI, assessed between birth and 6.5 years, with problematic eating attitudes at 11.5 years. Methods: Observatio...
McVeigh, Joanne; Smith, Anne; Howie, Erin; Straker, Leon
2016-01-01
Introduction Prior studies examining longitudinal patterns of television (TV) watching have tended to use analytical approaches which do not allow for heterogeneity in the variation of TV watching over time. In the current study, we used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine the relationships between television watching (from childhood to early adulthood) and body fat percentage (%) and mental health. Methods Data were collected from 2411 participants (50% female) from the Raine Study, a pro...
Townsend, Ellen; Pitchford, Nicola J.
2012-01-01
Objective The impact of different weaning methods on food preferences and body mass index (BMI) in early childhood is not known. Here, we examine if weaning method—baby-led weaning versus traditional spoon feeding—influences food preferences and health-related outcomes. Design, setting and participants Parents (n=155) recruited through the Nottingham Toddler laboratory and relevant internet sites completed a questionnaire concerning (1) infant feeding and weaning style (baby-led=92, spoon...
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an effective technique in lung cancer treatment and several prerequisites are essential in order to achieve good local control. These include precise imaging of the lesion before irradiation and accurate dose calculation to account for density heterogeneities in lung tissue. Both aspects were investigated within the framework of the thesis: a new approach in imaging with a conventional electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was investigated and the performance and limits of a new Monte Carlo (MC) calculation algorithm commercially available were studied. More specifically, digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) of lung lesions were compared with MV portal images in a feasibility study to assess any displacement of the tumour. The precision of displacement results of three registration algorithms was tested when compared to a projection image of the tumour. The various algorithms were applied to test images, a lung simulation phantom and finally to patient data including 38 tumours and images of 113 fractions. Image guidance results of tested registration algorithms proved the accuracy in the lung phantom study whereas clinical patient data had successful registrations in about 59% of anterior-posterior (AP) and 46% of lateral projections, respectively. Excluding real patient data with a clinical target volume smaller than 10 cm3, successful registrations occurred in 90% of AP and 50% lateral projections. With respect to dose calculation accuracy, experimental verification of a commercial Monte Carlo-based planning system was performed for high-energy photon beams. Several simple and complex treatment cases were calculated and compared with measurements in different phantom types. Besides ion chamber measurements, radiochromic films were irradiated to gain 2D dose distributions which were compared to calculations applying the gamma-index criterion. The dose calculation accuracy of the Monte Carlo algorithm implemented in
Van Laere, Katrien; Vandenbroeck, Michel; Roets, Griet; Peeters, Jan
2014-01-01
Despite the political and academic debate on the demands for more male workers in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), no European country has reached the benchmark set for 2006 to have 20% male early childhood workers. This has predominantly been countered by challenging the idea that care for the youngest implies an activity "that…
Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.
Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S
2016-04-01
The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status. PMID:26984962
Mohsen Besharat Pour
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of
The calculation of a size correction factor for a whole-body counter
Carinou, E.; Koukouliou, V.; Budayova, M.; Potiriadis, C.; Kamenopoulou, V.
2007-09-01
Whole-Body counting techniques use radiation detectors in order to evaluate the internal exposure from radionuclides. The Whole-Body Counter (WBC) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is used for in vivo measurements of workers for routine purposes as well as for the public in case of an emergency. The system has been calibrated using the phantom provided by CANBERRA (RMC phantom) in combination with solid and point sources. Furthermore, four bottle phantoms of different sizes have been used to calibrate the system to measure potassium, 40K, for different sized workers. However, the use of different phantoms in combination with different sources is time consuming and expensive. Moreover, the purchase and construction of the reference standards need specific knowledge. An alternative option would be the use of Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the Monte Carlo technique has been firstly validated using the 40K measurements of the four phantoms. After the validation of the methodology, the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used with the same simulated geometries (phantom detector) and different sources in order to calculate the efficiency of the system for different photon energies in the four phantoms. The simulation energies correspond to the following radionuclides: 131I, 137Cs, 60Co, and 88Y. A size correction calibration factor has been defined in order to correct the efficiency of the system for the different phantoms and energies for uniform distribution. The factors vary from 0.64 to 1.51 depending on the phantom size and photon energy.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-nucleus scattering
Quaglioni, Sofia
2009-01-01
We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on 3H, 4He and 10Be and proton scattering on 3He and 4He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-4He S-wave phase shifts. On the contrary, the experimental nucleon-4He P-wave phase shifts are not well reproduced by any NN potential we use. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-10Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in 11Be.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon scattering on ^16O
Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Roth, Robert
2008-10-01
We develop a new ab initio many-body approachootnotetextS. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, arXiv:0804.1560. capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group methodootnotetextY. C. Tang et al., Phys. Rep. 47, 167 (1978); K. Langanke and H. Friedrich, Advances in Nuclear Physics, Plenum, New York, 1987. with the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM).ootnotetextP. Navratil, J. P. Vary, and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5728 (2000); Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000). In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, while preserving Pauli principle and translational symmetry. We will present results for low-energy nucleon scattering on ^16O and for A=17 bound states obtained using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The ^16O wave functions are calculated within the importance-truncated NCSMootnotetextR. Roth and P. Navratil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 092501 (2007). that allows the use of model spaces up to 18φ and ultimately enables to reach convergence of phase-shifts and other observables. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Support from the U.S. DOE/SC/NP (Work Proposal No. SCW0498), and from the U. S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FC02-07ER41457 is acknowledged.
Optimal softening for force calculations in collisionless N-body simulations
Athanassoula, E; Lambert, J C; Bosma, A
1999-01-01
In N-body simulations the force calculated between particles representing a given mass distribution is usually softened, to diminish the effect of graininess. In this paper we study the effect of such a smoothing, with the aim of finding an optimal value of the softening parameter. As already shown by Merritt (1996), for too small a softening the estimates of the forces will be too noisy, while for too large a softening the force estimates are systematically misrepresented. In between there is an optimal softening, for which the forces in the configuration approach best the true forces. The value of this optimal softening depends both on the mass distribution and on the number of particles used to represent it. For higher number of particles the optimal softening is smaller. More concentrated mass distributions necessitate smaller softening, but the softened forces are never as good an approximation of the true forces as for not centrally concentrated configurations. We give good estimates of the optimal soft...
Satory, P R
2012-03-01
This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238
The effect of three-body cluster energy on LOCV calculation for hot nuclear and neutron matter
The two-body correlation functions, obtained in a lowest-order constrained variational calculation for hot nuclear and neutron matter, with the Reid potential and the explicit inclusion of Δ(1234), are state averaged and used to calculate the three-body cluster energy. The three-body cluster energy is found to vary between about 1 and 2 MeV through and beyond twice the nuclear-matter saturation density for temperatures between 5 and 20 MeV. However, the inclusion of a three-body cluster reduces the nuclear-matter flashing and critical temperatures. A critical temperature of 15.8 MeV and a critical exponent of 0.35 is found. The results of entropy calculations are in good agreement with experimental prediction and other theoretical results. Finally it is shown that by allowing an explicit Δ(1234) degree of freedom through the Reid potential up to and including the three-body clusters, the lowest-constrained variational calculation yields other nuclear- and neutron-matter properties close to the available semi-empirical and experimental data at zero and finite temperatures. (author)
Non-relativistic many-body perturbation theory is discussed. Methods and results in the solution of inhomogeneous 1- and 2-particle equations are presented. B. Similar programs for the Dirac equation are considered. The 1-particle equation is equivalent to the relativistic random phase approximation (work by A.-M. Martensson-Pendrill), and the 2-particle equation is under study. C. Matrix diagonalization of the Dirac equation is being explored as a method of isolating positive energy solutions. For a weak external field, the upper components of the diagonal equation correspond to positive energy solutions
Costa, S.; Johnson, W.; Viner, R. M.
2015-01-01
This study aimed to (i) describe the weight status trajectories from childhood to mid-adulthood and (ii) investigate the influence of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) on offspring’s trajectories in a nationally representative study in Great Britain. The sample comprised 4,174 (43% male) participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study with complete BMI data at ages 10, 26, 30, 34, and 42 years. Individuals’ weight status was categorised as overweight/obese or non-overweight/obese at...
Kozieł, Sławomir; Lipowicz, Anna; Hulanicka, Barbara
2011-01-01
The aim of the study was to estimate the association between relative weight in childhood and adolescence and its relationship with adult health outcome. Longitudinal data of the body mass index (BMI) from the Wroc³aw Growth Study (WGS) covering ages 8 to 18 and then a follow-up at 50 were used. At the age of 50, 124 males and 139 females in the longitudinal study underwent medical examination. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), total cholesterol (TCH), high density...
Elisabet Forsum
2014-12-01
Full Text Available A possibility to assess body composition during pregnancy is often important. Estimating body density (DB and use the two-component model (2CM to calculate total body fat (TBF represents an option. However, this approach has been insufficiently evaluated during pregnancy. We evaluated the 2CM, and estimated fat-free mass (FFM density and variability in 17 healthy women before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32, and 2 weeks postpartum based on DB (underwater weighing, total body water (deuterium dilution and body weight, assessed on these four occasions. TBF, calculated using the 2CM and published FFM density (TBF2CM, was compared to reference estimates obtained using the three-component model (TBF3CM. TBF2CM minus TBF3CM (mean ± 2SD was −1.63 ± 5.67 (p = 0.031, −1.39 ± 7.75 (p = 0.16, −0.38 ± 4.44 (p = 0.49 and −1.39 ± 5.22 (p = 0.043 % before pregnancy, in gestational weeks 14 and 32 and 2 weeks postpartum, respectively. The effect of pregnancy on the variability of FFM density was larger in gestational week 14 than in gestational week 32. The 2CM, based on DB and published FFM density, assessed body composition as accurately in gestational week 32 as in non-pregnant adults. Corresponding values in gestational week 14 were slightly less accurate than those obtained before pregnancy.
Oner, F.; Okumuolu, N.
2003-11-01
We estimate the radiation doses in the human body, in the Gudalore region in India, following the inadvertent ingestion of soil and exposure to other soil pathways by measuring Th-232, U-238, and K-40. We estimate the equivalent dose in eleven different organs and the absorbed dose calculations for the whole body. The annual effective doses are calculated, the lowest is in Kariyasolai at 7.8 x 10(-3) mSv whereas the highest is in Ponnur at 8.9 x 10(-2) mSv. In all regions, the lowest equivalent doses through inadvertent soil ingestion are calculated in the kidney and thyroid whereas the highest doses are in the red marrow and on the bone surface.
Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.
2007-01-01
To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the studen
Pai, Ravindra
1991-01-01
A numerical method has been developed for computing the steady state flow about arbitrary shaped three dimensional bodies on or below the free surface using a Boundary Integral Element Method ( Panel Method). The method uses a singularity distribution over the body surface and the free surface. The method can solve for the potential distribution as well as the source density distribution. In this study a constant source distribution is assumed on each panel. The free surface bo...
In Austria after the Chernobyl accident, large discrepancies were observed between the actual 137Cs content measured by whole body counting and the values calculated from the intake of food, based on average contamination levels and average consumption rates, which differed by more than a factor of 2. To identify possible causes of this difference, a nationwide survey by whole body counting of comparable groups was carried out and resulted in a difference of only 10% of the national average body burden compared to that measured only in the Vienna region. Since regional differences caused by large local variations in fallout could not account for the discrepancies, investigations of possible explanations were carried out. In the paper, the influences of these possible effects are discussed and committed effective dose equivalents are calculated. Only with extensive assumptions on bias in food sample measurements, on reduced consumption rates compared to data provided by the Austrian National Statistical Bureau and on the selection of milk for consumer purposes could a satisfactory agreement between measured body burden values and those calculated from intake be obtained. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
Wijnhoven, T M A
2012-09-21
What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including
A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions
This paper presents calculations of the induced current density in the body at 50 Hz from applied electric and magnetic fields. An extensive ensemble of 25 voxel models has been used to investigate the effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy. This set includes six adult models, eight child models and seven pregnant female models at various stages of gestation. The four postures investigated in the HPA adult model, NORMAN, were the standard position with the arms at the side, with the arms vertically above the head, the arms horizontally to the side and sitting. (authors)
Few body Calculation of Neutrino Neutral Inelastic scattering on 4He
Gazit, Doron; Barnea, Nir
2007-01-01
The inelastic neutral reaction of neutrino on 4He is calculated using two modern nucleon--nucleon potentials. Full final state interaction among the four nucleons is considered, via the Lorentz integral transform (LIT) method. The effective interaction hyperspherical-harmonic (EIHH) approach is used to solve the resulting Schrodinger like equations. A detailed energy dependent calculation is given in the impulse approximation.
Řezáč, Jan; Huang, Yuanhang; Hobza, Pavel; Beran, Gregory J O
2015-07-14
Many-body noncovalent interactions are increasingly important in large and/or condensed-phase systems, but the current understanding of how well various models predict these interactions is limited. Here, benchmark complete-basis set coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) calculations have been performed to generate a new test set for three-body intermolecular interactions. This "3B-69" benchmark set includes three-body interaction energies for 69 total trimer structures, consisting of three structures from each of 23 different molecular crystals. By including structures that exhibit a variety of intermolecular interactions and packing arrangements, this set provides a stringent test for the ability of electronic structure methods to describe the correct physics involved in the interactions. Both MP2.5 (the average of second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and spin-component-scaled CCSD for noncovalent interactions (SCS-MI-CCSD) perform well. MP2 handles the polarization aspects reasonably well, but it omits three-body dispersion. In contrast, many widely used density functionals corrected with three-body D3 dispersion correction perform comparatively poorly. The primary difficulty stems from the treatment of exchange and polarization in the functionals rather than from the dispersion correction, though the three-body dispersion may also be moderately underestimated by the D3 correction. PMID:26575743
A method for calculating the spatial distribution of radioactivity measured by a whole body counter
In nuclear medical research and diagnosis it is often important to be able to localize small amounts of radioactivity in the human body. A complete representation of the distribution of a radioisotope in a region of the body would require a three-dimensional portrayal, but most scanning devices are limited to plane portrayal. Thus, scans in two orthogonal planes are necessary. In some cases, a single representation will suffice or an alternative technique may be used to obtain information concerning the distribution in the third dimension
Two- and three-body calculations within the dominantly orbital state method
The dominantly orbital state method allows a semiclassical description of quantum systems. At the origin, it was developed for two-body relativistic systems. Here, the method is extended to treat two-body Hamiltonians and systems with three identical particles, in D⩾2 dimensions, with arbitrary kinetic energy and potential. This method is very easy to implement and can be used in a large variety of fields. Results are expected to be reliable for large values of the orbital angular momentum and small radial excitations, but information about the whole spectrum can also be obtained in some very specific cases.
Three-body calculation of the 1s level shift in kaonic deuterium
Doleschall, P.; Revai, J.; Shevchenko, Nina V.
2015-01-01
Roč. 744, MAY (2015), s. 105-108. ISSN 0370-2693 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : few-body equations * mesonic atom * antikaon-nucleon interaction Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 6.131, year: 2014
Patrinopoulos, Matthaios; Kefalis, Chrysovalantis
2015-12-01
In this paper, we focus on smartphones as experimental tools; specifically we use the gyroscope sensor of a smartphone to study the turning motion of a rigid body. Taking into consideration recent work concerning that topic, we try to use the gyroscope sensor in studying the complex motion of a rolling cylinder on a slope.
Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)
2008-09-15
{sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)
Three- and Four-Body Scattering Calculations including the Coulomb Force
Deltuva, A
2009-01-01
The method of screening and renormalization for including the Coulomb interaction in the framework of momentum-space integral equations is applied to the three- and four-body nuclear reactions. The Coulomb effect on the observables and the ability of the present nuclear potential models to describe the experimental data is discussed.
This paper addresses the problem of calculating the bioimpedance phase angle from measurements of impedance modulus. A complete impedance measurement was performed on altogether 20 healthy persons using a Solatron 1260/1294 system. The obtained impedance modulus (absolute impedance value) values were used to calculate the Cole parameters and from them the phase angles. In addition, the phase angles were also calculated using a Kramers–Kronig approach. A correlation analysis for all subjects at each frequency (5, 50, 100 and 200 kHz) for both methods gave R2 values ranging from 0.7 to 0.96 for the Cole approach and from 0.83 to 0.96 for the Kramers–Kronig approach; thus, both methods gave good results compared with the complete measurement results. From further statistical significance testing of the absolute value of the difference between measured and calculated phase angles, it was found that the Cole equation method gave significantly better agreement for the 50 and 100 kHz frequencies. In addition, the Cole equation method gives the four Cole parameters (R0, R∞, τz and α) using measurements at frequencies up to 200 kHz while the Kramers–Kronig method used frequencies up to 500 kHz to reduce the effect of truncation on the calculated results. Both methods gave results that can be used for further bioimpedance calculations, thus improving the application potential of bioimpedance measurement results obtained using relatively inexpensive and portable measurement equipment
WANGXiufeng; CHENXinzhao; LIUZhao
2003-01-01
The statistical distributed source boundary point method (SDSBPM) put forward is applied to calculate the acoustic radiation from the random vibrating body. A detailed description of this method is presented. A test for the SDSBPM is carried out through the random vibrating sphere and the random vibrating cuboid. An experiment on the exterior acoustic radiation of a random vibrating simulation axial box of the lathe tool is performed in a semi-anechoic chamber.
HFOLD a Program Package for Calculating MSSM Two-Body Higgs Decays at Full one-Loop Level
Full text: HFOLD (Higgs Full One-Loop Decays) is the first public available program which calculates all MSSM Higgs two-body decays at full one-loop level. The renormalization is done in the DRbar scheme following the SPA convention. The program is easy to use and supports Les Houches in- and output format. We compare the numerical results from HFOLD with some other public available programs. Particular attention is paid to the size of the electroweak corrections. (author)
$\\it{Ab}$ $\\it{initio}$ nuclear many-body perturbation calculations in the Hartree-Fock basis
Hu, Baishan; Sun, Zhonghao; Vary, James P; Li, Tong
2016-01-01
Starting from realistic nuclear forces, the chiral N$^3$LO and JISP16, we have applied many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) to the structure of closed-shell nuclei, $^4$He and $^{16}$O. The two-body N$^3$LO interaction is softened by a similarity renormalization group transformation while JISP16 is adopted without renormalization. The MBPT calculations are performed within the Hartree-Fock (HF) bases. The angular momentum coupled scheme is used, which can reduce the computational task. Corrections up to the third order in energy and up to the second order in radius are evaluated. Higher-order corrections in the HF basis are small relative to the leading-order perturbative result. Using the anti-symmetrized Goldstone diagram expansions of the wave function, we directly correct the one-body density for the calculation of the radius, rather than calculate corrections to the occupation propabilities of single-particle orbits as found in other treatments. We compare our results with other methods where available a...
The coupled-cluster approach to non-relativistic and relativistic many-body calculations
A review is given of the atomic many-body theory in the coupled-cluster approach or exponential-Ansatz formulation. Explicit equations and corresponding graphical representations are given in the pair-approximation, where the one- and two-body parts of the cluster (exponent) operator are considered. Also the effect of a small, additional perturbation is considered. The technique of evaluating diagrams by means of one- and two-particle functions, satisfying inhomogeneous differential equations, is reviewed. Illustrative numerical results are given for the electron correlation energy, electron binding energy, hyperfine separation and specific mass shift of simple atomic systems. The extension of the non-relativistic procedure to the relativistic regime is discussed by considering the effect of the exchange of one and two virtual, transverse photons between the electrons. In lowest order this leads to the ''no-virtual-pair approximation''. (orig.)
CALCULATION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOUND PRESSURE FIELD AROUND BODIES WITH MACRO POROSITIES
Bin WANG; Duhamel, Denis
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a multi-domain boundary element method to compute the sound field around bodies with macro porosities. It saves computational cost and is especially suitable for complex structures. It is based on the boundary element method, and divides the computation into an exterior subdomain and several interior subdomains. The subdomains are connected by transfer matrices. This method is applied to study some simple examples for which analytical or BEM results are available. Good agr...
Calculation of reference levels of radioactive contamination of the bottom of water bodies
The technique for calculating reference concentrations of radionuclides in bottom sediments of all water reservoirs is described, and all necessary coefficients are presented. The reference concentrations of 26 hygienically important radionuclides are presended both for reference (standard) and sea water reservoirs. Proposed is a new method for estimation of calculated reference concentrations through the corresponding reference concentrations of radionuclides in water on their correlation with admissible concentrations according to the SRP-76. Given are the recommendations both on taking account of quota for contaminated reservoirs and the technique of the soil sampling for the above method principle realization by working groups of sanitary control organization
Corvalán Camila
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.
Many-body electronic structure calculations of Eu-doped ZnO
Lorke, M.; Frauenheim, T.; da Rosa, A. L.
2016-03-01
The formation energies and electronic structure of europium-doped zinc oxide has been determined using DFT and many-body G W methods. In the absence of intrisic defects, we find that the europium-f states are located in the ZnO band gap with europium possessing a formal charge of 2+. On the other hand, the presence of intrinsic defects in ZnO allows intraband f -f transitions otherwise forbidden in atomic europium. This result corroborates with recently observed photoluminescence in the visible red region S. Geburt et al. [Nano Lett. 14, 4523 (2014), 10.1021/nl5015553].
Excitonic effects in GeC hybrid: Many-body Green's function calculations
Drissi, L. B.; Ramadan, F. Z.
2015-11-01
Many-body effects on the electronic and optical absorption properties of a GeC sheet are studied by means of first principle many-body Green's function and Bethe-Salpeter equation formalism. The absence of soft modes in the phonon-spectrum indicates the stability of the system. The inclusion of quasiparticle corrections increases significantly the band gap. The local field effects induce significant change in the absorption spectra for the out-plane polarization rendering the GeC monolayer transparent below 7 eV. The excitonic effects are significant on the optical absorption properties. A detailed analysis of the spectrum shows a strong binding energy of 1.82 eV assigned to the lowest-energy bound excitons that is characterized by an effective mass of 1.68m0 and a Bohr radius of 2 Å. The results of this study hold the promise for potential applications of the GeC hybrid in optoelectronics.
3He(d,p)4He reaction calculation with three-body Faddeev equations
In order to investigate the 3He-n-p system as a three-body problem, we have formulated 3He-n and 3H-p effective potentials using both a microscopic treatment and a phenomenological approach. In the microscopic treatment, potentials are generated by means of the resonating group method (RGM) based on the Minnesota nucleon-nucleon potential. These potentials are converted into separable form by means of the microscopic Pauli correct (MPC) method. The MPC potentials are properly formulated to avoid Pauli forbidden states. The phenomenological potentials are obtained by modifying parameters of the EST approximation to the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential, such that they fit the low-energy 3He-n, 3H-p, and 3He-p phase shifts. Therefore, they describe the 3He-n differential cross section, the polarization observables, and the energy levels of 4He. The 3He-n-p Faddeev equations are solved numerically. We reproduce correctly the ground state and the first excited state of 5Li. Furthermore, the Paris-type potential is used to investigate the 3He(d,p)4He reaction at a deuteron bombarding energy of 270 MeV, where the system is treated as a three-body problem. Results for the polarized and unpolarized differential cross sections demonstrate convergence of the Born series. (orig.)
Calculation of intake fraction in the whole-body, an organ and excreta after inhalation intake
Predicted values in bioassay compartments following unit intake by inhalation are given in ICRP publication 78 from 1 to 10 days after intake. However, it is necessary to have the time course of predicted values over a period of 10 days depending on the situation. Accordingly, system for calculation of predicted values unit intake of activity in bioassay compartments at time t after intake was established, and caculations were carried out in this study. For the validation of the calculations, results from this study were compared with results from other researcher. As a result, it was shown that there were good agreements each other. Therefore, our results can be used for not only assessment of intake, but also design and implementation of internal monitoring program, and data module for internal dose assessment code
Aparna Palit
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.
Liang, X.; Penagaricano, J.; Zheng, D.; Morrill, S.; Zhang, X; Corry, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Han, E. Y.; Hardee, M.; Ratanatharathom, V.
2016-01-01
Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dos...
A superposition method to calculate the interaction effect between bodies in diffusion theory
We introduce a method for calculating the neutron flux around a finite number of spheres arranged in-line. The method uses the concept of superposition in which the solution for a group of spheres is composed of a sum of solutions for the individual spheres. We illustrate the method by a simple example based on a chain of highly absorbing spheres in a non-absorbing moderator and show that it converges rapidly to the exact solution
A method for the inclusion of self-energy and excitonic effects in first-principle calculations of absorption spectra, within the state-of-the-art plane wave pseudopotential approach, is presented. Starting from a ground state calculation, using density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA), we correct the exchange-correlation potential of DFT-LDA with the self-energy applying Hedin's GW approximation to obtain the physical quasiparticles states. The electron-hole interaction is treated solving an effective two-particle equation, which we derive from Hedin's coupled integral equations, leading to the fundamental Bethe-Salpeter equation in an intermediate step. The interaction kernel contains the screened electron-hole Coulomb interaction and the electron-hole exchange effects, which reflect the microscopic structure of the system and are thus also called local-field effects. We obtain the excitonic eigenstates through diagonalization. This allows us a detailed analysis of the optical properties. The application of symmetry properties enables us to reduce the size of the two-particle Hamiltonian matrix, thus minimizing the computational effort. We apply our method to silicon, diamond, lithium oxide and the sodium tetramer. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the absorption spectra of Si and diamond, the static dielectric constant of diamond, and for the onset of optical absorption of Li2O due to discrete bound excitons. We discuss various approximations of our method and show the strong mixing of independent particle transitions to a bound excitonic state in the Na4 cluster. The influence of ground state calculations on optical spectra is investigated under particular consideration of the pseudopotential generation and we discuss the use of different Brillouin zone point sampling schemes for spectral calculations. (author)
YAN-PING LI; GUAN-SHENG MA; EVERT G. SCHOUTEN; XIAO-QI HU; ZHAO-HUI CUI; DONG WANG; FRANS J. KOK
2007-01-01
Objective To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. Methods The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n=3886, aged 9 or 10years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete the self-reported children's depression inventory (CDI) questionnaire. Results The CDI Cronbach's alpha was 0.81. The total CDI score was 9.60±7.50, 13.2% of children (boys 16.7% vs girls 9.5%) were at risk of developing depression symptoms. Overweight girls, but not boys, had significantly higher total CDI score than their normal weight counteparts. Both obese girls and boys showed a higher negative self-esteem score. More than one fifth underweight girls still wanted to be thinner while more than one third obese boys still wanted to be heavier. Children who wanted to be thinner showed slightly higher scores of ineffectiveness and negative self-esteem. After introducing the body dissatisfaction into the model, overweight was still associated with total CDI score among girls and obesity was still associated with negative self-esteem among both boys and girls. Conclusion Overweight girls show a significantly higher depression symptom score than their normal weight counterparts, which maybe partially explained by body dissatisfaction. Obese boys and girls are both more likely to suffer from low self-esteem, which is partially explained by body dissatisfaction.
Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of neutron matter with chiral three-body forces
Tews, I.; Gandolfi, S.; Gezerlis, A.; Schwenk, A.
2016-02-01
Chiral effective field theory (EFT) enables a systematic description of low-energy hadronic interactions with controlled theoretical uncertainties. For strongly interacting systems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods provide some of the most accurate solutions, but they require as input local potentials. We have recently constructed local chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO ). Chiral EFT naturally predicts consistent many-body forces. In this paper, we consider the leading chiral three-nucleon (3N) interactions in local form. These are included in auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) simulations. We present results for the equation of state of neutron matter and for the energies and radii of neutron drops. In particular, we study the regulator dependence at the Hartree-Fock level and in AFDMC and find that present local regulators lead to less repulsion from 3N forces compared to the usual nonlocal regulators.
Coccia, Emanuele; Guidoni, Leonardo
2014-01-01
In this letter we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) {\\AA}, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu+-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu+-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.
K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)
2012-01-01
textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Proc
Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian
2012-01-01
Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We anal
A mathematical model of a phantom simulating the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult has been developed for use in computer calculations of radiation dose. The total body height of the mathematical phantom is 162 cm, and the total body mass is 55 kg based on densities of 0.3, 1.4, and 1.0 g/cm3 for the lung, skeleton, and bulk tissues of the body, respectively
Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E
2007-03-27
Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.
Révai, János
2016-01-01
The $1s$ level shift in kaonic deuterium was calculated using Coulomb Sturmian expansion of Faddeev equations. The convergence of the method yields an $\\sim\\ 1\\ eV$ accuracy for the level shifts. We used three different, realistic, multichannel $\\bar{K}N$ interactions reproducing all known experimental two-body $\\bar{K}N$ data. The different results suggest, that the level shift should be in the range $\\Delta E\\sim(800\\pm30)-(480\\pm20){\\rm i}\\ \\ eV$. The (almost) exact level shifts were compared with values, given by the commonly used approximations.
GAO Ning; LAI Wen-Sheng
2006-01-01
@@ The calculation of elastic constants of Ag/Pd superlattice thin films by molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials is presented. It reveals that the elastic constants C11 and C55 increase with decreasing modulation wavelength A of the films, which is consistent with experiments. However, the change of C11 and C55 with A is found to be around the values determined by a rule of mixture using bulk elastic constants of metals.No supermodulus effect is observed and it is due to cancellation between enhanced and reduced contributions to elastic constants from Ag and Pd layers subjected to compressive and tensile strains, respectively.
Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie;
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC......), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. RESULTS: SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β...
Ab initio many-body calculations of light nuclei neutron and proton scattering
Quaglioni, Sofia
2008-10-01
One of the greatest challenges of nuclear physics today is the development of a quantitative microscopic theory of low-energy reactions on light nuclei. At the same time, technical progress on the theoretical front is urgent to match the major experimental advances in the study of exotic nuclei at the radioactive beam facilities. We build a new ab initio many-body approachootnotetextS. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, arXiv:0804.1560. capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group methodootnotetextY. C. Tang et al., Phys. Rep. 47, 167 (1978); K. Langanke and H. Friedrich, Advances in Nuclear Physics, chapter 4., Plenum, New York, 1987. with the ab initio no-core shell model.ootnotetextP. Navratil, J. P. Vary, and B. R. Barrett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5728 (2000); Phys. Rev. C 62, 054311 (2000).. In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, while preserving Pauli principle and translational symmetry. I will present results for neutron and proton scattering on light nuclei, including n- and p-^4He phase shifts, and low-lying states of one-neutron halo p-shell nuclei, obtained using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. In particular, I will address the parity inversion of the ^11Be ground state.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dose prescribed to the PTV was 60 Gy with 12 Gy per fraction. The plans were initially optimized using AAA algorithm, and then were recomputed using AXB using the same MUs and MLC files to compare with the dose distribution of the original plans and assess the radiobiological as well as dosimetric impact of the two different dose algorithms. The Poisson Linear-Quadatric (PLQ) and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) models were used for estimating the tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), respectively. The influence of the model parameter uncertainties on the TCP differences and the NTCP differences between AAA and AXB plans were studied by applying different sets of published model parameters. Patients were grouped into peripheral and centrally-located tumors to evaluate the impact of tumor location. PTV dose was lower in the re-calculated AXB plans, as compared to AAA plans. The median differences of PTV(D95%) were 1.7 Gy (range: 0.3, 6.5 Gy) and 1.0 Gy (range: 0.6, 4.4 Gy) for peripheral tumors and centrally-located tumors, respectively. The median differences of PTV(mean) were 0.4 Gy (range: 0.0, 1.9 Gy) and 0.9 Gy (range: 0.0, 4.3 Gy) for peripheral tumors and centrally-located tumors, respectively. TCP was also found lower in AXB-recalculated plans compared with the AAA plans. The median (range) of the TCP differences for 30 month local control were 1.6 % (0.3 %, 5.8 %) for peripheral tumors and 1.3 % (0.5 %, 3.4 %) for centrally located tumors. The lower TCP
Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations Using Realistic Two- and Three-Body Interactions
Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Forssen, C; Caurier, E
2004-11-30
There has been significant progress in the ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. One such method is the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions this method can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications. We highlight our study of the parity inversion in {sup 11}Be, for which calculations were performed in basis spaces up to 9{Dirac_h}{Omega} (dimensions reaching 7 x 10{sup 8}). We also present our latest results for the p-shell nuclei using the Tucson-Melbourne TM three-nucleon interaction with several proposed parameter sets.
Ab initio many-body calculation of the 7Be(p,gamma)8B radiative capture
Navratil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia
2011-01-01
We apply the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating group method (NCSM/RGM) approach to calculate the cross section of the 7Be(p,gamma)8B radiative capture. This reaction is important for understanding the solar neutrino flux. Starting from a selected similarity-transformed chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction that accurately describes two-nucleon data, we performed parameter-free many-body calculations that simultaneously predict both the normalization and the shape of the S-factor. We study the dependence on the number of 7Be eigenstates included in the coupled-channel equations and on the size of the harmonic oscillator basis used for the expansion of the eigenstates and of the localized parts of the integration kernels. Our S-factor result at zero energy is on the lower side of, but consistent with, the latest evaluation.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-4He scattering with three-nucleon forces
Hupin, Guillaume; Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert
2013-01-01
We extend the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions for the description of nucleon-nucleus collisions. We outline the formalism, give algebraic expressions for the 3N-force integration kernels, and discuss computational aspects of two alternative implementations. The extended theoretical framework is then applied to nucleon-4He scattering using similarity-renormalization-group (SRG) evolved nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the convergence properties of the calculated phase shifts and explore their dependence upon the SRG evolution parameter. We include up to six excited states of the 4He target and find significant effects from the inclusion of the chiral 3N force, e.g., it enhances the spin-orbit splitting between the 3/2- and 1/2- resonances and leads to an improved agreement with the phase shifts obtained from an accurate R-matrix analysis of the five-nucleon experimental data. We ...
Calculation of Flows Over Underwater Bodies with Hull, Sail and Appendages
A comprehensive study has been made for the hydrodynamic analysis of the submarine DARPA 2. The analysis was first performed for hull, then hull with sail on top and then for the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. A comparison of tangential velocity and pressure distribution for hull is accomplished using CFD flow solvers and published data. Further, the pressure distribution over the hull with sail is also analyzed. Finally, pressure distribution, forces and moments were calculated over the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. Comparison 01 pressure distribution and tangential velocity for the hull show a good agreement with published data. Pressure coefficient comparison for the hull with sail shows the good CFD-CFD agreement. Comparison of Normal force and pitching moment of complete submarine having hull, sail and appendages shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental results of DARPA 2. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete submarine estimates the required design force and moment at different angles of attack and also demonstrate the flow visualization. (author)
The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate dose distributions computed with 5 different dose algorithms for patients with lung cancers treated using stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). Treatment plans for 133 lung cancer patients, initially computed with a 1D-pencil beam (equivalent-path-length, EPL-1D) algorithm, were recalculated with 4 other algorithms commissioned for treatment planning, including 3-D pencil-beam (EPL-3D), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCC), and Monte Carlo (MC). The plan prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions normalized to the 95% isodose line. Tumors were classified according to location: peripheral tumors surrounded by lung (lung-island, N=39), peripheral tumors attached to the rib-cage or chest wall (lung-wall, N=44), and centrally-located tumors (lung-central, N=50). Relative to the EPL-1D algorithm, PTV D95 and mean dose values computed with the other 4 algorithms were lowest for 'lung-island' tumors with smallest field sizes (3-5 cm). On the other hand, the smallest differences were noted for lung-central tumors treated with largest field widths (7-10 cm). Amongst all locations, dose distribution differences were most strongly correlated with tumor size for lung-island tumors. For most cases, convolution/superposition and MC algorithms were in good agreement. Mean lung dose (MLD) values computed with the EPL-1D algorithm were highly correlated with that of the other algorithms (correlation coefficient =0.99). The MLD values were found to be ∼10% lower for small lung-island tumors with the model-based (conv/superposition and MC) vs. the correction-based (pencil-beam) algorithms with the model-based algorithms predicting greater low dose spread within the lungs. This study suggests that pencil beam algorithms should be avoided for lung SABR planning. For the most challenging cases, small tumors surrounded entirely by lung tissue (lung-island type
Devpura, S.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Chen, D.; Liu, D.; Li, H.; Kumar, S.; Gordon, J.; Ajlouni, M.; Movsas, B.; Chetty, I. J.
2014-03-01
The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate dose distributions computed with 5 different dose algorithms for patients with lung cancers treated using stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). Treatment plans for 133 lung cancer patients, initially computed with a 1D-pencil beam (equivalent-path-length, EPL-1D) algorithm, were recalculated with 4 other algorithms commissioned for treatment planning, including 3-D pencil-beam (EPL-3D), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCC), and Monte Carlo (MC). The plan prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions normalized to the 95% isodose line. Tumors were classified according to location: peripheral tumors surrounded by lung (lung-island, N=39), peripheral tumors attached to the rib-cage or chest wall (lung-wall, N=44), and centrally-located tumors (lung-central, N=50). Relative to the EPL-1D algorithm, PTV D95 and mean dose values computed with the other 4 algorithms were lowest for "lung-island" tumors with smallest field sizes (3-5 cm). On the other hand, the smallest differences were noted for lung-central tumors treated with largest field widths (7-10 cm). Amongst all locations, dose distribution differences were most strongly correlated with tumor size for lung-island tumors. For most cases, convolution/superposition and MC algorithms were in good agreement. Mean lung dose (MLD) values computed with the EPL-1D algorithm were highly correlated with that of the other algorithms (correlation coefficient =0.99). The MLD values were found to be ~10% lower for small lung-island tumors with the model-based (conv/superposition and MC) vs. the correction-based (pencil-beam) algorithms with the model-based algorithms predicting greater low dose spread within the lungs. This study suggests that pencil beam algorithms should be avoided for lung SABR planning. For the most challenging cases, small tumors surrounded entirely by lung tissue (lung-island type), a Monte
Calculations of the flow past bluff bodies, including tilt-rotor wing sections at alpha = 90 deg
Raghavan, V.; Mccroskey, W. J.; Baeder, J. D.; Van Dalsem, W. R.
1990-01-01
An attempt was made to model in two dimensions the effects of rotor downwash on the wing of the tilt-rotor aircraft and to compute the drag force on airfoils at - 90 deg angle of attack, using a well-established Navier-Stokes code. However, neither laminar nor turbulent calculations agreed well with drag and base-pressure measurements at high Reynolds numbers. Therefore, further efforts were concentrated on bluff-body flows past various shapes at low Reynolds numbers, where a strong vortex shedding is observed. Good results were obtained for a circular cylinder, but the calculated drag of a slender ellipse at right angles to the freestream was significantly higher than experimental values reported in the literature for flat plates. Similar anomalous results were obtained on the tilt-rotor airfoils, although the qualitative effects of flap deflection agreed with the wind tunnel data. The ensemble of results suggest that there may be fundamental differences in the vortical wakes of circular cylinders and noncircular bluff bodies.
Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao
2016-07-01
The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.
In this work, conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the eye lens were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed stylised eye model and a very simple but whole body phantom. These data supersede and complement data published earlier based on the simulation of only a single stylised eye. The new data differ from the old ones by not more than 3, 4, 7 and 16 % for angles of radiation incidence of α=0 deg., 15 deg., 30 deg. and 45 deg., respectively, due to the inclusion of the whole body phantom. The data presented in the present work also complement those of a recent report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP Publication 116), where conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the lens of the eye are shown for solely 0 deg., 180 deg. and isotropic radiation incidence (but for a much broader range of energies). In this article, values are provided for angles of incidence of 0 deg. up to 180 deg. in steps of 15 deg. and for rotational geometry; no systematic deviation was observed from the values given in ICRP Publication 116 for 0 deg. (based on the application of a bare eye) and 180 deg. (based on the application of a voxel whole body phantom). Data are given for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 up to 10 MeV and for a broad parallel beam geometry in vacuum. (authors)
Frederico Jorge Saad Guirra
2010-09-01
Full Text Available A educação infantil constitui-se no momento em que as crianças internalizam importantes conhecimentos que as auxiliarão para o resto de suas vidas, influenciando na sua formação e em suas práticas. O presente artigo reflete sobre o professor generalista, responsável pelo trabalho corporal, na educação infantil, de quais conhecimentos dispõe para desenvolver tal tarefa e como vê a importância desse trabalho para as crianças; aborda, ainda, segundo pesquisa realizada, a possível necessidade de um professor especialista na área para trabalhar o movimento e faz um questionamento sobre a preparação desse profissional para lidar com crianças de educação infantil. Conclui o presente, dialogando com essas questões e abrindo uma discussão sobre a possibilidade de um trabalho desses dois profissionais, em parceria, no sentido de garantir à criança, uma educação mais específica e que auxilie no seu desenvolvimento integral,Early childhood education is at the moment that the children internalize important knowledge that help the rest of their lives, influencing its formation and its practices. This article reflects on the teacher generalist, responsible for working on body movement with the children in early childhood education, which has expertise to develop such a task and sees the importance of this work for children, also discusses the second survey conducted, the possible need for a specialist teacher to work in the movement and is a question on the preparation of this work to deal with children in early childhood education. This article concludes the dialogue with these issues and open a discussion about the possibility of these two professionals work in partnership to ensure the child a more specific education and to help in its full development.
O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel
2006-01-01
A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…
Wefstaedt Patrick
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in
TIMED is a computer program designed to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the various source organs at various times after radionuclide deposition. TIMED embodies a system of differential equations which describes activity transfer in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs of the body. This system accounts for delay of transfer of activity between compartments of the body and radioactive daughters
Giesbertz, Klaas J H
2016-08-01
One of the major computational bottlenecks in one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory is the evaluation of approximate 1RDM functionals and their derivatives. The reason is that more advanced approximate functionals are almost exclusively defined in the natural orbital basis, so a 4-index transformation of the two-electron integrals appears to be unavoidable. I will show that this is not the case and that so-called separable functionals can be evaluated much more efficiently, i.e. only at cubic cost in the basis size. Since most approximate functionals are actually separable, this new algorithm is an important development to make 1RDM functional theory calculations feasible for large electronic systems. PMID:26908059
Full text: In this work a software tool that has been developed to allow automatic registrations of 2D Scintillation Camera (SC) and Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. This tool, used with a dosimetric software with Integrated Activity or Residence Time as input data, allows the user to assess physicians about effects of radiodiagnostic or radiotherapeutic practices that involves nuclear medicine 'open sources'. Images are registered locally and globally, maximizing Mutual Information coefficient between regions been registered. In the regional case whole-body images are segmented into five regions: head, thorax, pelvis, left and right legs. Each region has its own registration parameters, which are optimized through Powell-Brent minimization method that 'maximizes' Mutual Information coefficient. This software tool allows the user to draw ROIs, input isotope characteristics and finally calculate Integrated Activity or Residence Time in one or many specific organ. These last values can be introduced in many dosimetric software to finally obtain Absorbed Dose values. (author)
In this paper we present a software tool that has been developed to allow automatic registrations of 2D Scintillation Camera (SC) and Computed Tomography (CT) images. This tool, used with a dosimetric software with Integrated Activity or Residence Time as input data, allows the user to assess physicians about effects of radiodiagnostic or radioterapeutic practices. Images are registered locally and globally, maximizing Mutual Information coefficient between regions been registered. In the regional case whole-body images are segmented into five regions: head, thorax, pelvis, left and right legs. Each region has its own registration parameters, which are optimized through Powell-Brent minimization method that 'maximizes' Mutual Information coefficient. This software tool allows the user to draw ROIs, input isotope characteristics and finally calculate Integrated Activity or Residence Time in one or many specific organ. These last values can be introduced in many dosimetric softwares to finally obtain Absorbed Dose values
The study aimed to appraise the dose differences between Acuros XB (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for lung cancer with flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Additionally, the potential role of the calculation grid size (CGS) on the dose differences between the two algorithms was also investigated. SBRT plans with 6X and 10X FFF beams produced from the CT scan data of 10 patients suffering from stage I lung cancer were enrolled in this study. Clinically acceptable treatment plans with AAA were recalculated using AXB with the same monitor units (MU) and identical multileaf collimator (MLC) settings. Furthermore, different CGS (2.5 mm and 1 mm) in the two algorithms was also employed to investigate their dosimetric impact. Dose to planning target volumes (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) between the two algorithms were compared. PTV was separated into PTV-soft (density in soft-tissue range) and PTV-lung (density in lung range) for comparison. The dose to PTV-lung predicted by AXB was found to be 1.33 ± 1.12% (6XFFF beam with 2.5 mm CGS), 2.33 ± 1.37% (6XFFF beam with 1 mm CGS), 2.81 ± 2.33% (10XFFF beam with 2.5 mm CGS) and 3.34 ± 1.76% (10XFFF beam with 1 mm CGS) lower compared with that by AAA, respectively. However, the dose directed to PTV-soft was comparable. For OARs, AXB predicted a slightly lower dose to the aorta, chest wall, spinal cord and esophagus, regardless of whether the 6XFFF or 10XFFF beam was utilized. Exceptionally, dose to the ipsilateral lung was significantly higher with AXB. AXB principally predicts lower dose to PTV-lung compared to AAA and the CGS contributes to the relative dose difference between the two algorithms
Fleten, Caroline; Nystad, Wenche; Stigum, Hein; Skjærven, Rolv; Debbie A. Lawlor; Davey Smith, George; Næss, Øyvind
2012-01-01
In the present study, the authors investigated the role of the intrauterine environment in childhood adiposity by comparing the maternal-offspring body mass index (BMI) association with the paternal-offspring BMI association when the offspring were 3 years of age, using parental prepregnancy BMI (measured as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). The parent-offspring trios (n = 29,216) were recruited during pregnancy from 2001 to 2008 into the Norwegian Mother and Child Coh...
Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma
2014-01-01
The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.
Stress and Obesity in Childhood
Koch, Felix-Sebastian
2009-01-01
Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...
Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie
2014-04-01
Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427
Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital
L. Ay (Lamise)
2011-01-01
textabstractTh e prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in developed countries over the past two decades. Childhood obesity is associated with short-term morbidity such as asthma and psychological problems and with an increased risk for chronic morbidity and mortal
Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche
Hannah S. Mumby; Elks, Cathy E; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ken K Ong
2011-01-01
To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BM...
Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)
Savukov, I. M.
2016-02-01
The precision of the mixed configuration-interaction plus many-body-perturbation-theory (CI+MBPT) method is limited in multivalence atoms by the large size of valence CI space. Previously, to study this problem, the CI+MBPT method was applied to calculations of energies in a four-valence electron atom, Si i. It was found that by using a relatively small cavity of 30 a.u. and by choosing carefully the configuration space, quite accurate agreement between theory and experiment at the level of 100 cm-1 can be obtained, especially after subtraction of systematic shifts for groups of states of the same J and parity. However, other properties are also important to investigate. In this work, the CI+MBPT method is applied to studies of transition probabilities, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes. A close agreement with accurate experimental measurements and other elaborate theories is obtained. The long-term goal is to extend the CI+MBPT approach to applications in more complex atoms, such as lantanides and actinides.
Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band
... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...
... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...
D.O. Voloncevich
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In the paper construction of combined inductor system realizing the principle of superposition of circular and plane-parallel magnetic fields is proposed. This inductor system is the instrument of external straightening of dents in the metal coating of car body. The use of low-frequency plane-parallel magnetic field instead of a high-frequency magnetic field to create conditions for the transformation of the natural repulsion to attraction of sheet conductor is suggested. The low-frequency field is generated by inductor system by dint of flat circular turn. The plane-parallel magnetic field is generated by a rectangular turn. The low-frequency field penetrates the sheet workpiece in the construct. The theory and experiment indicate that plane-parallel magnetic field doesn’t diffuse almost. Conclusion calculated ratios to analyze the processes of magnetic pulse attraction in the system based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for non-zero intensity components of the electromagnetic field. The Maxwell's equations are transformed by Laplace zero initial conditions. In this case the integral sinus-transformation Fourier are applied. The problem is solved in the plane-wave approximation. Valid for plane waves directly proportional relationship between the tangent vector components of the electromagnetic field on the surface of conductor. For the analysis of processes in combined inductor system for a magnetic-pulsed «pulling» a predetermined part of the metal sheet were obtained the population of calculated expressions. The magnetic pressure on the metal sheet is caused by force action on the part of the excited fields. It is determined solely amplitude of penetrate field and is directed towards the working surface of the inductor. Finally, there is a predetermined part of the attraction of the sheet metal. The operating frequency of the plane-parallel field can be quite small. This choice doesn’t influence the diffusion processes in the
Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon
2014-01-01
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...
The harmonic oscillator approach to the bound states of few-body systems is developed and the lower-energy states are introduced as basis vectors and mixed with a part of harmonic oscillator vectors to calculate the binding energy. The lower energy levels of 3-α system and Λ9Be are presented and compared with experiments or other calculations. The results are satisfactory
Childhood Obesity: An Overview
Reilly, John J.
2007-01-01
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at ∼130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at ∼120 MHz and ∼160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at ∼180 and ∼600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in individual voxels show the specific regions in which the
A simple universal algorithm for the construction of symmetrized states of hyperspherical harmonics/oscillator functions and for the calculation of transformation brackets between their different sets is proposed and tested. In the A > 3 case it allows practical calculations for high excitations. Various matrix elements can be effectively computed using the brackets obtained. (author)
Three-body calculation of the Delta-Delta dibaryon candidate D(03) at 2.37 GeV
Gal, Avraham; Garcilazo, Humberto
2013-01-01
The D(03) dibaryon is generated dynamically as a resonance pole in a pion-nucleon-Delta' three-body model, where Delta' is a stable Delta baryon. Using separable interactions dominated by the Delta(1232) isobar for pion-nucleon and by the D(12) isobar for nucleon-Delta', where D(12) is the nucleon-Delta 2150 MeV dibaryon deduced in and constrained by 1D2 pp scattering, the model reduces to an effective two-body problem for Delta-Delta' which is solved. The mass and width of D(03) are found cl...
Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E
2005-12-22
Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) has been employed to calculate with high wavelength accuracy the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of F-like to P-like Xe ions. They discuss the reliability of the new calculations using the example of EUV beam-foil spectra of Xe, in which n = 3, {Delta}n = 0 transitions of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions have been found to dominate. A further comparison is made with spectra from an electron beam ion trap, that is, from a device with a very different (low density) excitation balance.
Ma, M; Rouabhi, O; Flynn, R; Xia, J [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bayouth, J [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric difference between 3D and 4Dweighted dose calculation using patient specific respiratory trace and deformable image registration for stereotactic body radiation therapy in lung tumors. Methods: Two dose calculation techniques, 3D and 4D-weighed dose calculation, were used for dosimetric comparison for 9 lung cancer patients. The magnitude of the tumor motion varied from 3 mm to 23 mm. Breath-hold exhale CT was used for 3D dose calculation with ITV generated from the motion observed from 4D-CT. For 4D-weighted calculation, dose of each binned CT image from the ten breathing amplitudes was first recomputed using the same planning parameters as those used in the 3D calculation. The dose distribution of each binned CT was mapped to the breath-hold CT using deformable image registration. The 4D-weighted dose was computed by summing the deformed doses with the temporal probabilities calculated from their corresponding respiratory traces. Dosimetric evaluation criteria includes lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose. Results: Comparing with 3D calculation, lung V20, mean lung dose, and mean tumor dose using 4D-weighted dose calculation were changed by −0.67% ± 2.13%, −4.11% ± 6.94% (−0.36 Gy ± 0.87 Gy), −1.16% ± 1.36%(−0.73 Gy ± 0.85 Gy) accordingly. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that conventional 3D dose calculation method may overestimate the lung V20, MLD, and MTD. The absolute difference between 3D and 4D-weighted dose calculation in lung tumor may not be clinically significant. This research is supported by Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc and Iowa Center for Research By Undergraduates.
Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2014-01-01
We investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of a single-molecule junction consisting of bis-(4-aminophenyl) acetylene (B4APA) connected to gold electrodes. We use nonequilibrium Green's function methods in combination with density-functional theory (DFT) and the many-body GW...
Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare
1995-01-01
Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications
Roenholdt, Stine; Nina N. Beck; Sidsel H. Karsberg; Elklit, Ask
2012-01-01
Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants bo...
Energy levels, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric dipole nl1nl2[LSJ]-nl3nl4[L'S'J'] transition in Be- (n=2), Mg- (n=3), Zn- (n=4) and Sm- (n=5) like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z=N to 100 where N is number of electron in system. (author)
Purpose: The recently activated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) require tissue density heterogeneity correction, where the high and intermediate dose compliance criteria were established based on superposition algorithm dose calculations. The study was aimed at comparing superposition algorithm dose calculations with Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for SBRT for NSCLC and to evaluate whether compliance criteria need to be adjusted for MC dose calculations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen RTOG 0236 study sets were used. The planning tumor volumes (PTV) ranged from 10.7 to 117.1 cm3. SBRT conformal treatment plans were generated using XiO (CMS Inc.) treatment planning software with superposition algorithm to meet the dosimetric high and intermediate compliance criteria recommended by the RTOG 0813 protocol. Plans were recalculated using the MC algorithm of a Monaco (CMS, Inc.) treatment planning system. Tissue density heterogeneity correction was applied in both calculations. Results: Overall, the dosimetric quantities of the MC calculations have larger magnitudes than those of the superposition calculations. On average, R100% (ratio of prescription isodose volume to PTV), R50% (ratio of 50% prescription isodose volume to PTV), D2cm (maximal dose 2 cm from PTV in any direction as a percentage of prescription dose), and V20 (percentage of lung receiving dose equal to or larger than 20 Gy) increased by 9%, 12%, 7%, and 18%, respectively. In the superposition plans, 3 cases did not meet criteria for R50% or D2cm. In the MC-recalculated plans, 8 cases did not meet criteria for R100%, R50%, or D2cm. After reoptimization with MC calculations, 5 cases did not meet the criteria for R50% or D2cm. Conclusions: Results indicate that the dosimetric criteria, e.g., the criteria for R50% recommended by RTOG 0813 protocol, may need to be adjusted when the MC dose calculation
Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012
Jinwook Bahk
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC were measured, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC] to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results: Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions: Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity.
Three-body calculation of the Delta-Delta dibaryon candidate D(03) at 2.37 GeV
Gal, Avraham
2013-01-01
The I(JP)=0(3+) D(03) dibaryon candidate observed as resonance at 2.37 GeV in pion-production pn collisions by WASA@COSY is relegated within a dynamical pion-nucleon-Delta three-body model to a Delta-Delta (upper) pion-D(12) (lower) coupled-channel quasi-bound dibaryon state, where D(12) is the dibaryon observed in the 1D2 partial wave of pp scattering at 2.15 GeV
Safronova, U.I.; Johnson, W.R. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)
2000-01-01
Energy levels, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric dipole nl{sub 1}nl{sub 2}[LSJ]-nl{sub 3}nl{sub 4}[L'S'J'] transition in Be- (n=2), Mg- (n=3), Zn- (n=4) and Sm- (n=5) like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z=N to 100 where N is number of electron in system. (author)
Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?
Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos
2012-01-01
In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...
Garcilazo, H., E-mail: humberto@esfm.ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gal, A., E-mail: avragal@savion.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2013-01-02
The {pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N coupled-channel system with quantum numbers (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) is studied in a relativistic three-body model, using two-body separable interactions in the dominant p-wave pion-baryon and {sup 3}S{sub 1}YN channels. Three-body equations are solved in the complex energy plane to search for quasibound state and resonance poles, producing a robust narrow {pi}{Lambda}N resonance about 10-20 MeV below the {pi}{Sigma}N threshold. Viewed as a dibaryon, it is a {sup 5}S{sub 2} quasibound state consisting of {Sigma}(1385)N and {Delta}(1232)Y components. Comparison is made between the present relativistic model calculation and a previous, outdated nonrelativistic calculation which resulted in a {pi}{Lambda}N bound state. Effects of adding a K{sup Macron }NN channel are studied and found insignificant. Possible production and decay reactions of this (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) dibaryon are discussed.
Valdes, Gilmer, E-mail: gilmer.valdes@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robinson, Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morel, Delphine [Department of Biomedical Engineering, AIX Marseille 2 University, Marseille (France); Department of Medical Physics, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2015-04-01
Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTV{sub setup} were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTV{sub setup} was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.
Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTVsetup were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTVsetup was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion
Full text: A method based on the three-body formalism incorporated into the Born series have been developed to calculate the excitation of hydrogen and helium atom by proton impact at medium and high energies. The Faddeev type approaches to the scattering of charged particles are a rearrangement of Born series. However, the on shell transition matrix is not well defined by any method based on the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation. We have developed a method incorporating the FWL formalism in conjunction with Born approximation to calculate the differential cross section for the excitation of hydrogen and helium atom by protons of energy 50 keV to 500 keV. In the case of hydrogen atom, excitation to the final states 2s, 2p and 3s were included while for the case of atomic helium the calculations were performed for the final states 21S and 23S. The excitation of atomic hydrogen is a three body process. However, the excitation of helium is simplified by an active model where the second electron is assumed frozen. The wave function for the final state of helium is chosen from literature. We have also deduced a simple method using a Slater type wave function as: ψ(r) = 0.854 (1 - 1.15r/2) exp(-1.15r) + 0.488 exp(-1.6875r). The differential cross sections for the excitation of helium and hydrogen atoms are plotted in figures 1(a) and 1(b), respectively. In the case of helium atom, the calculations were performed using two different wave functions for the final state of the helium atom, 21S. One was the CHF wave functions and the other one was the wave function of equation 1. Figure 1(b) shows the calculations for the final state 2s and 2p of hydrogen. The results are compared with the experimental work of Park and his coworkers. (author)
Safronova, U I; Johnson, W R
2016-01-01
Energy levels of 30 low-lying states of Lu2+ and allowed electric-dipole matrix elements between these states are evaluated using a relativistic all-order method in which all single, double and partial triple excitations of Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Matrix elements are critically evaluated for their accuracy and recommended values of the matrix elements are given together with uncertainty estimates. Line strengths, transition rates and lifetimes of the metastable 5d(3/2) and 5d(5/2) states are calculated. Recommended values are given for static polarizabilities of the 6s, 5d and 6p states and tensor polarizabilities of the 5d and 6p(3/2) states. Uncertainties of the polarizability values are estimated in all cases. The blackbody radiation shift of the 6s(1/2)-5d(5/2) transition frequency of the Lu2+ ion is calculated with the aid of the recommended scalar polarizabilities of the 6s(1/2) and 5d(5/2) states. Finally, A and B hyperfine constants are determined f...
The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)
Kranz Sibylle
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Methods Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2–18 year olds (N = 11,072 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial and age group (2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 year olds. Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value Results Proportion of energy consumed varied by sex, ethnic group, and age groups between 4 pm and 11.59 pm. Compared to healthy weight children, overweight school-age children consumed significantly higher while overweight adolescents consumed significantly lower proportions of total daily energy with each advancing two-hour time increment. Conclusion The association between the circadian rhythm of eating and body weight status needs to be investigated further to examine the effect of time of consumption on the risk of childhood obesity
A spectral integral method (IEM) for solving the two-body, one-variable Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the wavefunction in configuration space is generalized to the case of the two-variable scattering K-matrix. The main difficulty is that in this case the driving term of the integral equation is discontinuous. It is found that the desirable features of the IEM, such as the economy of mesh points for a given required accuracy, are carried over also to this case even though the result is also discontinuous. The main innovation is a judicious choice of the partitions in coordinate space, plus a new recursion relation forward and backward to the point of discontinuity. For a simple exponential potential an accuracy of 7 significant figures is achieved for the K-matrix, with the number N of Chebyshev support points in each partition equal to 17. For a potential with a large repulsive core, such as the potential between two He atoms, an accuracy of 7 significant figures requires that N is increased to 65 support points per partition
The projection-operator formalism of Feshbach defines a separation of the T matrix into a smooth background term and a resonant T matrix which may vary rapidly with energy. The resonance is characterized by an unperturbed energy epsilon/sub d/, a width function GAMMA(E), and a level-shift function Δ(E). Such a separation of the fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering T matrix is of considerable practical relevance for the treatment of nuclear dynamics in resonant electron-molecule scattering. We present an explicit realization of the projection-operator formalism for electron-molecule scattering within the framework of the many-body optical-potential approach. In contrast to the approach of Hazi [J. Phys. B 11, L259 (1978)] which is based on the use of Stieltjes moment techniques to compute GAMMA(E), we obtain explicitly the background T matrix as well as the information on the angular distribution of the resonant scattering. The performance of the method is illustrated for the well-known 2.3-eV shape resonance in electron scattering from the nitrogen molecule. The two-particle-hole Tamm-Dancoff approximation (2ph-TDA) is adopted for the optical potential and the Schwinger variational principle is used to solve the background scattering problem. The resulting resonance parameters epsilon/sub d/, GAMMA(E), Δ(E), and the resonant eigenphase sum are in excellent agreement with results obtained previously by Hazi using different computational methods
Analyzing Screening Policies for Childhood Obesity
YANG, Yan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Wein, Lawrence M.
2012-01-01
Due to the health and economic costs of childhood obesity, coupled with studies suggesting the benefits of comprehensive (dietary, physical activity and behavioral counseling) intervention, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently recommended childhood screening and intervention for obesity beginning at age six. Using a longitudinal data set consisting of the body mass index of 3164 children up to age 18 and another longitudinal data set containing the body mass index at ages...
To investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) using hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) contrast on dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver cancer. Twenty-one patients with liver cancer were studied. HAP, PVP and non-enhanced CTs were performed on subjects scanned in identical positions under active breathing control (ABC). SBRT plans were generated using seven-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (7 F-3D-CRT), seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (7 F-IMRT) and single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the PVP CT. Plans were copied to the HAP and non-enhanced CTs. Radiation doses calculated from the three phases of CTs were compared with respect to the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR) using the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. SBRT plans calculated from either PVP or HAP CT, including 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT plans, demonstrated significantly lower (p <0.05) minimum absorbed doses covering 98%, 95%, 50% and 2% of PTV (D98%, D95%, D50% and D2%) than those calculated from non-enhanced CT. The mean differences between PVP or HAP CT and non-enhanced CT were less than 2% and 1% respectively. All mean dose differences between the three phases of CTs for OARs were less than 2%. Our data indicate that though the differences in dose calculation between contrast phases are not clinically relevant, dose underestimation (IE, delivery of higher-than-intended doses) resulting from CT using PVP contrast is larger than that resulting from CT using HAP contrast when compared against doses based upon non-contrast CT in SBRT treatment of liver cancer using VMAT, IMRT or 3D-CRT
Smørdal, Gro Pernille
2012-01-01
Through international agencies and non-governmental organisations building their work on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, childhood has become increasingly homogenised as an idea. A ‘global model’ of childhood is promoted all over the world, but this is a model who fails in recognising the diverse realities of children’s lives. The diversity of childhood is on the other hand demonstrated through a growing body of literature on local childhood experiences, also in the ...
Trends of childhood obesity in China and associated factors.
Sun, Guiju; Jia, Genmei; Peng, Honglei; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene; Liu, Jianghong
2015-04-01
Childhood obesity is worsening at dramatic rates and has become a public health crisis. This study investigated these trends in childhood obesity and examined parental factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measurements taken annually from 2004 to 2007 in a subsample of 136 children (2-4 years old), from the Jintan Child Health Project in China. Parental factors were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity rose from 6.6% and 2.2% in 2004 to 15.4% and 6.6% in 2007 (p working mothers, on the nutritional benefits of home-cooked meals. PMID:23823460
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
2009-01-01
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...
Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012
Jinwook Bahk
2016-01-01
Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (Internati...
Childhood Vestibular Disorders: A Tutorial
Mehta, Zarin; Stakiw, Daria B.
2004-01-01
There is a growing body of evidence that childhood disorders affecting the vestibular system, although rare, do exist. Describing symptoms associated with the vestibular mechanism for children may be difficult, resulting in misdiagnosing or under-diagnosing these conditions. The pathophysiology, symptoms, and management options of the more common…